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Sample records for area process ponds

  1. 淮南采煤沉陷区积水过程地下水作用机制%Groundwater influencing mechanism in water-ponding process of Huainan coal mining subsidence area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆垂裕; 陆春辉; 李慧; 柳炳俊; 孙青言; 李翠

    2015-01-01

    Groundsubsidence caused by coal mining activity commonly exists in the coal belt of China eastern plain area. Subsidence area is on average 0.18-0.33 hm2 per ten thousand tons of coal mining. The subsidence coefficient there is about 0.8-0.9, which means coal mining of one cubic meters result in ground subsidence of 0.8-0.9 m3. In the environment with high groundwater level, the situation is worse, for once the ground sinks due to coal mining, large area of water-ponding occurs. Due to limited source of backfill material, high cost, the long time needed to wait for the stable state of subsidence and other factors, traditional land remediation pattern for coal mining subsidence in China faces difficulties, and land reclamation rate by now is only 12%. From other point of view, coal mining subsidence area is potentially useful water storage structure, and recently some researchers start to study a new remediation pattern of using them for water resource development. However, a prerequisite for the new pattern is to learn where the water comes from. Related to the environment background with high groundwater level, it seems that water stored in coal mining subsidence areas may mainly come from groundwater, but by now this viewpoint has not been proved in detail yet. The article researched the law of water-ponding process in coal mining subsidence area by means of hydrological reasoning and water cycle simulation. In this paper, Huainan coal mining area is taken as study area, which is the largest coal production base of East China area with its coal reserves accounting for 74% of Anhui Province, and 50% of East China area. According to statistical data in 2010, after long-term coal mining activity of dozens of years, the maximum subsidence depth of Huainan coal mining area has reached 7.6m, and the ground subsidence area has reached 108.3 km2, along with the total subsidence volume of 0.314×109 m3. Some meaningful conclusions are drawn through our study. Firstly, the

  2. South Bay Salt Pond initial stewardship plan & related Bay Area restoration projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Initial Stewardship Plan for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project outlines a process to reduce the salinity of the existing salt ponds and to manage the...

  3. Pond Creek Coal Zone Resource Areas (Outcrop) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal bed resource areas. Resource areas are only a subset of the entire areal...

  4. The Disappearance and reduction process of ponds in rapid urbanization area:Tianhe district, Guangzhou city as a case%快速城市化地区塘的消减过程研究--以广州市天河区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妤琳; 刘晓南; 赵宇; 程炯

    2014-01-01

    The pond is a very common landscape in south China, also a kind of relatively independent ecological system, which is playing a important role in the ecosystem services and economic, cultural activities. International scholars mainly study the major functionsof pond manifest in biodiversity conservation, drainage-prevention of water logging, geomancy landscaping and improvement to the living environment. But the question of the formation, the eco-environmental effect and the disappearance and reduction process of ponds has been lacking of recognition for too long, in China, the phenomenon of filling pond for increase area of construction land occurs widely during the fast urbanization. This paper took Tianhe District in Guangzhou City as the research object, obtained Landscape pattern characteristics by interpreting remote sensing data of terms (1996, 2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011), extracted information of ponds, classified according to main functions, explored the distribution of quantity and space of disappearance and reduction process of ponds, through the analysis of buffer, principal component and transfer matrix. Our results demonstrated that: (1) during 15 years, the area of ponds remarkably reduced by as much as 63.70 percent: from 36. 3 0 hm2 to 13.1 8 hm2. (2) There’s an obvious difference at different stages and with different types of ponds. The area of aquaculture ponds, geomancy ponds, pool-ponds and irrigation ponds declines sharply or even disappears, the area of landscape ponds expand after a decline during the recession. (3) At different stages ,most of the pond converted into residential land, commercial-industrial land, if the pond is surrounded by some special land use patterns such as transportation land and grassland ,it is more likely to transfer into other land use types.(4) During the construction of habitat environment, the pond has important ecological and humane value, such as biodiversity conservation, regulating temperature, improves

  5. Operation of Stabilization Ponds in a Tropical Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    aeration rather than photosynthesis ( Eckenfelder , 1966). 3) Aerobic Pond - A shallow depression, approximately 18 inches deep, in which the suspended and...Vietnam", Civil Engineering, Vol. 39, Kay, 1969, pp. 47-49. Eckenfelder , W. W., Jr., Industrial Water Pollution Control, McGraw- ^ Hill Book Co

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Pastor

    2005-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 552, Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 552 is comprised of the corrective action site (CAS) that is shown on Figure 1-2 and listed below: 12-23-05, Ponds. The ponds were originally constructed to catch runoff from the muckpile. As the muckpile continued to be extended to the north and to the east, it became impossible to ensure that all of the runoff from the muckpile was funneled into the pond. Some of the runoff from the muckpile continues to be caught in the upper pond, but portions of the muckpile have eroded, diverting much of the runoff away from the ponds. Regarding the other ponds, there is no evidence that any of the overflow ponds ever received runoff from overflow of the upper pond. The muckpile was removed from CAU 552 because an active leachfield exists within the muckpile and there are current activities at G-Tunnel. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', Rev. 1 (NNSA/NSO, 2005). Corrective Action Unit 552, Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, consists of one site located in the southern portion of Area 12. Corrective Action Site 12-23-05 consists of dry ponds adjacent to the G-Tunnel muckpile. The ponds were used to contain effluent from the G-Tunnel. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification for the closure of CAU 552 with no further

  7. Solar ponds. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    Federally funded research on the design, performance, and use of solar ponds is discussed on these. Topic areas cover the use of solar ponds in industrial process heat production, roof ponds for passive solar buildings, and solar ponds use in the production of biomass for renewable fuels.

  8. From Ponds to Predictions: What Do We Need to Know About Small-Scale Sea Ice Processes in a Rapidly Changing Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Petrich, C.

    2014-12-01

    Areal coverage and spatial distribution of sea-ice melt ponds are key factors in determining the response of the Arctic Ocean's ice cover to changes in atmospheric forcing, its importance in enhancing high-latitude warming and its function in polar marine ecosystems. A review of remote-sensing and field observations, in conjunction with process studies in coastal Alaska, highlights the importance of sub-floe scale ice properties and processes in controlling ponding, thereby constraining seasonal evolution and decay of the ice cover. Field observations and model simulations have shown how pond areal extent and hence ice albedo depend on the combination of snow or ice ablation rates, ice permeability and surface topography. Seasonal and short-term variations of these three factors explain much of the observed spatial and temporal variability in the large-scale pond areal fraction. Recent work on Alaska shorefast ice suggests that the snow-cover depth distribution may predetermine ponding patterns months ahead of spring melt. Specifically, through the formation of wind crusts, snow depth variations are locked in place. After onset of melt, formation and deepening of ponds is enhanced in thin-snow areas, with pond spatial patterns replicating snow dune topography. Both deepening of ponds and preferential pond drainage through small-scale flaws and cracks then constrain the eventual break-up of the ice cover. Field observations and aerial photography indicate that with increasing wave action in an ice-diminished Arctic Ocean, ponds and drainage features precondition ice for break-up and fragmentation. Model simulations by Schröder et al. (doi:10.1038/nclimate2203) hint at other, as of yet poorly understood mechanisms that link pond coverage to the degree of seasonal ice retreat. Key measurements and potential datasets that can help improve understanding and prediction of a changing ice cover on seasonal scales will be discussed.

  9. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  10. 78 FR 23949 - Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area, Penobscot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... and Carlton Pond WPA. We started this process through a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 14984... Milford Town Hall and one public meeting at Unity College during the formal public scoping period... protect cultural resources. In addition, we have made the preliminary determination that Sunkhaze...

  11. Purification and utilization of garlic processing wastewater in lotus pond wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun PANG; Xue-ling FENG; Xiu-feng WANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experiments of utilization of garlic processing wastewater in a lotus pond, this study demonstrates that lotus pond wetlands have a remarkable ability to remove organic pollutants and decrease chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and suspended substances (SS) in garlic processing wastewater. Results also show evident effects of lotus roots on absorption of NH3-N. The pH value in a lotus pond with wastewater discharged was relatively stable. The water quality in the lotus pond reached the classⅡ emission standard, according to the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996), seven days after pretreated garlic processing wastewater had been discharged into the lotus pond. Garlic processing wastewater irrigation does not produce pollution in the pond sediment and has no negative effect on the growth of lotus roots. Due to utilization of garlic processing wastewater, the output of lotus roots increased by 3.0% to 8.3%, and the quality of lotus roots was improved. Therefore, better purification and utilization results can be achieved.

  12. Physical, chemical, and biological relations of four ponds in the Hidden Water Creek strip-mine area, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, D.J.

    1977-07-01

    The Hidden Water Creek area was mined from 1944 to 1955 and was then abandoned. The open pits filled with water and pond-type ecosystems developed. Light was transmitted to greater depths within two control ponds located outside the mine area. The lower light transmittance in the ponds within the mined area probably was due, in part, to the greater number of phytoplankton cells. Also, unconsolidated soil material within the mine area was observed to slough off the pond banks, which could add to the concentration of suspended sediments. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower in the ponds within the mined area. Most of the major ions (calcium, magnesium, sulfate, and sodium) were present in greater concentrations in the ponds within the mined area. Higher concentrations of bicarbonate and total hardness were measured in the water within the mined area. Biological communities were less diverse and chemical concentrations fluctuated more in the mined area than in the ponds outside the mined area.

  13. Surface area changes of Himalayan ponds as a proxy of hydrological climate-driven fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Guyennon, Nicolas; Viviano, Gaetano; Tartari, Gianni

    2016-04-01

    The meteorological measurements at high-elevations of the Himalayan range are scarce due to the harsh conditions of these environments which limit the suitable maintenance of weather stations. As a consequence, the meager knowledge on how the climate is changed in the last decades at Himalayan high-elevations sets a serious limit upon the interpretation of relationships between causes and recent observed effects on the cryosphere. Although the glaciers masses reduction in Himalaya is currently sufficiently well described, how changes in climate drivers (precipitation and temperature) have influenced the melting and shrinkage processes are less clear. Consequently, the uncertainty related to the recent past amplifies when future forecasts are done, both for climate and impacts. In this context, a substantial body of research has already demonstrated the high sensitivity of lakes and ponds to climate. Some climate-related signals are highly visible and easily measurable in lakes. For example, climate-driven fluctuations in lake surface area have been observed in many remote sites. On interior Tibetan Plateau the lake growth since the late 1990s is mainly attributed to increased regional precipitation and weakened evaporation. Differently, other authors attribute at the observed increases of lake surfaces at the enhanced glacier melting. In our opinion these divergences found in literature are due to the type of glacial lakes considered in the study and in particular their relationship with glaciers. In general, in Himalaya three types of glacial lakes can be distinguished: (i) lakes that are not directly connected with glaciers, but that may have a glacier located in their basin (unconnected glacial lakes); (ii) supraglacial lakes, which develop on the surface of the glacier downstream; or (iii) proglacial lakes, which are moraine-dammed lakes that are in contact with the glacier front. Some of these lakes store large quantities of water and are susceptible to GLOFs

  14. Evidence for anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in freshwater sediments of aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Ruan, Yun-jie; Xu, Xiang-hua; Li, Ji; Ma, Shi-jie; Zheng, Pei-hui

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process, which can simultaneously remove ammonium and nitrite, both toxic to aquatic animals, can be very important to the aquaculture industry. Here, the presence and activity of anammox bacteria in the sediments of four different freshwater aquaculture ponds were investigated by using Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing, quantitative PCR assays and (15)N stable isotope measurements. Different genera of anammox bacteria were detected in the examined pond sediments, including Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia and Candidatus Anammoxoglobus, with Candidatus Brocadia being the dominant anammox genus. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria ranged from 5.6 × 10(4) to 2.1 × 10(5) copies g(-1) sediment in the examined ponds. The potential anammox rates ranged between 3.7 and 19.4 nmol N2 g(-1) sediment day(-1), and the potential denitrification rates varied from 107.1 to 300.3 nmol N2 g(-1) sediment day(-1). The anammox process contributed 1.2-15.3% to sediment dinitrogen gas production, while the remainder would be due to denitrification. It is estimated that a total loss of 2.1-10.9 g N m(-2) per year could be attributed to the anammox process in the examined ponds, suggesting that this process could contribute to nitrogen removal in freshwater aquaculture ponds.

  15. Groundwater Evaporation Ponds: A Viable Option for the Management of Shallow Saline Waterlogged Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagudu Surinaidu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The province of Punjab is the main food basket of India. In recent years, many regions of Punjab are facing acute waterlogging problems and increased secondary salinity, which have negative impacts on food security of the nation. In particular, these problems are more pronounced in the Muktsar district of Punjab. The observed groundwater levels trend between 2005 and 2011 implies that groundwater levels are coming towards the land surface at the rate of 0.5 m/year in Lambi and Malout blocks. In this study, a groundwater flow model was constructed using MODFLOW to understand the groundwater table dynamics and to test the groundwater evaporation ponds to draw down the groundwater levels in the waterlogging areas of Muktsar district. The predicted flow model results indicate that groundwater levels could be depleted at the rate of 0.3 m/year between 2012 and 2018 after the construction of Groundwater Evaporation Ponds (GEP. In addition, the constructed ponds can be used for aquaculture that generates additional income. The proposed GEP method may be a promising tool and suitable for the reduction of waterlogging in any region if there is no proper surface drainage, and also for enhancement of agricultural production that improves the social and economic status of the farming community.

  16. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations.

  17. Percolation blockage: A process that enables melt pond formation on first year Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashenski, Chris; Golden, Kenneth M.; Perovich, Donald K.; Skyllingstad, Eric; Arnsten, Alexandra; Stwertka, Carolyn; Wright, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Melt pond formation atop Arctic sea ice is a primary control of shortwave energy balance in the Arctic Ocean. During late spring and summer, the ponds determine sea ice albedo and how much solar radiation is transmitted into the upper ocean through the sea ice. The initial formation of ponds requires that melt water be retained above sea level on the ice surface. Both theory and observations, however, show that first year sea ice is so highly porous prior to the formation of melt ponds that multiday retention of water above hydraulic equilibrium should not be possible. Here we present results of percolation experiments that identify and directly demonstrate a mechanism allowing melt pond formation. The infiltration of fresh water into the pore structure of sea ice is responsible for blocking percolation pathways with ice, sealing the ice against water percolation, and allowing water to pool above sea level. We demonstrate that this mechanism is dependent on fresh water availability, known to be predominantly from snowmelt, and ice temperature at melt onset. We argue that the blockage process has the potential to exert significant control over interannual variability in ice albedo. Finally, we suggest that incorporating the mechanism into models would enhance their physical realism. Full treatment would be complex. We provide a simple temperature threshold-based scheme that may be used to incorporate percolation blockage behavior into existing model frameworks.

  18. Closure plan for CAU No. 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The steam cleaning effluent ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Nevada Operations Office operates the NTS and has entered into a trilateral agreement with the State of Nevada and the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA). The trilateral agreement provides a framework for identifying, characterizing, remediating, and closing environmental sites on the NTS and associated bombing ranges. The SCEP waste unit consists of: two steam cleaning effluent ponds; layout pad and associated grease trap; Building 6-623 steam cleaning pad; test pad; Building 6-623 grease trap; Building 6-800 steam cleaning pad; Building 6-800 separator; Building 6-621 sump; and the concrete asbestos piping connecting these components to both SCEPs. Clean closure is the recommended closure strategy for the majority of the components within this CAU. Four components of the unit (Building 6-621 Sump, Test Pad Grease Trap, Building 6-623 Steam Cleaning Pad, and North SCEP pipeline) are recommended to be closed in place. This closure plan provides the strategy and backup information necessary to support the clean closure of each of the individual components within CAU 93. Analytical data generated during the characterization field work and earlier sampling events indicates the majority of CAU 93 soil and infrastructure is non-hazardous (i.e., impacted primarily with petroleum hydrocarbons).

  19. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond D Semlitsch

    Full Text Available We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  20. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlitsch, Raymond D; Peterman, William E; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Ousterhout, Brittany H

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  1. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application sites groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. The only constituent that exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well was lead which was found in wells HSS 3D and PSS 3D. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1995.

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-06

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach for collecting the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 12 on the NTS, CAU 552 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 12-06-04, Muckpile; 12-23-05, Ponds. Corrective Action Site 12-06-04 in Area 12 consists of the G-Tunnel muckpile, which is the result of tunneling activities. Corrective Action Site 12-23-05 consists of three dry ponds adjacent to the muckpile. The toe of the muckpile extends into one of the ponds creating an overlap of two CASs. The purpose of the investigation is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technic ally viable corrective actions. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  3. [Evaluation of cultural service value of aquaculture pond ecosystem: a case study in a water conservation area of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Guo, Zong-xiang; Yang, Huai-yu; Yang, Zheng-yong

    2009-12-01

    Pond aquaculture has existed in China for thousands of years, which has not only contributed great economic value, but also presented cultural value for human beings. With the development and upgrading of Chinese economy and culture, these values will be highlighted further. To evaluate the cultural service value of pond aquaculture ecosystem would provide a scientific base to the policy-making to avoid or reduce the wrong design-making or avoid the policy-malfunction, and also, to promote the development of aquaculture and related recreational fishing industry, increase the added value of aquaculture and the income of fish-farmers, and promote the economic development of rural area. Based on the survey data from the aquaculture ponds in the water conservation area of Dianshan Lake in Qingpu District of Shanghai and the related statistical data, the cultural service value including recreational value and existence value of the aquaculture pond ecosystem in the area was estimated by means of travel cost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM). The total cultural service value of this ecosystem was about 213 million Yuan x a(-1) or 231296. 69 Yuan x hm(-2) x a(-1), being 5. 25 times of the market value of aquaculture products, among which, recreational value was about 189 million Yuan x a(-1), and existence value was about 24 million Yuan x a(-1). It was suggested that in the construction of new rural areas of Shanghai, sufficient attention should be paid on the full play of the cultural service value of aquaculture pond ecosystem.

  4. Frozen ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, M; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. Walter

    2015-01-01

    Lakes and ponds play a key role in the carbon cycle of permafrost ecosystems, where they are considered to be hotspots of carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4 emission. The strength of these emissions is, however, controlled by a variety of physical and biogeochemical processes whose responses to a...

  5. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  6. Management of groundwater in farmed pond area using risk-based regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-Ying; Liao, Chiao-Miao; Lin, Kao-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Haw

    2014-09-01

    Blackfoot disease (BFD) had occurred seriously in the Yichu, Hsuehchia, Putai, and Peimen townships of Chia-Nan District of Taiwan in the early days. These four townships are the districts of fishpond cultivation domestically in Taiwan. Groundwater becomes the main water supply because of short income in surface water. The problems of over pumping in groundwater may not only result in land subsidence and seawater intrusion but also be harmful to the health of human giving rise to the bioaccumulation via food chain in groundwater with arsenic (As). This research uses sequential indicator simulation (SIS) to characterize the spatial arsenic distribution in groundwater in the four townships. Risk assessment is applied to explore the dilution ratio (DR) of groundwater utilization, which is defined as the ratio showing the volume of groundwater utilization compared to pond water, for fish farming in the range of target cancer risk (TR) especially on the magnitude of 10(-4)~10(-6). Our study results reveal that the 50th percentile of groundwater DRs served as a regulation standard can be used to perform fish farm groundwater management for a TR of 10(-6). For a TR of 5 × 10(-6), we suggest using the 75th percentile of DR for groundwater management. For a TR of 10(-5), we suggest using the 95th percentile of the DR standard for performing groundwater management in fish farm areas. For the TR of exceeding 5 × 10(-5), we do not suggest establishing groundwater management standards under these risk standards. Based on the research results, we suggest that establishing a TR at 10(-5) and using the 95th percentile of DR are best for groundwater management in fish farm areas.

  7. Effects of a beaver pond on runoff processes: comparison of two headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.

    1998-01-01

    Natural variations in concentrations of 18O, D, and H4SiO4 in two tributary catchments of Woods Lake in the west-central Adirondack Mountains of New York were measured during 1989–1991 to examine runoff processes and their implications for the neutralization of acidic precipitation by calcium carbonate treatment. The two catchments are similar except that one contained a 1.3 ha beaver pond. Evaporation from the beaver pond caused a seasonal decrease in the slope of the meteoric water line in stream water from the catchment with a beaver pond (WO2). No corresponding change in slope of the meteoric water line was evident in stream water from the other catchment (WO4), nor in ground water nor soil water from either catchment, indicating that evaporative fractionation was not significant. Application of a best-fit sine curve to δ18O data indicated that base flow in both catchments had a residence time of about 100 days. Ground water from a well finished in thick till had the longest residence time (160 days); soil water from the O-horizon and B-horizon had residence times of 63 and 80 days, respectively. Water previously stored within each catchment (pre-event water) was the predominant component of streamflow during spring snowmelt and during spring and autumn rainfall events, but the proportion of streamflow that consisted of pre-event water differed significantly in the two catchments. The proportion of event water (rain and snowmelt) in WO2 was smaller than at WO4 early in the spring snowmelt of March 13–17, 1990, but the proportions of source water components for the two catchments were almost indistinguishable by the peak flow on the third day of the melt. The event water was further separated into surface-water and subsurface-water components by utilizing measured changes in H4SiO4 concentrations in stream water during the snowmelt. Results indicated that subsurface flow was the dominant pathway by which event water reached the stream except during the

  8. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds: Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Faulkner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.

  9. Polishing of treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) from ponding system by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mau Han, Tham; Jun Wei, Lim; Choon Aun, Ng; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-01-01

    As the ponding system used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) frequently fails to satisfy the discharge standard in Malaysia, the present study aimed to resolve this problem using an optimized electrocoagulation process. Thus, a central composite design (CCD) module in response surface methodology was employed to optimize the interactions of process variables, namely current density, contact time and initial pH targeted on maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and turbidity with satisfactory pH of discharge POME. The batch study was initially designed by CCD and statistical models of responses were subsequently derived to indicate the significant terms of interactive process variables. All models were verified by analysis of variance showing model significances with Prob > F electrocoagulation process optimized by CCD.

  10. Solar pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

  11. Effects of road deicer (NaCl) and amphibian grazers on detritus processing in pond mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Robin J; Swan, Christopher M; Trossen, Carrie A

    2012-10-01

    Road deicers have been identified as potential stressors in aquatic habitats throughout the United States, but we know little regarding associated impacts to ecosystem function. A critical component of ecosystem function that has not previously been evaluated with respect to freshwater salinization is the impact on organic matter breakdown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cumulative effects of road deicers and tadpole grazers on leaf litter breakdown rate (g d(-1) ) and microbial respiration (mg O(2)  g leaf(-1) h(-1) ). To test this interaction, in May 2008 the authors added dry leaf litter (Quercus spp.) to forty 600-L pond mesocosms and inoculated each with algae and zooplankton. In a full-factorial design, they manipulated a realistic level of road salt (ambient or elevated at 645 mg L(-1) Cl(-) ) and tadpole (Hyla versicolor) presence or absence. The elevated chloride treatment reduced microbial respiration by 24% in the presence of tadpoles. The breakdown of leaf litter by tadpoles occurred 9.7% faster under ambient chloride conditions relative to the elevated chloride treatment. Results of the present study suggest that the microbial community is directly impacted by road deicers and heavy tadpole grazing under ambient conditions limits microbial capacity to process detritus. Road salts and tadpoles interact to limit microbial respiration, but to a lesser extent leaf mass loss rate, thereby potentially restricting energy flow from detrital sources in pond ecosystems.

  12. Urban ponds as an aquatic biodiversity resource in modified landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew J; Biggs, Jeremy; Thornhill, Ian; Briers, Robert A; Gledhill, David G; White, James C; Wood, Paul J; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Urbanization is a global process contributing to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats. Many studies have focused on the biological response of terrestrial taxa and habitats to urbanization. However, little is known regarding the consequences of urbanization on freshwater habitats, especially small lentic systems. In this study, we examined aquatic macro-invertebrate diversity (family and species level) and variation in community composition between 240 urban and 782 nonurban ponds distributed across the United Kingdom. Contrary to predictions, urban ponds supported similar numbers of invertebrate species and families compared to nonurban ponds. Similar gamma diversity was found between the two groups at both family and species taxonomic levels. The biological communities of urban ponds were markedly different to those of nonurban ponds, and the variability in urban pond community composition was greater than that in nonurban ponds, contrary to previous work showing homogenization of communities in urban areas. Positive spatial autocorrelation was recorded for urban and nonurban ponds at 0-50 km (distance between pond study sites) and negative spatial autocorrelation was observed at 100-150 km and was stronger in urban ponds in both cases. Ponds do not follow the same ecological patterns as terrestrial and lotic habitats (reduced taxonomic richness) in urban environments; in contrast, they support high taxonomic richness and contribute significantly to regional faunal diversity. Individual cities are complex structural mosaics which evolve over long periods of time and are managed in diverse ways. This facilitates the development of a wide range of environmental conditions and habitat niches in urban ponds which can promote greater heterogeneity between pond communities at larger scales. Ponds provide an opportunity for managers and environmental regulators to conserve and enhance freshwater biodiversity in urbanized landscapes whilst also facilitating

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

  14. Evaluation of the Preservation Value and Location of Farm Ponds in Yunlin County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Chou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm ponds in Yunlin County first appeared in 1,622 and have played roles in habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction. Farm ponds largely disappeared with the development of urban areas and the industrial sector; thus, effective preservation of the remaining ponds is critical. The criteria to evaluate the preservation value of farm ponds is established by expert questionnaires which follow the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP, and GIS, which are integrated into a spatial analysis of the remaining 481 farm ponds in Yunlin County. The results show that 28 ponds should be preserved to continue the cultural interaction between farm ponds and settlements; 36 ponds should preserved to connect coasts and streams, which are important habitats for birds; 30 ponds should be preserved to increase storage capacity, recharge groundwater, and reduce land subsidence; four ponds should be preserved as Feng-Shui ponds in front of temples in settlements or as recreation areas for local citizens; and four farms should be preserved (high priority in agricultural production areas to support irrigation. In short, FAHP and GIS are integrated to evaluate the number and locations of farm ponds that provide water for habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction and maintain the overall preservation value in Yunlin County. The results could inform governmental departments when considering conservation policies.

  15. Evaluation of the preservation value and location of farm ponds in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Lee, Soen-Han; Wu, Chen-Fa

    2013-12-31

    Farm ponds in Yunlin County first appeared in 1,622 and have played roles in habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction. Farm ponds largely disappeared with the development of urban areas and the industrial sector; thus, effective preservation of the remaining ponds is critical. The criteria to evaluate the preservation value of farm ponds is established by expert questionnaires which follow the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), and GIS, which are integrated into a spatial analysis of the remaining 481 farm ponds in Yunlin County. The results show that 28 ponds should be preserved to continue the cultural interaction between farm ponds and settlements; 36 ponds should preserved to connect coasts and streams, which are important habitats for birds; 30 ponds should be preserved to increase storage capacity, recharge groundwater, and reduce land subsidence; four ponds should be preserved as Feng-Shui ponds in front of temples in settlements or as recreation areas for local citizens; and four farms should be preserved (high priority) in agricultural production areas to support irrigation. In short, FAHP and GIS are integrated to evaluate the number and locations of farm ponds that provide water for habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction and maintain the overall preservation value in Yunlin County. The results could inform governmental departments when considering conservation policies.

  16. The Application and Practice of Dry-heap Red Mud Pond in Collapsible Loess Areas%干堆赤泥库在湿陷性黄土地区的应用与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗颖初; 范向伟

    2014-01-01

    赤泥库是氧化铝厂不可缺少的配套安全设施。近年来,赤泥库溃坝的事故屡屡发生,给人民群众生命财产造成了重大损失,对环境造成了严重破坏。通过对干堆赤泥库在湿陷性黄土地区应用与实践进行了分析,阐述了赤泥干式堆存工艺的特点,为今后类似干堆赤泥库的建设与应用提供了相关的技术措施。%The red mud pond is an indispensable auxiliary safety facility of alumina plant. In recent years, the dam collapse accidents of red mud pond, which often happen, have caused heavy losses to people's lives and property and heavy damages to environment. Through analyzing the application and practice of dry-heap red mud pond in collapsible loess areas, this paper expounds the features of red mud’s dry-heap process, and provides the relevant technical measures for the construction and application of similar dry-heap red mud pond in the future.

  17. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  18. Trace elements and petroleum hydrocarbons in the aquatic bird food chain of process water evaporation ponds at the Little America Refinery, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study determined the nature and extent of trace elements, metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons in evaporation ponds used for the disposal of process water from...

  19. Assessment area development of sustainable shrimp culture ponds (case ctudy the gulf coast Banten)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkan, M.; Setiyanto, D. D.; Widjaja, R. S.; Kholil; Widiatmaka

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp is a fishery commodity that has the economic value and important food provision, so that there is a need for increasing sustainability and continuity of the production. This research was conducted during March – December 2015 in Banten Bay, Indonesia. The objective of this research were: (1) to assess the land suitability for shrimp farming, (2) to analyze land carrying capacity for shrimp farming, (3) to establish the institutional model of shrimp farming management. The data used were primary data, collected from field survey and secondary data, collected from literature and research report which were done in the research area. The methods used to evaluate the land suitability were weighted spatial overlay. The carrying capacity were analyzed using two approaches: land suitability weight and water availability methods. The institutional model was established using Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM). The results of the study showed that from a total area analyzed of 5.028.3 ha, it can be classified into two suitability classes: highly suitable (S1) area which is 141.7 ha (2,8 %) and suitable (S2) area which is 4.886.6 ha (97.2 %). In term of management, the area can be grouped as traditional farming area of 4.173.5 ha (83 %), semi-intensive farming area of 698.93 ha (13,9) and intensive farming area of 155.87 ha (3,1%). The institutional modelling shows that the most decisive institutions are universities and research institutions. The model designed showed an inter-related relationship between land suitability, carrying capacity, institutional, and social in order to increase the sustainability of shrimp farming management.

  20. Geochemical interactions between process-affected water from oil sands tailings ponds and North Alberta surficial sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, A A; Donahue, R B; Ulrich, A C

    2011-01-25

    In Northern Alberta, the placement of out-of-pit oil sands tailings ponds atop natural buried sand channels is becoming increasingly common. Preliminary modeling of such a site suggests that process-affected (PA) pond water will infiltrate through the underlying clay till aquitard, reaching the sand channel. However, the impact of seepage upon native sediments and groundwater resources is not known. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of adsorption and ion exchange reactions in the clay till and their effect on the attenuation or release of inorganic species. This was evaluated using batch sorption experiments (traditional and a recent modification using less disturbed sediment samples) and geochemical modeling with PHREEQC. The results show that clay till sediments have the capacity to mitigate the high concentrations of ingressing sodium (600 mg L(-1)), with linear sorption partitioning coefficients (K(d)) of 0.45 L kg(-1). Ion exchange theory was required to account for all other cation behaviour, precluding the calculation of such coefficients for other species. Qualitative evidence suggests that chloride will behave conservatively, with high concentrations remaining in solution (375 mg L(-1)). As a whole, system behaviour was found to be controlled by a combination of competitive ion exchange, dissolution and precipitation reactions. Observations, supported by PHREEQC simulations, suggest that the influx of PA water will induce the dissolution of pre-existing sulphate salts. Sodium present in the process-affected water will exchange with sediment-bound calcium and magnesium, increasing the divalent ions' pore fluid concentrations, and leading to the precipitation of a calcium-magnesium carbonate mineral phase. Thus, in similar tailings pond settings, particularly if the glacial till coverage is thin or altogether absent, it is reasonable to expect that high concentrations of sodium and chloride will remain in solution, while sulphate

  1. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase

  2. Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal Biomass: Algal Biomass Production in Open Pond Systems and Processing Through Dewatering for Downstream Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grundl, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This report describes in detail a set of aspirational design and process targets to better understand the realistic economic potential for the production of algal biomass for subsequent conversion to biofuels and/or coproducts, based on the use of open pond cultivation systems and a series of dewatering operations to concentrate the biomass up to 20 wt% solids (ash-free dry weight basis).

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 478: Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 478, Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 478 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): • 12-23-01, Ponds (5) RAD Area The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 478.

  4. 池塘循环水养殖模式下养殖面积与净化面积的配比关系研究%The Relationship between the Area of Fish Pond and Purification Pond in the Model of the Water Circulation Pond Aquaculture System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋超; 裘丽萍; 瞿建宏; 范立民; 孟顺龙; 胡庚东

    2012-01-01

    To provide a detailed computational mode on the relationship between the area of fish pond and purification pond, and realize the hierarchical use of nitrogen/phosphorus, and the recirculation use of water resource. In this paper, referred to the absorption ability of aquatic plants to waste water, the ratio of produce to discharge of the pollutants in fish pond, and the water quality management in freshwater aquaculture, a mode was provided to explain that the construction of the water circulation pond aquaculture system was feasible. Taken the nitrogen in Grass carp aquaculture for example, the results computed by this mode, showed that the basic area ratio between fish pond and purification pond was 15:1; in the term of the absorption ability of aquatic plants to waste water, the area ratio was 7.5:1; and in the term of the ratio of produce to discharge of the pollutants in fish pond, the area ratio was 27.8:1. Different aquaculture yield and variety would influence that ratio. It was feasible to reduce the area of purification pond by increase the absorption ability of aquatic plants to waste water. This computational model could also reduced the cost to construction of the model, and realized the balance of the ecological benefit and the economic benefit.%为了详细计算池塘循环水养殖模式养殖面积和净化面积合理的配比关系,使养殖废水中氮、磷等富营养化物质的分级利用和水资源的循环使用更加合理.通过参照水生植物对养殖尾水中污染物的吸收能力和养殖鱼类的产排污系数,再结合淡水池塘养殖过程中水质管理的一般规律,给出了淡水池塘循环水养殖模式中养殖池塘面积和净化池塘面积之间配比关系的计算方法.以养殖草鱼为例,通过该计算方法,结果表明:以总氮的去除为例,养殖池塘和净化池塘的基本面积比为15∶1;按养殖池塘所排放的污染物浓度计算,一亩净化池塘可以净化7.5亩养殖池塘;按

  5. Computational model of pond re-storage times in Jianghuai hilly area based on SCS model%基于径流曲线数模型的江淮丘陵区塘坝复蓄次数计算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋尚明; 金菊良; 许浒; 曹秀清; 吴成国

    2013-01-01

    Pond re-storage times refers to the ratio of effective utilization of water and pond capacity, and is one of the important characteristic values reflecting the water supply capacity of a pond. It is the important parameters indicating water supply estimates and capacity determination of a pond. It has great guiding significance for regional pond planning and regulation of water resources in irrigation. At present, domestic and foreign scholars have carried out considerable research work on rainwater utilization, but fewer relevant outcomes have been projected on pond re-storage times in a hilly region. A pond in a hilly region has the features that small-scale projects monomer pond, a small amount of water, its water storage capacity is small, and its controlled irrigation area is small, but the distribution is wide, with a large number of groups, groups of large capacity, and so on. For this type of small water storage facilities, generally not hydrology and runoff observation points, there are almost no measured hydrological and runoff observations, and this has caused great difficulties for hydrological calculations. Predictions in ungauged basins (PUB) has been the focus of hydrology research and one of the difficult problems, and has been a widespread concern of scholars at home and abroad. A SCS model was the design flood of a small watershed model that was presented by United States Department of agriculture soil conservation service in the 1950s. It has the features that make the calculation process simple, with fewer required parameters of data readily available, especially for areas without data or lack of data. That has been widely used in various hydrologic problems, such as river engineering planning, soil and water conservation, flood control, city hydrology, and in ungaged basins, and achieved good results. On this basis, the pond irrigation area of Jianghuai Hilly as an example was selected, with hydrological simulation without any data of the pond

  6. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  7. Optimisation of the pond rearing of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The impact of stunting processes and recruitment control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Stunting is often considered as a major bottleneck for the pond rearing ofNiletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) and was a major topic in this study. Neonteny: the earlier breeding of tilapia in ponds takes place, but

  8. Frozen ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, M; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. Walter;

    2015-01-01

    on the thermal state of the surrounding permafrost; during the freezing period they prolong the period of time during which thawed soil material is available for microbial decomposition.  This study presents net CH4 production rates during the freezing period from ponds within a typical lowland tundra landscape...... in northern Siberia. Rate estimations were based on CH4 concentrations measured in surface lake ice from a variety of waterbody types. Vertical profiles along ice blocks showed an exponential increase in CH4 concentration with depth. These CH4 profiles were reproduced by a 1-D mass balance model and the net...... (0.01 to 0.14 mgCH4 m-2 day-1). In contrast, ponds exhibiting clear signs of erosion yielded net CH4 production rates of the order of 10-7 mol m-2 s-1 (140 mg CH4 m-2 day-1). Our results therefore indicate that once a particular threshold in thermal erosion has been crossed, ponds can develop into major CH4...

  9. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2005-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 552 is comprised of the one Corrective Action Site which is 12-23-05, Ponds. One additional CAS, 12-06-04, Muckpile (G-Tunnel Muckpile), was removed from this CAU when it was determined that the muckpile is an active site. A modification to the FFACO to remove CAS 12-06-04 was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on December 16, 2004. The G-Tunnel ponds were first identified in the 1991 Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. document entitled, ''Nevada Test Site Inventory of Inactive and Abandoned Facilities and Waste Sites'' (REECo, 1991). Corrective Action Unit 552 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Therefore, additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating and selecting the corrective action alternatives for the site. The CAI will include field inspections, radiological surveys, and sampling of appropriate media. Data will also be obtained to support investigation-derived waste (IDW) disposal and potential future waste management decisions.

  11. Culture modes and financial evaluation of two oleaginous microalgae for biodiesel production in desert area with open raceway pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Hu, Chunxiang

    2016-10-01

    Cultivation modes of autotrophic microalgae for biodiesel production utilizing open raceway pond were analyzed in this study. Five before screened good microalgae were tested their lipid productivity and biodiesel quality again in outdoor 1000L ORP. Then, Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 were selected due to their stronger environmental adaptability, higher lipid productivity and better biodiesel properties. Further scale up cultivation for two species with batch and semi-continuous culture was conducted. In 40,000L ORP, higher lipid productivity (5.15 versus 4.06gm(-2)d(-1) for Chlorella sp. L1, 5.35 versus 3.00gm(-2)d(-1) for M. dybowskii Y2) was achieved in semi-continuous mode. Moreover, the financial costs of 14.18$gal(-1) and 13.31$gal(-1) for crude biodiesel in two microalgae with semi-continuous mode were more economically feasible for commercial production on large scale outdoors.

  12. Mercury resistance in bacterial strains isolated from tailing ponds in a gold mining area near El Callao (Bolívar State, Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, María Mercedes; Carrero, Pablo; Castro, David; Yarzábal, Luis Andrés

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to mercury (Hg) was investigated in strains isolated from Hg-contaminated tailing ponds located in the gold mining area of El Callao (Bolívar State, Venezuela). High frequencies of resistance were detected to both inorganic-Hg and organomercurials among these strains. A broad range of resistance levels was observed when determining minimal inhibitory concentrations of Hg(2+). Some strains were able to grow in liquid medium containing 25 muM: Hg(2+), whereas others grew at 300 muM: Hg(2+). Of 190 Hg-resistant strains tested, 58.2% were additionally shown to be resistant to ampicillin (40 mg/L), 33.3% to chloramphenicol (30 mg/L), 24.9% to streptomycin (30 mg/L), 23.3% to tetracycline (30 mg/L), and 1.6% to kanamycin (30 mg/L). Furthermore, we found that 20% of the Hg-resistant strains were simultaneously resistant to as many as four of these antibiotics, at the concentrations tested. The presence of large plasmids in 62.9% of 53 Hg-resistant strains screened prompted us to investigate the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants. Mating experiments were performed using Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as recipient strains. The results obtained confirmed that indigenous Hg-resistant bacteria colonizing the tailing ponds can effectively transfer the phenotype to potentially pathogenic species.

  13. A Landsat analysis of variability of supraglacial ponds for the debris-covered glaciers of the Langtang Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Evan; Willis, Ian; Arnold, Neil; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Debris-covered glaciers have received renewed interest in recent years in an attempt to improve understanding of climate-glacier interactions in High Mountain Asia. Understanding of key processes occurring in supraglacial ponds has advanced conceptually to include conduit-collapse formation, subaqueous and waterline melting, calving, and englacial filling and drainage. The behaviour of systems of ponds, however, has received little attention, as most process observations have been made on individual features. Several studies have used satellite data to determine pond distributions at a single point in time or their variability across several years or decades. However, no attempt has been made to document the seasonal and inter-annual variability of ponds, even though individual ponds have been observed to fill and drain periodically. We analyse 172 Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes for the period 1999-2013 to identify thawed supraglacial ponds for the debris-covered tongues of five glaciers in the Langtang Valley of Nepal. We apply an advanced atmospheric correction routine (LandCor/6S) and improve upon previous band-ratio and image morphological techniques to identify ponds, then apply this database of identified ponds to: 1) measure the density of supraglacial ponding for five glaciers with differing characteristics, and evaluate the dependency of pond density to those glaciers' characteristics; 2) evaluate the controls that surface gradient and glacier velocity in particular exert on pond occurrence; 3) document the seasonal cycle of pond thawing and formation followed by freezing and draining; 4) document pond persistence, recurrence, and evolution over the 15-year period; and 5) determine if surface ponding has increased over time for the study glaciers. We find high variability between glaciers (0.08-1.69% of debris-covered area during ablation season), related primarily to glacier size, velocity, and surface gradient. At the glacier scale, pond cover is also correlated

  14. Estimation of Carrying Capacity of Manila Clam (Ruditapesphilippinarum) Culture Pond in Houhai Reclamation Area of Putian city,China%莆田后海垦区菲律宾蛤仔养殖池养殖容量的估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑芳; 张磊; 阎希柱

    2016-01-01

    From August 2013 to January 2014,the chlorophyll -a,primary productivity of phytoplankton,clams mortality rate in Houhai reclamation area of Putian were determined.The carrying capacity of the two Manila clam ponds wereestimated by Parsons TR-Takahashi M Ecological Trophodynamicsmodel [P=(BEn )×k]and Tait coastal energy flowing analysis model {B=[(0.1×C)/Q]×k}.Taking into consideration of the unused prima-ry productivity due to the pond effluent,the corrected results of two models were 5.52t and 7.10t for pond 1,with an average of 6.31t;3.60t and 4.62t for pond 2,with an average of 4.11t for two ponds.The actual yields of the two ponds accounted for 59.43%and 97.32%of the estimated capacities respectively.Two ponds of clam mortality rates were 23.43%and 22.5%,respectively.The capacity of pond 1 was significantly larger than that of pond 2.The pos-sible reasons are as follows:chl-a,the shapes of the pond,location and management.The carrying capacity of pond 2 was close to its actual yield.The estimated suitable breeding densities of Manila clam for pond 1 and for pond 2 were 0.61kg/m2 and 0.40kg/m2 respectively.As the actual breeding densities of two ponds are 0.19kg/m2 for each pond. The estimated suitable breeding density of Manila clam calculated from the carrying capacity was larger than the actu-al breeding density.A certain potential to increase the number of breeding clam exists.%2013年8月—2014年2月,对莆田后海垦区菲律宾蛤仔反季节高效生态养殖池叶绿素a、浮游植物初级生产量、蛤仔死亡率等进行了测定,采用ParsonsTR和TakahashiM营养动态模型和Tait沿岸海域能流分析模型对2个菲律宾蛤仔养殖池的养殖容量进行估算,扣除20%的日排水量导致的初级生产量损失,2种估算模型得到的养殖容量经校正后,池1为5.52t、7.1t,平均为6.31t;池2为3.60t、4.62t,平均为4.11t。两个花蛤养殖池的实际产量

  15. Ownership of fishing areas and use of fishing resources by artisanal fishermen in a pond in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackes Mancke dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mangueira Lagoon located in southern Brazil, has its northern portion included in the Taim Ecological Station, a federal conservation unit. The fishing practice is among the activities at this region. It has its own characteristics due to environmental conditions and specific physiography of the area. A field protocol based on geographic information was used to characterize the occupation process and the use of fishing resources. Socio-economic information was collected through interviews of the fishermen and also based on fishing data. After compiling the data a statistical descriptive analyses was completed. The average catch per fisherman in the region is 4,766.5 kg per year. The Loricariichthys anus showed the highest catch volume, ensuring the economic viability of the local activity. The constant increase of the activity may be compromising the reproductive cycle of the local ichthyological fauna, thus compromising the fishery sustainability.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 482: Area 15 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-09-30

    This Corrective Action Decision Document /Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 482 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 482 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and one adjacent area: CAS 15-06-01, U15e Muckpile; CAS 15-06-02, U15a Muckpile; CAS 15-38-01, Area 15 U15a/e Ponds; and Drainage below the U15a Muckpile. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions on the three CASs and the adjacent area of CAU 482. To support this recommendation, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was performed in September 2002. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to determine appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 482 dataset from the CAI was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Tier 2 FALS were determined for the hazardous constituents of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-diesel-range organics (DRO) and the radionuclides americium (Am)-241, cesium (Cs)-137, plutonium (Pu)-238, and Pu-239. The Tier 2 FALs were calculated for the radionuclides using site-specific information. The hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO were compared to the PALs

  17. RCRA Facility Investigation Plan K-1004 Area Lab Drain and the K-1007-B Pond - Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORGDP, Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc.

    1988-12-01

    Within the confines of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) are hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; some are in operation while others are no longer in use. these solid waste management units (SWMUs) are subject to assessment by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) Plans are scheduled to be submitted for all units during calendar years 1987 and 1988. The RFI Plan - General Document (K/HS-132) includes information applicable to all the ORGDP SMWUs and serves as a reference document for the site-specific RFI plans. This document is the site-specific RFI Plan for the K-1004 Area Lab Drain (ALD) and the K-1007-B Pond. This plan is based upon requirements described in the draft document, RFI Guidance, Vols. I-IV, December 1987 (EPA 530/SW-87-001). This unit is regulated by Section 3004(u) of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Contained within this document are geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological data specific to the K-1004 ALD and the K-1007-B Pond. The potential for release of contamination through the various media to receptors is addressed. A sampling plan is proposed to further determine the extent (if any) of release of contamination to the surrounding environment. Included are health and safety procedures to be followed when implementing the sampling plan. Quality control (QC) procedures for remedial action occurring on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are presented in 'The Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (ESH/Sub/87-21706/1), and quality assurance (QA) guidelines for ORGDP investigations are contained in The K-25 Remedial Actions Program Quality Assurance Plan, K/HS-231.

  18. Review of SERI Solar Pond Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

  19. Risk assessment and restoration possibilities of some abandoned mining ponds in Murcia Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faz, Angel; Acosta, Jose A.; Martinez-Martinez, Silvia; Carmona, Dora M.; Zornoza, Raul; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    In Murcia Region, SE Spain, there are 85 tailing ponds due to intensive mining activities that occurred during last century, especially in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Union. Although mining activity was abandoned several decades ago, those tailing ponds with high amounts of heavy metals still remain in the area. The ponds, due to their composition and location, may create environmental risks of geochemical pollution, negatively affecting soil, water, and plant, animal, and human populations, as well as infrastructures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the restoration possibilities of two representative mining ponds in order to minimize the risk for human and ecosystems. To achieve this objective, two tailing ponds generated by mining activities were selected, El Lirio and El Gorguel. These ponds are representative of the rest of existent ponds in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión, with similar problems and characteristics. Several techniques and studies were applied to the tailing ponds for their characterization, including: geophysics, geotechnics, geochemical, geological, hydrological, and vegetation studies. In addition, effects of particulate size in the distribution of heavy metals will be used to assess the risk of dispersion of these metals in finest particles. Once the ponds were characterized, they were divided in several sectors in order to apply different amendments (pig slurry and marble waste) to reduce the risk of metal mobility and improve soil quality for a future phytostabilization. It is known that organic amendments promote soil development processes, microbial diversity, and finally, soil ecosystem restoration to a state of self-sustainability. By comparing the results before and after applications we will be able to evaluate the effect of the different amendments on soil quality and their effectively on risk reduction. Finally, plant metal-tolerant species are used to restore vegetation in the ponds, thereby decreasing

  20. Valuing Multiple Benefits, and the Public Perception of SUDS Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jarvie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case study area of Edinburgh, in the UK. It compares man-made ponds (including SUDS, and ponds with natural origins. The results from Whole Life Cost show that the benefits (based on Contingent Valuation exceed the CAPEX and OPEX costs for three of five artificial ponds studied. Benefits from natural (reference ponds exceed the replacement costs for a pond with the same surface area/catchment. This paper highlights the importance of monetising the multiple benefits from ponds.

