WorldWideScience

Sample records for area power administration

  1. Western Area Power Administration customer database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Lee, A.D.; Wright, G.A.; Durfee, D.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report describes a comprehensive customer database compiled by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assist with analyses conducted as part of the Western Area Power Administration Energy Planning and Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The database was used by PNL as a tool to help select a sample of Western customers for potential participation in the Organizational Impacts Analysis case studies, and was used as part of the Utility Impact Analysis to identify sources and costs of auxiliary power. Secondary information sources were used predominantly to compile one year of system related information on the Western customers (over 600) included in the database. This information was useful for its intended purposes; however, year-to-year information may not be consistent across utilities and not all information was available for each utility.

  2. 75 FR 65624 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 19, 2010. Take notice that on September 30, 2010, Western Area Power Administration submitted a tariff filing...

  3. 76 FR 58805 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 7, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-156,...

  4. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  5. 2012 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.

  6. Environmental audit, Bonneville Power Administration, lower Columbia area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Audit conducted by the DOE Headquarters Office of Environmental Audit within the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) Lower Columbia Area. The BPA facilities included in the Audit are the Ross Complex in Vancouver, Washington; the substations of North Bonneville, North Bonneville Annex, Camas, and Longview within the state of Washington; and the Acton and Troutdale Substations within the state of Oregon. The independent Audit was conducted by a team of professionals from DOE and contractors. The purpose of the Audit is to provide the Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, Ret., with the status of environmental programs within BPA's Lower Columbia Area. The Environmental Audit team identified 25 findings dealing with the lack of conformance with federal and state laws and regulations and DOE Orders, and 7 findings in which BMPs were not attained. Although all findings require corrective action, none required cessation of operations or reflect situations that present an immediate risk to public health or the environment. The Audit team noted inadequacies in PCB management included storage, labeling, reporting, and spill control. The most significant causal factors for the findings include lack of policy implementation throughout the Lower Columbia Area, inadequate training of personnel charged with environmental protection, lack of standard operating procedures for many programs, lack of reviews and appraisals, and an inaccurate perception of low risk for environmental concerns.

  7. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  8. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  9. Revised Environmental Assessment for the Sacramento Area Office Western Area Power Administration, 1994 Power Marketing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents information on power marketing; expiring contracts; economic methods and assumptions; detailed power supply cost data; guidelines and acceptance criteria for conservation and renewable energy projects; hourly flow impacts graphs; difference in hydro dispatch; generation data; flow data; fishery resources of the Sacramento River; and water quality

  10. Air quality analysis for the Western Area Power Administration's 2004 Power Marketing Plan Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets and transmits electric power throughout 15 western states. Western's Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region (Sierra Nevada Region) markets approximately 1,480 megawatts (MW) of firm power (plus 100 MW of seasonal peaking capacity) from the Central Valley Project (CVP) and other resources. Western's mission is to sell and deliver electricity generated from these resources. Western's capacity and energy sales must be in conformance with the laws that govern its sale of electrical power. Further, Western's hydropower operations at each facility must comply with minimum and maximum flows and other constraints set by other regulatory agencies. The Sierra Nevada Region proposes to develop a marketing plan that defines the products and services it would offer beyond the year 2004 and the eligibility and allocation criteria for its electric power resources. Because determining levels of long-term firm power resources to be marketed and subsequently entering into contracts for the delivery of related products and services could be a major Federal action with potentially significant impacts to the human environment, the 2004 Power Marketing Plan Environmental Impact Statement (2004 EIS) is being prepared. Decisions made by the Sierra Nevada Region on how and when to supply power to its customers would influence the operation of power plants within the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC). If the resources affected are thermal resources, this could in turn affect the amount, timing, and location of pollutant emissions to the air at locations throughout the western United States. This report has been produced in conjunction with the 2004 EIS to provide a more detailed discussion of the air quality implications of the 2004 power marketing plan

  11. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... marketing administration (PMA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), is publishing a recommendation to pursue... CONTACT: Jody S. Sundsted, Power Marketing Manager, Upper Great Plains Region, Western Area Power... Peck Power Plant. RTO History RTOs are not a new concept within the utility industry. The concept...

  12. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and management overview and performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1994 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.

  13. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation's irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western's wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western's power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage

  14. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  15. Office of Inspector General report on audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s contract with Basin Electric Power Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-25

    At the request of the Western Area Power Administration (Western), an audit of 17 areas was conducted with respect to possible overcharges on a power contract between Western and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin), Contract No. DE-MP65-82WP-19001. The contract for Western`s purchase of electric power from Basin was entered into on April 15, 1982, and was in effect from January 1, 1986, through October 31, 1990. During this 58-month period, Basin billed Western approximately $197.6 million. Overall, it was found that Basin overcharged Western approximately $23.8 million. These overcharges occurred because Basin: (1) did not recognize or amortize as gain its overestimate of completion and correction costs for Antelope Valley Station (AVS) Unit 2; (2) did not amortize the gain on the sale/leaseback of AVS Unit 2 as an offset to lease costs; (3) billed Western prematurely for lease and interest costs; (4) overcharged for the cost of coal by including administrative and general expenses and profit, as well as incorrectly calculating discounts, royalty payments, and imputed interest costs; (5) made faulty calculations of amortization rates for deferred costs; (6) used a shorter depreciation period for AVS common facilities than it had used for other power plants; (7) retained tax benefit transfers; and (8) charged Western for interest and depreciation that had been paid by others. In addition to the $23.8 million in overcharges, interest accrued on the overcharges through December 31, 1996 was estimated to be approximately $22.1 million, resulting in a total of $45.9 million due Western.

  16. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Frias, O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  17. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995 (with independent auditors` report thereon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1996. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1996 statements. The auditors` report on Western`s internal control structure disclosed two new reportable conditions and discussed the status of an unresolved condition from prior years. The new conditions involved the write-off of aging accounts receivable and the understatement of interest expense for inactive construction work orders. These reportable conditions are not considered to be material weaknesses. Western concurred with the audit recommendations and is responsible for necessary corrective actions. The auditors also considered the overview and performance measure data for completeness and material consistency with the basic financial statements as noted in the internal control report. The report also disclosed an additional reportable condition directed to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) which is not considered to be a material weakness. Reclamation concurred with the audit recommendation and is responsible for necessary corrective action. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations disclosed two new instances of noncompliance involving interest charges on all construction costs funded with Federal appropriations and other capitalized costs. The report also discussed the status of one instance of noncompliance from prior years. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for all of these instances of noncompliance.

  18. Western Area Power Administration annual site environmental report for calendar year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-12-31

    This document outlines the accomplishments and status of the environmental program of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) for calendar year 2005. In 2005, Western submitted 190 reports to state and local emergency response personnel and had 60 California Hazardous Materials Business Plans in place as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. These reports identify the hazardous substances contained at these sites. At sites where potential oil spills could harm surrounding ecosystems and waterways, Western prepares Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans. These plans identify measures to prevent spills from harming the environment, such as identifying the need for secondary containment at facilities. Western currently has SPCC plans for 154 facilities in 13 states. In 2005, Western updated 19 SPCC plans and prepared one new plan. Western operated under 107 environmental permits in 2005. Western evaluates the impact of its planned actions on the environment by preparing National Environmental Policy Act documentation. In 2005, Western completed or was working on 60 categorical exclusions, 18 environmental assessments and eight environmental impact statements, issued six Findings of No Significant Impact, and prepared four Mitigation Action Plans. Western held several public workshops/meetings and consulted with 70 American Indian Tribes for various projects. In 2005, Western was working on or had completed 11 Section 7 consultations under the Endangered Species Act. In 2005, Western recycled more than 3,600 metric tons of electrical equipment, mineral oil dielectric fluid, asphalt, fluorescent and metal halide light bulbs, wood poles and crossarms, and other items as well as office waste. Western made $437,816 worth of purchases containing recovered content materials. Western met the requirement of Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management to have its

  19. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Roybal, A.L. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  20. Operational Impacts of Wind Energy Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration Control Area - Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai

    2008-07-15

    This report presents a methodology developed to study the future impact of wind on BPA power system load following and regulation requirements. The methodology uses historical data and stochastic processes to simulate the load balancing processes in the BPA power system, by mimicking the actual power system operations. Therefore, the results are close to reality, yet the study based on this methodology is convenient to conduct. Compared with the proposed methodology, existing methodologies for doing similar analysis include dispatch model simulation and standard deviation evaluation on load and wind data. Dispatch model simulation is constrained by the design of the dispatch program, and standard deviation evaluation is artificial in separating the load following and regulation requirements, both of which usually do not reflect actual operational practice. The methodology used in this study provides not only capacity requirement information, it also analyzes the ramp rate requirements for system load following and regulation processes. The ramp rate data can be used to evaluate generator response/maneuverability requirements, which is another necessary capability of the generation fleet for the smooth integration of wind energy. The study results are presented in an innovative way such that the increased generation capacity or ramp requirements are compared for two different years, across 24 hours a day. Therefore, the impact of different levels of wind energy on generation requirements at different times can be easily visualized.

  1. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.;

    2009-01-01

    (CAISO) areas. The proposed wide area energy management system (WAEMS) addresses these additional balancing requirements through energy exchange between the participat-ing control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and CAISO control areas, the new...... conventional hydro plant). The aggregate would be integrated with BPA and CAISO automatic generation control systems. An optimization control algorithm has been developed. It provides an excellent regulation signal following capability, helps to maintain a desired state of charge on the ESD, prevents...

  2. Bonneville Power Administration 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration`s 60th anniversary year exceeded expectations. Net revenues were the best since 1991, which demonstrates that earlier decisions to transform BPA into a smaller, cost-conscious, customer-focused organization were the correct decisions. The region`s evaluation of the agency`s role in the Northwest was as gratifying as the positive financial position. Through the Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System, the region concluded that BPA has been and must continue to be an important economic and environmental benefit to the Northwest. BPA occupies a unique position in the region that is crystallized in the agency`s new purpose statement: to meet their public responsibilities through commercially successful businesses. The agency must be commercially successful to provide funding for public responsibilities such as its fish and wildlife program, conservation, and reliable power and transmission systems. But the heart and soul of the agency is providing benefits that reflect the public service orientation that inspired the agency`s creation 60 years ago. BPA will provide the region with power at cost, provide preference to the region because the river on which the hydro system is based is a regional resource, and continue to see that its power flows to the little guys. It is just as important that BPA deliver power to the region`s residential and rural consumers now as it was when the agency brought electricity to rural areas for the first time.

  3. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  4. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  5. Environmental Audit of the Alaska Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit of the Alaska Power Administration (APA) headquartered in Juneau, Alaska. This Audit was conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) from August 24 to December 8, 1992. The scope of the Audit was comprehensive, covering all environmental programs and activities with the exception of those relating to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Specifically considered was the compliance status of APA regarding Federal, state, and local statutes and regulations, DOE Orders and Directives, and best management practices. The technical disciplines addressed by the Audit were: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. Due to the nature of the activities carried out at the two Federal hydroelectric projects operated by APA, the area of radiation was not investigated during the Audit

  6. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  7. Bonneville Power Administration 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    This is the 1998 annual report to the President by the Administrator and Chief Executive Officer of the Bonneville Power Administration. The topics of the report include financial highlights, letter to the President, review of 1998, financial data, management`s discussion and analysis, performance measures, financial statements, BPA executives, BPA offices, BPA profile.

  8. Power Subscription Strategy: Administrator`s Record of Decision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1998-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to adopt a Power Subscription Strategy for entering into new power sales contracts with its Pacific Northwest customers. The Strategy equitably distributes the electric power generated by the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) within the framework of existing law. The Power Subscription Strategy addresses the availability of power; describes power products; lays out strategies for pricing, including risk management; and discusses contract elements. In proceeding with this Subscription Strategy, BPA is guided by and committed to the Fish and Wildlife funding Principles for the BPA announced by the Vice President of the US in September 1998. This Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the issues raised by commenters who responded to BPA`s Power Subscription Strategy Proposal during and after the comment period that began with the release of the Proposal on September 18, 1998. The ROD is organized in approximately the same way as the Proposal and the Power Subscription Strategy that BPA developed based on the comments received. Abbreviations of party names used in citations appear in the section just preceding this introduction; a list of all the commenters follows the text of the ROD.

  9. Environmental Management Audit: Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Audit completed for the Southwestern Power Administration. During this Audit, activities and records were reviewed and personnel interviewed. The onsite portion of the Southwestern Audit was conducted from November 30 through December 11, 1992, by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. This program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities/activities regarding compliance with laws, regulations, DOE Orders, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Environmental Management Audit stresses DOE's policy that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The Environmental Management Audit focuses on management systems and programs, whereas the Environmental Baseline Audit conducted in March 1991 focused on specific compliance issues. The scope of the Southwestern Environmental Management Audit included a review of all systems and functions necessary for effective environmental management. Specific areas of review included: Organizational Structure; Environmental Commitment; Environmental Protection Programs; Formality of Environmental Programs; Internal and External Communication; Staff Resources, Training, and Development; and Program Evaluation, Reporting, and Corrective Action

  10. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  11. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described

  12. Bonneville Power Administration 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    Congress enacted the Bonneville Project Act in 1937, creating the Bonneville Power Administration to market and transmit the power produced by Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Since then, Congress has directed BPA to sell at wholesale the power produced at a total of 30 Federal dams in the Pacific Northwest, and to acquire conservation and generating resources sufficient to meet the needs of BPA`s customer utilities. The dams and the electrical system are known as the Federal Columbia River Power System. Bonneville sells wholesale power to public and private utilities, rural cooperatives, large industries, and Federal agencies. BPA also sells or exchanges power with utilities in California. BPA uses revenues from the sale of power and transmission services to recover its own expenses, to repay the Federal investment in the power system, and to pay for the resources it has acquired. BPA pays for operation and maintenance expenses at the Federal dams and at non-Federal power plants. It also pays for irrigation benefits of Federal projects allocated to power to repay, and for fish and wildlife projects which offset damage to these resources by the Federal hydropower system. This document is the 1991 statement of budget, financial statement, cash flows, capitalization, expenses, and projects. An organization chart is included.

  13. Analysis on Open Government Information Under the Perspective of Administrative Power and Administrative System

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyong TAN

    2016-01-01

    This paper starts from administrative power and administrative system and believes that the tradition of administrative power, administrative power distribution and operation system, administrative power self-isolation and alienation tendencies, administrative structure and traditional bureaucratic system have a significant impact on the construction of open government information system. At the same time, it analyzes the beneficial factors to the open government information and believes that...

  14. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. In FY 2011, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $167 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  15. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-09-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. In FY 2010, Southwestern delivered nearly 7.6 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Texas, and Oklahoma, generating $189 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  16. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. In FY 2012, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $195 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  17. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  18. Harnessing water power in the larger Hannover area. Study commissioned by the local administration union larger Hannover area; Nutzung der Wasserkraft im Grossraum Hannover. Eine Studie im Auftrag des Zweckverbandes Grossraum Hannover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahling, U. [comp.

    1992-12-31

    Within the framework of an inventory of possible sites for hydroelectric power plants in the larger Hannover area, 60 sites in the rural district of Hannover were more closely investigated. 57 of these were former water mills and 3 were hydraulic structures that have nothing to do with former water mills. 29 water mills are to be considered as dismantled in hydraulic engineering terms, 8 are in operation, and 20 are decommissioned. Furthermore, 2 weirs and 1 barrage were included in the investigation.- In the area of the city of Hannover, there are four more sites of hydroelectric power plants, of which one is dismantled, two are decommissioned and one is in operation.- In order to complement the inventory, object expertises of different depths were prepared for eight selected sites. They permit a qualified assessment of the chances of reactivation of each site, taking the respective specific conditions into account. At the same time, they represent a first step towards detailed advice for a prospective operator (orig.). [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Studie zur Bestandserhebung von moeglichen Standorten fuer Wasserkraftanlagen im Grossraum Hannover wurden 60 Standorte im Landkreis Hannover naeher untersucht. Es handelt sich um 57 ehemalige Wassermuehlen und 3 wasserbauliche Anlagen, die nichts mit ehemaligen Wassermuehlen zu tun haben. 29 Wassermuehlen sind im wasserbaulichen Sinn als beseitigt anzusehen, 8 sind in Betrieb, 20 liegen still. Darueberhinaus wurden 2 Wehre und 1 Stauanlage in die Untersuchungen einbezogen. Im Gebiet der Stadt Hannover befinden sich 4 weitere Wassrkraftstandorte, von denen einer als beseitigt anzusehen ist, zwei stilliegen und einer in Betrieb ist. Ergaenzend zu der Bestandserhebung wurden fuer acht ausgewaehlte Standorte Objektgutachten unterschiedlicher Bearbeitungstiefe erstellt. Sie ermoeglichen eine qualifizierte Beurteilung der Reaktivierungschancen unter Beruecksichtigung der jeweiligen standortspezifischen Besonderheiten

  19. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    Dear Secretary Chu, I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. In FY 2008, Southwestern delivered over 7.3 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers – nearly 31% more than average due to numerous record rainfall amounts in the southwest region. These record amounts produced revenues which exceeded the average annual revenue requirement by nearly $20 million and resulted in over $200 million in economic benefits to the region. Yet even as Southwestern exceeded its goals of marketing and delivering Federal hydroelectric power to our customers, we stayed focused on safety, security, and reliability. For example, we maintained our nearly 1,400 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites while achieving a Recordable Accident Frequency Rate of 0.0, a record that reflects Southwestern’s safety achievement of no recordable injuries for every 200,000 hours worked. We kept our rights-of-way secure from vegetation and other obstacles, work that not only supports our mission but also promotes reliability of the regional and National grid. We exceeded all North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Control Performance Standards (CPS- 1 and CPS-2), and maintained regulation and reserve obligations and reactive reserve margins to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system, even during extended periods of restricted hydro operations due to unusually high project inflows. Finally, we continued our partnerships with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, our customers, and other Federal power stakeholders, partnerships that are vital to our continued success in marketing and delivering carbon-free, renewable, and domestically produced energy to our customers and to the Nation. Sincerely, Jon Worthington Administrator

  20. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    “Renewable energy” isn’t just a catchphrase at Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern). It describes the hydroelectric energy we market, and the energy that Southwestern’s employees bring to work every day, constantly challenging themselves to become more eff ective and effi cient in providing aff ordable, environmentally clean power to the American people. As Southwestern’s new Administrator, I have had the opportunity to view our operations from a fresh perspective, and I’m proud to share with you how a focus on continual improvement has been evident in accomplishments throughout the agency during fi scal year (FY) 2007. When the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) implemented new reliability standards, we met applicable implementation dates and exceeded NERC’s control performance standards throughout the year. When tasked with reducing the agency’s carbon footprint, we found ways to achieve an 8.7% reduction in energy intensity from last year without impacting our operational capabilities. And when faced with record-breaking infl ows into the reservoir projects from which we market power, we capitalized on the opportunity to provide customers with signifi cant quantities of supplemental energy. Our supplemental sales this year not only saved customers over $122 million, but increased Southwestern’s revenues -- a huge win-win for Southwestern’s ratepayers and the Nation’s taxpayers alike. Southwestern is proud of its role in protecting National and economic security by contributing to the diverse supply of domestically produced energy, operating and maintaining a safe and reliable transmission system, and ensuring good stewardship of our Nation’s water resources and environment. In FY 2007, Southwestern continued to repay all power costs to the American taxpayers by marketing and delivering approximately 5.6 billion kilowatthours of hydropower at cost-based rates to customers in our six-state region. This energy

  1. 2011 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    Western’s achievements for 2011 are reported and include: Experienced a banner water year – meaning more hydropower delivered; Changed energy scheduling— to better support intermittent renewable resources; Maintained reliability— ensuring maximum use of the grid by reducing the frequency and duration of planned and unplanned outages; Connected communities— providing customers energy products and related services at cost-based rates; Managed transmission projects.

  2. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  3. Discretionary power in public administration: A comparative study between traditional public administration and new public management

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yıldırım

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the perspectives of the traditional public administration and new public management in relation to administrative discretion have been comparatively examined. In this context, the definition, importance and dimensions of discretionary power are clarified, the meaning and characteristics of discretionary power in relation to the traditional and the new approaches in public administration have been studied carefully using documentary observation method.

  4. Discretionary power in public administration: a comparative study between traditional public administration and new public management

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Murat

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the perspectives of the traditional public administration and new public management in relation to administrative discretion have been comparatively examined. In this context, the definition, importance and dimensions of discretionary power are clarified, the meaning and characteristics of discretionary power in relation to the traditional and the new approaches in public administration have been studied carefully using documentary observation method.

  5. 75 FR 65624 - Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 19, 2010. Take... Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) Rate Order No. SEPA- 53, for the sale of power...

  6. Future tools for area administration and public participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    hierarchical levels: National, regional and municipal. The regional level has handled larger environmental issues and everything concerning planning and administration of non-urban areas; costal areas, nature preservation and restauration, agriculture, natural ressources, water quality etc. The Danish...... government has recently decided to eliminate the regional administration level and transfer the planning tasks to the municipalities, who has up till now almost entirely dealt with planning of urban areas. The problems and complexities that has to be handled in the open area planning differ from those...

  7. The Communication in Public Administration in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ţicu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to underline the role of communication in the public institutions byidentifying the characteristics and peculiarities of the process of public administration, starting from thecharacteristics of administrative process and from those of organizational behavior in urban areas identifiableat the level of each public institution. The study of the dimensions such as the actors and the stakeholdersinvolved in the administrative process, the goals and the objectives of the administrative evaluation, thecriteria and the techniques of communication and all interpersonal hierarchies established, all of these can beconsidered variables that can offer distinction to the communication process in public administration, whetherwe speak about inter-institutional communication or intra-institution alone or about that one from the publicadministration to citizens. This article aims to underlie the characteristics of the communication process inpublic administration based on a quantitative study which appeals to the variables previously set and that canbecome models or labels for subsequent specialized studies.

  8. Inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The authors conducted an inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. The purpose of their inspection was to determine if a covert video surveillance operation conducted at Bonneville Power Administration was consistent with Department of Energy policies and procedures and other applicable regulations and procedures, and to determine if administrative leave policies and procedures used at Bonneville Power Administration in a specific instance were consistent with Department of Energy requirements and the Code of Federal Regulations. This inspection focused on a specific incident that occurred in 1989 on the 5th floor of the BPA Headquarters Building located in Portland, Oregon. The incident involved the soiling of an employee`s personal property with what appeared to be urine.

  9. SOLUTIONS FOR INTEGRATED ADMINISTRATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an administrative model for green spaces in any geographical area, especially in urban areas. The organizational proposed model also concerns the possibilities to develop new areas with green spaces for both recreation and leisure. Current structures leave much to be desired and, unfortunately, they do not seek to manage the green spaces on types of activities and these activities are not integrated into a unit structure to ensure coordination of operations for maintenance and expansion of these spaces. In the study, for the administrative plan are proposed those necessary changes to create organizational structures needed to implement a coherent strategy and policy to support the development of green space. Given the necessity of an integrated management for urban space, the model proposes solutions to eliminate functional overlaps of the various decision-making bodies by creating a unit of action, together with arrangements for its effective support. Developing effective solutions to managing green spaces for recreation and leisure becomes an obligation for the next period under conditions of increasing green areas arranged as parks and other types of green spaces and hence an increase for the cost of their administration. On the other hand, the paper addresses the issue of integrated management for both, green areas and recreational and leisure facilities existing within the urban areas, by giving more importance and impact for these spaces within communities. In this framework of integrated administration, it is possible to ensure modern leisure amenities in these urban green areas, and on the other hand it is possible to provide a very important prospect of additional revenues for the general budget of the community and also for future budget of planning for new green areas.

  10. Southwestern Power Administration Update, October- December 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    On October 29, 2004, Southwestern and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) reached agreement on interim arrangements to be implemented after the October 31, 2004, expiration of the membership agreement between the two parties. According to Jim McDonald, Director of Southwestern’s Division of Customer Service, the interim agreement forged between Southwestern and SPP seeks to minimize impacts to SPP as well as to Southwestern and its customers while Southwestern and SPP work on a seams/coordination agreement to succeed the expired membership agreement.

  11. The energy behind the power. Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This is the Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report. The topics of the report include a letter to the secretary; an overview including the mission statement, a description of the Southwestern Federal Power System, financial statement, performance measurements, national performance review; year in review, summary of results, financial and statistical data and the Southwestern Power Administration Organization.

  12. Inter-area oscillations in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Arturo R

    2009-01-01

    Deals with the application of fresh techniques based on time-frequency system representations and statistical approaches to the study, characterization, and control of nonlinear and non-stationary inter-area oscillations in power systems.

  13. 76 FR 64083 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Register (51 FR 4012, January 31, 1986) and provided the marketing plan principles used to market what is...) Final Rule published in the Federal Register (60 FR 54151, October 20, 1995), Subpart C extended and... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects--2025 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal...

  14. Nuclear power for under-developed areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In evaluating the needs of the less developed countries for nuclear power and in determining how and to what extent these needs can be met, the fundamental questions to be decided are: (a) to what extent can the total power needs of these countries be met by conventional (thermal and hydro) means, (b) in which sectors would it be immediately possible - from both technical and economic points of view - to generate power from nuclear energy, and (c) in which areas would it be imperative to resort to nuclear power in the immediate future. The IAEA Second General Conference recommended a survey of the nuclear power needs of the less developed countries, a study on a continuing basis of the technology and economics of small and medium power reactors suited to these countries, dissemination of the information obtained and assistance in training personnel in the technology and economic utilization of such nuclear stations. And on the basis of this recommendation, the Agency has initiated an integrated two-year programme of work for examining the possibilities of utilizing nuclear power in under-developed countries. In carrying out this programme, the Agency is seeking potentially promising cases in which nuclear energy can yield necessarily limited but early benefits. That would help an assessment of the technical and economic possibilities of small and medium reactors in specific situations. It would also enable under-developed countries to compare and ascertain whether nuclear energy can provide an early solution to some of their pressing power problems. The first three phases of IAEA's work programme are: (i) studies on the technical suitability of reactors with a power level of up to 50 mw; (ii) economic studies in regard to reactor systems, including a systematic analysis of power costs; and (iii) selection of characteristic situations that appear to favour utilization of nuclear power. A survey of special interest in this connexion will be carried out by an Agency

  15. Southwestern Power Administration annual site environmental report CY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This report provides a synopsis of Southwestern Power Administration`s (Southwestern`s) effectiveness in managing its operations in an environmentally responsible manner. In CY 1997, the Office of Environmental, Safety, and Health was reorganized and incorporated into the Division of Acquisition and Property. The Division of Acquisition, Property, and Environmental Management maintains responsibility for development, oversight, and implementation of environmental programs. Senior Management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization. During CY 1997, (Southwestern) was not involved in any known programs or activities that had adverse impacts on the environment. The 1997 Environmental Appraisal, a portion of Southwestern`s Self-Assessment and Appraisal Program, indicated approximately 90% compliance with Southwestern`s written environmental programs. Southwestern continued to function throughout CY 1997 in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects.

  16. Nuclear power administration in F.R. Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brief history, projects, administration, licensing and international cooperation on the atomic power in FRG are reported. FRG has spent the government budget of DM 16 billion for the research and development on the peaceful utilization of atomic power since 1955, and 10,000 employees of government institutions and 25,000 employees of industries are working at present. The second part of this report deals with the government projects. Two basic measures for obtaining energy for medium and long periods are taken into consideration. One is to control the increase of energy consumption, and the other is to develop the alternative energy that can cut the petroleum dependence in 1985 to 44%. The total capacity of atomic power plants is estimated to be 20 million kW in 1980 and 45 to 50 million kW in 1985. The fourth part deals with the functions of state licensing authority in FRG. The functions are divided into development affairs (FMFT) and regulation affairs (BMI). The nuclear industry as one of the partners consists of power generation companies and reactor manufactures. The other partner is six atomic power research institutes (GFK, KFA, GKSS, GSF, IPP). The most significant problem is safety which is strictly controlled by the government. The last part deals with the international cooperation such as the development of SNR300 (300,000 kW prototype fast breeder reactor) under the joint venture of FRG, Belgium and Netherlands. (Iwakiri, K.)

  17. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  18. 30 CFR 44.22 - Administrative law judges; powers and duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing, may file with the Chief Administrative Law Judge of the Department of Labor a motion to be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judges; powers and duties... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS Hearings § 44.22 Administrative law judges; powers and duties. (a) Powers....

  19. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  20. Radon in coal power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, the radioactive colourless and inodorous noble gas, represents more than 55% of the natural average radioactivity. It is permanently released from the soil and majority of building materials, it builds up in the mine galleries, in dwelling houses and in other closed rooms. Radon gained increasingly in importance, particularly after 1990 when was doubtless identified as the second cause of lung cancer if a given concentration threshold is surpassed. This threshold is established differentially by each country as a function of the particular site and generally ranges between 150 Bq.m-3 and 600 Bq.m-3. The telluric radon consists of two isotopes, 222Rn, a daughter of radium descending from uranium, which induces 90% of the effects, and 220Rn from thorium series which have too short a lifetime to count in the risk assessments of radon inhalation. The interest of the authorities and population for diminishing the radon effects was illustrated by specific studies which in USA were managed by the National Counsel of Research, the BEIR VI committee of which has issued a report concerning the lung cancer produced by radon and its descendants. Coal mining, the transport, processing, burning, slag and ash disposal are activities entailing radon release. The miners' dwellings are placed in areas with the high radon potential. The local building materials have a high content of radioactive elements from the uranium or thorium series so that radon can build up in the closed rooms of these buildings. Hence the social responsible authorities in the coal power industry zones should consider this aspect long time ignored in the Balkans macro zone so far. The radon issue must be differentially approached in different areas hence a zonal mapping of the radon emission should be first done. It is worth to underline that the gaseous radioactive emission from operational nuclear power plants amounts up to a few percents of the radon natural emissions what entails a corresponding

  1. Hydropower operations data management at Bonneville Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision support software used by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in its operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System in the Pacific northwest was presented along with examples of water resources data and information regarding weather and stream flow. Water resources data is used extensively in hydropower operations for planning purposes through to real-time operations. This includes long-term historical hydrology and realtime system information on snow cover, river discharges and water elevations. Since the data comes from many different sources, the quality and frequency varies, with sample intervals ranging from seconds to days. Some data may be intermittent and transmitted only when thresholds are reached. Data can be communication via SCADA telemetry, the Internet, direct satellite feed, telephone or fax. The key requirement for a decision support system is the reliable and easily accessed compilation of all this data. The BPA uses long-term planning models, system-wide generation scheduling applications, and near-real-time optimization of generating units. It was suggested that the hydrologic forecasting community could benefit from the utility's experience using these applications. tabs., figs

  2. 2014 annual site environmental report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    Southwestern Power Administration’s Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) serves as the chief reporting mechanism for site environmental performance information within the Department of Energy and as a valuable resource for shared and collaborative environmental protection and performance information to Agency stakeholders and members of the public living near Southwestern Power Administration’s (Southwestern) facilities and transmission line rights-of-ways. This ASER meets the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.B. Southwestern’s key environmental involvement includes an emphasis on the protection of ecological resources which is effectively accomplished through environmental program elements such as protecting water resources, generation of clean hydropower energy, oil spill prevention practices, elimination of green-house gas emissions, and comprehensive project reviews to ensure the protection of living organisms, migratory birds, Federally threatened or endangered species, and historic or cultural resources. Southwestern continues to actively minimize effects to natural resources and strive for continual improvement in the area of environmental compliance and sustainability while achieving the agency mission to market and deliver Federal hydroelectric power.

  3. The Relationship Between Primary School Administrators Styles of Using Power in Management and Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Koşar, Serkan; Çalık, Temel

    2011-01-01

    Background. Organization and administration theorists have started to take more attention to power in terms of organization and administration (Morgan, 2006; Pfeffer, 1992; Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn, 2000).The assessment of power style choices regarding job satisfaction, education, age and sex (Karaman, 1999), the research of which power source is effective in the specific levels, the determination of which power sources are used by the administrators and also the detection of the employe...

  4. Southwestern Power Administration Combined Financial Statements, 2006-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-01

    We have audited the accompanying combined balance sheets of the Southwestern Federal Power System (SWFPS), as of September 30, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006, and the related combined statements of revenues and expenses, changes in capitalization, and cash flows for the years then ended. As described in note 1(a), the combined financial statement presentation includes the hydroelectric generation functions of another Federal agency (hereinafter referred to as the generating agency), for which Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) markets and transmits power. These combined financial statements are the responsibility of the management of Southwestern and the generating agency. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these combined financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the combined financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of Southwestern and the generating agency’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the combined financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall combined financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the combined financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the respective financial position of the Southwestern Federal Power

  5. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2004-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-01-01

    Confidence Commitment Cooperation These are words that spring to mind regarding Southwestern Power Administration’s performance during fiscal years (FY) 2004-2006 By offering innovative, customer-oriented service, working to improve system reliability and efficiency, and partnering with customers and other Federal power stakeholders, Southwestern has certainly exhibited all three of these qualities during these challenging yet productive years In fact, our cooperative working relationships were critical to our success during the severe and widespread drought conditions which prevailed throughout Southwestern’s marketing area for much of 2005-2006 When we proposed a temporary energy deferral program, our customers came on board by voluntarily taking less Federal hydropower than they were entitled to, enabling us to preserve system storage and fulfill our contract obligations during the crucial summer months of 2006 The U S Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also helped improve our drought situation by allowing Southwestern more operational flexibility on a regional level Despite the challenges this critical drought period presented, Southwestern remained committed to fulfilling our mission and strategic goals From FY 2004 through FY 2006, we marketed and delivered all available Federal hydropower while meeting and even exceeding the reliability standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Our Power Operations Training Center in Springfield, Missouri, was cited as an “Example of Excellence” during a NERC readiness audit in October 2006; and as we have every year since NERC began measuring, Southwestern far exceeded the accepted NERC compliance ratings for power system operations reliability Our commitment to excellence and accountability has kept our repayment goals on target as well Revenues were sufficient to repay all annual expenses and the required principal investment in the Federal hydropower facilities Furthermore, the original

  6. Analysis of selected areas of tax administration of the Czech republic

    OpenAIRE

    Ryšavá, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis "Analysis of selected areas of tax administration of the Czech republic" is a descriptive and quantitative analysis of tax administration, its participants and introduction to the upcoming modernization of tax administration. The work is divided into three chapters, the first deals with the participants in the tax proceedings. The second chapter is focused on tax administration. The last chapter summarizes the active steps of modernization and the steps which a...

  7. Wind Power in Areas with Limited Export Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Matevosyan, Julija

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades, increase in electricity demand and environmental concern resulted in fast growth of power production from renewable sources. Wind power is one of the most efficient alternatives. Due to rapid development of wind turbine technology and increasing size of wind farms, wind power plays a significant part in the power production mix of Germany, Spain, Denmark and some other countries. Wind power has to be built in areas with good wind potential. The best conditions for...

  8. Process evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration Interim Residential Weatherization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerman, D.I.; Bronfman, B.H.

    1984-08-01

    A process evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Interim Residential Weatherization Program was conducted between December of 1983 and March of 1984. For this evaluation seven of the utility participants were visited, as were the four BPA area offices serving those utilities. Interviews were also conducted with key staff members at BPA headquarters in Portland. This report describes the Interim Program and the elements of the BPA organizational structure involved in management of the program. It deals also with the implementation process at the seven utilities involved in the evaluation; perceptions of the key actors as to the strengths and weaknesses of the program; the adequacy of the BPA reimbursement for utility administrative expenses; and finally lessons for the Long-Term Program, the BPA residential program which followed the Interim Program in October 1983.

  9. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  10. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations's proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations

  11. Europeanization or curricular harmonization in the area of administrative sciences (follow-up of Bologna process)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucica MATEI

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims a comparative analysis of curricula for Bachelor studies in the area of administrative sciences. The objectives of research focused on elaboration of a set of indicators, based on the curricular contents of the programmes from the first cycle in administrative sciences, aiming to size 'the Europeanism degree' and curricular compatibilisation degree between Romanian and European universities.