  1. Hydrogeochemical signatures and evolution of groundwater impacted by the Bayan Obo tailing pond in northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiang [Institute of Water Sciences and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Tailing Resources, Shangluo University, Shaanxi (China); Deng, Hailin, E-mail: hailin.deng@gmail.com [CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag No. 5, Wembley, WA 6913 (Australia); Zheng, Chunmiao [Institute of Water Sciences and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen (China); Department of Geological Science, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Cao, Guoliang [Institute of Water Sciences and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2016-02-01

    Uncontrolled leakage from mine tailing ponds can pose a serious environmental threat. Groundwater quality in a semi-arid region with extensive worries about the leakage from one of world's largest tailing ponds is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results show that elevated concentrations of NO{sub 2}{sup −}, B, Mn, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, F{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in groundwater were probably caused by leakage from the tailing pond and transported with the regional groundwater flow towards downstream Yellow River. While NO{sub 2}{sup −} contamination is only limited to areas close to the pond, high B concentrations persist within the contaminated plume originating from the tailing pond. Our current study shows that there is no geochemical evidence for U and Th contamination in groundwater due to leakage from the Bayan Obo tailing pond. Combining effects which includes regional variations, pond leaking and downstream mixing, mineral precipitation and dissolution, redox processes, ion exchange processes and agricultural activities, controlled groundwater hydrogeochemical signatures in the studied area. This study demonstrate that an increase in knowledge of evolution of groundwater quality by integrating field hydrochemical data and multivariate statistical analysis will help understand major water–rock interactions and provide a scientific basis for protection and rational utilization of groundwater resources in this and other tailing-impacted areas. - Highlights: • Combining hydrogeochemical methods and multivariate statistical analysis. • First reporting geochemical processes in aquifers nearby Bayan Obo REE tailing pond. • No geochemical evidence for uranium and thorium contamination in shallow groundwater.

  2. Event-based stormwater management pond runoff temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Sattar, A. M. A.; Thompson, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Stormwater management wet ponds are generally very shallow and hence can significantly increase (about 5.4 °C on average in this study) runoff temperatures in summer months, which adversely affects receiving urban stream ecosystems. This study uses gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) modeling techniques to advance our knowledge of the key factors governing thermal enrichment effects of stormwater ponds. The models developed in this study build upon and compliment the ANN model developed by Sabouri et al. (2013) that predicts the catchment event mean runoff temperature entering the pond as a function of event climatic and catchment characteristic parameters. The key factors that control pond outlet runoff temperature, include: (1) Upland Catchment Parameters (catchment drainage area and event mean runoff temperature inflow to the pond); (2) Climatic Parameters (rainfall depth, event mean air temperature, and pond initial water temperature); and (3) Pond Design Parameters (pond length-to-width ratio, pond surface area, pond average depth, and pond outlet depth). We used monitoring data for three summers from 2009 to 2011 in four stormwater management ponds, located in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada to develop the models. The prediction uncertainties of the developed ANN and GEP models for the case study sites are around 0.4% and 1.7% of the median value. Sensitivity analysis of the trained models indicates that the thermal enrichment of the pond outlet runoff is inversely proportional to pond length-to-width ratio, pond outlet depth, and directly proportional to event runoff volume, event mean pond inflow runoff temperature, and pond initial water temperature.

  3. Is intensification a viable way for pond culture in Central and Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergő Gyalog

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s Central and Eastern European aquaculture is based on low production intensity pondculture dominated by traditional extensive and semi-intensive carp-based polyculture technologies, useof complete feeds in pond culture is not prevalent. Meanwhile pond culture in other parts of the Worldhas gone through an intensification process, nowadays high-intensity monoculture technologies dominatein pond farming. Use of complete feeds and application of higher stocking rates have doubled-tripledyields compared to traditional extensive, semi-intensive farming methods. Economic analysis of Asianfarms shows that intensification leads to increased profits per unit area and decreased profitability. Thecalculation of financial results of fish farming technologies of different intensity level show the sameeffect of intensification on viability in Hungary as in Asia: high feeding and stocking rate result inoutstanding profit per unit area and decreased profit margin at the same time. Rising land prices (andrents, fees for usage of water, decrease in area-based subsidies can push the Central and EasternEuropean pond aquaculture toward intensification as high intensity fish rearing in ponds may offer goodalternative for those farmers who have limited access to land (pond area and water. However one musttake the increased risks of high intensity and must have good managing abilities and farming expertisewith special regard to water quality and biomass management.

  4. 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S.N.

    1994-08-15

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 300 Area Process Trenches, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. For the purposes of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Westinghouse Hanford Company is identified as ``co-operator.`` The 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan (Revision 0) consists of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Form 3 and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application, Form 3 submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and six appendices. The 300 Area Process Trenches received dangerous waste discharges from research and development laboratories in the 300 Area and from fuels fabrication processes. This waste consisted of state-only toxic (WT02), corrosive (D002), chromium (D007), spent halogenated solvents (F001, F002, and F003), and spent nonhalogented solvent (F005). Accurate records are unavailable concerning the amount of dangerous waste discharged to the trenches. The estimated annual quantity of waste (item IV.B) reflects the total quantity of both regulated and nonregulated waste water that was discharged to the unit.

  5. Melt-rock interactions and fabric development of peridotites from North Pond in the Kane area, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Implications of microstructural and petrological analyses of peridotite samples from IODP Hole U1382A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigane, Yumiko; Abe, Natsue; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing

    2016-06-01

    North Pond is an isolated sedimentary pond on the western flank of the Kane area along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Drill-hole U1382A of IODP Expedition 336 recovered peridotite and gabbro samples from a sedimentary breccia layer in the pond, from which we collected six fresh peridotite samples. The peridotite samples came from the southern slope of the North Pond where an oceanic core complex is currently exposed. The samples were classified as spinel harzburgite, plagioclase-bearing harzburgite, and a vein-bearing peridotite that contains tiny gabbroic veins. No obvious macroscopic shear deformation related to the formation of a detachment fault was observed. The spinel harzburgite with a protogranular texture was classified as refractory peridotite. The degree of partial melting of the spinel harzburgite is estimated to be ˜17%, and melt depletion would have occurred at high temperatures in the uppermost mantle beneath the spreading axis. The progressive melt-rock interactions between the depleted spinel harzburgite and the percolating melts of Normal-Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (N-MORB) produced the plagioclase-bearing harzburgite and the vein-bearing peridotite at relatively low temperatures. This implies that the subsequent refertilization occurred in an extinct spreading segment of the North Pond after spreading at the axis. Olivine fabrics in the spinel and plagioclase-bearing harzburgites are of types AG, A, and D, suggesting the remnants of a mantle flow regime beneath the spreading axis. The initial olivine fabrics appear to have been preserved despite the later melt-rock interactions. The peridotite samples noted above preserve evidence of mantle flow and melt-rock interactions beneath a spreading ridge that formed at ˜8 Ma.

  6. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  7. 300 Area process trench sediment analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Kossik, C.D.

    1987-12-01

    This report describes the results of a sampling program for the sediments underlying the Process Trenches serving the 300 Area on the Hanford reservation. These Process Trenches were the subject of a Closure Plan submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology and to the US Environmental Protection Agency in lieu of a Part B permit application on November 8, 1985. The closure plan described a proposed sampling plan for the underlying sediments and potential remedial actions to be determined by the sample analyses results. The results and proposed remedial action plan are presented and discussed in this report. 50 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  9. USING CARTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTS AND GIS FOR FOLLOWING THE EVOLUTION OF THE PONDS - AREA OF CEFA AND MĂDĂRAS COMMUNES - (BIHOR, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINC Ribana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the problems of identifying some of the pond names in the Crisurilor Plain, which over time have been mentioned by various authors by different acronyms, we wanted to identify and locate them by studying maps and cadastral plans dating from the late 19th century until present. Using modern means of mapping (GIS we superimposed a very wide range of cartographic materials and studied a wide range of textual documents that have succeeded to clarify the changes that these ponds have suffered over time.

  10. The Relationship between the Area of Aquaculture Pond and Purification Pond in Water Circulation Aquaculture System%池塘循环水养殖模式下养殖面积与净化面积的配比关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋超; 陈家长; 戈贤平; 孟顺龙; 范立民; 胡庚东

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of water circulation aquaculture system realized the hierarchical use of nitrogen,phosphorus and other eutrophic substances in aquaculture wastewater and the recirculation use of water resource.However,no research has been reported on the detailed calculation of the relationship between the area of aquaculture pond and purification pond.In this study,referring to the absorption ability of aquatic plants to pollutants in aquaculture wastewater and pollutant generation and discharge coefficient in aquaculture pond,based on the general rules of water quality management in freshwater aquaculture system,a calculation mode was established to investigate the relationship between the area of aquaculture pond and purification pond in freshwater recirculation aquaculture system,which was feasible to explain related cases and would provide theoretical basis to reduce the economic costs in the construction of water circulation aquaculture system and realize the balance between the ecological benefits and the economic benefits.%池塘循环水养殖模式的构建实现了养殖废水中氮、磷等富营养化物质的分级利用和水资源的循环使用,但此前的研究并没有详细计算养殖面积和净化面积合理的配比关系.通过参照水生植物对养殖尾水中污染物的吸收能力和养殖鱼类的产排污系数,再结合淡水池塘养殖过程中的水质管理的一般规律,给出了淡水池塘循环水养殖模式中养殖池塘面积和净化池塘面积之间配比关系的计算方法.利用该计算方法来解释此前相关的研究实例,也证明是可行的.该计算模型的构建为今后在池塘循环水养殖模式构建中降低经济成本,为最终实现生态效益对经济效益的补偿提供了理论基础.

  11. Ponded Impact Melt Dynamics and its Effects on Pond Surface Morphology - Insights from King Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J. W.; DiCarlo, N.; Enns, A. C.; Hawke, B. R.; Hiesinger, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Sato, H.; Speyerer, E.; van der Bogert, C.; Wagner, R.; Young, K. E.; LROC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    King crater is a 77-km diameter impact feature located at 5.0°N and 120.5°E on the lunar farside. Previous work delimited King crater with an asymmetric distribution of ejecta that includes a large impact melt pond (~385 square kilometer surface area), located in nearby Al-Tusi crater. The pond provides an opportunity to study the behavior of a large impact melt deposit. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) [1] imaged King crater from a nominal 50 km altitude at pixel scales of 100 meters and up to 0.5 meters, respectively providing the means to create geologic maps for the region. Digital terrain/elevation models (DTMs) were derived [2] from both WAC and NAC images for the area, and supplemented the mapping effort. The high-resolution (50 cm/p) NAC images show fine details within the Al-Tusi melt pond that raise questions about melt pond dynamics and evolution. These include both positive- and negative-relief features, anomalous crater morphologies, and flow features that show variable degrees of melt viscosity. WAC DTM processing reveals a horizontal and relatively flat (at the 20 m contour interval) pond, demonstrating that an equipotential surface was achieved during initial melt accumulation. The NAC DTM shows kilometer-scale zones of topographic down-warping within the 20 m contour interval. The perimeters of these depressed areas show moderate to high spatial correlation with the occurrence of negative relief features (~10 to 100 m in length). Such sagging may have occurred as the result of contraction and/or compaction within the melt both during and following cooling, with the negative relief features resulting from consequent structural failure and separation of the thickening surface crust. The variability in the degree of contraction/compaction may be explained by the presence of underlying hummocky ejecta deposits (which probably also explains the positive relief features) emplaced by

  12. Use of calcium sulfate to accelerate densification while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave, S.; Ramos, E.; Lin, S.; Voordouw, G.; Gieg, L. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Petroleum Microbiology Research Group; Guo, C.; Wells, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands tailings ponds contain high volumes of fine tailings. Accelerated densification of the tailings can be achieved by adding calcium sulfate, and microbial activity has also been known to increase the tailings densification process. The presence of calcium sulfate can divert microbial activity from the production of methane. This study characterized the microbial processes in a tailings pond in order to estimate their contribution to tailings densification and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. Sulfate and sulfide concentrations were measured. Rates of microbial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were measured as a function of depth in a pond treated with calcium sulfate. Samples were collected at various depths from a tailings pond in northern Alberta. The study showed that the highest rates of methanogenesis occurred in areas where sulfate reduction rates were low. Fluctuating rates of sulfate reduction demonstrated that different microbial activities occurred at discrete levels in the pond. The study suggested that sulfide formed by the reduction of sulfate at depth is carried upwards in gas bubbles and then oxidized back into sulfate in the upper oxygenated layers of the pond. It was concluded that when used as a consolidation agent, calcium sulfate reduces GHG emissions from tailings ponds. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Mapping peat morphology in sag pond with ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanti, Mimin; Nugraha, Harya Dwi; Setiawan, Tedy; Bijaksana, Satria

    2013-09-01

    In the tropics peat is commonly found in low-land areas. In certain condition, however, peat could also be found in high elevation, such as in sag ponds near fault zones. Information regarding thickness and morphology of peat in Sag Pond can be used to infer fault activities in the past. In this study, we attempt to identify the thickness and morphology of peat in a sag pond at Karyawangi Village near the Lembang fault, to the north of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. We use ground penetrating radar (GPR) method with 250 Mhz antennae in several lines. The data were them processes using Reflexw software. The results show that in each survey line, peat layer is clearly identifiable. In some lines, the peat layer is continous while in some other, the peat layer is undulated. The peat layer in general in about 0.5 to 2 m thick. In conclusion, the GPR method with 250 Mhz antennae is suitable for mapping peat thickness and morphology in Sag Pond.

  14. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  15. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  16. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  17. Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

  18. Pond Fish Culture Practices in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond fish culture practices in Nigeria was reviewed to refresh the minds of fish and other interested stake holders on some basic principles involved in pond fish culture. Fish pond system is the commonest agricultural techniques in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Profit making, job creation, provision of raw materials for several industries and increase in foreign exchange earnings are some benefits. However, loss of land and introduction some water borne diseases are some disadvantages in pond fish culture. This articles reviews the fish pond management processes, stocking of ponds, feeding of fish, types of culture, fish farming combined with other branches of agriculture, rearing of fish for purposes other than food, other fish culture, types of fish used for fish culture in central east Africa, general biology of the species of value in fish culture and suitable combinations of fish for stocking to reawaken the minds of individuals, companies and government on the need to develop pond fish culture in Nigeria.

  19. Microbial activities and communities in oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, Lisa; Ramos, Esther; Clothier, Lindsay; Bordenave, Sylvain; Lin, Shiping; Voordouw, Gerrit; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses how the microbial communities and their activity play a vital role in tailings ponds. The ponds contain microorganisms along with metals, hydrocarbon diluent, naphthenic acid and others. The ponds play an important role in mining operations because they store bitumen extraction waste and also allow water to be re-used in the bitumen extraction process. Pond management presents a few challenges that include, among others, gas emissions and the presence of toxic and corrosive acids. Microbial activities and communities help in managing these ponds. Microbial activity measurement in active and inactive ponds is described and analyzed and the results are presented. The conditions for reducing sulfate, nitrate and iron are also presented. From the results it can be concluded that naphthenic acids can potentially serve as substrates for anaerobic populations in tailings ponds.

  20. LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF SOLAR PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZTÜRK

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar ponds are the systems which collect solar energy and store it for long periods of time. For effective and efficient use of these systems in the country, concepts relating economy of solar ponds which generated hot water from the sun must be known besides their physical properties. Life cycle cost analysis is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes. In order to quantify the costs, resource consumption, and energy use, material and energy balances are performed in a cradle-to-grave manner on the operations required to transform raw materials into useful products. In this study; life cycle cost analysis of reflecting covered and non covered solar ponds are calculated for a volume of 3.5x3.5x2 cubic meters and presented. Also the energies extractable for these solar ponds in Goller Region climatic conditions are given.

  1. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  2. Thermal Efficiency for Each Zone of a Solar Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEZ(I)R C(I)CEK Nalan; SAH(I)N SENCAN Arzu

    2011-01-01

    A salt gradient solar pond with a surface area of 3.5×3.5 m2 and a depth of 2m is built.Two collapsible covers are used to reduce thermal energy loss from the surface of the solar pond during the night and to increase the thermal efficiency of the pond solar energy harvesting during daytime.The covers can be rotated between 0 and 180° by a controlled electric motor and has insulation and reflection properties.The thermal efficiency for each solar pond zone is investigated theoretically and experimentally.A salt gradient solar pond (SGSP) can store a portion of solar radiation as thermal energy for longterm use.Long-term energy storage in a solar pond is important for many applications,i.e.greenhouse heating or heating in buildings.%A salt gradient solar pond with a surface area of 3.5×3.5 m2 and a depth of 2m is built. Two collapsible covers are used to reduce thermal energy loss from the surface of the solar pond during the night and to increase the thermal efficiency of the pond solar energy harvesting during daytime. The covers can be rotated between 0 and 180° by a controlled electric motor and has insulation and reflection properties. The thermal efficiency for each solar pond zone is investigated theoretically and experimentally.

  3. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim;

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...... the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds....

  4. Identification Method in Software Process Improvement Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Akihiro; Kataoka, Nobuhiro

    With the prevalence of CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) that is developed in the United States and the international standardization model of Software Process Assessment ISO/IEC 15504, SPI (Software Process Improvement) based on Software Process Assessment is gaining ground in Japan as well. One of the objectives in SPI is to prevent the occurrence of errors in the downstream process by thorough process management in the upstream process. In order to implement the SPI from such viewpoints, this paper suggests the method to analyze Problem Reports developed in the testing process of a project, to specify software bugs existent in leading processes and to identify the SPI in the upstream process. By means of Problem Reports that is capable of externalization and is used in testing processes, knowledge that has not been externalized will be specified as Defect Cluster. Furthermore, deliverables in each process will be identified from the properties of Defect Cluster to implement the SPI, which is of the essence, by identifying processes causing trouble. In the project that was the analytical target, there were 608 Problem Reports in its testing process. As a result of the analysis, it was found that by identifying processes in the upper process to improve with the techniques recommended in this paper, about 13% of cases causing trouble could be prevented from occurring, which will contribute to productivity improvement due to a decrease in the number of rework processes.

  5. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice-albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate projections. By analyzing area-perimeter data from hundreds of thousands of melt ponds, we find here an unexpected separation of scales, where pond fractal dimension D transitions from 1 to 2 around a critical length scale of 100 m2 in area. Pond complexity increases rapidly through the transition as smaller ponds coalesce to form large connected regions, and reaches a maximum for ponds larger than 1000 m2 whose boundaries resemble space filling curves with D ≈ 2. These universal features of Arctic melt pond evolution are similar to phase transitions in statistical physics. The results impact sea ice albedo, the transmitted radiation fields under melting sea ice, the heat balance of sea ice and the upper ocean, and biological productivity such as under ice phytoplankton blooms.

  6. Application of a Method for Intelligent Multi-Criteria Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Tailing Ponds in Northern Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Milentijević

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The technological process of exploitation of mineral resources and processing of mined ores to cater to the market results, among other things, in a large amount of tailings deposed on tailing ponds. Because of the chemical composition of the material, the increasing amount of waste, and the mismanagement of recovery and reclamation of ponds, these ponds have become a significant element of negative impact on the surrounding ecosystem. Economics was behind the discharging of this material, resulting in tailing ponds created in inappropriate areas. There is an ongoing process of depositing tailings on old tailing ponds, although no special attention has been paid to the subsequent effect on the environment. Application of intelligent multi-criteria analysis AHP and PROMETHEE has been performed in this paper for the purpose of ranking the degree of negative impact on the environment of tailing ponds. Analysis is performed for five tailing ponds of MMCC (Mining Metallurgy Chemical Combine “Trepča”, whereby two of the ponds are active and three inactive. The ponds are in relatively close proximity to the municipalities of Zvečan and Kosovska Mitrovica, to the north of Kosovo and Metohija, Republic of Serbia. In order to achieve the most objective results, the AHP and PROMETHEE methods were applied. By using these methods for calculations, the following ranking for the flotation tailing waste deposits was obtained, regarding their environmental impact: Žitkovac, Tvrđanski Do, Bostanište, Gornje Polje and Žarkov Potok. This result can contribute to the decision-making process of a prioritizing strategy for rehabilitation and remediation of these five flotation tailings. The analysis illustrates that application of intelligent multi-criteria analysis is a useful environmental management tool to be included in the decision-making process.

  7. Effluent, nutrient and organic matter export from shrimp and fish ponds causing eutrophication in coastal and back-reef waters of NE Hainan, tropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Lucia S.; Unger, Daniela; Wu, Ying; Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2013-04-01

    Global aquaculture has grown at a rate of 8.7% per year since 1970. Particularly along the coasts of tropical Asia, aquaculture ponds have expanded rapidly at the expense of natural wetlands. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the extent and production process of brackish-water pond aquaculture at the NE coast of Hainan, tropical China, (ii) to quantify effluent and organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus export from shrimp and fish ponds and (iii) to trace their effect on the water quality in adjacent estuarine and nearshore coastal waters harboring seagrass meadows and coral reefs. During two expeditions in 2008 and 2009, we determined dissolved inorganic nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), chlorophyll a (chl a) and particulate organic matter (POM) in aquaculture ponds, drainage channels and coastal waters in three areas varying in extent of aquaculture ponds. From the analysis of satellite images we calculated a total of 39.6 km² covered by shrimp and fish ponds in the study area. According to pond owners, there is no standardized production pattern for feeding management and water exchange. Nutrient and suspended matter concentrations were high in aquaculture ponds and drainage channels, but varied considerably. The calculated annual export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and particulate nitrogen (PN) from pond aquaculture into coastal waters was 612 and 680 t yr-1, respectively. High concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate and chl a at the majority of the coastal stations point at eutrophication of coastal waters, especially close to shore. Coastal eutrophication driven by the introduction of untreated aquaculture effluents may be especially harmful in back-reef areas, where estuarine retention and mixing with open ocean water is restricted thus threatening seagrasses and corals.

  8. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice–albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate projections. By analyzing area–perimeter data from hundreds of thousands of melt ponds, we find here an unexpected separation of scales, where pond fractal dimension D transitions from 1 to 2 around a critical length scale of 100 m2 in area. Pond complexity increases rapidly through the transition as smaller ponds coalesce to form large connected regions, and reaches a maximum for ponds larger than 1000 m2, whose boundaries resemble space-filling curves, with D ≈ 2. These universal features of Arctic melt pond evolution are similar to phase transitions in statistical physics. The results impact sea ice albedo, the transmitted radiation fields under melting sea ice, the heat balance of sea ice and the upper ocean, and biological productivity such as under ice phytoplankton blooms.

  9. Modeling of thermal processes in spherical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanchenko, O.; Lyashenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a mathematical model of the temperature field in spherical area with complex conditions of heat exchange with the environment is considered. The solution of the nonlinear initial boundary value problem is reduced to the solution of the nonlinear integral equation of Fredholm type respect to spatial coordinates and Volterra with the kernel in the form of the Green's function on the time coordinate.

  10. 宁夏银川地区池塘养殖河蟹技术探讨%A Discussion on Technology of River Crab Aquaculture in Pond in Yinchuan Area in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔艳杰

    2014-01-01

    The technology of river crab aquaculture in pond in Yinchuan area in Ningxia is discussed in terms of pond con-struction, size, time and density of crab stocking,production management and prevention and cure of diseases and so on. The yield of raised river crabs reached 6 393.0 kg/hm2, on an average each one was 135.3 g and the economic benefits reached 18,840 ¥/hm2. The development prospect is good.%从池塘修建、河蟹放养规格、时间、密度、生产管理和疾病防治等方面探讨了宁夏银川地区池塘养殖河蟹技术,试验养殖的河蟹产量达6393.0 kg/hm2、平均135.3 g/只,经济效益达18840元/hm2,具有较好的开发前景。

  11. Kealia Pond - Ungulate Exclusion Fence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will contribute to the building of a fence around the Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge. Kealia Pond NWR is home to two endangered waterbird species,...

  12. Primeval procreative comet pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B C

    1988-01-01

    It is speculated that life originated in a small, shallow body of water containing concentrated prebiotic organic feedstocks, inorganic compounds, and catalytic agents in a diversity of microenvironments. This pond was formed by an improbable, fortuitous soft-landing of a cometary nucleus, or fragment thereof, on the surface of a suitable planet with an atmosphere in an appropriate thermodynamic state, such as Earth.

  13. The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability of Social Comparison Processes over Two Age Cohorts from Western, Asian, and Middle Eastern Islamic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Parker, Philip; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive support for the seemingly paradoxical negative effects of school- and class-average achievement on academic self-concept (ASC)-the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE)--is based largely on secondary students in Western countries or on cross-cultural Program for International Student Assessment studies. There is little research testing the…

  14. Appearance of Planktothrix rubescens Bloom with [D-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR in Gravel Pit Pond of a Shallow Lake-Dominated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Vasas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria are well-known phenomena in many regions of the world. Microcystin (MC, the most frequent cyanobacterial toxin, is produced by entirely different cyanobacteria, including unicellular, multicellular filamentous, heterocytic, and non-heterocytic bloom-forming species. Planktothrix is one of the most important MC-producing genera in temperate lakes. The reddish color of cyanobacterial blooms viewed in a gravel pit pond with the appearance of a dense 3 cm thick layer (biovolume: 28.4 mm3 L−1 was an unexpected observation in the shallow lake-dominated alluvial region of the Carpathian Basin. [d-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR was identified from the blooms sample by MALDI-TOF and NMR. Concentrations of [d-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR were measured by capillary electrophoresis to compare the microcystin content of the field samples and the isolated, laboratory-maintained P. rubescens strain. In analyzing the MC gene cluster of the isolated P. rubescens strain, a deletion in the spacer region between mcyE and mcyG and an insertion were located in the spacer region between mcyT and mcyD. The insertion elements were sequenced and partly identified. Although some invasive tropical cyanobacterial species have been given a great deal of attention in many recent studies, our results draw attention to the spread of the alpine organism P. rubescens as a MC-producing, bloom-forming species.

  15. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  16. Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    The trophic ecology and ground-water contributing area of Walden Pond, in Concord and Lincoln, Mass., were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management from April 1997 to July 2000. Bathymetric investigation indicated that Walden Pond (24.88 hectares), a glacial kettle-hole lake with no surface inlet or outlet, has three deep areas. The maximum depth (30.5 meters) essentially was unchanged from measurements made by Henry David Thoreau in 1846. The groundwater contributing area (621,000 square meters) to Walden Pond was determined from water-table contours in areas of stratified glacial deposits and from land-surface contours in areas of bedrock highs. Walden Pond is a flow-through lake: Walden Pond gains water from the aquifer along its eastern perimeter and loses water to the aquifer along its western perimeter. Walden Pond contributing area also includes Goose Pond and its contributing area. A water budget calculated for Walden Pond, expressed as depth of water over the lake surface, indicated that 45 percent of the inflow to the lake was from precipitation (1.215 meters per year) and 55 percent from ground water (1.47 meters per year). The groundwater inflow estimate was based on the average of two different approaches including an isotope mass-balance approach. Evaporation accounted for 26 percent of the outflow from the lake (0.71 meters per year) whereas lake-water seepage to the groundwater system contributed 74 percent of the outflow (1.97 meters per year). The water-residence time of Walden Pond is approximately 5 years. Potential point sources of nutrients to ground water, the Concord municipal landfill and a trailer park, were determined to be outside the Walden Pond groundwater contributing area. A third source, the septic leach field for the Walden Pond State Reservation facilities, was within the groundwater contributing area. Nutrient budgets for the lake indicated that

  17. Modeling the summertime evolution of sea-ice melt ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Mikael; Feltham, D.L.; Taylor, P.D.;

    2006-01-01

    We present a mathematical model describing the summer melting of sea ice. We simulate the evolution of melt ponds and determine area coverage and total surface ablation. The model predictions are tested for sensitivity to the melt rate of unponded ice, enhanced melt rate beneath the melt ponds......, vertical seepage, and horizontal permeability. The model is initialized with surface topographies derived from laser altimetry corresponding to first-year sea ice and multiyear sea ice. We predict that there are large differences in the depth of melt ponds and the area of coverage between the two types...... of ice. We also find that the vertical seepage rate and the melt rate of unponded ice are important in determining the total surface ablation and area covered by melt ponds....

  18. Enhancing benefits from polycultures including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) within integrated pond-dike systems: A participatory trial with households of varying socio-economic level in rural and peri-urban areas of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, M.; Little, D.C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Telfer, T.; Wahab, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Linkages between the fish ponds and surrounding land for horticulture are a distinctive feature of farming households in Bangladesh. It was hypothesised that integration of fish ponds in integrated farming system enhances livelihoods and reduces poverty. The effects of introducing tilapia into exist

  19. Description of work for 216-U-Pond test pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1993-08-11

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the test pit excavation and soil sampling at the 216- U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the 200-UP-2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Test pits will be constructed to characterize the vertical extent of contaminants in sediments within and beneath the former U-10 pond.

  20. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  1. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  2. Investigation of the environmental impacts of sedimentation in Anzali Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmal, Milad; Neshaei, Seyed Ahmad; Farzan, Niloofar

    2016-04-01

    Anzali harbor is the most essential transportation pole between Iran and other countries of the Caspian Sea basin. Anzali pond is an important ecosystem in the region due to its unique plant and animal species. In order to determine the effects of interaction between pond and sea, a series of in-depth studies and analysis on the pattern of sedimentation in Anzali harbor and pond were performed. The study area is Anzali harbor and pond which is located in southwest of the Caspian Sea in Iran. In recent years the economical importance and improvement program of this region has devoted many scientists and authorities attention to itself. In this paper, researches on environmental impact by sediment and pollution in this zone are performed. Analysis indicates that by disposal of sediment and pollution in this area, the physical and chemical quality of water has declined. Some practical suggestions are made to improve the quality of the studied region in terms of environmental aspects.

  3. Modeling a Dry Etch Process for Large-Area Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, R.J.; Hebner, G.A.; Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.

    1999-07-28

    There has been considerable interest in developing dry processes which can effectively replace wet processing in the manufacture of large area photovoltaic devices. Environmental and health issues are a driver for this activity because wet processes generally increase worker exposure to toxic and hazardous chemicals and generate large volumes of liquid hazardous waste. Our work has been directed toward improving the performance of screen-printed solar cells while using plasma processing to reduce hazardous chemical usage.

  4. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception.

  5. ANALYSIS OF PLANKTON PRESENT IN THE WATER PONDS OF BIAŁOWIEZA FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Chomutowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Białowieza Forest is the natural habitat of many rare species of green plants, animals and fungi. For centuries, it has been a unique place for developing environmental processes. The water ponds are the wildlife habitat for many organisms, whose lives depend on aquatic environments. Protected species of green plants and animals also live in the water ponds. The aim of this research was to determine the species and quantity of plankton which are present in Białowieza Forest’s water ponds. The presence of different species of plankton proved the presence of minimal organic pollution. It was noticed that the primary producers dominated over the other organisms, which confirmed high mineralisation. The water ponds should continue to be monitored, as they are responsible for biodiversity within the Białowieza Forest area and they are the best place to settle for many species which are characteristic for swamps and small sources of water.

  6. Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijffers, J.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such

  7. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  8. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  9. GROWING NIPA PALM FOR RESTORATION OF ABANDONED SHRIMP PONDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noparat Bamroongrugsa; Chorthip Purintavarakul

    2006-01-01

    Rapid increase in the production of marine shrimps in the coastal zone has resulted in large - scale conversion of mangrove forests to shrimp ponds. Productions of the shrimps in some regions have been unstable. Consequently, a number of ponds are left idle. Restoring environmental conditions within the pond site by planting a suitable mangrove species considered an option. The experiment herein was carried out to explore the effect of planting methods on growth of Nipa palm in abandoned shrimp ponds in the Southern Thailand. Economically, coastal villagers in this area earn their income from the palm in several ways, the most importantly in Nipa sugar production. Most seedlings were planted on top of furrows were constructed in the pond to avoid flooding, except for some seedlings which were planted in the pond base where additional pond sludge were slightly filled up to compare their growth rates. The results showed that planting seedlings with attached rhizomes had the best growth rate and without seedling death at 14 months after planting. At this stage, however, the height of seedlings grown from the fallen fruits was similar to those growth from bare rooted seedlings (70 cm tall). Also, seedling mortality was not observed when growth from fallen fruits whereas about6% mortality was experienced by the bare rooted ones. Among the bare rooted seedling treatments, however no significant differences in growth rates were found when applying the soil with chemical fertilizers or farm manure or liming with CaCO3. In addition, it was found that seedling growth measured at 40 months after planting for those growths in pond base was almost 100% greater than those grown on the furrows. Therefore, this finding may be applied for the restoration of abandoned shrimp ponds by growing Nipa palm.

  10. Interim characterization report for the 300 Area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Wallace, R.W.; Aaberg, R.L.; Airhart, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Cline, C.S.; Dennison, D.I.; Freshley, M.D.; Heller, P.R.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains information on the results of the Hazardous Waste Ground-Water Monitoring Compliance Program characterization studies of wastes disposed of in the 300 Area process trenches. The characterization of the 300 Area process trenches has been conducted as part of an effort initiated in June 1985, when a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented. The characterization effort is part of a regulatory ground-water monitoring compliance program for hazardous chemicals on the Hanford Site. The characterization work described in this document represents an expanded ground-water monitoring compliance effort, and incorporates or refers to previous studies useful in characterizing the 300 Area. This document is primarily a compendium of technical information on the 300 Area; therefore, data interpretations are limited to the most obvious conclusions. Final conclusions will not be presented until the analysis of data is completed in September 1989. 48 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Deadline scramble : oilsands mining operators and outsiders investigate more rapid tailings pond cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2010-05-15

    Oil sand tailings ponds composed of a slurry of water, clay, sand, silt and residual bitumen have become one of the biggest environmental and public relations challenges facing the oil sand industry. The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board's Directive 74 requires that oilsands mining companies convert at least 20 per cent of the fine particles in their tailings ponds to solid waste by June 2011, rising to 50 per cent by 2013 and annually thereafter. Tailings ponds must be ready for surface reclamation within 5 years of the ponds becoming inactive. Directive 74 also stipulates that within 1 year of the creation of a dedicated disposal area, it must attain a minimum undrained shear strength of 5 kilopascals, rising to a minimum shear strength in 5 years of 10 kPa, trafficable and ready for reclamation. To date, only Suncor has committed to meeting the directive's deadlines. Syncrude Canada Ltd. has been testing centrifuge technology, and smaller companies, such as Solid Environmental Services Ltd, Foret Plasma Labs, LLC and Micro-TES, Inc. are also promoting their own solutions. The greatest challenge with the tailings ponds is to reach that 5 kPa rating. This article described some technologies that may attain the criteria, including the bentonite-based PitDry solidification process that is used to treat a variety of drilling, mining and industrial wastes; the Plasma Whirl, a plasma hydrocyclone that can be used for water treatment and heavy oil upgrading; and super bugs in which microbes break down hydrocarbons and other organic wastes into non-hazardous components such as fatty acids, carbon dioxide and water. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  13. Suitability of ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Renee S.

    1994-01-01

    A study of coal ponds formed by strip mining in eastern Oklahoma included 25 ponds formed by strip mining from the Croweburg, McAlester, and Iron Post coal seams and 6 noncoal-mine ponds in the coal-mining area. Water-quality samples were collected in the spring and summer of 1985 to determine the suitability of the ponds for public water supply, aquatic life, waterfowl habitat, livestock watering, irrigation, and recreation. The rationale for water-quality criteria and the criteria used for each proposed use are discussed. The ponds were grouped by the coal seam mined or as noncoal-mine ponds, and the number of ponds from each group containing water that exceeded a given criterion is noted. Water in many of the ponds can be used for public water supplies if other sources are not available. Water in most of these ponds exceeds one or more secondary standards, but meets all primary standards. Water samples from the epilimnion (shallow strata as determined by temperature) of six ponds exceeded one or more primary standards, which are criteria protective of human health. Water samples from five of eight Iron Post ponds exceeded the selenium criterion. Water samples from all 31 ponds exceeded one or more secondary standards, which are for the protection of human welfare. The criteria most often exceeded were iron, manganese, dissolved solids, and sulfate, which are secondary standards. The criteria for iron and manganese were exceeded more frequently in the noncoal-mine ponds, whereas ponds formed by strip mining were more likely to exceed the criteria for dissolved solids and sulfate. The ponds are marginally suited for aquatic life. Water samples from the epilimnion of 18 ponds exceeded criteria protective of aquatic life. The criteria for mercury and iron were exceeded most often. Little difference was detected between mine ponds and noncoal-mine ponds. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion (deepest strata) of all the ponds were less than the minimum

  14. 2101-M pond closure plan. Volume 1, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izatt, R. D.; Lerch, R. E.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment.

  15. Sediment remediation of the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, D.; Eby, M.; Jarvis, S.; Martin, P. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: danielle.angeloni@earthtech.ca

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' Low dissolved oxygen levels and large accumulated sediment remediation alternatives were examined to assemble the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge (HMP) into a healthier and more desirable recreational area in the City of Cambridge. The theory that a large amount of sediment has been deposited into the HMP from the Speed River upstream over a number of years predicts the depressed oxygen levels, high nutrient-loading rates and the odour problems in the summer months. The initial phase in the remediation plan for this project involved extensive background research and investigation. The focus was on determining the characteristics of the sediment and the history of the pond, to ultimately decide if the sediment was the source of the issues. Dissolved oxygen field tests and sediment sampling were conducted to get information on the magnitude of the problem and the environmental hazards potentially present in the pond. The pond was modelled utilising the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag model to predict the oxygen deficit. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD{sub 5}) testing was completed to determine the oxygen demand in the pond. These tests were conducted by using water samples obtained from various sample points at the pond. The proposed solution is a combined dredging and aeration approach. Mechanical dredging using a clamshell bucket and the installation of aerators is expected to solve the dissolved oxygen and water quality issues. (author)

  16. New approach to solar photo-Fenton operation. Raceway ponds as tertiary treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carra, Irene; Santos-Juanes, Lucas [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almería, 04120, Almería (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120, Almería (Spain); Acién Fernández, Francisco Gabriel [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almería, 04120, Almería (Spain); Malato, Sixto [CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120, Almería (Spain); Plataforma Solar de Almería (CIEMAT), 04200, Tabernas, Almería (Spain); Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio, E-mail: jsanchez@ual.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almería, 04120, Almería (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120, Almería (Spain)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Raceway ponds are used for the first time as photo-Fenton reactors. • Raceway ponds are effective and have high treatment capacity (48 mg/h m{sup 2} for 360 L). • The highest treatment capacity occurs with 5.5 mg Fe/L and 15 cm liquid depth. • Low iron concentrations are enough to oxidise the pesticide mixture. • Raceway ponds are a simple and low-cost alternative for micropollutant removal. - Abstract: The photo-Fenton process has proven its efficiency in the removal of micropollutants. However, the high costs usually associated with it prevent a spread of this technology. An important factor affecting costs is the kind of photoreactor used, usually tubular with a reflecting surface. Tubular reactors like compound parabolic collectors, CPCs, involve high capital costs. In comparison, the application of less costly reactors such as the extensive raceway ponds (RPRs) would help to spread the use of the photo-Fenton process as tertiary treatment at commercial scale. As far as the authors know, RPRs have never been used in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) applications. This work is aimed at studying the applicability of RPRs to remove micropollutants with solar photo-Fenton. For this purpose, a pesticide mixture of commercial acetamiprid (ACTM) and thiabendazole (TBZ) (100 μg/L each) was used in simulated secondary effluent. Iron concentration (1, 5.5 and 10 mg/L) and liquid depth (5, 10 and 15 cm) were studied as process variables. TBZ was removed at the beginning of the treatment (less than 5 min), although ACTM removal times were longer (20–40 min for the highest iron concentrations). High treatment capacity per surface area was obtained (48 mg/h m{sup 2} with 5.5 mg Fe/L and 15 cm liquid depth), proving the feasibility of using RPRs for micropollutant removal.

  17. Combined Process of Slope Constructed Wetland and Aquatic Plant Pond for Treatment of Aquaculture Wastewater%边坡人工湿地/水生植物塘集成技术处理水产养殖排水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀正; 章星异; 陈卫兵; 叶剑峰

    2011-01-01

    针对上海松江五厍农业园区水产养殖污染问题,提出以边坡人工湿地/水生植物塘集成技术进行处理.集成技术示范工程的实际运行结果表明:该技术对水产养殖污染物的削减行之有效,每年COD、TN、TP的减排强度分别达到896、35.2、10.9 kg/hm2,初步解决了园区水产养殖排水污染问题.同时,水生植物塘中生长的浮萍可以用作水产养殖饲料,符合现代水产养殖的发展趋势.%In order to solve the aquaculture pollution problem in Wushe agricultural park in Songjiang district of Shanghai, the combined process of slope constructed wetland and aquatic plant pond was proposed to treat the aquaculture wastewater. The actual operation results of the demonstration project show that the combined process can effectively reduce aquaculture pollutants. The annual reduction quantities of COD, TN and TP are 896 kg/hm2., 35. 2 kg/hm2 and 10. 9 kg/hm2 respectively. The aquaculture pollution problem is preliminarily solved. The duckweeds grown in the aquatic plant pond can be used as aquaculture feed, which is accord with the development trend of the modern aquiculture.

  18. Risks to Ecological Receptors Posed by Contaminants of Potential Concern in the Lower Three Runs Cooling Ponds and Canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blas, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-21

    The upper portion of Lower Three Runs includes several ponds, reservoirs, and canals that were formerly used as a cooling system for nuclear production reactors. This area was divided into nine exposure areas (EAs) for the assessment of environmental contamination resulting from past reactor operations and other industrial processes. A tiered screening process identified several contaminants of potential concern including aluminum, cyanide, lead, manganese, mercury, DDD, DDE, and DDT. Risks posed by these contaminants to ecological receptors (river otter, belted kingfisher, raccoon, and blue heron) were assessed using contaminant exposure models that estimated contaminant intake resulting from ingestion of food, water, and sediment/ soil and compared these intakes with toxicity reference values (TRVs). The contaminant exposure models showed that the TRVs were not exceeded in the otter model, exceeded by aluminum in EA 7 (Pond 2 and associated canals) in the raccoon model, and exceeded by mercury in EAs 2, 3 (Pond B), 6 (Par Pond), and 8 (Ponds 4 and 5 and Canal to Pond C) in both the kingfisher and blue heron models. Hazard quotients (total exposure dose divided by the TRV) were 2.8 for aluminum and 1.7- 3.6 for mercury. The primary route of exposure for aluminum was the ingestion of soil, and the primary route of exposure for mercury was the ingestion of mercury contaminated fish. Elevated levels of mercury in fish were at least partly the result of the aerial deposition of mercury onto Lower Three Runs and its watershed. The atmospheric deposition of mercury creates pervasive contamination in fish throughout the Savannah River basin. Another possible source of mercury was the discharge of mercury contaminated Savannah River water into the Lower Three Runs cooling ponds and canals during previous years of reactor operation. This contamination originated from industries located upstream of the SRS. The aluminum exceedance for the raccoon was likely the result of

  19. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  20. Vegetation succession process induced by reforestation in erosion areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feixin WANG; Zhaoyin WANG; Zhengming YANG; Xining JI

    2008-01-01

    Reforestation is one of the most important and efficient measures of water and soil conservation. Based on field investigations in the Shangyang Soil Conservation and Reforestation Station in Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, we studied the variation in vegetation development, vegetation succession processes and soil erosion. The regional vegetation consists mainly of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests (MEBF). The area was deforested and became a denuded hill area with extremely high soil erosion in the 1960s and 1970s. Then, the area was closed in order to allow recovery of the vegetation. Under natural condi-tions the vegetation development and succession processes were slow during which soil erosion and strong sunshine and evaporation slowed down the development of the vegetation. About 25 years later, the vegetation cover was still merely 35% or so. The dominant vegetation types were heliophilous herbage and shrubs which formed a poorly developed shrub-herbage community and erosion remained high. In contrast, reforestation with selected tree species dramatically speeded up the vegetation succession process. About 12 years after reforestation, vegetation cover of the Acacia auriculiformis plantations in the Shangyang Station was 90% and erosion was under control. After 23 years, understory vegetation, consisting of indigenous species, had developed in the plantations. The planted trees and naturally developing herbage, shrubs, bamboo, local trees and liana formed a complex vegetation community in three layers. It will take 60 years for the vegetation to succeed from bare land to a secondary growth forest under natural conditions. Reforestation may speed up the vegetation suc-cession process. The time may be reduced to 20 years. Reforestation is the most effective measure of vegetation restoration and erosion control in this area.

  1. Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerlage, Annette S; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Verreth, Johan A; de Jong, Mart C M

    2013-03-01

    In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-load due to the immediate bordering land, and this might provide implications for control of these trematodes or sampling in field studies measuring FZT prevalence in snails. We therefore estimated the effect of bordering land use on prevalence and FZT burden in snails in different areas within small-scale aquaculture ponds. Nine sampling areas within a pond were assigned in six ponds. For each sampling area, about 120 Melanoides tuberculata snails were collected. Based on land use bordering a sampling area, these were categorized in 5 risk-categories: low-risk (road, rice planted in pond, agriculture, or middle of pond), human access point to pond, livestock sty (pigs or poultry), both human access point and livestock sty, and water connection to canal. In total, 5392 snails were collected. Percentages of snails with parapleurolophocercous cercariae varied between 6% in areas categorized as low-risk and areas with livestock sty only to 15% in areas with both human access point and livestock sty; only this 15% was significantly different from the prevalence in the low-risk category. Percentages of snails with xiphidio cercariae did not differ between risk-categories and varied between 5% and 10%. Mean snail size was 15.2mm, and was significantly associated with both the probability of infection as well as parasite burden. Very small differences in parasite burden were found at different land use areas; the maximum difference was about 11 cercariae. This study demonstrated only small differences between areas surrounding a pond on risk of snails to be infected with fish-borne trematodes within different pond areas. In field studies on FZTs in M. tuberculata snails in ponds

  2. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Liu

    Full Text Available Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These

  3. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  4. Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-lo

  5. Blogging from North Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  6. High rates of methane emissions from south taiga wetland ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Maksyutov, S.

    2012-04-01

    (Casper et al., 2000). Annual CH4 emission from West Siberia south taiga ponds with area of 0.6·106 Mha was estimated to be 0.26 MtCH4·yr-1.

  7. A witness to history : the reclamation of Suncor's Pond 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisner, M.

    2010-09-15

    This article described the reclamation of Suncor Energy's very first oil sands tailings pond at Fort McMurray. What had been a tailings pond for the past 43 years years in now inhabited by animals and hundreds of thousands of trees and shrubs. Covering 220 hectares adjacent to the Athabasca River, Suncor's Pond 1 was part of the first commercial-scale oil sands operation in Canada. After decades in operation, the pond is being closed in a highly regulated environment with a considerable knowledge base of reclamation techniques, well-defined reclamation goals and clear land use targets. The initial design of the Pond 1 tailings storage facility consisted of a 12-metre high retention dyke built over Tar Island. Suncor adopted a 3-phase approach to accelerate reclamation activities. In phase 1, the northern half of the pond began receiving reclamation material in 2007. In phase 2, the southern half of the pond continued to receive tailings while the phase 1 area underwent surface reclamation. Phase 3 consisted of a small area of soft tailings that was mechanically stabilized using geo-grid and tailings sand, and was the last area to undergo surface reclamation. Once the water and fine tailings had been removed, the pond was filled with 30 million tonnes of clean sand in 2009. Topsoil was then placed on the pond so that trees and shrubs could be planted. A series of on-site monitoring systems will allow Suncor to track the site. The total cost of the project was within expectations. In January 2010, Suncor began work in on the 440 hectare Pond 5 which was decommissioned in November 2009. To date, coke roadways have been established on Pond 5 to enable dewatering activities using wick drains. 2 figs.

  8. The influence of geomorphology on the composition of aquatic flora and fauna withim a temporary pond network

    OpenAIRE

    Florencio, Margarita; Serrano Martín, Laura; Siljestrom, Patricia; Fernández Zamundio, María del Rocio; García Murillo, Pablo; Díaz Paniagua, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Geomorphological and hydrological features can provide a sound basis for global wetland classification. Temporary ponds located on the sandy area of Doñana can be classified into five different geomorphological areas. We hypothesised that these ponds would differ in soil characteristics, which may also explain differences in the composition of their macroinvertebrate, amphibian, and aquatic plant species assemblages. The study ponds were significantly segregated into southern and nor...

  9. Drilling, Sampling, and Well-Installation Plan for the IFC Well Field, 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2008-05-05

    The 300 Area was selected as a location for an IFC because it offers excellent opportunities for field research on the influence of mass-transfer processes on uranium in the vadose zone and groundwater. The 300 Area was the location of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities and has more than 100 waste sites. Two of these waste sites, the North and South Process Ponds received large volumes of process waste from 1943 to 1975 and are thought to represent a significant source of the groundwater uranium plume in the 300 Area. Geophysical surveys and other characterization efforts have led to selection of the South Process Pond for the IFC.

  10. Studies on the microbial sulphur cycle in acid ponds in the Niederlausitz mining region in Brandenburg; Untersuchungen zum mikrobiellen Schwefelkreislauf in sauren Tagebau-Restseen der Niederlausitz (Brandenburg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.

    2001-07-01

    The water quality of the acid ponds in the Niederlausitz brown coal mining region is characterised by pH values below 3 and high concentrations of dissolved iron (up to 10 mM) and sulphate (up to 30 mM). The development of these ponds is determined by the equilibrium that arises between acidifying and alkalinising processes. Acidity develops through weathering and oxidation of iron sulphides in the mining refuse, whereas alkalinity arises through the reduction of iron (III) and sulphate in the pond sediments, a process associated with the oxidation of organic matter. The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation on the neutralising potential of the sediments in acid ponds and to characterise and identify the microorganisms involved in these processes. Comparative explorations were performed in two acid waters, namely ponds 111 and 107, and in a neutral water, namely pond B, in a semi-natural area of the Niederlausitz region. [German] Die Wasserqualitaet der sauren Bergbau-Restseen im Braunkohlerevier der Niederlausitz ist durch pH-Werte unter pH 3 und hohe Konzentrationen an geloestem Eisen (bis zu 10 mM) und Sulfat (bis zu 30 mM) gekennzeichnet. Die Entwicklung der Restseen wird durch das Gleichgewicht von aziditaets- und alkalinitaetsbildenden Prozessen bestimmt. Aziditaet entsteht bei der Verwitterung bzw. der Oxidation der Eisensulfide im Kippmassiv, waehrend Alkalinitaet bei der an die Oxidation organischer Substanz gekoppelte Reduktion von Eisen(III) und Sulfat in den Sedimenten der Seen gebildet wird. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Einfluss der Sulfratreduktion und der Schwefeloxidation auf das Neutralisierungspotenzial der Sedimente der sauren Restseen untersucht sowie die an diesen Prozessen beteiligten Mikroorganismen charakterisiert und identifiziert. Vergleichende Untersuchungen wurden in zwei sauren, Restsee 111 und 107, und in einem neutralen Gewaesser, Restsee B, im naturnahen Bereich

  11. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  12. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  13. Sample investigation and evaluation of the water quality in aquaculture ponds around the basic farmland protection areas in Foshan city%佛山市基本农田保护区养殖鱼塘水质抽样调查与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关共凑; 陆冠尧; 梁慧怡

    2015-01-01

    对佛山市5区的基本农田保护区养殖鱼塘水质抽样调查,并采用环境污染指数对水质状况进行评价。结果表明,养殖鱼塘水温和pH值均能达到鱼类正常生长要求,溶解氧较丰富,但水质普遍过肥。在5区20个调查点中,CODCr、NH4+-N和TP超标率分别为90%、30%、85%。5区养殖鱼塘水质的污染程度由高到低依次为禅城区、南海区、三水区、顺德区、高明区。全市养殖鱼塘的综合质量指数为1.44,水质整体上受到重度污染。TP的污染负荷分担率最高,其次是CODCr和NH4+-N。总体来说,佛山市基本农田保护区养殖鱼塘水体有机物污染十分突出,已出现富营养化。%To investigate the water quality of sampling in aquaculture ponds around the basic farmland protection areas in the five districts of Foshan city, and use the environmental pollution index to evaluate the condition of water quality. The results indicated that water temperature and pH of aquaculture ponds cound meet the requirements of fish normal growth,and dissolved oxygen was rich, but the water quality was over fertilized generally. In 20 investigation spots of the five districts, the content of CODCr, NH4+-N and TP exceeded 90 , 30 and 5 respectively. The pollution degrees of the water quality from high to low in aquaculture ponds were Chancheng district、Nanhai district、 Sanshui district、 Shunde district、 Gaoming district. The comprehensive quality index of aquaculture ponds was 1.44 in Foshan city, the water quality was polluted severly as a whole. The share rate of pollution load of TP was the highest, the second were CODCr and NH4+-N. On the whole, the pollution of organic matter was very prominent in the water quality of aquaculture ponds around the basic farmland protection areas in Foshan city that had been eutrophicated.

  14. Sustainable aquaculture in ponds: Principles, practices and limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The global aquaculture production of crustaceans, shellfish and fish has to increase to satisfy the growing demand and also to compensate for the reduced capture from overexploited fisheries. Extending the area of brackish and fresh water ponds is constrained by the limited availability of land and

  15. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  16. Polymodal information processing via temporal cortex Area 37 modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-04-01

    A model of biological information processing is presented that consists of auditory and visual subsystems linked to temporal cortex and limbic processing. An biologically based algorithm is presented for the fusing of information sources of fundamentally different modalities. Proof of this concept is outlined by a system which combines auditory input (musical sequences) and visual input (illustrations such as paintings) via a model of cortex processing for Area 37 of the temporal cortex. The training data can be used to construct a connectionist model whose biological relevance is suspect yet is still useful and a biologically based model which achieves the same input to output map through biologically relevant means. The constructed models are able to create from a set of auditory and visual clues a combined musical/ illustration output which shares many of the properties of the original training data. These algorithms are not dependent on these particular auditory/ visual modalities and hence are of general use in the intelligent computation of outputs that require sensor fusion.

  17. Nitrogen Removal in Wastewater Ponds,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    by convection to the interaction between the algae and the CO,/ and radiation. Eckenfelder ’ developed the follow- alkalinity system in the pond. If...Pollu- 4. Eckenfelder , W.W. (1966) Industrial Water tion Control Federation, 54(4): 344. Pollution Control. New York: McGraw-Hill. 19. Porcella, D.B., P.H

  18. Arctic melt ponds and energy balance in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Elements of Earth's cryosphere, such as the summer Arctic sea ice pack, are melting at precipitous rates that have far outpaced the projections of large scale climate models. Understanding key processes, such as the evolution of melt ponds that form atop Arctic sea ice and control its optical properties, is crucial to improving climate projections. These types of critical phenomena in the cryosphere are of increasing interest as the climate system warms, and are crucial for predicting its stability. In this paper, we consider how geometrical properties of melt ponds can influence ice-albedo feedback and how it can influence the equilibria in the energy balance of the planet.

  19. Impact of pond aquaculture effluents on seagrass performance in NE Hainan, tropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Lucia S; Sollich, Miriam; Unger, Daniela; Holmer, Marianne; Jennerjahn, Tim C

    2014-08-15

    The impact of pond aquaculture effluents on the distribution and performance of seagrasses was examined in NE Hainan, tropical China. Samples were taken along transects in three back-reef areas with different extent of aquaculture production in their hinterland. High δ(15)N in seagrass leaves and epiphytes (6-9‰) similar to values in pond effluents documented aquaculture as dominant nitrogen source in the back-reefs with decreasing impact with distance from shore. Seagrass species abundance, shoot density and biomass were lower and concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll and suspended matter were higher at nearshore sites with high and moderate pond abundance than at the control site. High epiphyte loads and low δ(34)S in seagrass leaves suggest temporal shading and sulphide poisoning of the nearshore seagrasses. Observed gradients in environmental parameters and seagrass performance indicate that the distance from the pond outlets and size of the adjacent pond agglomeration are major determinants of seagrass degradation.

  20. Massive subsurface ice formed by refreezing of ice-shelf melt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bryn; Luckman, Adrian; Ashmore, David W.; Bevan, Suzanne; Kulessa, Bernd; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Philippe, Morgane; Jansen, Daniela; Booth, Adam; Sevestre, Heidi; Tison, Jean-Louis; O'Leary, Martin; Rutt, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Surface melt ponds form intermittently on several Antarctic ice shelves. Although implicated in ice-shelf break up, the consequences of such ponding for ice formation and ice-shelf structure have not been evaluated. Here we report the discovery of a massive subsurface ice layer, at least 16 km across, several kilometres long and tens of metres deep, located in an area of intense melting and intermittent ponding on Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica. We combine borehole optical televiewer logging and radar measurements with remote sensing and firn modelling to investigate the layer, found to be ~10 °C warmer and ~170 kg m-3 denser than anticipated in the absence of ponding and hitherto used in models of ice-shelf fracture and flow. Surface ponding and ice layers such as the one we report are likely to form on a wider range of Antarctic ice shelves in response to climatic warming in forthcoming decades.

  1. Valuating Ecosystem Services of Urban Ponds - case study from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Nina

    2016-04-01

    A climate risk assessment for the city of Barisal was carried out by a consultancy firm, financed by KfW Development Bank of Germany. Due to high dependencies on natural capital of people in developing countries they are facing high vulnerability when it comes to changes of the asset category 'natural capital' (here: urban ponds), whether due to the exposition on climate (change) related impacts, implemented measures or land use change. With a closer view on the city's assets, the question remained open to the author 1) Under current conditions, what is the demand for ecosystem services (ES) 2) What is the value of the benefits and the how much is the contribution to the city's welfare? 3) What are the future changes in the demand for ES? And what are the future changes on the supply side (pressures and threats to the ecosystem)? Methodology: The City of Barisal in Bangladesh has a calculated number of around 10.000 urban rain-fed ponds,representing 6.5% of the city area, which represents a huge natural water supply and gives the city its characteristic face. In August 2015 a user survey was conducted in the city of Barisal, in every ward (administrative unit), to determine the demand for ecosystem services related to urban ponds, evaluating over 600 ponds. The findings will present the huge variation of provisioning ecosystem services and an important regulating service, related to economic and domestic use, in a spatial resolution. It will be shown, how the importance of ES changes, by changing the unit of analysis (families or ponds or the city) and the importance for the livelihood of pond owners and users. A relationship between pond area(m2) and number of users was detected, also the role of compensation payments for the pond owners by the users. It will be shown how natural capital, privately and publicly owned,contributes in an important way in buffering unequal distribution of societies resources in the short- and long-run. However society's demand for ES

  2. Pond Creek Coal Zone Remaining Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal zone resource areas and attributed with remaining resources (millions of...

  3. Pond Creek Coal Zone County Statistics (Chemistry) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal zone resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal quality...

  4. Pond Creek Coal Zone Original Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal zone resource areas and attributed with original resources (millions of...

  5. Pond Creek Coal Zone County Statistics (Geology) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on the thickness of the...

  6. Visibility from roads predict the distribution of invasive fishes in agricultural ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Kizuka

    Full Text Available Propagule pressure and habitat characteristics are important factors used to predict the distribution of invasive alien species. For species exhibiting strong propagule pressure because of human-mediated introduction of species, indicators of introduction potential must represent the behavioral characteristics of humans. This study examined 64 agricultural ponds to assess the visibility of ponds from surrounding roads and its value as a surrogate of propagule pressure to explain the presence and absence of two invasive fish species. A three-dimensional viewshed analysis using a geographic information system quantified the visual exposure of respective ponds to humans. Binary classification trees were developed as a function of their visibility from roads, as well as five environmental factors: river density, connectivity with upstream dam reservoirs, pond area, chlorophyll a concentration, and pond drainage. Traditional indicators of human-mediated introduction (road density and proportion of urban land-use area were alternatively included for comparison instead of visual exposure. The presence of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus was predicted by the ponds' higher visibility from roads and pond connection with upstream dam reservoirs. Results suggest that fish stocking into ponds and their dispersal from upstream sources facilitated species establishment. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides distribution was constrained by chlorophyll a concentration, suggesting their lower adaptability to various environments than that of Bluegill. Based on misclassifications from classification trees for Bluegill, pond visual exposure to roads showed greater predictive capability than traditional indicators of human-mediated introduction. Pond visibility is an effective predictor of invasive species distribution. Its wider use might improve management and mitigate further invasion. The visual exposure of recipient ecosystems to humans is important for many

  7. “Technical Properties of Pond Ash - Clay Fired Bricks – An Experimental Study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant G. Sonawane

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the thermal power plants the coal is burnt to heat the water for making the steam, which in turn is used to run the turbines. The pond ash is a waste product from the boilers. It is mainly obtained from the wet disposal of the fly ash, which when get mixed with bottom ash is disposed off in large pond or dykes as slurry. The pond ash is being generated in an alarming rate. The generation of the pond ash is posing a lot of threat to environment and thus its sustainable management has become the thrust area in engineering research. As the pond ash is relatively coarse and the dissolvable alkalies present in it are washed with water, its pozzolanic reactivity becomes low and hence it is not preferred as part replacement of cement in concrete as in the case of fly ash. In this research work an attempt is made to find out the possibility of using pond ash in burnt clay bricks. The part of the clay is replaced by pond ash in different composition and the bricks are made in conventional method at a brick manufacturing plant. The bricks are fired in a traditional way as per usual practice in the area and the final products with different composition of pond ash are tested in laboratory; for tolerance in dimension, water absorption, compressive strength, initial rate of absorption and weathering. The results of all the tests on brick samples with different % of pond ash are compared with clay bricks and the effect on different characteristics of bricks due to addition of pond ash are studied.

  8. 75 FR 12988 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing; Technical Correction AGENCY: Environmental... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category (74 FR 63236). Following... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category on December 2, 2009...

  9. Conceptual design of the Truscott brine lake solar-pond system, volume 1: Utility-independent scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    A conceptual design was performed for a series of solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. In the chloride control project, briny waters are diverted so as not to pollute portable water. The diverted brine is stored in a dammed natural basin where, with the aid of natural evaporation, the brine is concentrated to the salinities required for the solar ponds. The brine is transferred to the ponds and injected at the proper levels to establish the gradients and storage layers. The solar ponds are to be located within the Truscott, Texas brine impoundment lake. Heat will be extracted from the ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle turbine generators. The electricity produced will serve the pumping needs of the chloride control project, pump brine from the natural source to the evaporation ponds, pump concentrated brine from the evaporation ponds to the solar ponds, maintain the solar ponds, and supply all system parasitic loads. It was found that five solar ponds with eight organic Rankine-cycle turbine-generators would serve both the average and peaking power requirements of the pumping stations in the Truscott area as they come on-line.

  10. Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Quick, N. (AppliCote Associates, LLC)

    2011-09-30

    Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is

  11. Monitoring of Soil Remediation Process in the Metal Mining Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Han, Hyeop-jo; Lee, Sang-Ho; Na, So-Young

    2016-04-01

    Stabilization using proper additives is an effective soil remediation technique to reduce As mobility in soil. Several researches have reported that Fe-containing materials such as amorphous Fe-oxides, goethite and hematite were effective in As immobilization and therefore acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) may be potential material for As immobilization. The AMDS is the by-product from electrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage and mainly contains Fe-oxide. The Chungyang area in Korea is located in the vicinity of the huge abandoned Au-Ag Gubong mine which was closed in the 1970s. Large amounts of mine tailings have been remained without proper treatment and the mobilization of mine tailings can be manly occurred during the summer heavy rainfall season. Soil contamination from this mobilization may become an urgent issue because it can cause the contamination of groundwater and crop plants in sequence. In order to reduce the mobilization of the mine tailings, the pilot scale study of in-situ stabilization using AMDS was applied after the batch and column experiments in the lab. For the monitoring of stabilization process, we used to determine the As concentration in crop plants grown on the field site but it is not easily applicable because of time and cost. Therefore, we may need simple monitoring technique to measure the mobility or leachability which can be comparable with As concentration in crop plants. We compared several extraction methods to suggest the representative single extraction method for the monitoring of soil stabilization efficiency. Several selected extraction methods were examined and Mehlich 3 extraction method using the mixture of NH4F, EDTA, NH4NO3, CH3COOH and HNO3 was selected as the best predictor of the leachability or mobility of As in the soil remediation process.

  12. An Object-Based Workflow Developed to Extract Aquaculture Ponds from Airborne LIDAR Data: a Test Case in Central Visayas, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loberternos, R. A.; Porpetcho, W. P.; Graciosa, J. C. A.; Violanda, R. R.; Diola, A. G.; Dy, D. T.; Otadoy, R. E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional remote sensing approach for mapping aquaculture ponds typically involves the use of aerial photography and high resolution images. The current study demonstrates the use of object-based image processing and analyses of LiDAR-data-generated derivative images with 1-meter resolution, namely: CHM (canopy height model) layer, DSM (digital surface model) layer, DTM (digital terrain model) layer, Hillshade layer, Intensity layer, NumRet (number of returns) layer, and Slope layer. A Canny edge detection algorithm was also performed on the Hillshade layer in order to create a new image (Canny layer) with more defined edges. These derivative images were then used as input layers to perform a multi-resolution segmentation algorithm best fit to delineate the aquaculture ponds. In order to extract the aquaculture pond feature, three major classes were identified for classification, including land, vegetation and water. Classification was first performed by using assign class algorithm to classify Flat Surfaces to segments with mean Slope values of 10 or lower. Out of these Flat Surfaces, assign class algorithm was then performed to determine Water feature by using a threshold value of 63.5. The segments identified as Water were then merged together to form larger bodies of water which comprises the aquaculture ponds. The present study shows that LiDAR data coupled with object-based classification can be an effective approach for mapping coastal aquaculture ponds. The workflow currently presented can be used as a model to map other areas in the Philippines where aquaculture ponds exist.

  13. Perched Lava Pond Complex on South Rift of Axial Volcano Revealed in AUV Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    -like structures and jumbled sheet flows on the floors suggest the eruption was on-going when the ponds emptied. 14C-dating of foraminifera from basal sediments on the pond floors gives a minimum age for the ponds of ~1500 years, which is older than any of the surface flows in Axial's summit caldera. Limu o Pele was abundant. Glass contents of the recovered lavas are 7.6 to 8.0 wt% MgO with few exceptions, and other than being plagioclase-phyric, the chemistry is similar to the majority of lavas at the summit. Lava samples from the floors of several ponds have a few tenths of a weight percent lower MgO than the nearby levees, suggesting the pond's molten interior or resupplied lavas had some time to cool. The varying levee rim heights and abundance of ponds in the vicinity suggest this type of activity occurred many times in this area, but it is an unusual eruption style for mid-ocean ridges. Another lava pond complex with even higher levees occurs on the north rift of Axial Volcano. Formation of these ponds requires long-lived, steady, moderate-eruption-rate lava effusion on nearly horizontal seafloor and may occur only on deep distal rift zones of central volcanoes.

  14. [Research of controlling condition for aeration stabilization pond dealing with sanitary waste of countryside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zheng; Yao, Shu-Jun; Xu, Zu-Xin; Chen, Wei-Bing

    2012-10-01

    According to research of some problems, such as the hydraulic detention time that aeration stabilization pond deals with sanitary waste of countryside, dissolved oxygen in pond during the process of aeration, the concentration distribution of sludge and different aeration periods affecting on the treatment efficiency, we can acquire good treatment efficiency and energy consumption of economy. The results indicate that under the aeration stabilization pond of this experiment, 4 d is the best hydraulic detention time with this aeration stabilization pond. Time of the discontinuous running aeration should be greater than 15 min. The concentration distribution of sludge can reach equilibrium at each point of aeration stabilization pond between 2 min and 10 min. The best aeration period of dislodging the pollutant is 0.5 h aeration/1.0 h cut-off.

  15. REMOVAL OF HELMINTH PARASITIC EGGS FROM WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS AT SHIMOGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SHANTHALA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth ova removal rates from waste stabilization pond effluents under tropical conditions ofShimoga using both laboratory and field modal ponds was undertaken. The helminthes were removedto the tune of 100% from laboratory model batch system ponds within 15 days of detention timeand it was only 65% in case of laboratory model continuos flow system ponds. The observation infield model ponds revealed an average 90% removal with 10 days retention time. A 100% removalcan not be expected both in continuous flow system laboratory model and field pond systems asthese receive daily fresh load of helminth eggs through influent sewage. The helminth ova are usallyremoved from waste stabilization ponds systems through sedimentation process. It is because thehelminth eggs attached to the suspended solids and when these solids settle to the bottom, the eggsare also removed from pelagic water. In the present study eggs of 4 helminth species viz. Ascarislumbricoides, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis wereencountered. Their rate of ova removal in batch system ponds was 99%, 97.4%, 94.9% and 98.8%for respective species. Presence of these ova in the sewage water indicates the prevalence of infectionin city population.

  16. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo.

  17. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  18. Thermal evolutions of two kinds of melt pond with different salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hong; Wilkinson, Jeremy; Moon, Woosok; Hwang, Byongjun; Granskog, Mats

    2016-04-01

    Melt ponds are water pools on sea ice. Their formation reduces ice surface albedo and alter surface energy balance, by which the ice melting and freezing processes are regulated. Thus, better understanding of their radiative characteristics has been vital to improve the simulation of melting/freezing of sea ice in numerical models. A melt pond would preserve nearly fresh water if it formed on multi-year ice and no flooding of sea water occurred, whereas a melt pond would contain more salty water if it formed on thinner and porous first-year ice, if there were an inflow of sea water by streams or cracks. One would expect that the fluid dynamic/thermodynamic properties (e.g., turbulence, stability, etc.) of pond water are influenced by the salinity, so that the response of pond water to any heat input (e.g., shortwave radiation) would be different. Therefore, better understanding of the salinity-dependent thermal evolution also has significant potential to improve the numerical simulation of the sea ice melting/freezing response to radiative thermal forcing. To observe and understand the salinity-dependent thermal evolution, two ice mass balance buoys (IMBs) were deployed in two kinds (fresh and salty) of melt pond on a same ice floe on 13 August 2015 during Araon Arctic cruise. The thermistor chain, extending from the air through the pond and ice into the sea water, was deployed through a drilled borehole inside the pond. Besides, the IMBs were also accompanied with three broadband solar radiation sensors (two (up and down) in the air over melt pond and one upward-looking under sea ice) to measure the net shortwave radiation at the pond surface and the penetrating solar radiation through ice. Also, the web camera was installed to observe any updates in the conditions of equipment and surrounding environment (e.g., weather, surface state, etc.). On the date of deployment, the fresh pond had salinity of 2.3 psu, light blue color, lots of slush ice particles which

  19. Zinc Regime in the Sewage Sludge-Soil-Plant System of a City Waste Water Treatment Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatusu Radu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of Iasi, a city with 300,000 inhabitants, for domestic and industrial origin, was stored in a mud pond arranged on an area of 18,920 m2. Chemical analyzes of the sludge showed that, of all the chemical elements determined, only Zn is found at pollutant level (5739 mg∙kg-1, i.e. almost 30 times more than the maximum allowable limit for Zn in soil and 45 times more than the Zn content of the soil on which the mud pond has been set. Over time, the content of Zn in the mud pond, but also from soil to which it has been placed, has become upper the normal content of the surrounding soil up to a depth of 260 cm. On the other hand, the vegetation installed on sewage sludge in the process of mineralization, composed predominantly of Phragmites, Rumex, Chenopodium, and Aster species had accumulated in roots, stems and leaves Zn quantities equivalent to 1463 mg Kg-1, 3988 mg Kg-1, 1463 mg Kg-1, respectively, 1120 mg∙Kg-1. The plants in question represents the natural means of phytoremediation, and sewage sludge as such may constitute a fertilizer material for soils in the area, on which Zn deficiency in maize has been recorded. In addition, the ash resulted from the incineration of plants loaded with zinc may constitute, in its turn, a good material for fertilizing of the soils that are deficient in zinc.

  20. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  1. Balancing the Ecological Function of Residential Stormwater Ponds with Homeowner Landscaping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Hu, Shangchun; Hansen, Gail; Ott, Emily; Nealis, Charles; Morera, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Stormwater ponds are installed in urban developments to provide the ecosystem services of flood control and water treatment. In coastal areas, these ponds are connected to watersheds that can drain directly into protected estuaries, making their design, function, and maintenance critical to environmental protection. However, stormwater ponds in residential areas are increasingly managed as aesthetic amenities that add value to real estate rather than as engineered devices with special maintenance requirements. To help extend the life of neighborhood stormwater systems and improve ecosystem services, homeowners should follow best management practices for nutrient management and add shoreline plantings and non-invasive, beneficial aquatic plants to their ponds. This study used focus group and survey research to document the knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes of homeowners living near stormwater ponds in a master-planned community in Florida. The study was designed to use a social marketing research approach to promote Extension best practices. Findings indicate that many residents were aware of the functional components of stormwater systems and respondents' receptivity to best management practices was mediated by age, their attitudes about water quality and whether their home was adjacent to a pond. These findings can be used to target Extension audiences and improve adoption of stormwater pond best management practices for increased protection of water quality.

  2. Amphibian dynamics in constructed ponds on a wildlife refuge: developing expected responses to hydrological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.

    2017-01-01

    Management actions are based upon predictable responses. To form expected responses to restoration actions, I estimated habitat relationships and trends (2002–2015) for four pond-breeding amphibians on a wildlife refuge (Montana, USA) where changes to restore historical hydrology to the system greatly expanded (≥8 times) the flooded area of the primary breeding site for western toads (Anaxyrus boreas). Additional restoration actions are planned for the near future, including removing ponds that provide amphibian habitat. Multi-season occupancy models based on data from 15 ponds sampled during 7 years revealed that the number of breeding subpopulations increased modestly for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and was stationary for long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Pacific treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla). For these three species, pond depth was the characteristic that was associated most frequently with occupancy or changes in colonization and extinction. In contrast, a large decrease in colonization by western toads explained the decline from eight occupied ponds in 2002 to two ponds in 2015. This decline occurred despite an increase in wetland area and the colonization of a newly created pond. These changes highlight the challenges of managing for multiple species and how management responses can be unpredictable, possibly reducing the efficacy of targeted actions.

  3. Why does Amphibian Chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) not occur everywhere? An exploratory study in Missouri ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Alex; Smith, Kevin G

    2013-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a globally emerging pathogen that has caused widespread amphibian population declines, extirpations, and extinctions. However, Bd does not occur in all apparently suitable amphibian populations, even within regions where it is widespread, and it is often unclear why Bd occurs in some habitats but not others. In this study, we rigorously surveyed the amphibian and invertebrate biodiversity of 29 ponds in Missouri, screened resident amphibian larvae (Rana (Lithobates) sp.) for Bd infection, and characterized the aquatic physiochemical environment of each pond (temperature pH, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a). Our goal was to generate hypotheses toward answering the question, "Why does Bd not occur in all apparently suitable habitats?" Bd occurred in assayed amphibians in 11 of the 29 ponds in our study area (38% of ponds). We found no significant relationship between any single biotic or abiotic variable and presence of Bd. However, multivariate analyses (nonmetric multidimensional scaling and permutational tests of dispersion) revealed that ponds in which Bd occurred were a restricted subset of all ponds in terms of amphibian community structure, macroinvertebrate community structure, and pond physiochemistry. In other words, Bd ponds from 6 different conservation areas were more similar to each other than would be expected based on chance. The results of a structural equation model suggest that patterns in the occurrence of Bd among ponds are primarily attributable to variation in macroinvertebrate community structure. When combined with recent results showing that Bd can infect invertebrates as well as amphibians, we suggest that additional research should focus on the role played by non-amphibian biota in determining the presence, prevalence, and pathogenicity of Bd in amphibian populations.

  4. Why does Amphibian Chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis not occur everywhere? An exploratory study in Missouri ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Strauss

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is a globally emerging pathogen that has caused widespread amphibian population declines, extirpations, and extinctions. However, Bd does not occur in all apparently suitable amphibian populations, even within regions where it is widespread, and it is often unclear why Bd occurs in some habitats but not others. In this study, we rigorously surveyed the amphibian and invertebrate biodiversity of 29 ponds in Missouri, screened resident amphibian larvae (Rana (Lithobates sp. for Bd infection, and characterized the aquatic physiochemical environment of each pond (temperature pH, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a. Our goal was to generate hypotheses toward answering the question, "Why does Bd not occur in all apparently suitable habitats?" Bd occurred in assayed amphibians in 11 of the 29 ponds in our study area (38% of ponds. We found no significant relationship between any single biotic or abiotic variable and presence of Bd. However, multivariate analyses (nonmetric multidimensional scaling and permutational tests of dispersion revealed that ponds in which Bd occurred were a restricted subset of all ponds in terms of amphibian community structure, macroinvertebrate community structure, and pond physiochemistry. In other words, Bd ponds from 6 different conservation areas were more similar to each other than would be expected based on chance. The results of a structural equation model suggest that patterns in the occurrence of Bd among ponds are primarily attributable to variation in macroinvertebrate community structure. When combined with recent results showing that Bd can infect invertebrates as well as amphibians, we suggest that additional research should focus on the role played by non-amphibian biota in determining the presence, prevalence, and pathogenicity of Bd in amphibian populations.

  5. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Angelini, Joseph Attilio [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  6. Inventory of vegetation and benthos in newly laid and natural ponds in Forsmark 2012; Inventering av vegetation och bottenfauna i nyanlagda och naturliga goelar i Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvarfordt, Susanne; Wallin, Anders; Borgiel, Micke [Sveriges Vattenekologer AB, Vingaaker (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    SKB plans to build a repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The repository is planned to be built in Forsmark and constitutes installations above and below ground. The building and operation of the construction will involve activities that might affect the nature in the area. The impact means, among other things, that a small water body, which today is a reproduction site for the red listed pool frog (Rana lessonae), will disappear. The lost locality for the pool frog has been compensated by creating four new ponds in the Forsmark area. This study is part of the follow-up of these new habitats. The aim is to describe the plant and animal communities in the ponds, and follow the succession, i.e. the development of the habitats. The study also includes two natural ponds that will serve as reference objects. The survey of vegetation and invertebrate fauna in the ponds was conducted in October 2012. The results show that the new ponds had low coverage of submersed vegetation and the species composition in the plant communities differed between the ponds. The reference ponds also had different plant communities, both in terms of species composition and coverage. This indicates that the species composition of the plant communities in the new ponds will likely depend on physical factors specific to the respective pond, but that higher vegetation coverage can be expected over time in all new ponds. The reference ponds had similar animal communities that differed from the animal communities in the new ponds. The similar species composition in the reference ponds, despite the variety of plant communities, suggests that similar animal communities are likely to develop in the new ponds, even if the plant communities continues to be different. Water chemical sampling has also been conducted in the ponds during 2012. A comparison of the inorganic environment (with regard to analysed ions) showed that the reference ponds had relatively similar ion compositions with little

  7. NASA Ames DEVELOP Interns Collaborate with the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project to Monitor and Study Restoration Efforts using NASA's Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Kuss, Amber Jean; Nguyen, Andrew; Schmidt, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    In the past, natural tidal marshes in the south bay were segmented by levees and converted into ponds for use in salt production. In an effort to provide habitat for migratory birds and other native plants and animals, as well as to rebuild natural capital, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (SBSPRP) is focused on restoring a portion of the over 15,000 acres of wetlands in California's South San Francisco Bay. The process of restoration begins when a levee is breached; the bay water and sediment flow into the ponds and eventually restore natural tidal marshes. Since the spring of 2010 the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) DEVELOP student internship program has collaborated with the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (SBSPRP) to study the effects of these restoration efforts and to provide valuable information to assist in habitat management and ecological forecasting. All of the studies were based on remote sensing techniques -- NASA's area of expertise in the field of Earth Science, and used various analytical techniques such as predictive modeling, flora and fauna classification, and spectral detection, to name a few. Each study was conducted by a team of aspiring scientists as a part of the DEVELOP program at Ames.

  8. Mercury assessment of Brandy Pond T39 MD, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brandy Pond is a remote, shallow, pond in east‐central Maine. A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nest territory has existed on the pond since the mid-1960s....

  9. Transport of fecal-derived microorganisms from latrine ponds to aquifers in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, P. S.; McKay, L. D.; Layton, A.; Alam, M.; Williams, D.; Huq, M. R.; Mailloux, B. J.; Ferguson, A.; Feighery, J. E.; Culligan, P. J.; Escamilla, V.; Emch, M.; Akita, Y.; Serre, M. L.; Perfect, E.; Gentry, R. W.; Ahmed, K. M.; van Geen, A.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater has been the principal source of drinking water for over 100 million people in rural Bangladesh for the past twenty years. The shallow depths and simple construction of the private wells has raised concern that these wells may be receiving fecal contamination from the densely populated rural areas with poor sanitation, contributing to high rates of diarrheal disease. Ponds are ubiquitous in Bangladesh, serving multiple purposes, including receiving fecal effluent from latrines, and private wells are frequently located in close proximity to these potential groundwater contamination sources. After detecting E. coli in up to 70% of private and monitoring wells throughout a village in Araihazar, the numerous ponds throughout the village were hypothesized to be sources of this contamination. To test this hypothesis 9 lateral transects of 4 monitoring wells each, 7 m deep and placed 1 m apart, were installed radiating away from four ponds of contrasting ages and near surface geology. These transects were monitored throughout the year to look for evidence that the ponds were contributing E. coli to the groundwater system. During the dry season from September 2008 to May 2009 no E. coli was observed in the shallow monitoring wells. In contrast, when the rains began in June 2009 several of the transects showed increasing water levels and E. coli with proximity to the pond, providing evidence that some ponds were acting as a contamination point source. A major rainfall event was simulated in June 2009 in each of the four ponds, raising the water level by 20 to 30 cm while adjacent transects were monitored. In two recently dug, deep ponds E. coli travelled up to 6 m into the medium sand aquifer within 24 hours as a result of the simulated rainfall event. In the two older ponds, which had well developed silt layers on the bottom or were emplaced in silty aquifers little E. coli was detected in the adjacent monitoring wells under natural or forced gradient

  10. White Phosphorus Contamination of Salt Marsh Pond Sediments at Eagle River Flats, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    selected (Nudds was confined to the bottoms of the major water- and Bowlby 1984). Contaminated sediments prob- fowl feeding ponds, representing an area... Bowlby 1984). We ing duds and low-level redistribution by ducks also hypothesized that the source of these particles themselves when contaminated...the water of range of food items (Nudds and Bowlby 1984) or arctic ponds (Dodson and Egger 1980), also sug- gizzard material selected by ducks. The

  11. Epidemic Process over the Commute Network in a Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival. PMID:24905831

  12. Spatial effects on salinisation processes in a coastal wetland area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Eberhard, Julius; Stefan, Krause; Martin, Maier; Anett, Schibalski; Schaik Loes, van

    2016-04-01

    In this study we present the influence of environmental changes on a coastal area which is at risk of salinisation through the subsurface. The study site is located at the estuary of the river Ems at the German North Sea coast. 30 % of the pasture-dominated landscape is below sea level and requires permanent water management. The low permeable soils prevent a significant interaction with the salty perched aquifer. But through geological faults of old paleo-channels, a connection to the surface water body exists which considerably decreases water quality. Observations in those areas show a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. We expect that under climate change the area will be more affected by dry summer periods and wetter winter periods. To analyse the effect of climate change on the study site, we choose a bottom up strategy. We simulate the hydrological dynamics of the catchment with a spatially explicit model approach. The estimated soil moistures and hydraulic heads are used as boundary conditions in a second step to calculate the local effect on salinisation on the plot scale. Because of the complex geology only predictions for areas with known layering are performed. The models are calibrated and validated based on observations. Finally, the validated model setups are used to investigate different climate scenarios covering a temperature rise between 1 and 3.5 K with different meteorological and sea level time series. To take changes in land management into account, we develop different scenarios of landuse strategies to avoid inundation during winter and salinisation during summer. Therefore, different types of polder systems are investigated. One of the scenarios of landuse strategies assumes the technological level of management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level. The scenario technological level of the land management is able to prevent low lying areas from inundation. But during summer salinisation and during winter

  13. Bitumen recovery from surface mined oil sands recycle water ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.J.; Munoz, V.A.; Elliott, G. L. [Natural Resources Canada, CanmetENERGY, Devon, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In surface mined oil sands, high bitumen recovery can be achieved but tailings have accumulated over the years. Several technologies have been proposed for recovering bitumen from tailings, but because this bitumen carries high surfactant concentrations there have been processing problems. This paper presents the application of oxidized ore characterization and processing methods to process tailings pond bitumen. Laboratory tests were carried out to characterize bitumen samples coming from four different tailings sources and tests were run with caustic additive. Results showed that high caustic additions can be applied to surfactant rich tailings pond bitumen to avoid downstream froth treatment emulsion problems; the oxidation degree should be carefully monitored. This study demonstrated that the use of caustic additive, already used for oxidized ores, can be applied to treat the bitumen recovered from tailings streams.

  14. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Beristain, B.

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the

  15. Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation: Experience to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Bryson, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    The infamous "Sydney Tar Ponds" are well known as one of the largest toxic waste sites of Canada, due to almost 100 years of steelmaking in Sydney, a once beautiful and peaceful city located on the east side of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. This article begins with a contextual overview of the Tar Ponds issue including a brief introduction and…

  16. Pond of Illusion: Interacting through Mixed Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    to a large display in either of the real spaces by allowing them to feed virtual fish swimming in the pond. Figure 1(middle) shows how a Microsoft Kinect mounted on top of the display is used for detecting throw motions, which triggers virtual breadcrumbs to be thrown into the pond for feeding the nearby...

  17. Inlet Processes at Eel Pond, Falmouth, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    MA 02062 AGC Aero- Graphics Corp. Box 248, Bohemia, NY 11716 AMS Aero-Marine Surveys 38 Green Street, New London, CT 06320 AIT Air Image Technology...Transport (Example)0 Bagn old, R. A. , The Phys ics of Blown Sai d an d Dese rt Dun es, Methuen & Co., Ltd. , Lmndon, 1954.p 2/Zbgg, A. W., Whd Tunnel Studies

  18. 47 CFR 22.949 - Unserved area licensing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Zone. (a) Phase I. Phase I is a one-time process that provides an opportunity for eligible parties to... of part 1 of this chapter. After such procedures, the application of the winning bidder may...

  19. Temporal and spatial distributions of sediment mercury at salt pond wetland restoration sites, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Decommissioned agricultural salt ponds within south San Francisco Bay, California, are in the process of being converted to habitat for the benefit of wildlife as well as water management needs and recreation. Little is known of baseline levels of contaminants in these ponds, particularly mercury (Hg), which has a well established legacy in the Bay. In this study we described spatial and short-term temporal variations in sediment Hg species concentrations within and among the Alviso and Eden Landing salt ponds in the southern region of San Francisco Bay. We determined total Hg (Hgt) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the top 5 cm of sediment of most ponds in order to establish baseline conditions prior to restoration, sediment Hgt concentrations in a subset of these ponds after commencement of restoration, and variation in MeHg concentrations relative to sediment Hgt, pH, and total Fe concentrations and water depth and salinity in the subset of Alviso ponds. Inter-pond differences were greatest within the Alviso pond complex, where sediment Hgt concentrations averaged (arithmetic mean) 0.74 ??g/g pre and 1.03 ??g/g post-restoration activity compared to 0.11 ??g/g pre and post at Eden Landing ponds. Sediment Hgt levels at Alviso were fairly stable temporally and spatially, whereas MeHg levels were variable relative to restoration activities across time and space. Mean (arithmetic) sediment MeHg concentrations increased (2.58 to 3.03 ng/g) in Alviso and decreased (2.20 to 1.03 ng/g) in Eden Landing restoration ponds during the study. Differences in MeHg levels were related to water depth and pH, but these relationships were not consistent between years or among ponds and were viewed with caution. Factors affecting MeHg levels in these ponds (and in general) are highly complex and require in-depth study to understand.

  20. Monitoring and Modelling of Salinity Behaviour in Drinking Water Ponds in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A.; Williams, A.; Mathewson, E.; Rahman, A. K. M. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water in southern Bangladesh is provided by a variety of sources including constructed storage ponds, seasonal rainwater and, ubiquitously saline, shallow groundwater. The ponds, the communal reservoirs for harvested rainwater, also tend to be saline, some as high as 2 g/l. Drinking water salinity has several health impacts including high blood pressure associated major risk factor for several cardio-vascular diseases. Two representative drinking water ponds in Dacope Upazila of Khulna District in southwest Bangladesh were monitored over two years for rainfall, evaporation, pond and groundwater level, abstraction, and solute concentration, to better understand the controls on drinking water salinity. Water level monitoring at both ponds shows groundwater levels predominantly below the pond level throughout the year implying a downward gradient. The grain size analysis of the underlying sediments gives an estimated hydraulic conductivity of 3E-8 m/s allowing limited seepage loss. Water balance modelling indicates that the seepage has a relatively minor effect on the pond level and that the bulk of the losses come from the combination of evaporation and abstraction particularly in dry season when precipitation, the only inflow to the pond, is close to zero. Seasonal variation in salinity (electrical conductivities, EC, ranged between 1500 to 3000 μS/cm) has been observed, and are primarily due to dilution from rainfall and concentration from evaporation, except on one occasion when EC reached 16,000 μS/cm due to a breach in the pond levee. This event was analogous to the episodic inundation that occurs from tropical cyclone storm surges and appears to indicate that such events are important for explaining the widespread salinisation of surface water and shallow groundwater bodies in coastal areas. A variety of adaptations (either from practical protection measures) or novel alternative drinking sources (such as aquifer storage and recovery) can be applied

  1. 稳定塘处理污水的机理研究及应用研究进展%Mechanism, Application Status and Research Progress of Stabilization Pond for Treatment of Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 许静; 李晓东; 晁雷; 曾华; 赵晓光; 安乐

    2014-01-01

    system, advanced integrated pond system (AIPS), etc. Currently, stabilization pond system in wastewater treatment also has many shortages such as large area occupied, long hydraulic retention time, low efficiency, foul smell, treatment effect is influenced by climatic, etc. In future study of stabilization pond system, researchers should put activities of bacteria and algae as the main body, put migration of main nutrient elements C, N and P as clues, establish contacts with various of biological and chemical reactions in the system. By reducing depth of pond, mechanical agitation and dropping slope, etc to improve oxygen condition, by making precise dressing and separated combination of natural pond, it is more in line with structure of efficient reactor, thus it improve the rationality of the design of stabilization pond. People add artificial carrier to improve the concentration of microorganism in pond, so as to improve the organic load greatly and reduce area occupied. People use combination of sedimentation tank, intermittent sand filtration, gravel filter wall, microfiltration, flotation, land treatment, constructed wetland system, adding chemicals and other treatment processes or methods to remove algae in water, to improve environmental health conditions, to meet the different requirements of water quality. By these ways, we can provide a scientific basis for further improvement of domestic stabilization pond technology.%稳定塘污水处理系统具有基建投资和运转费用低、维护和维修简单、便于操作、能有效去除污水中的有机物、无需污泥处理等优点,近年来越来越受到人们的重视,其净化过程与自然水体的自净过程相似。本文总结了稳定塘中有机物、氮和磷的去除机理,有机物的去除一般包括沉淀和絮凝、厌氧微生物的作用、好氧微生物的作用、浮游生物的作用和水生植物的作用,氮在稳定塘内的去除,主要是通过生物同化吸收

  2. CRS SEISMIC PROCESSING OF A GEOLOGICAL COMPLEX AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Luis A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied the NMO and CRS (Common Reflector Surface approaches to a complex geological area in order to compare their performances for obtaining enhanced images. Unlike NMO, CRS does not depend on a previous time velocity model and uses a hyperbolic equation to estimate 2D travel times through three parameters (Normal ray emergence angle, NIP and N wavefront curvatures. To obtain the image a solution provided by coherence analysis algorithm was used.
    A low quality Colombian seismic line acquired in Middle Magdalena basin was used, where a foothill geological area is characterizedby a thrusting fault. The CRS provided an enhanced image which allowed a new geological interpretation that is best constrained with other regional observations.

  3. Predictions of Resuspension of Highway Detention Pond Deposits in Interrain Event Periods due to Wind-Induced Currents and Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical study of resuspension of deposits from highway detention ponds based on a previous experimental study. The resuspension process is evaluated in dry weather periods with baseflow/infiltration flow through the ponds only. The resuspension is caused by the bed-shear st...

  4. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  5. Large-Area Laser-Lift-Off Processing in Microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, R.; Pätzel, R.; Brune, J.

    Laser lift-off is an enabling technology for microelectronics growth markets such as light emitting diodes, densely packaged semiconductor devices, and flexible displays. For example, thin film transistor structures fabricated on top of polymer layers spun on glass carriers must be delaminated from rigid substrates to create lightweight and rugged flexible displays on polymers. Low-thermal-budget processes are generically required to protect adjacent functional films. Excimer lasers provide short UV wavelength and short pulse duration required for highly-localized energy coupling. The high output power of excimer lasers enables a large processing footprint and the high-throughput rates needed in mass manufacturing.

  6. Temperature Impact of Nitrogen Transformation in Technological System: Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland and Polishing Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszograj, Sylwia; Bydałek, Franciszek

    2016-12-01

    The article describes the results of the research, purpose of which was to evaluate influence of the temperature on the effectiveness of nitrification and denitrification in the sewage treatment system consisting of vertical flow constructed wetland and polishing pond. During the analysed period, the efficiency of removing total nitrogen was low and amounted to 12.7%. In the polishing pond in the summer period, content of total nitrogen in treated sewages was further decreased by nearly 50%. In the winter period, the polishing pond fulfilled mainly retention role and thus did not improve effectiveness of the whole system. Temperature coefficients, calculated on the basis of single first-order kinetics, for nitrification process in the filter bed (N-NH4+) and denitrification process in the polishing pond (N-NO3-) amounted to 1.039 and 1.089, respectively.