  12. Alpha and beta EEG power reflects L-dopa acute administration in parkinsonian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc eMelgari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of an acute L-dopa administration on eye-closed resting state electroencephalographic (EEG activity of cognitively preserved Parkinsonian patients. Methods. We examined 24 right-handed patients diagnosed as uncomplicated probable Parkinson’s disease (PD. Each patient underwent UPDRS-part-III evaluation before and 60 minutes after an oral load of L-dopa-methyl-ester/carbidopa 250/25 mg. Resting condition eyes-closed EEG data were recorded both pre- and post L-dopa load. Absolute EEG power values were calculated at each scalp derivation for Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands. UPDRS scores (both global and subscale scores and EEG data (power values of different frequency bands for each scalp derivation were submitted to a statistical analysis to compare Pre e Post L-Dopa conditions. Finally, a correlation analysis was carried out between EEG spectral content and UPDRS scores. Results. Considering EEG power spectral analysis, no statistically significant differences arose on Delta and Theta bands after L-dopa intake. Conversely, Alpha and Beta rhythms significantly increased on centro-parietal scalp derivations, as a function of L-dopa administration. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between Beta power increase on centro-parietal areas and UPDRS subscores (Rigidity of arms and Bradykinesia. A minor significant negative correlation was also found between Alpha band increase and resting tremor. Conclusions. Assuming that a significant change in EEG power spectrum after L-dopa intake may be related to dopaminergic mechanisms, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dopaminergic defective networks are implicated in cortical oscillatory abnormalities at rest in non-demented PD patients.

  13. Alpha and beta EEG power reflects L-dopa acute administration in parkinsonian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgari, Jean-Marc; Curcio, Giuseppe; Mastrolilli, Francesca; Salomone, Gaetano; Trotta, Laura; Tombini, Mario; di Biase, Lazzaro; Scrascia, Federica; Fini, Rita; Fabrizio, Emma; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Vernieri, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an acute L-dopa administration on eye-closed resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of cognitively preserved Parkinsonian patients. Methods: We examined 24 right-handed patients diagnosed as uncomplicated probable Parkinson’s disease (PD). Each patient underwent Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-part-III evaluation before and 60 min after an oral load of L-dopa-methyl-ester/carbidopa 250/25 mg. Resting condition eyes-closed EEG data were recorded both pre- and post L-dopa load. Absolute EEG power values were calculated at each scalp derivation for Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands. UPDRS scores (both global and subscale scores) and EEG data (power values of different frequency bands for each scalp derivation) were submitted to a statistical analysis to compare Pre and Post L-Dopa conditions. Finally, a correlation analysis was carried out between EEG spectral content and UPDRS scores. Results: Considering EEG power spectral analysis, no statistically significant differences arose on Delta and Theta bands after L-dopa intake. Conversely, Alpha and Beta rhythms significantly increased on centro-parietal scalp derivations, as a function of L-dopa administration. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between Beta power increase on centro-parietal areas and UPDRS subscores (Rigidity of arms and Bradykinesia). A minor significant negative correlation was also found between Alpha band increase and resting tremor. Conclusions: Assuming that a significant change in EEG power spectrum after L-dopa intake may be related to dopaminergic mechanisms, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dopaminergic defective networks are implicated in cortical oscillatory abnormalities at rest in non-demented PD patients. PMID:25452725

  14. Elementary School Administrator Training in the Area of Handling Student Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Kindelan, Julie Kinsley

    2011-01-01

    Julie Kindelan Abstract School safety is the utmost priority for an elementary school administrator and is high on the list of public concerns. The intent of this study was to identify the professional development that Virginia Elementary School principals receive in the area of handling student discipline. The study addressed the following research questions: (a) to what extent do current elementary school administrators receive training in the area of handling stud...

  15. Power, Status, and Cognitive Territory in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Margaret A.

    This paper attempts to develop a greater understanding of and suggest some methods for defining day-to-day changes in policy and predicting the operation of power and status affecting educational decisions. Physical and cognitive territoriality have meaning in the study and exercise of power and status, and are essential elements in understanding,…

  16. Wind power in areas with limited export capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matevosyan, Julija

    2004-03-01

    During the last two decades, increase in electricity demand and environmental concern resulted in fast growth of power production from renewable sources. Wind power is one of the most efficient alternatives. Due to rapid development of wind turbine technology and increasing size of wind farms, wind power plays a significant part in the power production mix of Germany, Spain, Denmark and some other countries. Wind power has to be build in areas with good wind potential. The best conditions for installation of wind power are, thus, in remote areas free of obstacles, and consequently with low population density. The transmission system in such areas might not be dimensioned to accommodate additional large-scale power plants. Insufficient transmission capacity problem, however, would emerge for any type of new generation, planned in similar conditions, although wind power has some special features that should be considered solving this problem. In this thesis the four possibilities are considered. One possibility is to revise the methods for calculation of available transmission capacity. Another solution for large-scale integration of wind power in such areas is to reinforce the network. This alternative however may be expensive and time consuming. Since wind power production depends on the wind speed, the wind farm utilization time is only 2,000-4,000 hours a year, and power production peaks not necessarily occur during periods with insufficient transmission capacity. Therefore wind energy curtailment may be considered as an alternative for large-scale wind power integration. It is also possible to store excess wind energy during the periods with insufficient transmission capacity. Conventional power plants with possibilities of fast production control (e.g. hydropower plants or gas power plants) may also be employed for this purpose. There is a lot of research regarding first two measures, therefore, this thesis provides a review and summarized conclusions from the

  17. Bonneville Power Administration: financial fallout from termination of WPPSS nuclear projects 4 and 5. Oversight hearings before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, February 14 and 15, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter T. Johnson, Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration, and a representative of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) described the financial situation resulting from the cancellations and cost overruns of WPPSS nuclear projects that have left the area with an unacceptable debt. Four panels representing area utilities and electric cooperatives described their financial positions on the second day of hearings. Two appendices with additional material from Bonneville, WPPSS, the Department of the Interior, and others follow the testimony

  18. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  19. Relationship between School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources and Teachers' Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkurt, Yahya; Yilmaz, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the research was to determine correlation between school administrators' organizational power sources and teachers' organizational citizenship behaviors in primary schools. The research was a correlational survey model study. 275 participants were randomly chosen for the research. The data were collected by "Administrators'…

  20. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Mathias; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willén, Dag; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  1. Area, Delay and Power Comparison of Adder Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Uma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adders form an almost obligatory component of every contemporary integrated circuit. The prerequisite of the adder is that it is primarily fast and secondarily efficient in terms of power consumption and chip area. This paper presents the pertinent choice for selecting the adder topology with the tradeoff between delay, power consumption and area. The adder topology used in this work are ripple carry adder, carry lookahead adder, carry skip adder, carry select adder, carry increment adder, carry save adder and carry bypass adder. The module functionality and performance issues like area, power dissipation and propagation delay are analyzed at 0.12µm 6metal layer CMOS technology using microwind tool.

  2. Administrative procedures for regulating construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article first explains that nuclear power plants in France are governed by a complex system of regulations within the framework of different laws concerning, in particular, protection of the environment, public health and workers. It then examines the administrative procedures and the licensing regime for nuclear power plants. (NEA)

  3. Wide-area monitoring of interconnected power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Arturo Román

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a compact yet comprehensive treatment of advanced data-driven signal processing techniques for the analysis and characterization of both ambient power system data and transient oscillations resulting from major disturbances. Inspired by recent developments in multi-sensor data fusion, multi-temporal data assimilation techniques for power system monitoring are proposed and tested in the context of modern wide-area monitoring system architectures. Recent advances in understanding and modeling nonlinear, time-varying power system processes are reviewed and factors affecting the

  4. An Examination Regarding Educational Administration in the Context of Foucault’s Power Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Şentürk, İlknur; Turan, Selahattin

    2012-01-01

    Background. Educational administration is a field that requires disciplinary collaboration and working in theory and practice. However, especially in Turkey, it can be said that theoretical and practical information produced in educational administration has reference retrieval from business administration, economy, management, organization and similar areas. In this context, it can be said that ontological, epistemological and methodological dilemmas and deadlocks are experienced due to not ...

  5. Managing Flexibility in Multi-Area Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bucher, Matthias; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Andersson, Göran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework to efficiently characterize the available operational flexibility in a multi-area power system. We focus on the available reserves and the tie-line flows. The proposed approach is an alternative to the current calculation of the Available Transfer Capacity (ATC), as it considers location and availability of reserves, transmission constraints, and interdependencies of tie-line flows between different areas, while it takes into account the N-1 security crite...

  6. Effects of a power shortage in the Tokyo metropolitan area on awareness of nuclear power generation and power savings behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shutdown of a number of nuclear power stations of the Tokyo Electric Power Company in the summer of 2003 caused a power shortage problem in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. To examine the effects of the power shortage, in September 2003 a survey was conducted in the service areas of the Kansai Electric Power Company (Kansai region) and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (Kanto region). This survey was part of a wider opinion survey begun in 1993 concerning nuclear power generation. The results of the September 2003 survey are as follows: The degree of recognition of the power shortage problem in the Metropolitan area was high, with 40% of respondents in the Kansai region and nearly 70% in the Kanto region understanding that the shortage was caused by the shutdown of several nuclear power station. The overall awareness of nuclear power generation was little affected in both the Kansai and Kanto regions, though the sense of a shortage of the generating capacity had been raised slightly. Once respondents knew about the power shortage problem, they estimated the likelihood of an occurrence of large-scale service interruption to be low, nearly at an even chance, and they had been only slightly worried about it, essentially viewing the problem optimistically. In the Kanto region, where public relations activities for power savings had been actively pursued, the frequency of experiencing exposure to such public relations activities was remarkably higher than in the Kansai region. The relation between exposure to public relations activities for power savings and power savings behavior was analyzed using quantification method II. Analysis results suggest that public relations activities for power savings in the Kanto region had the effect of urging power savings behavior. However, the difference in the rate of putting power savings behavior into practice was small between the Kanto and Kansai regions, indicating that public relation activities for power savings in the Kanto

  7. Outline of Nuclear Power Training Center of the Tomari Administration Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Nuclear Power Training Center of the Tomari Administration Office of Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc. (NTC), maintenance technicians, plant operators, and other technical staff are receiving practical training in order to ensure adequate availability of properly trained technical staff for safe and stable operation of the Tomari Nuclear Power Station. The training program at NTC commenced in October, 1993. This paper describes special features of the training facilities, course matter, and the results of instruction given during fiscal, 1994. (author)

  8. Ultra low power transceiver for wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Masuch, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks.  Since these applications have very limited energy resources, typically powered only by tiny batteries or through energy harvesting techniques, this book describes an architecture for a Bluetooth low energy transceiver to overcome these limitations. Coverage includes not only the main concepts for achieving low power consumption, but also the details of the circuit design and its implementation in a standard CMOS technology.     ·         Guides readers through the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks, from architecture to circuit-level implementation; ·         Describes 4 key strategies for ultra-low power transceiver design and specific, innovative techniques for circuit-level design; ·         Enables readers to design transceivers for body area networks that are 27% more energy efficient than those currently available; ·         Includes a review of the st...

  9. Nuclear power generation and co-existence with local area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to originally strong anxiety and unreliability on nuclear power generation, frequent accidents and troubles in the old Nuclear Reactor and Fuels Development Incorporation (the new Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Incorporation), a fact that numbers of opposition group was over a half at citizen's vote conducted first in Japan and at Maki-machi in Niigata prefecture in August, 1996 on location of a nuclear power generation of the Tohoku Electric Co., Ltd., and so forth, affects some ripple effects to make difficult to form consensus on new location of a nuclear power generation. On making consensus of such location, every electric companies practise good communication with location areas, communication and other organizations, and so forth, promote positive information supplies and conversation type understanding works, and effort to acquire reliability for people of the location areas. Together with such efforts, they accumulate steadily safe operation results of the present nuclear power plants and develop nuclear PA (public acceptance) actions, local area promotion supporting countermeasures, and so forth. Here was introduced on a part of actions aiming at assistance to and co-existence with local areas promoted by every electric companies on various forms. (G.K.)

  10. A Statistical Approach to Planning Reserved Electric Power for Railway Infrastructure Administration

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brabec; Pelikán, E. (Emil); Konár, O. (Ondřej); Kasanický, I.; Juruš, P. (Pavel); Sadil, J.; Blažek, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the requirements on railway infrastructure administration is to provide electricity for day-to-day operation of railways. We propose a statistically based approach for the estimation of maximum 15-minute power within a calendar month for a given region. This quantity serves as a basis of contracts between railway infrastructure administration and electricity distribution system operator. We show that optimization of the prediction is possible, based on underlying loss function deriv...

  11. Is there a connection between the tax administration and the political power?

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper offers empirical evidence from Spain of a connection between the tax administration and the political power. Firstly, the regional tax administration is not immune to the budgetary situation of regional government, and tends to exert a greater (or lesser) effort in tax collection the greater (or lower) the (expected) public deficit. At the same time, the system of unconditional grants from the central layer of government provokes an ¿income effect¿ which disincentivises the efforts...

  12. Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis: Mass Drug Administration in Endemic Areas of (Bidar District) Karnataka-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganath, T. S.; N Ramakrishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Background : Lymphatic Filariasis is a mosquito transmitted disease, caused by parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis was established in early 2000. The strategy recommended by the World Health Organization is annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of single-dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg (DEC), distributed to inhabitants of Filariasis endemic areas, excluding children below 2 years of age, pregnant women, and seriously ill persons, an...

  13. Europeanisation of higher education in the area of administrative sciences in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Lucica MATEI

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims to reveal some relevant issues about Europeanisation of higher education in the area of administrative sciences in Romania. Europeanisation as global process in the European space is supported and promoted through a specific legislative framework as well as relevant institutional mechanisms. Since 2005, by applying the provisions of Bologna Declaration, the whole configuration of the Romanian higher education has significantly changed. Based on comprehensive empirical rese...

  14. On Administrative Prosecutorial Power%论行政检察权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小东

    2014-01-01

    目前,我国学术界对行政检察权的界定大多停留在检察机关对行政诉讼所实施的监督方面,缺少了对行政行为的监督的界定。既然检察机关是宪法所规定的法定的法律监督机关,那么行政检察权就应当包含对行政诉讼和行政行为的监督,对行政行为的监督主要体现为提起行政诉讼。这一方面是履行检察机关的法律监督职能,另一方面能够更好的保护行政相对人的合法权益,有利于加强对行政行为的检察监督,也有利于增强行政执法的公信力。%At present,the academic definitions of administrative prosecutorial power mostly stay in the prosecutorial supervision over the implementation of the administrative proceedings,without the consideration of the definition of administrative action supervision. Since prosecutors are statutory legal supervisory authority by the Constitution, then the administrative supervision of prosecutorial power should contain administrative proceedings and administra-tive acts,supervision of administrative acts mainly as administrative proceedings. This aspect is to perform legal su-pervision prosecution,as well as to better protect the legitimate rights and interests administrative counterpart. It is conducive to strengthen the prosecutorial supervision of administrative acts,and to enhance the credibility of law enforcement.

  15. THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATIV-TERITORIAL AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF ACTUAL ADMINISTRATIVE TERITORIAL ORGANISATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MELINDA SZASZ

    2008-01-01

    Administrative-territorial organisation is a problem of national interest and it is not given for ever. Without a solid administrative organisation we can not talk about systematic organisation of public activity. Administrative-territorial units are state cells, that assure indivisibility and unity, but giving exaggerates power to local units’ results a weak state. Today Romanian administrative-territorial organisation has two levels. First level is formed by communes and cities. The second ...

  16. Safety aspects of nuclear power plants nearby urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Environmental Experts Council smaller reactors would correspond best to the heat demand of the Federal Republic of Germany. The study discusses and investigates into the present safety concepts and site selection criteria, trends towards power plant sites nearby urban areas, site-dependent parameters and their influence on the extent of damage, protective aims, compatibility of the protective aims proposed, and the protective measures required. (DG)

  17. Administrative Court of Munich, judgement of June 26, 1985 (security of nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision of the Administrative Court of Munich is dealing with the protection of the nuclear power station of Isar I in Ohu. The use of shotguns for the protection of objects and persons ouside of private properties is a danger for public security. Consequently shotguns are not qualified for the protection of nuclear power stations (sec. 7 para. 2 No. 5 of the Atomic Energy Act). (CW)

  18. 76 FR 15221 - Organization and Delegation of Powers and Duties; Assistant Secretary for Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034). There are no costs associated with this rule. B. Executive Order 13132... 49 CFR Part 1 RIN 9991-AA56 Organization and Delegation of Powers and Duties; Assistant Secretary for Administration AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Transportation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  19. The Prediction Power of Servant and Ethical Leadership Behaviours of Administrators on Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Semra Kiranli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify servant leadership and ethical leadership behaviors of administrators and the prediction power of these behaviors on teachers' job satisfaction according to the views of schoolteachers. This research, figured in accordance with the quantitative research processes. The target population of the research has…

  20. 29 CFR 458.76 - Duties and powers of the Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties and powers of the Administrative Law Judge. 458.76 Section 458.76 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF... documentary or other evidence; (i) Request the parties at any time during the hearing to state...

  1. Coordination of reactive power scheduling in a multi-area power system operated by independent utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Phulpin, Yannick

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of reactive power scheduling in a power system with several areas controlled by independent transmission system operators (TSOs). To design a fair method for optimizing the control settings in the interconnected multi-TSO system, two types of schemes are developed.First, a centralized multi-TSO optimization scheme is introduced, and it is shown that this scheme has some properties of fairness in the economic sense.Second, the problem is addressed through a de...

  2. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  3. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  4. Enhancing synchronization stability in a multi-area power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Maintaining a synchronous state of generators is of central importance to the normal operation of power grids, in which many networks are generally interconnected. In order to understand the condition under which the stability can be optimized, it is important to relate network stability with feedback control strategies as well as network structure. Here, we present a stability analysis on a multi-area power grid by relating it with several control strategies and topological design of network structure. We clarify the minimal feedback gain in the self-feedback control, and build the optimal communication network for the local and global control strategies. Finally, we consider relationship between the interconnection pattern and the synchronization stability; by optimizing the network interlinks, the obtained network shows better synchronization stability than the original network does, in particular, at a high power demand. Our analysis shows that interlinks between spatially distant nodes will improve the synchronization stability. The results seem unfeasible to be implemented in real systems but provide a potential guide for the design of stable power systems.

  5. SOLAR TO AC POWER SOURCE FOR REMOTE AREAS USING SEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHMET AKBABA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic generators (PVG are increasingly used to provide electricity in remote areas. However, in many applications the DC generated electricity by a PVG need to be converted to AC. Traditionally DC to AC inverters have been widely used for this purpose. In this paper, a different system is proposed in which a self excited induction generator (SEIG driven by a permanent magnet DC motor (DCM and powered from a PVG through a maximum power point tracker (MPPT are used. A step-up chopper is utilized as an MPPT unit. The proposed system is modelled in time domain, and a detailed transient and steady-state analysis are presented. The main reason behind analyzing the system in the time domain is because of the fact that for unknown speeds, the methods developed for steady-state analysis of SEIGs can not be applied. The presented work shows that the full available power of the PVG can be harnessed by selecting suitable values for the duty cycle and the frequency of the step up chopper and the excitation capacitor of the SEIG. It is also shown that with such a combination power utilization efficiency of more than 83% can be achieved.

  6. Acute oral administration of low doses of methylphenidate targets calretinin neurons in the rat septal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro eGarcía-Aviles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPD is a commonly administered drug to treat children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Alterations in septal driven hippocampal theta rhythm may underlie attention deficits observed in these patients. Amongst others, the septo-hippocampal connections have long been acknowledged to be important in preserving hippocampal function. Thus, we wanted to ascertain if methylphenidate administration, which improves attention in patients, could affect septal areas connecting with hippocampus. We used low and orally administered methylphenidate doses (1.3; 2.7 and 5mg/Kg to rats what mimics the dosage range in humans. In our model, we observed no effect when using 1.3mg/Kg methylphenidate; whereas 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg induced a significant increase in c-fos expression specifically in the medial septum, an area intimately connected to the hippocampus. We analyzed dopaminergic areas such as nucleus accumbens and striatum, and found that only 5mg/Kg induced c-fos levels increase. In these areas tyrosine hydroxylase correlated well with c-fos staining, whereas in the medial septum the sparse tyrosine hydroxylase fibres did not overlap with c-fos positive neurons. Double immunofluorescence of c-fos with neuronal markers in the septal area revealed that co-localization with choline acethyl transferase, parvalbumin, and calbindin with c-fos did not change with MPD treatment; whereas, calretinin and c-fos double labeled neurons increased after MPD administration. Altogether, these results suggest that low and acute doses of methylphenidate primary target specific populations of caltretinin medial septal neurons.

  7. The DOE Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project -- Demonstration of dynamic information technology for the future power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelstadt, W.A. [Bonneville Power Administration (United States); Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Krause, P.E.; Wilson, R.E. [Western Power Administration (United States); Overholt, P.N. [USDOE (United States); Rizy, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Power Administration (WAPA) joined the US Department of Energy (DOE) in an assessment of longer-term research and development needs for future electric power system operation. The effort produced a progressively sharper vision of a future power system in which enhanced control and operation are the primary means for serving new customer demands in an environment characterized by increased competition, a wider range of services and vendors, and much narrower operating margins. Technology and infrastructure for real time access to wide area dynamic information were identified as critical path elements in realizing that vision. In 1995 the DOE accordingly launched the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project jointly with the two Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) to address these issues in a practical operating environment the western North America power system. The Project draws upon many years of PMA effort and related collaboration among the western utilities, plus an expanding infrastructure that includes regionally involved contractors, universities, and National Laboratories plus linkages to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  8. Indicators of "avoidable" mortality in health administrative areas in Sweden 1974-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, R

    1993-09-01

    When comparing health administrative areas in Sweden the variation in death rates for 13 suggested indicators of avoidable mortality was analysed for the time periods 1974-79 and 1980-85. For most indicators the variation was significant. The level of systematic (nonrandom) variance differed between the sexes for certain conditions. According to the theory of mass-significance it would be appropriate to use a sharpened significance test of high SMRs. For certain health policy indicators it was possible to detect areas accounting for nearly all the deviation above the national standard using a sharpened test (p positive warning signals. Epidemiological surveillance of indicators of avoidable mortality should be the starting point for in-depth studies. PMID:8235504

  9. Scabies among primary schoolchildren in Egypt: sociomedical environmental study in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegab DS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Doaa Salah Hegab,1 Abdullah Mahfouz Kato,1 Ibrahim Ali Kabbash,2 Ghada Maged Dabish3 1Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Community, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Background/objectives: Scabies is a major global public health issue that might affect people from all socioeconomic levels. The primary contributing factors in contracting scabies seem to be poverty and overcrowded living conditions. Scabies often spreads among schoolchildren quite rapidly, owing to their close contact and overcrowding within the schools. However, limited information is available about its risk factors and the socioeconomic correlates among schoolchildren in Egypt. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area, Egypt. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on primary schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area. A predesigned questionnaire was used for data collection from the randomly selected 2,104 children, and clinical dermatological examination was done for them. Results: Out of 2,104 children studied, there were 92 cases of scabies with a prevalence of 4.4%. The prevalence of scabies infestation in male students was 3.9%, while it was 4.8% in females, with no statistical significance. The results showed significant variations in the risk of scabies infestation by factors such as residence, paternal education and occupation, maternal education, sleeping with others, having animals at home, dealing with animals outside the house, type of building for living, family history of itchy rash, and sharing clothes with others. Conclusion: In our community, scabies is still an important health problem affecting schoolchildren, especially in rural areas. It is characterized by a complex web of causation, particularly poor

  10. Administrative limits for tritium concentrations found in non-potable groundwater at nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there is a regulatory limit available for tritium in drinking water, but no such limit for non-potable groundwater. Voluntary administrative limits for site groundwater may be established at nuclear power facilities to ensure minimal risk to human health and the environment, and provide guidance for investigation or other actions intended to prevent exceedances of future regulatory or guideline limits. This work presents a streamlined approach for nuclear power facilities to develop three tiers of administrative limits for tritium in groundwater so that facilities can identify abnormal/uncontrolled releases of tritium at an early stage, and take appropriate actions to investigate, control, and protect groundwater. Tier 1 represents an upper limit of background, Tier 2 represents a level between background and Tier 3, and Tier 3 represents a risk-based concentration protective of down-gradient receptors. (author)

  11. State, power, administration: Marxist and Foucauldian perspectives on state development in Britain, 1832-1918

    OpenAIRE

    Neocleous, Mark

    1995-01-01

    This thesis seeks to contribute an original account of state power by reconceptualising the state-civil society distinction through the category of political administration. Through an analysis of the development of the state in Britain between 1832 and 1918 it seeks to show why such a reconceptualisation is necessary and the features which distinguish it from other accounts. This task is performed via an immanent critique of the work of Hegel, Marx and Foucault. It is argued that historical ...

  12. Energy storage in remote area power supply (RAPS) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    Preliminary cost analyses indicate that hybrid RAPS systems are more economically attractive as a means to provide electricity to remote villages than are alternatives such as 24 h diesel generation. A hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) system is being deployed to provide 24 h electricity to villages in the Amazon region of Peru. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kWh per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA gelled electrolyte batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an inverter. Despite early difficulties, the system in the first village has now commenced operation and the promise of RAPS schemes as a means for providing sustainable remote electrification appears to be bright.

  13. Large area self-powered gamma ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to develop a large area self-powered gamma detector (LASPGD) capable of detecting the movement of sealed radiation sources into and out of industrial radiographic units and to construct a prototype source position monitor (SPM) for these units utilizing the LASPGD. Prototype isotropic and directional LASPGDs, with solid and inert gas dielectrics, were developed and extensively tested using calibrated gamma sources (i.e., Cs-137, and Co-60). The sensitivities of the isotropic detectors, with inert gas dielectrics, were found to be approximately a factor of ten greater than those measured for the solid dielectric LASPGDs. Directionally sensitive self-powered detectors were found to exhibit a forward-to-back hemispherical sensitivity ratio of approximately 2 to 1. Industrial radiographic units containing Ir-192 sources with different activities were used to test the performance of the SPM. The SPM, which utilized a gas dielectric LASPGD, performed as designed. That is, the current generated in the LASPGD was converted to a voltage, amplified and used to control the on/off state of an incandescent lamp. The incandescent lamp, which functions as the source/out warning indicator, flashes at a rate of one flash per second when the source is in use (i.e. out of its shield)

  14. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englin, J E; Gygi, K F

    1992-03-01

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs.

  15. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs

  16. Assessment and statistics of Brazilian hydroelectric power plants: Dam areas versus installed and firm power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian relief, predominantly composed by small mountains and plateaus, contributed to formation of rivers with high amount of falls. With exception to North-eastern Brazil, the climate of this country are rainy, which contributes to maintain water flows high. These elements are essential to a high hydroelectric potential, contributing to the choice of hydroelectric power plants as the main technology of electricity generation in Brazil. Though this is a renewable source, whose utilized resource is free, dams must to be established which generates a high environmental and social impact. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact caused by these dams through the use of environmental indexes. These indexes are ratio formed by installed power with dam area of a hydro power plant, and ratio formed by firm power with this dam area. In this study, the greatest media values were found in South, Southeast, and Northeast regions respectively, and the smallest media values were found in North and Mid-West regions, respectively. The greatest encountered media indexes were also found in dams established in the 1950s. In the last six decades, the smallest indexes were registered by dams established in the 1980s. These indexes could be utilized as important instruments for environmental impact assessments, and could enable a dam to be established that depletes an ecosystem as less as possible. (author)

  17. The DOE Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project: Demonstration of dynamic information technology for the future power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelstadt, W.A. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Krause, P.E.; Wilson, R.E. [USDOE Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States); Overholt, P.N. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rizy, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) joined the US Department of Energy (DOE) in an assessment of longer-term research and development needs for future electric power system operation. The effort produced a progressively sharper vision of a future power system in which enhanced control and operation are the primary means for serving new customer demands, in an environment where increased competition, a wider range of services and vendors, and much narrower operating margins all contribute to increased system efficiencies and capacity. Technology and infrastructure for real time access to wide area dynamic information were identified as critical path elements in realizing that vision. In 1995 the DOE accordingly launched the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project jointly with the two Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) to address these issues in a practical operating environment--the western North America power system. The Project draws upon many years of PMA effort and related collaboration among the western utilities, plus an expanding infrastructure that includes regionally involved contractors, universities, and National Laboratories plus linkages to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The WAMS project also brings added focus and resources to the evolving Western System Dynamic Information Network, or WesDINet. This is a collective response of the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) member utilities to their shared needs for direct information about power system characteristics, model fidelity, and operational performance. The WAMS project is a key source of the technology and backbone communications needed to make WesDINet a well integrated, cost effective enterprise network demonstrating the role of dynamic information technology in the emerging utility environment.

  18. Wide Area Measurement Based Security Assessment & Monitoring of Modern Power System: A Danish Power System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Power System security has become a major concern across the global power system community. This paper presents wide area measurement system (WAMS) based security assessment and monitoring of modern power system. A new three dimensional security index (TDSI) has been proposed for online security m...... demonstrated in DigSILENT PowerFactory environment....

  19. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  20. Legal control of discretionary powers in Ghana: lessons from English administrative law theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Mensah

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops along the following line. First, we shall attempt to explain what discretion is, why it has become vety important in the modem administrative state, and the dangers that it poses in a democratic legal system. It then looks at the problems which have to be faced in justifying judicial review of discretion. It takes an in depth analysis of legal liberalism and functionalism. Aimed with these 'lenses', it attempts to explain the theoretical basis of two important Ghanaian cases, Re Akoto , and People's Popular Paity v Attorney General (PPP v AG'. It examines the provisions which regulate the use of discretionary powers in the Ghanaian 1993 Constitution and it looks at the choices we have to make from the various theories and the development of the administrative state in Ghana.

  1. Federal supervisory powers in administrative action on behalf of the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Government's authority to give instructions in matters of public administration pursuant to Art. 85 III GG has been gaining in significance over the last few years in the course of federal disputes about the licenses issued to the NUKEM company under atomic energy law, or about the licensing of the Kalkar fast breeder reactor. Proceeding from the above federal controversy about issues relating to atomic energy law, the author extends his study to the general constitutional level, investigating the provisions of the German constitution relating to the supervisory power and the authority to give instructions on the part of the Federal Government, and the rights and means of the Laender governments to defend their administrative rights. (orig.)

  2. Alaska Power Administration combined financial statements, schedules and supplemental reports, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Alaska Power Administration`s (Alaska) financial statements as of September 30, 1996. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1996 combined statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Alaska`s internal control structure disclosed no reportable conditions that could have a material effect on the financial statements. The auditors also considered the overview and performance measure data for completeness and material consistency with the basic financial statements, as noted in the internal control report. The auditor`s report on compliance with laws and regulations disclosed no instances of noncompliance by Alaska.

  3. Evaluation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. it is one of the first examples of large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}) in the Bonneville Power Administration`s (Bonneville`s) service territory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for Bonneville. This study includes the process evaluation, preliminary impact evaluation, and market transformation assessment. It is based on site visits and interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, industry data, and Bonneville information. Results from this study are compared with those from a parallel study that examines the Program across the 24 participating utilities.

  4. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (15)Great Advances in Power System Stabilizing Technology triggered by the Wide-area Outage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Masanao

    On July 23, 1987, a very hot day, the largest wide-area power outage occurred in Kanto-Area, Japan. The cause was a voltage collapse on the bulk power network of Tokyo Electric Power Company, due to the abnormal rate of demand rising following resume after lunch break. Aggressive studies on voltage collapse throughout industry and university have led to great advances in power system stability. This essay describes the detail record of the outage, the applied countermeasures, and the inside story when the multiple voltage solutions of power flow on actual power system were found out for the first time.

  5. Administrative competence of regions in connection with the establishment of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper which is divided into two parts, analyses the concept of competence underlying the regulations concerning the transfer of certain state duties to the regions. The author considers that this concept does not seem adaptable to the various functions the regions are required to discharge in the energy field. A description follows of the technical and administrative authority given to the regions in the licensing process for power-producing plants. The second part of the paper deals with recent regulations concerning energy conservation and development of alternative energy sources, in the context of regional competence. (NEA)

  6. Comparisons among participants and nonparticipants in the Bonneville Power Administration residential weatherization pilot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.; Bronfman, B.

    1985-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) operated a Residential Weatherization Pilot Program. The program offered free home energy audits and zero-interest loans to encourage installation of retrofit measures in electrically heated homes. The households that participated in the BPA program differed considerably from households eligible for the program that did not participate. Generally, participants had larger families, more education, higher incomes, and had fewer retrofit measures in place before the program started than did the nonparticipants. 5 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  7. Evaluation plan for the Bonneville Power Administration residential energy-conservation programs. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Berry, L.; Bronfman, B.H.; Johnson, K.E.; Tepel, R.; Trimble, J.L.

    1982-07-01

    A detailed plan is presented for evaluation of the residential energy conservation programs offered by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to the utilities in its four-state region. The steps suggested to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the program are concisely stated, and include: evaluation planning, data collection and processing, analysis of evaluation issues (energy savings, cost-effectiveness, differences between participants and nonparticipants, and comparison of heat loss methodology results with data), and evaluation outputs. The programs to be evaluated include the shower flow restrictor program, water heater wrap program, and the residential weatherization program. (LEW)

  8. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  9. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives

  10. Evaluation of Residue Based Power Oscillation Damping Control of Inter-area Oscillations for Static Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Iov, F.; Kjær, P. C.

    Low frequency inter-area oscillations are known stability issue of large interconnected electrical grids. It was demonstrated that additional control loop can be applied for static power sources, like FACTS, HVDC or modern Wind Power Plants, to modulate their power output and successfully attenuate...

  11. On the Integration Theory of Academic Power and Administrative Power%学术权力与行政权力整合论析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宏

    2011-01-01

    大学内部存在科层组织和学术组织两个组织体系,相应地产生了行政权力和学术权力。教育与文化的冲突、大学规模的不断扩大,加大了行政权力和学术权力之间的冲突。加强行政权力与学术权力的规范性建设,实施行政权力与学术权力适度交叉,拓宽民主决策、管理和监督渠道,充分发挥校长在两大权力系统中的枢纽作用,这些都是解决学术权力与行政权力矛盾与冲突问题的可行性措施,也是建立现代大学制度的关键。%There exist two organizational systems of bureaucratic organization and academic organization in the university itself. Correspondingly, it results in university's administrative power and academic power. The conflict of education and culture, the continuous expansion of university, increase the conflict of administrative power and academic power. Strengthening the normative construction of administrative power and academic power, properly playing the role of academic power, implementing the moderate cross of administrative power and academic power, broadening the democratic decision-making, management and supervision channels, giving full play to the pivotal role of principal in two power systems, they are the feasible measures to solve the contradiction and conflict of academic power and administrative power, but also the key to establishing a modern university system.

  12. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing to state their respective positions concerning any issue in the case or theory in support thereof... settlement negotiations. In exercising his or her discretion, the chief or associate chief judge making the... consolidated or severed prior to issuance of administrative law judge decisions; (9) To approve...

  13. Decentralized load frequency controller analysis and tuning for multi-area power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → A method to analyze the stability of a multi-area power system under a decentralized LFC is derived. → It is possible to tune local LFC controller by first ignoring the tie-line power flow. → The proposed method is easy to apply and good damping performance can be achieved. -- Abstract: Decentralized load frequency control (LFC) for multi-area power systems is studied in this paper. A method to analyze the stability of a multi-area power system under a decentralized LFC is derived by accounting the inherent structure of the multi-area power system. The method separates the local transfer matrix from the tie-line power flow network, and the impacts of the tie-line power flow network and the local load frequency controllers on the power system can be easily checked. This result makes it possible to tune the local LFC controller for each area by first ignoring the tie-line power flow network. Decentralized LFC tuning on a three-area and a four-area power system shows that the proposed method is easy to apply for multi-area power systems and good damping performance can be achieved.