  7. A Technical Note on Fabrication and Thermal Performance Studies of a Solar Pond Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar pond has been fabricated to analyze the thermal behavior of it, in the climatic conditions of Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh. Sodium chloride (NaCl has been used to form a salt gradient for better performance, and a dark-colored (blackened rigid surface bottom with 1 mm irregularities has been considered for trapping the heat in a good amount. A solar pond with a surface area of 2.56 m2 and a depth of 1 m has been filled with salty water of various densities to form three salty water zones (upper convective, nonconvective, and heat storage. A few investigations have been carried out to evaluate the thermal efficiencies of three different zones of the solar pond. An attempt is also made to improve the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond.

  8. Preliminary result of a three dimensional numerical simulation of cloud formation over a cooling pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T.

    1978-01-01

    Cooling ponds receive large amounts of waste heat from industrial sources and release the heat to the atmosphere. These large area sources of warm and moist air may have significant inadvertent effects. This paper is a preliminary step in the development of a method for estimating the perturbations in the atmosphere produced by a cooling pond. A three-dimensional numerical model based on turbulence second-moment closure equations and Gaussian cloud relations has been developed. A simplified version of the model, in which only turbulent energy and length-scale equations are solved prognostically, is used. Numerical simulations are conducted using as boundary conditions the data from a cooling pond study conducted in northern Illinois during the winter of 1976-1977. Preliminary analyses of these simulations indicate that formation of clouds over a cooling pond is sensitive to the moisture content in the ambient atmosphere.

  9. Specificity of zooplankton distribution in meteorite crater ponds (Morasko, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuczyńska-Kippen N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to define the most important factors responsible for the zooplankton community structure inhabiting four meteorite crater ponds, located near the city of Poznań (Poland. The functioning of the meteorite craters resembled that of other small water bodies, where seasonality, physical-chemical features (mainly chlorophyll a concentration, pH and conductivity or biological parameters (lack of fish structured zooplankton assemblages. Rotifer species richness and abundance were highest in the autumn (12 species and 5107 ind L-1 on average, while crustaceans prevailed in the summer (12 and 201, respectively. The dominating structure also depended on the season, with pelagic species occurring in the spring and autumn and mainly littoral species in the summer. Moreover, the temporary nature of the craters caused great differentiation in zooplankton among ponds and favoured organisms adapted to living in astatic reservoirs, e.g. bdelloids, Daphnia pulex or Macrocyclops viridis. The co-occurrence of a variable community of small crustaceans with large daphnids indicated the existence of an additional ecological niche – a thick layer of sediments. Despite the occurrence of adverse living conditions (oxygen deficiencies and periodic drying and the eutrophic character of the waters, these ponds were a source of many rare species (e.g. Keratella paludosa, even in the status of dominants. Protective measures (a nature reserve allowed the area of meteorite fall to remain quite natural, despite its location close to an urban area.

  10. Application of a Method for Intelligent Multi-Criteria Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Tailing Ponds in Northern Kosovo and Metohija

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Milentijević; Blagoje Nedeljković; Milena Lekić; Zoran Nikić; Ivica Ristović; Jelena Djokić

    2016-01-01

    The technological process of exploitation of mineral resources and processing of mined ores to cater to the market results, among other things, in a large amount of tailings deposed on tailing ponds. Because of the chemical composition of the material, the increasing amount of waste, and the mismanagement of recovery and reclamation of ponds, these ponds have become a significant element of negative impact on the surrounding ecosystem. Economics was behind the discharging of this material, re...

  11. Photosynthesis and fish production in culture ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szyper, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The widely-cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, has been the major species used in standardized experiments by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PD/ACRSP). Yields of Nile Tilapia from fertilized, unfed ponds have served as a bioassay for effectiveness of pond management protocols developed during worldwide tropical experiments. Yield rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates near 10 T/ha/y can be achieved without feed inputs in ponds which maintain high standing stocks of phytoplankton and exhibit high rates of primary production. Fish production is related to daytime net photosynthetic production, but it is not clear whether production of food materials or oxygen is the more direct influence. Excessively high standing stocks of phytoplankton are not the best net producers, and increase and risk of nighttime oxygen depletion. Fish readily grow to individual sizes of 200-300 g/fish in fertilized ponds, which is sufficient market size in many locations. Supplemental feeding of caged or free-ranging fish greatly accelerates growth beyond 300 g and potentiates high areal yields; the PD/A CRSP has also developed efficient feeding regimes and shown that supplemental feeding need not begin before fish reach 200 g weight. High standing stocks of phytoplankton and high photosynthetic rates in eutrophic ponds make study of photosynthesis possible without radioisotopes. Such ponds also exhibit complete extinction of incident solar radiation within shallow depths, and vertical temperature structure resembling that of deeper bodies of water. These characteristics make ponds useful as microcosms for study of some aspects of photosynthesis in natural waters.

  12. Fate and Transport of 17β-estradiol Beneath Animal Waste Holding Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, L. A.; Tyner, J. S.; Hawkins, S. A.; Lee, J.; Buchanan, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Steroidal hormones, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), are prevalent in animal waste and are a common subject of study due to potential stream and groundwater contamination. These particular hormones are labeled as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) because of their developmental effects in reptiles and amphibians. Dairy waste at concentrated animal feeding operations is typically stored in a pond that is regulated by law to include an underlying soil liner with a minimal hydraulic conductivity to limit leaching beneath the pond, yet some studies have traced stream and groundwater contamination to these ponds. Previous studies have shown that the soil underlying earthen ponds are always unsaturated. This increases the pore water velocity relative to a given flux, which itself is dictated almost entirely by an organic seal that forms at the bottom of a waste pond. This increased velocity results in more rapid transport and less retention time within the vadose zone where E2 could biodegrade into its daughter product, estrone (E1). And since the soil is unsaturated and therefore has a negative pressure, preferential flow should not serve as a method of transport. On the contrary, E2 and E1 may sorb to mobile colloids increasing their mobility. This study will evaluate the use of biochar, an increasingly common activated carbon source, as a soil liner amendment. Biochar has a specific surface area that can exceed 1,500 m2/g and is high in organic matter, which E2 sorbs to strongly. The biochar amendment should be most effective and enduring as a layer located at the bottom of the soil liner so that the leachate has been treated by the soil prior to contact. Another proposed amendment technique is to uniformly mix the biochar within the soil liner to increase the leachate contact time with the biochar, but realistically could prove to be too costly and energy-intensive. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to analyze hormone persistence and transport processes and

  13. Utilization of SRS pond ash in controlled low strength material. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

    1995-12-01

    Design mixes for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) were developed which incorporate pond ashes (fly ashes) from the A-Area Ash Pile, the old F-Area Ash Basin and the D-Area Ash Basin. CLSM is a pumpable, flowable, excavatable backfill used in a variety of construction applications at SRS. Results indicate that CLSM which meets all of the SRS design specifications for backfill, can be made with the A-, D-, and F-Area pond ashes. Formulations for the design mixes are provided in this report. Use of the pond ashes may result in a cost savings for CLSM used at SRS and will utilize a by-product waste material, thereby decreasing the amount of material requiring disposal.

  14. Image processing and analysis using neural networks for optometry area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Antonio V.; Ferreira de Oliveira, Maria C.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we describe the framework of a functional system for processing and analyzing images of the human eye acquired by the Hartmann-Shack technique (HS), in order to extract information to formulate a diagnosis of eye refractive errors (astigmatism, hypermetropia and myopia). The analysis is to be carried out using an Artificial Intelligence system based on Neural Nets, Fuzzy Logic and Classifier Combination. The major goal is to establish the basis of a new technology to effectively measure ocular refractive errors that is based on methods alternative those adopted in current patented systems. Moreover, analysis of images acquired with the Hartmann-Shack technique may enable the extraction of additional information on the health of an eye under exam from the same image used to detect refraction errors.

  15. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Wh...

  16. Numerical prediction of algae cell mixing feature in raceway ponds using particle tracing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Haider; Cheema, Taqi A; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Do, Younghae; Park, Cheol W

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a novel technique, which involves numerical computation of the mixing length of algae particles in raceway ponds, was used to evaluate the mixing process. A value of mixing length that is higher than the maximum streamwise distance (MSD) of algae cells indicates that the cells experienced an adequate turbulent mixing in the pond. A coupling methodology was adapted to map the pulsating effects of a 2D paddle wheel on a 3D raceway pond in this study. The turbulent mixing was examined based on the computations of mixing length, residence time, and algae cell distribution in the pond. The results revealed that the use of particle tracing methodology is an improved approach to define the mixing phenomenon more effectively. Moreover, the algae cell distribution aided in identifying the degree of mixing in terms of mixing length and residence time.

  17. Experimental Analysis of Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger for Power Generation from Salinity Gradient Solar Pond Using Low-Grade Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Baharin, Nuraida `Aadilia; Remeli, Muhammad Fairuz; Oberoi, Amandeep; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2016-10-01

    Salinity gradient solar ponds act as an integrated thermal solar energy collector and storage system. The temperature difference between the upper convective zone and the lower convective zone of a salinity gradient solar pond can be in the range of 40-60°C. The temperature at the bottom of the pond can reach up to 90°C. Low-grade heat (solar ponds is currently converted into electricity by organic Rankine cycle engines. Thermoelectric generators can operate at very low temperature differences and can be a good candidate to replace organic Rankine cycle engines for power generation from salinity gradient solar ponds. The temperature difference in a solar pond can be used to power thermoelectric generators for electricity production. This paper presents an experimental investigation of a thermoelectric generators heat exchanger system designed to be powered by the hot water from the lower convective zone of a solar pond, and cold water from the upper convective zone of a solar pond. The results obtained have indicated significant prospects of such a system to generate power from low-grade heat for remote area power supply systems.

  18. Algal biofuels from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Heubeck, S; Lundquist, T J; Benemann, J R

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of algae biofuel production in conjunction with wastewater treatment. Current technology for algal wastewater treatment uses facultative ponds, however, these ponds have low productivity (∼10 tonnes/ha.y), are not amenable to cultivating single algal species, require chemical flocculation or other expensive processes for algal harvest, and do not provide consistent nutrient removal. Shallow, paddlewheel-mixed high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) have much higher productivities (∼30 tonnes/ha.y) and promote bioflocculation settling which may provide low-cost algal harvest. Moreover, HRAP algae are carbon-limited and daytime addition of CO(2) has, under suitable climatic conditions, the potential to double production (to ∼60 tonnes/ha.y), improve bioflocculation algal harvest, and enhance wastewater nutrient removal. Algae biofuels (e.g. biogas, ethanol, biodiesel and crude bio-oil), could be produced from the algae harvested from wastewater HRAPs, The wastewater treatment function would cover the capital and operation costs of algal production, with biofuel and recovered nutrient fertilizer being by-products. Greenhouse gas abatement results from both the production of the biofuels and the savings in energy consumption compared to electromechanical treatment processes. However, to achieve these benefits, further research is required, particularly the large-scale demonstration of wastewater treatment HRAP algal production and harvest.

  19. Can Environmental Education Actions Change Public Attitudes? An Example Using the Pond Habitat and Associated Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Sousa

    Full Text Available Ponds provide vital ecological services. They are biodiversity hotspots and important breading sites for rare and endangered species, including amphibians and dragonflies. Nevertheless, their number is decreasing due to habitat degradation caused by human activities. The "Ponds with Life" environmental education project was developed to raise public awareness and engagement in the study of ponds by promoting the direct contact between the public and nature, researchers and pedagogical hands-on exploration activities. A pre-post- project survey was set-up to assess the effects of the project on the environmental consciousness, knowledge and attitude changes towards ponds and the associated biodiversity of school students aged 15 to 18. The survey questions were based on Likert scales and their pre-post project comparisons used an innovative multivariate hypothesis testing approach. The results showed that the project improved the students' knowledge and attitudes towards ponds and associated biodiversity, especially the amphibians. Ponds can be found or constructed in urban areas and despite small sized, they proved to be interesting model habitats and living laboratories to foster environmental education, by encompassing a high number of species and a fast ecological succession.

  20. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  1. Status report on Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a life history of the pond snail (Lymnaea Hinkleyia pilsbryi) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is included;...

  2. A Summary Description of a Computer Program Concept for the Design and Simulation of Solar Pond Electric Power Generation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pond electric power generation subsystem, an electric power transformer and switch yard, a large solar pond, a water treatment plant, and numerous storage and evaporation ponds. Because a solar pond stores thermal energy over a long period of time, plant operation at any point in time is dependent upon past operation and future perceived generation plans. This time or past history factor introduces a new dimension in the design process. The design optimization of a plant must go beyond examination of operational state points and consider the seasonal variations in solar, solar pond energy storage, and desired plant annual duty-cycle profile. Models or design tools will be required to optimize a plant design. These models should be developed in order to include a proper but not excessive level of detail. The model should be targeted to a specific objective and not conceived as a do everything analysis tool, i.e., system design and not gradient-zone stability.

  3. Twenty years' monitoring of Mèze stabilisation ponds: part I--Removal of organic matter and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, B; Andrianarison, T; Gosselin, J P; Brissaud, F

    2005-01-01

    The Mèze stabilisation pond system has been monitored over more than 20 years. Despite the enlargement of the plant, the organic load doubled between the early 1980s and recent years, the removal of organic matter and nutrients has been maintained at the same level for COD and increased for BOD5, N and P. Combining anaerobic, step-fed aerated and maturation ponds and multiplying the number of cells resulted in a significant improvement in the performances of the plant. Respectively 34, 24 and 23% of the applied COD was eliminated in the anaerobic, the step-fed and the first three maturation ponds, while the figures for BOD5 were 47, 26, and 19% respectively. 38% of the applied nitrogen was eliminated in the first three maturation ponds. Nitrification and denitrification seem to be a major process of nitrogen removal in warm periods. Most of the phosphorus removal was observed to take place in the two polishing ponds.

  4. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  5. Divergent hydrological responses to 20th century climate change in shallow tundra ponds, western Hudson Bay Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brent B.; Light, Erin M.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Hall, Roland I.; Eichel, Kaleigh; Jasechko, Scott; White, Jerry; Fishback, LeeAnn; Edwards, Thomas W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrological fate of shallow tundra lakes and ponds under conditions of continued warming remains uncertain, but has important implications for wildlife habitat and biogeochemical cycling. Observations of unprecedented pond desiccation, in particular, signify catastrophic loss of aquatic habitat in some Arctic locations. Shallow tundra ponds are a ubiquitous feature in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), a region that has undergone intense warming over the past ˜50 years. But it remains unknown how hydrological processes in these ponds have responded. Here, we use cellulose-inferred pond water oxygen isotope records from sediment cores, informed by monitoring of modern pond water isotope compositions during the 2009 and 2010 ice-free seasons, to reconstruct hydrological conditions of four shallow tundra ponds in the western HBL over the past three centuries. Following an interval of relative hydrological stability during the early part of the records, results reveal widely differing hydrological responses to 20th century climate change among the study sites, which is largely dependent on hydrological connectivity of the basins within their respective surrounding peatlands. These findings suggest the 20th century has been characterized by an increasingly dynamic landscape that has variably influenced surface water balance - a factor that is likely to play a key role in determining the future water balance of ponds in this region.

  6. Melt ponds and marginal ice zone from new algorithm of sea ice concentration retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repina, Irina; Tikhonov, Vasiliy; Komarova, Nataliia; Raev, Mikhail; Sharkov, Evgeniy

    2016-04-01

    Studies of spatial and temporal properties of sea ice distribution in polar regions help to monitor global environmental changes and reveal their natural and anthropogenic factors, as well as make forecasts of weather, marine transportation and fishing conditions, assess perspectives of mineral mining on the continental shelf, etc. Contact methods of observation are often insufficient to meet the goals, very complicated technically and organizationally and not always safe for people involved. Remote sensing techniques are believed to be the best alternative. Its include monitoring of polar regions by means of passive microwave sensing with the aim to determine spatial distribution, types, thickness and snow cover of ice. However, the algorithms employed today to retrieve sea ice characteristics from passive microwave sensing data for different reasons give significant errors, especially in summer period and also near ice edges and in cases of open ice. A new algorithm of sea ice concentration retrieval in polar regions from satellite microwave radiometry data is discussed. Beside estimating sea ice concentration, the algorithm makes it possible to indicate ice areas with melting snow and melt ponds. Melt ponds are an important element of the Arctic climate system. Covering up to 50% of the surface of drifting ice in summer, they are characterized by low albedo values and absorb several times more incident shortwave radiation than the rest of the snow and ice cover. The change of melt ponds area in summer period 1987-2015 is investigated. The marginal ice zone (MIZ) is defined as the area where open ocean processes, including specifically ocean waves, alter significantly the dynamical properties of the sea ice cover. Ocean wave fields comprise short waves generated locally and swell propagating from the large ocean basins. Depending on factors like wind direction and ocean currents, it may consist of anything from isolated, small and large ice floes drifting over a

  7. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe...

  8. Reclamation of saline soils by partial ponding: Simulations for different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A traditional method of reclaiming salt-affected soils involves ponding water on a field and leaching salts from the soil through a subsurface tile drainage system. Because water and salts move more slowly in areas midway between drain lines than in areas near the drains, achieving a desired level o...

  9. 9 CFR 318.304 - Operations in the thermal processing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the thermal processing area. 318.304 Section 318.304 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned Products § 318.304 Operations in the thermal processing area....

  10. Fate of Potential Contaminants Due to Disposal of Olive Mill Wastewaters in Unprotected Evaporation Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, V; Elaiopoulos, K; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Soupios, P

    2017-03-01

    The disposal of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) in shallow and unprotected evaporation ponds is a common, low-cost management practice, followed in Mediterranean countries. So far, the fate of potential soil pollutants in areas located near evaporation ponds is not adequately documented. This study investigates the extent in which the long-term disposal of OMW in evaporation ponds can affect the soil properties of the area located outside the evaporation pond and assesses the fate of the pollution loads of OMW. Four soil profiles situated outside and around the down slope side of the disposal area were excavated. The results showed considerable changes in concentration of soil phenols at the down-site soil profiles, due to the subsurface transport of the OMW. In addition, excessive concentrations of NH4(+), PO4(3-) and phenols were recorded in liquid samples taken from inside at the bottom of the soil profiles. It is concluded that unprotected evaporation ponds located in light texture soils pose a serious threat to favour soil and water pollution.

  11. Responses of epibenthic and nektonic macroinvertebrate communities to a gradient of fish size in ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Nieoczym

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Size relationships between fish and organisms from adjacent trophic levels are crucial for predicting the structure and dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. We compared macroinvertebrate communities along a fish-size gradient created by separate stocking of three age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio in semi-natural ponds. The specific size range of fish (small, medium and large corresponding to fish age in ponds was the factor most strongly associated with macroinvertebrate composition. The other significant habitat variables were dissolved oxygen concentration in the water and submerged vegetation abundance in the open-water zone. Among the most numerous taxa in the ponds, relative abundances of Hirudinea, Gastropoda, Odonata and Coleoptera were larger in the presence of small-sized than of larger-sized carp. However, fish size effect was not linear, in that macroinvertebrate assemblages were less similar between ponds containing medium- vs large-sized fish than between ponds with small- vs large-sized fish. The dissimilarity patterns were mainly determined by disparities in abundance of Corixidae, which unlike other taxa common in the ponds occurred in the greatest numbers in the presence of large-sized carp. Macroinvertebrate diversity was greatest in ponds with small-sized fish and was positively related to emergent macrophyte cover. Enhancement of emergent vegetation is recommended as the most effective management strategy to buffer adverse impacts of fish on macroinvertebrates. If fish are present in the system, assessment of the size structure of fish populations can be advantageous in unravelling the essential processes driving the variation in pond communities.

  12. The impact of under-ice melt ponds on Arctic sea ice volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naomi; Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional, thermodynamic model of Arctic sea ice [Flocco et al, 2015] has been adapted to study the evolution of under-ice melt ponds, pools of fresh water that are found below the Arctic sea ice, and false bottoms, sheets of ice that form at the boundary between the under-ice melt pond and the oceanic mixed layer. Over time, either the under-ice melt pond freezes or the false bottom is completely ablated. We have been investigating the impact that these features have on the growth or ablation of sea ice during the time that they are present. The sensitivity of our model to a range of parameters has been tested, revealing some interesting effects of the thermodynamic processes taking place during the life-cycle of these phenomena. For example, the under-ice melt pond and its associated false bottom can insulate the sea ice layer from ocean, increasing the thickness of sea ice present at the end of the time frame considered. A comparison of the results of the model of under-ice melt pond evolution with that of sea ice with a bare base has been used to estimate the impact of under-ice melt ponds on sea ice volume towards the end of the melt season. We find that the under-ice melt ponds could have a significant impact on the mass balance of the sea ice, suggesting that it could be desirable to include a parameterisation of the effects of under-ice melt pond in the sea ice components of climate models.

  13. Multi-stage ponds-wetlands ecosystem for effective wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jian-feng; WANG Bao-zhen; WANG Lin

    2005-01-01

    The performance of the Dongying multi-stage ponds-wetlands ecosystem was investigated in this work. Study of the removal of different pollutants (BOD5, COD, SS, TP, TN, NH3-N, etc.) in different temperature seasons and different units in this system indicated that effluent BOD5 and SS were constant to less than 11 mg/L and 14 mg/L throughout the experimental processes; but that the removal efficiencies of pollutants such as TP, TN, NH3-N, COD varied greatly with season. The higher the temperature was, the higher was the observed removal in this system. Additionally, each unit of the system functioned differently in removing pollutants. BOD5 and SS were mainly removed in the first three units (hybrid facultative ponds, aeration ponds and aerated fish ponds), whereas nitrogen and phosphates were mainly removed in hydrophyte ponds and constructed reed wetlands.The multi-stage ponds-wetlands ecosystem exhibits good potential of removing different pollutants, and the effluent quality meet several standards for wastewater reuse.

  14. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ponded infiltration experiment is a simple test used for in-situ determination of soil hydraulic properties, particularly saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. It is known that infiltration process in natural soils is strongly affected by presence of macropores, soil layering, initial and experimental conditions etc. As a result, infiltration record encompasses a complex of mutually compensating effects that are difficult to separate from each other. Determination of sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity from such infiltration data is complicated. In the present study we use numerical simulation to examine the impact of selected experimental conditions and soil profile properties on the ponded infiltration experiment results, specifically in terms of the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity evaluation. The effect of following factors was considered: depth of ponding, ring insertion depth, initial soil water content, presence of preferential pathways, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, soil layering, surface layer retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and presence of soil pipes or stones under the infiltration ring. Results were compared with a large database of infiltration curves measured at the experimental site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Reasonably good agreement between simulated and observed infiltration curves was achieved by combining several of factors tested. Moreover, the ring insertion effect was recognized as one of the major causes of uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  15. Geoecological evaluation of water industry sludge ponds and developing the techniques of their disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chertes Konstantin L'vovich

    Full Text Available Industrial water treatment is accompanied by water industry sludge formation. A great amount of methods of industrial sludge processing and utilization has been developed. Though the majority of such waste is usually being sent to sludge storages. Sludge storages take great areas, which could be practically used, and have a negative impact on the components of geological environment. Though the compositions of such sludge is close to natural soil. The elements of a comprehensive evaluation of water-management sludge ponds as raw-material sources for soil-like recultivation materials using stepwise criteria selection are presented. A comprehensive technique of pre-utilization sludge treatment is developed. The investigation results of the main stages of treatment - dewatering, mineralization, and hardening - are given. The technique offered will enable reducing the costs of the purchase of natural soils for re-cultivation as well as reducing the waste disposal costs.

  16. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  17. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  18. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...... for both catchments low and no correlations between PAH concentrations in the pond and toxicity were found....

  19. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the central Mississippi Canyon area: Interaction of salt tectonics and slope processes in the formation of engineering and geologic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John Richard

    Approximately 720 square miles of digital 3-dimensional seismic data covering the eastern Mississippi Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico, continental shelf was used to examine the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the geology in the study area. The analysis focused on salt tectonics and sequence stratigraphy to develop a geologic model for the study area and its potential impact on engineering and geologic hazards. Salt in the study area was found to be established structural end-members derived from shallow-emplaced salt sheets. The transition from regional to local salt tectonics was identified through structural deformation of the stratigraphic section on the seismic data and occurred no later than ˜450,000 years ago. From ˜450,000 years to present, slope depositional processes have become the dominant geologic process in the study area. Six stratigraphic sequences (I-VI) were identified in the study area and found to correlate with sequences previously defined for the Eastern Mississippi Fan. Condensed sections were the key to the correlation. The sequence stratigraphy for the Eastern Mississippi Fan can be extended ˜28 miles west, adding another ˜720 square miles to the interpreted Fan. A previously defined channel within the Eastern Fan was identified in the study area and extended the channel ˜28 miles west. Previous work on the Eastern Fan identified the source of the Fan to be the Mobile River; however, extending the channel west suggests the sediment source to be from the Mississippi River, not the Mobile River. Further evidence for this was found in ponded turbidites whose source has been previously established as the Mississippi River. Ages of the stratigraphic sequences were compared to changes in eustatic sea level. The formation stratigraphic sequences appear decoupled from sea level change with "pseudo-highstands" forming condensed sections during pronounced Pleistocene sea level lowstands. Miocene and Pleistocene depositional analogues

  20. Source or Sink: Investigating the role of storm water retention ponds in the urban landscape (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, S.; Casey, R.; Ownby, D.; Snodgrass, J.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of human activities on surface water, groundwater and soil is nowhere more apparent than in urban and suburban systems. Dramatic changes to watersheds in urbanizing areas have led to changes in hydrology and an associated increase in the flux of sediment and contaminants to surface and ground waters. In an effort to mediate these impacts, Best Management Practices (BMP) have been established in order to increase infiltration of runoff and trap sediment and particulates derived from impervious surfaces before they enter surface waters. Perhaps the most ubiquitous BMP are storm water retention ponds. While these structures are designed to reduce runoff and particulate loading to urban streams, their addition to the urban landscape has created a large number of new wetland habitats. In the Red Run watershed, just outside of Baltimore, Maryland, 186 discrete natural or man-made wetland areas have been identified. Of these 186 wetland areas, 165 were created to manage stormwater and most were specifically designed as stormwater management ponds (i.e., human-created basins or depressions that hold runoff for some period during the annual hydrological year). Despite their abundance in the landscape, very little is known about how these systems impact the flux of stormwater pollutants or affect the organisms using these ponds as habitat. Results from a series of related projects in the Red Run watershed are presented here in an effort to summarize the range of issues associated with stormwater management ponds. The Red Run watershed is situated inside the Urban-Rural Demarcation Line (URDL) around Baltimore City and has been identified as a smart growth corridor by Baltimore County. This region is one of two areas in Baltimore County where new development is focused. In a series of investigations of soils, surface and ground waters, and amphibian and earthworm use of 68 randomly selected stormwater retention ponds from the Red Run watershed, a range of

  1. Numerical and experimental analysis of a salt gradient solar pond performance with or without reflective covered surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezir, Nalan C.; Oezek, Nuri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Sueleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Doenmez, Orhan; Kayali, Refik [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Nigde University, 51200 Nigde (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    An experimental salt gradient solar pond having a surface area of 3.5 x 3.5 m{sup 2} and depth of 2 m has been built. Two covers, which are collapsible, have been used for reducing the thermal energy loses from the surface of the solar pond during the night and increasing the thermal efficiency of the pond solar energy harvesting during daytime. These covers having reflective properties can be rotated between 0 and 180 by an electric motor and they can be fixed at any angle automatically. A mathematical formulation which calculates the amount of the solar energy harvested by the covers has been developed and it is adapted into a mathematical model capable of giving the temporal temperature variation at any point inside or outside the pond at any time. From these calculations, hourly air and daily soil temperature values calculated from analytical functions are used. These analytic functions are derived by using the average hourly and daily temperature values for air and soil data obtained from the local meteorological station in Isparta region. The computational modeling has been carried out for the determination of the performance of insulated and uninsulated solar ponds having different sizes with or without covers and reflectors. Reflectors increase the performance of the solar ponds by about 25%. Finally, this model has been employed for the prediction of temperature variations of an experimental salt gradient solar pond. Numerical results are in good agreement with the experiments. (author)

  2. Life history differences influence the impacts of drought on two pond-breeding salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas L; Ousterhout, Brittany H; Peterman, William E; Drake, Dana L; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-10-01

    Drought is a strong density-independent environmental filter that contributes to population regulation and other ecological processes. Not all species respond similarly to drought, and the overall impacts can vary depending on life histories. Such differences can necessitate management strategies that incorporate information on individual species to maximize conservation success. We report the effects of a short-term drought on occupancy and reproductive success of two pond-breeding salamanders that differ in breeding phenology (fall vs. spring breeder) across an active military base landscape in Missouri, USA: We surveyed ~200 ponds for the presence of eggs, larvae, and metamorphs from 2011 to 2013. This period coincided with before, during, and after a severe drought that occurred in 2012. The two species showed contrasting responses to drought, where high reproductive failure (34% of ponds) was observed for the spring breeder during a single drought year. Alternatively, the fall breeder only showed a cumulative 8% failure over two years. The number of breeding ponds available for use in the fall decreased during the drought due to pond drying and/or a lack of re-filling. Estimates of occupancy probability declined for the fall-breeding salamander between 2012 and 2013, whereas occupancy probability estimates of the spring breeder increased post-drought. The presence of fish, hydroperiod, the amount of forest cover surrounding ponds, and canopy cover were all found to affect estimates of occupancy probabilities of each species. Pond clustering (distance to nearest pond and the number of ponds within close proximity), hydroperiod, forest cover, and canopy cover influenced both estimates of colonization and extinction probabilities. Our results show life history variation can be important in determining the relative susceptibility of a species to drought conditions, and that sympatric species experiencing the same environmental conditions can respond differently

  3. An Evaluation of the Air Force Logistics Career Area Advanced Academic Degree Position Validation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Aleck L.; Sonnier, Ronald J.

    Reduced funding for educational programs indicated that a thorough review should be made of the Advanced Academic Degree (AAD) validation process. This reduction in funding necessitates more effective management of the AAD program in the logistics career areas to insure that officers in these career areas require those skills learned through these…

  4. CERT Resilience Management Model - Mail-Specific Process Areas: International Mail Transportation (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    requirements to the physical IMPC facilities where mail transportation activities are conducted and other physical, environmental , and geographical...controls to support the resilience of mail and mail services during transportation are managed in the CERT-RMM Environmental Control process area. The...RISK:SG3 and RISK:SG4 in the CERT-RMM Risk Management process area. Typical Work Products 1. Postal item risk statements, with impact valuation 2

  5. Fate of Pyrethroids in Farmland Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, B. B.; Sørensen, P. B.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.;

    Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively. The measur......Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively...

  6. Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains observations of albedo, depth, and physical characteristics of melt ponds on sea ice, taken during the summer of 1994. The melt ponds studied...

  7. 养殖池塘系统脱氮硫杆菌(Thiobacillus denitrificans)的分离、生长特性及脱氮特征研究%Isolation and Culture of Thiobacillus denitrificans from Different Area of the Intensive Pond System and Their Capacities of Removing Nitrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范立民; 裘丽萍; 陈家长; 宋超; 胡庚东; 瞿建宏; 孟顺龙; 吴伟

    2013-01-01

    分别采集集约化养殖吉富罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)的池塘底泥、表层水、塘边裸露土壤样品,采用脱氮硫杆菌选择培养基富集培养、分离得到3株细菌,通过菌落特征、形态学特征、生理生化检验和16S rDNA序列分析等手段,鉴定为脱氮硫杆菌(Thiobacillus denitrificans),命名为TD1、TD2和TD3.在30℃下,采用静置、厌氧培养实验研究这3株脱氮硫杆菌的生长繁殖特征、对硝酸盐氮的去除速率特征、硫酸根产生状况、亚硝酸盐产生情况、培养液pH值和氧化还原电位变化特征等方面的差异进行研究,探索养殖环境修复中应用的可能性.结果表明:在一定的时间内菌株生长速率、介质pH降低速率和氧化还原电位上升幅度均表现为TD1>TD2>TD3;菌株硝态氮脱除效率和硫酸根浓度升高速率均表现为TD1>TD2>TD3,亚硝酸盐产生情况则表现为TD1<TD2<TD3;TD1更适合异位修复,TD2更适合原位修复.%In this study, an intensive pond in which GIFT tilapia( Oreochromis niloticus ) were cultured was used. And sampling were done in different areas of the pond system, including sediments of the pond, the waters 50 centimeters below the surface and the bare soil at the edge of the pond. After that, enrichment and elective cultures were prepared anaerobically on these samples in 30 centigrade by incubating glass-stoppered bottles with the medium for Thiobacillus denitrificans full filled. After the culture, by using the spread-plate method, three strains were got. Through the appearance of the colonies, the shape of the strains, the detection of physiological and biochemical indicators, and the analysis of the sequences of 16S rDNA, the strains was identified as Thiobacillus denitrificans, and they were named as TD1, TD2 and TD3. Through the studies on the characteristics of growth and reproduction, of the removing rates of the nitrate, of the production of the sulfate and nitrite, and of

  8. Are left fronto-temporal brain areas a prerequisite for normal music-syntactic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Koelsch, Stefan; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-06-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies in music cognition research suggest that "language areas" are involved in the processing of musical syntax, but none of these studies clarified whether these areas are a prerequisite for normal syntax processing in music. The present electrophysiological experiment tested whether patients with lesions in Broca's area (N=6) or in the left anterior temporal lobe (N=7) exhibit deficits in the processing of structure in music compared to matched healthy controls (N=13). A chord sequence paradigm was applied, and the amplitude and scalp topography of the Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) was examined, an electrophysiological marker of musical syntax processing that correlates with activity in Broca's area and its right hemisphere homotope. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (but not anterior superior temporal gyrus - aSTG) patients with lesions older than 4 years showed an ERAN with abnormal scalp distribution, and subtle behavioural deficits in detecting music-syntactic irregularities. In one IFG patient tested 7 months post-stroke, the ERAN was extinguished and the behavioural performance remained at chance level. These combined results suggest that the left IFG, known to be crucial for syntax processing in language, plays also a functional role in the processing of musical syntax. Hence, the present findings are consistent with the notion that Broca's area supports the processing of syntax in a rather domain-general way.

  9. Massive subsurface ice formed by refreezing of ice-shelf melt ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bryn; Luckman, Adrian; Ashmore, David W; Bevan, Suzanne; Kulessa, Bernd; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Philippe, Morgane; Jansen, Daniela; Booth, Adam; Sevestre, Heidi; Tison, Jean-Louis; O'Leary, Martin; Rutt, Ian

    2016-06-10

    Surface melt ponds form intermittently on several Antarctic ice shelves. Although implicated in ice-shelf break up, the consequences of such ponding for ice formation and ice-shelf structure have not been evaluated. Here we report the discovery of a massive subsurface ice layer, at least 16 km across, several kilometres long and tens of metres deep, located in an area of intense melting and intermittent ponding on Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica. We combine borehole optical televiewer logging and radar measurements with remote sensing and firn modelling to investigate the layer, found to be ∼10 °C warmer and ∼170 kg m(-3) denser than anticipated in the absence of ponding and hitherto used in models of ice-shelf fracture and flow. Surface ponding and ice layers such as the one we report are likely to form on a wider range of Antarctic ice shelves in response to climatic warming in forthcoming decades.

  10. Assesing the effect of an olive mill wastewater evaporation pond in Sousse, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'habou, Rakia; Zairi, Moncef; Kallel, Amjed; Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Ben Dhia, Hamed

    2009-08-01

    Olive oil is a typical and valuable agro-industrial product in Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia, olive mill wastewaters (OMW) reach an amount of about 1,000,000 t year-1 and constitute a serious organic pollution risk because of the high chemical oxygen demand values and the presence of phytotoxic and antibacterial polyphenols. OMW have been generally stored in pond sites to be eliminated by natural evaporation or valorised by spreading on cultivated soils or by composting. Many researches on the interactions of OMW with soils at laboratory scale (columns) have been reported, but less attention have been paid to the effect of OMW on soils at field scale. The aim of this work is to investigate an area used for >15 years as an uncontrolled OMW pond site. The transformations of soil properties and groundwater occurring during OMW storage were characterised by the pH, phenolic contents, electrical conductivity (EC), moisture content and organic contents. The soil samples were taken from two borings and compared to those of a control one located near the pond site. Groundwater samples were taken on the accessible and nearest water wells to the evaporation ponds. The permeable silty and sandy layers in the site support the infiltration of OMW near the evaporation ponds. This infiltration has reached a depth of 6 m at a distance of almost 50 m laterally. The results show that the OMW infiltration in the subsoil has affected the pH, EC, organic content, phenolic compounds and the moisture.

  11. Evaluation of historical and analytical data on the TAN TSF-07 Disposal Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Technical Support Facility (TSF)-07 Disposal Pond, located at Test Area North at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, has been identified as part of Operable Unit 1-06 under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department is conducting an evaluation of existing site characterization data for the TSF-07 Disposal Pond Track 1 investigation. The results from the site characterization data will be used to determine whether the operable unit will undergo a Track 2 investigation, an interim action, a remedial investigation/feasibility study, or result in a no-action decision. This report summarizes activities relevant to wastewaters discharged to the pond and characterization efforts conducted from 1982 through 1991. Plan view and vertical distribution maps of the significant contaminants contained in the pond are included. From this evaluation it was determined that cobalt-60, cesium-137, americium-241, mercury, chromium, and thallium are significant contaminants for soils. This report also evaluates the migration tendencies of the significant contaminants into the perched water zone under the pond and the surrounding terrain to support the investigation.

  12. Managed flood effects on beaver pond habitat in a desert riverine ecosystem, bill williams river, Arizona USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Pritekel, C.M.; O'Neill, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological effects of beaver in warm-desert streams are poorly documented, but potentially significant. For example, stream water and sediment budgets may be affected by increased evaporative losses and sediment retention in beaver ponds. We measured physical attributes of beaver pond and adjacent lotic habitats on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, the Bill Williams River, after ???11 flood-free months in Spring 2007 and Spring 2008. Neither a predicted warming of surface water as it passed through a pond nor a reduction in dissolved oxygen in ponds was consistently observed, but bed sediment sorted to finest in ponds as expected. We observed a river segment-scale downstream rise in daily minimum stream temperature that may have been influenced by the series of ??100 beaver ponds present. Channel cross-sections surveyed before and after an experimental flood (peak flow 65 m3/s) showed net aggradation on nine of 13 cross-sections through ponds and three of seven through lotic reaches. Our results indicate that beaver affect riverine processes in warm deserts much as they do in other biomes. However, effects may be magnified in deserts through the potential for beaver to alter the stream thermal regime and water budget. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

  13. Biodegradability and Molecular Composition of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Urban Stormwater Runoff and Outflow Water from a Stormwater Retention Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Mary G; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) can be a significant part of the reactive N in aquatic ecosystems and can accelerate eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. A bioassay method was coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) to determine the biodegradability and molecular composition of DON in the urban stormwater runoff and outflow water from an urban stormwater retention pond. The biodegradability of DON increased from 10% in the stormwater runoff to 40% in the pond outflow water and DON was less aromatic and had lower overall molecular weight in the pond outflow water than in the stormwater runoff. More than 1227 N-bearing organic formulas were identified with FT-ICR-MS in the stormwater runoff and pond outflow water, which were only 13% different in runoff and outflow water. These molecular formulas represented a wide range of biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, amino sugars, lignins, and tannins in DON from runoff and pond outflow water. This work implies that the urban infrastructure (i.e., stormwater retention ponds) has the potential to influence biogeochemical processes in downstream water bodies because retention ponds are often a junction between the natural and the built environment.

  14. Predicting salt advection in groundwater from saline aquaculture ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, D. P.; Read, W. W.; Narayan, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryThis paper predicts saltwater advection in groundwater from leaky aquaculture ponds. A closed form solution for the potential function, stream function and velocity field is derived via the series solutions method. Numerically integrating along different streamlines gives the location (or advection front) of saltwater throughout the domain for any predefined upper time limit. Extending this process produces a function which predicts advection front location against time. The models considered in this paper are easily modified given knowledge of the required physical parameters.

  15. Analysis hydrogeochemical cituation in the territories adjacent to the storage ponds "Svidovok"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherstyuk N.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thehydrogeochemicalcomposition of surface and groundwater in the area adjacent to the pond-storage “Svidovok” (West Donbas was analyzed. The chemical types of surface and groundwater by the formula Kurlova were determined. The equilibriums with aluminosilicates and silicateswereconsidered.

  16. Pond and landscape determinants of Rana dalmatina population sizes in a Romanian rural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor; Nemes, Szilárd; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Öllerer, Kinga; Moga, Cosmin Ioan; Lesbarrères, David; Demeter, László

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians are good indicators of human impact, declining steadily worldwide. We explored the relationships between the ponds and nearby landscape parameters and population size of the Agile Frog ( Rana dalmatina), estimated from the number of egg masses, in a cultural landscape within the central section of Târnava Mare Basin, Romania. Forty-three permanent ponds were surveyed in a 2600 km 2 area. The average number of egg masses per pond was 211.13 (SD = 426.41). The egg mass number was significantly and positively related to the emergent aquatic macrophyte cover (its effect peaks at around 50%) and the green connecting corridors between the ponds and forests, and negatively related to the extent of nearby urban areas. The proximity of the forest (positive effect) and the presence of high traffic roads (negative effect) were highly correlated with green corridors and further eliminated from the model due to multicollinearity. Both these variables had significant effects when incorporated in univariate models and multivariate models without green corridors. Since a large part of our study area was currently declared as Natura 2000 site, there is an increased need for management proposals and conservation applications for biodiversity, including amphibians. Rana dalmatina is an important species for monitoring because it is common in the studied area and is suited for short surveys.

  17. The effect of periphyton substrate density on production in freshwater polyculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Biswas, P.K.; Aseada, T.; Fujino, T.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    The present research investigated the optimum surface area of periphyton substrate in earthen ponds stocked with a pre-optimized density and ratio of the Indian major carps, catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and kalbaush (Labeo calbasu) to support enhanced fish production. Four treatments in

  18. Process variations in surface nano geometries manufacture on large area substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The need of transporting, treating and measuring increasingly smaller biomedical samples has pushed the integration of a far reaching number of nanofeatures over large substrates size in respect to the conventional processes working area windows. Dimensional stability of nano fabrication processes...

  19. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kishore, Vidya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chen, Xun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ajinjeru, Christine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  20. Nat'l_Register, ContributingResources, The Ponds at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_ponds)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 2 polygons representing the ponds at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The ponds were collected by a Trimble GeoXT...

  1. A conceptual framework and classification of capability areas for business process maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Looy, Amy; De Backer, Manu; Poels, Geert

    2014-03-01

    The article elaborates on business process maturity, which indicates how well an organisation can perform based on its business processes, i.e. on its way of working. This topic is of paramount importance for managers who try to excel in today's competitive world. Hence, business process maturity is an emerging research field. However, no consensus exists on the capability areas (or skills) needed to excel. Moreover, their theoretical foundation and synergies with other fields are frequently neglected. To overcome this gap, our study presents a conceptual framework with six main capability areas and 17 sub areas. It draws on theories regarding the traditional business process lifecycle, which are supplemented by recognised organisation management theories. The comprehensiveness of this framework is validated by mapping 69 business process maturity models (BPMMs) to the identified capability areas, based on content analysis. Nonetheless, as a consensus neither exists among the collected BPMMs, a classification of different maturity types is proposed, based on cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. Consequently, the findings contribute to the grounding of business process literature. Possible future avenues are evaluating existing BPMMs, directing new BPMMs or investigating which combinations of capability areas (i.e. maturity types) contribute more to performance than others.

  2. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  3. An integrated engineering solution in treating tailings pond water (TPW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation described the progress that has been made in the treatment of tailings pond water (TPW). Several treatment technologies were examined for their potential use. Any valid treatment methods must be technically practicable and economically feasible in treating TPW. An integrated TPW treatment process was proposed in this paper after reviewing recent published literature related to TPW treatment. The process was proposed based on knowledge and experience gained from municipal and other industrial water and wastewater treatment operations. This engineered treatment process consists of bioadsorption, bioflocculation, suspended sludge blanket filtration, clarification, ozonation, and coke assisted hybrid biodegradation. The proposed treatment process was aiming at environmental release and/or further reuse of the treated TPW. This proposed treatment process features the reuse of 2 waste materials in order to enhance the treatment efficiency, to increase financial feasibility, and to maximize environmental benefits of the treatment. tabs., figs.

  4. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BRACKISHWATER POND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS IN PEKALONGAN CITY CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Indrajaya Asaad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of brackishwater pond soil has a vital role in the system of bioenvironment including brackishwater pond environment. This research was aimed to determine the spatial distribution of brackishwater pond soil characteristics in Pekalongan City, Central Java Province. A total of 59 sampling points each with two different soil depth samplings were determined by simple random method. A total of 21 soil characteristics were measured in the field and analyzed further in the laboratory. Geostatistic with Kriging Interpolation method in the ArcGIS 9.3 software were used to depict the distribution of the data across the landscape. Furthermore, the spatial distribution was presented by using ALOS AVNIR-2 image. Research result indicates that in general, pond soil in Pekalongan City can be classified as soil with high variability or relatively heterogenic with the value of variation coefficient more than 36%. Soil characteristics which have similar pattern of spatial distribution are acid sulfate soil and soil nutrient content. High value of pH, organic matter, and total-N of soil, and on the other hand, low value of PO4 were generally found in the pond area of Krapyak Lor Village, while in Pekalongan City, it was found high clayish soil content but relatively homogenous. It is recommended that pond management must be based on soil characteristics which are different from one area to another. The soil characteristics itself can be drawn and assessed through spatial distribution.

  5. Aquatic Habitats: Exploring Desktop Ponds. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katharine; Willard, Carolyn

    This book, for grades 2-6, is designed to provide students with a highly motivating and unique opportunity to investigate an aquatic habitat. Students set up, observe, study, and reflect upon their own "desktop ponds." Accessible plants and small animals used in these activities include Elodea, Tubifex worms, snails, mosquito larvae, and fish.…

  6. Reconciling the role of terrestrial leaves in pond food webs: a whole-ecosystem experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Meredith A; Post, David M; Skelly, David K

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial carbon and nutrients can subsidize the detrital pool of freshwater ecosystems; yet, the importance of terrestrial subsidies to lake and pond food webs is uncertain and debated. Terrestrial detritus is expected to have the greatest impact on food webs when water bodies are small and shallow with low levels of incident light. Temporary forested ponds fit this description and are often assumed to have a leaf detritus-based food web, but this has not been quantified. In a whole-ecosystem experiment, we traced the flow of isotopically enriched leaf litter to primary producers and consumers in a small, forested pond. We found that terrestrial leaves provided nutrients to algae, offering an indirect pathway in which leaf litter can enter the food web. Terrestrial leaves were also consumed directly, and larval caddisfly (Limnephilus sp.) shredders likely mobilized leaf nutrients to other consumers, a process overlooked in many previous small-scale experiments that did not incorporate shredders. Unexpectedly, most consumers relied heavily upon algal food pathways despite low light and net heterotrophic conditions. Overall, our study highlights the interconnectedness of algal and leaf litter pathways in small pond food webs, and emphasizes that algal pathways are prevalent and important even in small, shaded ponds with high loads of terrestrial leaf litter.