  14. 论行政调查权的授予%On Empowerment of Administrative Investigation Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤俪瑾

    2012-01-01

      When regulating the empowerment of administrative investigation power the reality of China’s rule of administrative law and categorization should be taken into consideration as basis to distinguish discretionary investigation from mandatory investigation in order to mainly solve the problems of the application of the legal reservation principle and relation between general empowerment and specific empowerment. With regard to the legal reservation principle, mandatory empowerment should be applied to strictly but discretionary investigation not. With regard to general empowerment and specific empowerment, the former should be based on both the general empowerment by organic laws of administrative bodies and the specific empowerment by administrative behavior laws, while the later can be carried out under only the cooperation of the counterpart so long as administrative bodies are generally empowered in organic laws.%  规范行政调查权的授予,应当考虑我国的行政法治现实,以类型化为基础,区别任意性调查与强制性调查,主要解决法律保留原则的适用问题和概括授权与具体授权问题。关于法律保留原则,强制性调查必须严格适用;任意性调查无须苛责。关于概括授权与具体授权,强制性调查应当以行政机关组织法的概括授权为基础,再加上行政行为法的具体授权;任意性调查只要行政机关具有组织法上的概括职权,就可以在取得相对人配合的情况下实施。

  15. Effect of the Dukovany-Dalesice power system on fish coenoses in a selected area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish coenoses were examined within 3 stages of a research project covering the area of the Dalesice hydroelectric power plant and the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Detailed fishery data obtained by this examination are presented. (P.A.)

  16. Advances in space power research and technology at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress and plans in various areas of the NASA Space Power Program are discussed. Solar cell research is narrowed to GaAs, multibandgap, and thin Si cells for arrays in planar and concentrator configurations, with further work to increase cell efficiency, radiation hardness, develop flexible encapsulants, and reduce cost. Electrochemical research is concentrating on increasing energy and power density, cycle and wet stand life, reliability and cost reduction of batteries. Further development of the Ni-H2 battery and O2-H2 fuel cell to multihundred kW with a 5 year life and 30,000 cycles is noted. Basic research is ongoing for alkali metal anodes for high energy density secondary cells. Nuclear thermoelectric propulsion is being developed for outer planets exploration propulsion systems, using Si-Ge generators, and studies with rare earth chalcogenides and sulfides are mentioned. Power Systems Management seeks to harmonize increasing power supply levels with inner and outer spacecraft environments, circuits, demands, and automatic monitoring. Concomitant development of bipolar transistors, an infrared rectenna, spacecraft charging measurement, and larger heat pipe transport capacity are noted

  17. 76 FR 81929 - San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY San Fernando Valley Area 2; Notice of Proposed Administrative Order on Consent Re: 4057 and 4059 Goodwin Avenue, Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request...

  18. SUPERVISORY WIDE-AREA CONTROL FOR MULTI-MACHINE POWER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue Jiao

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing demand for electrical power and the growing need for the restructuring of the power industry, electric power systems have become highly complex with inherent complicated dynamics. Therefore, the study of power system stability has continued to receive significant attention from both academic researchers and industrial practitioners. This thesis focuses on supervisory wide-area control for rotor angle stability of multi-machine power systems using Linear Quadratic Gaussian/...

  19. WIDE AREA MONITORING, PROTECTION AND CONTROL IN THE FUTURE GREAT BRITAIN POWER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Deyu

    2012-01-01

    The growing issue of power-grid congestion and a global increase in disturbances have emphasized the need to enhance electrical power networks using Wide Area Monitoring, Protection, and Control (WAMPAC). This is a cost-effective solution for improving power system planning and operation. In addition to these existing issues, the Great Britain (GB) power system is facing significant changes, in terms of both power transmission technology and the nature of the generation mix, that will cause t...

  20. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  1. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  2. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  3. 14 CFR 406.109 - Administrative law judges-powers and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (1) The administrative law judge must file with the FDMS, or instruct the party to file with the FDMS... administrative law judge must file with the FDMS a copy of each ruling and order issued by the administrative law... administrative law judge may disqualify himself or herself at any time. A party may file a motion, pursuant...

  4. Managing the gray areas. Exploring the administrator/physician team relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, J S

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness of the physician/administrator leadership team impacts issues from day-to-day operations to strategic visioning, according to author Joseph Fiorelli, Ph.D. Yet, given the importance of this relationship, surprisingly little is known about it, which is what Fiorelli set out to investigate and now write about. PMID:10160998

  5. Wide-Area Emergency Control in Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard

    This thesis concerns the development of new emergency control algorithms for electric power transmission systems. Diminishing global resources and climate concerns forces operators to change production away from fossil fuels and towards distributed renewable energy sources. Along with the change on...... condition and reach a secure stable equilibrium. In order to contain fast instability mechanisms, event-based emergency controls can be necessary, and this thesis also presents a contribution to real-time generation of event-based emergency control. By the use of contingency screening with post...

  6. Power metering: data accuracy in the metering area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses how measured power-consumption values play an important role in the contracts involved in the opening-up of the Swiss electricity market. The author states that the backtracking of data transfer processes is more important today than discussions on the accuracy of measurement, which has become more or less a matter of course. The article introduces the 'Selma' concept (safe electronic measurement data exchange) which offers a comprehensive security architecture for the authentication of measurement data, secure data access and software certification. The three security modules and the signature method used for the data transfer are described. Examples of the use of the system are presented

  7. 36 CFR 223.111 - Administration of contracts in designated disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or other specified development facility and, as a result of a major disaster in a designated area a... disaster, (2) The sale of such timber will assist in sustaining the economy of such area, or (3) The sale...-sharing arrangement in paragraph (a) of this section, he may allow cancellation of the...

  8. Artificial Neural Network Application for Power Transfer Capability and Voltage Calculations in Multi-Area Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palukuru NAGENDRA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of artificial neural network (ANN based model, multi-layer perceptron (MLP network, to compute the transfer capabilities in a multi-area power system was explored. The input for the ANN is load status and the outputs are the transfer capability among the system areas, voltage magnitudes and voltage angles at concerned buses of the areas under consideration. The repeated power flow (RPF method is used in this paper for calculating the power transfer capability, voltage magnitudes and voltage angles necessary for the generation of input-output patterns for training the proposed MLP neural network. Preliminary investigations on a three area 30-bus system reveal that the proposed model is computationally faster than the conventional method.

  9. Design and operation of the 30-MJ superconducting magnetic-storage system on the Bonneville Power Administration bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting magnetic-energy-storage (SMES) unit is suitable for power-system stabilization because it can provide positive damping by absorbing or releasing energy with a relatively fast response time, 10 ms. In the fall of 1982, an SMES unit was installed at the Tacoma Substation of the Bonneville Power Administration as an experiment in monitoring, predicting and improving system stability. This paper reports principally on the system testing

  10. Short Term Hydro Power Planning Coordinated with Wind Power in Areas with Congestion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a day-ahead planning algorithm for a multi-reservoir hydropower system coordinated with wind power is developed. Coordination applies to real situations, where wind power and hydropower are owned by different utilities, sharing the same transmission lines, though hydropower has priority for transmission capacity. Coordination is thus necessary to minimize wind energy curtailments during congestion situations. The planning algorithm accounts for the uncertainty of wind power forecasts and power market price uncertainty. Planning for the spot market and the regulating market is considered in the algorithm. The planning algorithm is applied to a case study and the results are summarized in the paper. Index Terms wind power production, hydro power production, wind forecast uncertainty, power market, stochastic optimization.

  11. An Overview on the Studies of Organizational Culture in Journals Indexed in the Business Administration Area (2008-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrieli Diniz Vizzoto; Breno Augusto Diniz Pereira; Marina Ferraz Campanher; Felipe da Silva Ravanello

    2014-01-01

    The literature, especially in the areas of Administration, Psychology and Sociology, has paid attention to the values as guides of human and organizational behavior in private and public companies. This study has aimed to present how the organizational culture has been studied through a review of scientific journals that have published articles on the subject, comprising the years from 2008 to 2013 and making a comparison between the reality of Brazilian and international publications. Seekin...

  12. Measuring change in health care equity using small area administrative data – evidence from the English NHS 2001-8

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cookson; Mauro Laudicella; Paolo Li Donni

    2011-01-01

    This study developed a method for measuring change in socio-economic equity in health care utilisation using small area level administrative data. Our method provides more detailed information on utilisation than survey data but only examines socio-economic differences between neighbourhoods rather than individuals. The context was the English NHS from 2001 to 2008, a period of accelerated expenditure growth and pro-competition reform. Hospital records for all adults receiving non-emergency h...

  13. Inter-Area Power Systems Stability Improvement by Static Synchronous Series Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The inter-area power systems have special characteristic of the stability behavior. The improvement of inter-area power system is one of the important aspects in power system. Approach: This study applies the Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC to improve stability of inter-area systems. The SSSC is modeled and then is applied to be incorporated into the power system model for investigating stability improvement. The SSSC is modeled as the variable susceptance and is controlled during dynamic state. This presented SSSC model can be incorporated into susceptance matrix of power system model. The presented method is tested on sample inter-area power system with 3 phase fault distubrances. Results: The swing curve of inter-area power system without a SSSC gets increases monotonically and thus the system can be considered as unstable whereas the swing curves of system with a SSSC can be considered as stable. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the SSSC can enhance stability of inter-area power systems.

  14. Selection of Possible Candidate Area for Nuclear Power Plant in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best option for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. Site selection is one of important step in nuclear power plant commissioning process. This paper proposes candidate sites for nuclear power plant in Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Muar and Batu Pahat district in Johor, Malaysia. The candidate selection process uses the IAEA document and AELB guideline as main reference, supported by site selection procedure by various countries. MapInfo Professional software was used to simulate the selection process for candidate areas for the nuclear power plant. This paper concluded that Tenggaroh and Jemaluang area are the most suitable area for nuclear power plant facilities in Johor, Malaysia. (Author)

  15. Perception of the Community Power Structure by the Public School Administrator as Related to His Effectiveness. A Dissertation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Philip Jesse

    This thesis describes a study that sought to ascertain if evidence could be found to support the idea that a relationship exists between a school administrator's ability to perceive the community power structure and his effectiveness in fulfilling role expectations as judged by his employer. A major thesis underlying this research held that…

  16. Conceptions of Power among Senior Women Administrators at Liberal Arts Colleges in the Upper Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in senior-level leadership positions in higher education institutions, and their experiences are underrepresented in research about leadership and power in higher education. This qualitative study engaged women senior administrators at liberal arts colleges in the Upper Midwestern United States to better understand how…

  17. Alaska Power Administration combined financial statements, schedules, and supplemental reports, September 30, 1997 and 1996 with independent auditors` report thereon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Alaska Power Administration (APA) will continue to encourage economic and industrial development in Alaska through implementing the sale of APA assets in a manner consistent with the authorizing legislation while balancing all the stakeholders` interests. Alaska Power Administration will provide their employees opportunities for successful career transitions and conduct an efficient transfer of assets and closeout of APA, while continuing to provide customers reliable, low-cost hydroelectric energy during the transition. The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accounts` audit of the Alaska Power Administration`s (APA) combined power system statements of assets; Federal investment and liabilities; and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` reports on APA`s internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations disclosed no reportable conditions or instances of noncompliance. Based on the unqualified opinion of the independent public accounting firm of KPMG Peak Marwick LLP and review of their audit work, the authors believe the financial statements fairly present the financial condition and results of the operations of APA for the period under audit.

  18. Administrators' Power Usage Styles and Their Impact on the Organizational Culture in Colleges of Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Kenan; Karatas, Ibrahim Hakan; Caglar, Çaglar; Polat, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine how power usage styles of administrators of faculties of education influence the organizational culture in their respective faculties in Turkey. Using the phenomenological method, a qualitative research method, researchers studied a group comprised of 20 academics from 7 different colleges of…

  19. Alaska Power Administration federal power program financial statements with supplementary information September 30, 1993 and September 30, 1992 with auditors` reports thereon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-14

    The mission of the Alaska Power Administration is to operate and maintain Alaska`s Federal hydroelectric generation and transmission facilities in an efficient, reliable, safe, and environmentally sensitive manner. The power from the facilities is marketed in a manner so as to repay their federal debt and provide widespread use of the power resources at the lowest cost to consumers consistent with sound business principles. This document presents fiscal 1993 accomplishments, future plans, results of operations, sales and revenues, expenses, debt service, repayment status, net cash flow, system reliability, and a report of independent accountants.

  20. Study on mutual perception between the people living in the area around a nuclear power plant and in a power-consuming area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first we conducted an interview survey of the urban residents, in order to gather various opinions about the area around a nuclear power plant. Then we conducted a questionnaires survey of the urban area to investigate how many people had the same opinions as we had extracted from the interview survey. We also compared these results with the site residents opinion which had been reported in other research. These results show that the urban residents tend to overestimate the risk perception of the local area and the local residents' anxiety about the nuclear power plant, and to underestimate the relationship between the electric company operating nuclear power plant and the local residents. These results also show that the local residents tend to underestimate the urban residents' knowledge of a nuclear power plant, and to take a pessimistic view of the urban residents' perception about the local residents. In order to reduce the sense of unfairness and dissatisfaction and to promote public acceptance of nuclear energy, it is desirable to reduce these misunderstanding and misconception. To this end, this study suggests that it is necessary to make them notice the misconception and grow mutual understanding by exchanging information of the opinions and the situations in each area. (author)

  1. Studies in Business Administration in the European Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero Rubio, José Antonio; Mullor, Javier Reig; Martín, Agustín Pérez

    2015-01-01

    On signing the Bologna declaration in 1999, European countries committed themselves to addressing the reforms necessary for adapting their university education to the European Higher Education Area. This modification process culminated in 2010, and this research aims to analyse the degree of divergence that currently exists in each course subject…

  2. The disasters administration in the metropolitan area, of the Aburra Valley - An analysis of the CLEPAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a preliminary analysis of eight workshops developed with the local committees for disasters prevention on the Aburra Valley. No one of these committees has at this moment a clear and coherent policies for disasters prevention that make possible to establish administration and community procedures according to the national laws. As a result they do not have specific goals to achieve a permanent action. In most of cases is missing an organized structure to articulate all the different agencies and employees involved. The committees do not have a periodical prepared meetings schedule, what they do is just making emergency reunions to answer to calamity situations. Even though all the cities have a responsible officials staff for emergency management, they have others priorities so the prevention disasters work is left on a second level. In the second part of this article are presented some theoretical elements about disasters and are developed some legal aspects that support the policies related to this topic

  3. PMGA and its application in area and power optimization for ternary FPRM circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Kangping, Li; Huihong, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research of population migration algorithms (PMAs), a population migration genetic algorithm (PMGA) is proposed, combining a PMA with a genetic algorithm. A scheme of area and power optimization for a ternary FPRM circuit is proposed by using the PMGA. Firstly, according to the ternary FPRM logic function expression, area and power estimation models are established. Secondly, the PMGA is used to search for the best area and power polarity. Finally, 10 MCNC Benchmark circuits are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the ternary FPRM circuits optimized by the PMGA saved 13.33% area and 20.00% power on average than the corresponding FPRM circuits optimized by a whole annealing genetic algorithm. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LY13F040003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61306041), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University.

  4. Wind power in the North Netherlands area. Windenergie in de Noord-Nederlandse regio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Heemstra, W.; de Vries, B.

    1983-01-01

    Supply and demand evaluations of wind power are made for the northern area of the Netherlands. Results of calculations are given for an average dairy farm. More elaborate calculations are made for the province of Friesland.

  5. Ultra large mode area fibers with aperiodic cladding structure for high power single mode lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Philippe; Dauliat, Romain; Benoit, Aurélien; Darwich, Dia; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Grimm, Stephan; Salin, François; Jamier, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    This communication presents the latest designs, fabrication steps and first results of large mode area fibres with aperiodic cladding structure for high power singlemode emission. Pre-compensation of thermal loading and first laser emission are detailed.

  6. Self-administration of ethanol, cocaine, or nicotine does not decrease the soma size of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S Mazei-Robison

    Full Text Available Our previous observations show that chronic opiate administration, including self-administration, decrease the soma size of dopamine (DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA of rodents and humans, a morphological change correlated with increased firing rate and reward tolerance. Given that a general hallmark of drugs of abuse is to increase activity of the mesolimbic DA circuit, we sought to determine whether additional drug classes produced a similar morphological change. Sections containing VTA were obtained from rats that self-administered cocaine or ethanol and from mice that consumed nicotine. In contrast to opiates, we found no change in VTA DA soma size induced by any of these other drugs. These data suggest that VTA morphological changes are induced in a drug-specific manner and reinforce recent findings that some changes in mesolimbic signaling and neuroplasticity are drug-class dependent.

  7. Antibacterial quality of some antibiotics available in five administrative areas along the national borders of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwambete KD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kennedy D Mwambete Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Introduction: In developing countries like Tanzania, bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat with available antibiotics. Poor quality antibiotics jeopardize the management of bacterial infections and contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Poor storage and harsh tropical climatic conditions accelerate deterioration of antibiotics. Hence, this study investigated the antibacterial effect of antibiotics available in five administrative regions along the national borders of Tanzania. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study involved the purchase of antibiotics from the Mwanza, Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Mbeya, and Kagera administrative regions. The Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method was employed to assess antibacterial effects of the antibiotics against Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Inhibition zones (IZ were determined as previously described. Analysis of variance was used to examine the IZ measured using test antibiotics to their respective control antibiotics; differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: Seventy-six antibiotic samples from 22 manufacturers were tested. Six antibiotic samples were from anonymous manufacturers and 29 antibiotic samples had no manufacturing or expiration dates. Different samples of the same antibiotics produced variable results. IZ measured using different samples of ampicillin (AMP and ciprofloxacin and their control antibiotics revealed significant differences when tested against S. typhi (P<0.05. Samples of tetracycline and chloramphenicol resulted in IZ comparable to their controls against S. typhi. All samples of AMP yielded comparable IZ on Klebsiella spp., whereas samples of chloramphenicol and tetracycline exerted IZ against P. aeruginosa that

  8. Wide-area Power System Oscillation Damping using Model Predictive Control Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek Hassan; Abdel-Rahim, Abdel-Moamen Mohammed; Hassan, Ahmed Abd-Eltawwab; Hiyama, Takashi

    This paper presents a new approach to deal with the problem of robust tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) and automatic voltage regulator (AVR) in multi-machine power systems. The proposed method is based on a model predictive control (MPC) technique, for improvement stability of the wide-area power system with multiple generators and distribution systems including dispersed generations. The proposed method provides better damping of power system oscillations under small and large disturbances even with the inclusion of local PSSs. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a two areas, four machines power system. A performance comparison between the proposed controller and some of other controllers is carried out confirming the superiority of the proposed technique. It has also been observed that the proposed algorithm can be successfully applied to larger multiarea power systems and do not suffer with computational difficulties. The proposed algorithm carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package.

  9. An Overview on the Studies of Organizational Culture in Journals Indexed in the Business Administration Area (2008-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrieli Diniz Vizzoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature, especially in the areas of Administration, Psychology and Sociology, has paid attention to the values as guides of human and organizational behavior in private and public companies. This study has aimed to present how the organizational culture has been studied through a review of scientific journals that have published articles on the subject, comprising the years from 2008 to 2013 and making a comparison between the reality of Brazilian and international publications. Seeking to provide some perspective on the current scenario in the theme, this work is characterized as a bibliometric study. A research for some specific words was conducted. The Brazilian and international articles found were analyzed separately to keep the keywords as chosen by the authors, not losing anything for translations and also as a way to compare Brazilian publications with international ones. Some authors notice the need for studies comprising the understanding of how organizational culture is perceived by the literature and how are being held the studies in this area. Through some studies, it becomes apparent that there is still room to develop further research to understand the publications in the area of organizational culture. 522 articles were found in international databases and 31 in Brazilian journals that were in accordance with the limits of this research. The study shows some differences between Brazilian and international publishings and how there is still room for more studies linking organizational culture and other subjects in the field of Administration.

  10. Analyzing Non-Functional Capabilities of ICT Infrastructures Supporting Power System Wide Area Monitoring and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Chenine, Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    The strain on modern electrical power systems has led to an ever-increasing utilization of new information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve their efficiency and reliability. Wide area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems offer many opportunities to improve the real-time situational awareness in the power system. These systems are essen-tially SCADA systems but with continuous streaming of measurement data from the power system. The quality of WAMC systems and the applications ...

  11. ORION 2.0: A Power-Area Simulator for Interconnection Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Li, Bin; Samadi, Kambiz; Peh, Li-Shiuan

    2011-01-01

    As industry moves towards multicore chips, networks-on-chip (NoCs) are emerging as the scalable fabric for interconnecting the cores. With power now the first-order design constraint, early-stage estimation of NoC power has become crucially important. In this work, we present ORION 2.0, an enhanced NoC power and area simulator, which offers significant accuracy improvement relative to its predecessor, ORION 1.0.

  12. Effect of full converter wind turbines on inter-area oscillation of power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askari, Hanieh Hajizadeh; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Eriksson, Robert; Wu, Qiuwei

    By increasing in the penetration level of wind turbines, the influence of these new added generation units on the power system oscillations specifically inter-area oscillations has to be thoroughly investigated. In this paper, the impact of increasing in the penetration of full rate converter wind...... turbines (FRC-WTs) on the inter-area oscillations of power system is examined. In order to have a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of FRC-WT on the inter-area oscillations, different scenarios associated with the wind power penetration levels, wind farm locations, strength of interconnection line......-WTs on the inter-area mode oscillations precisely. The results show that FRC-WTs can affect the inter-area oscillations considerably in some simulation scenarios...

  13. Construction of Temelin nuclear power plant and its impact on possible recreational uses of the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible recreational use is assessed of the territory within 25 kms from the Temelin nuclear power plant site. The territory includes 3 tourist areas (South Bohemian lakes, Middle Vltava, Tabor area). From the point of view of time usability, all three areas are of the single-season type, i.e., they are used in the summer season, as they are oriented to water sports and tourism. Neither the Temelin nuclear power plant nor its 3 km protective zone overlap with the reacreational areas, and thus the areas can also in future be used for tourism. The use of the Temelin plant in district heating will contribute to reducing fallout from the existing thermal power plants. (J.C.)

  14. MONITORING THE MANAGEMENT QUALITY OF THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AREA BY USING THE COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂTUIU VIRGINIA ELENA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Achieving fundamental management in public organizations involved in the public office holders and posts of leadership and execution in this area adds responsibility in managing all types of resources available to the public sector, namely human resources, information, material and financial. The main aim of the management process is to focus human efforts to coordinate joint work. An important role in this process, is upgrading the quality of organizational management and delivery of public services, improving public services through the implementation of innovative tools, leading to government-oriented processes and results-oriented public service.

  15. Adverse reactions following mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine in lymphatic filariasis endemic areas in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Wládia Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched with the goal of eliminating this disease via the annual mass drug administration (MDA of a single dose of antifilarial drugs. Adverse drug reactions following MDA are a major factor of poor treatment adherence in several countries. This study assessed the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs following the first round of mass treatment in two communities treated with different dosages of diethylcarbamazine (DEC in the City of Recife, Brazil. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in a random sample of the population living in both communities (Areas I and II. The dose of DEC recommended by the WHO (6mg/kg was calculated based on the individual's weight-for-age. In Area II, weight differences between the genders were also considered when determining dosage. Data were obtained through interviews conducted in the first 12 to 48h and on the 5th day after MDA during household visits. RESULTS: A total of 487 and 365 individuals were interviewed in Areas I and II, respectively. The prevalence of ADRs in Area I (23.6; 95%CI: 19.1-29.5 was higher than in Area II (16.2; 95%CI:11.9-21.5(p=0.0078. The prevalence of ADRs among females was higher than in males in Area I (p=0.0021. In Area II, no significant difference between the genders was observed (p=0.1840. Age was not associated with ADRs in either area. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting MDA dosage schedules according to weight-for-age and sex may be may contribute to reduce the occurrence of adverse drug reactions in the population.

  16. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Louis Phipps

    Full Text Available Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2 and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2 Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa.

  17. Fish cultures in the area of the nuclear power station Dukovany and their prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigating the fishery production and measurements of radiation background in the ecosystem of the Jihlava river, in the area of a nuclear power station being built near Dukovany are evaluated with regard to the prospects of fish cultures when the power station operates in full extent. Basic data were provided for calculating the burden of significant groups of the population, resulting from the ingestion of fish of local provenance. All available information shows that under normal operating conditions, the power station should not exert a negative influence on the quality of fish food and that in the area under study it would be possible to manage intensive fish cultures. (author)

  18. Bonneville Power Administration Annual Reports (Growth Modulation in Chinook Salmon Supplementation)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) 63.2 of FCRPS Biological Opinion calls for determining the effects of implementing hatchery reforms on salmon and steelhead...

  19. MID TERM ASSESSMENT OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS ENDEMIC AREA OF DAMOH AND SAGAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is an important public health problem in India. Filariasis is a major social and the fourth most common cause of disability all over the globe. Filariasis is endemic in 17 States and six Union Territories, with about 553 million people at risk of infection. It has been a major public health problem in India. The Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic filariasis was launched by the WHO in 2000 with the goal of eliminating Lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem by the year 2020. For the effective control of filariasis >65% population of endemic areas should be covered by single dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6mg/kg (DEC. OBJECTIVES: To assess the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration in the selected District and to make independent assessment with respect to process and out - come indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A community based cross sectional study through house to house survey method in selected clusters was adopted. An independent evaluation was done and the outcome was assessed as the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration. RESULTS: In both Damoh and Sagar Districts of Madhya Pradesh, the coverage level for DEC was > 80% in all the Blocks. CONCL USION: The mass drug administration was aimed only to distribute the drug and the issues related to compliance, proper health education and side effects management were not given enough attention. These issues are important to make programme effective.

  20. The Study on Privilege in Administrative Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于韬文

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of management methods, as the implementation means of administrative policy and social management ideal, the administrative contract has been widely accepted. Administrative areas contract to become the focus of people's attention. Administrative priority in administrative contract is to distinguish between private rights contract with the most critical characteristics of administrative contracts. But there are many problems of administrative priority in practice. In this paper, writer begins from the content of administrative priority and put forward myself proposals for the improvement of power supervision.

  1. Prevalence and distribution of human Plasmodium infection in Federally Administrative Tribal Areas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Irfan; Qureshi, Naveeda Akhtar; Afzal, Muhammad; Shaheen, Nargis; Ali, Abid; Ashraf, Asma

    2016-09-01

    About 3.6 million Pashtun and over 1.5 million immigrants from Afghanistan live in the federally administered tribal areas (FATA) on the border between Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province and southern Afghanistan. Although malaria cases are common in FATA, no detailed studies have yet been performed to reveal the actual status of malaria in the local population and epidemiological data are insufficient to elucidate the actual incidence. A malariometric survey of 691 patients of all ages and genders in seven agencies (districts) in FATA was carried out in 2013 using whole blood samples. Microscopically confirmed positive species were subjected to nested-PCR for the reconfirmation and detection of four species of Plasmodium causing human malaria. Of the 626 PCR positive cases, 81.1% were P. vivax, 13.8% P. falciparum and 4.9% mixed species containing both P. vivax and P. falciparum. P. malariae and P. ovale and were not found in any analysis. Sixty-five microscopic positive samples were identified as negative by PCR. The incidence of P. vivax ranged from 10.4% in Orakzai Agency to 22.8% in North Waziristan Agency. The prevalence of P. falciparum ranged from 1.3% in Orakzai Agency to 4.7% in North Waziristan, and Khyber Agency had the highest prevalence of 1.7% of mixed species. In FATA, P. vivax and P. falciparum are the main causative agents of malaria, while mixed species infections are also prevalent with varying transmission intensities. In addition, Estimates of malaria incidence shows that variation in the incidence, frequency and species composition of malarial parasites is high. PMID:27447217

  2. Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

  3. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

  4. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  5. Remote area power supplies in India - growing need for storage batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even when all the power projects planned in India are completed and commissioned, there still will be a significant number of unconnected areas within a region serviced by a power grid and a large number of villages in areas far removed from urban and suburban localities and therefore outside the grid. Extending power lines to such areas may not be practicable on account of prohibitive cost of grid connection. The problem can be solved by developing and installing remote area power supply (RAPS) systems based on renewable energy sources such as solar energy, biogas and wind energy. Applications of RAPS in remote areas and components of a typical RAPS system are enumerated. One essential component of any RAPS system is a device to store energy which maintains power supply in unfavourable climatic conditions. A battery bank based on lead/acid storage batteries is the more generally used device to store electricity derived from the various energy inputs to RAPS systems. Some findings of the use of lead/acid batteries for RAPS service and certain suggestions for development and test facilities for batteries for RAPS system are given. (M.G.B.)

  6. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  7. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing final environmental impact statement. Volume 4: Appendixes B-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alter native

  8. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing final environmental impact statement. Volume 3: Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  9. An ECG Compressed Sensing Method of Low Power Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at low power problem in body area network, an ECG compressed sensing method of low power body area network based on the compressed sensing theory was proposed. Random binary matrices were used as the sensing matrix to measure ECG signals on the sensor nodes. After measured value is transmitted to remote monitoring center, ECG signal sparse representation under the discrete cosine transform and block sparse Bayesian learning reconstruction algorithm is used to reconstruct the ECG signals. The simulation results show that the 30% of overall signal can get reconstruction signal which’s SNR is more than 60dB, each numbers in each rank of sensing matrix can be controlled below 5, which reduces the power of sensor node sampling, calculation and transmission. The method has the advantages of low power, high accuracy of signal reconstruction and easy to hardware implementation.  

  10. Developing a PQ monitoring system for assessing power quality and critical areas detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Romero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a power quality monitoring system. The system is aimed at assessing power quality and detecting critical areas throughout at distribution system. Such system integrates a hardware system and a software processing tool developed in four main stages. Power quality disturbances are registered by PQ meters and the data is transmitted through a 3G wireless network. This data is processed and filtered in an open source database. Some interesting statistical indices related to voltage sags, swells, flicker and voltage unbalance are obtained. The last stage displays the indices geo-referenced on power quality maps, allowing the identification of critical areas according to different criteria. The results can be analyzed using clustering tools to identify differentiated quality groups in a city. The proposed system is an open source tool useful to electricity utilities to analyze and manage large amount of data.

  11. Europeanization or Curricular Harmonization in the Area of Administrative Sciences in Romania (Follow-Up of Bologna Process). Comparative Analysis and Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lucica MATE

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims a comparative analysis of curricula for Bachelor studies in the area of administrative sciences. The objectives of research focused on elaboration of a set of indicators, based on the curricular contents of the programmes from the first cycle in administrative sciences, aiming to size “the Europeanism degree” and the curricular compatibilisation degree between Romanian and European universities.

  12. Europeanization or Curricular Harmonization in the Area of Administrative Sciences (Follow-Up of Bologna Process): Comparative Analysis and Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lucica MATEI

    2007-01-01

    The paper aims a comparative analysis of curricula for Bachelor studies in the area of administrative sciences. The objectives of research focused on elaboration of a set of indicators, based on the curricular contents of the programmes from the first cycle in administrative sciences,aiming to size 'the Europeanism degree' and curricular compatibilisation degree between Romanian and European universities

  13. Ground water regime changes in the area influenced by construction of Gabcikovo hydro power structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term changes in ground water levels during the last 30 years and changes caused by the construction and operation of Gabcikovo hydro-power structures are presented on maps. The area of direct impact of hydro-power structures on ground water is defined. Ground water levels have increased after damming the Danube and recovered to nearly the stay which was known in 1960's. (authors). tabs., 2 figs., 9 maps, 6 refs

  14. Automatic Generation Control in Multi Area Interconnected Power System by using HVDC Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of HVDC link in parallel with HVAC link on automatic generation control (AGC problem for a multi-area power system taking into consideration system parameter variations. A fuzzy logic controller is proposed for four area power system interconnected via parallel HVAC/HVDC transmission link which is also referred as asynchronous tie-lines. The linear model of HVAC/HVDC link is developed and the system responses to sudden load change are studied. The simulation studies are carried out for a four area interconnected thermal power system. Suitable solution for automatic generation control problem of four area electrical power system is obtained by means of improving the dynamic performance of power system under study. Robustness of controller is also checked by varying parameters. Simulation results indicate that the scheme works well. The dynamic analyses have been done with and without HVDC link using fuzzy logic controller in Matlab-Simulink. Further a comparison between the two is presented and it has been shown that the performance of the proposed scheme is superior in terms of overshoot and settling time.

  15. Changes in thyroid function following iodine-containing contrast administration in patients in an endemic goitre area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grehn, S.; Steidle, B.; Seif, F.J.

    1981-08-01

    A prospective study of thyroid function after the administration of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media was carried out on 119 patients from an area where goitres are endemic. Eighteen patients had a negative TRH test after 28 days. Results showed hyperthyroid function in 27.9% of patients after oral cholecystography, 15.1% of patients after intravenous cholangiography and 5.3% of patients after infusion urography. In these patients, thyroxin and triiodothyronin levels were higher than in euthyroid patients. Thyroid stimulating antibodies could not be demonstrated. Induction of hyperthyroidism by iodine is considered to be due to autonomy of the thyroid gland parenchyma. For this reason the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is greater in patients from a goitre endemic region (by a factor of 1.3 to 17.1).

  16. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    Denmark, east and west of the Great Belt are bidding areas with separate hourly area prices for the Nord Pool power exchange, covering four Nordic countries and parts of Germany. The share of wind power has now increased to 25% on an annual basis in western Denmark. This has a significant impact......, which can improve market efficiency, and a welfare gain is obtained. An important limitation for demand response is events of several consecutive hours with extreme values. The analysis in this paper is a summary and update of some of the issues covered by the EU RESPOND project. It shows that extreme...

  17. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  18. Economic benefits of broadened local area networks for electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses economic benefits which influenced the choice of a broadband local area network for a power plant instead of an alternative multi-cable communication network. Broadband communication networks can offer significant economies over alternative technologies. One-time, cost avoidance savings and recurring annual savings are estimated to total $5.1 million in the first year. The cost/benefit analysis presented here can be used as a guide by other utilities to analyze communication networking alternatives. The paper also includes a discussion of local area network attributes relevant to the power plant installation

  19. Study of power coupling experiments in a large-area transformer coupled plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-area transformer coupled plasma (TCP) source has been designed and constructed. In this design, a plasma generation chamber and a RF (Radio-Frequency) antenna chamber have been separated with dielectric material, and differentially pumped to accommodate large-area, relatively thin dielectric window against mechanical pressures. With large diameter (78cm) chamber, low frequency (4-5MHz) RF source has been chosen. By calculating plasma impedance from TCPRP code based on 2D heating theory, the diameter of a single-turn copper coil antenna was optimized to provide high-density plasmas in large area. Also the impedance matching circuit of this large-area TCP source has been designed from the calculated plasma impedance. Large-area helium plasma was successfully generated and used to study power coupling in this source using the single-turn antenna. E-H transition phenomenon was observed, and threshold current was measured. Threshold current and power were measured to be lower at low pressure than at high pressure, and look to be linear with pressure. In H-mode antenna impedance and reactance decrease as RF power increases. This means that increased mutual inductance between antenna and plasma loop decreases primary side inductance as plasma density increase. Power transfer is more efficient at low pressure than high pressure. From these results, optimum pressure range is observed to be 1-10mTorr

  20. Legal control of discretionary powers in Ghana: lessons from English administrative law theory

    OpenAIRE

    K. B. Mensah

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops along the following line. First, we shall attempt to explain what discretion is, why it has become vety important in the modem administrative state, and the dangers that it poses in a democratic legal system. It then looks at the problems which have to be faced in justifying judicial review of discretion. It takes an in depth analysis of legal liberalism and functionalism. Aimed with these 'lenses', it attempts to explain the theoretical basis of two important Ghanaian cas...