  7. Effect of carbon dioxide and ammonium removal on pH changes in polishing ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, P F F; van Haandel, A; Lettinga, G

    2002-01-01

    If nutrient removal is to be obtained in ponds treating sewage, the pH must be raised so that ammonia can desorb and phosphates can precipitate. In this paper it is shown that the pH increase in ponds can be predicted quantitatively from simple stoichiometry, taking into consideration physical and biological carbon dioxide removal, ammonia stripping and calcium carbonate precipitation. Biological CO2 removal by photosynthesis is identified as the main process to effect pH increase in ponds. The rate of pH increase and consequently the required retention time depend on the net rate of CO2 consumption, the extent of ammonium stripping, the characteristics of the influent (alkalinity and pH) as well as factors concerning the environment (temperature) and dimensions (depth) of the pond. A high pH (range 9 to 10) can be obtained in about 5 days if digested sewage is used (low organic material concentration), climate conditions are favourable and the pond is shallow (< 0.5 m deep).

  8. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Patwardhan, A. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs.

  9. Spatial distribution of fish assemblages along environmental gradients in the temporary ponds of Northern Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina K. Tondato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten temporary ponds in northern Pantanal were studied in July 2006 to explore whether a spatial distribution pattern existed in the composition of fish assemblages, and to identify which environmental variables determined their distribution. The existence of any spatial pattern was tested using the multivariate Mantel correlogram, while the influence of environmental variables was quantified by a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A total of 8735 individuals was sampled from 29 species, predominantly represented by Hyphessobrycon elachys and Serrapinnus calliurus. Composition of fish assemblages varied among ponds, but this variation had no significant spatial pattern for any of the distance classes considered, thus indicating that the species composition varied independently of the distance between ponds. This suggests that stochastic dispersal processes did not influence the spatial structure of species, as predicted by the neutral theory. Conversely, species composition in the ponds was determined by variables that included depth, macrophyte richness and cover. Species such as Markiana nigripinnis, Crenicichla vittata and Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae occurred in deeper waters, while Parauchenipterus striatulus, Eigenmannia trilineata and Psellogrammus kennedyi were mainly associated with greater richness and macrophyte cover, as already demonstrated by the niche theory applied in ponds which tended to have similar characteristics and a similar fish composition.

  10. TOOTH CURVES AND ENTIRE CONTACT AREA IN PROCESS OF SPLINE COLD ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In spline rolling process, the contact area between roller and workpiece plays an important role in calculating rolling-force and rolling-moment. For the purpose of studying the contact area, contact state between roller and workpiece in process of spline cold rolling based upon cross rolling is analyzed. According to the suitable hypothesis, the mathematic model of roller-tooth-curve in optional position of rolling process is established. Combing the theory of conjugate curves with the theory of envelope curve, the corresponding mathematic model of workpiece-tooth-curve is established. By utilizing establishing mathematic models, the algorithm of entire contact area in rolling process is created. On the basis of the algorithm, calculation-program is compiled under MATLAB program language environment. The calculation-program actualizes quantitative analysis and quantitative calculation of contact areas. Utilizing the calculation-program, the influence of parameters on contact area is analyzed, and the tendency is consistent with the manufacturing experience. In consideration of rolling-force optimization, the primary process parameters may be selected according to results of calculation. The result of the present study may provide basis for research on rolling-force and rolling-moment.

  11. Implementing Tumor Detection and Area Calculation in Mri Image of Human Brain Using Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil L. Bangare; Madhura Patil

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the research on Human Brain Tumor which uses the MRI imaging technique to capture the image. In this proposed work Brain Tumor area is calculated to define the Stage or level of seriousness of the tumor. Image Processing techniques are used for the brain tumor area calculation and Neural Network algorithms for the tumor position calculation. Also in the further advancement the classification of the tumor based on few parameters is also expected. Proposed wor...

  12. Abnormal test growth in benthic foraminifera from hypersaline coastal ponds of the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2014-05-01

    The living (Rose-Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera assemblage from shallow coastal ponds located in the intertidal area of the United Arab Emirate Western Region was investigated. The studied coastal ponds are located between a lagoonal area, characterized by carbonate sedimentation, and the supratidal, evaporite-dominated, sabkha. Sampling was undertaken when the maximum water depth in the ponds was 50 cm with a water temperature ranging from 27 to 35°C, a pH of 8 and a maximum salinity of 60 ppt. The sides and floor of the pond were characterized by a microbial mat. Detached blades of sea grass were present in the ponds and are inferred to have been transported into the pond either during high-tides or storm surges. Collected samples were stained with Rose-Bengal at the moment of sample collection and the living assemblage was studied. The benthic foraminifera that were present show a low-diversity assemblage. Epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera dominate the living assemblage with Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus characterizing 90% of the living assemblage and the species Spirolina areatina, S. aciculata, Sorites marginalis and Quinqueloculina spp. comprising the rest of the foraminifera community. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of anomalous tests of benthic foraminifera belonging to the genera Peneroplis, Spirolina and Sorites were observed. The anomalies included dissolution, microboring and abnormality in growth. Three different forms of abnormal shell architecture were recorded; the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress caused by instability of physical parameters (particularly high and variable salinity and temperature) in this kind of transitional marine environment. The unique presence of epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the

  13. Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    several approach- es for assigning reasonable values to those locations. The inverse distance weighting ( IDW ) approach looks at the areas with values...Analysis Support System ID Identification IDW Inverse Distance Weighting LIDAR Light Detection and Ranging NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  14. Insect diversity and water quality parameters of two ponds of Chatla wetland, Barak valley, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Gupta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on two ponds of Chatla floodplain, Barak valley, Assam with special reference to aquatic insects. Pond 1 is purely a fish pond where as pond 2 is a community pond too. Present study revealed the status of water quality and in turn diversity, density, dominance and abundance of aquatic insects in both the ponds. Almost all the physico chemical parameters of both the ponds were found within permissible range for aquatic life .However in pond 2 level of phosphate was found little higher than pond 1 due to release of soaps and detergents by human influence. In both the ponds order Hemiptera showed maximum relative abundance ( 98% in pond 1 and 94% in pond 2. The study revealed lower diversity of aquatic insects in pond 2 than that in pond 1.

  15. New approach to solar photo-Fenton operation. Raceway ponds as tertiary treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Irene; Santos-Juanes, Lucas; Acién Fernández, Francisco Gabriel; Malato, Sixto; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio

    2014-08-30

    The photo-Fenton process has proven its efficiency in the removal of micropollutants. However, the high costs usually associated with it prevent a spread of this technology. An important factor affecting costs is the kind of photoreactor used, usually tubular with a reflecting surface. Tubular reactors like compound parabolic collectors, CPCs, involve high capital costs. In comparison, the application of less costly reactors such as the extensive raceway ponds (RPRs) would help to spread the use of the photo-Fenton process as tertiary treatment at commercial scale. As far as the authors know, RPRs have never been used in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) applications. This work is aimed at studying the applicability of RPRs to remove micropollutants with solar photo-Fenton. For this purpose, a pesticide mixture of commercial acetamiprid (ACTM) and thiabendazole (TBZ) (100μg/L each) was used in simulated secondary effluent. Iron concentration (1, 5.5 and 10mg/L) and liquid depth (5, 10 and 15cm) were studied as process variables. TBZ was removed at the beginning of the treatment (less than 5min), although ACTM removal times were longer (20-40min for the highest iron concentrations). High treatment capacity per surface area was obtained (48mg/hm(2) with 5.5mg Fe/L and 15cm liquid depth), proving the feasibility of using RPRs for micropollutant removal.

  16. Denitrification and anammox in tropical aquaculture settlement ponds: an isotope tracer approach for evaluating N2 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Castine

    Full Text Available Settlement ponds are used to treat aquaculture discharge water by removing nutrients through physical (settling and biological (microbial transformation processes. Nutrient removal through settling has been quantified, however, the occurrence of, and potential for microbial nitrogen (N removal is largely unknown in these systems. Therefore, isotope tracer techniques were used to measure potential rates of denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox in the sediment of settlement ponds in tropical aquaculture systems. Dinitrogen gas (N(2 was produced in all ponds, although potential rates were low (0-7.07 nmol N cm(-3 h(-1 relative to other aquatic systems. Denitrification was the main driver of N(2 production, with anammox only detected in two of the four ponds. No correlations were detected between the measured sediment variables (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, iron, manganese, sulphur and phosphorous and denitrification or anammox. Furthermore, denitrification was not carbon limited as the addition of particulate organic matter (paired t-Test; P = 0.350, n = 3 or methanol (paired t-Test; P = 0.744, n = 3 did not stimulate production of N(2. A simple mass balance model showed that only 2.5% of added fixed N was removed in the studied settlement ponds through the denitrification and anammox processes. It is recommended that settlement ponds be used in conjunction with additional technologies (i.e. constructed wetlands or biological reactors to enhance N(2 production and N removal from aquaculture wastewater.

  17. Analysis on the Meso-scale Characteristics of a Hail Process in Linyi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the meso-scale characteristics of a hail process in Linyi area. [Method] By comprehensively using MICAPS conventional observation data, automatic encryption ground station, MM5 model product and Doppler weather radar data, a strong convective hail weather process which happened in Shandong Peninsula and southeast of Shandong on May 30, 2010 was analyzed. The circulation background and physical mechanism of strong convection weather occurrence, the features of meso- an...

  18. Diversity and spatiotemporal distribution of larval odonate assemblages in temperate neotropical farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Mateus Marques; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Farm ponds help maintain diversity in altered landscapes. However, studies on the features that drive this type of property in the Neotropics are still lacking, especially for the insect fauna. We analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of odonate larval assemblages in farm ponds. Odonates were sampled monthly at four farm ponds from March 2008 to February 2009 in a temperate montane region of southern Brazil. A small number of genera were frequent and accounted for most of the dominant fauna. The dominant genera composition differed among ponds. Local spatial drivers such as area, hydroperiod, and margin vegetation structure likely explain these results more than spatial predictors due to the small size of the study area. Circular analysis detected seasonal effect on assemblage abundance but not on richness. Seasonality in abundance was related to the life cycles of a few dominant genera. This result was explained by temperature and not rainfall due to the temperate climate of the region studied. The persistence of dominant genera and the sparse occurrence of many taxa over time probably led to a lack in a seasonal pattern in assemblage richness.

  19. Trajectory of early tidal marsh restoration: elevation, sedimentation and colonization of breached salt ponds in the northern San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, L. Arriana; Smith, Lacy M.; Takekawa, John Y.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Taylor, Karen; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Schoellhamer, David H.; Spenst, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Tidal marsh restoration projects that cover large areas are critical for maintaining target species, yet few large sites have been studied and their restoration trajectories remain uncertain. A tidal marsh restoration project in the northern San Francisco Bay consisting of three breached salt ponds (≥300 ha each; 1175 ha total) is one of the largest on the west coast of North America. These diked sites were subsided and required extensive sedimentation for vegetation colonization, yet it was unclear whether they would accrete sediment and vegetate within a reasonable timeframe. We conducted bathymetric surveys to map substrate elevations using digital elevation models and surveyed colonizing Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The average elevation of Pond 3 was 0.96 ± 0.19 m (mean ± SD; meters NAVD88) in 2005. In 2008–2009, average pond elevations were 1.05 ± 0.25 m in Pond 3, 0.81 ± 0.26 m in Pond 4, and 0.84 ± 0.24 m in Pond 5 (means ± SD; meters NAVD88). The largest site (Pond 3; 508 ha) accreted 9.5 ± 0.2 cm (mean ± SD) over 4 years, but accretion varied spatially and ranged from sediment loss in borrow ditches and adjacent to an unplanned, early breach to sediment gains up to 33 cm in more sheltered regions. The mean elevation of colonizing S. foliosa varied by pond (F = 71.20, df = 84, P S. foliosa. Our results suggest that sedimentation to elevations that enable vegetation colonization is feasible in large sites with sufficient sediment loads although may occur more slowly compared with smaller sites.

  20. Ecosystem function in waste stabilisation ponds: Improving water quality through a better understanding of biophysical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadouani, Anas; Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Coggins, Liah X.; Ivey, Gregory N.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Zhou, Wenxu; Laurion, Isabelle; Chua, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Wastewater stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are highly productive systems designed to treat wastewater using only natural biological and chemical processes. Phytoplankton, microbial communities and hydraulics play important roles for ecosystem functionality of these pond systems. Although WSPs have been used for many decades, they are still considered as 'black box' systems as very little is known about the fundamental ecological processes which occur within them. However, a better understanding of how these highly productive ecosystems function is particularly important for hydrological processes, as treated wastewater is commonly discharged into streams, rivers, and oceans, and subject to strict water quality guidelines. WSPs are known to operate at different levels of efficiency, and treatment efficiency of WSPs is dependent on physical (flow characteristics and sludge accumulation and distribution) and biological (microbial and phytoplankton communities) characteristics. Thus, it is important to gain a better understanding of the role and influence of pond hydraulics and vital microbial communities on pond performance and WSP functional stability. The main aim of this study is to investigate the processes leading to differences in treatment performance of WSPs. This study uses a novel and innovative approach to understand these factors by combining flow cytometry and metabolomics to investigate various biochemical characteristics, including the metabolite composition and microbial community within WSPs. The results of these analyses will then be combined with results from the characterisation of pond hydrodynamics and hydraulic performance, which will be performed using advanced hydrodynamic modelling and advanced sludge profiling technology. By understanding how hydrodynamic and biological processes influence each other and ecosystem function and stability in WSPs, we will be able to propose ways to improve the quality of the treatment using natural processes, with

  1. Reduced cortical thickness of brain areas involved in pain processing in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frokjaer, J.B.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Olesen, S.S.; Lundager, F.H.; Eskildsen, S.F.; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) might have abnormal brain function. We assessed cortical thickness in brain areas involved in visceral pain processing. METHODS: We analyzed brain morphologies of 19 patients with painful CP and compared them with 15 healthy individu

  2. Quality of Life in Rural Areas: Processes of Divergence and Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellerberg, Annette; Huschka, Denis; Habich, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In Germany, processes can be observed that have long been out of keeping with the principle of equality of opportunity. Unemployment is concentrated in the structurally weak peripheral areas, in Eastern Germany in particular; emigration of young and better-educated people to the West is not diminishing, but contrary to expectation is again on the…

  3. 9 CFR 381.304 - Operations in the thermal processing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the thermal processing area. 381.304 Section 381.304 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and...

  4. Levels of participation and interactional issue framing in a water area planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, G.; Dewulf, A.; Taillieu, T.

    2008-01-01

    Session 1-2 Levels of participation and their impact on interactional issue framing in a water area planning process Greet François 1, Art Dewulf 2, Tharsi Taillieu 1 1 K.U.Leuven - Research group for Work, Organisational and Personnel Psychology 2 Wageningen University - Public Administration and P

  5. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    here increased the pond's TSS (and associated pollution) removal efficiency from 46% (current state) to between 70 and 90%, depending on the pond's capacity considered. The RTC strategies allow simultaneously maximizing the detention time of water, while minimizing the hydraulic shocks induced to the receiving water bodies and preventing overflow. A constraint relative to a maximum time of 4 days with water accumulated in the pond was thus respected to avoid mosquito breeding issues. The predictive control schemes (taking rainfall forecasts into consideration) can further reinforce the safety of the management strategies, even if meteorological forecasts are, of course, not error-free. With RTC, the studied pond capacity could thus have been limited to 1250 m3 instead of the 4000 m3 capacity currently used under static control. References Marsalek, J. 2005. Evolution of urban drainage: from cloaca maxima to environmental sustainability. Paper presented at Acqua e Citta, I Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica Urbana, Cent. Stud. Idraul. Urbana, Sant'Agnello di Sorrento, Italy, 28- 30 Sept. Middleton, J.R. and Barrett, M.E. 2008. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin. Water Environment Research, 80 (2): 172-178. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/106143007X220842 Muschalla, D., Pelletier, G., Berrouard, É., Carpenter, J.-F., Vallet, B., and Vanrolleghem, P.A. 2009. Ecohydraulic-driven real-time control of stormwater basins. In: Proceedings 8th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling (8UDM), Tokyo, Japan, September 7-11. National Research Council, 1993. Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shammaa, Y., Zhu, D.Z., Gyürék, L.L., and Labatiuk C.W. 2002. Effectiveness of dry ponds for stormwater total suspended solids removal. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 29 (2): 316-324 (9). Doi: 10.1139/l02-008

  6. Implementing Tumor Detection and Area Calculation in Mri Image of Human Brain Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil L. Bangare

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the research on Human Brain Tumor which uses the MRI imaging technique to capture the image. In this proposed work Brain Tumor area is calculated to define the Stage or level of seriousness of the tumor. Image Processing techniques are used for the brain tumor area calculation and Neural Network algorithms for the tumor position calculation. Also in the further advancement the classification of the tumor based on few parameters is also expected. Proposed work is divided in to following Modules: Module 1: Image Pre-Processing Module 2: Feature Extraction, Segmentation using K-Means Algorithm and Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm Module 3: Tumor Area calculation & Stage detection Module 4: Classification and position calculation of tumor using Neural Network

  7. Longitudinal study of urbanisation processes in peri-urban areas of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Fertner, Christian; Kristensen, Lone Søderkvist;

    areas and more remote locations. However, although land use changes follow changes in socio-economic composition, agriculture is often still the dominating land use. The dynamic processes leave peri-urban areas in a transition situation, as neither city nor countryside. This presentation investigates...... have become redundant because of structural changes in agriculture. As a consequence, the structural components of the areas (land cover and landscape elements) thus appear more resistant to changes than transition of the socio-economic system (declining number of full-time farmers and increasing...... property prices because of the attractiveness of land. This raises questions of the desired future of the peri-urban area of Greater Copenhagen, and about the effectiveness of the existing planning systems and its ability to protect agriculture land, which has been a main objective since the beginning...

  8. Cibola High Levee Pond annual report 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Marsh, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    This represents the fourth and last annual report of a five year study investigating the early life ecology of the bonytail and razorback sucker at Cibola High Levee Pond. The work in 2004 included: telemetry studies, collection of physical water quality measurements, zooplankton samples, netting fish, the collection of scale samples for aging, predator/prey tank tests and a preliminary analysis of the data base.

  9. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  10. Dairy farm wastewater treatment by an advanced pond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Tanner, C C; Sukias, J P S; Davies-Colley, R J

    2003-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) have been used for the treatment of dairy farm wastewater in New Zealand since the 1970s. The conventional two pond WSP systems provide efficient removal of wastewater BOD5 and total suspended solids, but effluent concentrations of other pollutants including nutrients and faecal bacteria are now considered unsuitable for discharge to waterways. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) provide a potential solution. A pilot dairy farm APS consisting of an Anaerobic pond (the first pond of the conventional WSP system) followed by three ponds: a High Rate Pond (HRP), an Algae Settling Pond (ASP) and a Maturation Pond (which all replace the conventional WSP system facultative pond) was evaluated over a two year period. Performance was compared to that of the existing conventional dairy farm WSP system. APS system effluent quality was considerably higher than that of the conventional WSP system with respective median effluent concentrations of BOD5: 34 and 108 g m(-3), TSS: 64 and 220 g m(-3), NH4-N: 8 and 29 g m(-3), DRP: 13 and 17 g m(-3), and E. coli: 146 and 16195 MPN/100 ml. APS systems show great promise for upgrading conventional dairy farm WSPs in New Zealand.

  11. Advanced reclamation of coal refuse ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    1998-12-31

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that may also be considered to be environmentally harmful. The fine coal fraction in a preparation plant consists of the purest particles in the entire preparation plant and, thus, if recovered, could enhance the quality of the plant product. However, until recently, the ability to effectively recover fine coal has been limited due to the lack of efficient fine particle separation technologies. As a result, a large portion of the fine coal produced in the US during this century has been disposed into refuse pond along with the acid producing components of the associated gangue material. Research conducted by Southern Illinois University scientists has found that advanced fine coal cleaning technologies can be used to recover high quality coal from refuse ponds while also utilizing a novel technique for neutralizing the acid generation potential of the pyrite-rich reject stream. Various circuitry arrangements will be discussed and metallurgical results presented in this publication.

  12. Model of areas for identifying risks influencing the compliance of technological processes and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, A.; Belu, N.

    2016-08-01

    Operation of every company is associated with the risk of interfering with proper performance of its fundamental processes. This risk is associated with various internal areas of the company, as well as the environment in which it operates. From the point of view of ensuring compliance of the course of specific technological processes and, consequently, product conformity with requirements, it is important to identify these threats and eliminate or reduce the risk of their occurrence. The purpose of this article is to present a model of areas of identifying risk affecting the compliance of processes and products, which is based on multiregional targeted monitoring of typical places of interference and risk management methods. The model is based on the verification of risk analyses carried out in small and medium-sized manufacturing companies in various industries..

  13. Bioremediation process in impacted area of petroleum activities; Processos de biorremediacao em areas influenciadas por atividades petroliferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Trigueis, Jorge Alberto; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza; Celino, Joil Jose; Lima, Danusia Ferreira; Santana, Robson Carneiro [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The present work's objective is to test sampling methodologies applied on the bioremediation processes in situ, involving the establishment of sample replicates, specific laboratory procedures and its results, inedited on the referred technique. Agricultural fertilizers were used, NPK and OSMOCOTE, as biostimulants on mangroves substrates affected by petroleum activities. The tested methodology used on the experiment was based on the monitoring of this technology in aquarium with water from Sao Paulo's river and sediment contaminated by oil, realized in three steps (first pre-test, second pre-test and third pre-test) that happened between the months of August and November of 2007. The physical-chemical parameters were measured with portable devices carefully calibrated and the oil analyzed with gas chromatography. The saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkenes) had an increase on the concentrations for some aquariums and these found results do not permit to confirm if the inhibition of the degradation of the saturated hydrocarbons are somehow related to the usage of the nutrients NPK or OSMOCOTE. The time interval applied on the procedure, the sampling methodology used and even the intrinsic heterogeneity of the mangrove substrate are in the evaluation stage with new tests in order to make better the technique delineation, inedited, utilized in the area. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  15. Impact of Visual Corticostriatal Loop Disruption on Neural Processing within the Parahippocampal Place Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Shahin; Rosas, Herminia D

    2016-10-05

    The caudate nucleus is a part of the visual corticostriatal loop (VCSL), receiving input from different visual areas and projecting back to the same cortical areas via globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and thalamus. Despite perceptual and navigation impairments in patients with VCSL disruption due to caudate atrophy (e.g., Huntington's disease, HD), the relevance of the caudate nucleus and VCSL on cortical visual processing is not fully understood. In a series of fMRI experiments, we found that the caudate showed a stronger functional connection to parahippocampal place area (PPA) compared with adjacent regions (e.g., fusiform face area, FFA) within the temporal visual cortex. Consistent with this functional link, the caudate showed a higher response to scenes compared with faces, similar to the PPA. Testing the impact of VCSL disruption on neural processes within PPA, HD patients showed reduced scene-selective activity within PPA compared with healthy matched controls. In contrast, the level of selective activity in adjacent cortical and subcortical face-selective areas (i.e., FFA and amygdala) remained intact. These results show some of the first evidence for the direct impact and potential clinical significance of VCSL on the generation of "selective" activity within PPA.

  16. Process analysis of typical summertime ozone episodes over the Beijing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Fu, Joshua S; Zheng, Shaoqing; Wang, Wei

    2008-07-25

    The 2008 Summer Olympic Games will be held in Beijing; however, summer is the season in which Beijing is marked by frequent high-O(3) episodes. Observation analysis reveals that the urban plume is transported by a southerly wind and undergoes chemical reaction during propagation, resulting in the common occurrence of high O(3) concentrations in the urban downwind area; this is the typical scenario of the formation of high summertime O(3) levels over the Beijing area. The typical high-O(3) episode is well reproduced by the 3-dimensional air-quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multi-scale Air-Quality Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution). Radical cycle analysis reveals that the Beijing urban area was in a VOC-limited regime for O(3) formation, while the urban downwind area changed gradually to a NO(x)-limited condition. The urban downwind area, Dingling, is readily affected by intrusion of the urban plume. Detailed process analysis indicated that although the O(3) peaks reached the same level on 26 and 27 June 2000, the dominant process contributing to the O(3) increase was different on each day. On 26 June, the major contributor to the O(3) peak at Dingling was the arrival of high O(3) levels with propagation of the urban plume; in contrast, on 27 June O(3) precursors were transported rapidly to the urban downwind area by strong transportation processes that occurred earlier than those on the previous day, resulting in O(3) production by local photochemistry becoming the major contributor to the high-O(3) episode.

  17. The Ripple Pond: Enabling Spiking Networks to See

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed eAfshar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the biologically inspired Ripple Pond Network (RPN, a simply connected spiking neural network which performs a transformation converting two dimensional images to one dimensional temporal patterns suitable for recognition by temporal coding learning and memory networks. The RPN has been developed as a hardware solution linking previously implemented neuromorphic vision and memory structures such as frameless vision sensors and neuromorphic temporal coding spiking neural networks. Working together such systems are potentially capable of delivering end-to-end high-speed, low-power and low-resolution recognition for mobile and autonomous applications where slow, highly sophisticated and power hungry signal processing solutions are ineffective. Key aspects in the proposed approach include utilising the spatial properties of physically embedded neural networks and propagating waves of activity therein for information processing, using dimensional collapse of imagery information into amenable temporal patterns and the use of asynchronous frames for information binding.

  18. A process to enhance the specific surface area and capacitance of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-08-26

    The impact of post-synthesis processing in reduced graphene oxide materials for supercapacitor electrodes has been analyzed. A comparative study of vacuum, freeze and critical point drying was carried out for hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide demonstrating that the optimization of the specific surface area and preservation of the porous network are critical to maximize its supercapacitance performance. As described below, using a supercritical fluid as the drying medium, unprecedented values of the specific surface area (364 m2 g−1) and supercapacitance (441 F g−1) for this class of materials have been achieved.

  19. Sea-floor geology of Long Island Sound north of Duck Pond Point, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection are mapping the sea floor in coastal areas of the northeastern United States. As part of the project, more than 100 square kilometers of multibeam-echosounder data, 23 sediment samples, bottom video, and 86 still photographs were obtained from an area in Long Island Sound north of Duck Pond Point, New York, in the study area of NOAA survey H11999. This report delineates the sediment types and sea-floor features found within this area in order to better understand the sea-floor processes occurring in this part of Long Island Sound. The sea floor in the study area is dominated by ubiquitous sand-wave fields and three northeast-southwest trending bathymetric depressions. Barchanoid and transverse sand waves, including sinusoidal, bifurcating, arced, and straight-crested morphologies, are variably present. Asymmetrical sand-wave profiles indicate a westward to southwestward direction of sediment transport in most of the study area; current ripples and megaripples on the stoss slopes of the sand waves indicate transport is ongoing. The majority of the sediment on the sea floor is sand, although bouldery, gravelly, and muddy sediments are also present. Gray, cohesive mud crops out on the walls of some of the scour depressions associated with the troughs of large sand waves. Clasts of the muddy sediment scattered on the sea floor around the depressions demonstrate the intensity of the scour and suggest erosion of the underlying distal deltaic sediments.

  20. INCREASING FISH PRODUCTIVITY OF POND ECOSYSTEMS BY FERTILIZING THEM WITH DISTILLER'S GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tson’

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study fish culture parameters of young-of-the-year carp in the conditions of industrial fish-growing ponds when applying experimental repeated fertilization with distiller’s grain. Methodology. The study was conducted in industrial fish-growing ponds. The wastes of alcohol industry – the distiller’s grain as organic fertilizer was gradually introduced into ponds at following amounts: first application – 1,0 t/ha, second application in 10 days – 0,5 t/ha, third application in 12 days – 0,5 t/ha. The control ponds were fertilized with humus (2 t/ha. Young-of-the-year carp (Cyprinus carpio were grown in monoculture at stocking density of 30 000 fish/ha. In addition, 100 kg/ha of lime were applied during the culture season in the experiment and control. Fertilization with humus and application of lime in ponds, hydrochemical studies, sampling and processing of hydrobiological samples, fish culturing and statistical studies were carried out according to standard methods. Findings. Gradual fertilizing with distiller’s grain (to the total 2 t/ha gave the possibility to create favorable hydrochemical and hydrobiological regimes. An average daily growth in the experimental fish groups of 0,44 ± 0,09 g/day that was similar to in the control (0,45 ± 0,11 g/day with positive significant correlation between them (r = 0,97; p <0,001 was achieved. The performed measures gave a possibility to obtain fish productivity in the experimental variant 10.7% more than in the control. An economic effect of 14.3% cost reduction for fertilizing ponds was achieved. Originality. For the first time we presented the results of fish culture and biological parameters of young-of-the-year carp in industrial ponds when applying 3-time fertilization with distiller’s grain. Practical Value. The obtained results are the basis for the broad use of non-traditional organic fertilizer – distiller’s grain in industrial ponds, when growing young

  1. Sustained multifocal attentional enhancement of stimulus processing in early visual areas predicts tracking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Winther, Gesche N; Li, Shu-Chen; Andersen, Søren K

    2013-03-20

    Keeping track of multiple moving objects is an essential ability of visual perception. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability are not well understood. We instructed human observers to track five or seven independent randomly moving target objects amid identical nontargets and recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) elicited by these stimuli. Visual processing of moving targets, as assessed by SSVEP amplitudes, was continuously facilitated relative to the processing of identical but irrelevant nontargets. The cortical sources of this enhancement were located to areas including early visual cortex V1-V3 and motion-sensitive area MT, suggesting that the sustained multifocal attentional enhancement during multiple object tracking already operates at hierarchically early stages of visual processing. Consistent with this interpretation, the magnitude of attentional facilitation during tracking in a single trial predicted the speed of target identification at the end of the trial. Together, these findings demonstrate that attention can flexibly and dynamically facilitate the processing of multiple independent object locations in early visual areas and thereby allow for tracking of these objects.

  2. Perspective of Using the Results of Monitoring and Modeling of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's Cooling Pond as Analogue for the US DOE Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, B.; Voitsekhovich, O. V.; Bugay, D.; Skalskjj, A.; Shestopalov, V. M.; Zheleznyak, M.; Kashparov, V. A.; Antropov, A. S.; Kireev, S. I.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Ivanov, Y.; Oskolkov, B.; Marra, J.; Jannik, T.; Farfan, E.; Monken-Fernandes, H.; Hinton, T.; Smith, J.; Onishi, Y.; Konoplev, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although there are many contaminated sites that may be suitable candidates for providing analogue information for the development and testing of environmental modeling and risk assessment approaches, of particular scientific and practical interests is the feasibility study of planned decommissioning and remediation of the highly contaminated Chernobyl Cooling Pond (CP), located within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The presence of the CP has caused an artificially high groundwater table within the ChEZ. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the CP, substantial areas of sediments, containing 137Cs, 90Sr, and hot particles with U, Pu, and Am. will be exposed to the atmosphere, and the groundwater level is expected to decline by as much as 7 m. The areal extent of the exposed zone, the dissolution rate, mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will vary over time, depending on the dynamics of seepage losses from the pond and climatic conditions. The objective of the presentation is to discuss hydrological and geochemical processes, a conceptual model, and the results and perspectives of numerical modeling of coupled surface water-groundwater flow and transport, including the parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation for various decommissioning and remediation options of the CP. In particular, the results of 1D, 2D, and 3D simulations of radionuclide transport in surface water and groundwater will be discussed, along with the evaluation of Kd parameters from the results of field monitoring and modeling of seasonal variations of 137Cs concentrations in pond water and sediments. It will be shown that the results of field monitoring and modeling of the Chernobyl CP can be used as analogue for several US DOE sites to improve scientific and practical understanding of subsurface hydrological and geochemical processes, as well as to obtain a better understanding of processes affecting natural attenuation of radionuclides in

  3. Biophysical processes leading to the ingress of temperate fish larvae into estuarine nursery areas: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Paris, Claire B.; Wolanski, Eric; Morais, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    A series of complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain the recruitment of marine and temperate pelagic fish larvae originated from pelagic eggs in coastal environments. In this review, we propose a new and complementary hypothesis describing the biophysical processes intervening in the recruitment of temperate fish larvae into estuaries. This new hypothesis, the Sense Acuity And Behavioral (SAAB) hypothesis, recognizes that recruitment is unlikely if the larvae drift passively with the water currents, and that successful recruitment requires the sense acuity of temperate fish larvae and their behavioral response to the estuarine cues present in coastal areas. We propose that temperate fish larvae use a hierarchy of sensory cues (odor, sound, visual and geomagnetic cues) to detect estuarine nursery areas and to aid during navigation towards these areas. The sensorial acuity increases along ontogeny, which coincides with increased swimming capabilities. The swimming strategies of post-flexion larvae differ from offshore areas to the tidal zone. In offshore areas, innate behavior might lead larvae towards the coast guided by a sun compass or by the earth's geomagnetic field. In areas under limited influence of estuarine plumes (either in energetic nearshore areas or offshore), post-flexion larvae display a searching swimming behavior for estuarine disconnected patches (infotaxis strategy). After finding an estuarine plume, larvae may swim along the increasing cue concentration to ingress into the estuary. Here, larvae exhibit a rheotaxis behavior and avoid displacement by longshore currents by keeping bearing during navigation. When larvae reach the vicinity of an estuary, merging diel rhythms with feeding and predator avoidance strategies with tidally induced movements is essential to increase their chances of estuarine ingress. A fish larva recruitment model developed for the Ria Formosa lagoon supports the general framework of the SAAB hypothesis. In

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenegger, C.; B. Alali; K. R. Steffen; D. K. Perovich; K. M. Golden

    2012-01-01

    During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice–albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate...

  6. Study on Intercepting Method for Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Ecological Ditches and Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; Jian-ting; DING; Hong-ming; XU; Jie

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to reduce emission load of the farmland runoff by using ecological ditches and pond. [Method] N and P intercepting project construction of the ecological ditches and pond in Zhaiji Village, Xiangcheng District, Suzhou City as research object, by repairing 1 834 m3 of original drainage ditches, newly excavating 6 800 m2 of ecological main ditches and 6 000 m2 of artificial purification ecological pond, etc., runoff emission load in real control area of the project was counted. [Result] Annual net loads of the runoff emission for TN and TP were respectively 2 552.22 and 95.00 kg in 33.3 hm2 of farmland. Annual runoff intercepting loads of TN and TP were respectively 1 225.07 and 50.35 kg in ditches. Annual runoff intercepting loads of TN and TP were respectively 1 327.15 and 44.65 kg in ecological pond. In effluent, TN concentration was 6.32 mg/L and was smaller than 15 mg/L. TP concentration was 0.25 mg/L and was smaller than 0.5 mg/L. They both reached level-one A discharge standard. [Conclusion] The research provided theoretical basis for effective control of the agricultural non-point source pollution in Taihu Lake basin.

  7. Characteristics variation of coal combustion residues in an Indian ash pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Pappu; Saxena, Mohini; Aparna, Asokan; Asolekar, Shyam R; Asoletar, Shyam R

    2004-08-01

    Coal-fired power plants all over the world are cited as one of the major sources that generate huge quantities of coal combustion residues (CCRs) as solid wastes. Most frequently CCRs are collected through electrostatic precipitators, mixed with bottom ash by hydraulic systems and deposited in ash ponds. The quality of the CCRs at different locations in one of the ash ponds in Central India was evaluated to understand the variation in characteristics with a view to effective utilization. Results revealed that the presence of fine particles (distance from the ash slurry inlet zone in the ash pond. Wide variations in the bulk density (800-980 kg m(-3)), porosity (45-57%) and water-holding capacity (57.5-75.7%) of CCRs were recorded. With increasing distance the pH of the CCRs decreased (from 9.0 to 8.2) and electrical conductivity increased (from 0.25 to 0.65 dS m(-3)). The presence of almost all the heavy metals in CCRs exhibited an increase with distance from the ash slurry discharge zone due to the increase in surface area (from 0.1038 to 2.3076 m2 g(-1)) of CCRs particles. The present paper describes the variation of characteristics of CCRs deposited in the ash pond and their potential applications.

  8. Food availability determines the response to pond desiccation in anuran tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Urzelai, Urtzi; San Sebastián, Olatz; Garriga, Núria; Llorente, Gustavo A

    2013-09-01

    Food availability and pond desiccation are two of the most studied factors that condition amphibian metamorphosis. It is well known that, when food is abundant, organisms undergo metamorphosis early and when they are relatively large. The capability of anurans to accelerate their developmental rate in response to desiccation is also common knowledge. These two variables must act together in nature, since we know that, as a pond dries, the per capita resources decrease. We conduct an experiment to evaluate the effects of desiccation and food availability separately and in combination in tadpoles of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus). We demonstrate that food deprivation leads to slow growth rates, which delay metamorphosis and produce smaller size and weight. The capability to accelerate metamorphosis when facing a drying pond is also confirmed, but, nevertheless, with factor interaction (when the pool is drying and resources are scarce) the capacity to respond to desiccation is lost. In addition, slow drying rates are shown to be stressful situations, but not enough to provoke a shortening of the larval period; in fact, the larval period becomes longer. We also demonstrate that the interaction of these factors changes the allometric relationship of different parts of the hind limb, which has implications for the biomechanics of jumping. Due to low mortality rates and an adequate response to both environmental factors, we expect D. pictus to have a great invasive potential in its new Mediterranean distribution area, where lots of temporary and ephemeral ponds are present.

  9. Bologna process, more or less: nursing education in the European economic area: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Bergin, Michael; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gasser, Catherine; Pajnkihar, Majda; Jackson, Christine

    2014-04-02

    The Bologna Declaration and the subsequent processes is the single most important reform of higher education taking place in Europe in the last 30 years. Signed in 1999, it includes 46 European Union countries and aimed to create, a more coherent, compatible, comparable and competitive European Higher Education Area. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Bologna Declaration achievements in nursing education at 2010 within eight countries that first signed the Declaration on 1999. Researchers primarily identified national laws, policy statements, guidelines and grey literature; then, a literature review on Bologna Declaration implementation in nursing was conducted on the Medline and CINAHL databases. Critical analyses of these documents were performed by expert nurse educators. Structural, organizational, functional and cultural obstacles are hindering full Bologna Process implementation in nursing education within European Economic Area. A call for action is offered in order to achieve a functionally unified system within nursing.

  10. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo-Sierra, Carlos V; Leon-S, Martha E; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2012-05-01

    The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well.

  12. Higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion and ectomorphism: New biomarkers for human creativity in developing rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos V Rizzo-Sierra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly sensitive trait present in animals, has also been proposed as a human neurobiological trait. People having such trait can process larger amounts of sensory information than usual, making it an excellent attribute that allows to pick up subtle environmental details and cues. Furthermore, this trait correlates to some sort of giftedness such as higher perception, inventiveness, imagination and creativity. We present evidences that support the existance of key neural connectivity between the mentioned trait, higher sensory processing sensitivity, introversion, ectomorphism and creativity. The neurobiological and behavioral implications that these biomarkers have in people living in developing rural areas are discussed as well.

  13. Jazz drummers recruit language-specific areas for the processing of rhythmic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdener, Marcus; Humbel, Thierry; Esposito, Fabrizio; Habermeyer, Benedikt; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Seifritz, Erich

    2014-03-01

    Rhythm is a central characteristic of music and speech, the most important domains of human communication using acoustic signals. Here, we investigated how rhythmical patterns in music are processed in the human brain, and, in addition, evaluated the impact of musical training on rhythm processing. Using fMRI, we found that deviations from a rule-based regular rhythmic structure activated the left planum temporale together with Broca's area and its right-hemispheric homolog across subjects, that is, a network also crucially involved in the processing of harmonic structure in music and the syntactic analysis of language. Comparing the BOLD responses to rhythmic variations between professional jazz drummers and musical laypersons, we found that only highly trained rhythmic experts show additional activity in left-hemispheric supramarginal gyrus, a higher-order region involved in processing of linguistic syntax. This suggests an additional functional recruitment of brain areas usually dedicated to complex linguistic syntax processing for the analysis of rhythmical patterns only in professional jazz drummers, who are especially trained to use rhythmical cues for communication.

  14. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in two wet retention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Laila C.; Vollertsen, Jes; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias;

    2016-01-01

    Metal accumulation in stormwater ponds may contaminate the inhabiting fauna, thus jeopardizing their ecosystem servicing function. We evaluated bioaccumulation of metals in natural fauna and caged mussel indicator organisms in two wet retention ponds. Mussel cages were distributed throughout...... the ponds to detect bioaccumulation gradients and obtain a time-integrated measure of metal bioavailability. We further investigated if sediment metal concentrations correlate with those in the fauna and mussels. Metal concentrations in the fauna tended to be higher in the ponds than in a reference lake...

  15. A simple and highly effective process for the preparation of activated carbons with high surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying, E-mail: liyingjlu@163.com [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding Xuefeng; Guo Yupeng; Wang Lili; Rong Chunguang; Qu Yuning; Ma Xiaoyu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Zichen, E-mail: wangzc@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} High surface area activated carbon can be prepared by rice husk H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} without pretreatment. {yields} The characteristics of the activated carbon were greatly influenced by post-processing method. {yields} The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. {yields} Some silica in rice husk reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} which could be removed by post-process. - Abstract: Activated carbons with high surface area were prepared by phosphoric acid as activation agent and rice husks as precursors. It was found that the characteristics of the activated carbons were influenced not only by the preparation but also by the post-processing method. The high surface area of the activated carbons was prepared under the optimum condition (50% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with impregnation ratio of 5:1, activation temperature of 500 deg. C, activation time of 0.5 h, wash water temperature of 100 deg. C). SiO{sub 2} content could affect the surface area of activated carbons, either. The lower SiO{sub 2} content of the activated carbons, the higher pore volume the carbons had. The SiO{sub 2} content was 11.2% when used the optimum condition. The explanation was that silicon element in rice husks reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form silicon phosphate (SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and it could be proved further by X-ray diffraction analysis, SiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} could be removed by post-process.

  16. Remote sensing parameterization of the processes of energy and water cycle over desertification areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Yaoming(马耀明); Tsukamoto; Osamu; Ishikawa; Hirohiko

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction over de-sertification area, it is indispensable to utilize of satellite remote sensing. Two scenes of LandsatTM were used to produce a set of maps of surface reflectance, MSAVI, vegetation coverage, sur-face temperature, net radiation, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux. Statisticalanalysis based on these maps revealed some quantitative significant land surface characteristics.Future developments of the method are also discussed.

  17. Sea ice melt pond fraction estimation from dual-polarisation C-band SAR – Part 2: Scaling in situ to Radarsat-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Scharien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observed changes in the Arctic have motivated efforts to understand and model its components as an integrated and adaptive system at increasingly finer scales. Sea ice melt pond fraction, an important summer sea ice component affecting surface albedo and light transmittance across the ocean-sea ice–atmosphere interface, is inadequately parameterized in models due to a lack of large scale observations. In this paper, results from a multi-scale remote sensing program dedicated to the retrieval of pond fraction from satellite C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR are detailed. The study was conducted on first-year sea (FY ice in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago during the summer melt period in June 2012. Approaches to retrieve the subscale FY ice pond fraction from mixed pixels in RADARSAT-2 imagery, using in situ, surface scattering theory, and image data are assessed. Each algorithm exploits the dominant effect of high dielectric free-water ponds on the VV/HH polarisation ratio (PR at moderate to high incidence angles (about 40° and above. Algorithms are applied to four images corresponding to discrete stages of the seasonal pond evolutionary cycle, and model performance is assessed using coincident pond fraction measurements from partitioned aerial photos. A RMSE of 0.07, across a pond fraction range of 0.10 to 0.70, is achieved during intermediate and late seasonal stages. Weak model performance is attributed to wet snow (pond formation and synoptically driven pond freezing events (all stages, though PR has utility for identification of these events when considered in time series context. Results demonstrate the potential of wide-swath, dual-polarisation, SAR for large-scale observations of pond fraction with temporal frequency suitable for process-scale studies and improvements to model parameterizations.

  18. Mapping cortical areas associated with Chinese word processing using functiona l magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林; 唐一源; 王岩; 李德军; 翁旭初; 张武田; 庄建程; 胡小平

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To identify the cortical areas engaged during Chinese word processing using func tional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to examine the reliability and repr oducibility of fMRI for localization of functional areas in the human brain.Methods FMRI data were collected on 8 young, right-handed, native Chinese speakers duri ng performance of Chinese synonym and homophone judgment tasks on two different clinical MRI systems (1.5 T GE Signa Horizon and 1.5 T Siemens Vision). A cro ss correlation analysis was used to statistically generate the activation map.Results Broca's area, Wernicke's area, bilateral extrastriate, and ventral tempo ral cortex were significantly activated during both the synonym and homophone activities. There was essentially no difference between results acquired on two different MRI systems.Conclusions FMRI can be used for localizing cortical areas critical to Chinese language proc essing in the human brain. The results are reliable and well reproducible acros s different clinical MRI systems.

  19. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  1. Initiation processes for run-off generated debris flows in the Wenchuan earthquake area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W.; Dong, X. J.; Xu, Q.; Wang, G. H.; van Asch, T. W. J.; Hicher, P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of huge debris flows greatly increased in the epicenter area of the Wenchuan earthquake. Field investigation revealed that runoff during rainstorm played a major role in generating debris flows on the loose deposits, left by coseismic debris avalanches. However, the mechanisms of these runoff-generated debris flows are not well understood due to the complexity of the initiation processes. To better understand the initiation mechanisms, we simulated and monitored the initiation process in laboratory flume test, with the help of a 3D laser scanner. We found that run-off incision caused an accumulation of material down slope. This failed as shallow slides when saturated, transforming the process into debris in a second stage. After this initial phase, the debris flow volume increased rapidly by a chain of subsequent cascading processes starting with collapses of the side walls, damming and breaching, leading to a rapid widening of the erosion channel. In terms of erosion amount, the subsequent mechanisms were much more important than the initial one. The damming and breaching were found to be the main reasons for the huge magnitude of the debris flows in the post-earthquake area. It was also found that the tested material was susceptible to excess pore pressure and liquefaction in undrained triaxial, which may be a reason for the fluidization in the flume tests.

  2. Application of polymeric flocculant for enhancing settling of the pond ash particles and water drainage from hydraulically stowed pond ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mishra Devi Prasad; Das Samir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Delayed settling of the ash particles and poor drainage of water from the pond ash are the major problems faced during the hydraulic stowing of pond ash.In this study the effect of polymeric flocculant on settling of the ash particles and drainage of water during pond ash stowing are investigated.In addition,the parameters,viz.drainage and absorption of water during pond ash stowing are quantified by stowing a mine goaf model with pond ash slurries of five different concentrations added with and without flocculant.The study revealed that addition of only 5 × 10-6 of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Na-CMC)flocculant with the pond ash slurries during stowing offers best result in terms of quicker settling of the ash particles and enhanced water drainage from the hydraulically stowed pond ash.Besides,it resulted in drainage of more than 85% of the total water used in the initial 45 min of stowing.The improvement in drainage is caused due to coagulation and flocculation of the pond ash particles because of charge neutralization and particle-particle bridging.This study may provide a basis for estimating the drainage and absorption of water during the real pond ash stowing operation in underground mines.

  3. Salt-Pond Box Model (SPOOM) and Its Application to the Napa-Sonoma Salt Ponds, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Megan L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Buchanan, Paul A.; Meyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A box model to simulate water volume and salinity of a salt pond has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to obtain water and salinity budgets. The model, SPOOM, uses the principle of conservation of mass to calculate daily pond volume and salinity and includes a salt crystallization and dissolution algorithm. Model inputs include precipitation, evaporation, infiltration, and water transfers. Salinity and water-surface-elevation data were collected monthly in the Napa-Sonoma Salt-Pond Complex from February 1999 through September 2001 and were used to calibrate and validate the model. The months when water transfers occurred were known but the magnitudes were unknown, so the magnitudes of water transfers were adjusted in the model to calibrate simulated pond volumes to measured pond volumes for three ponds. Modeled salinity was then compared with measured salinity, which remained a free parameter, in order to validate the model. Comparison showed good correlation between modeled and measured salinity. Deviations can be attributed to lack of water-transfer information. Water and salinity budgets obtained through modeling will be used to help interpret ecological data from the ponds. This model has been formulated to be applicable to the Napa-Sonoma salt ponds, but can be applied to other salt ponds.