  1. The operation of nuclear power plants in the conflict between administrative law and criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conflicting interests of administrative law and criminal law give rise to a number of burdensome conditions to be met by the operators of nuclear plants. Of course, it is one of the peculiarities of criminal law that nobody can decide for himself whether he wants to become involved in it. There is probably no other choice than meeting, with a good blend of composure and cleverness, the criteria now surrounding the operation of a nuclear facility. (orig.)

  2. The psychological mechanism of making administrative decisions in the bodies of state power.

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr VORONOV

    2016-01-01

    The concept of psychological mechanism as the basic category of professional activity is articulated in the article. The specifics of making administrative and government decisions in government bodies of Ukraine are characterised. The concept of psychological mechanisms of making managerial decisions is presented. The model of psychological mechanisms of making managerial decisions in government bodies is formed and described. It is shown that the model involves psychological ...

  3. The economic performance of nuclear thermal power station in southeast area of our country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a supplementary to ''An Economic Comparison between Nuclear and Coal Electric Power Station in Southeast Area of Our Country'', written by Luo Anren. As the efficiency of a co-generation power plant is much higher than that of the conventional one, a small or medium-sized steam supplying nuclear power plant will be also more economic than a fuel-fired power plant even with a capacity of 1000MWe. It is more suitable to the situation in China to develop a series of small and medium-sized nuclear power plants supplying process steam or hot water for district heating. This will be beneficial to energy saving as well as to environmental protection. (Author)

  4. Wide area control concepts. A pre-study. Power transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this pre-study has been to assess technology and benefits related to new control concepts for power transmission systems. The objective is to provide basic results and information in order to prepare a main project proposal for further research activities in this area. The study has focused on recent developments in control and monitoring of power transmission systems and describes promising applications within the areas of voltage stability, angle stability (power oscillations) and system protection. Selected case studies have been performed in order to assess the technical possibility of increasing power transfer limits on critical transmission corridors in the Norwegian power system and to indicate the economic benefits involved. The case studies have mainly focused on voltage stability monitoring and power oscillation damping. One significant result from the study is related to the power export capacity on the ''Hasle'' interface, which is the main transmission corridor between Southern Norway and Sweden. The studies indicate a potential of reducing annual congestion costs on this interface in the order of 15-20 mill. NOK. It is shown that this can be achieved by increasing the export limit to 2000 MW and that this is technically possible from a security point of view through improved control and monitoring as illustrated by the case studies. The report also includes a number of proposed research activities and a layout for a main project proposal. (Author)

  5. State power and protected areas: Dynamics and contradictions of forest conservation in Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Véron René; Fehr Garry

    2011-01-01

    The traditionally coercive and state-controlled governance of protected areas for nature conservation in developing countries has in many cases undergone change in the context of widespread decentralization and liberalization. This article examines an emerging "mixed" (coercive, community- and market-oriented) conservation approach in managed-resource protected areas and its effects on state power through a case study on forest protection in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The fin...

  6. VMware vSphere PowerCLI Reference Automating vSphere Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Dekens, Luc; Sizemore, Glenn; van Lieshout, Arnim; Medd, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Your One-Stop Reference for VMware vSphere Automation If you manage vSphere in a Windows environment, automating routine tasks can save you time and increase efficiency. VMware vSphere PowerCLI is a set of pre-built commands based on Windows PowerShell that is designed to help you automate vSphere processes involving virtual machines, datacenters, storage, networks, and more. This detailed guide-using a practical, task-based approach and real-world examples-shows you how to get the most out of PowerCLI's handy cmdlets. Learn how to: Automate vCenter Server and ESX/ESX(i) Server deployment and

  7. The Federal Administrative Court confirms unlawfulness of nuclear power moratorium. Political primacy is only valid in the bounds of justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With its decision on December 20th, the Federal Administrative Court (BVwerfG) came to the legally valid conclusion that after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the supervision court order related to the law on nuclear installation by the Hessian Ministry for the Environment, in order to stop operating nuclear power plants Biblis A and B for 3 months or rather not to put in operation again, was unlawful (BVwerfG 7 B 18.13 und 7 B 19.13). Beforehand, the Hessian Administrative Court (Hess. VGH) had already pronounced its judgement on February 27th 2013. The supervising orders were part of the so-called nuclear power moratorium. They were issued after the resolution of the federal government, at demand of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) towards their nearby countries, and were identically executed by the supervisory authority of the other site-countries. Besides Biblis in Hesse, nuclear power plants in Neckarwestheim I and Philippsburg 1, Baden-Wurttemberg, Isar 1 in Bavaria, Unterweser in Lower Saxony, as well as Brunsbuettel in Schleswig-Holstein, were affected. However only RWE took legal action and was now affirmed - after the Hessian VGH verdict- by the highest German administrative court: The nuclear power moratorium - the first step to withdrawal of nuclear power in Germany - was unlawful. The decision taken by the BVerwG - as well as the one by the Hessian VGH - indicates a juridical clear and precise argumentation. The partially polemic and unobjective critic, which the VHG-verdict experienced, did not disguise, just as little as the political conflict concerning the withdrawal from nuclear energy, the view of federal judges, regarding the decision-relevant questions nor did they influence their reply. The political primacy finds its limits in the bounds of justice. Existing rights do not become thus a paper waste because there is a fundamental decision. This takes effectiveness for procedural

  8. Document management. Interleaf administrates ''handbooks'' at the Gundremmingen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gundremmingen nuclear power plant with its two 1344 MW units (B and C) is the largest boiling water reactor site in Germany. It is operated by Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft (KGB), a daughter of RWE Energie, Essen, and BAYERNWERK, Munich. For two years, KGB has been using Interleaf software to prepare and distribute its handbook. (orig.)

  9. Siting of nuclear power plants and administration in cities, towns and villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the siting problems, there are many explanations and documents from the side to construct nuclear power plants, but few which makes assertion from the side of accepting the plants. However, present difficulties in the siting problems of nuclear power plants cannot be solved if the assertion of the accepting side is neglected. The details from the start of the siting to now in Tsuruga city are described. It is tried to explain the situation with the documents expressing opinions, demands and petitions, and replies exchanged between Tsuruga city and the government, Fukui Prefecture, and the related power companies, and the related laws. The details include the failures and accidents of nuclear plants reported to date. The reasons why the mayors or headmen of towns or villages want to invite the nuclear power plants are that the development of their region can be expected, and favorable influence results in to the regional economy, and further they can cooperate with the national policy. However, opposition movements are the most embarrassing affairs for them, and it is due to the condition that they cannot give the satisfactory answer to the opposing people so far. They cannot but depend solely on the responsibility of the government to safety. On the organizations of cities, towns and villages accepting nuclear power plants and the influence on local community, detailed reports are presented using various documents on preparation, antidisaster plan, radiation monitoring organization, movement of population, the effects regarding tax system and finance, influence on the life of inhabitants and others. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

  11. Exchange rate uncertainty and deviations from purchasing power parity: Evidence from the G7 area

    OpenAIRE

    Arghyrou, Michael G.; Gregoriou, Andros; Pourpourides, Panayiotis M.

    2009-01-01

    Arghyrou, Gregoriou and Pourpourides (2009) argue that exchange rate uncertainty causes deviations from the law of one price. We test this hypothesis on aggregate data from the G7-area. We find that exchange rate uncertainty explains to a significant degree deviations from Purchasing Power Parity.

  12. Exchange rate uncertainty and deviations from Purchasing Power Parity: Evidence from the G7 area

    OpenAIRE

    Arghyrou, Michael G.; Gregoriou, Andros; Pourpourides, Panayiotis M.

    2009-01-01

    Arghyrou, Gregoriou and Pourpourides (2009) argue that exchange rate uncertainty causes deviations from the law of one price. We test this hypothesis on aggregate data from the G7-area. We find that exchange rate uncertainty explains to a significant degree deviations from Purchasing Power Parity.

  13. A Low power and area efficient CLA adder design using Full swing GDI technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcha Hemanth Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The low power VLSI design has an important role in designing of many electronic systems. While designing any combinational or sequential circuits, the important parameters like power consumption, implementation area, voltage leakage and performance of the circuit are to be considered. Design of area, high speed and powerefficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. This paper presents a low power Carry look ahead adder design using Full swing Gate diffusion (FS-GDI technique. The proposed CLA implementation utilizes improved full-swing GDI F1 and F2 gates, which are the counterparts of standard CMOS NAND and NOR gates. The basic Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic style suffers from some practical limitations like swing degradation, fabrication complexity in standard CMOS process and bulk connections. These limitations can be overcome by Full swing GDI technique. The proposed technique utilizes a single swing restoration (SR transistor to improve the output swing of F1 and F2 GDI gates. A 16-bit CLA is designed and Simulations are performed by Mentor graphics 130nm CMOS technology ELDO simulator. Simulation results have shown a greater reduction in delay, power dissipation and area.

  14. IP Connected Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks in the Future Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Kjærgaard, Jens Kristian

    2012-01-01

    , and available energy and will suffer a high data loss rate when integrated into a network infrastructure. This poses significant challenges in the network design. This chapter describes the assumptions, technologies, and challenges for transmitting IPv6 over low power wireless personal area networks (Lo...

  15. Evaluation of the transient stability of power systems based on the area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizalek, N. N.; Ladnova, A. N.; Tonyshev, V. F.; Popova, E. Yu.; Vtorushin, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The prerequisites and algorithms for the analysis of stability of complex power systems by the area method are considered. Its application is based on the energy relations for the possible trajectories of the oscillatory motion of subsystems isolated for each emergency.

  16. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0 caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki mainshock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki mainshock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future.

  17. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0 caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki mainshock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki mainshock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future.

  18. Is Mercosur an optimum currency area? An assessment using generalized purchasing power parity

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Da Silva; Leandro Stocco; J. Anchieta Neves

    2008-01-01

    We consider the cointegration approach of generalized purchasing power parity to show that a necessary condition for Mercosur to be an optimum currency area is met. Yet there are still large cross-country differences as to cast doubt on the success of either monetary union or official dollarization. The PPP puzzle is also found to occur in Mercosur.

  19. Determination of karst collapse intensity indicator in area of nuclear power plant construction using incomplete data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the definition of karst collapse intensity. The technique for determining the intensity of karst formation and collapse on the basis of calculation and probabilistic method is given. Karst collapse formation is affected by a great variety of natural and anthropogenic factors. Each factor can vary quite widely. The paper describes a technique for determining karst collapse intensity from incomplete data. It uses karst processes monitoring data in the area and monitoring data of areas with similar values of the most significant factors leading to the karst collapses. The method used for determination of karst collapse intensity indicator in area of Nizhny Novgorod nuclear power plant construction

  20. A New Design for Array Multiplier with Trade off in Power and Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlakalla Ravi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a low power and low area array multiplier with carry save adder is proposed. The proposed adder eliminates the final addition stage of the multiplier than the conventional parallel array multiplier. The conventional and proposed multiplier both are synthesized with 16-T full adder. Among Transmission Gate, Transmission Function Adder, 14-T, 16-T full adder shows energy efficiency. In the proposed 4x4 multiplier to add carry bits with out using Ripple Carry Adder (RCA in the final stage, the carries given to the input of the next left column input. Due to this the proposed multiplier shows 56 less transistor count, then cause trade off in power and area. The proposed multiplier has shown 13.91% less power, 34.09% more speed and 59.91% less energy consumption for TSMC 0.18nm technology at a supply voltage 2.0V than the conventional multiplier.

  1. A New Design for Array Multiplier with Trade off in Power and Area

    CERN Document Server

    Ravi, Nirlakalla; Prasad, T Jayachandra; Rao, T Subba

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a low power and low area array multiplier with carry save adder is proposed. The proposed adder eliminates the final addition stage of the multiplier than the conventional parallel array multiplier. The conventional and proposed multiplier both are synthesized with 16-T full adder. Among Transmission Gate, Transmission Function Adder, 14-T, 16-T full adder shows energy efficiency. In the proposed 4x4 multiplier to add carry bits with out using Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) in the final stage, the carries given to the input of the next left column input. Due to this the proposed multiplier shows 56 less transistor count, then cause trade off in power and area. The proposed multiplier has shown 13.91% less power, 34.09% more speed and 59.91% less energy consumption for TSMC 0.18nm technology at a supply voltage 2.0V than the conventional multiplier.

  2. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration. [Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity surrounding the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 μR/h in areas adjacent to these fields and along roadways, and (c) below 6 μR/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (22-52 μR/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 and cobalt-58 were the primary sources of man-made activity found at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  4. Process evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration Residential Weatherization Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerman, D.I.; Bronfman, B.H.; Tonn, B.

    1983-10-01

    An evaluation of the BPA Residential Weatherization Pilot Program is described. Data for this report were gathered at the eleven public utilities participating in the program, at the BPA area and district offices serving these utilities, and at BPA headquarters. This process evaluation of the Pilot Program documents the history of the program, outlines the implementation strategies adopted by the Pilot utilities, describes the role of the BPA area and district offices in the program, and indicates what was learned by BPA and the utilities in the period the program operated.

  5. Nuclear power programmes and medium term projections in the OECD area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes nuclear power growth forecasts up to 1985 on an individual country basis for the OECD area, based on present nuclear programmes. For the period between 1985 and the year 2000, no individual countries' estimates are given. The projections for this period are subdivided into three main areas: OECD Europe, North America and OECD Pacific Region. These projections are derived from the presently prevailing estimates concerning total energy growth, the increasing share of electricity requirements in total energy requirements and the growth of the nuclear share in electrical installed capacity. The basic assumptions are discussed and the combination of various possibilities results in upper and lower growth limits, which should include the most likely development. An attempt is also made to describe probable scenarios of nuclear reactor strategies, taking into account developments under way in the OECD area. Finally, the factors liable to influence nuclear power growth in a positive or negative way are briefly analysed

  6. Compaction of power transmission towers in urban areas. An alternative for underground power transmission; Compactacao de linhas de transmissao aerea urbana. Uma alternativa a transmissao subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Weide [Tecname Engenharia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cicarelli, Liliane Dias; Nishimura, Fumitaka; Rosa Filho, Pericles da

    1993-12-31

    Compact power transmission lines are presented as an alternative for underground power transmission. This work shows examples of some operational compact power lines ib Brazil and other countries. By the way, the results of the operational aspects of compact power transmission lines in urban areas have been satisfactory until the present date, without significant environmental impacts. Economical comparison between the two alternatives of power transmission are also shown 18 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Outline of the Nuclear Power Training Center of Tomari Administration Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Nuclear Power Training Center of Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Inc. (NTC), maintenance technicians, plant operators and other technicians are educated and provided with practical training in order to cultivate the human resources necessary for the safe and stable operation of Tomari Nuclear Power Station. The NTC is at the site of the Tomari plant and the training at NTC began in October, 1993. A full scale model of plant simulator for education and training has been installed. Also a full size model of Mechanical, Instrument and Control system, and Electric training facilities have been completed. The operational training of normal start-up, shut-down, and abnormal condition of the Tomari plant, disassembly, inspection, rebuilding, adjustment of the equipment and malfunction training under simulated conditions can be conducted with near reality using these facilities. Not only has the education and training been carried out annually as scheduled, but also NTC has been used by the staff of our company and related industries as a place of independent education and training. This paper describes the special features of the training facilities, the training plans and the training results for the last fiscal year 1995. (author)

  8. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  9. Effects of Power Lines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted large-scale, replicated experiments to test the effects of two parallel power lines on area use, behaviour, and activity of semidomestic reindeer in enclosures. Yearling female reindeer were released into four 50 x 400 m enclosures; two treatment enclosures with power lines and two control enclosures. Reindeer from two herds, one from Kautokeino (domestic tame) and one from Vaga, (domestic wild) were tested separately and compared. Individual location within the enclosures was not affected by the power lines. Effects on restless behaviour were ambiguous, with slightly more restless behaviour in the treatment enclosures for the domestic tame reindeer, while the domestic wild reindeer maintained a stable level in the treatment enclosures, increasing with time in the control enclosures. Activity changes were slightly more common among animals within treatment enclosures for both herds, with no indication of habituation during the experiment. The domestic wild reindeer had more than three times the amount of restless behaviour than the domestic tame reindeer. Our study indicates that for reindeer in enclosures, the disturbance from a power line construction is negligible. This suggests that power lines are a minor disturbing factor compared to human handling when using fenced in areas like grazing gardens in reindeer husbandry.

  10. Area-Efficient Low Power CMOS Image Sensor Readout Circuit with Fixed Pattern Noise Cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shibin; YAO Suying; NIE Kaiming; XU Jiangtao

    2010-01-01

    A low cost of die area and power consumption CMOS image sensor readout circuit with fixed pattern noise(FPN)cancellation is proposed.By using only one coupling capacitor and switch in the double FPN cancelling correlative double sampling(CDS),pixel FPN is cancelled and column FPN is stored and eliminated by the sample-and-hold operation of digitally programmable gain amplifier(DPGA).The bandwidth balance technology based on operational amplifier(op-amp)sharing is also introduced to decrease the power dissipation of traditional multi-stage switched capacitor DPGA.The circuit is designed and simulated using 1P6M 0.18 μm 1.8 V/3.3 V process.Simulation results indicate that the proposed CDS scheme can achieve an FPN of less than 1 mV.The total sampling capacitor per column is 0.9 pF and no column-wise power is dissipated.The die area and FPN value are cut by 70% and 41% respectively compared with amplifier-based CDS.The op-amp sharing gain stage can achieve a 12-bit precision and also implement an 8-bit gain controlling within a gain range of 24 dB.Its power consumption is 1.4 mW,which is reduced by 57% compared with traditional schemes.The proposed readout circuit is suitable for the application of low power cost-sensitive imaging systems.

  11. Effects of Power Lines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Flydal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted large-scale, replicated experiments to test the effects of two parallel power lines on area use, behaviour, and activity of semidomestic reindeer in enclosures. Yearling female reindeer were released into four 50×400 m enclosures; two treatment enclosures with power lines and two control enclosures. Reindeer from two herds, one from Kautokeino (domestic tame and one from Vågå, (domestic wild were tested separately and compared. Individual location within the enclosures was not affected by the power lines. Effects on restless behaviour were ambiguous, with slightly more restless behaviour in the treatment enclosures for the domestic tame reindeer, while the domestic wild reindeer maintained a stable level in the treatment enclosures, increasing with time in the control enclosures. Activity changes were slightly more common among animals within treatment enclosures for both herds, with no indication of habituation during the experiment. The domestic wild reindeer had more than three times the amount of restless behaviour than the domestic tame reindeer. Our study indicates that for reindeer in enclosures, the disturbance from a power line construction is negligible. This suggests that power lines are a minor disturbing factor compared to human handling when using fenced in areas like grazing gardens in reindeer husbandry.

  12. Impact of power lines on bird mortality in a subalpine area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bevanger, K.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Four sections of power lines, amounting to 4,000 km, in a subalpine area of southern Norway were patrolled from April 1989 to June 1995 to record birds killed when colliding with the overhead wires. A total of 399 dead birds and bird remains were identified as collision victims. At least 24 species were identified among the victims, the majority only represented by a few individuals. Ptarmigan (Lagopus spp., particularly Willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus, made up 80% of the victims. Season, power-line section and ptarmigan abundance affected the collision rate of this species. The highest rate was found in winter, marginally higher than in spring. Few collided with the power lines in autumn, and none were identified as victims in summer. On average, the annual minimum ptarmigan collision rate was found to be 5.3 birds/km power line. The only parameter with a predictable effect on the probability of ptarmigan collisions was the height of the trees, as collision spots tended to be in places with low trees. Mortality due to power lines was, on average at least 2.4 times higher than the annual ptarmigan hunting bag in the area during this 6-year study.

  13. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project - A PowerPoint Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This Open-File Report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Earthquake Insight St. Louis, Mo., field trip held on May 28, 2009. The presentation focused on summarizing the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (SLAEHMP) justification, goals, achievements, and products, for an audience of business and public officials. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight, in an abbreviated format, the topics addressed; they are discussed below and are explained with additional text as appropriate.

  14. Area-Efficient Low Power CMOS Image Sensor Readout Circuit with Fixed Pattern Noise Cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士彬; 姚素英; 聂凯明; 徐江涛

    2010-01-01

    A low cost of die area and power consumption CMOS image sensor readout circuit with fixed pattern noise(FPN) cancellation is proposed.By using only one coupling capacitor and switch in the double FPN cancelling correlative double sampling(CDS),pixel FPN is cancelled and column FPN is stored and eliminated by the sampleand-hold operation of digitally programmable gain amplifier(DPGA).The bandwidth balance technology based on operational amplifier(op-amp) sharing is also introduced to decrease the power dissi...

  15. On-line Detection of Inter-area Oscillations using Forgetting Approach for Power Systems Monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sidorov, D.; Grishin, Y.; Šmídl, Václav

    Singapore : IEEE, 2010, s. 1-4. ISBN 978-1-4244-5585-0. [2nd International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering. Singapore (SG), 26.02.2010-28.02.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : oscillation detection * power system s monitoring * exponential forgetting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/smidl-on-line detection of inter-area oscillations using forgetting approach for power system s monitoring.pdf

  16. AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL OF MULTI AREA POWER SYSTEMS USING ANN CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of one of the methods of artificial intelligence to study the automatic generation control of interconnected power systems. In the given paper, a control line of track is established for interconnected three area thermal-thermal-thermal power system using generation rate constraints (GRC &Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The working of the controllers is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The outputs using both controllers are compared and it is established that ANN based approach is better than GRC for 1% step load conditions.

  17. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enforcement order provides for grants concerning the arrangement of various public facilities in the areas surrounding a power generating facility; the public facilities in the arrangement for which the grants are given include communication, recreation activities, environmental sanitation, culture, medicine, etc. The prefectural governor concerned submits his plan for the arrangement to the Government, which then decides on the grants. Then, the grants are given to local governments concerned. The sums of the grants are determined on the basis of the output, construction cost of the nuclear power facility. (Mori, K.)

  18. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  19. Coordinated Multi-Objective Control of Regulating Resources in Multi-Area Power Systems with Large Penetration of Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Yang, Bo; Ma, Jian;

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a control algorithm for a Wide Area Energy Storage and Management System (WAEMS). The WAEMS is designed to meet the demand for fast, accurate and reliable regulation services in multi-area power systems with a significant share of wind power and other intermittent generation...

  20. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bohrer

    Full Text Available The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  1. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Pradeep; Prajapati P; Saxena Deepak; Kavishwar Abhay; Kurian George

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban a...

  2. 76 FR 1429 - Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-154

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects/Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority--Rate Order No. WAPA-154 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Rate Order... through February 28, 2011. 73 FR 48382, August 19, 2008. \\3\\ WAPA-118 was approved by FERC on a...

  3. Measurement-Based Investigation of Inter- and Intra-Area Effects of Wind Power Plant Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Alicia J.; Singh, Mohit; Muljadi, Eduard; Santoso, Surya

    2016-12-01

    This paper has a two pronged objective: the first objective is to analyze the general effects of wind power plant (WPP) integration and the resulting displacement of conventional power plant (CPP) inertia on power system stability and the second is to demonstrate the efficacy of PMU data in power system stability analyses, specifically when knowledge of the network is incomplete. Traditionally modal analysis applies small signal stability analysis based on Eigenvalues and the assumption of complete knowledge of the network and all of its components. The analysis presented here differs because it is a measurement-based investigation and employs simulated measurement data. Even if knowledge of the network were incomplete, this methodology would allow for monitoring and analysis of modes. This allows non-utility entities and study of power system stability. To generate inter- and intra-area modes, Kundur's well-known two-area four-generator system is modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC. A doubly-fed induction generator based WPP model, based on the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) standard model, is included to analyze the effects of wind power on system modes. The two-area system and WPP are connected in various configurations with respect to WPP placement, CPP inertia and WPP penetration level. Analysis is performed on the data generated by the simulations. For each simulation run, a different configuration is chosen and a large disturbance is applied. The sampling frequency is set to resemble the sampling frequency at which data is available from phasor measurement units (PMUs). The estimate of power spectral density of these signals is made using the Yule-Walker algorithm. The resulting analysis shows that the presence of a WPP does not, of itself, lead to the introduction of new modes. The analysis also shows however that displacement of inertia may lead to introduction of new modes. The effects of location of inertia displacement (i.e. the effects on

  4. Pilot solar hybrid power station in rural area, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has considerable number of widely deployed small rural area. These hamlets are very much associated with Orang Asli residents. They get their source of energy by candle or kerosene light while some richer community can afford a generator set. The usual or normal system using solar as a source for electricity at rural area is standalone system for each house. As for this project, a pilot centralized solar power station will be the source of electricity to light up the fifteen houses at Kampung Denai, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia. This system will be the first ever built for the orang asli settlement at Pahang. The objectives of this project are to design and install the solar power station at remote location and to develop standard design of stand-alone solar power station suitable for Malaysia. Orang Asli residents at Kampung Denai was chosen because there is a school for the Orang Asli children. Moreover, the remote communities are living in stratification, which makes electrical wiring easier. Furthermore, the remote area is far from the last transmission line and cumbersome to bring diesel through the rough and unpredictable land road. The main domestic energy is for residential purposes (e.g. small lighting unit, radio, television, video, etc). The generator capacity is 18.6 kW. The solar sizing was done both for the home and school appliances at Kampung Denai. The maximum demand measured was 4195.35 kW. The pilot centralized solar power station consists of 10 kW photovoltaic panels, 10 kW inverter, 150 kWh battery and other balance of system. A generator set with capacity of 12.5 kVA is installed for back up and during monsoon season. This paper will present status of the system, operational and maintenance issues, load profile of the solar power station and economics and system design of the whole system

  5. Cost estimation of a standalone photovoltaic power system in remote areas of Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to estimate the anticipated costs incurred from a standalone solar photovoltaic power system for the supply of electricity to the rural community in Sarawak, Malaysia. The life cycle cost analysis with net present value technique was employed for the evaluation of cost system. It was found that purchasing of solar photovoltaic components and the system installation cost will contribute 63% of the total investment and future anticipated costs will add to the remaining. Recurring cost will make 25% and components replacements 75% of future anticipated costs. It was discovered that the power generated from the solar photovoltaic system would be 38 times more expensive than electricity produced from the conventional sources. However, its installation in remote areas could be favourable where the grid-connected power supply is not accessible. (author)

  6. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  7. Optimal Solution of the EPED Problem Considering Space Areas of HSABC on the Power System Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Afandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the emission problem and economic dispatch (EPED becomes crucial aspects in the power system operation. These aspects are measured technically using financial payments as the total operating cost based on pollutant productions and fuel consumptions throughout individual costs of generating units based on a committed power output to meet a load demand. This paper introduces the newest artificial intelligent computation, harvest season artificial bee colony (HSABC algorithm, for determining the optimal solution of the EPED based on the operating cost function using IEEE-62 bus system with various operational constraints. Results obtained show that HSABC has short time computations and fast convergences while space areas give different implications on performances. The optimal solution produces various individual power outputs, pollutants, and costs.

  8. Administration of stable iodine to the population around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium iodide was reportedly given to nearly five and a half million persons after the Chernobyl accident. During the International Chernobyl Project, investigators asked the general population in both highly contaminated and control settlements about thyroid prophylaxis. Only 25% of persons currently living in the most contaminated regions reported taking potassium iodide. Sixty-six percent indicated that they did not take potassium iodide and 9% were uncertain. Of those who took stable iodine prophylactically, 44% indicated that it was in solution, 44% that it was in tablets and 12% did not remember. Only about one third of persons were able to indicate the duration of time that they took such medication. The average was 6.2 days. It appears that iodine prophylaxis will not have a major impact on estimated collective thyroid doses to the general population living around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The impact that distribution of KI had upon the plant and emergency accident workers remains unknown to us. (author)

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity surrounding the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-mile) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in the Mississippi River basin, (b) from 8-10 μR/h in areas adjacent to the basin, and (c) below 6 μR/h over the Mississippi River and the portions of the basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 μR/h) was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Prairie Island site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Cordova, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station in Cordova, Illinois, during the period May 9 through May 18, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) over a 65-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the Quad Cities Power Station and surrounding area and to determine any radiological impact on the area over the past twenty years. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 5 and 15 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based ''benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assay of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  11. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-06-23

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides

  12. POWER STABILITY MONITORING BASED ON VOLTAGE INSTABILITY PREDICTION APPROACH THROUGH WIDE AREA SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Goh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, power systems are being forced to operate closer to its security limit due to current economic growth and the difficulties to upgrade the existing grid infrastructure. With the sudden increment of power demand, voltage instability problem has become a main concern to the power system operator because voltage instability has led or crucially contributed to some major blackouts throughout the world. Hence, methods for early warning and early prevention are required to prevent the power system from a collapse and led to blackout. Real-time voltage instability predictor method is applied on one of the load areas in Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB network in this study. Voltage instability predictor calculation is performed according to the real-time measurement provided by Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs. The voltage instability predictor calculates the power margin and makes comparison to the pre-set margin threshold. Last but not least, the stability condition of the system is based on the comparison between the margin and the pre-set threshold. The main perception is to ensure the margin index always stay positive and suitable early prevention should be implemented when the index is close to zero.

  13. A survey of critical research areas in the energy segment of restructured electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of a large volume of recent literature on deregulated (a.k.a. restructured) electricity markets underscores the importance of the research needs to ensure proper design and functioning of the markets. Researchers have made significant contributions fueling the evolution of the fundamental market design changes that have taken place since the beginning of the restructuring process. Due to the vast scope, existing survey papers are focused on particular facets of deregulated electricity markets. We adopt a similar approach by focusing on the most important research areas related to the energy market. The contributions of the survey paper lie in the novel approach used in classifying the literature based on critical research areas. Some areas of research such as auction based pricing, bidding strategy formulation, market equilibria, and market power are reviewed in a different light than other existing survey papers. We conclude by providing some future research directions for the energy markets. (author)

  14. Voltage control and protection in electrical power systems from system components to wide-area control

    CERN Document Server

    Corsi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Based on the author’s twenty years of experience, this book shows the practicality of modern, conceptually new, wide area voltage control in transmission and distribution smart grids, in detail. Evidence is given of the great advantages of this approach, as well as what can be gained by new control functionalities which modern technologies now available can provide. The distinction between solutions of wide area voltage regulation (V-WAR) and wide area voltage protection (V-WAP) are presented, demonstrating the proper synergy between them when they operate on the same power system as well as the simplicity and effectiveness of the protection solution in this case. The author provides an overview and detailed descriptions of voltage controls, distinguishing between generalities of underdeveloped, on-field operating applications and modern and available automatic control solutions, which are as yet not sufficiently known or perceived for what they are: practical, high-performance and reliable solutions. At th...

  15. High-power chirped-pulse all-fiber amplification system based on large-mode-area fiber gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, N.G.R.; Richardson, D.J.; Taverner, D.; Caplen, J.E.; Dong, L.; Ibsen, M.

    1999-01-01

    The fabrication of large mode-area single mode fibres are crucial to developing high power all-fibre lasers and amplifiers. We report the amplification of picosecond pulses to microjoule energy levels and pulse peak powers in excess of 500kW in an all fiber Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) system based on novel large mode area fiber components.

  16. Isolated Wind Power Supply System using Double-fed Induction Generator for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new isolated/remote area wind power/energy supply is presented. • Double-fed Induction Generator is used in the supply system. • Proposed supply is capable of supplying balanced, unbalanced & non-linear loads. • New and very simple control method for rotor-front converter is proposed. • An improved control technique for load/stator-front converter is presented. - Abstract: This paper examines the application of the Double-fed Induction Generator for an isolated wind power system to supply the remote area. The isolated wind energy system using Double-fed Induction Generator is capable of supplying different loads such as balanced, unbalanced and nonlinear loads. The isolated wind energy supply is designed by using wound rotor induction generator and partial scale back to back connected voltage source converters at rotor side. The voltage source converters are called rotor-front voltage source converter and load/stator-front voltage source converter having the common capacitive direct current link. The presented study investigates the application stator/load side converter for load harmonics mitigation in isolated Double-fed Induction Generator based Wind Power Supply System. The shunt active power filter function is added in the convention control scheme of the load/stator-front voltage source converter to improve load harmonics. The control scheme proposed for stator/load side converter is based on the instantaneous active and reactive component of the load current method. Also a new and simple technique for rotor side converter is presented to regulate Voltage and Frequency at stator/load terminals. Different possible case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of both techniques proposed. Simulation results obtained from a 2 MVA Double-fed Induction Generator based wind power system, prototype in MATLab/Simulink, are given and discussed in this paper

  17. Load Frequency Control of A Typical Two Area Interconnected Power System by Using Battery Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rajasekhar Chowdary; P. Santhoshi

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to maintain the constant frequency in two area interconnected power system by using Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) . When there is a variation in the load demand on a generating unit, there is a momenterial occurrence of unbalance between real power input and output. LFC helps in maintaining the scheduled system frequency and tie-line power interchange with the other areas within the prescribed limits .To control the load frequency and ...

  18. High-power narrow-linewidth large mode area photonic bandgap fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, Benjamin; Dajani, Iyad; Ehrenreich, Thomas; Holten, Roger; Vergien, Christopher; Naderi, Nader; Mart, Cody; Gu, Guancheng; Kong, Fanting; Hawkins, Thomas; Dong, Liang

    2015-03-01

    Ytterbium-doped large mode area all-solid photonic bandgap fiber amplifiers were used to demonstrate power at 1064 nm. In an initial set of experiments, a fiber with a core diameter of ~50 μm, and a calculated effective area of 1450 μm2 in a straight fiber, was used to generate approximately 600 W. In this case, the input seed was modulated using a sinusoidal format at a frequency of 400 MHz. The output, however, was multimode as the fiber design did not allow for single-mode operation at this wavelength. A second fiber was then fabricated to operate predominantly in single mode at 1064 nm by having the seed closer to the short wavelength edge of the bandgap. This fiber was used to demonstrate 400 W of single-frequency output with excellent beam quality. As the signal power exceeded 450 W, there was significant degradation in the beam quality due to the modal instability. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, the power scaling results obtained in this work far exceed results from prior state of the art all-solid photonic bandgap fiber lasers.

  19. Problem areas and research needs on radiation protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards has been assigned by Congress the responsibility to prepare an annual review of the reactor safety research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The first Committee report on this subject was published in December, 1977, and a second is under preparation. Among the many topics considered were the evaluation and control of occupational radiation exposures at commercial nuclear power plants. Areas relative to exposure evaluation that have been identified as needing attention at the present time include improved techniques for monitoring occupational neutron exposures, better data collection and analysis with respect to internally deposited radionuclides, and an up-grading in quality control procedures in the manufacture of radiation monitoring instruments. Areas relative to exposure control that have been identified as needing attention include the development of additional design and manufacturing approaches for preventing the production and buildup of key radionuclides within reactor cooling systems; the development and testing of techniques for removing those radionuclides which do accumulate in the system; the application of risk/benefit assessments to procedures for the maintenance, repair, modification, replacement, and disposal of major nuclear power plant components, such as steam generators; and the development of design features that would facilitate decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Also in need of further development are procedures for conducting cost/benefit assessments of the value of increased inplant inspections and further recycling and reuse of waste effluents. (author)

  20. LOW POWER-AREA DESIGN OF FULL ADDER USING SELF RESETTING LOGIC WITH GDI TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Khokha1

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various electronic devices such as mobile phones, DSPs,ALU etc., are designed by using VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration technology. In VLSI dynamic CMOS logic circuits are concentrating on the Area ,reducing the power consumption and increasing the Speed by reducing the delay. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Circuits are designed by using adder, subtractors, multiplier, divider, etc.Various adder circuits designs have been proposed over last few years with different logic styles. To reduce the power consumption several parameters are to be taken into account, such as feedthrough, leakage power single-event upsets, charge sharing by parasitic components while connecting source and drain of CMOS transistors There are situations in a logic that permit the use of circuits that can automatically precharge themselves (i.e., reset themselves after some prescribed delays. These circuits are hence called postcharge or self-resetting logic which are widely used in dynamic logic circuits. Overall performance of various adder designs is evaluated by using Tanner tool . The earlier and the proposed SRLGDI primitives are simulated using Tanner EDA with BSIM 0.250 lm technology with supply voltage ranging from 0 V to 5 V in steps of 0.2 V. On comparing the various SRLGDI logic adders, the proposed adder shows low power, delay and low PDP among its counterparts.

  1. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency. PMID:22254777

  2. Link-state-estimation-based transmission power control in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol to extend the lifetime of sensor nodes and to increase the link reliability in wireless body area networks (WBANs). We first experimentally investigate the properties of the link states using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). We then propose a practical transmission power control protocol based on both short- and long-term link-state estimations. Both the short- and long-term link-state estimations enable the transceiver to adapt the transmission power level and target the RSSI threshold range, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of energy efficiency and link reliability. Finally, the performance of the proposed protocol is experimentally evaluated in two experimental scenarios-body posture change and dynamic body motion-and compared with the typical WBAN transmission power control protocols, a real-time reactive scheme, and a dynamic postural position inference mechanism. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed protocol increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes by a maximum of 9.86% and enhances the link reliability by reducing the packet loss by a maximum of 3.02%. PMID:24107988

  3. Modelling of Remote Area Broadband Technology Over Low Voltage Power Line Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Mahmoud Mousa Altrad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several broadband development initiatives have been proposed in Malaysia in order to Bridging DigitalDivide (BDD through the provisions of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT servicesto facilitate wide access to the internet through corporates government and private sector for high levelof scio-economy. Nevertheless, there is delay in provide broadband services due to the high cost ofdeployment in the remote area. Therefore, this paper investigates on Broadband over Power Lines (BPLtechnology and Malaysia’s broadband initiatives. BPL transmission technology model of using electricalpower lines for data, video and voice transmission is proposed. Furthermore, indoor part of theproposed model is carried out on Matlab/Simulink to explore the validity of power line channel transferfunction.

  4. Establishment and operation of cancer registration system in vicinity area of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To acquaint the cancer registration system information in the vicinity of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant, including system establishment, reporting system, and its operation performance. Methods: Since Sep 2003, the cancer registration system has been established in Lianyungang city. It covered 3 urban districts and 3 counties, including 4.12 million people within 50 km of radius from Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant. The system was constituted principally by hospital active reporting, assisted with county's centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) active information collection and village basal networks reporting. The cancer incidence data between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed, especially the data in 2008, such as data reporting channels, diagnostic hospital level and its location, the cancer diagnostic pattern, as well as data quality evaluation. Results: The registration system consisted of 2 upper first-class hospitals, 16 upper second-class hospitals, 6 county-level CDCs and 1121 village basal reporting networks. During the period of 2004-2008, the cancer incidence was increased, while the percentage of unreported cases was decreased. In 2008, most of the cancer cases was reported by hospital (78.94%) and the basal networks (18.98%). 81.3% of the cancer cases were diagnosed in local hospitals. About 99.42% of the reported cases were confirmed with diagnosis by county, and higher level hospitals. Pathological evidences were available for 64.30% of the cancer cases, while urban area differed from the rural area. Conclusions: The cancer registration system was successfully established in vicinity area of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant, and its operation is improved with years. (authors)

  5. FSM State-Encoding for Area and Power Minimization Using Simulated Evolution Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq M. Sait; F. C. Oughali; A. M. Arafeh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the engineering of a non-deterministic iterative heuristic [1] known as simulated evolution(SimE) to solve the well-known NP-hard state assignment problem (SAP). Each assignment of a code to a state isgiven a Goodness value derived from a matrix representation of the desired adjacency graph (DAG) proposed byAmaral et.al [2]. We use the (DAGa) proposed in previous studies to optimize the area, and propose a new DAGpand employ it to reduce the power dissipation. In the...

  6. Zinc oxide integrated area efficient high output low power wavy channel thin film transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, A. N.

    2013-11-26

    We report an atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide channel material integrated thin film transistor using wavy channel architecture allowing expansion of the transistor width in the vertical direction using the fin type features. The experimental devices show area efficiency, higher normalized output current, and relatively lower power consumption compared to the planar architecture. This performance gain is attributed to the increased device width and an enhanced applied electric field due to the architecture when compared to a back gated planar device with the same process conditions.

  7. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, P.; Zhao, D.; D. Yang

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are reve...

  8. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, P.; Zhao, D.; D. Yang

    2011-01-01

    High resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are reve...

  9. Control of lateral divergence in high-power, broad-area photonic crystal lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jiamin; Xing, Enbo; Wang, Lijie; Shu, Shili; Tian, Sicong; Tong, Cunzhu; Wang, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    One-dimensional photonic bandgap crystal (PBC) lasers have demonstrated ultra-low vertical divergence and record brightness; however, their future development is limited by their lateral beam quality. In this paper, a fishbone microstructure is proposed to control the lateral modes in broad-area PBC lasers. The findings reveal that the introduction of the microstructure improves the full width at half maximum of the lateral far field by 22.2% and increases the output power to a small extent. The detailed measurements show that the lateral beam parameter product decreases by 15.9%.

  10. Sampling and preparation of air pollutants at the Coal Paiton Power Plant area Probolinggo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling has been conducted on April 8 th to 18 th, 2012 at the plant area of Paiton Coal Power Plant using e-sampler for particulated matter PM-2,5 and PM-10, high volume air sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP) at the three sampling locations as the representative pollution. Filter before and after sampling was weighed and extremely guarded contamination. Air filters stored in desiccator filter for 24 hours. Determination of concentration of ambient air pollutants conducted by gravimetric method derived from a reduction in weight the samples on the filter PM-2,5; PM-10 and TSP to the weight of the empty filter. (author)

  11. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  12. Nuclear safety problems of nuclear power plants sited in densely populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With nuclear power plants sited in densely populated areas, ensuring nuclear safety requires using progressive methods, including especially the application of the containment system and other technical and safety measures (e.g. the emergency core cooling system) in the primary system of the Soviet WWER-440 reactor. Two concepts of safety philosophy are compared, i.e. the MCA concept and the probabilistic approach. Considerations related to siting nuclear facilities near densely populated areas must be based on a wide international cooperation, mainly with the USSR. A reliable design of safety measures must be based on theoretical models of accident situations verified experimentally. Problems concerning processing and storage of the radioactive wastes are involved in complex nuclear safety considerations. (author)

  13. 行政权滥用的预测与防范%Prediction and Precaution for Abusing the Administrative Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔卓兰; 杜一平

    2012-01-01

    行政主体面对在执法中潜在的隐患和未来的不利因素时,因缺乏较好的认知意识和防范机制,在面对权力欲、金钱欲和物质欲望的刺激时容易丧失免疫力,导致以权谋私、权钱交易等为求利益而滥用行政权的问题产生。行政权滥用严重干扰了经济与社会的健康发展,阻碍了国家法治目标的实现。行政权滥用具有事先预防的可能性,本文以政府自身建设为基点,通过对执法程序中可能存在行政权滥用的环节进行事前预测和分析,提出了科学有效的事前防范与控制机制,以此作为实现依法行政的制度保障。%When the administrative agencies face the latent dangers and coming disadvantageous factors with law enforcement, due to the worse cognition and prevention system, and the worship for power, money and material, tend to depart from principle, problems of abusing of authority for personal gains will easily occur, with the exchange of right and money, whereas, it has the possibilities for the administrative agencies to take precautions against the abuse of authority in advance. This paper bases on the government self - improvement, predicts and analyses problems of authority abuse during the enforcement, proposes a scientific and effective precaution and control mechanism, to achieve security supervision system of law - based administration.

  14. Wavy channel thin film transistor architecture for area efficient, high performance and low power displays

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2013-12-23

    We demonstrate a new thin film transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using continuous fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.5× increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, ~100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers an interesting opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Wavy channel Thin Film Transistor for area efficient, high performance and low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2014-06-01

    We report a new Thin Film Transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using wavy (continuous without separation) fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.4x increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, similar to 100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers a pragmatic opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications without any limitation any TFT materials.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

  17. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS). Part III. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eight Congress, Second Session, March 28 and August 2, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part III of the hearing record contains the testimony of Peter Johnson, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator, and Energy Secretary Donald Hodel on the subject of BPA's contracts with the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) in which BPA will assume responsibility of WPPSS nuclear projects 1, 2, and 3. At issue was whether the contracts exceed BPA's authority and the protection of BPA's $1.9 billion invested in the projects. Johnson denied any secret agreements and emphasized that the intent was to preserve the assets for the federal government and federal power system. On the second hearing day, Hodel explained DOE's involvement in the agreements and its concurrence with BPA because of related litigation. An appendix with additional correspondence and statements submitted for the record follows the testimony

  18. Selection of organic Rankine cycle working fluid based on unit-heat-exchange-area net power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美茹; 朱启的; 孙志强; 周天; 周孑民

    2015-01-01

    To improve energy conversion efficiency, optimization of the working fluids in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) was explored in the range of low-temperature heat sources. The concept of unit-heat-exchange-area (UHEA) net power, embodying the cost/performance ratio of an ORC system, was proposed as a new indicator to judge the suitability of ORC working fluids on a given condition. The heat exchange area was computed by an improved evaporator model without fixing the minimum temperature difference between working fluid and hot fluid, and the flow pattern transition during heat exchange was also taken into account. The maximum UHEA net powers obtained show that dry organic fluids are more suitable for ORCs than wet organic fluids to recover low-temperature heat. The organic fluid 1-butene is recommended if the inlet temperature of hot fluid is 353.15−363.15 K or 443.15−453.15 K, heptane is more suitable at 373.15−423.15 K, and R245ca is a good option at 483.15−503.15 K.

  19. The Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special AdministrativeRegion: a study of its role, powers andfunctions in Hong Kong's political system

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yu; 顾瑜

    2013-01-01

     The dissertation assesses the level of autonomy of the Legislative Council (Legco) of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) and examines how the Legco exercises its legislative power, scrutinizes public finance and checks the executive in Hong Kong’s changing political system. After the return of sovereignty over Hong Kong to China, the initiation power of the legislature of the HKSAR receives more extensive restrictions under the Basic Law than the colonial time. The idea...

  20. A very low power MAC (VLPM) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient's movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient's status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM) based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit) along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator)] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node's ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC and X-MAC in terms

  1. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B

  2. Economic Growth and Expansion of China’s Urban Land Area: Evidence from Administrative Data and Night Lights, 1993–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gibson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between economic growth, expansion of urban land area and the broader issue of cultivated land conversion in China has been closely examined for the late 1980s and 1990s. Much less is known about recent urban expansion and if the effects of economic growth on this expansion have changed over time. This paper updates estimates of urban expansion for China and examines the relationship with city economic growth for 1993–2012. To see if patterns are robust to different types of evidence, administrative data on the area of 225 urban cores are compared to estimates of brightly lit areas from remotely sensed night lights. The trend annual expansion rate in lit area is 8% and was significantly faster in the decade to 2002 than in the most recent decade. Expansion is slower according to administrative data, at just 5% per annum, with no change in unconditional expansion rates between decades, while conditional expansion rates have declined. The elasticity of area with respect to city economic output is about 0.3. Over time, expansion of urban land area is becoming less responsive to the growth of the local non-agricultural population.

  3. Area-Based COI-Referred Rotor Angle Index for Transient Stability Assessment and Control of Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab; Azah Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an index for judging the severity of transient events of power systems in simulation. The proposed transient stability index, known as the area-based COI-referred rotor angle index, is developed by considering the fact that a large-sized power system is divided into several areas according to the coherency of generators in a particular area. It can be assumed that an equivalent single large machine can represent all the generators in that area. Thus, the assessment of rot...

  4. Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

    The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

  5. Guidelines and workbook for assessment of organization and administration of utilities seeking operating license for a nuclear power plant. Guidelines for utility organization and administration plan. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guidelines are intended to provide guidance to the user in preparing a written plan for a proposed nuclear organization and administration. The Guidelines allow for individual approaches to organizational structures to account for differences in plant size, number of operating units, number of plant sites, and the individual utility approach to providing technical support. These unique approaches, however, should meet the criteria of a reasoned, fully developed, and logically consistent focus on the user's organization in terms of organization of work, policies and procedures, staffing, and external relationships

  6. Vessel-Source Pollution in the disputed area of the Barents Sea : Norway's access to administrate prevention initiavtives

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines Norwegian jurisdiction in the Barents Sea and especially deals with the disputed area due to the Norwegian Russian dispute of delimitation of their EEZ's. Furthermore the thesis examines International and Norwegian legislation that applies to vessel-source pollution. The aim is to establish Norway's access to impose pollution regulation in this area which is vulnerable.

  7. Realisation of power systems and European nature conservation. The actual jurisdiction of the Federal Administrative Court; Realisierung von Energieanlagen und europaeischer Naturschutz. Die aktuelle Rechtsprechung des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Christoph [avocado rechtsanwaelte, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    For a long time, the right of nature conservation and landscape conservation showed a shadowy existence in the approval of projects. Some actual decisions of the Supreme Court show that in the last years the nature conservation law developed to a central area of conflict in the licensing procedure. The contribution under consideration reports on the legal material using three selected problem areas from the law on the protection of area and law on the protection of species. On the one hand, the Federal Administrative Court (Leipzig, Federal Republic of Germany) always upgrades the requirements. However, on the other hand the Federal Administrative Court attaches great importance to practicability. The Federal Administrative Court often points to a way, how projects can be realized with a careful nature conservation related attendance also at difficult environmental conditions.

  8. Potential impact of low-level radioactive effluents from Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the radioactive source term of Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant in normal operating conditions, the hydrological data of Three Gorges Reservoir area nearby the site, and the aquatic environmental model calculations of radionuclide distribution from low-level radioactive waste, the radiation effects from liquid radioactive effluents to aquatic organisms in the Three Gorges Reservoir area were assessed with ERICA model, the impact to drinking water of downstream residents and agricultural production of coastal areas were analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) There will be no unacceptable impacts on aquatic organism in population and individuals levels from low-level radioactive liquid effluents of Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant; (2) There will be no adverse affect on the safety of drinking water of downstream residents; (3) There will be no adverse affect on agricultural irrigation from Chongqing Fuling Nuclear power plant on the nearest area including Fuling District, Fengdu County and other coastal areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir. (authors)

  9. Area-Based COI-Referred Rotor Angle Index for Transient Stability Assessment and Control of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an index for judging the severity of transient events of power systems in simulation. The proposed transient stability index, known as the area-based COI-referred rotor angle index, is developed by considering the fact that a large-sized power system is divided into several areas according to the coherency of generators in a particular area. It can be assumed that an equivalent single large machine can represent all the generators in that area. Thus, the assessment of rotor angles for all generators can be simplified by only assessing the index of areas in a power system. The effectiveness of the proposed index in assessing the stability of power systems and its ability in pinpointing the weakest area in the power system is analyzed. Furthermore, this paper developed an emergency control scheme known as the combined UFLS and generator tripping in order to stabilize the system when unstable faults occurred in a power system. The proposed index is used to identify the generator to be tripped when the developed emergency control scheme operates. The performance of the proposed index and the combined UFLS and generator tripping scheme are evaluated on the IEEE 39-bus test system.

  10. Evidence for Stopping Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Some, But Not All Local Government Areas of Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Jip, Nimzing; Miri, Emmanuel; Jiya, Jonathan; Alphonsus, Kal M.; Sambo, Yohanna; Graves, Patricia; Richards, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An average of six annual rounds of ivermectin and albendazole were distributed in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria, to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. From 2007 to 2008, population-based surveys were implemented in all 30 local government areas (LGAs) of the two states to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia to assess which LGA mass drug administration (MDA) could be halted. In total, 36,681 persons from 7,819 households were examined for filarial antigen as determ...

  11. Delivery strategy of mass annual single dose DEC administration to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in the urban areas of Pondicherry, South India: 5 years of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Nandha, B; Sadanandane, C; Jambulingam, P.; Das, PK

    2007-01-01

    Background The recommended strategy for elimination of Lymphatic filariasis is single-dose, once-yearly mass treatment with anti-filarial drugs and the program is in operation on a national level in India. Rate of coverage and consumption is the most crucial factor in the success of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) program. In spite of massive efforts, the program demonstrated sub-optimal coverage and consumption in urban areas than rural. The involvement of Anganwadi workers (AWWs) of the Inte...

  12. TWENTIES Project. Wind power for wide-area control of the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Juan Carlos; Combarros, Clara; Veguillas, Roberto; Hermosa, Mikel Joseba [Iberdrola Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Rubio, David [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion (Spain); Egido, Ignacio [Comillas Univ. (ES). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT)

    2011-07-01

    Europe faces a great challenge with the 2020 scenario in which the renewable energy installed capacity in Europe should increase from its present value of approximately 80 GW to 230 GW in 2020. The future high penetration levels of wind and other renewable energies in the power system require decision makers and stakeholders of the electrical sector to work together to develop new ancillary services and to make the necessary changes to the grid infrastructure in Europe. This background is in line with the SYSERWIND demonstration lead by Iberdrola Renovables and included in the TWENTIES project, with three more partners taking part in this package: Red Electrica de Espana (REE), IIT and Gamesa Eolica. This paper introduces a first phase of preliminary work to define, install and test a Secondary Frequency Control and a Voltage Management System in a wide area, along a transport line. (orig.)

  13. Large area and low power dielectrowetting optical shutter with local deterministic fluid film breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Cumby, B.; Russell, A.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2013-11-01

    A large area (>10 cm2) and low-power (0.1-10 Hz AC voltage, ˜10's μW/cm2) dielectrowetting optical shutter requiring no pixelation is demonstrated. The device consists of 40 μm interdigitated electrodes covered by fluid splitting features and a hydrophobic fluoropolymer. When voltage is removed, the fluid splitting features initiate breakup of the fluid film into small droplets resulting in ˜80% transmission. Both the dielectrowetting and fluid splitting follow theory, allowing prediction of alternate designs and further improved performance. Advantages include scalability, optical polarization independence, high contrast ratio, fast response, and simple construction, which could be of use in switchable windows or transparent digital signage.

  14. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  15. Externalities assessment of a coal power plant in the forest ecosystems in Valdecaballeros Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is divided in two parts. The first one analyzes the critical load and level concepts, and the methodological framework for Environmental Impact Statement (E.L.S.). In line with this, critical loads and levels represent the system vulnerability and excedances of critical values identify zones where impacts could occur. These are evaluated according to a set of criteria, talking into account present and future land use, their socio cultural interest, economic value of their natural resources and ecological quality of the whole system. In addition to Environment Impact Statement of air pollutants, the proposed formalism allows assessing the external cost of gaseous emission. The second part applies the developed ideas to a practical case: a hypothetical coal power plant on Valdecaballeros (Badajoz, Spain). Environmental impact on forestry ecosystems is studied on a 70 km radius area around the plant. The assessment of the external costs rely on yield losses associated with gaseous emission of the hypothetical plant. (Author) 100 refs

  16. On necessity of revaluation of nuclear power safety of Ukraine in the tornado hazardous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains the main provisions regulating the tornado danger of objects of atomic energy, as well as analysis of the known results of evaluations of the impact of hurricanes on the safety of nuclear power plants of Ukraine, received in the ''before'' and ''post Fukushima'' periods. As a result of analysis is insufficient justification to the estimated frequency of passing tornadoes and exclusion from consideration emergency events with flooding of indus-trial sites under the influence of tornadoes not less than 2-th class intensity, defined a reassessment of NPP safety of Ukraine taking into account reasonably established performance tornado dangerous areas and lessons Fukushima accident

  17. Economic-environmental performance indexes for solar-powered absorption cooling system in Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cardinale, G. Rospi, F. Ruggiero

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recent European (Directive 2006/32/CE of April 5/2006 relating to the efficiency of the final uses of the energy and the energetic services and national (Decree 311/06 normatives impose the use of energetic systems more efficient that minimize the use of fossil fuels in comparison to the use of renewable energy. In this research a comparison was developed between the traditional electric equipments (which use vapour compression and the absorption equipments (powered by solar thermal energy. This comparison was implemented considering the energetic, economic and environmental aspects. This research explores the technical - economic potentialities of solar HVAC systems, with particular reference to those based on the absorption cycles, verifying the possible applications in regions of the Mediterranean area (in particular Madrid, Palermo and Athens. In particular we define an economic index and an environmental-energetic index.

  18. Reducing Area & Power Overhead In Design of Light Weight Sensor For Detection of Reclcled ICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Prabakaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The counterfeiting and recycling of integrated circuits (ICs have become major issues in recent years, potentially impacting the security and reliability of electronic systems bound for military, financial, or other critical applications. With identical functionality and packaging, it would be extremely difficult to distinguish recycled ICs from unused ICs. In the existing Ring Oscillator (RO based sensor with 90nm technology test chip shows the effective detection of recycled ICs. The impact of RO based sensor is that, it is difficult to identify recycled ICs used shorter than one month and it requires more power and area overhead. To provide a solution to the existing system, Clock Anti fuses (CAF based sensor is implemented to enhance the effective recognition of recycled ICs even if the IC used for a very short period. MAF is implemented in FPGA to verify its effectiveness.

  19. Floating nuclear power plants and associated technologies in the Northern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although floating nuclear power plants are not a new concept, all indications are that Russia, amongst other countries, has identified FNPP's (floating nuclear power plants) as one of a range of potential power solutions for both the domestic and international commercial market, utilising LCNPP's (low-capacity nuclear power plants). This focus on LCNPP's in general and LCNPP's in particular appears to be a key part of Russia's positioning of itself as a future leader in the global nuclear energy market. Given the fact that much of the support infrastructure for Russia's existing civilian nuclear fleet is located in the northern regions, the development of FNPP's as part of the nuclear industry is a matter of some interest to a number of countries including Norway. Although FNPP technology is not new, the business models being proposed to effectively commercialise FNPP's as a product on the international market are somewhat novel. This novelty may place FNPP's in a relatively grey area with respect to international laws and regulations. This situation is however also a product of recent developments and initiatives regarding the global nuclear industry and how it operates in the 21st century and the consideration of such business models by countries other than Russia means that it may not be unique to either FNPP's or Russia. A review of the available information indicates that FNPP's may be constructed, located and operated in the Russian Arctic region for a variety of purposes (civilian power/heat generation, resource extraction etc.) as well as being made available for export internationally for purposes such as desalination. Russia is and has been engaged in marketing of such systems to a wide range of potential customers. Information as to potential FNPP technologies is available from a range of sources which indicate a suite of potential designs that may be used in FNPP systems. The nature of these plants, with respect to operation, life cycle, waste handling

  20. Design and simulation of a microwave powered microplasma system for local area materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, Jeffri Julliarsa

    A microwave powered microplasma source is developed and tested for materials processing on spatially localized areas. A small diameter stream of plasma (less than 2 mm in diameter) is created by focusing microwave energy inside a discharge tube. The discharge then flows out the end of the tube onto the surface being processed delivering ions and reactive radicals. The diameter of the plasma stream from the tube to the material being processed can be controlled by an aperture mounted at the end of the tube. The spot size of the localized plasma stream ranges from 2 mm down to 10's micrometers depending on the aperture size. The discharge is created by using 2.45 GHz microwave energy that is coupled into the discharge using a small foreshortened cylindrical cavity that has a hollow inner conductor and a small capacitive gap at the end of the cavity. A processing gas mixture is fed through a 2 mm inner diameter quartz tube which is located inside the hollow inner conductor of the cavity. This tube is exposed to a high electric field at the small gap end of the cavity thus generating a surface wave plasma. The length of the surface wave discharge in the tube can be extended by increasing the microwave power to the discharge so that the plasma reaches the aperture. The operating pressures range from 0.5 Torr to 100 Torr and the microwave power utilized ranges from a few Watts to 10's Watts. Several properties of the discharge including plasma power density, electron density and electron temperature are measured. The power densities of argon and Ar/O2 plasma discharges vary from 10's to over 450 W/cm 3. The plasma density and electron temperature of argon discharges are measured using a double Langmuir probe placed in the materials processing area. The plasma densities are in the range of 1011 -- 1013 cm-3. Computational modeling of the plasma discharge and the microwave excitation of the discharge is performed using a finite element analysis. The goal of the modeling

  1. Benefits of partial-state-of-charge operation in remote-area power-supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, R. H.; Baldsing, W. G. A.

    Many people throughout the world are remote from electricity networks and do not have access to reliable power. Remote-area power-supply (RAPS) systems offer a reliable and cost-effective alternative to grid connection. Achieving adequate performance from such systems requires appropriate componentry and well-designed control systems/strategies. A relatively new operating methodology—known as partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operation—is now finding application in the field. The strategy, which can give a three-fold increase in the lifetime energy-delivery of gelled-electrolyte batteries compared with that obtained using traditional charging procedures, is to be employed in RAPS systems in Peru. The PSoC algorithms will be formulated and trailed in the laboratory, and then installed in the Peru facilities where they will be monitored and controlled remotely via a satellite link-up. This approach allows the algorithms to be fine-tuned in situ, and will ensure that system efficiency and battery lifetime are maximised. Use of the PSoC concept is expected to provide a battery lifetime of 8 years.

  2. Advanced management strategies for remote-area power-supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, R. H.; Baldsing, W. G. A.

    An operating strategy based on partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operation has been developed for a remote-area power-supply (RAPS) system in Peru. The facility will power an entire village and comprises a photovoltaic array, a bank of gel valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, a diesel generator, and a sophisticated control system. The PSoC schedule involves operation below a full state-of-charge (SoC) for 28 days, followed by an equalization charge. The schedule has been evaluated by operating a 24 V battery bank under simulated RAPS conditions in the laboratory. It is found that operation between 58 and 83% SoC causes the negative-plate potentials to move to significantly more negative values during charging as the PSoC duty progresses. This behaviour is undesirable, because it can lead to the activation of a preset limit and a subsequent reduction in system efficiency. Lowering the PSoC window to 47-72% SoC or 40-65% SoC during the 28-day cycle is found to stabilize the negative-plate potentials. The behaviour of the negative plates in gel batteries is very similar to that observed for absorptive glass mat (AGM) designs of VRLA batteries operated in hybrid electric vehicles.

  3. Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i high computational complexity; and (ii relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  4. Assessment of magnetic fields exposure from AC power lines in an Italian residential area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF, 30-300 Hz) magnetic fields have recently been suspected of increasing the risk of cancer and leukaemia. The main difficulty in interpreting the available epidemiological data is the assessment of long term exposure to magnetic fields in the ELF range. This assessment of long-term cumulative exposure can be influenced by many factors among which the diurnal and seasonal variations in the electric power use by the line and field spatial variation. To take into account of these factors, different ways of assessing exposure, based on spot measurements or fixed site monitorings, have been used. Because of the importance given by some studies to the frequency dependence of biological effects in the ELF range, the knowledge of magnetic field harmonic contents is of interest to fully characterize the magnetic field exposure. The measurement of the harmonic content is suggested also by the ANSI-IEEE standard to control the possible negative influence of high level harmonic content in the response accuracy of the magnetic field meter. In this work we made a complete characterization of the exposure in a particular italian residential area by using different instrumental chains. The influence of some parameters (spatial and harmonic components of the field, domestic use of the electric power, temporal variability of the field) on the accuracy of the exposure assessment was evaluated

  5. Tax Area Boundaries, Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Barton County Administrator's Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tax Area Boundaries dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. Data by...

  6. A survey of low-level radioactive waste treatment methods and problem areas associated with commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was made (June 1985) of technologies that were currently being used, those that had been discontinued, and those that were under consideration for treatment of low-level radioactive waste from the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The survey results included information concerning problems areas, areas needing research and development, and the use of mobile treatment facilities

  7. A low-power small-area ADC array for IRFPA readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shengyou; Yao, Libin

    2013-09-01

    The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is a bridge between the infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) and image processing circuit in an infrared imaging system. The ROIC is the first part of signal processing circuit and connected to detectors directly, so its performance will greatly affect the detector or even the whole imaging system performance. With the development of CMOS technologies, it's possible to digitalize the signal inside the ROIC and develop the digital ROIC. Digital ROIC can reduce complexity of the whole system and improve the system reliability. More importantly, it can accommodate variety of digital signal processing techniques which the traditional analog ROIC cannot achieve. The analog to digital converter (ADC) is the most important building block in the digital ROIC. The requirements for ADCs inside the ROIC are low power, high dynamic range and small area. In this paper we propose an RC hybrid Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC as the column ADC for digital ROIC. In our proposed ADC structure, a resistor ladder is used to generate several voltages. The proposed RC hybrid structure not only reduces the area of capacitor array but also releases requirement for capacitor array matching. Theory analysis and simulation show RC hybrid SAR ADC is suitable for ADC array applications

  8. Evaluation of environmental tritium level in the area of Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a continuation of the study entitled Evaluation of environmental tritium levels before and after start of a new tritium source for model verification' that commenced two years ago as part of an European research contract having as objective the 'Investigations and Modelling of the Dynamics of Environmental HT/HTO/OBT Levels Resulting from the Tritium Releases'. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental tritium level in pre-operational stage of Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant and the dynamics of variation of tritium concentration in the first operational years of NPP, for determination of site-specific transfer parameters and model validation. Representative samples for Cernavoda area were analyzed; - air humidity; - water from Danube River, Danube-Black Sea Canal and lakes; - drinking, rain and snow water; - HTO concentration in soils at different depths; - tissue free water tritium in vegetal and animal foodstuffs relevant for human diets like cereals (wheat, maize, barley). vegetables (potatoes, tomato, cabbage, onion, bean), grapes and wine. The mean concentration of tritium obtained in 1996 for these types of measurements is presented. The values of tritium concentration in air, water, soil and plants are as low as for areas without contaminating sources. The operation in 1996 of the Cernavoda NPP did not modify the tritium environmental level. (authors)

  9. Practical design of SMES controller for improving power system stability based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechanupaprittha, S.; Watanabe, M.; Mitani, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan); Hongesombut, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Ngamroo, I. [King Mongkut' s Inst. of Technhology, Ladkrabang (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    Various load demands with abrupt changes adversely affects power system operations and control, which can lead to significant problems such as system frequency oscillations due to insufficient system damping. In interconnected power systems, a local frequency control is needed in a given area. In addition, fluctuations of tie-line power flow should be stabilized. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) can be used as an effective device to exchange electrical energy with a power system. Wide area monitoring of power systems based on multiple synchronized phasor measurements such as the phasor measurement unit (PMU) using the global positioning system (GPS) offers the possibility of data synchronization at a common time reference. With the GPS, oscillation modes can be detected from measured data by modeling measured data as a coupled vibration model (CVM). This paper presented a practical design of a SMES controller based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement. The CVM can be used to represents an estimated power system model that is used for tuning SMES controller parameters. In addition, it can be used to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the designed controller in the power system. For the desired damping performance, the controller parameters were optimally tuned using a heuristic optimization method, called a TABU search algorithm. A simulation study was then conducted in order to show and confirm the effectiveness of the design method on a two-area four machine power system. The paper explained the controller design methodology and discussed the application to a two-area, four-machine power system. The simulation revealed that the proposed design method could be implemented in a practical manner. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  11. AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL OF TWO AREA POWER SYSTEM WITH AND WITHOUT SMES: FROM CONVENTIONAL TO MODERN AND INTELLIGENT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATHANS,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a Fuzzy Gain Scheduled Proportional-Integral (FGSPI controller for automatic generation control (AGC of two-equal area interconnected thermal power system including the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES unit in both areas. The reheat effect nonlinearity of the steam turbine is also consideredin this study. Simulation results show that the proposed control scheme with SMES is very effective in damping the frequency and tie-line power oscillations due to load perturbations in one of the areas. To further improve the performance of the controller, a new formulation of the area control error (ACE is also adopted. Theproposed FGSPI controller is compared against conventional PI controller and state feedback LQR controller using settling times, overshoots and undershoots of the power and frequency deviations as performance indices and the performance of the proposed controller is found better than the other two. Simulations have been performed using Matlab®.

  12. Problems of Educational Administration in Remote Rural Areas. Report of an Expert Meeting (Kathmandu, Nepal, May 7-11, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Raymond F.; Collins, Joyce E.

    The meeting reported in this document was held to focus attention on some of the problems that governments in developing countries encounter when they try, in introducing educational reforms, to make sure that what they choose meets the needs of people in disadvantaged and remote areas. Participants included 12 experts from 10 Asian countries…

  13. The reform of the Indian power sector: administrations for sale. Transforming the state electricity boards into enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis is about the reforms in the electricity sector in India, and more specifically about those in the State Electricity Boards (SEBs), organisations responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity at the level of each of the States of India. The thesis is interested in practical questions of industrial economy such as: what is the impact of de-integration on the functioning of the SEBs?, impact of the creation of regulatory committees?, of privatisation?. Going beyond the critical analysis of the proposed reforms, the thesis also puts forward certain practical propositions as regards the way of reforming the SEBs. The thesis is divided in two parts (of four chapters each). The first part analyses and characterizes the functioning of a SEB. It presents practical description of the organisational characteristics, but also of their linking to the decision making mechanisms at work. On the theoretical plane, it settles the debate on the validity of the analytical concept of soft budget constraint for a SEB, and specifies the modalities of an analysis in terms of property rights, as well as the pertinence of several concepts derived from that of cost. The second part deals with the ongoing reforms and those to be implemented. It defines the concept of enterprising and proposes a critical discussion of the ongoing reforms, in the light of the normative criterion of enterprisation. It distinguishes conceptually and in the practical analysis, the 'structural' reforms (corporatisation, de-integration, and setting up of regulatory commissions) on the one hand and the questions of privatisation on the other. It proposes a model explaining the 'trade off' between public enterprisation and rapid privatisation. The first chapter situates the SEBs in the Indian power sector, shows the limit of the analyses in terms of lack of funds or political interference. Chapter 2 makes a critical presentation of the various tools offered to the

  14. 77 FR 55829 - Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Grapevine Canyon Wind Project was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 34041). After considering the... of Intent published in the Federal Register on July 24, 2009 (74 FR 36689). The U.S. Environmental... July 23, 2010 (75 FR 43161). The NOA also announced a 45-day comment period for receipt of comments...

  15. Risk assessment by the executive power versus efficiency of control by the courts - effects on administrative procedures and judicial proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conclusion it is stated that any cutbacks in the current system of judicial control have to be earned by appropriate improvements in the administrative procedure. One has to keep in mind the overall situation, which means to examine and assess any reduction of judicial control, the relevance of procedural defects, and the requirements to be met by administrative procedures, in their complete context. Since the acknowledgement of administrative regulations as instruments for putting into practice the legislative intent, and of the executive's scope for examination and assessment, has effects not only in regard to a reduction of judicial control, but also assigns to the administrative procedure an irreplaceable function that cannot be corrected by legal proceedings, there is reason enough to exercise restraint in this matter. (orig./HSCH)

  16. An integrated nuclear reactor unit for a floating low capacity nuclear power plant designed for power supply in remote areas with difficult access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the conceptual design of an integrated advanced safety nuclear reactor unit for a low capacity floating, NPP designed for power supply in areas which are remote with difficult access. The paper describes the major structural and lay-out components of the steam generator and reactor units with main technical characteristics. (author)

  17. The Performance of Power and the Administration of Justice: Capital Punishment and the Case Review System in Late Imperial China

    OpenAIRE

    Poling, Kathleen Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This study illuminates the spectacular rituals of Qing justice, the administration of capital punishment in particular, by focusing on the administrative, physical and performative work that made them possible. I approach this topic via a thematic history of the system of Autumn Case Review (sometimes called "the Autumn Assizes") in the 19th century. By considering government documentation from both local and central judicial authorities, I pay attention to the action that took place behind t...