  4. Phyllosphere mycobiota on garden ponds plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on calamus, common cattail, soft rush, yellow iris and white water lily plants in twenty ponds in Malopolska and Podkarpacie Regions. Mycobiota existing in the phyllosphere caused discolouring and necroses of leaves and shoots. 88 species of mycobiota were identified and isolated from the diseased tissues. Dominant were Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum and Isaria farinosa. Fungi of genera: Aspergillus, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Ilyonectria, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium, Phialophora, Phoma, Pleustomophora, Sordaria, Trichoderma and Umbelopsis were also numerous. The monophagous and the polyphagous were identified.

  5. Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Eriksson, Eva; Ledin, Anna;

    2011-01-01

    substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling....../resuspension of particulate matter was themost sensitive process for the dynamic model. The uncertainty of the estimated MP fluxes can be reduced by calibrating the dynamic model against total suspended solids data. This reduction in uncertainty was more significant for the substances with strong tendency to sorb, i...... models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP...

  6. Taking wind into account in the design of waste stabilisation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrot-Nico, F; Guinot, V; Brissaud, F

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, most investigations on the dependency of the fluid flow patterns and performance of waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) on wind speed and direction and pond layout have been performed using 2D and 3D CFD steady state isothermal models. 3D non steady state models integrating thermal processes and boundary conditions taking into account the full influence of meteorological factors are likely to provide more realistic predictions of WSP performance. Such modelling was undertaken for 4 pond layouts, 2 without baffles and 2 with baffles. Wind speed and direction were kept constant throughout each simulation while other meteorological forcings were derived from field measurements. Twelve wind directions and 2, 4 and 6 m s(-1) wind speeds were considered for each WSP layout. Simulations allowed verifying that the pond performance is dependent on the wind direction and velocity, that baffles may improve WSP performance and that the addition of well-designed baffles has the advantage of reducing its sensitivity to the wind.

  7. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  8. Problems in the educational process during the pediatric surgery area teaching of fourth year medicine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luis González López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Very typical situations of the Pediatric Surgery Services in the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos may interfere with the appropriate development of the educational process. Consequently, students might not master the principles of medical practice in the most common surgical diseases in children, thus limiting its further application in their professional performances as basic general practitioners. To obtain more accurate information on the causes of this phenomenon is considered to be paramount in order to search for practical solutions to improve the educational process and to fulfil the goals of the teaching stage. The contents on the following information sources are analyzed in this paper: documents for higher education and for medicine career, publications and papers presented in scientific events (directly or indirectly related to the practice of Pediatric Surgery and hospital statistics. This review was aimed at analyzing the situations that negatively affect the educational process during the pediatric surgery area teaching of fourth year medicine students.

  9. Epileptiform activity in the mouse visual cortex interferes with cortical processing in connected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucco, L.; Pracucci, E.; Brondi, M.; Ratto, G. M.; Landi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Epileptiform activity is associated with impairment of brain function even in absence of seizures, as demonstrated by failures in various testing paradigm in presence of hypersynchronous interictal spikes (ISs). Clinical evidence suggests that cognitive deficits might be directly caused by the anomalous activity rather than by its underlying etiology. Indeed, we seek to understand whether ISs interfere with neuronal processing in connected areas not directly participating in the hypersynchronous activity in an acute model of epilepsy. Here we cause focal ISs in the visual cortex of anesthetized mice and we determine that, even if ISs do not invade the opposite hemisphere, the local field potential is subtly disrupted with a modulation of firing probability imposed by the contralateral IS activity. Finally, we find that visual processing is altered depending on the temporal relationship between ISs and stimulus presentation. We conclude that focal ISs interact with normal cortical dynamics far from the epileptic focus, disrupting endogenous oscillatory rhythms and affecting information processing. PMID:28071688

  10. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  11. Distribution patterns of macrobenthic species in relation to organic enrichment within aquaculture earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Susana; Barata, Marisa; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B; Cancela da Fonseca, Luís; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between organic enrichment and macrobenthic colonization patterns was investigated during an 8-month period in Diplodus sargus (white seabream) production ponds. A stratified sampling design was applied and each pond was divided into three zones: water entrance (WE); central (C); and automatic feeder zones (AF). Generally, the number of species and Shannon-Wiener diversity increased from the WE to the AF zone. Abundance did not present a clear trend. The recently developed marine biotic index (AMBI) was applied and showed to be sufficiently robust to discriminate, within a relatively small area, differences in macrobenthic communities due to organic enrichment. Nevertheless, caution is advised when applying this index or others based on ecological group's assignment, as the classification of a certain area may differ when allocating a certain species to an unsuitable group. This is particularly evident when common species are involved.

  12. Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 μg L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas.

  13. Experimental canopy removal enhances diversity of vernal pond amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, David K; Bolden, Susan R; Freidenburg, L Kealoha

    2014-03-01

    Vernal ponds are often treated as protected environments receiving special regulation and management. Within the landscapes where they are found, forest vegetation frequently dominates surrounding uplands and can grow to overtop and shade pond basins. Two bodies of research offer differing views of the role of forest canopy for vernal pond systems. Studies of landscape conversion suggest that removing forest overstory within uplands can cause local extinctions of amphibians by altering terrestrial habitat or hindering movement. Studies of canopy above pond basins imply an opposite relationship; encroachment of overstory vegetation can be associated with local extinctions potentially via changes in light, thermal, and food resource environments. Unresolved uncertainties about the role of forest canopy reveal significant gaps in our understanding of wetland species distributions and dynamics. Any misunderstanding of canopy influences is simultaneously important to managers because current practices emphasize promoting or conserving vegetation growth particularly within buffers immediately adjacent to ponds. We evaluated this apparent contradiction by conducting a landscape-scale, long-term experiment using 14 natural vernal ponds. Tree felling at six manipulated ponds was limited in spatial scope but was nevertheless effective in increasing water temperature. Compared with eight control ponds, manipulated ponds maintained more amphibian species during five years post-manipulation. There was little evidence that any species was negatively influenced, and the reproductive effort of species for which we estimated egg inputs maintained pretreatment population densities in manipulated compared with control ponds. Overall, our experiment shows that a carefully circumscribed reduction of overhead forest canopy can enhance the capacity of vernal ponds to support wildlife diversity and suggests a scale dependence of canopy influences on amphibians. These findings have

  14. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  15. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desjonquères

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds.

  16. Object-based Image Classification of Arctic Sea Ice and Melt Ponds through Aerial Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, X.; Xie, H.; Li, Z.; Lei, R.

    2013-12-01

    The last six years have marked the lowest Arctic summer sea ice extents in the modern era, with a new record summer minimum (3.4 million km2) set on 13 September 2012. It has been predicted that the Arctic could be free of summer ice within the next 25-30. The loss of Arctic summer ice could have serious consequences, such as higher water temperature due to the positive feedback of albedo, more powerful and frequent storms, rising sea levels, diminished habitats for polar animals, and more pollution due to fossil fuel exploitation and/ or increased traffic through the Northwest/ Northeast Passage. In these processes, melt ponds play an important role in Earth's radiation balance since they strongly absorb solar radiation rather than reflecting it as snow and ice do. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the ability of predicting the sea ice/ melt pond extents and space-time evolution, which is pivotal to prepare for the variation and uncertainty of the future environment, political, economic, and military needs. A lot of efforts have been put into Arctic sea ice modeling to simulate sea ice processes. However, these sea ice models were initiated and developed based on limited field surveys, aircraft or satellite image data. Therefore, it is necessary to collect high resolution sea ice aerial photo in a systematic way to tune up, validate, and improve models. Currently there are many sea ice aerial photos available, such as Chinese Arctic Exploration (CHINARE 2008, 2010, 2012), SHEBA 1998 and HOTRAX 2005. However, manually delineating of sea ice and melt pond from these images is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, we use the object-based remote sensing classification scheme to extract sea ice and melt ponds efficiently from 1,727 aerial photos taken during the CHINARE 2010. The algorithm includes three major steps as follows. (1) Image segmentation groups the neighboring pixels into objects according to the similarity of spectral and texture

  17. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Batterson Park Pond Dam (CT 00262), Connecticut River Basin, Farmington/New Britain, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    inflow into the reservoir is 8,892 cfs (1,900 cfs/sm x 4.68 sm). However, just upstream of Batterson Park Pond is Dead Wood Swamp which controls 1.98...Batterson Park Pond Dam DATE 9-28-.78 pR C tTATUE_____MW______ R. Aloma I I SCPLIP _________WNW____ G. Giroux ARE~A EVALUATED CONDITIO14 I OWLET WORKs - S745

  18. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  19. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  20. Aspects of Spatial Economic Processes of Disadvantaged Areas in Hungarian and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KITTI NÉMEDI-KOLLÁR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The examination of disadvantaged regions goes back to a long history, greatly influenced by the ever-changing natural, economic and human resources. Consequently, while examining the disadvantaged areas, we face new systems of coherences. Today’s regional policy also needs to answer the question whether the spatial development funds of the past have been efficient or not and whether the land use distribution influences the spatial competitiveness or not. As we move towards 2015, we must consider the actual state of delivery of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs and address the above-mentioned issues in order to realise the international political commitment to leave no one behind. In this paper, we have shown some aspects of spatial economic processes through the example of the Hungarian disadvantaged areas. These issues are timely because the usefulness of the research is important, ranging from rural development to spatial planning and the elaboration of local and regional development strategies. Spatial discrepancies in Hungary cause the disadvantage of rural areas, contributing to their lagging behind compared to the urban areas (Kollár, 2012.

  1. Sensory competition in the face processing areas of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Nagy

    Full Text Available The concurrent presentation of multiple stimuli in the visual field may trigger mutually suppressive interactions throughout the ventral visual stream. While several studies have been performed on sensory competition effects among non-face stimuli relatively little is known about the interactions in the human brain for multiple face stimuli. In the present study we analyzed the neuronal basis of sensory competition in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study using multiple face stimuli. We varied the ratio of faces and phase-noise images within a composite display with a constant number of peripheral stimuli, thereby manipulating the competitive interactions between faces. For contralaterally presented stimuli we observed strong competition effects in the fusiform face area (FFA bilaterally and in the right lateral occipital area (LOC, but not in the occipital face area (OFA, suggesting their different roles in sensory competition. When we increased the spatial distance among pairs of faces the magnitude of suppressive interactions was reduced in the FFA. Surprisingly, the magnitude of competition depended on the visual hemifield of the stimuli: ipsilateral stimulation reduced the competition effects somewhat in the right LOC while it increased them in the left LOC. This suggests a left hemifield dominance of sensory competition. Our results support the sensory competition theory in the processing of multiple faces and suggests that sensory competition occurs in several cortical areas in both cerebral hemispheres.

  2. [Microbial Processes and Genesis of Methane Gas Jets in the Coastal Areas of the Crimea Peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, T V; Kanapatskii, T A; Egorov, V N; Malakhova, L V; Artemov, Yu G; Evtushenko, D B; Gulin, S B; Pimenov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Hydroasoustic techniques were used for detection and mapping of gas jet areas in the coastal regions of the Crimean peninsula. Gas seep areas in the bays Laspi, Khersones, and Kazach'ya were chosen for detailed microbiological investigation. The first type of gas jets, observed in the Laspi Bay, was probably associated with discarge of deep thermogenic methane along the faults. Methane isotopic composition was char- acterized by Δ13C of -35.3 degrees. While elevated rates of aerobic methane oxidation were revealed in the sandy sediments adjacent to the methane release site, no evidence of bacterial mats was found. The second type of gas emission, observed in the Khersones Bay, was accompanied by formation of bacterial biofilms of the "Thiodendron" microbial community type, predominated by filamentous, spirochete-like organisms, in the areas of gas seepage. The isotopic composition of methane was there considerably lower (-60.4 degrees), indicating a considerable contribution of modern microbial methane to the gas bubbles discharged in this bay. Activity of the third type of gas emission, the seeps of the Kazach'ya Bay, probably depended directly on modern microbial processes of organic matter degradation in the upper sediment layers. The rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were 260 and 34 μmol dm(-3) day(-1), respectively. Our results indicate different mechanisms responsible for formation of methane jets in the Laspi Bay and in the coastal areas of the Heracles Peninsula, where the bays Kazach'ya and Khersones are located.

  3. Nondirective meditation activates default mode network and areas associated with memory retrieval and emotional processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eXu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nondirective meditation techniques are practiced with a relaxed focus of attention that permits spontaneously occurring thoughts, images, sensations, memories and emotions to emerge and pass freely, without any expectation that mind wandering should abate. These techniques are thought to facilitate mental processing of emotional experiences, thereby contributing to wellness and stress management. The present study assessed brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 14 experienced practitioners of Acem meditation in two experimental conditions. In the first, nondirective meditation was compared to rest. Significantly increased activity was detected in areas associated with attention, mind wandering, retrieval of episodic memories and emotional processing. In the second condition, participants carried out concentrative practicing of the same meditation technique, actively trying to avoid mind wandering. The contrast nondirective meditation > concentrative practicing was characterized by higher activity in the right medial temporal lobe (parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala. In conclusion, the present results support the notion that nondirective meditation, which permits mind wandering, involves more extensive activation of brain areas associated with episodic memories and emotional processing, than during concentrative practicing or regular rest.

  4. Nondirective meditation activates default mode network and areas associated with memory retrieval and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Vik, Alexandra; Groote, Inge R; Lagopoulos, Jim; Holen, Are; Ellingsen, Oyvind; Håberg, Asta K; Davanger, Svend

    2014-01-01

    Nondirective meditation techniques are practiced with a relaxed focus of attention that permits spontaneously occurring thoughts, images, sensations, memories, and emotions to emerge and pass freely, without any expectation that mind wandering should abate. These techniques are thought to facilitate mental processing of emotional experiences, thereby contributing to wellness and stress management. The present study assessed brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 experienced practitioners of Acem meditation in two experimental conditions. In the first, nondirective meditation was compared to rest. Significantly increased activity was detected in areas associated with attention, mind wandering, retrieval of episodic memories, and emotional processing. In the second condition, participants carried out concentrative practicing of the same meditation technique, actively trying to avoid mind wandering. The contrast nondirective meditation > concentrative practicing was characterized by higher activity in the right medial temporal lobe (parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala). In conclusion, the present results support the notion that nondirective meditation, which permits mind wandering, involves more extensive activation of brain areas associated with episodic memories and emotional processing, than during concentrative practicing or regular rest.

  5. The remaining area of the convex hull of a Poisson process

    CERN Document Server

    Groeneboom, Piet

    2011-01-01

    In Cabo and Groeneboom (1994) the remaining area of the left-lower convex hull of a Poisson point process with intensity one in the first quadrant of the plane was analyzed, using the methods of Groeneboom (1988), giving formulas for the expectation and variance of the remaining area for a finite interval of slopes of the boundary of the convex hull. However, the time inversion argument of Groeneboom (1988) was not correctly applied in Cabo and Groeneboom (1994), leading to an incorrect scaling constant for the variance. The purpose of this note is to show how the correct application of the time inversion argument gives the right expression, which is in accordance with results in Nagaev and Khamdamov (1991) and Buchta (2003).

  6. Managing Cooperative Networks in the Process of Service Co-Creation in Rural Areas:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Leick, Birgit

    contributed to the Danish economy. The Danish windmill industry is still growing. Exports rose from 45,8 billion DKK in 2013 to 53.5 billion DKK and employment increased from 27.271 in 2013 to 28.676 employees in 2014 (Industriens Fond, 2015). Altogether, the Danish wind energy sector accounts for 3...... SME do not house the resources to offer the whole range of services, which is in need to run e. g. a windmill farm, cooperation among complementing SMES is a key capability in the process of shaping vital capabilities of cooperative networks and rural areas (Martin et al., 2016, Sarker and Faiz, 2016...... and brokerage as appropriate tools for network managers to handle such conflicts and in doing so to support business networks in rural areas (Burt, 2005, Granovetter, 1985, Eklinder-Frick, et al. 2011, 2012, 2014)....

  7. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  8. Local discriminability determines the strength of holistic processing for faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eGoffaux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the Fusiform Face Area (FFA is not exclusively dedicated to the interactive processing of face features, but also contains neurons sensitive to local features. This suggests the existence of both interactive and local processing modes, consistent with recent behavioral findings that the strength of interactive feature processing (IFP engages most strongly when similar features need to be disambiguated.Here we address whether the engagement of the FFA into interactive versus featural representational modes is governed by local feature discriminability. We scanned human participants while they matched target features within face pairs, independently of the context of distracter features. IFP was operationalized as the failure to match the target without being distracted by distracter features. Picture-plane inversion was used to disrupt IFP while preserving input properties. We found that FFA activation was comparably strong, irrespective of whether similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts (i.e., inducing robust IFP or dissimilar target features were embedded in the same context, (i.e., engaging local processing. Second, inversion decreased FFA activation to faces most robustly when similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts, indicating that FFA engages into IFP mainly when features cannot be disambiguated at a local level. Third, by means of Spearman rank correlation tests, we show that the local processing of feature differences in the FFA is supported to a large extent by the Occipital Face Area (OFA, the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC, and early visual cortex (EVC, suggesting that these regions encode the local aspects of face information. The present findings confirm the co-existence of holistic and featural representations in the FFA. Furthermore, they establish FFA as the main contributor to the featural/holistic representational mode switches determined by local

  9. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of wind-induced flows and transportation patterns in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective is to eva......-uniform wind field distributions are not significant to this study....

  10. Performance evaluation of wastewater stabilization ponds in Yazd-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yazd waste stabilization pond facilities consist of three stabilization pond systems, module 1, module 2 and module 3 that AWSP module 1 has started its operation. The existing facilities have had several problems in their operation. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the performance of stabilization ponds in wastewater treatment of the city of Yazd, due to several problems in their operation, and to prepare a scheme of its upgrading, if necessary. Methods: During the period from December to June 2010, data analysis were carried out for both raw and treated wastewater. Results: Results of these investigations showed that the average effluent concentrations of Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 (BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Suspended Solid (SS taken from anaerobic pond and secondary facultative ponds of module 1 were 306.9, 135.18, 139.75 and 136.75, 69.025, 136.5 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicated that the effluent of the anaerobic pond of module 1 was complied with the Iranian treated wastewater standards for agricultural reuse in terms of BOD5 and COD concentrations; hence the secondary facultative ponds could be changed to other primary facultative ponds in order to increase the capacity of wastewater treatment plant.

  11. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  12. Surface Sediments in Precooler Ponds 2, 4, and 5: March 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, D.L.

    2001-01-29

    Pond 2, Pond 4, and Pond 5 are inactive reactor cooling impoundments built in 1961 on the R-Reactor Effluent System in the east-central portion of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. These precooler ponds are part of the Par Pond cooling water system and are considered part of the Par Pond operable unit. The intent was not to characterize the ponds, but to identify the maximum levels of contamination that could be exposed if the ponds are drained to remove the danger of dam failure.

  13. Safety assessment of waste rock dump built on existing tailings ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全明; 袁会娜; 钟茂华

    2015-01-01

    The construction of waste rock dumps on existing tailing ponds has been put into practice in China to save precious land resources. This work focuses on the safety assessment of the Daheishan molybdenum mine waste rock dump under construction on two adjoining tailings ponds. The consolidation of the tailings foundation and the filling quality of the waste rock are investigated by the transient electromagnetic method through detecting water-rich areas and loose packing areas, from which, the depth of phreatic line is also estimated. With such information and the material parameters, the numerical method based on shear strength reduction is applied to analyzing the overall stability of the waste rock dump and the tailings ponds over a number of typical cross sections under both current and designed conditions, where the complex geological profiles exposed by site investigation are considered. Through numerical experiments, the influence of soft lenses in the tailings and possible loose packing areas in the waste rock is examined. Although large displacements may develop due to the soft tailings foundation, the results show that the waste rock dump satisfies the safety requirements under both present and designed conditions.

  14. Redhead duck behavior on lower Laguna Madre and adjacent ponds of southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C.A.; Custer, T.W.; Zwank, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Behavior of redheads (Aythya americana) during winter was studied on the hypersaline lower Laguna Madre and adjacent freshwater to brackish water ponds of southern Texas. On Laguna Madre, feeding (46%) and sleeping (37%) were the most common behaviors. Redheads fed more during early morning (64%) than during the rest of the day (40%); feeding activity was negatively correlated with temperature. Redheads fed more often by dipping (58%) than by tipping (25%), diving (16%), or gleaning (0.1%). Water depth was least where they fed by dipping (16 cm), greatest where diving (75 cm), and intermediate where tipping (26 cm). Feeding sequences averaged 5.3 s for dipping, 8.1 s for tipping, and 19.2 s for diving. Redheads usually were present on freshwater to brackish water ponds adjacent to Laguna Madre only during daylight hours, and use of those areas declined as winter progressed. Sleeping (75%) was the most frequent behavior at ponds, followed by preening (10%), swimming (10%), and feeding (0.4%). Because redheads fed almost exclusively on shoalgrass while dipping and tipping in shallow water and shoalgrass meadows have declined in the lower Laguna Madre, proper management of the remaining shoalgrass habitat is necessary to ensure that this area remains the major wintering area for redheads.

  15. Shoreline Dynamics and Various Associated Processes in the Batang Coastal Area, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Mutaqin, Bachtiar; Nugraha, Henky; Puspitorukmi, Arum; Lavigne, Franck; Hartono, Hartono; Aris Marfai, Muh

    2015-04-01

    Coastal area is an area with dynamic environmental condition with both physical and non-physical processes. One of the effects of these processes is shoreline change, which may occur in short-term events due to regular wave action, tides, or winds, as well as in long-term events such as tectonic activities that cause coastal land subsidence or emergence. Shoreline change analysis, especially in Batang, Central Java, Indonesia, is needed as a reference for coastal planning in that area, such as stipulate the coastal protection method, as well as a cornerstone in the policy or development of coastal areas. Shoreline change along Batang coastal area has been analyzed using the End Point Rate (EPR) technique in Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) in ArcGIS 10. Baseline were created along the shoreline to generate general trend of shoreline. Transects with 500 m spacing were made perpendicular to the baseline towards the sea. About 385 transect with 500 meters spaces was created to measure the shoreline change. Negative and positive value were used to indicate the erosion or accretion regime. Shoreline change have been measured using multi-temporal satellite images from 2009 to 2013. The study found that shoreline in Batang is changed significantly during 2009 - 2013. Around 0,33 km2 of land has lost due to coastal erosion, two times greater than the amount of coastal accretion (0,15 km2). The high erosion area mostly found in west Port of Niaga and in the east of Sambong River estuary. Based on the result obtained with EPR technique, can be concluded that coastal erosion is mostly happened in the Batang coastal than coastal accretion. This statement also supported by research conducted by Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) in 2013 which states that the phenomenon of coastal erosion in Batang was began in 1994. The highest rate of coastal erosion had occurred between the years 1997 to 2002, including at the Sigandu beach until

  16. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    Findings of a survey concerning salt ponds are summarized. The residential, commercial, and institutional buildings sector is discussed. The industrial process heat sector is considered. The agricultural process heat sector is examined. The electrical power sector is reviewed. The desalinization sector is considered.

  17. Multi Agent System Based Process Control in Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    In order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events; a multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper. Due to some unexpected failures of control strategy execution or the consequent unexpected disturbance, the power system will face...... emergent states, but also those unusual control process variations when unexpected situation is experienced. A hybrid simulation platform based on MATLAB/LabVIEW and real time digital simulator (RTDS) is set up to simulate a voltage collapse case in the power system of Eastern Denmark and demonstrate...

  18. USING THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE USE OF GEO-RESOURCES IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oswald MARINONI; Andreas HOPPE

    2006-01-01

    Sand and gravel are important raw materials which are needed for many civil engineering projects.Due to economic reasons, sand and gravelpits are frequently located in the periphery of metropolitan areas which are often subject to competing land-use interests. As a contribution to land-use conflict solving, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Two AHP preference matrix scenario constellations are evaluated and their results are used to create a land-use conflict map.

  19. Phytoremediation efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The present study was focused on field research to examine the phytoremediation potential of naturally grown Eichhornia crassipes in fly ash (FA) pond. Field results indicate the efficiency of E. crassipes for remediation of heavy metals from FA pond. The bioconcentration factor trend was Cr (3.75) > Cu (2.62) > Cd (1.05), and Cu (1.35) in root and stem, respectively. The survival and abundance growth of E. crassipes in the circumstance of heavy metal enriched FA pond is another highlight of the present research that reveals its toxitolerant characteristics. Thus, this lesson on phytoremediation proved that E. crassipes is a potential accumulator of Cu, Cr, and Cd from FA ponds and is a promising species for FA pond's remediation globally.

  20. Participation of the indigenous vs. alien herbaceous species to the constitution of vegetal layer on the Bozanta Mare tailing ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica MARIAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the distribution of different species of native and alien herbaceous species on the tailing pond Bozânta Mare (Maramureş county in NW Romania and the differences in heavy metal uptake in the roots and shoots relative to: 1. herbaceous species; 2. differential metal uptake and variation within single-species; 3. metal content of soil substrate. In 2007-2009 the contribution of native and alien species to the herbaceous layer forming, were studied on the Bozânta Mare tailing pond, resulted after heavy metal extraction process. The heavy metals found at elevated level in the herbaceous species included for environmental interest are: Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, Fe, Cr, Mn, Na, K. Also, the aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of the native vs. alien species presence in the colonization process on the tailing pond.

  1. Performance of pond-wetland complexes as a preliminary processor of drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Zhongqiong; Zhang, Rongbin; Chen, Qinghua; Yu, Xinfeng; Yin, Chengqing

    2016-01-01

    Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (110 hm(2)) is a drinking water source treatment wetland with primary structural units of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems. The wetland can process about 250,000 tonnes of source water in the Xincheng River every day and supplies raw water for Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant. Daily data for 28 months indicated that the major water quality indexes of source water had been improved by one grade. The percentage increase for dissolved oxygen and the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen, iron and manganese were 73.63%, 38.86%, 35.64%, and 22.14% respectively. The treatment performance weight of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems was roughly equal but they treated different pollutants preferentially. Most water quality indexes had better treatment efficacy with increasing temperature and inlet concentrations. These results revealed that the pond-wetland complexes exhibited strong buffering capacity for source water quality improvement. The treatment cost of Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant was reduced by about 30.3%. Regional rainfall significantly determined the external river water levels and adversely deteriorated the inlet water quality, thus suggesting that the "hidden" diffuse pollution in the multitudinous stream branches as well as their catchments should be the controlling emphases for river source water protection in the future. The combination of pond and plant-bed/ditch systems provides a successful paradigm for drinking water source pretreatment. Three other drinking water source treatment wetlands with ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems are in operation or construction in the stream networks of the Yangtze River Delta and more people will be benefited.

  2. Large area SiC coating technology of RBSC for semiconductor processing component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2001-06-01

    As the semiconductor process is developed for the larger area wafer and the larger-scale integration, the processing fixtures are required to have excellent mechanical and high temperature properties. This highlights the importance of silicon carbide-based materials as a substitute for quartz-based susceptors. In this study, SiC coating technology on reaction sintered (RS) SiC with thickness variation of +/- 10% within a diameter of 8 inch by low pressure chemical vapor deposition has been developed for making a plate type SiC fixture such as heater, baffle, etc., with a diameter of 12 inch. Additionally, a state of art on fabrication technology and products of the current commercial SiC fixtures has been described.

  3. Sequential Processing of Lexical, Grammatical, and Phonological Information within Broca’s Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ned T.; Pinker, Steven; Cash, Sydney S.; Schomer, Donald; Halgren, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Words, grammar, and phonology are linguistically distinct, yet their neural substrates are difficult to distinguish in macroscopic brain regions. We investigated whether they can be separated in time and space at the circuit level using intra-cranial electrophysiology (ICE), namely by recording local field potentials (LFP) from populations of neurons using depth electrodes implanted in language-related brain regions while people read words verbatim or grammatically inflected them (present/past, singular/plural). Neighboring probes within Broca’s area revealed distinct neuronal activity for lexical (~200 ms), grammatical (~320 ms), and phonological (~450 ms) processing, identically for nouns and verbs, in a region activated in the same patients and task in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This suggests that a linguistic processing sequence predicted on computational grounds is implemented in the brain in fine-grained spatiotemporally patterned activity. PMID:19833971

  4. Heavy metal composition in stormwater and retention in ponds dependent on pond age, design and catchment type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Sønderup, Melanie J.; Grudinina, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals have toxic effects on flora and fauna in the aquatic environments and are of great concern in stormwater. Heavy metal runoff was studied in 37 stormwater ponds in Denmark with varying heavy metal load, catchment type and pond design. The studied metals were Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn...

  5. Estimation of snow covered area for an urban catchment using image processing and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheussen, B V; Thorolfsson, S T

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the snow covered area (SCA) for small urban catchments. The method uses images taken with a digital camera positioned on top of a tall building. The camera is stationary and takes overview images of the same area every fifteen minutes throughout the winter season. The images were read into an image-processing program and a three-layered feed-forward perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) was used to calculate fractional snow cover within three different land cover types (road, park and roofs). The SCA was estimated from the number of pixels with snow cover relative to the total number of pixels. The method was tested for a small urban catchment, Risvollan in Trondheim, Norway. A time series of images taken during spring of 2001 and the 2001-2002 winter season was used to generate a time series of SCA. Snow covered area was also estimated from aerial photos. The results showed a strong correlation between SCA estimated from the digital camera and the aerial photos. The time series of SCA can be used for verification of urban snowmelt models.

  6. Lithodynamic processes in the construction area of a bridge across the kerch strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vvedenskiy Aleksey Rostislavovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The information about the evolution of the bottom topography in the construction area is necessary in the design and construction of hydraulic structures in sea, as well as information about possible deformations of the bottom caused by both natural reasons and the appearance of new hydraulic objects in the waters. In the given research the authors propose an analysis of lithodynamic processes in the area of the construction of the bridge across the Kerch Strait. Several physico-mathematical models were used for calculation and description of lithodynamic processes in the construction site of the Kerch Bridge. They may be divided into two groups: atmospheric and water. Many important properties of hydrometeorological conditions may be obtained only by modeling. The model WRF is used in the research, which is applied in many foreign and domestic centers for simulation and forecast of regional atmospheric circulation due to its high quality and ease. The main steps of the calculations are provided: beginning with the collection of basic information up to combining the results of numerical experiments on several mathematical models. Special attention is paid to sedimentation and erosion associated with construction of temporary piers and waterways to them.

  7. A single-stage biological process for municipal sewage treatment in tourist areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iaconi, C; De Sanctis, M; Lopez, A

    2014-11-01

    This pilot scale study aims to test the effectiveness of an innovative compact biological system (SBBGR - Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor) for treating municipal wastewater in tourist areas characterised by intense seasonal water demand and wastewater discharge. The results obtained after a long term operation of 463 days have shown that the proposed system is able to assure average removal efficiencies higher than 90% for COD (chemical oxygen demand), total suspended solids and TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen) independently of the influent concentration values and organic loading, which ranged from 0.2 to 5.1 kgCOD/m(3)biofilter.d Furthermore, the plant showed a high degree of operation flexibility and stability in response to the organic load variations occurring in tourist areas. In fact, no significant deterioration in the plant's effluent quality was observed even during a sudden several-fold increase in organic loading. High nitrogen removal efficiencies (80%, on average) were also achieved thanks to the establishment of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification process favoured by the plant's high biomass concentration and operating conditions. Finally, the system was characterized by an excess sludge production much lower (60-80% lower) than that of conventional biological systems operating without a primary clarifier. An acceptable level of stabilization of excess sludge was also obtained so that a further stabilization process was no longer required.

  8. Biomineralization process occurring in iron mud of coastal seepase area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZiJun; JIA Nan; YUAN LinXi; SUN LiGuang

    2008-01-01

    The biomineralization process of iron oxidizing bacteria and its influence on accumulation of metals were investigated by modern biological observation techniques (i.e., SEM and TEM) and geochemical methods, in coastal area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang province where a thick ancient wood layers were buried, Results show that the iron mud samples mainly contain Leptothrix-like sheaths and Gal-lionella-like stalks, which are known as neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. These two bacteria are present as obviously different abundance in two sampling sites, which may be regulated by the geo-chemistry of seepage water. The biomineralization product of iron oxidizing bacteria is ferrihydrite, a poorly ordered iron oxide, and formation of amorphous mineral is affected by the factors of bacteria, minor Si and temperature preventing any further transformation into more crystalline phases. Organic functional groups, extracellular polymers and surface charges can provide favorable nucleation sites or template for formation of iron precipitates on the bacterial surface. The mineralization process of the iron oxidizing bacteria is divided into different stages,i.e., extracellular mineralization, intracellular mineralization and the whole cell mineralization. Furthermore, due to BIOS containing the bacterial organic matter, the accumulation capacity of metals specially Fe and Co is highly increased, suggest-ing that BIOS exert a degree of controlling in the cycling of metal elements in seepage area.

  9. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  10. Temporal variation in the water quality of ponds and effluent of grow-out ponds of Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Crustacean Sector of the Aquaculture Center (CAUNESP at the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal (21 ° 15’22”S and 48 ° 18’48”W São Paulo, Brazil, from December 2003 to May 2004. The aim was to examine the water quality parameters of importance to freshwater prawn culture, operated in a semi-intensive system in Amazon River. Nine 0.01-ha earthen ponds were stocked with 20 juveniles.m -2 . Prawns were fed commercial diet at a rate of 7 to 9% of biomass until the 14th week. After 145 days of stocking, all ponds were drained and harvested. The following water parameters were determined weekly: dissolved oxygen, oxygen biochemical demand, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity, suspended total solids and turbidity, N-nitrate, N-nitrite, N-nitrogen ammonia, N- total, soluble ortophosphate, total phosphorus, chlorophyll and pheophytin. In the semi-intensive culture system of M. amazonicum, there was no clear pattern of temporal variation in the limnological variables studied. Dissolved oxygen, pH, BOD, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate increased in the afternoon period while, the other variables did not change. In general, water quality is more dependent on the biological processes that occur in the pond than on the characteristics of the renewal water for some variable.

  11. Trapping carbon in small ponds and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, J. N.; Ockenden, M. C.; Deasy, C.; Favaretto, N.

    2012-04-01

    There is no doubt that carbon (C) is on the move. Recent estimates have suggested that the global sediment flux in agricultural landscapes due to water and tillage erosion is 35±10 Pg C y-1. Some of this C is oxidised and lost to the atmosphere, other material may be deposited and burried in colluvium and some may be delivered through both surface and subsurface flow paths to surface waters. In many agricultural landscapes these surface waters may take the form of small ponds and wetlands (field wetlands). In this paper we explore the potential of field wetlands to trap particulate C and influence the fate of dissolved organic carbon within the context of a small agricultural catchments in England. Since 2008 the mitigation options for phosphorus and sediment project (MOPS) has established ten monitored field wetlands across three catchments in the UK at Crake Trees, Cumbria (silt soils, rainfall 1500 mm y-1), Whinton Hill Cumbria (sandy soils, rainfall 1200 mm y-1), Newton Rigg, Cumbria (Silt soils, rainfall c1200 mm y-1) and Loddington, Leicestershire (Clay soils, rainfall 650 mm y-1). Although originally designed to capture sediment and phosphorus, their potential for influencing catchment scale C dynamics is becoming apparent. The C contents of sediments from the three catchments are typically in the range of 1.8 - 3.0% at Crake Trees Catchment, 2.5 to 9% at Whinton Hill and 2.0 to 3.1 % at Crake Trees. At the high rainfall sites the wetlands trap upwards of 20 t y-1 of sediment equating to several hundred kilograms of C. There is also some evidence that the ponds and wetlands may influence DOC, with DOC concentrations falling from approximately 35 mg l-1 to 15 mg l-1 at the Whinton Hill site as water passes through a series of field wetlands. In this paper we will present data from the last two years of monitoring and consider the wider implications for C sequestration by ponds and wetlands in agricultural landscapes.

  12. Adaptive Levy processes and area-restricted search in human foraging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T Hills

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of research has claimed that animals' foraging behaviors display movement lengths with power-law distributed tails, characteristic of Lévy flights and Lévy walks. Though these claims have recently come into question, the proposal that many animals forage using Lévy processes nonetheless remains. A Lévy process does not consider when or where resources are encountered, and samples movement lengths independently of past experience. However, Lévy processes too have come into question based on the observation that in patchy resource environments resource-sensitive foraging strategies, like area-restricted search, perform better than Lévy flights yet can still generate heavy-tailed distributions of movement lengths. To investigate these questions further, we tracked humans as they searched for hidden resources in an open-field virtual environment, with either patchy or dispersed resource distributions. Supporting previous research, for both conditions logarithmic binning methods were consistent with Lévy flights and rank-frequency methods-comparing alternative distributions using maximum likelihood methods-showed the strongest support for bounded power-law distributions (truncated Lévy flights. However, goodness-of-fit tests found that even bounded power-law distributions only accurately characterized movement behavior for 4 (out of 32 participants. Moreover, paths in the patchy environment (but not the dispersed environment showed a transition to intensive search following resource encounters, characteristic of area-restricted search. Transferring paths between environments revealed that paths generated in the patchy environment were adapted to that environment. Our results suggest that though power-law distributions do not accurately reflect human search, Lévy processes may still describe movement in dispersed environments, but not in patchy environments-where search was area-restricted. Furthermore, our results

  13. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Lucie; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Kierdorf, Uwe; Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats.

  14. Temporal population dynamics of dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum in a semi-enclosed mariculture pond and its relationship to environmental factors and protozoan grazers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许恒龙; MIN; Gi-Sik; CHOI; Joong-Ki; 朱明壮; 姜勇; AL-RASHEID; Khaled; A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The ecological processes and interrelationships between protists,either autotrophic or heterotrophic,and environmental factors in mariculture ponds are largely unknown.This study investigated the temporal dynamics of potentially harmful dinoflagellate,Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller,and its relationship to physico-chemical factors and protozoan grazers over a complete cycle in a semi-enclosed shrimp-farming pond near Qingdao,Northern China.P.minimum occurred frequently in low numbers from June to ...

  15. Study on rain-runoff process in the peripheral mountainous area of tne Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Bin; WANG Yu-kuan; REN Yi; LIU Cheng; XU Pei

    2008-01-01

    Studies on rain.runoff process in the peripheral mountainous area of the Sichuan Basin,which is re-garded as a key ecological shelter,will contribute to flood control and environmental protection for the Upper Yang-tze River Basin.In two typical catchments--the Fujiang River Catchment and the Wujiang River Catchment,rainfall simulations have been conducted to study the rain-runoff processes of yellow soil and limestone soil in three types of land use-forestland.farmland and grassland.Results showed that(1)within the same rainfall process,overland flow occurs first on farmland,then on grassland,and finally on forestland;(2)soil surface coverage has a great im-pact on the occurrence and amount of overland flow.The runoff amount Can increase 2-4 times after the coverage iS removed;(3)the infiltration before the occurrence of overland flow will decrease because of higher gravel contents of soil.but it takes no effect on infiltration once,overland flow becomes stable;(4)the runoff coefficient of the lime-stone soil forestland iS greater than that of the yellow soil forest land,but less than that of the farmland;(5)threeempirical infiltration models,including Horton'model,Kostiakov'model,and modified Kostiakov'model,were compared by using the observed results under rainfall simulation.The results showed that the Kostiakov'model per-formed better than both the Horton'model and modified Kostiakov model.According to the results of this research,the Kostiakov's model Can be used to simulate rainfall infiltration when water erosion is modeled in the peripheral mountainous area of the Sichuan Basin.

  16. Transparent conductive film by large area roll-to-roll processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Linda Y.L., E-mail: ylwu@simtech.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Kerk, W.T. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Wong, C.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-10-01

    Sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on polyethylene terephthalate film has been used as the substrate for roll-to-roll fabrication of large area printed electronics devices, but it is expensive and could be cracked when bending, limiting its applications. Transparent conductive (TC) electrode made by roll-to-roll coating of transparent conductive ink on flexible substrate is an alternative, but both the ink material and the control of the coating quality are very crucial. The major challenges are the coating performance, coating uniformity and defect control during roll-to-roll processing. In this paper, we report the chemical synthesis of silver nanowires in preferred shape and size, the surface modification of the Ag nanowires for better dispersion into the commercial Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive polymer ink, and the controlled roll-to-roll coating process on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate by a one meter web-width roll-to-roll slot die coating system. We obtained high uniformity PEDOT:PSS coating with optical transmission higher than 80% and sheet resistance lower than 100 Ω/square, and silver containing coating with sheet resistance below 40 Ω/square and maintained optical transmittance. The slot die coating mechanism is investigated and the influencing factors for coating uniformity and defect are defined. The coated transparent conductive film has the same properties as the sputtered ITO and has been used as the TC electrode for printed lighting, whose performance has been proven by standard weathering test for 1000 h. - Highlight: • Controlled synthesis of silver nanowires using trace amount of Cl{sup −} ions • Large area roll-to-roll processed transparent conductive (TC) coatings • TC film has light transmission > 80% and sheet resistance < 100 Ω/sq. • Silver containing ink achieved better property than conductive polymer ink. • Used as the TC electrode for printed

  17. Borehole Completion and Conceptual Hydrogeologic Model for the IFRC Well Field, 300 Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horner, Jacob A.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Lanigan, David C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2009-04-20

    A tight cluster of 35 new wells was installed over a former waste site, the South Process Pond (316-1 waste site), in the Hanford Site 300 Area in summer 2008. This report documents the details of the drilling, sampling, and well construction for the new array and presents a summary of the site hydrogeology based on the results of drilling and preliminary geophysical logging.

  18. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-09-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  19. Impact of otter (Lutra lutra predation on amphibians in temporary ponds in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Cogălniceanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of an event of mortality of ribbed newts (Pleurodeles waltl and Iberian spadefoot toads (Pelobates cultripes due to predation by a pair of otters (Lutra lutra in a temporary pond complex in southern Spain. The peculiar predation mode on ribbed newts, with extraction of soft organs through an incision in the upper part of the thorax, may result in an under estimate of the importance of this species in the diet of otters. The high number of dead amphibians killed by two otters in only several hours suggests that the presence of these predators may pose a serious threat to amphibian populations. The risk is especially high in arid areas, with few ponds, synchronous reproductive migration, and high density of animals. We consider that measures promoting the conservation and population and range increase of otters might have a negative impact on amphibians.

  20. A First Approach to Natural Thermoventilation of Residential Buildings through Ventilation Chimneys Supplied by Solar Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural ventilation is a good solution to improve buildings from an energetic point of view and to fulfill the requirements demanded by the thermohygrometric comfort and the air quality in enclosed spaces. Some past researches demonstrated how some devices, useful to this purpose, follow the principles of solar chimneys and are able to move air masses while exploiting the Archimedes thrust. The natural ventilation must be supplied by a flow moving upward, generated by a heat source performing at temperatures slightly higher than the one present in the environment. To have a minimum energetic effect, the heat can be extracted from solar ponds; solar ponds are able to collect and store solar energy in the geographical regions characterized by sufficient values of solar radiation. Thus it is possible, in summer, to provoke a nocturnal natural ventilation useful for the air change in indoor spaces (in those climatic areas where, during the night, there is a temperature gradient.

  1. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-07-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  2. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This PhD study deals with issues related to water and pollutant transport from highway surfaces caused by rain. It is essential in the study to apply methods and models in which improvements in relation to removal of pollutants can be identified and to be able to predict the yearly discharges...... of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from an arbitrary detention pond to the natural environment. The present thesis is a part of a co-operation between the Danish Road Directorate (Vejdirektoratet) and Aalborg University and is founded in the Danish construction act for new highways...... single rain event. From the hindcast results it is possible to calculate mean water and pollutant loads. This method is commonly used in urban drainage systems for capacity analysis or for prediction of CSO's. The challenge is to develop a simplified and still accurate description of flow and transport...

  3. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  4. The role of the supplementary motor area for speech and language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrich, Ingo; Dietrich, Susanne; Ackermann, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Apart from its function in speech motor control, the supplementary motor area (SMA) has largely been neglected in models of speech and language processing in the brain. The aim of this review paper is to summarize more recent work, suggesting that the SMA has various superordinate control functions during speech communication and language reception, which is particularly relevant in case of increased task demands. The SMA is subdivided into a posterior region serving predominantly motor-related functions (SMA proper) whereas the anterior part (pre-SMA) is involved in higher-order cognitive control mechanisms. In analogy to motor triggering functions of the SMA proper, the pre-SMA seems to manage procedural aspects of cognitive processing. These latter functions, among others, comprise attentional switching, ambiguity resolution, context integration, and coordination between procedural and declarative memory structures. Regarding language processing, this refers, for example, to the use of inner speech mechanisms during language encoding, but also to lexical disambiguation, syntax and prosody integration, and context-tracking.

  5. Environmental selection of planktonic methanogens in permafrost thaw ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, Sophie; Vincent, Warwick F.; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-01

    The warming and thermal erosion of ice-containing permafrost results in thaw ponds that are strong emitters of methane to the atmosphere. Here we examined methanogens and other Archaea, in two types of thaw ponds that are formed by the collapse of either permafrost peat mounds (palsas) or mineral soil mounds (lithalsas) in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Using high-throughput sequencing of a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA, we determined the taxonomic structure and diversity of archaeal communities in near-bottom water samples, and analyzed the mcrA gene transcripts from two sites. The ponds at all sites were well stratified, with hypoxic or anoxic bottom waters. Their archaeal communities were dominated by Euryarchaeota, specifically taxa in the methanogenic orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales, indicating a potentially active community of planktonic methanogens. The order Methanomicrobiales accounted for most of the mcrA transcripts in the two ponds. The Archaeal communities differed significantly between the lithalsa and palsa ponds, with higher alpha diversity in the organic-rich palsa ponds, and pronounced differences in community structure. These results indicate the widespread occurrence of planktonic, methane-producing Archaea in thaw ponds, with environmental selection of taxa according to permafrost landscape type.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  7. MERCURY CONTENT IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF MID-FIELD PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two mid-field ponds located in the agricultural catchment was chosen for the investigations. Total of 24 samples of bottom sediments were collected. The samples were taken from sediment layers: 0–5 (W1, 5–10 (W2, 10–20 (W3 and 20–30 (W4 cm, with three points at once during the 2014 winter period. Mercury content in the samples was determined by analyzer AMA 254. Higher pH (active acidity was recorded in sediments in pond located in a rural park than pond located within agricultural crops. Bottom sediment in mid-field pond (No. 1 had higher values of organic carbon averaging 22.70% than in the pond located in a rural park (No. 2, where organic carbon content averaged 4.59%. The mercury content in bottom sediments ranged from 0.02 to 0.41 mg ⋅ kg-1. The examined sediments were classified (at points P1, P2, P3 and P4 as uncontaminated sediments (Class I and at points S1 and S2 were classified as moderately polluted sediments (Class II. Bottom sediments classified as class I and II can be disposed in the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Mercury concentrations in samples collected from both banks of the pond No. 1 and 2 differ significantly (Tukey test p ≤ 0.05 than those in the samples collected from central part of the ponds. Chemical analysis of the individual layers of bottom sediments in ponds showed that the largest accumulation of mercury occurred in a layer W1 (0–5 cm in pond No. 2 (at point S2.