  18. FSM State-Encoding for Area and Power Minimization Using Simulated Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq M. Sait

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the engineering of a non-deterministic iterative heuristic [1] known as simulated evolution(SimE to solve the well-known NP-hard state assignment problem (SAP. Each assignment of a code to a state isgiven a Goodness value derived from a matrix representation of the desired adjacency graph (DAG proposed byAmaral et.al [2]. We use the (DAGa proposed in previous studies to optimize the area, and propose a new DAGpand employ it to reduce the power dissipation. In the process of evolution, those states that have high Goodness havea smaller probability of getting perturbed, while those with lower Goodness can be easily reallocated. States areassigned to cells of a Karnaugh-map, in a way that those states that have to be close in terms of Hamming distanceare assigned adjacent cells. Ordered weighed average (OWA operator proposed by Yager [3] is used to combine thetwo objectives. Results are compared with those published in previous studies, for circuits obtained from the MCNCbenchmark suite. It was found that the SimE heuristic produces better quality results in most cases, and/or in lessertime, when compared to both deterministic heuristics and non-deterministic iterative heuristics such as GeneticAlgorithm.

  19. The monitoring of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the area affected by the Gabcikovo hydroelectric power structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of the impact of the Gabcikovo hydroelectric power structures on mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in 8 areas and 16 stationary stands during 1990-1994 is presented. The following 9 species of mosquitoes were ascertained: Anopheles maculipennis, s.1, Culiseta annulata, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Aedes dorsalis, Aedes cinereus, Culex pipiens, Culex territans a Culex modestus. Important changes in the quantity as well as the quality of mosquitoes, were observed in connection with the changes in the ground water level. In 1994 we recorded only 4 species of mosquitoes: Anopheles maculipennis s.1, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Culex territans. The quantity of mosquitoes decreased significantly at all monitored stands near the river Danube upstream of the confluence with the tail race canal. Cunovo reservoir acted positively on the adjacent monitoring localities Kopac Island and Cunovo-Ostrovne lucky. The recorded communities of mosquitoes Anopheles maculipennis s.1 a Culex territans, are, according to our observations, typical for stabilised water levels. (author). 1 tab., 2 refs

  20. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system.

  1. Anti-Windup Load Frequency Controller Design for Multi-Area Power System with Generation Rate Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Chongxin Huang; Dong Yue; Xiangpeng Xie; Jun Xie

    2016-01-01

    To deal with the problem of generation rate constraint (GRC) during load frequency control (LFC) design for a multi-area interconnected power system, this paper proposes an anti-windup controller design method. Firstly, an H ∞ dynamic controller is designed to obtain robust performance of the closed-loop control system in the absence of the GRC. Then, an anti-windup compensator (AWC) is formulated to restrict the magnitude and rate of the control input (namely power increment) in the ...

  2. Design of Low Power and Area Efficient New Reconfigurable FIR Filter using PSM and Shift and Add Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Jijina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an architectural approach to the design of Low power and area efficient reconfigurable Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter. FIR digital filters are used in DSP by the virtue of its, linear phase, fewer finite precision error, stability and efficient implementation. The proposed architectures implemented by using carry save adder, it offer Low power and area reductions and compared to the best existing reconfigurable FIR filter implementations in the literature and the proposed architectures have been implemented and tested on Spartan-3 xc3s200-5pq208 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and synthesized.

  3. Nonlinear femtosecond pulse compression at high average power levels by use of a large-mode-area holey fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Südmeyer, T; Brunner, F; Innerhofer, E; Paschotta, R; Furusawa, K; Baggett, J C; Monro, T M; Richardson, D J; Keller, U

    2003-10-15

    We demonstrate that nonlinear fiber compression is possible at unprecedented average power levels by use of a large-mode-area holey (microstructured) fiber and a passively mode-locked thin disk Yb:YAG laser operating at 1030 nm. We broaden the optical spectrum of the 810-fs pump pulses by nonlinear propagation in the fiber and remove the resultant chirp with a dispersive prism pair to achieve 18 W of average power in 33-fs pulses with a peak power of 12 MW and a repetition rate of 34 MHz. The output beam is nearly diffraction limited and is linearly polarized. PMID:14587786

  4. The Gyllingnaes investigation - a survey of altitudes in the Gylling postal area towards atomic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the altitudes of the local population towards the possible construction of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes in Denmark. It is primarily based on questionnaries, secondarily on interviews. To put the results in better perspective, similar investigations from 1974-1976 are also dealt with. It is concluded that the majority of the population are against atomic power; not only do they oppose the erection of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes but they oppose the building of atomic power stations in general. An attempt is made to characterize the ''typical'' opponent and the ''typical'' supporter of atomic power. (B.P.)

  5. Principles on administrative implementation of nuclear safety regulations. Case study of the investigation framework by nuclear regulation authority on the shatter zones at the Tsuruga Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation by experts commissioned by the Nuclear Regulations Authority (NRA) concluded that 'the D-1' shatter zone directly beneath the base mat of the Tsuruga Power Station Unit 2 might be an active fault. According to NRA's interpretation of regulations, an active fault beneath critical facilities alone disables their operations. The administrative procedure of this investigation and conclusion, however, raised three regulatory problems as follows; the deficiency to effectively reflect associated scientific knowledge to evolve, insufficient institutional independence of risk assessment from risk management, and legal difficulty in conducting administrative dispute to enforce administrative remedies. This report, through analyzing these regulatory problems, proposes the following three regulatory reforms in order to alleviate them. (1) Reform internal consultative experts committees appointed by the NRA, which are excercizing decisive influences on administrative disposition while without any statutory basis, into a statutory council or a special purpose committee under the Act for Establishement of Nuclear Regulation Authority. (2) Substantialize institutional separation of risk assessment from risk management in NRA by statutory measures. (3) Make procedures and rules concerning experts' deliberative judgements into administrative bylaws to the extent necessary to secure accountability and self-regulation in the NRA. (author)

  6. Towards prediction of redistribution of fallout radiocesium on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Satoru; Aoyama, Michio; Ito, Eriko; Shichi, Koji; Takata, Daisuke; Masaya, Masumori; Sekiya, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Natsuko; Takano, Naoto; Kaneko, Shinji; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko

    2015-04-01

    Redistribution of fallout 137Cs on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) is an issue of major concern for the people in Fukushima and its surrounding areas. To approach this question we investigated global fallout 137Cs (137Cs-GFO) from nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere in the 1950s and 60s, and 137Cs distribution derived from FNPP (137Cs-FK) within the whole trees contaminated directly. We examined concentrations and amounts of 137Cs-GFO in surface soils (0-5, 5-15 and 15-30 cm in depth) of 3470 samples at 316 sites all over Japan, which were collected just before the accident of FNPP. We determined 137Cs-GFO activities by NaI well-type scintillation counter with its accuracy verified using measurements by a germanium detector. We divided 316 sampling sites into 10 groups separated by one longitudinal line and four transversal lines on the terrain of Japan islands, then analyzed rainfall and geomorphological effects on 137Cs-GFO inventories. In addition to this dataset, we collected three whole tree samples of 26 year-old Quercus serrata at a contaminated area by FNPP accident in April, 2014 and examined concentrations of 137Cs-FK of above- and belowground tree parts by a germanium detector. We estimated an average of 137Cs-GFO inventories of forest soils in Japan to be 1.7 ± 1.4 kBq m-2 as of 2008. 137Cs-GFO inventories varied largely from 0-7.9 kBq m-2 among the country and accumulated greater in the north-western part along the Sea of Japan side. We detected rainfall effect on 137Cs-GFO inventories, which were greater where winter rainfall was large. As for vertical distribution of 137Cs-GFO, 44% of 137Cs-GFO remained within the uppermost 5 cm of soil profiles whereas the rest of 56% existed in 5-30 cm in depth. This indicated that considerable downward migration of 137Cs-GFO has happened during these fifty years in forest soils in Japan. However, multiple linear regression analysis by geomorphological factors related to soil

  7. Estimation of thawing cryolithic area with numerical modeling in 3D geometry while exploiting underground small nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results on 3D numerical calculation of a thermal task related to assessing a thawing area when placing modules with reactor and steam-turbine facility of a small nuclear power plant in thickness of permafrost rocks. The paper discusses influence of the coefficient of thermal conductivity for large-scaled underground excavations lining and cryolithic area porosity on thawing depth and front movement velocity under different spatial directions

  8. Transient and small signal stability of a two area HVAC power network interconnected with an HVDC link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimoh, L.C.; Oyedokun, D.T.; Chowdhury, S.; Chowdhury, S.P.; Folly, K.A. [Cape Town Univ., Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Despite the fact that the conditions necessary for safe and stable operation of power networks are sometimes at variance with economic considerations, power system operators are responsible for supplying safe and economical electric power to customers. Customer demand cannot be met without a stable and reliable power supply. Therefore, power system stability is of crucial importance in this market. This paper presented an analysis of transient and small signal stability of a two-area multi-machine power system. Different aspects were investigated including the responses of generator speed, the terminal voltage, the rotor angle difference and power transmitted, after a transient perturbation of a single phase to ground fault. The study also examined the effect of small signal disturbance of power systems when a direct current (DC) link was interconnected with a weak alternating (AC) link. Using the two-area power system model, the small signal stabilities of three different transmission systems were investigated, notably a high voltage alternating current (HVAC) link; a high voltage direct current (HVDC) link; and the hybrid HVAC/HVDC link. The paper discussed the fundamentals of HVAC and HVDC transmission. Rotor angle stability was also presented. An HVAC/HVDC hybrid network model was described. Simulation results were also provided for power flow; transient stability analysis; and small signal stability analysis. It was concluded that the transient stability test demonstrated that the system is relatively stable and returns to pre-fault condition about 10 seconds after perturbation. The study showed that when a fault occurs in transmission lines, the system responds according to the nature of the fault and the strength of the system.. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix.

  9. Power and status. Administration, appointment policies, and social hierarchies in the Roman Empire (193-284 AD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, I.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study defines changing power and status relations between the highest ranking representatives of Roman imperial power at the central level, particularly in a period when the central level came under tremendous pressure, AD 193-284. Prosopography has been used as the principal method for analyzi

  10. Impact of three rounds of mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis in areas previously treated for onchocerciasis in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B Koroma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 1974-2005 studies across Sierra Leone showed onchocerciasis endemicity in 12 of 14 health districts (HDs and baseline studies 2005-2008 showed lymphatic filariasis (LF endemicity in all 14 HDs. Three integrated annual mass drug administration (MDA were conducted in the 12 co-endemic districts 2008-2010 with good geographic, programme and drug coverage. Midterm assessment was conducted 2011 to determine impact of these MDAs on LF in these districts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mf prevalence and intensity in the 12 districts were determined using the thick blood film method and results compared with baseline data from 2007-2008. Overall mf prevalence fell from 2.6% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.0% to 0.3% (95% CI: 0.19%-0.47%, a decrease of 88.5% (p = 0.000; prevalence was 0.0% (100.0% decrease in four districts: Bo, Moyamba, Kenema and Kono (p = 0.001, 0.025, 0.085 and 0.000 respectively; and seven districts had reductions in mf prevalence of between 70.0% and 95.0% (p = 0.000, 0.060, 0.001, 0.014, 0.000, 0.000 and 0.002 for Bombali, Bonthe, Kailahun, Kambia, Koinadugu, Port Loko and Tonkolili districts respectively. Pujehun had baseline mf prevalence of 0.0%, which was maintained. Only Bombali still had an mf prevalence ≥1.0% (1.58%, 95% CI: 0.80%-3.09%, and this is the district that had the highest baseline mf prevalence: 6.9% (95% CI: 5.3%-8.8%. Overall arithmetic mean mf density after three MDAs was 17.59 mf/ml (95% CI: 15.64 mf/ml-19.55 mf/ml among mf positive individuals (65.4% decrease from baseline of 50.9 mf/ml (95% CI: 40.25 mf/ml-61.62 mf/ml; p = 0.001 and 0.05 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.03 mf/ml-0.08 mf/ml for the entire population examined (96.2% decrease from baseline of 1.32 mf/ml (95% CI: 1.00 mf/ml-1.65 mf/ml; p = 0.000. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that mf prevalence decreased to <1.0% in all but one of the 12 districts after three MDAs. Overall mf density reduced by 65.0% among mf

  11. Vital area identification for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power reactor licensees and new reactor applicants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Varnado, G. Bruce

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant licensees and new reactor applicants are required to provide protection of their plants against radiological sabotage, including the placement of vital equipment in vital areas. This document describes a systematic process for the identification of the minimum set of areas that must be designated as vital areas in order to ensure that all radiological sabotage scenarios are prevented. Vital area identification involves the use of logic models to systematically identify all of the malicious acts or combinations of malicious acts that could lead to radiological sabotage. The models available in the plant probabilistic risk assessment and other safety analyses provide a great deal of the information and basic model structure needed for the sabotage logic model. Once the sabotage logic model is developed, the events (or malicious acts) in the model are replaced with the areas in which the events can be accomplished. This sabotage area logic model is then analyzed to identify the target sets (combinations of areas the adversary must visit to cause radiological sabotage) and the candidate vital area sets (combinations of areas that must be protected against adversary access to prevent radiological sabotage). Any one of the candidate vital area sets can be selected for protection. Appropriate selection criteria will allow the licensee or new reactor applicant to minimize the impacts of vital area protection measures on plant safety, cost, operations, or other factors of concern.

  12. Adrenoceptors of the medial septal area modulate water intake and renal excretory function induced by central administration of angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of alpha-adrenergic antagonists and clonidine injected into the medial septal area (MSA on water intake and the decrease in Na+, K+ and urine elicited by ANGII injection into the third ventricle (3rdV. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the 3rdV and MSA were used. ANGII (12 nmol/µl increased water intake (12.5 ± 1.7 ml/120 min. Clonidine (20 nmol/µl injected into the MSA reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (2.9 ± 0.5 ml/120 min. Pretreatment with 80 nmol/µl yohimbine or prazosin into the MSA also reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (3.0 ± 0.4 and 3.1 ± 0.2 ml/120 min, respectively. Yohimbine + prazosin + clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the ANGII-induced water intake (0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.2 ± 0.1 ml/120 min, respectively. ANGII reduced Na+ (23 ± 7 µEq/120 min, K+ (27 ± 3 µEq/120 min and urine volume (4.3 ± 0.9 ml/120 min. Clonidine increased the parameters above. Clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the inhibitory effect of ANGII on urinary sodium. Yohimbine injected into the MSA also abolished the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Yohimbine + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Prazosin injected into the MSA did not cause changes in ANGII responses. Prazosin + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. The results showed that MSA injections of alpha1- and alpha2-antagonists decreased ANGII-induced water intake, and abolished the Na+, K+ and urine decrease induced by ANGII into the 3rdV. These findings suggest the involvement of septal alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors in water intake and electrolyte and urine excretion induced by central ANGII.

  13. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Toxopeus, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  14. Administration in an operating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of strict administrative procedures in the daily work is being demonstrated by commenting on events that occured in the operation of German nuclear power plants. The procedure for working in an area of the plant (pressurized medium, high-radioactive level, explosive of flammable mediums), where special measures for safe working have to be taken, is discussed in detail. The administrative problems during refuelling time are further on mentioned, especially the problems connected with administering more than 1,000 people with respect to health protection and sabotage protection. Some general comments on the influences from external causes (authorities, courts, etc.) are given. (orig./ORU)

  15. Large-area self-powered neutron-detectors for neutron-flux measurements in HTRs. Status of developmental work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development is described of the large-area SPN-detector as an out of core power monitoring system. Gadolinium or cobalt was used as the emitter. Response functions of the gadolinium SPN-detector were found with regard to the reactor power, the effect of the gamma field, its short-term behaviour following reactor shutdown and long-term behaviour during reactor operation. It was shown that a detector of 0.1 mm emitter thickness can withstand an integral thermal neutron flux of 2.1020 nvt almost without efficiency loss thus indicating that the large-area gadolinium SPN-detector is a suitable means for power monitoring in large HTGR's

  16. Capture area of discrete stochastic non-power servo measuring parameters of radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.О. Шматок

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available  Areas of capture of discrete stochastic tracing instruments for measuring the non-energetic parameters of radio signals. In this paper, the areas of capture of a first-order discrete stochastic tracking measuring instrument depending on the intensity of external random excitations are calculated on the basis of the difference area method.

  17. Intercommunal cooperation for the purpose of satisfying local power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the following: communal competences in the area of the power economy; forms of communal activity in the area of power supply; specific forms of communal cooperation; the procedure of communal cooperation; legal personality and internal organization; the local administration union as an instrument of power supply; categorization of the local administration union with respect to the legal system; the communal administrative agreement. (HSCH)

  18. Automatic generation control of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Sahu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of Proportional-Integral-Double Derivative (PIDD controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO algorithm. At first, a two-area reheat thermal power system with appropriate Generation Rate Constraint (GRC is considered. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem and TLBO is employed to optimize the parameters of the PIDD controller. The superiority of the proposed TLBO based PIDD controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with recently published optimization technique such as hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (hFA-PS, Firefly Algorithm (FA, Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and conventional Ziegler Nichols (ZN for the same interconnected power system. Also, the proposed approach has been extended to two-area power system with diverse sources of generation like thermal, hydro, wind and diesel units. The system model includes boiler dynamics, GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity. It is observed from simulation results that the performance of the proposed approach provides better dynamic responses by comparing the results with recently published in the literature. Further, the study is extended to a three unequal-area thermal power system with different controllers in each area and the results are compared with published FA optimized PID controller for the same system under study. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions in the range of ±25% from their nominal values to test the robustness.

  19. Evaluating photovoltaic/energy storage/diesel hybrid power systems for remote area power supplies in the Amazon region of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1997, an international memorandum of understanding was signed between the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) in Peru, the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO). This agreement seeks to evaluate the potential for remote area power supplies (RAPS) for electrification of rural villages in the Amazon region. This study, funded by ILZRO, was the first major activity conducted under the aegis of this agreement. The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary engineering design and feasibility study to assess the potential for Remote Area Power Supplies (RAPS) in the Amazon Region of Peru. This paper presents the results of this preliminary engineering study. (author)

  20. An autonomous nuclear power plant with integrated nuclear steam supply system designed for electric power and heat supply in remote areas with difficult access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains basic conceptual principles used to develop the technical assignment for an autonomous nuclear power plant with integrated nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) designed to provide heat and electricity for areas which are remote with difficult access. The paper also describes technical procedures and equipment, NPP thermal hydraulic flow chart, steam generator design, safety aspects as well as operational and maintenance procedures. (author)

  1. Crossover from exponential to power-law scaling for human mobility pattern in urban, suburban and rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing; Chen, Ying-Hsing; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2015-05-01

    Empirical analysis on human mobility has caught extensive attentions due to the accumulated human dynamical data and the advance of data mining technique. But the results of related research still have to further investigate on some issues such as spatial scale. In this paper, we explore human mobility in greater Kaohsiung area by using long-term taxicabs' GPS data. The trip distance in our dataset exhibits exponential decay for short trips and power-law scaling for long trips. We propose an approach to investigate the possible mechanism of the power-law tail. Moreover, we utilize the method of simulation and random relinking trip path to explain the empirical observation. Our results show that the origin of power-law movement distribution may be largely due to the power-law population distribution.

  2. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhäjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhäjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML ˜ 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhäjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ≥ ˜ -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ≥ ˜-0.1 to ˜0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station configuration and detection and

  3. THE NEED OF RETHINKING THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GROWING POWER OF THE CIVIL SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    NEAMTU FLORENTINA

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, the trend of the last twenty years has been that of globalization and the intense development of the social systems. In this context, nation states are put in a completely new position in which institutions and administrative systems should be flexible to accommodate these changes. In the new coordinates of established geopolitical framework, central and local government is the defining factors in economic competitiveness of a country or economic region. A very important aspect of ...

  4. Re-discussion on the Green Space Control of Municipal Administrative Area in China%再论我国市域绿地的管控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颂; 刘蕾

    2015-01-01

    土地是人类生存之本,生态环境是人类健康和发展之源,人口膨胀、资源枯竭以及环境污染等问题的日渐突显,迫使人们进一步重视人类未来与持续发展问题,重视土地利用的节约集约性和生态环境的可持续性。为保护区域生态环境、实现城乡区域生态安全格局,深入剖析市域绿地概念内涵及特点,从分析当前市域绿地管控瓶颈入手,提出分类分级分单元的管控对策,即基于生态服务功能的分类管控,基于生态敏感性分析的分级管控和基于分工协调的分单元管控,并从注重“量”和提升“质”两方面确定管控内容,使生态保护及区域生态安全格局构建具有切实的可操作性,为城乡统筹下的区域绿色基础设施的建设实践夯实基础。%Land is the basis to human’s survival and the ecological environment is the source of human health and development. The increasingly serious problems such as population expansion, resource exhaustion and environmental polution force people to attach importance to human future and sustainable development issues, as wel as the economical intensive land use and the sustainability of ecological environment. To protect regional ecological environment and realize the regional ecological security pattern of urban and rural areas, the concept and characteristics of green space in municipal administrative areas was discussed. Based on the bottleneck of current control of green space in municipal administrative areas, hierarchical classification unit control modes were proposed. These modes included classified controls of the ecology service, ecological sensitivity analysis and coordination. The contents of control should be focused on the quantity and quality, which would ensuae the feasibility of constructing ecological preservation areas and regional ecological security pattern and lay a foundation for the practice of constructing regional green

  5. Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    We consider the exercise of power in competitive markets for goods, labour and credit. We offer a definition of power and show that if contracts are incomplete it may be exercised either in Pareto-improving ways or to the disadvantage of those without power. Contrasting conceptions of power including bargaining power, market power, and consumer sovereignty are considered. Because the exercise of power may alter prices and other aspects of exchanges, abstracting from power may miss essential a...

  6. 上海浦东新区政府行政支出的实证解析%Empirical Research on Administrative Expenditure of Shanghai Pudong New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇立

    2011-01-01

    According to the published statistical data,the level of Pudong New Area's administrative expenditure and relevant ratio index has roughly analyzed in the paper.Considering the two factors that our nation's statistical caliber has changed in 2007 and the jurisdiction of Pudong District has also changed several times before,the main conclusion is(1) The administrative expenditure of Pudong District is far less than the average level of the whole nation,which means Pudong District government is relevantly administratively efficient.(2) There is no significant advantage on the reform of promoting Sunshine Finance by the government of Pudong New Area.%本文根据业已公开的统计数据,对上海浦东新区政府的行政支出水平及相关比例数进行了初步分析。本文顾及到了中国统计口径在2007年以后的变化,以及浦东新区辖域面积的变化这两个因素,所得出的主要结论是:(1)浦东新区政府的行政支出水平远低于全国平均数,行政效率是比较高的;(2)浦东新区政府在推动"阳光财政"方面的改革力度并无显著优势。

  7. Impact of Emissions from Power Stations on the Ambient Air Quality of Selected Urban Areas in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader N.A. Azmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kuwait, two main power stations, one comprising of seven-300MW steam generators at Doha and other with eight-300MW steam generators at Subyia cover the major power requirement of Kuwait city. These stations used different types of fuel oil as the prime source of energy that has different sulpher contents (S%. Comprehensive emission inventories for year the 2001 were used to execute Source Complex model for Short-term Dispersion (ISCST4.5 to predict ambient ground level concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen oxide (NOx at selected receptors. A yearlong meteorological data were used in conjunction with the dispersion model to compute SO2 and NOx levels in and around the power stations. For validation of the model, computed results were compared with the measured daily average values at a fixed Kuwait EPA air quality monitoring station located at the roof of polyclinic in Rabia residential area. Contributions of each power station to the highest predicted values were assessed. Significance of the fifty highest hourly, daily and annual ground level concentration values under existing meteorological conditions was analyzed. The results for year 2001 revealed that daily and annual mean predicted SO2 concentrations had exceedance about 5.7% and 0.16% respectively of the total area under investigation. Based on these results, mitigation strategies would be proposed to abate high pollution levels caused by these power stations.

  8. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm2. The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/−0.28 LSB and 0.29/−0.20 LSB, respectively. - Highlights: • CMOS sensor integrated with column-level ADC is proposed for ILC VTX outer layers. • A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CPS is presented. • The test results demonstrate the power and area efficiency. • The architecture is suitable for the outer layer CMOS sensors

  9. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L., E-mail: liang.zhang@iphc.cnrs.fr [School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, University of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3/UDS, 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, University of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3/UDS, 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2014-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm{sup 2}. The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/−0.28 LSB and 0.29/−0.20 LSB, respectively. - Highlights: • CMOS sensor integrated with column-level ADC is proposed for ILC VTX outer layers. • A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CPS is presented. • The test results demonstrate the power and area efficiency. • The architecture is suitable for the outer layer CMOS sensors.

  10. Circuit area optimization in energy temporal sparse scenarios for multiple harvester powered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Cid-Fuentes, Raül; Cabellos Aparicio, Alberto; Alarcón Cot, Eduardo José

    2014-01-01

    Multi-source energy harvesters are gaining interest as a robust alternative to power wireless sensors, since the sensor node can maintain its operation regardless of the fact that one of its energy sources might be temporarily unavailable. Interestingly, and less explored, when the energy availability of the energy sources present large temporal variations, combining multiple energy sources reduce the overall sparsity. As a result, the performance of a multiple energy harvester powered sensor...

  11. Ultralow Power Energy Harvesting Body Area Network Design: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chenyu Zheng; Kuhn, William B.; Balasubramaniam Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an energy harvesting wireless sensor network (EHWSN) architecture designed for use within an astronaut’s space suit. The contribution of this work spans both physical (PHY) layer energy harvesting transceiver design and low power medium access control (MAC) solutions. The architecture consists of a star topology with two types of transceiver nodes: a powered gateway radio (GR) node and multiple energy harvesting biosensor radio (BSR) nodes. To demonstrate the feasibility o...

  12. Is it always windy somewhere? Occurrence of low-wind-power events over large areas

    CERN Document Server

    Handschy, Mark A; Apt, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of widespread low-wind conditions is important to the reliability and economics of electric grids with large amounts of wind power. In order to investigate a future in which wind plants are geographically widespread but interconnected, we examine how frequently low generation levels occur for wind power aggregated from distant, weakly-correlated wind generators. We simulate the wind power using anemometer data from nine tall-tower sites spanning the contiguous United States. We find that the number of low-power hours per year declines exponentially with the number of sites being aggregated. Hours with power levels below 5% of total capacity, for example, drop by a factor of about 60, from 2140 h/y for the median single site to 36 h/y for the generation aggregated from all nine sites; the standard deviations drops by a factor of 3. The systematic dependence of generation-level probability distribution "tails" on both number and power threshold is well described by the theory of Large Deviations. ...

  13. Non-stationary Autoregressive Model for On-line Detection of Inter-area Oscillations in Power Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sidorov, D.; Panasetsky, D.; Šmídl, Václav

    Gothenburg : IEEE, 2010, s. 1-5. ISBN 978-1-4244-8508-6. [Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT Europe). Gothenburgh (SE), 11.10.2010-13.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : power system oscillation * autoregressive model Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/smidl-non-stationary autoregressive model for on-line detection of inter-area oscillations in power systems.pdf

  14. Zooplankton as an environmental monitoring tool in the area under Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available as short communication only. Angra nuclear power plant refrigeration systems uses sea water collected in Itaorna and discharged in Piraquara de Fora, with an increase in temperature. Besides this, chlorine is added to avoid fouling in the circulation system. Zooplankton, small and generally microscope organism is very sensible to environmental changes. This work describes the methodology to evaluate the influence of Angra nuclear power plant liquid effluents in zooplankton organisms describing results and verifying impacts in this area. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  15. Harbor Administrative Areas - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  16. Prerequisites of a revocation of an operating licence for a nuclear power plant. Decision of the Higher Administrative Court of Muenster, December 19, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The headnotes of the court decision read as follows: There is no legal basis supporting the demand for a general nuclear power phaseout. There is a defined relation between an optional revocation according to section 17, sub-sec. (3), no. 2 AtG (Atomic Energy Act), and the obligatory revocation according to section 17, sub-sec. (5) AtG. Application of section 17, sub-sec. (5) AtG requires proof of the fact that operation of the nuclear power plant involves an imminent danger to the group of persons defined in that section. Higher Administrative Court of Muenster, decision 21 AK 8/88, of December 19, 1988. (orig.)

  17. A study of power availability in Oleh community in Isoko South local Government area of Delta state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Otuagoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the availability of electric power supply in the Oleh community of Isoko South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria was carried out. The methods employed in achieving this include the use of Hour – Meter to register the number of hours supply was available for a period of three months, Multimeter and Ammeter were used to measure the supply voltage and current at any given time. The load shedding method adopted in the community by the Benin Electricity Distribution Company, BEDC, was also investigated. The results showed that power availability in the community for the three months under review was very bad. The average percentage of power available for the three months was 11.8%, meaning 88.2% of the time, power was unavailable. The power reliability index for each month of the study was negative; -5.94, -7.82 and -5.94 for June, July and August, 2015 respectively against a recommended value of high reliability of 0.989. This poor power availability accounts for the underdevelopment of the community.

  18. Administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews relevant administrative decisions that have been taken in various countries during the last semester of 1999 and the first one of 2000. In Argentina, an inter-ministerial commission has been settled to examine the prospects of completing the construction of the Atucha-2 unit. In Sweden, an agreement has been signed between Sydkraft, Vattenfall and the Swedish government on a compensation plan for the early shutdown of the Barsebaeck unit 1. In Switzerland, the government of the canton of Bern has rejected a constitutional initiative requesting the shutdown of the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. (A.C.)

  19. Fire protection equipment in the area of control of the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station - an 805 MW pressurised water reactor shortly to reach the stage of nuclear operation - fire protection measures have been realised to an extent hitherto uncommon in German nuclear power plants. The reason is to be sought from the authorities who have become more sensitive because of a fire in a reactor vessel during the construction stage and the fire at Browns Ferry and have consequently become extremely expert. Apart from the fire regulations hitherto normal further subregulations have been created in order to be able to make better provision of extinguishing devices against fire hazards. (orig.)

  20. Legal principles of regulatory administration and nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents a critical analysis and evaluation of principles of administrative laws in order to provide framework of structural reform on the nuclear safety regulation system. The focus of this analysis and evaluation is centered around the area of origin of regulatory administrative laws; authorities of regulation; procedures of regulatory actions; regulatory enforcement; and administrative relief system. In chapter 2 the concept of regulatory administration is analysed. Chapter 3 identifies the origin of regulatory administration and the principles of administration laws. It also examines legal nature of the nuclear safety standard. In relation to regulatory authorities. Chapter 4 identifies role and responsibility of administration authorities and institutions. It also examines fundamental principles of delegation of power. Then the chapter discusses the nuclear safety regulation authorities and their roles and responsibilities. Chapter 5 classifies and examines regulatory administration actions. Chapter 6 evaluates enforcement measure for effectiveness of regulation. Finally, chapter 7 discusses the administrative relief system for reviewing unreasonable regulatory acts

  1. Sustainable Energy and Environmental Management in a Solar Powered Adaptive Fuzzy Control Model for Ground Water Conservation in Suburban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Singh,; Monika,; K. Pallavi Jha,; Madhu Bala

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, a novel scheme of water level management of a storage tank, adaptive to varying water consumption by an end user, has been designed. This system proposes the control of water supply from a solar powered pump for the optimal use of ground water in suburban areas. It has been simulated and validated, for its satisfactory performance, by fuzzy control logic. The proposed system optimizes water consumption, leading to improvement in the ground-water life cycle and increasing...

  2. Birth defects in perinatal infants in areas contiguous to Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant before its normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To understand the status of birth defects among the perinatal infants in the areas contiguous to Hongyanhe nuclear power plant before its normal operation, so as to provide background information for the evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plant on birth defects. Methods: From 1 October 1995 to 30 September 2009 the midwifery units at second class and above of Wafangdian City were asked to be in charge of recording the birth defects among the perinatal infants born during this period within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. Results: The total number of birth defects was 697, and the maternal number Was 83779. The average defect rate Was 83.20/104. There were significant differences in the birth defect rate among different years (χ2=39.54, P<0.05), however, without linear trend therein,and among the survey areas (χ2=15.36, P<0.05) as well. The top five birth defects were congenital heart disease (148 cases), cleft lip with cleft palate (67 cases), congenital hydrocephalus (63 cases), and spina bifida (37 cases) and cleft lip (36 cases). Conclusions: The birth defect rate within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant is lower than that of the region of Liaoning Province and the national rate of birth defects. (authors)

  3. A Robust WLS Power System State Estimation Method Integrating a Wide-Area Measurement System and SCADA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of modern society, the scale of the power system is rapidly increased accordingly, and the framework and mode of running of power systems are trending towards more complexity. It is nowadays much more important for the dispatchers to know exactly the state parameters of the power network through state estimation. This paper proposes a robust power system WLS state estimation method integrating a wide-area measurement system (WAMS and SCADA technology, incorporating phasor measurements and the results of the traditional state estimator in a post-processing estimator, which greatly reduces the scale of the non-linear estimation problem as well as the number of iterations and the processing time per iteration. This paper firstly analyzes the wide-area state estimation model in detail, then according to the issue that least squares does not account for bad data and outliers, the paper proposes a robust weighted least squares (WLS method that combines a robust estimation principle with least squares by equivalent weight. The performance assessment is discussed through setting up mathematical models of the distribution network. The effectiveness of the proposed method was proved to be accurate and reliable by simulations and experiments.

  4. 76 FR 45551 - Post-2014 Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, Proposed Power Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Marketing and Allocation Criteria (51 FR 4012, January 31, 1986), establish the framework for allocating... Call for Applications (75 FR 78988) on December 17, 2010, to implement Subpart C-Power Marketing Initiative of the Program's Final Rule, 10 CFR part 905, published at 60 FR 54151. The Program, developed...

  5. Optimum testing intervals of building emergency power supply systems in tall buildings in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Yu Fat

    The main objective of this study is to develop a model for the determination of optimum testing interval (OTI) of non-redundant standby plants. This study focuses on the emergency power generators in tall buildings in Hong Kong. The model for the reliability, which is developed, is applicable to any non-duplicated standby plant. In a tall building, the mobilisation of occupants is constrained by its height and the building internal layout. Occupant's safety, amongst other safety considerations, highly depends on the reliability of the fire detection and protection system, which in turn is dependent on the reliability of the emergency power generation plants. A thorough literature survey shows that the practice used in determining OTI in nuclear plants is generally applicable. Historically, the OTI in these plants is determined by balancing the testing downtime and reliability gained from frequent testing. However, testing downtime does not exist in plants like emergency power generator. Subsequently, sophisticated models have taken repairing downtime into consideration. In this study, the algorithms for the determination of OTI, and hence reliability of standby plants, are reconsidered. A new concept is introduced into the subject. A new model is developed for such purposes which embraces more realistic factors found in practice. System aging and the finite life cycle of the standby plant are considered. Somewhat more pragmatic is that the Optimum Overhauling Interval can also be determined from this new model. System unavailability grow with time, but can be reset by test or overhaul. Contrary to fixed testing intervals, OTI is determined whenever system point unavailability exceeds certain level, which depends on the reliability requirement of the standby system. An optimum testing plan for lowering this level to the 'minimum useful unavailability' level (see section 9.1 for more elaboration) can be determined by the new model presented. Cost effectiveness is

  6. Measurement of local dose rates in controlled areas of nuclear power plants. Version 6/85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local dose rate measurements according to this regulation, serve the following purposes: Development of preventive measures for radiation protection with respect to maintenance and modifications in controlled areas, e.g. determination of individual measures for personnel protection, development of flow charts and dose rate estimates; monitoring of the personnel's location of activity within the controlled area, including determination of time-dependence of local dose rates and determination of immediate radiation protection measures required; limitation and identification of controlled areas. Such measurements are performed to ensure that the principles of radiation protection as stated in Art. 28 (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance with respect to external radiation exposure of the personnel, and the requirements of Art. 61 (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance relating to controlled areas are met and the limitation and identification of controlled areas as prescribed in Art 57 (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance can be performed. They are not used to determine body doses as per Art. 63 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP)

  7. Thermal investigation on high power dfb broad area lasers at 975 nm, with 60% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostallino, R.; Garcia, M.; Deshayes, Y.; Larrue, A.; Robert, Y.; Vinet, E.; Bechou, L.; Lecomte, M.; Parillaud, O.; Krakowski, M.

    2016-03-01

    The demand of high power diode lasers in the range of 910-980nm is regularly growing. This kind of device for many applications, such as fiber laser pumping [1], material processing [1], solid-state laser pumping [1], defense and medical/dental. The key role of this device lies in the efficiency (𝜂𝐸) of converting input electrical power into output optical power. The high value of 𝜂𝐸 allows high power level and reduces the need in heat dissipation. The requirement of wavelength stabilization with temperature is more obvious in the case of multimode 975nm diode lasers used for pumping Yb, Er and Yb/Er co-doped solid-state lasers, due to the narrow absorption line close to this wavelength. Such spectral width property (devices and LEDs but is weakly developed for the high power diodes laser. This crucial measurement compared to spectral one is critical for understand the thermal management of diode laser device and improve the structure based on design for reliability. To have a perfect relation between structure, and their modification, and temperature, FEM simulations are performed using COMSOL software. In this case, we can understand the impact of structure on the isothermal distribution and then reveal the sensitive zones in the diode laser. To validate the simulation, we compare the simulation results to the experimental one and develop an analytical model to determine the different contributions of the thermal heating. This paper reports on the development laser structure and the process techniques required to write the gratings. Performances are particularly characterized in terms of experimental electro-optical characterization and spectral response. The extraction of thermal resistance (Rth) is particularly difficult, because of the implicit low value (Rth ≈ 2𝐾/𝑊) and the multimodal nature of the diode laser. In such a context, thermal resistance has been measured using a dedicated equipment namely T3STER

  8. Decomposition-coordination interior point method and its application to multi-area optimal reactive power flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, College of Electrical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Wen, Lili [Test and Research Institute of Chongqing Electric Power, Chongqing 401123 (China); Li, W. [British Columbia Transmission Corporation, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chung, C.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, College of Electrical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (China); Wong, K.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (China)

    2011-01-15

    A decomposition-coordination interior point method (DIPM) is presented and applied to the multi-area optimal reactive power flow (ORPF) problem in this paper. In the method, the area distributed ORPF problem is first formed by introducing duplicated border variables. Then the nonlinear primal dual interior point method (IPM) is directly applied to the distributed ORPF problem in which a Newton system with border-matrix-blocks is formulated. Finally the overall ORPF problem is solved in decomposition iterations with the Newton system being decoupled. The proposed DIPM inherits the good performance of the traditional IPM with a feature appropriate for distributed calculations among multiple areas. It can be easily extended to other distributed optimization problems of power systems. Numeric results of five IEEE Test Systems are demonstrated and comparisons are made with those obtained using the traditional auxiliary problem principle (APP) method. The results show that the DIPM for the multi-area OPRF problem requires less iterations and CPU time, has better stability in convergence, and reaches better optimality compared to the traditional auxiliary problem principle method. (author)

  9. Demand side management for remote area power supply systems incorporating solar irradiance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a technique for generating the daily electricity load profile for remote areas in the Middle East from first principles, using diversified demand. The generated load profile includes the energy required to run a small desalination unit to provide the necessary freshwater. Demand side management (DSM) is used in this study to smooth out the daily peaks and fill valleys in the load curve to make the most efficient use of energy resources. Finally, the load profile is compared with real data for six houses collected from Safri area in the Sultanate of Oman. These data may be used as the basis to obtain load profiles of other remote areas of the Middle East since the weather and social factors are similar. The modified hourly variation factor based on weather and economic and social factors of the Middle East is obtained. (author)

  10. 76 FR 30147 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... Criteria) published in the Federal Register on December 28, 1984 (49 FR 50582), are available at http://www... Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE),...

  11. PLC and SCADA system for offsite areas of nuclear power plants (Paper No. 5.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of microprocessor, digital signal processing has become very convenient and economic. Hence, microprocessor based distributed supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) would be appropriate for automation for interlock, protection and sequential operation of the offsite packages in modern nuclear power plant. The need for monitoring of some vital parameters of the offsite packages are being felt in the operation of nuclear power plants since lack of some of these vital information had led to loss of units, unsafe or inefficient operation. Bearing in mind the locations of the various offsites, a geographically distributed architecture is conceived consisting of decentralised intelligence networked with high speed communication link. The system shall be modular with future upgradeability. (author). 3 figs

  12. On effects produced by tidal power plants upon environmental conditions in adjacent sea areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to the change in natural (oceanographic) environmental conditions due to the transformation of the tidal oscillations structure resulting from erection and operation of tidal power plants (TPP). The relevant transformation of tidal movements encompasses practically all its main characteristics: amplitudes, phases and spectral composition of sea level oscillations, as well as the similar parameters of tidal currents and also the intensity and positioning of extremes zones. The changes in positioning and width of the inter-tidal zone, the inter-tidal zone regime, mutual arrangement of mixed, stratified and transient frontal zones, transportation of suspended matter and bottom sedimentation, owing to residual tidal currents, sea ice characteristics, air these changes can be estimated on the basis of mathematical predictive modelling of tidal characteristics transformed by a contemplated tidal power plant. Some results are presented for the Russian large-scale TPP projects in the White and Okhotsk seas. (author)

  13. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

  14. Radiation effects of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station accident on fishes on offshore area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic modeling of 137Cs accumulation by the fish, as reference aquatic biota species, was developed for evaluating dynamic concentration process, based on monitoring data of 137Cs concentrations in the sea water offshore and long shore after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. The dependence of 137Cs dynamic concentration by the fish was provided on 137Cs concentration in the water and fish age. (authors)

  15. HVDC System Stability – Analysis, Monitoring and Control in Wide Area Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Walter; Vanfretti, Luigi; Fischer, W.

    2014-01-01

    To a great extent future electric power systems will use HVDC technologies, based on either current sourced or voltage sourced converters (CSC, resp. VSC). Both technologies have their merits and range of applications being connected to technical capabilities, costs and operational properties and performance. Voltage stability is an important issue in classical CSC-based HVDC systems, while voltage stability and angle stability (both transmission angle and rotor angle) are of concern in VSC-H...

  16. Evaluation of melioration area damage on the river Danube caused by the hydroelectric power plant 'Djerdap 1' backwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, P; Andjelic, L; Urosevic, U; Polomcic, D

    2014-01-01

    Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) 'Djerdap 1' formed a backwater effect on the Danube and its tributaries, which had an inevitable influence on groundwater level, causing it to rise and thus creating additional threats to all melioration areas on more than 300 km of the Danube riversides, as well as on the riversides of its tributaries: the Sava (100 km) and the Tisa (60 km). In this paper, the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on some characteristic melioration areas (34 in all) has been analyzed. In most of these areas intensive agricultural activity has always been present. An assessment of agricultural production damage was carried out by complex hydrodynamic calculations (60 calculation profiles) for different backwater regimes, with the aim to precisely quantify the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on groundwater piezometric levels. Combining them with complex agroeconomic analyses, the aim is to quantify agricultural production damage and to consider the perspective of melioration area users. This method, which combines two different, but compatible, aspects of the melioration area threat assessment (hydrodynamic and agroeconomic), may present a quality base for further agricultural production threat assessment on all melioration areas on the Danube riversides, with the final aim to consider the economic effects and the importance of its further protection. PMID:25051487

  17. The results of monitoring of forest phytocoenoses in the area affected by the hydroelectric power structures Gabcikovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of trends of the vegetation development is based on the monitoring of forest phytocoenoses at 12 monitoring areas during the years 1990-1994. Conditions of forest ecosystems differentiate according to local factors and the location of the area of interest. These are the following types of monitoring areas: 1) relatively stable areas, e.g. Erced, Stary les, Kralovska luka, Rusovske ostrovy 2B, Bodicka brana, Ostrovne lucky 3C; 2) areas subjected to more or less remarkable changes with the characteristic of: a) anthropogenic influence, e.g. Horna vrbina, Klucovec, b) negative long-term destruction of vegetation cover, e.g. Kopac, Rusovske ostrovy 2A, Topolove hony, c) negative influence of Hydro-power Water Structures (HWS), e.g. Dobrohost, Istragov, Ostrovne lucky 3A. The absence of floods appears to be a limiting factor, therefore they had to be simulated in 1995. Legislative protection of all monitoring areas against anthropogenic intervention (chopping and selection of trees) is needed to distinguish these influences from the effect of HWS. (author). 5 tabs., 1 map, 12 refs

  18. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  19. Generation of Low Divergent High Power Supercontinuum Through a Large Mode Area Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, S; Varshney, R K; Pal, B P

    2012-01-01

    We report generation of broadband low divergent supercontinuum over the entire wavelength window of 1.5 to 3.5 {\\mu}m from a 2.25 meter long effective single moded photonic bandgap fiber with mode area of 1100 {\\mu}m2.

  20. Document management. Interleaf administrates ``handbooks`` at the Gundremmingen nuclear power plant; Dokumenten-Management. Interleaf verwaltet ``Handbuecher`` im Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademeier, E. [DV Consult, Heiligkreuzsteinach (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The Gundremmingen nuclear power plant with its two 1344 MW units (B and C) is the largest boiling water reactor site in Germany. It is operated by Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft (KGB), a daughter of RWE Energie, Essen, and BAYERNWERK, Munich. For two years, KGB has been using Interleaf software to prepare and distribute its handbook. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Kernkraftwerk (KKW) Gundremmingen ist mit seinen beiden 1 344-MW-Bloecken (B und C) der groesste Siedewasser-Standort in Deutschland. Betreiber ist die Kernkraftwerke Grundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (KGB), eine Tochter von RWE Energie AG, Essen, und der Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen. Seit zwei Jahren setzt die KGB bei der Erstellung und Verteilung eines Handbuchs auf die Dokumenten-Management-Software von Interleaf. (orig.)

  1. A SAS/AF application to administrate and query a file of incidents occurring in foreign nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research and Development Division of Electricite de France has a file of incidents occurring in foreign pressurized water nuclear power stations. These incidents have an impact either on safety or reliability. The file is stored on an IBM 3090. For each incident, a docket is assigned, containing the identity of the nuclear plant and information in the form of code or text on the incident. An application has been built with the SAS System under IBM (MVS) in order to: - allow the input of new nuclear plant identities, monthly operating coefficients and new incidents; - subset data from each SAS data set, according to selection criteria (country, manufacturers, period, materials, etc...) in the form of coded fields and characters strings; -calculate simple statistical analyses on subset data (histograms of break duration, distribution of operating coefficients, cross-tabulation tables of sets and materials which bring about the incident) with a restitution on screen and/or printer; - edit an annual booklet containing general results of functioning of plants. After validation, data retrieved from the database are used in probabilistic safety analysis of nuclear power plants and materials designing studies (comparison with French materials, identification of factors having an impact on performance). The application is an interactive menu-driven tool and contains data entry screens (for new data or selection criteria). These screens have been built with SAS/AF software and Screen Control Language. Data selection and processing have been developed with Base SAS and SAS/GRAPH software. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. 行政权力网上公开透明运行系统分析%Internet Open and Transparent Operation of Administrative Power System Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同武

    2011-01-01

    行政权力网上公开透明运行,是在推进服务型政府、廉洁政府和法治政府建设进程中提出的政务创新理念,实质是以规范行政权力运行为目的,以电子政务网络为载体,以现代信息技术为支撑,实现权力法定、程序固化、裁量限定,行政权力事项全程网上公开透明运行,并对权力运行全过程进行实时动态监察监控。通过推进行政权力网上公开透明运行,能够逐步提高部门的行政效率;促进政府管理方式的创新;能够不断的在运行过程中创新监察手段,从源头深化防治腐败的工作;搭建互动平台,推动政府决策的科学化、民主化;规范了各部门运行机制,提升了电子政务的水平。通过不断的落实这一理念就能够确保权力真正在阳光下运行。%Internet open and transparent operation of administrative power,is to promote the service-oriented government,clean government and rule of law,the government made the process of building the concept of government innovation,the real executive power is a standard operation for the purpose of e-government network as the carrier,to modern information technology support,to achieve the statutory powers,curing process,limited discretion,the executive power issues throughout the Internet open and transparent operation,and the power to run the whole process of real-time dynamic monitoring of monitoring.The Internet by promoting open and transparent operation of administrative power,to gradually increase the department's administrative efficiency;promote government management of innovation;can continue the process of innovation in the operation monitoring means,from the source to deepen corruption prevention work;build an interactive platform to promote government decision-making scientific and democratic;regulate the various departments operating mechanism,enhance the level of e-government.Through continuous implementation of this

  3. 77 FR 50493 - Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... are included in DOE Order No. RA 6120.2 entitled Power Marketing Administration Financial Reporting... Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration... Administrator, Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern), has prepared Current and Revised 2012...

  4. 78 FR 47695 - Sam Rayburn Dam Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... September 30, 2013 (77 FR 67813, November. 14, 2012). The Administrator, Southwestern Power Administration... Marketing Administration Financial Reporting. Procedures for public participation in power and transmission... Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration,...

  5. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y.

    2014-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm2. The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/-0.28 LSB and 0.29/-0.20 LSB, respectively.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background

  7. Lipid peroxidation and apoptotic response in rat brain areas induced by long-term administration of nandrolone: the mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Neri, Margherita; Cerretani, Daniela; Cantatore, Santina; Frati, Paola; Moltoni, Laura; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the played by oxidative stress in the apoptotic response in different brain areas of rats chronically treated with supra-physiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND). Immunohistochemical study and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate cells' apoptosis and to measure the effects of expression of specific mediators, such as NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), SMAC/DIABLO (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein with low PI) and VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter 2) on apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that a long-term administration of ND promotes oxidative injury in rat brain specific areas. A link between oxidative stress and NF-κB signalling pathways is supported by our results. In addition to high levels of oxidative stress, we consistently observed a strong immunopositivity to NF-κB. It has been argued that one of the pathways leading to the activation of NF-κB could be under reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated control. In fact, growing evidence suggests that although in limited doses, endogenous ROS may play an activating role in NF-κB signalling, while above a certain threshold, they may negatively impact upon this signalling. However, a mutual crosstalk between ROS and NF-κB exists and recent studies have shown that ROS activity is subject to negative feedback regulation by NF-κB, and that this negative regulation of ROS is the means through which NF-κB counters programmed cells. PMID:26828721

  8. Land has power. Energy transition an opportunity for rural areas. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy transition affects the rural areas of Germany in particular. Which Opportunities and risks this brings there shows a new release of Bund Heimat und Umwelt in Deutschland (German heritage and Environmental Foundation (BHU)). The Federation of heritage and civic associations devoted to the question of how to the conventional expansion of renewable energies innovative options can added. Thereby a diversified positioning of energy use, the advancement of historical forms of use and the spatial differentiation are important factors.

  9. Towards reliable communication in low-power wireless body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hauer, Jan-Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Es wird zunehmend die Ansicht vertreten, dass tragbare Computer und Sensoren neue Anwendungen in den Bereichen Gesundheitswesen, personalisierte Fitness oder erweiterte Realität ermöglichen werden. Die am Körper getragenen Geräte sind dabei mithilfe eines Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) verbunden, d.h. es wird drahtlose Kommunikation statt eines drahtgebundenen Kanals eingesetzt. Der drahtlose Kanal ist jedoch typischerweise ein eher instabiles Kommunikationsmedium und die Einsatzbedingunge...

  10. Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

  11. Wide area tracking method for augmented reality supporting nuclear power plant maintenance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new fiducial marker for augmented reality was designed along with a method that recognizes the markers captured by a camera and calculates the relative position and orientation between the markers and the camera. These markers can be used at both long and short distances without increasing their number in the environment. Results of the experimental evaluation show that the new marker can be used in a larger area than legacy markers such as square markers and circular markers. (author)

  12. Thermal effects on metabolic activities of thermophilic microorganisms from the thermal discharge point of Tuticorin thermal power plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic activities of thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the thermal water discharge point at Tuticorin thermal power station were studied by growing the microorganisms in sterile medium and at various temperature regimes of 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65degC. The optimum temperature for the growth of the bacterium isolated from the thermal power plant station was 45 degC and beyond 65 degC the growth was gradually decreased. The bacteria isolated from open sea water were mesophiles with their growth optimum at 35 degC and microbes inhabiting the thermal discharge area were thermopiles as they were tolerant even at 55 degC. The amylase production, carbohydrate metabolism and lactose fermentation activities were optimum at 45 degC. At 25 degC and beyond 65 degC biochemical activities of the organisms were inhibited to a greater extent. (author)

  13. Investigation on the environmental radioactivity of the proposed location for Nuclear Power Plant Station in Ujung Watu area, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of November 1981 and March 1983, preliminary investigation of the environmental radioactivity at the proposed location of nuclear power station in Ujung Watu area in Central Java has been carried out. The investigated area covers an area within a radius of 5 km of the proposed location. During this period a total of about 319 environmental samples which consist of soils, grasses, drinking and surface waters, several food-item of agricultural and sea product have been collected. Measurement of exposure and absorbed dose level were also carried out at 52 and 27 locations within the investigated area. Measurement of exposure dose was carried out using scintillation probe detector coupled to rate meter and absorbed dose level was measured using TL-dosemeter. The samples were analysed for the gross - α and β radioactivity, the content of H-3, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Results showed that the radiation level of the area has a range of 4 ± 18 mR/h with an average of about 4.6 x 1.4 mR/h. Absorbed dose showed a value within the range of 4.5 - 6.9 x 10-7 Gy/day with an average value of 6.2 ± 1.2 x 10-7 Gy/day. The value area is within the normal range of natural level. Measurement of fall-out indicated that the integral impact of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from fall-out to this area were about 2.6 MBq/km2 and 1.5 MBg/km2 respectively. However, no Cs-137 and Sr-90 were detected in the samples collected during this study. (author). 9 refs

  14. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Electrical Power Systems Test Operations: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Electrical Power Systems Test Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  15. Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3''x3'') at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of 'Marinelli' container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured

  16. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM) Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. T...

  17. State of the environment in the arrangement area of the enterprises for repairing and utilization of nuclear-powered submarines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgusha, V V; Bychenkov, V S; Blekher AYa; Belyaev, A V; Krupkin, A B; Kovygin GPh; Puzikov, A G; Ryabchikov, S G; Stepanov, S V; Toropov, S A

    2001-01-01

    The influence of nuclear-powered utilization (disjunction) upon the state of health of the soil, vegetation and atmospheric air was studied. It was stated that the concentration of hazardous metals in the air of an industrial site did not exceed the permissible levels. In the residential area the cases of increased concentrations of manganese and chromium were noted. The major pollutants of vegetation are manganese, titanium, copper and nickel. The authors propose a complex of anthropogenic factors to be the cause of the environmental contamination by hard metals. The volume activity of radioactive aerosols in the studied site is confined to the local hum. PMID:11142919

  18. Gain-guided broad area quantum cascade lasers emitting 23.5 W peak power at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergachev, Ilia; Maulini, Richard; Bismuto, Alfredo; Blaser, Stephane; Gresch, Tobias; Muller, Antoine

    2016-08-22

    We report gain-guided broad area quantum cascade lasers at 4.55 μm. The devices were processed in a buried heterostructure configuration with a current injector section much narrower than the active region. They demonstrate 23.5 W peak power at a temperature of 20°C and duty cycle of 1%, while their far field consists of a single symmetric lobe centered on the optical axis. These experimental results are supported well by 2D numerical simulations of electric currents and optical fields in a device cross-section. PMID:27557186

  19. High-power, low-lateral divergence broad area quantum cascade lasers with a tilted front facet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a simple technique to improve the beam quality of broad area quantum cascade lasers. Moderately tilted front facets of the laser provide suppression of higher order lateral waveguide modes. A device with a width of 60 μm and a front facet angle of 17° shows a nearly diffraction limited beam profile. In addition, the peak output power and the slope efficiency of the device are increased since most of the light inside the cavity is emitted through the tilted front facet by an asymmetric light intensity distribution along the cavity

  20. 77 FR 40609 - Robert D. Willis Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... entitled Power Marketing Administration Financial Reporting. Procedures for Public Participation in Power... Southwestern Power Administration Robert D. Willis Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... Administration (Southwestern), has prepared Current and Revised 2012 Power Repayment Studies which show the...

  1. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power and...... creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable and...... floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity. It...

  2. Network wind power over the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, E W; Baker, R W; Barber, D A; Peterson, B

    1978-09-01

    Since 1975 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been sponsoring wind power research at Oregon State University. A feasibility study that initially concentrated on the wind power potential in the Columbia River Gorge has expanded to the BPA service area which covers Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana and northern Nevada. Previous BPA reports have documented the progress of this research.

  3. Sustained reduction in prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection in spite of missed rounds of mass drug administration in an area under mosquito nets for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Masaaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF was established by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000 with the goal of eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF as a public health problem globally by 2020. Mass drug administration (MDA of antifilarial drugs is the principal strategy recommended for global elimination. Kenya launched a National Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF in Coast Region in 2002. During the same year a longitudinal research project to monitor trends of LF infection during MDA started in a highly endemic area in Malindi District. High coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs in the coastal region has been associated with dramatic decline in hospital admissions due to malaria; high usage of ITNs is also expected to have an impact on LF infection, also transmitted by mosquitoes. Results Four rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC and albendazole were given to 8 study villages over an 8-year period. Although annual MDA was not administered for several years the overall prevalence of microfilariae declined significantly from 20.9% in 2002 to 0.9% in 2009. Similarly, the prevalence of filarial antigenaemia declined from 34.6% in 2002 to 10.8% in 2009. All the examined children born since the start of the programme were negative for filarial antigen in 2009. Conclusions Despite the fact that the study villages missed MDA in some of the years, significant reductions in infection prevalence and intensity were observed at each survey. More importantly, there were no rebounds in infection prevalence between treatment rounds. However, because of confounding variables such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, it is difficult to attribute the reduction to MDA alone as ITNs can lead to a significant reduction in exposure to filariasis vectors. The results indicate that national LF elimination programmes should be encouraged to continue provision of MDA albeit

  4. Research for the Boundary of Government Power---In the Perspective of Administrative Law%论政府权力界限--以行政法治为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向芳; 邓薇

    2014-01-01

    Putting the power into system cage and letting it run in the sun , which is one of the main demands of Chinese society after the Third Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China .Government power is authorized by the Constitution and laws , and the best “system cage” for it is setting le-gal boundaries .Administrative law is the important mechanism to control and standardize administrative power , which defines the boundaries and constraints for government power , sets the legal boundaries for the operation of government power .The boundaries of government power are power authorization , power guarantee and administra-tive responsibility .The constraints of government power are due process , rational administration and standardized administrative discretion .%把权力关进制度笼子,让权力在阳光下运行,是党的十八届三中全会之后中国社会的主要诉求之一。政府权力来源于宪法和法律的授权,为政府权力设定法律界限就是最好的“制度笼子”。行政法是控制和规范行政权力的重要机制,为政府权力的运行设定法律界限,规定了政府权力的边界范围和条件限制。政府权力的边界在于:职权法定、权利保障、行政责任;政府权力的限制在于:程序正当、合理行政、规范行政自由裁量权。

  5. Prolonged Living as a Refugee from the Area Around a Stricken Nuclear Power Plant Increases the Risk of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiichiro

    2015-08-01

    Although it is well known that the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011) resulted in a large number of disaster-related deaths, it is not common knowledge that the number of disaster-related deaths continues to increase, even four years after the earthquake, in Fukushima Prefecture, where the nuclear power plant accident occurred. There has been a lack of a minute and critical analysis for the causes for this continuous increase. In this report, the causes for the increase in disaster-related deaths in Fukushima Prefecture were analyzed by aggregating and comparing multiple data released by public organizations (the Reconstruction Agency, the National Police Agency, and Fukushima Prefecture), which may also have implications for developing response strategies to other disasters. The disaster-related death rate, the dead or missing rate, and the refugee rate (the number of disaster-related deaths, dead or missing persons, and refugees per 1,000 people) in each prefecture in stricken areas, and also each city, county, town, and village in Fukushima Prefecture, were calculated and compared with each other. The populations which were used for the calculation of each death rate in the area were based on the number of dead victims who had lived in the area when the earthquake occurred, regardless of where they were at the time of their death. The disaster-related death rate was higher than the dead or missing rate in the area around a stricken nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture. These areas coincide exactly with the Areas under Evacuation Orders because of unsafe radiation levels. The external and internal radiation doses of most of the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake have appeared not to be so high to harm their health, until now. The psychological stress associated with being displaced from one's home for a long time with an uncertain future may be the cause for these disaster-related deaths. There is an urgent need to recognize refugees

  6. Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants. [Ocean County, N. J. and N. J. -Md. -Pa. area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isard, W.; Reiner, T.; Van Zele, R.; Stratham, J.

    1976-08-01

    This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized. (MCW)

  7. Morbidity of the thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area after the accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As a result of accident on the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl NPP all the territory of Bryansk area underwent the influence of radioactive iodine. The density of losses has made from 1-5 up to 30 and more Ci/km2 on different areas. Besides in the territory of Bryansk area the deficiency of iodine is registered from easy weight up to an average degree. Among the problems of modern thyroidology the thyroid gland cancer takes a special place in connection with progressing increase of its frequency in zones of ecological trouble and iodic deficiency. The purpose of the given work consisted in estimation of dynamics of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer of inhabitants of Bryansk area before and after accident on the Chernobyl NPP. For the period from 1975 to 1985 on the territory of Bryansk area 308 cases of thyroid gland cancer, including 2 cases of thyroid gland cancer at children (in 1975 and 1984) have been revealed. These years morbidity in Bryansk area has changed from 0,78 on 100000 population in 1975 up to 2,6 in 1981-1982. Since 1986 up to 2004 on territory of Bryansk area 2638 cases of thyroid gland cancer have been revealed. Morbidity of the given pathology has increased from 3,3 on 100 thousand population in 1986 up to 23,6 on 100 thousand in 2004. The highest all-Russian parameter of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer was in 2003 - 5,4. Thus, morbidity of thyroid gland cancer in our area since 1989 up to 1999 was on the average 2 times more, than across the Russian Federation, and in 1999-2004 - more than 3 times. Thus rates of the increase of morbidity of thyroid gland cancer at inhabitants of southwest territories (density of radioactive pollution of Cs 137 over 5 Ci/km2, more than at inhabitants of Bryansk area. The highest parameter on these territories is noted in 2004 (27,3), more than in 5 times more, than in the Russian Federation. The parity of men and women among inhabitants of Bryansk area, who fell ill with thyroid gland cancer

  8. Using Eminent Domain Powers to Acquire Private Lands for Protected Area Wildlife Conservation: A Survey under Kenyan Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Sifuna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Under Kenyan law, the provisioning for eminent domain is in the Constitution, as well as in legislation. Exercising these powers, the State may compulsorily acquire private lands, provided the acquisition is for a public good and compensation is given. Generally, eminent domain is a fairly contentious legal issue: the law on the one part guarantees the sanctity of private property and, on the other, allows the government to expropriate such property even against the will of the landowner. With regard to land, the State has a legal obligation to respect and protect privately owned lands, and a corresponding moral obligation to ensure that land is available to sustain other forms of life as well. While Kenya's wildlife estate is slightly less than eight per cent of the total land area, it is fast shrinking due to an increasing human population and human activities. As such, the wildlife sector has a bleak future unless the trend is reversed. One way of doing this is by using the powers of eminent domain to acquire private lands for purposes of creating and expanding the wildlife protected areas and their support zones. However, for this manner of acquisition to be desirable and advisable, it has to be fair, humane, democratic and honest. This is to ensure that conservation does not violate the rights of people or undermine livelihoods. Incidentally, the process of eminent domain in Kenya is bereft of these attributes and tends to be draconian and militaristic. The paper critically examines the potential of using eminent domain for acquiring lands for protected area conservation and makes recommendations for reforms.

  9. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay. PMID:20703634

  10. Confirmation of safety (important matters to be confirmed by the administration office having jurisdiction) of the first nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the deliberation on this safety confirmation, which was reported on September 22, 1987, by the Science and Technology Agency, the Nuclear Safety Commission started the investigation and deliberation from the 32nd regular meeting on September 24, 1987. As the result of examining on making the radiation measurement facilities for the time of accidents on board the first nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' into the fixed type, it was recognized to be appropriate. The contents of the investigation were the reqirements of the guideline, and the design of the radiation measurement facilities for the time of accidents such as high level containment vessel area monitors, high level reactor auxiliary machinery room area monitors, high level exhaust stack gas monitors, high level main steam pipe monitors and the radiation monitoring panel. It was confirmed that the proper countermeasures based on the features of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' have been taken for the radiation measurement facilities for the time of accidents on the basis of the basic concept referring to the guideline. (Kako, I.)

  11. Performance analysis of automatic generation control of interconnected power systems with delayed mode operation of area control error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardan Nanda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents automatic generation control (AGC of interconnected power systems comprising of two thermal and one hydro area having integral controllers. Emphasis is given to a delay in the area control error for the actuation of the supplementary controller and to examine its impact on the dynamic response against no delay which is usually the practice. Analysis is based on 50% loading condition in all the areas. The system performance is examined considering 1% step load perturbation. Results reveal that delayed mode operation provides a better system dynamic performance compared with that obtained without delay and has several distinct merits for the governor. The delay is linked with reduction in wear and tear of the secondary controller and hence increases the life of the governor. The controller gains are optimised by particle swarm optimisation. The performance of delayed mode operation of AGC at other loading conditions is also analysed. An attempt has also been made to find the impact of weights for different components in a cost function used to optimise the controller gains. A modified cost function having different weights for different components when used for controller gain optimisation improves the system performance.

  12. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Makhsutbek, F. T.; Ozhikenova, Zh. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  13. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Polovnikov V.Yu.; Makhsutbek F.T.; Ozhikenova Zh.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  14. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov V.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  15. Summary report on the environmental monitoring around Tokai area following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident took place at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR in the early hours of 26 April 1986. The plant caught fire and some degree of reactor inventry was released to the environment. Following the accident, debris of the radioactivity from Chernobyl was detected in all the European countries and countermeasures were taken in some countries. In Japan, many kinds of radionuclides were detected in rain, airbone dust and other environmental samples from 3 May and ''Headquaters for Radioactivity Countermeasure'' was organized in the Japanese Government. Health and Safety Division at the Tokai Works, PNC, performed the environmental monitoring for the Chernobyl accident in addition to the statutory monitoring program. This report presents results of the environmental monitoring performed at Tokai Works. Furthermore, study on the environmental transfer parameters and preliminary estimation of the committed dose equivalent to the public around Tokai area are discussed. (author)

  16. Power of Religion in Rural Areas and Its Public Service (I)--An Analysis of Cases in Five Villages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHALHO

    2005-01-01

    In the study of socio-economic development in Tibet, one tends to stress the role of non-economic elements, especially the role of humans and social background.Of these, the role of religious culture is regarded as the most important. However, there are basically two approaches to the issue: First of all, although religion exerts a varied role on economic growth, legal construction, public welfare and ethics, one tends to each only a general judgment. Secondly, study of the role played by religion focused on the religious doctrines held by monks, and monks themselves. Although many point out the fact that religious power over people varies, it roots in the rural areas and among the folk at large is still neglected.Hence, there is the need to study individual cases.

  17. Variation of radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen in the Okutama area since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to releases of radionuclides in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) has been incorporated into large varieties of plant species and soil types. There is a possibility that radiocesium taken into plants is being diffused by pollen. Radiocesium concentrations in cedar pollen have been measured in Ome City, located in the Okutama area of metropolitan Tokyo, for the past 3 y. In this research, the variation of radiocesium concentrations was analysed by comparing data from 2011 to 2014. Air dose rates at 1 m above the ground surface in Ome City from 2011 to 2014 showed no significant difference. Concentration of 137Cs contained in the cedar pollen in 2012 was about half that in 2011. Between 2012 and 2014, the concentration decreased by approximately one-fifth, which was similar to the result of a press release distributed by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. (authors)

  18. Composition of natural populations of yeast and yeast-like microorganisms in the area of Mochovce nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982 to 1983, the composition was studied of natural populations of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the area of the construction of the nuclear power plant at Mochovce. Samples were taken from fruits of plum trees (Prunus domestica L.) and grape vine (Vitis vinifera L.). Totally, 394 strains were isolated that were identified and classified according to the monography of Lodder into the following families and genera: Saccharomycetaceae (Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Debaryomyces, Kluyveromyces, Pichia), Spermopthoraceae (Metschnikowia), Cryptococaceae (Torulopsis, Candida, Kloeckera). On plum tree fruits the species Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces rosei and on grape vine fruits Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima were most abundantly represented. The trees and plants were not treated with pesticides and on both the fruits of plum trees and grape vines the species Pullularia pullulans was frequently present that had never been isolated before from regularly treated vineyards. (author)

  19. Hydrogeological modelling of the eastern region of Areco river locally detailed on Atucha I and II nuclear power plants area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water flow behaviour of Pampeano aquifer was modeled using Visual Mod-flow software Package 2.8.1 with the assumption of a free aquifer, within the region of the Areco river and extending to the rivers of 'Canada Honda' and 'de la Cruz'. Steady state regime was simulated and grid refinement allows obtaining locally detailed calculation in the area of Atucha I and II Nuclear power plants, in order to compute unsteady situations as the consequence of water flow variations from and to the aquifer, enabling the model to study the movement of possible contaminant particles in the hydrogeologic system. In this work the effects of rivers action, the recharge conditions and the flow lines are analyzed, taking always into account the range of reliability of obtained results, considering the incidence of uncertainties introduced by data input system, the estimates and interpolation of parameters used. (author)

  20. Sustainable Energy and Environmental Management in a Solar Powered Adaptive Fuzzy Control Model for Ground Water Conservation in Suburban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Singh,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a novel scheme of water level management of a storage tank, adaptive to varying water consumption by an end user, has been designed. This system proposes the control of water supply from a solar powered pump for the optimal use of ground water in suburban areas. It has been simulated and validated, for its satisfactory performance, by fuzzy control logic. The proposed system optimizes water consumption, leading to improvement in the ground-water life cycle and increasing the life of submersible pumps and bore wells. Moreover, it reduces water wastage, maintains the water table and avoids damaging conditions for pump due to muddy water, without any inconvenience to the user. In the proposed system, keeping in view the poor grid availability in suburban areas, a solar-powered submersible pump raises ground water to an overhead storage water tank which is also connected to a reservoir water tank. The reservoir regularly supplies water in time schedule to the storage tank to fulfill the demand for water. In the absence of the reservoir, or when the supply from the reservoir is insufficient tomeet the demand, a submersible pump, operating on PV energy, acts as a supplementary system. It pumps water to the storage tank in accordance to the demand/consumption of water. This has been achieved with a fuzzy controller, which senses the varying level of water in the storage tank and the end user requirement, and fills up the storage tank from the reservoir tank and/or the submersible pump accordingly.