  8. Spring melt ponds drive Arctic September ice at past, present and future climates in coupled climate simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David; Feltham, Danny; Rae, Jamie; Flocco, Daniela; Ridley, Jeff; Blockley, Edd

    2016-04-01

    Stand-alone sea ice simulations with a physical based melt pond model reveal a strong correlation between the simulated spring pond fraction and the observed as well as simulated September sea ice extent for the period 1979 to 2014. This is explained by a positive feedback mechanism: more ponds reduce the albedo; a lower albedo causes more melting; more melting increases pond fraction. This feedback process is a potential reason for the acceleration of Arctic sea ice decrease in the last decade and the failure of many climate models (without an implicit pond model) to simulate the observed decrease. We implemented the Los Alamos sea ice model CICE 5 including our physical based melt pond model into the latest version of the Hadley Centre coupled climate model, HadGEM3. The model surface shortwave radiation scheme has been adjusted to account for pond fraction and depth. We performed three 55-year HadGEM3 simulations with constant external forcing for the years 1985, 2010 and 2035. In all three simulations we find a strong correlation between the April/May pond fraction and the September sea ice extent with correlation coefficients R1985 = -0.86, R2010 = -0.83 and R2035 = -0.79. Based on the correlation we can perform forecasts with remarkable skill values of S1985 = 0.50, S2010 = 0.36 and S2035 = 0.40. We calculate the skill as S = 1 - σferr2/ σref2, where σref2 is the variance of the de-trended climatology and σferr2 the forecast error variance. Altogether our three simulations cover a large range of September sea ice extent from maximum values of 8.5 million km2 for the 1985 run down to 1.5 million km2 for the 2035 run. We demonstrate that spring melt ponds are an important driver for summer ice melt and the consequent minimum ice extent for current and future climate conditions.

  9. Conjunctive processing of locomotor signals by the ventral tegmental area neuronal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong V Wang

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA plays an essential role in reward and motivation. How the dopamine (DA and non-DA neurons in the VTA engage in motivation-based locomotor behaviors is not well understood. We recorded activity of putative DA and non-DA neurons simultaneously in the VTA of awake mice engaged in motivated voluntary movements such as wheel running. Our results revealed that VTA non-DA neurons exhibited significant rhythmic activity that was correlated with the animal's running rhythms. Activity of putative DA neurons also correlated with the movement behavior, but to a lesser degree. More importantly, putative DA neurons exhibited significant burst activation at both onset and offset of voluntary movements. These findings suggest that VTA DA and non-DA neurons conjunctively process locomotor-related motivational signals that are associated with movement initiation, maintenance and termination.

  10. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Taku [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Branch Hospital

    1994-12-01

    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: (1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and (2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author).

  11. Evidence of an increase in pond surface during the multidecennial drought in pastoral Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardelle, J.; Hiernaux, P.; Kergoat, L.; Grippa, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Sahel region experienced the most important decrease in precipitation during the second half of the 20th century, with severe droughts having a dramatic impact on the population. However, in apparent contradiction with the negative precipitation trend, evidences of an increase in watertables level and in river discharge have been reported for some endorheic areas of the Sahel, as for example in the SouthWestern Niger ([1, 2]). Getting a global picture of this phenomenon is quite difficult since not much information is available on this wide and remote region, especially in the northern pastoral areas. The aim of this work was therefore to provide some more details on the long term evolution of surface water in the pastoral region of Gourma, in Mali. The study was focused on the evolution of ponds over the 1954/2007 period and employed long time series of remotely sensed data. Different remote sensing information acquired by different sensors and different support (satellite images such as those from FORMOSAT, SPOT, LANDSAT, TERRA/MODIS, CORONA as well as aerial pictures) were combined to get a coherent picture of the seasonal, interannual and long term evolution of the ponds investigated. The ponds' surfaces were estimated from these images using different classification methods that were specifically adapted to fit each type of spectral resolution (lack or presence of a middle infrared band, panchromatic image) and spatial resolution (going from a few meters as for SPOT and FORMOSAT images to 250 meters as for MODIS images). The classification results showed evidences of a general increase in the Gourma pond's surface over the last 50 years, despite the precipitation decrease recorded over the same region. Moreover we observed an important change in the hydrological regime of some ponds such as that of Agoufou et of Bangui Mallam that were temporary (filled with water during the rainy season but empty during the dry season) before the major droughts of the 70

  12. The melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data: validation and trends of sea ice albedo and melt pond fraction in the Arctic for years 2002–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Istomina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences on the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo (Zege et al., 2014 from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS data is validated against aerial, ship borne and in situ campaign data. The result show the best correlation for landfast and multiyear ice of high ice concentrations (albedo: R = 0.92, RMS = 0.068, melt pond fraction: R = 0.6, RMS = 0.065. The correlation for lower ice concentrations, subpixel ice floes, blue ice and wet ice is lower due to complicated surface conditions and ice drift. Combining all aerial observations gives a mean albedo RMS equal to 0.089 and a mean melt pond fraction RMS equal to 0.22. The in situ melt pond fraction correlation is R = 0.72 with an RMS = 0.14. Ship cruise data might be affected by documentation of varying accuracy within the ASPeCT protocol, which is the reason for discrepancy between the satellite value and observed value: mean R = 0.21, mean RMS = 0.16. An additional dynamic spatial cloud filter for MERIS over snow and ice has been developed to assist with the validation on swath data. The case studies and trend analysis for the whole MERIS period (2002–2011 show pronounced and reasonable spatial features of melt pond fractions and sea ice albedo. The most prominent feature is the melt onset shifting towards spring (starting already in weeks 3 and 4 of June within the multiyear ice area, north to the Queen Elizabeth Islands and North Greenland.

  13. Electrical and optical characterization of an atmospheric pressure, uniform, large-area processing, dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniou, A.; Puač, N.; Škoro, N.; Selaković, N.; Dimitrakellis, P.; Gogolides, E.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2017-04-01

    A printed-circuit-board (PCB) based atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) capable of uniform processing over a large area was constructed consisting of two parallel plates. The first perforated plate is comprised of four layers: a RF powered metal layer, a polymeric dielectric layer, a floating metal grid and another dielectric layer. The second, grounded, plate was fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate with surface of 100  ×  100 mm2 and thickness of 2 mm. The PCB based atmospheric pressure DBD was characterized by (a) measuring electrical characteristics of the device using derivative I–V probes, (b) ICCD imaging and (c) optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Optical and electrical characteristics, as well as plasma uniformity were measured by changing He flow rate and input power, while keeping the gap between the PCB and the FTO glass plate ground electrode constant at 2 mm. The plasma uniformity strongly depends on the applied power and on the flow rate of the buffer gas. When increasing the flow rate, the intensity of the nitrogen-dominated emission drops, while emission of helium and oxygen lines increases. The source allows low temperature, uniform plasma operation over a wide area of 100  ×  100 mm2, which could be essential for numerous applications. Examples of etching rate and hydrophilization are demonstrated.

  14. Hydrogeochemical processes of thallium in a rural area of Southwest Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The water system in a rural area of Lanmuchang in Southwest Guizhou is facing a risk of thallium (Tl) contamination due to Tl mineralization around the area. The major trace elements and Tl in the water system are studied to understand the hydrogeochemical processes of Tl constrained by Tl mineralization. The results showed that the dispersion pattern of Tl follows a descending order in concentration from mine groundwater (deep groundwater)→stream water→shallow groundwater→background water, reflecting the impact of Tl mineralization on the hydrogeochemical composition. Tl concentrations in stream water in both regimes are remarkably higher (2-30 fold) downstream than up- and mid-streams, probably caused by the unidentified discharge of deep groundwater. Low Tl levels are detected in the current drinking water, however, the highly elevated Tl in stream water and ground water may pose a potential environmental risk through daily washing and agricultural irrigation. This study suggests that human activities, such as agricultural irrigation, could intensify the environmental risk of Tl.

  15. Joint processing and analysis of seismic gravity measurements in Capital Circle area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Min-yu; MA Li; LIU Shao-ming; ZHANG Jing; SUN Shao-an; WANG Wu-xing

    2006-01-01

    In Capital Circle area, there are three groups of repeated gravity measurements observed by different institutes using different instruments or methods. The simultaneous adjustment of absolute and relative measurements and the elimination of systematic error among the relative measurements have been carried out in this paper. Thus an unified temporal gravity change system with absolute reference has been established. On the basis of this, the crustal subsidence effect on gravity, which belongs to non-tectonic factor, is analyzed and the station displacement corrections are carried out, so that the long-wave disturbance is eliminated. So far our following aims are realized:the advantages of the absolute and relative measurement methods are complementary to each other; the contradiction and environment disturbance are eliminated; the amounts of information are enlarged; the sampling interval of time domain is compressed. In a word, the ability of identifying the tectonic activity process is enhanced. The results show that: there are systematic errors between the two groups of relative measurements and within the data of 10 campaigns; the uneven local crustal subsidence in the southeast of the study area results in a linear rise of gravity value at 10 stations; they can be corrected by the regression analysis. The maps of revised temporal gravity change can obviously and integrally reflect the Ms=5.0 earthquake in Guye on October 6, 1995.

  16. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.

  17. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have been...... implemented in Canada, but not yet applied to Canada’s Arctic due to uncertainty related to the performance of current wastewater treatment systems. Waste stabilization pond (WSP) treatment performance is impacted by community water use, pond design, and climate. The greatest challenge arctic communities...

  18. Arctic melt ponds and bifurcations in the climate system

    CERN Document Server

    Sudakov, Ivan; Golden, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how sea ice melts is critical to climate projections. In the Arctic, melt ponds that develop on the surface of sea ice floes during the late spring and summer largely determine their albedo $-$ a key parameter in climate modeling. Here we explore the possibility of a simple sea ice climate model passing through a bifurcation point $-$ an irreversible critical threshold as the system warms, by incorporating geometric information about melt pond evolution. This study is based on a nonlinear phase transition model for melt ponds, and bifurcation analysis of a simple climate model with ice - albedo feedback as the key mechanism driving the system to a potential bifurcation point.

  19. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...

  20. Human impact on geomorphic processes and hazards in mountain areas in northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remondo, Juan; Soto, Jesús; González-Díez, Alberto; Díaz de Terán, José Ramón; Cendrero, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    The temporal occurrence of slope movements, their contribution to relief evolution and human influence on those processes in two study areas of northern Spain are presented. The work is based on temporal analyses covering 100 ka in one study area and 43 years in the other. Temporal analysis has been the basis for quantitatively assessing the magnitude of human influence and developing landslide susceptibility and hazard models with known, independently-tested prediction capability. The results obtained in one study area show a relationship between landsliding periods and increasing precipitation during upper Pleistocene and Holocene. Significant increases of landslide frequency and mobilisation rate were also found around 5500 and 200 years ago. Those moments coincide with two periods of intensified human presence and activities: Neolithic and industrial revolutions. The increase observed represents about one order of magnitude from pre-Neolithic to present. A similar increase has been found between 1954 and 1997 in the other study area. The latter increase shows no relationship with changes in climate parameters or seismic activity. A fairly good correlation has been found between landslide frequency and socioeconomic indicators of human activity. Sedimentation rates in two neighbouring estuaries were determined and significant increases, particularly in the second part of last century, were also found. Evidence obtained suggest that the increases observed in the frequency of slope instability events (and therefore hazard), denudation and sedimentation rates are due to a greater extent to indirect geomorphologic changes caused by human action rather than climate change. Detailed analysis of landslide frequency during that 43-year period has also been used to produce and validate landslide susceptibility models and obtain landslide hazard maps with known prediction accuracy. Validation tests were carried out comparing susceptibility maps based on landslides that

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Remote Estimation of Flooded Areas Based on Complex Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Dan; Ichim, Loretta; Stoican, Florin

    2017-02-23

    Floods are natural disasters which cause the most economic damage at the global level. Therefore, flood monitoring and damage estimation are very important for the population, authorities and insurance companies. The paper proposes an original solution, based on a hybrid network and complex image processing, to this problem. As first novelty, a multilevel system, with two components, terrestrial and aerial, was proposed and designed by the authors as support for image acquisition from a delimited region. The terrestrial component contains a Ground Control Station, as a coordinator at distance, which communicates via the internet with more Ground Data Terminals, as a fixed nodes network for data acquisition and communication. The aerial component contains mobile nodes-fixed wing type UAVs. In order to evaluate flood damage, two tasks must be accomplished by the network: area coverage and image processing. The second novelty of the paper consists of texture analysis in a deep neural network, taking into account new criteria for feature selection and patch classification. Color and spatial information extracted from chromatic co-occurrence matrix and mass fractal dimension were used as well. Finally, the experimental results in a real mission demonstrate the validity of the proposed methodologies and the performances of the algorithms.

  2. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  3. Bayesian classifier applications of airborne hyperspectral imagery processing for forested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozoderov, Vladimir; Kondranin, Timofei; Dmitriev, Egor; Kamentsev, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Pattern recognition problem is outlined in the context of textural and spectral analysis of remote sensing imagery processing. Main attention is paid to Bayesian classifier that can be used to realize the processing procedures based on parallel machine-learning algorithms and high-productive computers. We consider the maximum of the posterior probability principle and the formalism of Markov random fields for the neighborhood description of the pixels for the related classes of objects with the emphasis on forests of different species and ages. The energy category of the selected classes serves to account for the likelihood measure between the registered radiances and the theoretical distribution functions approximating remotely sensed data. Optimization procedures are undertaken to solve the pattern recognition problem of the texture description for the forest classes together with finding thin nuances of their spectral distribution in the feature space. As a result, possible redundancy of the channels for imaging spectrometer due to their correlations is removed. Difficulties are revealed due to different sampling data while separating pixels, which characterize the sunlit tops, shaded space and intermediate cases of the Sun illumination conditions on the hyperspectral images. Such separation of pixels for the forest classes is maintained to enhance the recognition accuracy, but learning ensembles of data need to be agreed for these categories of pixels. We present some results of the Bayesian classifier applicability for recognizing airborne hyperspectral images using the relevant improvements in separating such pixels for the forest classes on a test area of the 4 × 10 km size encompassed by 13 airborne tracks, each forming the images by 500 pixels across the track and from 10,000 to 14,000 pixels along the track. The spatial resolution of each image is near to 1 m from the altitude near to 2 km above the ground level. The results of the hyperspectral imagery

  4. Modelling waste stabilisation ponds with an extended version of ASM3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, T; Silva, J D; Kehl, O; Castilhos, A B; Costa, R H R; Uhlenhut, F; Alex, J; Horn, H; Wichern, M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an extended version of IWA's Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was developed to simulate processes in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The model modifications included the integration of algae biomass and gas transfer processes for oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia depending on wind velocity and a simple ionic equilibrium. The model was applied to a pilot-scale WSP system operated in the city of Florianópolis (Brazil). The system was used to treat leachate from a municipal waste landfill. Mean influent concentrations to the facultative pond of 1,456 g(COD)/m(3) and 505 g(NH4-N)/m(3) were measured. Experimental results indicated an ammonia nitrogen removal of 89.5% with negligible rates of nitrification but intensive ammonia stripping to the atmosphere. Measured data was used in the simulations to consider the impact of wind velocity on oxygen input of 11.1 to 14.4 g(O2)/(m(2) d) and sun radiation on photosynthesis. Good results for pH and ammonia removal were achieved with mean stripping rates of 18.2 and 4.5 g(N)/(m(2) d) for the facultative and maturation pond respectively. Based on measured chlorophyll a concentrations and depending on light intensity and TSS concentration it was possible to model algae concentrations.

  5. Comparison of microalgae cultivation in photobioreactor, open raceway pond, and a two-stage hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh R Narala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted towards sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  6. The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coty, J; Stevenson, M; Vogt, K A

    2002-02-01

    The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven conceptual framework provides an interdisciplinary methodology for determining ecosystem health, appropriate management strategies, and sensitive indicators. The conceptual framework, the Detention Ponds project, and the use of the framework in the context of the project, are described and evaluated, and evaluative criteria for this and other ecosystem management frameworks are offered. The project benefited in several ways from use of the Legacy Framework, although refinements to the framework are suggested. The stakeholder process created a context and environment in which team members became receptive to using an ecosystem management approach to evaluate and support management alternatives previously not considered. This allowed for the unanimous agreement to pursue support from upper management and organizational funding to implement a progressive management strategy. The greatly improved stakeholder relations resulted in upper management support for the project.

  7. Massive Ice Layer Formed by Refreezing of Ice-shelf Surface Melt Ponds: Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bryn; Luckman, Adrian; Ashmore, David; Bevan, Suzanne; Kulessa, Bernd; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Jansen, Daniela; O'Leary, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Surface melt ponds now form frequently on ice shelves across the northern sector of the Antarctic Peninsula in response to regional warming and local föhn winds. A potentially important, but hitherto unknown, consequence of this surface melting and ponding is the formation of high-density near-surface ice from the refreezing of that water. We report the discovery and physical character of a massive subsurface ice layer located in an area of intense melting and intermittent ponding on Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica. We combine borehole optical televiewer logging and ground-based radar measurements with remote sensing and firn modelling to investigate the formation and spatial extent of this layer, found to be tens of kilometres across and tens of metres deep. The presence of this ice layer has the effect of raising local ice shelf density by ~190 kg m^-3 and temperature by 5 - 10 degrees C above values found in areas unaffected by ponding and hitherto used in models of ice-shelf fracture and flow.

  8. Utilization by fishes of the Alviso Island ponds and adjacent waters in south san francisco bay following restoration to tidal influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Mejia, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Earthen levees of three isolated salt ponds known locally as the Alviso Island Ponds were intentionally breached in March 2006 to allow tidal exchange of the ponds with water from Coyote Creek. The water exchange transformed the previously fishless hypersaline ponds into lower salinity habitats suitable for fish life. This study documented fish utilization of the ponds, adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek, and an upstream reach in nearby Artesian Slough during May-July 2006. By the time the study was initiated, water quality conditions in the ponds were similar to conditions in adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek. The only variable exhibiting a strong gradient within the study area was salinity, which increased progressively from upstream to downstream in Coyote Creek. A total of 4,034 fish represented by 18 species from 14 families was caught during the study. Judging from cluster analysis of presence-absence data that excluded rare fish species, the 10 sampling units (3 ponds, 6 reaches in Coyote Creek, and 1 reach in Artesian Slough) formed two clusters or groups, suggesting two species assemblages. The existence of two groups was also suggested by ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). One group, which was composed of the three ponds and four of the lowermost reaches of Coyote Creek, was characterized by mostly estuarine or marine species (e.g., topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax; and longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis). The second group, which was composed of the two uppermost reaches of Coyote Creek and the one reach of Artesian Slough, was characterized by freshwater species (e.g., Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) and by an absence of the estuarine/marine species noted in the first assemblage. Judging from a joint plot of selected water quality variables overlaying the ordination results, salinity was the only important variable associated with spatial distribution of fish species. Water

  9. Best Approximation to a Reversible Process in Black-Hole Physics and the Area Spectrum of Spherical Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, S

    1999-01-01

    The assimilation of a quantum (finite size) particle by a Reissner-Nordström black hole inevitably involves an increase in the black-hole surface area. It is shown that this increase can be minimized if one considers the capture of the lightest charged particle in nature. The unavoidable area increase is attributed to two physical reasons: the Heisenberg quantum uncertainty principle and a Schwinger-type charge emission (vacuum polarization). The fundamental lower bound on the area increase is $4 \\hbar$, which is smaller than the value given by Bekenstein for neutral particles. Thus, this process is a better approximation to a reversible process in black-hole physics. The universality of the minimal area increase is a further evidence in favor of a uniformly spaced area spectrum for spherical quantum black holes. Moreover, this universal value is in excellent agreement with the area spacing predicted by Mukhanov and Bekenstein and independently by Hod.

  10. [A preliminary clinical study on endoscopic measurement of lesion area with the method of digital image processing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhihua; Fu, Zhongqian; Fang, Pengcheng; Ling, Kai; Xu, Jianming; Kong, Derun; Xu, Zhangwei

    2013-10-01

    It is of great importance to measure the lesion area in scientific research and clinical practice. The present study aims to solve barrel distortion and measure lesion area with the technology of computer visualization. With the ultimate purpose to obtain the precise lesion area, the study, based on the original endoscopy system and digital image processing technology, dealt with the correction of barrel distortion by lens adjustment, calculated the gastric ulcer area with the aid of Qt database and finally developed an image processing software--Endoscope Assistant (EAS). The results showed that the EAS was accurate in vitro. It was employed to measure the gastric ulcer area of 45 patients and the results were compared with the traditional formula method. It could be well concluded that this technology is safe, accurate and economical for measuring gastric ulcer area.

  11. South Bay Salt Ponds Restoration Project : Final Data Acquisition Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides the Data Acquisition Plan for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. The purpose of the Data Acquisition Plan is to guide the collection...

  12. Water quality assessment of razorback sucker grow-out ponds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water quality parameters had never been assessed in these grow-out ponds. Historically growth, condition, and survival of razorback suckers have been variable...

  13. Environmental Assessment : Two Ponds Wetland Preserve, Arvada, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental Assessment for the acquisition of approximately 80 acres known as Two Ponds Wetland Preserve. The Fish and Wildlife Service has responded to selected...

  14. Habitat Management Plan for Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern...

  15. Production of premium fuels from coal refuse pond material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Patil, D.P.; Sirkeci, A.; Patwardhan, A. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-11-01

    Because of increasing production of fine coal during mining over the past century and because of inefficient fine-coal recovery technologies, a vast reserve of high-quality coal now exists in refuse ponds. A novel fine-coal circuit, consisting of a hindered-bed classifier, an enhanced gravity concentrator and a flotation column, was evaluated for the recovery of fine coal from refuse ponds. The treatment of a pond derived from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal resulted in the production of a premium fuel containing less than 5 % ash and a calorific value of about 30,170 kJ/kg with 60% mass yield. Results from the treatment of two refuse pond materials are presented.

  16. Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pond Creek NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  17. Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Kealia Pond Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision...

  18. Trustom Pond National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Trustom Pond NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR POND PERFORMANCE IN KARABUK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZKAYMAK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy, one of the alternative energy sources, can be economically and cheaply and efficiently collected with solar ponds. In this study, varying concentrations of sodium carbonate dilution in the solar pond in terms of heat storage performance has been examined. Experiment apparatus has been located Zonguldak Karaelmas University Karabük Technical Education Faculty. Five experiments with different density levels have been done and the changes in the temperature and density have been presented graphically within the solar pond. The experiments show that the temperature difference between the bottom and top level of solar pond is max. 21 °C and the highest temperature in lower convective zone (LCZ has been measured as 49 °C.

  20. APPROXIMATE SOLUTION USING A PERTURBATION METHOD FOR DETENTION POND DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jen-Yan CHEN; Yao-Ming HONG

    2002-01-01

    It is a common practice to use a hydrological continuity equation as the governing equation in detention pond design. Although the detention volume can be evaluated using a numerical method and computer program,they are not available for engineers to use because of the difficulty involved in the numerical evaluation or the computer program may not be ready for engineers. This study intends to provide a formula for calculating the volume of a detention pond. A nonlinear continuity equation for detention pond design is obtained by applying a triangular/trapezoidal inflow hydrograph and spillway or orifice for the outflow device. This perturbation method is employed to resolve the equation. After discussing the omission and curve fitting methods,a formula for detention pond design is proposed.Several examples are displayed and a high agreement with the numerical result is obtained.

  1. Island ponds mitigation monitoring and reporting : Year 3 – 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents Year 3 (2008) monitoring results for Island Ponds Restoration Project on Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR. The Santa Clara Valley Water...

  2. Island ponds mitigation monitoring and reporting : Year 4 – 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Santa Clara Valley Water District and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge implemented the Island Ponds Restoration Project to...

  3. Western Pond Turtle Observations - Region 1 [ds313

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset was developed in an effort to compile Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata) observations in CDFG Region 1. Steve Burton (CDFG Staff Environmental...

  4. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  5. Responses of invasive silver and bighead carp to a carbon dioxide barrier in outdoor ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Aaron R.; Erickson, Richard A.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Swyers, Nicholas M.; Hatton, Tyson; Amberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Resource managers need for effective methods to prevent the movement of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) from the Mississippi River basin into the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we evaluated dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) as a barrier and deterrent to silver (278 ± 30.5 mm) and bighead (212 ± 7.7 mm) carp movement in continuous-flow outdoor ponds. As a barrier, CO2 significantly reduced upstream movement but was not 100% effective at blocking fish passage. As a deterrent, we observed a significant shift away from areas of high CO2 relative to normal movement before and after injection. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied across the pond during injection and reached maximum concentrations of 74.5±1.9 mg/L CO2; 29 532 – 41 393 µatm at the site of injection during three independent trials. We conclude that CO2 altered silver and bighead carp movement in outdoor ponds and recommend further research to determine barrier effectiveness during field applications.

  6. Proximate Content of “Klekap” (Microphytobenthos and Their Associated Meiofauna) from Milk-Fish Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianingsih; Zainuri, Muhammad; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermin

    2017-02-01

    Microphytobentos and their associated mieofauna (‘klekap”) have important role in milkfish pond ecosystem expecially traditional fish pond. Microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna not only consists of unicellular microalgae from class Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae but also a lot of meiofauna such as Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusc, Arthropoda, etc. Microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna inhabit in the upper most surface sediment layer. They also have important role in the primary and secondary productivity. This research has purpose to investigate the composition of proximate in the microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna. Microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna were taken from three milkfish ponds in Pati area, Central of Jawa, Indonesia. Samples were taken directly by hand core from 3 stations with 3 replications. The research result showed that the value of protein content had range 6.9±0.33 - 7.73±0.37 %-dw, the value of carbohydrate content had range 10.44±1.2 - 12.59±0.15 %-dw, the value of lipid content had range 0.86±0.07 - 0.96±0.07 %-dw. It concluded that the third station has higher value of protein, lipid and carbohydrate compared than the first and the second station.

  7. Geotechnical aspects of development over reclaimed former alluvial mining land and ponds in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, E. B.; Tan, B. K.; Chow, W. S.

    Mining of tin placers in Quaternary alluvium is the main type of mining activity in Peninsular Malaysia over the past hundred years. Worked out mines have left behind a landscape consisting of highly inhomogeneous tailing fill and numerous large and medium size ponds often underlain by thick slurries of fine clay and silt on limestone bedrock. Rapid urbanization around the two main tin mining areas in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, has led to the use of this previously mined land for residential, commercial and industrial purposes. Highly irregular karstic limestone bedrock poses major problems for the construction of high-rise buildings requiring piling to bedrock. Soft slime trapped during tailing deposition or during reclamation has caused numerous and often irreparable damage to houses built on former mining land. Characterization studies were undertaken on two ponds for their chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties with the aim of finding a solution to the reclamation of slime filled mine ponds. Environmental considerations favour the slime material to be used as foundation material or as raw material for ceramic or bricks. Increase of the solid content by dewatering constitutes the best option to increase the strength of the slime material so as to make it acceptable as foundation material after further treatment. Studies indicate that a few reagents can be used to successfully dewater the slime. Development of a reclamation technique along this line is being carried out.

  8. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  10. Purification Performance and Production of a Re-circulating Pond Aquaculture System Based on Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing improved aquaculture systems with a more efficient use of water and less environmental impact is becoming a crying need. A re-circulating aquaculture system consisting of paddy field and fish pond is a new culture mode due to aquaculture combing with agriculture. The present study focused on the purification capacity of the paddy field on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter, the fluctuation trend of water quality conditions during the whole rearing process and the culture efficacy of the main culture species of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. The results were as follows: under a flow rate of 1.4-5.5 m3/h for the recirculation treatment, the average removal rate of ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and biochemical oxygen demand for the aquaculture effluent amounted to 40.5, 43.5, 31.9, 23.9, 20.7 and 52.4%, respectively, But the dissolved oxygen content in the rice fields increased obviously. During the whole process of fish rearing, the main physicochemical parameters of water quality for the experimental ponds were all maintained at a suitable level for the growth of the grass carp. In addition, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in DO, TSS, NH4+ -N, NO--N, BOD5 and Chl-&alpha between the experimental and control ponds. As far as the yield per unit and survival rate was concerned, the level of the experimental ponds was obviously higher than that of the control, while the feed conversion ratio displayed the opposite trend. Overall, the new aquaculture system realized the double aims of water reuse and the reduction of waste water discharge.

  11. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  12. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  13. Emerging halogenated flame retardants and hexabromocyclododecanes in food samples from an e-waste processing area in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fang; Matsukami, Hidenori; Suzuki, Go; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Viet, Pham Hung; Takigami, Hidetaka; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-03-01

    This study reports concentrations of selected emerging halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in foodstuffs sourced from an e-waste processing area in Vietnam and two reference sites in Vietnam and Japan. Concentrations of all target HFRs in e-waste-impacted samples in this study exceed significantly (p e-waste processing activities exert a substantial impact on local environmental contamination and human dietary exposure. Significant linear positive correlations in concentrations of syn-Dechlorane Plus (DP) and anti-DP were found between soils and those in co-located chicken samples (p e-waste processing sites and non-e-waste processing areas elsewhere.

  14. Source processes of industrially-induced earthquakes at the Geysers geothermal area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Microearthquake activity at The Geysers geothermal area, California, mirrors the steam production rate, suggesting that the earthquakes are industrially induced. A 15-station network of digital, three-component seismic stations was operated for one month in 1991, and 3,900 earthquakes were recorded. Highly-accurate moment tensors were derived for 30 of the best recorded earthquakes by tracing rays through tomographically derived 3-D VP and VP / VS structures, and inverting P-and S-wave polarities and amplitude ratios. The orientations of the P-and T-axes are very scattered, suggesting that there is no strong, systematic deviatoric stress field in the reservoir, which could explain why the earthquakes are not large. Most of the events had significant non-double-couple (non-DC) components in their source mechanisms with volumetric components up to ???30% of the total moment. Explosive and implosive sources were observed in approximately equal numbers, and must be caused by cavity creation (or expansion) and collapse. It is likely that there is a causal relationship between these processes and fluid reinjection and steam withdrawal. Compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components were up to 100% of the deviatoric component. Combinations of opening cracks and shear faults cannot explain all the observations, and rapid fluid flow may also be involved. The pattern of non-DC failure at The Geysers contrasts with that of the Hengill-Grensdalur area in Iceland, a largely unexploited water-dominated field in an extensional stress regime. These differences are poorly understood but may be linked to the contrasting regional stress regimes and the industrial exploitation at The Geysers.

  15. Dissolved organic matter photolysis in Canadian arctic thaw ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurion, Isabelle; Mladenov, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    The abundant thaw lakes and ponds in the circumarctic receive a new pool of organic carbon as permafrost peat soils degrade, which can be exposed to significant irradiance that potentially increases as climate warms and ice cover shortens. Exposure to sunlight is known to accelerate the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into molecules that can be more readily used by microbes. We sampled the water from two common classes of ponds found in the ice-wedge system of continuous permafrost regions of Canada, polygonal and runnel ponds, and followed the transformation of DOM over 12 days by looking at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOM absorption and fluorescence properties. The results indicate a relatively fast decay of color (3.4 and 1.6% loss d-1 of absorption at 320 nm for the polygonal and runnel pond, respectively) and fluorescence (6.1 and 8.3% loss d-1 of total fluorescent components, respectively) at the pond surface, faster in the case of humic-like components, but insignificant losses of DOC over the observed period. This result indicates that direct DOM mineralization (photochemical production of CO2) is apparently minor in thaw ponds compared to the photochemical transformation of DOM into less chromophoric and likely more labile molecules with a greater potential for microbial mineralization. Therefore, DOM photolysis in arctic thaw ponds can be considered as a catalytic mechanism, accelerating the microbial turnover of mobilized organic matter from thawing permafrost and the production of greenhouse gases, especially in the most shallow ponds. Under a warming climate, this mechanism will intensify as summers lengthen.

  16. Convergent Diversity and Trait Composition in Temporary Streams and Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    2002, Vieira et al. 2004, Hoeinghaus et al. 2007) influences invertebrate and vertebrate species richness and composition, predator distribution...T. 2000. Annual and seasonal variation and the effects of hydroperiod on benthic macroin- vertebrates of seasonal forest (“vernal”) ponds in central...term studies of vertebrate communities. Academic Press, San Di- ego, California, USA. Skelly, D. K. 1996. Pond drying, predators, and the distri

  17. Trophic Strategies of a Non-Native and a Native Amphibian Species in Shared Ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatz San Sebastián

    Full Text Available One of the critical factors for understanding the establishment, success and potential impact on native species of an introduced species is a thorough knowledge of how these species manage trophic resources. Two main trophic strategies for resource acquisition have been described: competition and opportunism. In the present study our objective was to identify the main trophic strategies of the non-native amphibian Discoglossus pictus and its potential trophic impact on the native amphibian Bufo calamita. We determine whether D. pictus exploits similar trophic resources to those exploited by the native B. calamita (competition hypothesis or alternative resources (opportunistic hypothesis. To this end, we analyzed the stable isotope values of nitrogen and carbon in larvae of both species, in natural ponds and in controlled laboratory conditions. The similarity of the δ15N and δ13C values in the two species coupled with isotopic signal variation according to pond conditions and niche partitioning when they co-occurred indicated dietary competition. Additionally, the non-native species was located at higher levels of trophic niches than the native species and B. calamita suffered an increase in its standard ellipse area when it shared ponds with D. pictus. These results suggest niche displacement of B. calamita to non-preferred resources and greater competitive capacity of D. pictus in field conditions. Moreover, D. pictus showed a broader niche than the native species in all conditions, indicating increased capacity to exploit the diversity of resources; this may indirectly favor its invasiveness. Despite the limitations of this study (derived from potential variability in pond isotopic signals, the results support previous experimental studies. All the studies indicate that D. pictus competes with B. calamita for trophic resources with potential negative effects on the fitness of the latter.

  18. Diurnal hydrochemical variations in a karst spring and two ponds, Maolan Karst Experimental Site, China: Biological pump effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Zaihua; Macpherson, G. L.; Yang, Rui; Chen, Bo; Sun, Hailong

    2015-03-01

    A karst spring and two downstream ponds fed by the spring at the Maolan Karst Experimental Site, Guizhou Province, China, were used to investigate the effect of submerged plants on the CO2-H2O-CaCO3 system during a time of spring base flow in summer when underwater photosynthesis was strongest. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were recorded at 15 min intervals for a period of 30 h (12:00 29 August-18:00 30 August, 2012). [Ca2+], [HCO3-], CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and saturation index of calcite (SIC) were estimated from the high-frequency measurements. Water samples were also collected three times a day (early morning, midday and evening) for δ13CDIC determination. A floating CO2-flux monitoring chamber was used to measure CO2 flux at the three locations. Results show that there was little or no diurnal variation in the spring water parameters. In the midstream pond with flourishing submerged plants, however, all parameters show distinct diurnal changes: temperature, pH, DO, SIc, δ13CDIC increased during the day and decreased at night, while EC, [HCO3-], [Ca2+], and pCO2 behaved in the opposite sense. In addition, maximum DO values (16-23 mg/L) in the midstream pond at daytime were two to three times those of water equilibrated with atmospheric O2, indicating strong aquatic photosynthesis. The proposed photosynthesis is corroborated by the low calculated pCO2 of 20-200 ppmv, which is much less than atmospheric pCO2. In the downstream pond with fewer submerged plants but larger volume, all parameters displayed similar trends to the midstream pond but with much less change, a pattern that we attribute to the lower biomass/water volume ratio. The diurnal hydrobiogeochemical variations in the two ponds depended essentially on illumination, indicating that photosynthesis and respiration by the submerged plants are the dominant controlling processes. The large loss of DIC between the spring and midstream pond, attributed to

  19. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Héctor Barraza-Guardado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1, when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  20. National Dam Safety Program. Alder Pond Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 1489), Black River Basin, Oneida County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-17

    HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING DATA AND COMPUTATIONS ALDEA , POND4 MA CHECK LIST FOR DAMS ~1B HYDROLOGIC AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING DATA AREA-CAPACITY DATA...Releases (mechanisms): 90KI5- 93-15=a , 9/8o)? ALDEA Pom P VAtA - 1489 DRAINAGE AREA: 55(p ACE 5.18 ’SQ IbILEb5 DRAINAGE BASIN RUNOFF CHARACTERISTICS

  1. Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J. II

    1996-12-01

    This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

  2. Ozone formation in relation with combustion processes in highly populated urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Avino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The complex chain of photochemical reactions is one of the most important tasks in the air quality evaluation, expecially in urban areas. In fact, in this case there are high emission levels of NOx and no-methane hydrocarbons by combustion processes such as autovehicular traffic, domestic heating and industrial plants. Ozone is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but it is formed from a complex series of reactions between emitted nitrogen oxides (NOx and reactive organic compounds (ROC. The high ozone concentrations, which occur during photochemical episodes, are usually accompanied by elevated concentrations of other photochemical oxidants such as nitric acid (HNO3, peroxyacylnitrates (PANs, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, etc. The complex series of these reactions constitutes the most important issue to the degradation of air quality. Further, the NMHCs play a key role in the formation of photochemical air pollution: they are considered as precursors for ozone production at the ground level when the sunlight and nitrogen oxides are present. From a practically point of view defining a quality standard or a limit is substantially correct but it is no sufficient to solve the problem. So it should become necessary to acquire knowledge on the different formation mechanisms of the photochemical pollution phenomena. In this paper there will be shown the results of a long-term study performed in Rome for evaluating the ozone formation in relationship with the autovehicular traffic density.

  3. Ultra-Smooth, Fully Solution-Processed Large-Area Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Organic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Won-Yong; Ginting, Riski Titian; Ko, Keum-Jin; Kang, Jae-Wook

    2016-11-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication of ultra-smooth and highly bendable substrates consisting of metal grid-conducting polymers that are fully embedded into transparent substrates (ME-TCEs) was successfully demonstrated. The fully printed ME-TCEs exhibited ultra-smooth surfaces (surface roughness ~1.0 nm), were highly transparent (~90% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm), highly conductive (sheet resistance ~4 Ω ◻-1), and relatively stable under ambient air (retaining ~96% initial resistance up to 30 days). The ME-TCE substrates were used to fabricate flexible organic solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes exhibiting devices efficiencies comparable to devices fabricated on ITO/glass substrates. Additionally, the flexibility of the organic devices did not degrade their performance even after being bent to a bending radius of ~1 mm. Our findings suggest that ME-TCEs are a promising alternative to indium tin oxide and show potential for application toward large-area optoelectronic devices via fully printing processes.

  4. Strategies to prevent forest fires and techniques to reverse degradation processes in burned areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, António José Dinis; Alegre, Sérgio Prats; Coelho, Celeste Oliveira Alves; Shakesby, Rick A.; Páscoa, Fernando M.; Ferreira, Carla Sofia Santos; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires are probably the more deleterious event in forest and range areas in the Mediterranean nowadays. Despite the significant area burned every year, little has been done to develop strategies and techniques for soil and water conservation in burned areas, despite the major impacts on soi

  5. An Analysis of Specialized Literature about Agile Method Application in the Context of Technical Solution Process Area included in Software Process Quality Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASTRO, V. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the results of the literature review about the application of agile methods to support the implementation of CMMI and MPS.BR quality models, specifically for the Technical Solution process area and Product Design and Construction process. The research result is to identify which agile methods are applied in the quality models context. In addition, we sought to identify agile practices that support the implementation of these processes.

  6. A coupled biogeochemical-Dynamic Energy Budget model as a tool for managing fish production ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Dalila; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Caetano, Miguel; Cancela da Fonseca, Luís; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Duarte, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    The sustainability of semi-intensive aquaculture relies on management practices that simultaneously improve production efficiency and minimize the environmental impacts of this activity. The purpose of the present work was to develop a mathematical model that reproduced the dynamics of a semi-intensive fish earth pond, to simulate different management scenarios for optimizing fish production. The modeling approach consisted of coupling a biogeochemical model that simulated the dynamics of the elements that are more likely to affect fish production and cause undesirable environmental impacts (nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen) to a fish growth model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget approach. The biogeochemical sub-model successfully simulated most water column and sediment variables. A good model fit was also found between predicted and observed white seabream (Diplodus sargus) growth data over a production cycle. In order to optimize fish production, different management scenarios were analysed with the model (e.g. increase stocking densities, decrease/increase water exchange rates, decrease/increase feeding rates, decrease phosphorus content in fish feeds, increase food assimilation efficiency and decrease pellets sinking velocity) to test their effects on the pond environment as well as on fish yields and effluent nutrient discharges. Scenarios were quantitatively evaluated and compared using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology. The best management options that allow the maximization of fish production while maintaining a good pond environment and minimum impacts on the adjacent coastal system were to double standard stocking densities and to improve food assimilation efficiency.

  7. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Model Waste Stabilization Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Egwuonwu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the design, construction and performance evaluation of a model Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP. The WSP comprised of one facultative pond and three maturation ponds all in series. The influent of the WSP after filtration through the lined sandy loam media (obtained from the premises of Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria had the BOD reduced to 22 mg/L from 356 mg/L indicating a 93.8% removal level. A faecal coli form count (fc of the influent sample gave 1×108 fc/100 mL, whereas the effluent gave 10 fc/100 mL which was 99.9% fc removal. The value of 150 mg/L of the Total Suspended Solids (TSS for the influent was reduced to 26 mg/L for the effluent after treatment. It was concluded that the effluent from the WSP was within the limits of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA standard of 30 mg/L for TSS, 30 mg/L for BOD5 and 400 fc/100 mL for faecal coli form thus making the waste water safe for discharge into surface water as well as its use for irrigation after treatment. The sandy loam soil media was found to be non-promising earlier in the removal process until it was lined with polyethylene material. A clay media was therefore recommended.

  8. Evaluation of power consumption of paddle wheel in an open raceway pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxi; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Zhihui; Wu, Xia; Cong, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Open raceway ponds are widely adopted in microalgae cultivation. Paddle wheels consume the most part of power during the process of cultivation in open raceway ponds. The configuration of blades directly determines power consumption for paddle wheels. In this work, power consumption of four blades configurations was determined in a bench-scale open raceway pond of 2.2 m(2). The effect of blades configuration, the influence of filling levels from 5 to 15 cm and influence of rotational speeds from 7 to 15 r min(-1) on shaft power consumption (P(S)), fluid velocity (U(c)) and paddle wheel efficiency (η) was investigated. Results demonstrated that flat blades were the most efficient configuration. Higher culture depth led to larger U(c), more P(s) and larger η, especially when blades were not totally immerged in water. Under the same filling level and rotational speed, the value of P(S) decreases in the order: zigzagged, flat, forward-curved and back-curved, respectively. The zigzagged blades led to a larger U(c) at the culture depth of 5 cm, while flat and forward-curved blades drove a larger U(c) when culture depth was higher than 5 cm. The maximum value of η was 0.50 with flat blades at 11 r min(-1) and 15 cm of culture depth. Empirical correlations of non-dimensional numbers related to operation parameters and blades geometry for four paddle wheel blades were also proposed.

  9. Ammonia transformations and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in a clay soil underlying a manure pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Yonatan; Baram, Shahar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev; Nejidat, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Unlined manure ponds are constructed on clay soil worldwide to manage farm waste. Seepage of ammonia-rich liquor into underlying soil layers contributes to groundwater contamination by nitrate. To identify the possible processes that lead to the production of nitrate from ammonia in this oxygen-limited environment, we studied the diversity and abundance of ammonia-transforming microorganisms under an unlined manure pond. The numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria were most abundant in the top of the soil profile and decreased significantly with depth (0.5 m), correlating with soil pore-water ammonia concentrations and soil ammonia concentrations, respectively. On the other hand, the numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea were relatively constant throughout the soil profile (10(7) amoA copies per g(soil)). Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were detected mainly in the top 0.2 m. The results suggest that nitrate accumulation in the vadose zone under the manure pond could be the result of complete aerobic nitrification (ammonia oxidation to nitrate) and could exist as a byproduct of anammox activity. While the majority of the nitrogen was removed within the 0.5-m soil section, possibly by combined anammox and heterotrophic denitrification, a fraction of the produced nitrate leached into the groundwater.

  10. 3D modelling of transport, deposition and resuspension of highway deposited sediments in wet detention ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, T R

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of flows and transport of primarily particle bound pollutants in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective is to evaluate the quality of long term simulation based on historical rains series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and mud transport model is used for the investigation. The transport model has been calibrated and validated on e.g. experiments in a 30 m long concrete channel with width of 0.8 m and a water depth of approximately 0.8 m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account.

  11. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  12. Zooplankton community resilience after press-type anthropogenic stress in temporary ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G; Moreno, José M

    2007-06-01

    Temporary ponds are physically disturbed environments that fluctuate on seasonal and interannual scales. These ecosystems are also susceptible to anthropogenic perturbation such as contamination inputs. However, the interactive effects of natural disturbance and anthropogenic stress on ecosystem processes and community dynamics have hardly been assessed in these ecosystem types. We used a multiple before-after control-impact (MBACI) design to study zooplankton community recovery from low and high inputs of a fire retardant in artificially constructed ponds over three hydroperiods. The retardant caused a decline in species richness and an increase in rotifers during summer and winter months relative to controls and pretreatment dates, and the duration of these changes varied among retardant treatments. In nonmetric, multidimensional scaling analyses the increased rotifer densities were reflected in loops that showed recurring deviations from and (upon collapse) approaches to reference conditions, while the effects of the anthropogenic stressor persisted in the ponds. The amplitudes of fluctuation followed no regular patterns; it varied with retardant treatment level and was higher in the third hydroperiod compared to the second in one of the treatments. From a temporal perspective, this non-dampened pattern suggests a new cause-effect mechanism for disturbance ecology, which we refer to as a "protracted press disturbance, roller coaster response" relationship. This model emphasizes stochastic oscillations in community composition, punctuated by periods in which the community approaches reference conditions. From the applied viewpoint, this model suggests that the accurate detection of perturbation and the implementation of sound management and restoration strategies will require intensive sampling designs that span multiple hydroperiods in persistently degraded ponds.

  13. Computational Agents For Flows: Waterballs, Water Paths and Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, D.; Leonard, J.; Perrier, E.

    For the past four years, the RIVAGE project has been an ongoing methodological re- search involving both computer scientists from LIP6 and hydrologists from research unit GEODES at IRD around the question of applying DAI and agent-based simula- tion techniques to environmental water flow modeling. It led us to design an agent- based simulation environment which is intended to model coupled runoff dynamics, infiltration and erosion processes, so as to integrate heterogeneous events occuring at different time and space scales. A main feature of this modeling approach is the ability to account for a structured vision of the hydrological network produced during rainfall, much like that of an on field observer : for instance, when water accumulates in topographic depressions, the simulator creates pond objects, and when stable wa- ter paths emerge, water path objects are created. Beside this vision of water flow, the natural environment itself can be given a structured representation of natural objects (e.g. vegetation, infiltration maps, furrow or ditch networks, macropore patterns, etc.) which belong to various information layers. According to the scale of study, these layers may contain different types of geometrical and geographical data. Given that, our long term objective is to simulate the influence of spatial structurations of the environment on water flow dynamics and vice versa.

  14. Ecosystem Metabolism and Air-Water Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in High Arctic Wetland Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnherr, I.; Venkiteswaran, J.; St. Louis, V. L.; Emmerton, C.; Schiff, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater lakes and wetlands can be very productive systems on the Arctic landscape compared to terrestrial tundra ecosystems and provide valuable resources to many organisms, including waterfowl, fish and humans. Rates of ecosystem productivity dictate how much energy flows through food webs, impacting the abundance of higher-level organisms (e.g., fish), as well as the net carbon balance, which determines whether a particular ecosystem is a source or sink of carbon. Climate change is predicted to result in warmer temperatures, increased precipitation and permafrost melting in the Arctic and is already altering northern ecosystems at unprecedented rates; however, it is not known how freshwater systems are responding to these changes. To predict how freshwater systems will respond to complex environmental changes, it is necessary to understand the key processes, such as primary production and ecosystem respiration, that are driving these systems. We sampled wetland ponds (n=8) and lakes (n=2) on northern Ellesmere Island (81° N, Nunavut, Canada) during the open water season for a suite of biogeochemical parameters, including concentrations of dissolved gases (O2, CO2, CH4, N2O) as well as stable-isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC), dissolved oxygen (δ18O-DO), and water (δ18O-H2O). We will present rates of primary production and ecosystem respiration, modeled from the concentration and stable isotope ratios of DIC and DO, as well as air-water gas exchange of greenhouse gases in these high Arctic ponds and lakes. Preliminary results demonstrate that ecosystem metabolism in these ponds was high enough to result in significant deviations in the isotope ratios of DIC and DO from atmospheric equilibrium conditions. In other words ecosystem rates of primary production and respiration were faster than gas exchange even in these small, shallow, well-mixed ponds. Furthermore, primary production was elevated enough at all sites except Lake Hazen, a

  15. Komposisi Jenis Hayati di Ekosistem Tambak Tumpangsari Pola Empang Parit: Studi Kasus di RPH Tegal Tangkil, BKPH Ciasem, KPH Purwakarta, Jawa Barat (Biological Species Composition of Silvofishery Ecosystem Using Cannal-pond Pattern: A case Study in RPH Te

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeni Riviana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotic component composition of silvofishery using cannal-pond pattern was elucidated in this study. This pattern is the combination between fishpond canal and mangrove vegetation growing in the center.Sampling method was conducted in the four fish ponds with different variation of mangrove vegetation composition, such as Avicennia marina monoculture, Rhizophora mucronata monoculture, regularly mixed Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia marina, and randomly mixed Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia marina.The research results showed that empang parit (fish pond having a randomly mixed R. mucronata and A. marina give the most suitable habitat for the terrestrial fauna and aquatic biota as a feeding and breeding areas.

  16. The effect of gold mining and processing on biogeochemical cycles in Muteh area, Isfahan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, B.; Moore, F.

    2009-04-01

    The environmental impacts of gold mining and processing on geochemical and biogeochemical cycles in Muteh region located northwest of Esfahan province and northeast of Golpaygan city is investigated. For this purpose systematic sampling was carried out in, rock, soil, water, and sediment environments along with plant, livestocks and human hair samples. Mineralogical and Petrological studies show that ore mineral such as pyrite and arsenopyrite along with fluorine-bearing minerals like tremolite, actinolite, biotite and muscovite occur in green schist, amphibolite and lucogranitic rocks in the area. The hydrochemistry of the analysed water samples indicate that As and F display the highest concentrations among the analysed elements. Indeed arsenic has the highest concentration in both topsoil and subsoil samples when compared with other potentially toxic elements. Anthropogenic activity also have it s greatest effect on increasing arsenic concentration among the analysed samples. The concentration of the majority of the analysed elements in the shoots and leaves of two local plants of the region i.e Artemesia and Penagum is higher than their concentration in the roots. Generally speaking, Artemesia has a greater tendency for bioaccumulating heavy metals. The results of cyanide analysis in soil samples show that cyanide concentration in the soils near the newly built tailing dam is much higher than that in the vicinity of the old tailing dam. The high concentration of fluorine in the drinking water of the Muteh village is the main reason of the observed dental fluorosis symptoms seen in the inhabitants. One of the two drinking water wells which is located near the metamorphic complex and supplies part of the tap water in the village, probably has the greatest impact in this regard. A decreasing trend in fluorine concentration is illustrated with increasing distance from the metamorphic complex. Measurements of As concentration in human hair specimens indicate that As

  17. Modeling and Field Study of Coupled Bio-Optical Physical Processes in the Monterey Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, I.; Arnone, R.; Teague, W.; Chavez, F.; Schofield, O.; Moline, M.; Penta, B.; Ryan, J.; Gould, R.; Anderson, S.; Jolliff, J. K.; Book, J. W.; Derada, S.; Paduan, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists from government, academia and non-profit organizations participated in an interdisciplinary field program in the Monterey Bay from during May-June of 2008. The experiment was a collaboration between the NRL project "Bio-Optical Studies of Predictability and Assimilation for the Coastal Environment (BIOSPACE)", Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) project "Rapid Environmental Assessment Using an Integrated Coastal Ocean Observation-Modeling System (ESPRESSO)", the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), the NRL project "Unattended Sea-bed Power for In-water Operations", and the U.S. Geological Survey. Objectives of the NRL BIOSPACE and MURI ESPRESSO projects are centered around developing an understanding of coupled bio-optical and physical processes in the coastal zone and improvements of predictability of coastal ocean optical properties on time scales of 1-5 days. MBARI has long-term objectives of monitoring, studying and managing the Monterey Bay ecosystem dynamics and health. The goals for the 2008 field program were to create a synoptic view of the coupled bio- optical physical conditions in the Monterey Bay and to relate satellite observed properties to their subsurface structure. The program was focused on the so-called "upwelling shadow area"(northern part of the bay), where biological processes are enhanced as a result of the slower physical dynamics. The field program deployed a wide range of assets: gliders, AUVs, ScanFish (a ship-towed platform), SEPTR, etc. This deployment was supplemented with intensive station sampling from the R/V Point Sur and satellite ocean color imagery (MODIS, MERIS). The field program was supported by a real-time modeling effort consisting of a hierarchy of different resolution, nested, data assimilating, coupled bio-optical physical models. Development of a pair of cyclonic (in the bay) and anticyclonic (outside of the bay) eddies was observed and predicted by the model during an

  18. Transient peat properties in two pond-peatland complexes in the sub-humid Western Boreal Plain, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Petrone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Canadian Western Boreal Plain (WBP, wetlands (ponds and peatlands comprise up to 50% of the landscape and represent unique habitat where summer precipitation is often outpaced by evapotranspiration and hillslope groundwater position does not follow topography. In this sub-humid location, groundwater fluxes and stores in riparian peatlands influence pond water levels and root zone moisture sources for forested uplands. To accurately describe the transport and retention of water in peat, it is important to consider peat subsidence. This paper quantifies the amount and effect of seasonal subsidence in a riparian peatland in the Utikuma Lake region in north-central Alberta, Canada. Results demonstrate that the deep and poorly decomposed peat deposits are resistant to compression, and that thick (and persistent ground frost hinders pore collapse (shrinkage above the water table until late summer when the ground has thawed. Even then, subsidence is still limited to the top 50 cm and is not closely related to changes in peatland water table or pond water level. Thus the water balance of these ponds and riparian areas appears to be less sensitive to peat volume changes than it is to the persistence of a substantial frost layer well into the snow-free period.

  19. Stability Analysis of a Run-of-River Diversion Hydropower Plant with Surge Tank and Spillway in the Head Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Sarasúa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Run-of-river hydropower plants usually lack significant storage capacity; therefore, the more adequate control strategy would consist of keeping a constant water level at the intake pond in order to harness the maximum amount of energy from the river flow or to reduce the surface flooded in the head pond. In this paper, a standard PI control system of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and a spillway in the head pond that evacuates part of the river flow plant is studied. A stability analysis based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is carried out and a practical criterion for tuning the gains of the PI controller is proposed. Conclusions about the head pond and surge tank areas are drawn from the stability analysis. Finally, this criterion is applied to a real hydropower plant in design state; the importance of considering the spillway dimensions and turbine characteristic curves for adequate tuning of the controller gains is highlighted.

  20. Factors that influence the membrane area of a multistage microfiltration process required to produce a micellar casein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the work reported in this paper was to develop a theoretical model to determine the effect of type of microfiltration (MF)-process feed, number of stages, and flux on the minimization of the MF membrane area required to produce a 95% serum protein-reduced micellar casein concentrate. The MF feed, number of stages, and flux were all factors that had an effect on the MF membrane area and should be taken into consideration when designing a MF system to produce a 95% serum protein-reduced micellar casein concentrate. Feeding the MF process with a diluted ultrafiltration retentate (DUR) diluted to the protein concentration of skim milk, as opposed to skim milk, reduced the required membrane area by 36% for a 5-stage process. When DUR was the MF feed, feed protein concentration, which depended on the number of MF stages, was optimized. The DUR protein concentration that minimized the required MF membrane area was 2.47, 3.85, 4.77, and 5.41% for a 2-, 3-, 4-, or 5-stage MF process, respectively. For a 5-stage process, increasing the protein concentration of the feed from 3.2 to 5.4% decreased the required MF membrane area by 10%. It was also found that as the number of stages increased from 2 to 5, the required MF membrane area decreased by 39%, when the MF feed was DUR at the optimal feed protein concentration. Finally, increasing the flux from 50 to 60 kg/m(2) per hour decreased the required MF membrane area by 17% when the MF feed was DUR at the optimal MF feed protein concentration. Overall, using DUR as a feed for MF could reduce the amount of MF membrane area required to make a 95% serum protein-reduced micellar casein concentrate.

  1. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, M; Spadoni, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Labhasetwar, P K

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra - India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water-rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers.

  2. Ways of Fishery Local Life: Processes of Participation in Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Areas of the Upper Gulf of Eastern Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulak Sa-Ngiamlak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Local fishery was an inherited occupation for a long time. The objective of this research were to study: (1 the local fishery lifestyle of community in local fishery on upper area in Gulf of Thailand, (2 the appropriate participation process in natural resource management on upper part in Gulf of Thailand of people and organization and (3 the guidelines in natural resource management on the coastal area in upper part on Gulf of Thailand as relevant to local fishery lifestyle. Approach: The research area consisted of the shore of upper area in Gulf of Thailand including: Chachoengsao, Samutprakan, Samutsakon, Samutsongkram, Pechburi, Chonburi, Ra-yong, Chantaburi and Trad provinces. The samples as informants were 100 persons. The instruments using for data collection included the Survey, Interview Form, Observation Form, Record Form of Focus Group Discussion and Record Form of Participatory Workshop. The obtained data were classified into groups and investigated by using Triangulation Technique. Qualitative data were analyzed based on specified objectives. Results: The study of local fishery lifestyle found that there was location as in the present area owing to the fertility of area next to the sea. So, they could earn their living by fishery on coastal area. The local fishermen’s lifestyle was simple. Their living places were wooden houses with high space under a Thai house. For relationship of relative groups, they still helped each other among community people. They had belief in guardian spirit of a ship or boat and Kromluang Choomponke dudomsak. They did traditional fishery. Most of their instruments were made by themselves and adapted based on appropriateness. The wisdoms were transferred within their family, (2 the participation process in appropriate natural resource management, found that based on problem situations of natural resource on coastal area in upper area on Gulf of Thailand, being destroyed. Consequently

  3. The Coliform Bacteria in the Wastewater Ponds of Doha City, Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    al Thani, Roda F. [روضة فهد آل ثاني

    2003-01-01

    The microbiological study of the wastewater and its sediment around Abu-Hamour pond (untreated wastewater pond) and Abu-NakhIa pond (treated wastewater pond), located on the outskirts of Doha City, revealed that coliform bacteria were prominently present in the former than in the latter one. E.coli. Was present in the coastal wastewater in all sites around both ponds. Yet, E. coli. was present in wet soils around theses ponds primarily near the discharge sites where new water is constantly po...

  4. [Effects of probiotics on Penaeus vannamei pond sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanbo; Zha, Longying; Xu, Zirong

    2006-09-01

    This paper studied the effects of probiotics on the sediment of Penaeus vannamei pond during 117 days of culture period. The results showed that probiotics application significantly decreased the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and sulfide in sediment, but no significant difference was observed in total plate count (TPC) of microbes between treated and control ponds. The final average presumptive vibrio count (PVC) of treated pond sediment (3.65 x 10(3) cfu x g(-1)) was significantly lower than that of the control (1.16 x 10(5) cfu x g(-1)), while the average number of BS (Bacillus), AB (ammonifying bacteria), PSOB (presumptive sulphur oxidizing bacteria) and SRB (sulphur reducing bacteria) in treated pond sediment was higher than that of the control. These data showed that probiotics could decrease the nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and sulfur) accumulation and improve the composition of bacterial populations in pond sediment, and thus, supply a good sediment environment for the healthily culture of the shrimp.

  5. Area and volumetric density estimation in processed full-field digital mammograms for risk assessment of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Cheddad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. METHODS: The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol. The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. RESULTS: All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of risk and genetic association.

  6. Editorial: Reviewer selection process and new areas of expertise in GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Balikhin, Michael; Kepko, Larry; Rodger, Alan; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    One method of selecting potential reviewers for papers submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics is to filter the user database within the Geophysical Electronic Manuscript System (GEMS) by areas of expertise. The list of these areas in GEMS can be self selected by users in their profile settings. The Editors have added 18 new entries to this list, an increase of 33% more than the previous 55 entries. All space physicists are strongly encouraged to update their profile settings in GEMS, especially their areas of expertise selections, and details of how to do this are provided.

  7. Using Workflow Modeling to Identify Areas to Improve Genetic Test Processes in the University of Maryland Translational Pharmacogenomics Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Elizabeth M; Overby, Casey L; Banchero, Meghan; Pollin, Toni; Kelemen, Mark; Shuldiner, Alan R; Beitelshees, Amber L

    Delivering genetic test results to clinicians is a complex process. It involves many actors and multiple steps, requiring all of these to work together in order to create an optimal course of treatment for the patient. We used information gained from focus groups in order to illustrate the current process of delivering genetic test results to clinicians. We propose a business process model and notation (BPMN) representation of this process for a Translational Pharmacogenomics Project being implemented at the University of Maryland Medical Center, so that personalized medicine program implementers can identify areas to improve genetic testing processes. We found that the current process could be improved to reduce input errors, better inform and notify clinicians about the implications of certain genetic tests, and make results more easily understood. We demonstrate our use of BPMN to improve this important clinical process for CYP2C19 genetic testing in patients undergoing invasive treatment of coronary heart disease.

  8. The Influence of Micropore Oxygen Aeration on the Pond Water Quality Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jiang Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to know the effects of micropore oxygen aeration on the water quality and economic output, take each 3 of micropore oxygen aeration (experimental pond and impeller oxygenation (control pond to make the comparison, indexs of two different aeration methods water were detected from May, 2012 to October, 2012. Such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite, phytoplankton, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn. Results showed that, (1 the indexes of the dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand(CODMn and nitrite of the experimental pond are all superior to that of the control pond, of which the concentration of the dissolved oxygen of the experimental pond is 8.37 mg/L which is higher than that of the control pond (5.7 mg/L. And, (CODMn in the experimental pond is 7.54 mg/L, lower than that in the control pond (10.19 mg/L. The difference between the control pond and the experimental pond was statistically significant (p<0.01. The ammonia nitrogen of the experimental pond is 0.1 mg/L, obviously lower than the control pond (0.16 mg/L. Besides, the nitrite is 0.13 mg/L in the experimental pond, lower than that of the control pond (0.21 mg/L. (2 Compared with the control pond, the experimental pond has quite higher general abundance of algae, with about 5.69×108 ind/L. Yet, there is no obvious difference between them. (3 Compared to the impeller oxygenation, the micropore oxygen aeration technology can be better to increase the dissolved oxygen in the aquaculture pond and improve the water quality. However, there is no significant influence to the phytoplankton abundance and diversity.

  9. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  10. Production and Cycling of Methylmercury in High Arctic Wetland Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnherr, I.; St. Louis, V. L.

    2010-12-01

    Some species of freshwater fish in the Canadian high Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to the northern Inuit peoples that harvest these species as a traditional food source. In temperate regions, wetlands are known natural sites of MeHg production and hence significant MeHg sources to downstream ecosystems. However, the importance of wetlands to Hg methylation in the Arctic is unclear and the sources of MeHg to arctic freshwater ecosystems are still largely unidentified. Our research is demonstrating that some shallow and warm wetland ponds on the Arctic landscape contain high MeHg concentrations compared to nearby deep and cold lakes. We used a mass-balance approach to measure the net in-pond production of MeHg in two warm wetland ponds (Ponds 1 and 2) near Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (81° N latitude). We quantified external inputs and outputs of MeHg to and from the ponds, as well as the accumulation of MeHg in the water column during the summers of 2005 and 2008. Any changes in water column MeHg concentrations that could not be accounted for by external inputs or sinks were attributed to in-pond production. The principal external input and sink of MeHg was, respectively, wet atmospheric deposition and water-column MeHg photodemethylation. For 2005, we estimate that the net flux of MeHg from sediments into the water column was 0.015 μg m-2 d-1 in Pond 1 and 0.0016 μg m-2 d-1 in Pond 2. Compared to sediment-water MeHg fluxes measured in Alaskan tundra lakes (0.0015-0.0045 μg m-2 d-1), Pond 1 sediments are a greater source of MeHg while Pond 2 is similar to the Alaskan lakes. Furthermore, the accumulation of MeHg in the water column of Pond 1 (0.0061 μg m-2 d-1) was similar to the net yield of MeHg from temperate boreal wetlands (0.0005-0.006 μg m-2 d-1), demonstrating that these Arctic wetlands are important sites of MeHg production. In addition, we used mercury stable-isotope tracers to quantify methylation and

  11. Garden ponds as potential introduction pathway of ornamental crayfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patoka J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The private stocking of ornamental crayfish in garden ponds was discussed in previous studies, but there is a lack of detailed analysis for better understanding of this introduction pathway. The Czech Republic is one of leading EU countries in trade with ornamental crayfish and private garden ponds are popular among people. The crayfish keepers in the country were interviewed by self-administered questionnaire to gather data about principal characteristics of the keepers and detailed information about crayfish breeding that are of interest for conservation managers. Besides of releasing crayfish into garden ponds, alarming illegal behavior such as releasing of juvenile crayfish into the wild, and capturing of indigenous crayfish from wild populations, were registered. Therefore focusing on public education to increase awareness of possible unwanted consequences of crayfish release and introduction of an obligation to inform customers about hazardousness of non-indigenous crayfish species for retailers and wholesalers is recommended.

  12. First results on a process-oriented rain area classification technique using Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI nighttime data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thies

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A new technique for process-oriented rain area classification using Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI nighttime data is introduced. It is based on a combination of the Advective Convective Technique (ACT which focuses on precipitation areas connected to convective processes and the Rain Area Delineation Scheme during Nighttime (RADS-N a new technique for the improved detection of stratiform precipitation areas (e.g. in connection with mid-latitude frontal systems. The ACT which uses positive brightness temperature differences between the water vapour (WV and the infrared (IR channels (ΔTWV-IR for the detection of convective clouds and connected precipitating clouds has been transferred from Meteosat First Generation (MFG Metesoat Visible and Infra-Red Imager radiometer (MVIRI to Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI. RADS-N is based on the new conceptual model that precipitating cloud areas are characterised by a large cloud water path (cwp and the presence of ice particles in the upper part of the cloud. The technique considers information about both parameters inherent in the channel differences ΔT3.9-10.8, ΔT3.9-7.3, ΔT8.7-10.8, and ΔT10.8-12.1, to detect potentially precipitating cloud areas. All four channel differences are used to gain implicit knowledge about the cwp. ΔT8.7-10.8 and ΔT10.8-12.1 are additionally considered to gain information about the cloud phase. First results of a comparison study between the classified rain areas and corresponding ground based radar data for precipitation events in connection with a cold front occlusion show encouraging performance of the new proposed process-oriented rain area classification scheme.

  13. Usalpharma: A Cloud-Based Architecture to Support Quality Assurance Training Processes in Health Area Using Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. García-Peñalvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how cloud-based architectures can extend and enhance the functionality of the training environments based on virtual worlds and how, from this cloud perspective, we can provide support to analysis of training processes in the area of health, specifically in the field of training processes in quality assurance for pharmaceutical laboratories, presenting a tool for data retrieval and analysis that allows facing the knowledge discovery in the happenings inside the virtual worlds.

  14. Carbon dynamics in highly heterotrophic subarctic thaw ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Roiha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has accelerated the formation of permafrost thaw ponds in several subarctic and arctic regions. These ponds are net heterotrophic as evidenced by their greenhouse gas (GHG supersaturation levels (CO2 and CH4, and generally receive large terrestrial carbon inputs from the thawing and eroding permafrost. We measured seasonal and vertical variations in the concentration and type of dissolved organic matter (DOM in five subarctic thaw (thermokarst ponds in northern Quebec, and explored how environmental gradients influenced heterotrophic and phototrophic biomass and productivity. Late winter DOM had low aromaticity indicating reduced inputs of terrestrial carbon, while the high concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC suggests that some production of non-chromophoric dissolved compounds by the microbial food web took place under the ice cover. Summer DOM had a strong terrestrial signature, but was also characterized with significant inputs of algal-derived carbon, especially at the pond surface. During late winter, bacterial production was low (maximum of 0.8 mg C m−3 d−1 and was largely based on free-living bacterioplankton (58 %. Bacterial production in summer was high (up to 58 mg C m−3 d−1, dominated by particle-attached bacteria (67 %, and strongly correlated to the amount of terrestrial carbon. Primary production was restricted to summer surface waters due to strong light limitation deeper in the water column or in winter. The phototrophic biomass was equal to the heterotrophic biomass, but as the algae were mostly composed of mixotrophic species, most probably they used bacteria rather than solar energy in such shaded ponds. According to the δ13C analyses, non-algal carbon supported 51 % of winter and 37 % of summer biomass of the phantom midge larvae, Chaoborus sp., that are at the top of the trophic chain. Our results point to a strong heterotrophic energy pathway in these thaw pond ecosystems, where

  15. Carbon dynamics in highly heterotrophic subarctic thaw ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiha, T.; Laurion, I.; Rautio, M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming has accelerated the formation of permafrost thaw ponds in several subarctic and arctic regions. These ponds are net heterotrophic as evidenced by their greenhouse gas (GHG) supersaturation levels (CO2 and CH4), and generally receive large terrestrial carbon inputs from the thawing and eroding permafrost. We measured seasonal and vertical variations in the concentration and type of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five subarctic thaw (thermokarst) ponds in northern Quebec, and explored how environmental gradients influenced heterotrophic and phototrophic biomass and productivity. Late winter DOM had low aromaticity indicating reduced inputs of terrestrial carbon, while the high concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) suggests that some production of non-chromophoric dissolved compounds by the microbial food web took place under the ice cover. Summer DOM had a strong terrestrial signature, but was also characterized with significant inputs of algal-derived carbon, especially at the pond surface. During late winter, bacterial production was low (maximum of 0.8 mg C m-3 d-1) and was largely based on free-living bacterioplankton (58 %). Bacterial production in summer was high (up to 58 mg C m-3 d-1), dominated by particle-attached bacteria (67 %), and strongly correlated with the amount of terrestrial carbon. Primary production was restricted to summer surface waters due to strong light limitation deeper in the water column or in winter. The phototrophic biomass was equal to the heterotrophic biomass, but as the algae were mostly composed of mixotrophic species, most probably they used bacteria rather than solar energy in such shaded ponds. Our results point to a strong heterotrophic energy pathway in these thaw pond ecosystems, where bacterioplankton dominates the production of new carbon biomass in both summer and winter.

  16. Calculating Soil Wetness, Evapotranspiration and Carbon Cycle Processes Over Large Grid Areas Using a New Scaling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers

    2012-01-01

    Soil wetness typically shows great spatial variability over the length scales of general circulation model (GCM) grid areas (approx 100 km ), and the functions relating evapotranspiration and photosynthetic rate to local-scale (approx 1 m) soil wetness are highly non-linear. Soil respiration is also highly dependent on very small-scale variations in soil wetness. We therefore expect significant inaccuracies whenever we insert a single grid area-average soil wetness value into a function to calculate any of these rates for the grid area. For the particular case of evapotranspiration., this method - use of a grid-averaged soil wetness value - can also provoke severe oscillations in the evapotranspiration rate and soil wetness under some conditions. A method is presented whereby the probability distribution timction(pdf) for soil wetness within a grid area is represented by binning. and numerical integration of the binned pdf is performed to provide a spatially-integrated wetness stress term for the whole grid area, which then permits calculation of grid area fluxes in a single operation. The method is very accurate when 10 or more bins are used, can deal realistically with spatially variable precipitation, conserves moisture exactly and allows for precise modification of the soil wetness pdf after every time step. The method could also be applied to other ecological problems where small-scale processes must be area-integrated, or upscaled, to estimate fluxes over large areas, for example in treatments of the terrestrial carbon budget or trace gas generation.

  17. Distinct and Overlapping Brain Areas Engaged during Value-Based, Mathematical, and Emotional Decision Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Goh, Joshua O. S.

    2016-01-01

    When comparing between the values of different choices, human beings can rely on either more cognitive processes, such as using mathematical computation, or more affective processes, such as using emotion. However, the neural correlates of how these two types of processes operate during value-based decision-making remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the extent to which neural regions engaged during value-based decision-making overlap with those engaged during mathematical and emoti...

  18. Adaptive Lévy processes and area-restricted search in human foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, Thomas Trenholm; Kalff, Christopher; Wiener, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has claimed that animals’ foraging behaviors display movement lengths with power-law distributed tails, characteristic of Lévy flights and Lévy walks. Though these claims have recently come into question, the proposal that many animals forage using Lévy processes nonetheless remains. A Lévy process does not consider when or where resources are encountered, and samples movement lengths independently of past experience. However, Lévy processes too have come int...

  19. Effect of histological processing and methacrylate sectioning on the area of gill tissue in teleost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Cruz

    Full Text Available Deformation of biological tissues may occur during histological processing and results in loss of accuracy when quantitative information about cells, tissues and organs is necessary. In this study, the gill tissue from armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi was quantified in each step of processing using the stereological principles. During processing for glycol methacrylate embedding, gill tissue from shrinks significantly but regains its original dimensions after sectioning.

  20. SOFTWARE PROCESS MATURITY AND CAPABILITY EVALUATION AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN THE AREAS OF E-LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilkumar Chennakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed literature review revealed that, most of the organizations develop their projects and associated software engineering activities using in-house established methods. There are discrete references in the literature on application of broad based scientific methods in designing and developing process capability and maturity models by software organizations. Documentation and extent of adherence to a well defined organized scientific method plays a major role in standardizing the systems. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI is a recognized model for providing process maturity and capability in managing the software engineering activities. Further, the area of development of process models for optimization and implementation of thrust areas were not given due attention by researchers. To address above issues, we made an attempt in this study (i to review the extent to which software organization make use of software process capability models, (ii to develop an organized software process modeling and (iii to evaluate its performance through a case study conducted in an IT industry developing E-learning maturity models and to arrive at optimized model for E-Learning thrust areas. The basis for above work is drawn by comparing the existing methods and tools used, with international models. The major contribution of present work is that, the proposed process capability model will enable organizations to follow broad based scientific methods for pre modeling their software activities and will also enable them to form levels that result in bench mark approach for E-Learning modules.

  1. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M. [CNR — Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00010 Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Sacchi, E. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and CNR-IGG, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sanam, R.; Pujari, P.R.; Labhasetwar, P.K. [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra — India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water–rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. - Highlights: • Ash ponds have wide environmental and social impact in India. • Isotope ratios can be used as tracers for possible pollution of groundwater. • Isotopes of O, H, Sr, U and Ra have been used to investigate the area of Koradi. • Salinity of groundwater is not due to fly ash but linked to local brick kilns. • A model for the residence time of water based on Ra isotopes is described.

  2. Water quality characteristics of rivers and ponds in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸彦; 杜茂安; 玄正

    2004-01-01

    In Japan, various countermeasures have been taken to improve the water quality of public waters such as rivers and lakes. Though water quality has improved, it is still insufficient. In summer, eutrophication is seen in lakcs and inner bays, as well as rivers. As a countermeasure to prevent eutrophication, the removal treatment of nutrient salts such as nitrogen and phosphorus is done, in addition to organic substance elimination in the domestic sewerage system. This report will show the water quality characteristics of rivers and ponds in Japan. It is considered that these investigative results are effective when the water quality improvement of the stabilization ponds where eutrophication occurs are examined in China.

  3. Environmental contaminants in the aquatic bird food chain of an oil refinery wastewater pond in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Petroleum Hydrocarbons Based on higher PAH levels in sediment and vegetation, one would expect Pond 1 to pose a greater risk to wildlife than Pond 2. However, in...

  4. DNR 100K Lakes - Fishing in the Neighborhood (FiN) Ponds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents ponds included in DNR's Fishing in the Neighborhood (FiN) program. This program establishes local ponds to provide urban fishing opportunities...

  5. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.com; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.com; Sethy, N.K., E-mail: sethybarc@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sksbarc@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  6. Modelling of real area of contact between tool and workpiece in metal forming processes including the influence of subsurface deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel ...... for estimating friction in the numerical modelling of metal forming processes....

  7. Novel Salt-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of High Surface Area Ceria Nanopowders by An Ethylene Glycol-Nitrate Combustion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel salt-assisted combustion process with ethylene glycol as a fuel and nitrate as an oxidant to synthesize high surface area ceria nanopowders was reported. The effects of various tunable conditions, such as fuel-to-oxidant ratio, type of salts, and amount of added salts, on the characteristics of the as-prepared powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and BET surface area measurement. A mechanism scheme was proposed to illustrate the possible formation processes of well-dispersed ceria nanoparticles in the salt-assisted combustion synthesis. It was verified that the simple introduction of leachable inert inorganic salts as an excellent agglomeration inhibitor into the redox mixture precursor leads to the formation of well-dispersed ceria particles with particle size in the range of 4~6 nm and a drastic increase in the surface area. The presence of KCl results in an over ten-fold increment in specific surface area from 14.10 m2·g-1 for the produced ceria powders via the conventional combustion synthesis process to 156.74 m2·g-1 for the product by the salt-assisted combustion synthesis process at the same molar ratio of ethylene glycol-nitrate.

  8. Potential human health risks associated with historic ore processing at Berg Aukas, Grootfontein area, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Ellmies, Rainer; Kamona, Frederick; Kříbek, Bohdan; Majer, Vladimír; Knésl, Ilja; Pašava, Jan; Mufenda, Maria; Mbingeneeko, Filadelphia

    2010-11-01

    Health risks to people living at Berg Aukas have been identified through a geochemical study of mine dumps and soils at Berg Aukas. Berg Aukas once served as a mining town, where ores of Pb, V, and Zn were mined and roasted on site until 1979. Roasting of ores produced an unintended hazardous risk in the surrounding area. For this study, soil, crops, and water from the Berg Aukas area were analysed for various pollutants. The main pollutants are metals like Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As, Hg and Mo. They are bound to layered silicates, to easily soluble sulphide minerals, or occur in native form. The analytical results show severe heavy metal contamination of the surface soils south and east of Berg Aukas. Crops grown at the National Youth Service, like sweet potatoes, cabbage, and Irish potatoes, accumulate heavy elements that are deleterious to health. Prolonged exposure to As and heavy metals in concentrations as found in the soils and some crops in Berg Aukas can cause severe health problems like diabetes, skin lesions, bladder problems, neurological effects, as well as skin, kidney or lung cancer. Pb affects mental development of children and Pbs to brain retardation. The study aims to help the local community to delineate no-go areas for agricultural use and to either diversify the crops grown on contaminated soils or to grow crops that are less vulnerable to high heavy metal contents in soils or transfer the crops grown on contaminated soils to areas that are not contaminated.

  9. Slower gait, slower information processing and smaller prefrontal area in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosano, C.; Studenski, S.A.; Aizenstein, H.J.; Boudreau, R.M.; Longstreth Jr, W.T.; Newman, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Slower gait in older adults is related to smaller volume of the prefrontal area (PFAv). The pathways underlying this association have not yet been explored. Understanding slowing gait could help improve function in older age. We examine whether the association between smaller PFAv and sl

  10. Initiation processes for run-off generated debris flows in the Wenchuan earthquake area of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, W.; Dong, X. J.; Xu, Q.; Wang, G. H.; van Asch, T. W J; Hicher, P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of huge debris flows greatly increased in the epicenter area of the Wenchuan earthquake. Field investigation revealed that runoff during rainstorm played a major role in generating debris flows on the loose deposits, left by coseismic debris avalanches. However, the mechanisms of these

  11. Determination of representative elementary areas for soil redoximorphic features by digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photography has been a welcome tool in documenting and conveying qualitative soil information. When coupled with image analysis software, the usefulness of digital cameras can be increased to advance the field of micropedology. The determination of a Representative Elementary Area (REA) still rema...

  12. Automated detection method for architectural distortion areas on mammograms based on morphological processing and surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tetsuko; Matsubara, Tomoko; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Endo, Tokiko; Iwase, Takuji

    2004-05-01

    As well as mass and microcalcification, architectural distortion is a very important finding for the early detection of breast cancer via mammograms, and such distortions can be classified into three typical types: spiculation, retraction, and distortion. The purpose of this work is to develop an automatic method for detecting areas of architectural distortion with spiculation. The suspect areas are detected by concentration indexes of line-structures extracted by using mean curvature. After that, discrimination analysis of nine features is employed for the classifications of true and false positives. The employed features are the size, the mean pixel value, the mean concentration index, the mean isotropic index, the contrast, and four other features based on the power spectrum. As a result of this work, the accuracy of the classification was 76% and the sensitivity was 80% with 0.9 false positives per image in our database in regard to spiculation. It was concluded that our method was effective in detectiong the area of architectural distortion; however, some architectural distortions were not detected accurately because of the size, the density, or the different appearance of the distorted areas.

  13. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-02

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation.

  14. Can we close the long term mass balance equation for pollutants in highway ponds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the prospects of finding the long term mass balance on basis of short term simulations. A step in this process is to see to which degree the mass balance equation can be closed by measurements. Accordingly the total accumulation of heavy metals and PAH's in 8 Danish detention...... ponds only receiving runoff from highways have been measured. The result shows that the incoming mass of heavy metals from short term runoff events is accumulated. This is not observable in the same magnitude for the toxic organic compounds. The results also show that the accumulation rates...

  15. Observation and Research on Gravitational Erosion Process of Bank Slopes in Headstream Area of Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zi-li; CUI Peng; CHEN Xiao-qin; CHEN Jie; ZHU Yin-yan

    2005-01-01

    To reveal the gravitational erosion process in the headstream area of Jiangjia Ravine, continuous observation was conducted duing the rainy season. The observation and research show that the change of water content of the bank slope lags the precipitation process, the infiltration water concentrates mainly in the shallow layer of the bank slope, also the bank slope was unsaturated, the floods and debris flows in the gully down cut the gully bed, and scour the foot of the bank slope. These results in many collapses, which is the main type of gravitational erosion process, and it provides large amounts of loose solid materials for the eruption of debris flows.

  16. Spatial Analysis in Determination Of Flood Prone Areas Using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process at Sungai Sembrong's Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukari, S. M.; Ahmad, M. A.; Wai, T. L.; Kaamin, M.; Alimin, N.

    2016-07-01

    Floods that struck Johor state in 2006 and 2007 and the East Coastal in 2014 have triggered a greatly impact to the flood management here in Malaysia. Accordingly, this study conducted to determine potential areas of flooding, especially in Batu Pahat district since it faces terrifying experienced with heavy flood. This objective is archived by using the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on study area of flood risk location at the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong. GIS functions as spatial analysis is capable to produce new information based on analysis of data stored in the system. Meanwhile the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a method for setting up in decision making concerning the existing data. By using AHP method, preparation and position of the criteria and parameters required in GIS are neater and easier to analyze. Through this study, a flood prone area in the watershed of Sungai Sembrong was identified with the help of GIS and AHP. Analysis was conducted to test two different cell sizes, which are 30 and 5. The analysis of flood prone areas were tested on both cell sizes with two different water levels and the results of the analysis were displayed by GIS. Therefore, the use of AHP and GIS are effective and able to determine the potential flood plain areas in the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong.

  17. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  18. Performance and Modelling of a Highway Wet Detention Pond Designed for Cold Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Åstebøl, Svein Ole; Coward, Jan Emil

    2009-01-01

    A wet detention pond in Norway has been monitored for 12 months. The pond receives runoff from a highway with a traffic load of 42,000 average daily traffic. Hydraulic conditions in terms of inflow, outflow, and pond water level were recorded every minute. Water quality was monitored by volume...

  19. Estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated soybeans land in Mississippi: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although more on-farm storage ponds have been constructed in recent years to mitigate groundwater resources depletion in Mississippi, little effort has been devoted to estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated crop land based on pond matric and its hydrological conditions. Knowledge of this ra...

  20. Geographical distribution of investment in small-scale rural fish ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Kosy, S.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a detailed empirical study of investment patterns in small-scale rural aquaculture and its relation to pond location based on a systematic fish pond survey in Lao PDR. Nominal investment categories of fish ponds were created based on stocking rate, feed and water and then spati

  1. Food inputs, water quality and nutrient accumulation in integrated pond systems: A multivariate approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.; Milstein, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A participatory on-farm study was conducted to explore the effects of food input patterns on water quality and sediment nutrient accumulation in ponds, and to identify different types of integrated pond systems. Ten integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farms, in which ponds associate with fruit

  2. Transformation processes of rural areas in Latin America: the challenges of interdisciplinarity

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Llambí

    2013-01-01

    A brief review of the main empirical research about Latin-American rurality in the early twenty-first century, show us at least four different ways of transformation at Latin American Rural Territories: agribusiness headed process, family farming headed process, several diversification of activities and incomes linked by the new quality of relations between country and urban places, the kind of pro­cesses experienced by those territories where peasants or ethnical minorities prevail (native a...

  3. Statistical Process Control Concerning the Glazed Areas Influence on the Energy Efficiency of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepădatu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a statistical investigation, for analyzing the buildings characteristics from the energy efficiency point of view. The energy efficiency of buildings may be estimated by their capacity to ensure a healthy and comfortable environment, with low energy consumption during the whole year. The glazed areas have a decisive role in the building energy efficiency having in view the complex functions that they play in the system. A parametric study, based on the method of factorial plan of experience with two levels, allows us to emphasize the measure in which the geometric and energetic characteristics of glazed areas influence the energy efficiency, estimated by the yearly energy needs, to ensure a comfortable and healthy environment.

  4. Reducing Inherent Deviations in Galvanometer Scanning Systems for Large Area Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Delgado, Moisés Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Galvanometer laser machining is a well-established laser machining technique in which the laser beam is positioned on a working field by means of mirrors mounted in galvanometers. Nonetheless, new applications make necessary the development of innovative techniques for increasing the performance of such systems. Aside all the advantages of this technique like given resolution, repeatability and velocity, a limited working area is an important drawback. In this thesis work, the limitation...

  5. Climatology and firn processes in the lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is the largest Northern Hemisphere store of fresh water, and it is responding rapidly to the warming climate. In situ observations document the changing ice sheet properties in the lower accumulation area, Southwest Greenland. Firn densities from 1840 meters above sea level retrieved in May 2012 revealed the existence of a 5.5-meter-thick, near-surface ice layer in response to the recent increased melt and refreezing in firn. As a consequence, vertical meltwater percol...

  6. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter V. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    shrubland used for rangeland. The rural population is reasonably low, but the area is accessible from Tucson, Arizona, and El Paso , Texas, via major...1949-1955, Business Management, University of California, Los Angeles Juris Doctor, 1977, University of San Fernando Valley, College of Law, Los Angeles...Geologist B.A., 1937, Mining Geology, University of Texas, El Paso M.S., 1946, Geology, California Institute of Technology Doctor of Science, 1951

  7. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the 300 Area Process Sewer Cleanout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MENARD, N.M.

    2000-06-16

    This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the cleanout of sections of the 300 Area PS. Approval of the NOC will allow the pressure washing of certain pipe sections, the sump in the TEDF lift station, and the cleaning of PS 16 of the 300 Area PS that contains low levels of radioactivity. Section 15.0 of this NOC discusses the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) resulting from the unabated emissions from these cleaning activities. Using the currently approved unit dose conversion factors in HNF-3602, the estimated potential TEDE to the MEI resulting from the unabated, fugitive emissions from cleanout of the 300 Area PS is 4.70 E-05 millirem (mrem) per year. This dose was derived by conservatively estimating the doses from both the pressure washing and the use of the Guzzler{trademark} for removal of the liquid/soil mixture, as described in Section 5.0. and adding these doses together.

  8. Summer fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from a pond and floating mat in a continental Canadian peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Magdalena; Berger, Sina; Spangenberg, Ines; Blodau, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Ponds smaller than 10 000 m2 likely account for about one-third of the global lake perimeter. The release of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from these ponds is often high and significant on the landscape scale. We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in a temperate peatland in southern Ontario, Canada, in summer 2014 along a transect from the open water of a small pond (847 m2) towards the surrounding floating mat (5993 m2) and in a peatland reference area. We used a high-frequency closed chamber technique and distinguished between diffusive and ebullitive CH4 fluxes. CH4 fluxes and CH4 bubble frequency increased from a median of 0.14 (0.00 to 0.43) mmol m-2 h-1 and 4 events m-2 h-1 on the open water to a median of 0.80 (0.20 to 14.97) mmol m-2 h-1 and 168 events m-2 h-1 on the floating mat. The mat was a summer hot spot of CH4 emissions. Fluxes were 1 order of magnitude higher than at an adjacent peatland site. During daytime the pond was a net source of CO2 equivalents to the atmosphere amounting to 0.13 (-0.02 to 1.06) g CO2 equivalents m-2 h-1, whereas the adjacent peatland site acted as a sink of -0.78 (-1.54 to 0.29) g CO2 equivalents m-2 h-1. The photosynthetic CO2 uptake on the floating mat did not counterbalance the high CH4 emissions, which turned the floating mat into a strong net source of 0.21 (-0.11 to 2.12) g CO2 equivalents m-2 h-1. This study highlights the large small-scale variability of CH4 fluxes and CH4 bubble frequency at the peatland-pond interface and the importance of the often large ecotone areas surrounding small ponds as a source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

  9. A new biogeochemical model to simulate regional scale carbon emission from lakes, ponds and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Tina; Brakebusch, Matthias; Gustafsson, Erik; Beer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Small aquatic systems are receiving increasing attention for their role in global carbon cycling. For instance, lakes and ponds in permafrost are net emitters of carbon to the atmosphere, and their capacity to process and emit carbon is significant on a landscape scale, with a global flux of 8-103 Tg methane per year which amounts to 5%-30% of all natural methane emissions (Bastviken et al 2011). However, due to the spatial and temporal highly localised character of freshwater methane emissions, fluxes remain poorly qualified and are difficult to upscale based on field data alone. While many models exist to model carbon cycling in individual lakes and ponds, we perceived a lack of models that can work on a larger scale, over a range of latitudes, and simulate regional carbon emission from a large number of lakes, ponds and wetlands. Therefore our objective was to develop a model that can simulate carbon dioxide and methane emission from freshwaters on a regional scale. Our resulting model provides an additional tool to assess current aquatic carbon emissions as well as project future responses to changes in climatic drivers. To this effect, we have combined an existing large-scale hydrological model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity Macroscale Hydrologic Model (VIC), Liang & Lettenmaier 1994), an aquatic biogeochemical model (BALTSEM, Savchuk et al., 2012; Gustafsson et al., 2014) and developed a new methane module for lakes. The resulting new process-based biogeochemical model is designed to model aquatic carbon emission on a regional scale, and to perform well in high-latitude environments. Our model includes carbon, oxygen and nutrient cycling in lake water and sediments, primary production and methanogenesis. Results of calibration and validation of the model in two catchments (Torne-Kalix in Northern Sweden and of a large arctic river catchment) will be presented.

  10. Path Choice on Rural Industrial Upgrading in the Process of Rural-urban Integration in Binhai New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With methods of reference research and field research, the current situations of rural industrialization in the process of rural-urban integration in Binhai new area are analyzed and some problems in the process of integration in the new area are pointed out, such as difficulties in breaking dual economic structure in urban and rural areas, imbalanced economic development in the area and inadequate development of the third industry. And relevant countermeasures are proposed: optimizing agriculture industrial structure and promoting agricultural industrialization to form urban agricultural model of Binhai new area focusing on facility agriculture, park agriculture and high-end agriculture and to realize the intensive growth of agriculture; rationally distributing rural industrial structure to form regional leading industry and playing the guiding role of industry to achieve industrial adjustment improvement; quickening the construction of the third industry centering on service to form the service system of modern countryside and the leading role of modern service industry so as to achieve rapid development of the third industry.

  11. The causes and processes responsible for rocky desertification in karst areas of southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The karst region of southern China is a fragile ecological zone with widespread rocky desertification. This paper describes the rocky desertification occurring in this region in terms of both natural and anthropogenic factors. During geological time periods, the region’s changing environment governed the natural rocky desertification processes, whereas during historical and modern times, anthropogenic processes have been superimposed on these natural processes. Human activities have accelerated and exacerbated rocky desertification. The period from the beginning to the middle of the Qing dynasty was an important transitional period in which human activities began to exert a particularly strong influence on rocky desertification. Since then, the effect of anthropogenic factors has increasingly exceeded the effect of natural factors. The rocky desertification process in southern China’s karst region combines surface ecological processes (including vegetation degradation and loss, soil erosion, surface water loss, and bedrock solution) with a reduction of the land’s biological productivity, leading to degradation that produces rocky desert. Controlling rocky desertification requires comprehensive development of sustainable agriculture and economic development that provides employment alternatives to agriculture and thereby promotes the rehabilitation of rocky desertified land.

  12. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flache, Lucie, E-mail: Lucie.Flache@bio.uni-giessen.de [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ekschmitt, Klemens [Animal Ecology, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kierdorf, Uwe [Department of Biology, University of Hildesheim, Universitätsplatz 1, D-31141 Hildesheim (Germany); Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander [Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Encarnação, Jorge A. [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats. - Highlights: • Changes in metal exposure of bats due to remediation measure are documented. • Bats are suitable bioindicators of metal pollution. • Bat hair is a useful monitoring unit in such studies.

  13. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using {sup 137}Cs activities and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Foucher, Anthony [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Laceby, J. Patrick [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cerdan, Olivier [Département Risques et Prévention, Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); and others

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24 km{sup 2}, Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n = 36) and subsurface channel bank (n = 17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n = 41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10 m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. {sup 137}Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of

  14. Coleman Revisited: School Segregation, Peers, and Frog Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Students from minority segregated schools tend to achieve and attain less than similar students from White segregated schools. This study examines whether peer effects can explain this relationship using normative models and frog-pond models. Normative models (where peers become alike) suggest that minority schoolmates are a liability. Frog-pond…

  15. Fate and effects of esfenvalerate in agricultural ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Gutavson, K.; Madsen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    The fate of esfenvalerate was investigated by sampling and chemical analysis after spraying of an artificial pond (25 g a.i./ha) and in the laboratory with [C-14]esfenvalerate by trapping of (CO2)-C-14 and fractionation of the sediment. The effects were investigated on pelagic communities in encl...

  16. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  17. Food web interactions and nutrients dynamics in polyculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial feed and fertilizers are the main sources of nutrients supporting fish growth in aquaculture ponds. The majority of the added nutrients are lost to the sediment, where they are no longer available for natural food production. By increasing resuspension of the sediment through the introduc

  18. Pathogen removal mechanisms in macrophyte and algal waste stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awuah, E.

    2006-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds are recognized as the solution to domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries. This is because it is cheap, easy to construct and do not require high skilled labour. In the developing countries the objectives for wastewater treatment should put emphasis on pathoge

  19. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  20. Pathogen removal mechanisms in macrophyte and algal waste stabilization ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awuah, E.

    2006-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds are recognized as the solution to domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries. The use of such natural systems is considered to be very important. This is because it is cheap, easy to construct and they do not require high skilled labour. In the developing countri