  1. Environmental physiology of the mole crab Emerita asiatica, at a power plant discharge area on the east coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cage experiments at the discharge area of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) facilitated studies of thermal tolerance in Emerita asiatica. At the laboratory, oxygen consumption at various temperatures and varying salinities was also investigated. In the field 100% mortality of crabs was recorded at the Condenser Cooling Water Pumps (CCWP) discharge site compared to no mortality at the Processed Sea Water Pumps (PSWP) site. This observation implicated temperature as a stress factor at the CCWP outfall, because other factors, including residual chlorine and water velocity, were the same at the PSWP and CCWP sites. Laboratory experiments on tolerance revealed that 38.5oC was lethal to mole crabs. The time taken for 100% mortality decreased as the temperature increased from 35 to 40oC. Oxygen metabolism showed a progressive increase with temperature from 29 to 36oc, and declined at 37oC. The influence of salinity on oxygen consumption was marginal at salinities of 20 to 35o/oo but, when reduced to 15o/oo, the oxygen consumption declined. The present study thus indicates that temperature could be the lethal factor, determining the distribution of mole crabs near the power station, where water temperature can exceed 40oC. (author)

  2. Evaluation of cooling technologies of concentrated solar power plants and their combination with desalination in the mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different alternatives for the effective integration of desalination technologies in the cooling of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants in the Mediterranean area are discussed and evaluated. Two cases are considered where a low temperature multi-effect distillation (LT-MED) plant is integrated into a CSP plant replacing the condenser of the power cycle. In one case, a LT-MED plant is fed by steam at the outlet of the turbine expanded to 70 °C. In the other case a LT-MED is fed by the steam obtained from a thermal vapour compressor (TVC) which uses the exhaust steam of the CSP plant (at 37 °C, 0.063 bar) together with some from the high pressure turbine extraction (17 bar). The two cases are compared with that of a reverse osmosis (RO) unit powered by the electricity produced by the CSP plant. In this case, two different wet cooling technologies, once-through and evaporative water cooling, and a dry air cooling are considered for the CSP plant. Thermodynamic simulations are presented for all cases, together with an economic analysis. - Highlights: ► The combination of desalination technologies into CSP plants is evaluated. ► Integration of LT-MED into a CSP plant is more efficient than a LT-MED-TVC. ► Connecting a RO unit to a CSP plant results more efficient than CSP + MED coupling. ► Evaporative cooling is the most efficient and economical for electricity production. ► Electricity costs for once-through and dry cooling are higher than CSP + MED coupling.

  3. Roll-coating fabrication of flexible large area small molecule solar cells with power conversion efficiency exceeding 1%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenqing; Liu, Shiyong; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia;

    2014-01-01

    All solution-processed flexible large area small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated via roll-coating technology. Our devices were produced from slot-die coating on a lab-scale mini roll-coater under ambient conditions without the use of spin-coating or vacuum evaporation...... methods. Four diketopyrrolopyrrole based small molecules (SMs 1-4) were utilized as electron donors with (6,6)phenyl- C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an acceptor and their photovoltaic performances based on roll-coated devices were investigated. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.......01%, combined with an open circuit voltage of 0.73 V, a short-circuit current density of 3.13 mA cm (2) and a fill factor of 44% were obtained for the device with SM1, which was the first example reported for efficient roll-coating fabrication of flexible large area small molecule solar cells with PCE exceeding...

  4. 我国台湾地区行政契约法制之建构与发展%Construction and Development of Administrative Contract Law in Taiwan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江嘉琪

    2014-01-01

    我国台湾地区“行政程序法“施行十多年来,行政契约法制在学说和实务上已渐渐脱离行政契约与私法契约之区别瓶颈,而能进一步对行政契约的细节问题进行探索。但是,“行政程序法”对行政契约的规范相当简略,涉及个案契约争议时,仍须取决于个别行政法规具体规定,衡酌行政法原理原则,并准用民法规定,方能解决问题。深化行政契约法理论研究,进行行政契约法各论分析,建立行政契约总论与各论的完整体系,应是行政法学界共同的目标与任务。%In the past decade of administrative procedural law implementation in Taiwan area, the administrative contract law has gradually gone beyond the bottleneck of difference between the administrative contract and the private law contract both in theory and in practice, exploring further details in administrative contract ifeld. Anyway, the regulation of the administrative contract is rather less in the administrative law so when referring to specific dispute, concrete provisions of the separate administrative law, balance of administrative law principles and relevant civil law provisions should be all taken into consideration to solve. Therefore, deepening study of administrative contract law theory and analysis of administrative contract law monographs in order to construct an overall complete structure of administrative contract law general and monographs should be the common goal and task of the whole administrative law ifled.

  5. 广西河湖水域岸线管理现状分析及建议%Current status analysis and suggestions for administration of river-lake shoreline and water area in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓妮

    2013-01-01

    An introduction was made on the current status of river-lake shoreline and water area administration in Guangxi. The author analyzed the major problems and put forward suggestions for strengthening administration.%  介绍了广西河湖水域岸线管理现状,分析现阶段管理中存在的主要问题,并提出加强河湖水域及岸线管理的建议措施。

  6. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  7. Administrative Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  8. Environmental law in Brazil: analysis of environmental licensing of wind power plants in permanently preserved areas; Direito ambiental no Brasil: analise do licenciamento ambiental de usinas eolicas de preservacao permante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Cristiano Abijaode; Pedreira, Adriana Coli; Bleil, Julia Rechia [Associacao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproducao de Energia (ABIAPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], E-mails: cristiano@abiape.com.br, adriana@abiape.com.br, julia@abiape.com.br

    2011-04-15

    , legal and environmental doctrine, and interviews with agents and entrepreneurs in order to identify gaps in the regulatory acts or the inefficacy in the application of existing norms. We observed that the Forest Code and the Resolutions of the National Environment Council - CONAMA - confer legal feasibility to the establishment of wind power plants in these protection environmental areas in exceptional cases when it has been proved that there is no other option in terms of location, and that the enterprise is characterized as a public utility. However, despite extensive legal provision regarding the jurisdiction of the licensing agencies and concerning the type of environmental impact study to be required in the implementation of infrastructure works, judicial and administrative impediments have been occurring because these ventures are being established in environmentally sensitive areas in Brazil . Thus, it is essential to establish a clear and objective regulatory framework so as to make compatible the establishment of wind farms in Brazil and the protection of the environment, bearing in mind the legal standards and the economic viability of these projects. Among the findings of this study, we can highlight the following: the State agencies are responsible for the licensing of wind power plants in APPs; the Environmental Impact Assessment required in these cases may be the Simplified Environmental Report (RAS), since the environmental impact of these enterprises is small; due to the uniqueness of the environmental protection areas, specific studies that detail the impact on dunes, hills, mountains, salt marsh vegetation or coastal areas may be required; there is conflict of jurisdiction when the projects are located in the Coastal and APP areas concomitantly, so it is essential that the regulations of the Brazilian Federal Constitution may be amended through complementary law in order to avoid the interruption of legal licensing processes concerning wind power

  9. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS). Part I. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Washington Public Power Supply System Bond Default: who pays, January 26, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of the hearing record covers testimony given by several panels from the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS), financial and bonding institutions, the US Securities and Exchange Commission, and public interest groups favoring conservation. Their testimony focused on the financing arrangement for WPPSS nuclear projects number 4 and 5, which were underwritten at a time when the need for additional construction was questionable. The financial impact of the $26 billion project on the WPPSS region and the subsequent bond default prompted the investigation and steps to bring the financing of the projects under voter control. An appendix with additional statements, correspondence, and other materials submitted for the record follows the testimony of the 10 witnesses

  10. Oscillation Performance and Wide‐area Coordination Control of Power System with Large‐scale Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi

    this problem need to be implemented in the power systems. On the other hand, wind power especially largescale wind farms are increasingly integrated into modern power systems and bring new challenges to power system operation and control. The influence of wind power integration on system oscillation...... performance needs to be investigated. And according to some grid code requirements, power system oscillation damping improvement supplied by wind farms might become necessary. Under this circumstance, the present dissertation aims at studying oscillation damping control strategies using different components...... in the power system; investigating the possible influence of large‐scale wind power integration on system oscillation performance; developing oscillation mitigation strategies for wind farms; and coordinating various damping controllers in the power system. For the power system operation aspect, an...

  11. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  12. Supplement analysis, Southpoint power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-16

    The Calpine Corporation applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) Parker-Davis project in western Arizona. Western, as a major electric transmission system owner is required by existing policies and regulations, to provide access to its transmission system, when requested by an eligible organization. The proposed interconnection would integrate a major source of new generation into the Parker-Davis system which would allow Calpine to supply its power to the electric wholesale market. Based on this application, Western`s proposed action is to enter into an interconnection agreement with Calpine.

  13. The reform of the Indian power sector: administrations for sale. Transforming the state electricity boards into enterprises; La reforme du secteur electrique de l'Inde: administrations a vendre. Transformer les state electricity boards en entreprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J

    2001-10-01

    The present thesis is about the reforms in the electricity sector in India, and more specifically about those in the State Electricity Boards (SEBs), organisations responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity at the level of each of the States of India. The thesis is interested in practical questions of industrial economy such as: what is the impact of de-integration on the functioning of the SEBs?, impact of the creation of regulatory committees?, of privatisation?. Going beyond the critical analysis of the proposed reforms, the thesis also puts forward certain practical propositions as regards the way of reforming the SEBs. The thesis is divided in two parts (of four chapters each). The first part analyses and characterizes the functioning of a SEB. It presents practical description of the organisational characteristics, but also of their linking to the decision making mechanisms at work. On the theoretical plane, it settles the debate on the validity of the analytical concept of soft budget constraint for a SEB, and specifies the modalities of an analysis in terms of property rights, as well as the pertinence of several concepts derived from that of cost. The second part deals with the ongoing reforms and those to be implemented. It defines the concept of enterprising and proposes a critical discussion of the ongoing reforms, in the light of the normative criterion of enterprisation. It distinguishes conceptually and in the practical analysis, the 'structural' reforms (corporatisation, de-integration, and setting up of regulatory commissions) on the one hand and the questions of privatisation on the other. It proposes a model explaining the 'trade off' between public enterprisation and rapid privatisation. The first chapter situates the SEBs in the Indian power sector, shows the limit of the analyses in terms of lack of funds or political interference. Chapter 2 makes a critical presentation of the various tools

  14. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Endemic Areas of Sagar and Damoh Districts, Madhya Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Sharma, P K Kasar, Richa Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the oldest and most debilitating of the neglected tropical diseases. An estimated 120 million people in 73 endemic countries are currently infected with LF, 53 countries are implementing MDA to interrupt transmission. The mass drug administration (MDA) with single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was carried out for the eligible population in Sagar and Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh to eliminate LF. Objective: To asses programme in terms o...

  15. Sustained reduction in prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection in spite of missed rounds of mass drug administration in an area under mosquito nets for malaria control

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada Masaaki; Omar Anisa A; Mukoko Dunstan A; Wamae C Njeri; Mwandawiro Charles S; Njenga Sammy M; Bockarie Moses J; Molyneux David H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was established by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2000 with the goal of eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem globally by 2020. Mass drug administration (MDA) of antifilarial drugs is the principal strategy recommended for global elimination. Kenya launched a National Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF) in Coast Region in 2002. During the same year a long...

  16. Experimental investigation of factors limiting slow axis beam quality in 9xx nm high power broad area diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaAs-based broad-area diode lasers are needed with improved lateral beam parameter product (BPPlat) at high power. An experimental study of the factors limiting BPPlat is therefore presented, using extreme double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structures emitting at 910 nm. Continuous wave, pulsed and polarization-resolved measurements are presented and compared to thermal simulation. The importance of thermal and packaging-induced effects is determined by comparing junction -up and -down devices. Process factors are clarified by comparing diodes with and without index-guiding trenches. We show that in all cases studied, BPPlat is limited by a non-thermal BPP ground-level and a thermal BPP, which depends linearly on self-heating. Measurements as a function of pulse width confirm that self-heating rather than bias-level dominates. Diodes without trenches show low BPP ground-level, and a thermal BPP which depends strongly on mounting, due to changes in the temperature profile. The additional lateral guiding in diodes with trenches strongly increases the BPP ground-level, but optically isolates the stripe from the device edges, suppressing the influence of the thermal profile, leading to a BPP-slope that is low and independent of mounting. Trenches are also shown to initiate strain fields that cause parasitic TM-polarized emission with large BPPlat, whose influence on total BPPlat remains small, provided the overall polarization purity is >95%

  17. Routing in IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 6LoWPANs (IPv6-based Low-Power Personal Area Networks are formulated by devices that are compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. To moderate the effects of network mobility, the Internet Protocol (IP does not calculate routes; it is left to a routing protocol, which maintains routing tables in the routers. 6LowPAN uses an adaptation layer between the network (IPv6 and data link layer (IEEE802.15.4 MAC to fragment and reassemble IPv6 packets. The routing in 6LoWPAN is primarily divided on the basis of routing decision taken on adaptation or network layer. The objective of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art survey of existing routing protocols: LOAD, M-LOAD, DYMO-Low, Hi-Low, Extended Hi-Low, and S-AODV. These routing protocols have compared on the basis of different metric like energy consumption, memory uses, mobility, scalability, routing delay, an RERR message, a Hello message, and local repair. We have also presented the taxonomy of routing requirement; parameter for evaluating routing algorithm, and it was found that the routing protocol has its own advantages depending upon the application where it is used.

  18. CALCLENS: Weak Lensing Simulations for Large-area Sky Surveys and Second-order Effects in Cosmic Shear Power Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    I present a new algorithm, CALCLENS, for efficiently computing weak gravitational lensing shear signals from large N-body light cone simulations over a curved sky. This new algorithm properly accounts for the sky curvature and boundary conditions, is able to produce redshift-dependent shear signals including corrections to the Born approximation by using multiple-plane ray tracing, and properly computes the lensed images of source galaxies in the light cone. The key feature of this algorithm is a new, computationally efficient Poisson solver for the sphere that combines spherical harmonic transform and multgrid methods. As a result, large areas of sky (~10, 000 square degrees) can be ray traced efficiently at high-resolution using only a few hundred cores on widely available machines. Using this new algorithm and curved-sky calculations that only use a slower but more accurate spherical harmonic transform Poisson solver, I study the shear B-mode and rotation mode power spectra. Employing full-sky E/B-mode dec...

  19. Activities of radionuclides in the Pacific coastal area of Fukushima since the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident - Activities of radionuclides in the coast area off Fukushima after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) has caused the release of the huge quantities of radionuclide by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and then the serious problems gave rise to pollution in marine environment widely in the coast area off Fukushima. Monitoring of radioactivity in seawater and biota are important for understanding the dispersion of radionuclides and the effects of radioecology in the marine environment around the coast of Fukushima and the Pacific. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in seawater decreased exponentially and then were almost same levels before the accident around off Fukushima after about three years from the accident. However, the high activities of radio caesium (Cs) have been monitored in marine biota off Fukushima. The aims of the present study were to examine the temporal changes in radioactivity and to clarify the variation factor and the effect of radioecology in marine biota. Cs-134 and Cs-137, and Ag-110m, were released by this accident, determined in biota sample such as the plankton, fish and benthos, although it is well-known that molluscs and crustaceans concentrate silver in visceral parts. However, Sr-90 was not detected and the activities of plutonium were almost same level before this accident in the marine biota around off Fukushima. Concentration ratios of Cs (CR-Cs) in marine organism were from 2.6 E+1 in the muscle part of squid to 1.0 E+4 in the viscera of clam. The large differences in CR-Cs by the parts of marine organism were not observed. It is suggested that rapid change in the activities of radio Cs and silver in seawater, resuspension of particles from sediments and food chain effects led to high radionuclide activities in marine biota after this accident. CR-Cs in plankton was also calculated with the activities in seawater, which were collected around sampling area during this monitoring period. These resulting values ranged from 5.8 E+1 to 7.8 E+2

  20. Activities of radionuclides in the Pacific coastal area of Fukushima since the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident - Activities of radionuclides in the coast area off Fukushima after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Miho; Yoshida, Satoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan); Sohtome, Tadahiro; Mizuno, Takuji [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Igarashi, Satoshi [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima Prefecture Sea-Farming Association, 970-8044, Fukushima (Japan); Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 108-0075, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) has caused the release of the huge quantities of radionuclide by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and then the serious problems gave rise to pollution in marine environment widely in the coast area off Fukushima. Monitoring of radioactivity in seawater and biota are important for understanding the dispersion of radionuclides and the effects of radioecology in the marine environment around the coast of Fukushima and the Pacific. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in seawater decreased exponentially and then were almost same levels before the accident around off Fukushima after about three years from the accident. However, the high activities of radio caesium (Cs) have been monitored in marine biota off Fukushima. The aims of the present study were to examine the temporal changes in radioactivity and to clarify the variation factor and the effect of radioecology in marine biota. Cs-134 and Cs-137, and Ag-110m, were released by this accident, determined in biota sample such as the plankton, fish and benthos, although it is well-known that molluscs and crustaceans concentrate silver in visceral parts. However, Sr-90 was not detected and the activities of plutonium were almost same level before this accident in the marine biota around off Fukushima. Concentration ratios of Cs (CR-Cs) in marine organism were from 2.6 E+1 in the muscle part of squid to 1.0 E+4 in the viscera of clam. The large differences in CR-Cs by the parts of marine organism were not observed. It is suggested that rapid change in the activities of radio Cs and silver in seawater, resuspension of particles from sediments and food chain effects led to high radionuclide activities in marine biota after this accident. CR-Cs in plankton was also calculated with the activities in seawater, which were collected around sampling area during this monitoring period. These resulting values ranged from 5.8 E+1 to 7.8 E+2

  1. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting, in this...

  2. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality - Air_Quality_NTAD_IN: Non-attainment and Maintenance Areas for Air Pollutants in Indiana (Federal Highway Administration, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygons in this shapefile indicate areas in Indiana designated as non-attainment for ozone and (or) PM-2.5; or maintenance for ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, sulfur...

  3. 行政法视角下的高校职称评审权研究%Research on the Title Evaluation Power of Universities from the Perspective of Administrative Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱葵

    2012-01-01

    The power decentralization of title evaluation in universities has led to many social problems.The title evaluation essentially belongs to the category of administrative license,so the title evaluation power of universities needs to be seriously considered from the perspective of administrative law.University as an authorized administrative organ has the power to establish regulations and practice title evaluation,its exertion of authority should accord with the principle of administration according to law.Through the separation of evaluation and appointment,the autonomy in running a university can be effectively maintained.%高校职称评审权的下放引发了许多社会性问题。职称评审本质上属于行政许可范畴,需要通过行政法的视角对高校职称评审权进行认真思考。高校作为授权性行政主体,拥有规范制定权和职称评审的实施权,其权力的行使应符合依法行政的原则,通过实施评聘分离,可有效地维护高校办学自主权。

  4. Court Administrators and the Judiciary — Partners in the Delivery of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Stewart Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines several topics relating to the administration and governance of courts in democratic societies.  It includes a summary of the development of court administration as a profession, highlighting Australia and the United States.  The summary includes a discussion of how judges and court administrators must work together and coordinate their efforts in key areas of court administration and management.  The article also reviews separation of powers issues, highlighting the problems that emerge in systems in which oversight and administration of the courts is vested in the executive branch or power of government, most commonly in a justice ministry.  It reviews the practical advantages of having courts governed and managed through institutional mechanisms within the judicial power rather than the executive power.

  5. A Program for Cultivating Nuclear Talent at Engineering Educational Institute in a Remote Area from Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsuyoshi

    Recently, in Japan, the number of students who hope for finding employment at the nuclear power company has decreased as students‧ concern for the nuclear power industry decreases. To improve the situation, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology launched the program of cultivating talent for nuclear power which supports research and education of nuclear power in the academic year of 2007. Supported by the program, Kushiro College of Technology conducted several activities concerning nuclear power for about a year. The students came to be interested in nuclear engineering through these activities and its results.

  6. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  7. Partial representation of a multi area power system for didactic simulation of automatic generation control; Representacao parcial de sistemas de potencia multi-area para simulacao didatica do controle automatico de geracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Jose Roberto

    1987-08-01

    The dynamics of the automatic generation control (AGC) through partial representation of a multi-area power system was studied. A computer model has been developed to analyze the generation control of a power system taking into account several inherent aspects to the system such as dead band of speed governors, upper and lower generator limits for hydro and thermal units, sampling and zero order hold of the area control errors. Several control strategies have been studied such as integral control, proportional-integral control as well as variable structure control as a new approach to hydro-thermal system control. The performance of the proposed AGC model has been assessed with a sample for area hydro-thermal system containing several typical parameters of Brazilian utilities. (author). 46 refs., 94 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Quasistationary areas of NDVI trend dynamics is a powerful research tool for studying spatial patterns of land vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrnogov, Anatoly; Larko, Aleksandr

    The most important task for humankind is to study and understand global processes on Earth. Large factual material on the dynamics of the optical spectral characteristics of the land surface has been accumulated in recent decades. This has been only made possible due to the use of satellite information. The development of satellite measurement technologies and new methods for pre-processing and interpretation of satellite data allowed the research adequate to the scale of the Earth. This adequacy includes the compliance of scale terrestrial objects to the scale of satellite measurements. Research is not limited by any latitude or longitude of the objects studied. The second most important quality is the adequacy of the technologies used to velocities of processes on Earth. This is enabled by long-term continuous satellite measurements at almost all latitudes. Effectiveness of this approach to the study of natural systems has been shown by the authors in ASR publications (AP Shevyrnogov, GS Vysotskaya, JI Gitelson, Quasistationary areas of chlorophyll concentration in the world ocean as observed satellite data Advances in Space Research, Volume 18, Issue 7, Pages 129-132, 1996), which reported a method for determining the ocean surface quasistationary zones. This approach allowed us to identify different types of phytopigment dynamics and the hydrological structure of the ocean. We proposed a similar approach for the study of land vegetation. In some aspects, it is similar to the previously published approach, despite the different nature of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The results are based on the processing of satellite data from 1981 to 2006. Dynamics is the most interesting and important parameter of ecosystems, especially their trends. Therefore, it has been chosen for the analysis of spatial patterns of plant biota. The first results showed great heterogeneity of variances in nonlinear trends of the study areas of the Earth's surface. They corresponded

  9. Experimental investigation of factors limiting slow axis beam quality in 9xx nm high power broad area diode lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterfeldt, M., E-mail: martin.winterfeldt@fbh-berlin.de; Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    GaAs-based broad-area diode lasers are needed with improved lateral beam parameter product (BPP{sub lat}) at high power. An experimental study of the factors limiting BPP{sub lat} is therefore presented, using extreme double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structures emitting at 910 nm. Continuous wave, pulsed and polarization-resolved measurements are presented and compared to thermal simulation. The importance of thermal and packaging-induced effects is determined by comparing junction -up and -down devices. Process factors are clarified by comparing diodes with and without index-guiding trenches. We show that in all cases studied, BPP{sub lat} is limited by a non-thermal BPP ground-level and a thermal BPP, which depends linearly on self-heating. Measurements as a function of pulse width confirm that self-heating rather than bias-level dominates. Diodes without trenches show low BPP ground-level, and a thermal BPP which depends strongly on mounting, due to changes in the temperature profile. The additional lateral guiding in diodes with trenches strongly increases the BPP ground-level, but optically isolates the stripe from the device edges, suppressing the influence of the thermal profile, leading to a BPP-slope that is low and independent of mounting. Trenches are also shown to initiate strain fields that cause parasitic TM-polarized emission with large BPP{sub lat}, whose influence on total BPP{sub lat} remains small, provided the overall polarization purity is >95%.

  10. Interplay among the changes of muscle strength, cross-sectional area and maximal explosive power: theory and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparo, P; Minetti, A E; di Prampero, P E

    2002-12-01

    A model has recently been proposed to predict the changes of mechanical power (W) during a maximal explosive effort (such as a standing high jump off both feet) following an adaptation (e.g. training/de-training). The model is based on the assumption that, all other things being equal (ceteris paribus), the predicted changes in W depend on the measured changes of muscle force (F) or cross-sectional area (CSA) only. It follows that, if the measured changes in W are not equal to those predicted by the model, factors other than a change in F (or CSA) must be responsible for this difference. The model does not allow the determination of factors specifically involved in the adaptation process but it helps in discriminating whether an adaptation has taken place at a local level (when the observed changes in F would be attributed to factors other than the observed changes in CSA, e.g. co-contractions, fibre type modifications...), or at a central level (when the observed changes in W would be attributed to other factors than the observed changes in F, e.g. co-ordination of multiple joints and muscle groups...), or in both regions. In this paper the model has been applied to data reported in the literature on disuse (BR, bed rest), de-conditioning (SF, space flight), strength training (ST) and de-training (DT). The results of these calculations have confirmed previous observations on the determinants of the adaptation process and further suggest: (1) that training for one specific motor task (e.g. ST) could affect the performance of a second task (e.g. a maximal explosive jump) but that, as soon as the trained motor task is terminated (DT), this ability is re-gained; and (2) that neuromuscular impairment in disuse (BR) is closer to de-training than to the de-conditioning brought about by weightlessness (SF). PMID:12458362

  11. Guidelines and workbook for assessment of organization and administration of utilities seeking operating license for a nuclear power plant. Guidelines for utility organization and administration plan. Volume 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volumes 1 and 2 of this report are a partial response to the requirements of Item I.B.1.1 of the ''NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident,'' NUREG-0660, and are designed to serve as a basis for replacing the earlier NUREG-0731, ''Guidelines for Utility Management Structure and Technical Resources.'' These Guidelines are intended to provide guidance to the user in preparing a written plan for a proposed nuclear organization and administration. The purpose of the Workbook (Vol. 2) is to guide the NRC reviewer through a systematic review and assessment of a proposed organization and administration. It is the NRC's intention to incorporate these Guidelines and Workbook into a future revision of the Standard Review Plan (SRP), NUREG-0800. However, at this time the report is being published so that the material may be used on a voluntary basis by industry to systematically prepare or evaluate their organization or administration plans. Use of the report by the NRC would not occur until after it has been incorpoarted in the SRP

  12. Strategic integration of new technologies for a wind-power system adapted to remote areas : concept review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautier, P. [Envitech Automation Inc., Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada); Dery, J. [Dermond Inc., Ada, MI (United States); Houasnia, A. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Groupe de Recherche en Electronique Industrielle

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented a new renewable energy system (RES) based on wind energy associated with auxiliary power sources. The system is based on the variable speed vertical axis wind turbine and can integrate various types of power equipment, including batteries, diesel generators and dump loads. A 100 kW wind turbine prototype was installed in October 2004 in Rouyn-Noranda and a 200 kW wind turbine is under development and commercialization. The systems should be commissioned in 2006. This paper reviewed the power structure and advanced control strategies of the entire RES. Each element of the power generation system were described along with details of the control techniques developed to comply with grid-connected and off-grid requirements. The power system integrator and system control architecture were also presented. It was shown that power quality can be greatly improved through adequate control of the wind turbine and battery bank. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Examining potential benefits of combining a chimney with a salinity gradient solar pond for production of power in salt affected areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar; Johnson, Peter; Singh, Randeep [Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Group, School of Aerospace Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, P.O. Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Vic. (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    The concept of combining a salinity gradient solar pond with a chimney to produce power in salt affected areas is examined. Firstly the causes of salinity in salt affected areas of northern Victoria, Australia are discussed. Existing salinity mitigation schemes are introduced and the integration of solar ponds with those schemes is discussed. Later it is shown how a solar pond can be combined with a chimney incorporating an air turbine for the production of power. Following the introduction of this concept the preliminary design is presented for a demonstration power plant incorporating a solar pond of area 6 hectares and depth 3 m with a 200 m tall chimney of 10 m diameter. The performance, including output power and efficiency of the proposed plant operating in northern Victoria is analysed and the results are discussed. The paper also discusses the overall advantages of using a solar pond with a chimney for production of power including the use of the large thermal mass of a solar pond as a practical and efficient method of storing collected solar energy. (author)

  14. The Power of the Yi’ s Traditional Custom-Belief and Environmental Protection in the Yi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Qu

    2014-01-01

    envi-ronmental protection behaviors in the Yi ’ s tradi-tional beliefs and their rituals .Furthermore, they are highly effective . According to the materials provided by some researchers from Liangshan Prefectural Nationali-ties Research Institute , there is an Yi area named Dibo Luoga which lies between Zhaojue and Xichang .In this place , every household has a for-est of bamboo , cypress and poplar around their houses .Every household has an average of a half mu ( more than 300 square meters ) of self-plan-ted forest, which is like a private plot in the past . In this area , every household maintains the good tradition of planting trees and protecting forests , and does not practice the bad habit of excessive deforestation.In addition, the local residents ac-cept modern scientific knowledge of planting .After they harvest the crops , they plant green manure in their field, leaving only a few pieces of land for planting carrots .Why is there this kind of wonder-ful phenomena?It is not the result of measures en-forced by a powerful organization ’ s or specific i-deological work , but the result from the local resi-dents’ awareness on the importance of environmen-tal protection .They take measures to protect the environment through a combination of traditional customs, modern knowledge, and related manage-ment institutions .This kind of environmental pro-tection method has been included in the local rules and regulations so as to regulate the local resi-dents’ behavior. This is worthy of noting within the many envi-ronmental experiences in China .Large amounts of deforestation has not only reduced the kinds of ani-mals and plants , but has even resulted in the dis-appearance of animals and plants .This has resul-ted in a serious ecological imbalance .There are al-so a lot of things related to environment that should be noticed in Liangshan .Trees in the mountains have been cut down; nothing grows in some places, and there is a gradual process of desertifi

  15. EXPERIENCE OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE RADIATION CONTROL FOR PEOPLE ARRIVED FROM THE AREAS RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ershov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An article considers issues related to the radiological examination of the people arrived in Leningrad from the areas radioactively contaminated due to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. It also describes the experience of creation and functioning of the specialized station for radiation control and sanitary treatment of people and their personal clothes. The article specifies basic requirements for such stations.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 29, 1996 - November 2, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity surrounding the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in the Mississippi River Basin and (b) below 6 μR/h over the Mississippi River and portions of its basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 μR/h) was found at the plant site; nitrogen-1 6 was the primary source of activity found at the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured in the area surrounding the site during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 preoperational survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  17. The persuasive administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The art of being persuasive involves use of selected persuasive techniques appropriate to the individual and situation. Persuasive techniques are powerful tools of communication and productivity. Effective use of persuasive techniques can provide motivation to others and can mobilize them toward action that you, as an administrator, desire. PMID:11962076

  18. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnie Mustapha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population data is also problematic. In Sierra Leone, a 5-day preventative chemotherapy campaign was carried out in the Western Area including the capital: Freetown. An intensive, social mobilization strategy combined traditional and modern communication channels. To aid dissemination of appropriate information Frequently Asked Questions were developed and widely circulated. The population of the Western Area has grown faster than projected by the 2004 National Census due to the post-war settlement of internally displaced persons. As a reliable denominator was not available, independent monitoring was adapted and performed "in process" to aid program performance and "end process" to assess final coverage. Results In 5 days 1,104,407 eligible persons were treated. Using the projected population from the 2004 census this figure represented coverage of 116% in the Urban Western Area and 129% in the Rural Western Area. Independent monitors interviewed a total of 9,253 persons during the 2 End Process days representing 1% of the projected population. Of these, 85.8% recalled taking both ivermectin and albendazole (Urban: 85.2%, Rural: 87.1%. No serious adverse drug reactions were reported. Conclusion The paper presents the key elements of success of the social mobilization and implementation strategy and describes the independent monitoring used to estimate final coverage in this urban/non-rural setting where the current population size is uncertain. This implementation

  19. Analysis of geological aspects and visual impact rising from the realisation of a wind power station in an Italian mountain area (Central Appennines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates some aspects of the environmental impacts arising from the wind power station in the Central Appennines of Italy, particularly with reference to the geological and geotechnical conditions of the site and the visual impact on the landscape. Starting from a large-scale analysis that takes into account the Appennines orogeny and their geodynamic process, it is possible to define the geological characteristics of the considered area. It is possible to analyse structural and morphological aspects, in this way it is possible to identify the most suitable location of power generators in the area and to optimise the road network. The geo-stratigraphical study aids decisions about foundations, excavations and works of containments. Considerations on earth traspiration and on rill identify the necessity of controlling surface waters, evolutionary phenomena and the soil stability of the considered areas. Particular attention has been given to analyse effects on the landscape. (author)

  20. Administrative Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, LooSee

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop an understanding of the issues that public administrators should strive to provide in ethical practices and governance thus allowing distinctive administrative and social traditions that each country possess to flourish. Significant changes and continuities in the realm of government in contemporary China and Malaysia will be drawn upon. Recent developments have brought a sense of urgency in contrast to complacency with the status quo. This paper reviews pertinent ...

  1. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  2. Infringement proceedings of administrative bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Šimek, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The subject of the thesis is the legal definition of the proceedings for minor offence which falls within the area of administrative punishment on the issue of pardon of the oral proceedings on the part of the accused and the tutoring of the administrative authorities. Proceedings for minor offences is governed by the administrative regulations and the law the on misdemeanors. The administrative authorities must follow the basic principles of its activities which does not stem only from these...

  3. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Endemic Areas of Sagar and Damoh Districts, Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Sharma, P K Kasar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is one of the oldest and most debilitating of the neglected tropical diseases. An estimated 120 million people in 73 endemic countries are currently infected with LF, 53 countries are implementing MDA to interrupt transmission. The mass drug administration (MDA with single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC was carried out for the eligible population in Sagar and Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh to eliminate LF. Objective: To asses programme in terms of coverage and compliance of MDA against filariasis, reasons for non compliance in Sagar and Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh. Material and Method: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sagar and Damoh district of MP. A total of eight clusters, one urban and three rural clusters were selected in each district. The data were collected in pretested Performa and analyzed. Results: The study includes 240 families with a total eligible population was 1155 in two districts of eight clusters. The compliance rate were 85.52% in Sagar, 42.82% in Damoh district and total compliance was 66.66% observed by us which was below the expected target .The important cause of non compliance was drug distributor not asked to take drug in front of him 50% and in 23% did not received drug or not present at home at the time of drug distribution. Conclusion: There is urgent need to strengthen MDA programme implementation and effective drug delivery strategies which increase compliance of drug.

  4. 76 FR 56433 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and WAPA-118 through February 28, 2013. 76 FR 1429, January 10, 2011. LAP Transmission Service Rate... participation in power rate adjustments (10 CFR 903) were published on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 37835). Under...--Rate Order No. WAPA-155 AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of...

  5. Design and analysis of tilt integral derivative controller with filter for load frequency control of multi-area interconnected power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sahu, Rabindra; Panda, Sidhartha; Biswal, Ashutosh; Chandra Sekhar, G T

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel Tilt Integral Derivative controller with Filter (TIDF) is proposed for Load Frequency Control (LFC) of multi-area power systems. Initially, a two-area power system is considered and the parameters of the TIDF controller are optimized using Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm employing an Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE) criterion. The superiority of the proposed approach is demonstrated by comparing the results with some recently published heuristic approaches such as Firefly Algorithm (FA), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimized PID controllers for the same interconnected power system. Investigations reveal that proposed TIDF controllers provide better dynamic response compared to PID controller in terms of minimum undershoots and settling times of frequency as well as tie-line power deviations following a disturbance. The proposed approach is also extended to two widely used three area test systems considering nonlinearities such as Generation Rate Constraint (GRC) and Governor Dead Band (GDB). To improve the performance of the system, a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) is also considered and the performance of TIDF controller in presence of TCSC is investigated. It is observed that system performance improves with the inclusion of TCSC. Finally, sensitivity analysis is carried out to test the robustness of the proposed controller by varying the system parameters, operating condition and load pattern. It is observed that the proposed controllers are robust and perform satisfactorily with variations in operating condition, system parameters and load pattern. PMID:26712682

  6. Fluorine concentration in snow cover within the impact area of aluminium production plant (Krasnoyarsk city) and coal and gas-fired power plant (Tomsk city)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Osipova, N. A.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Polikanova, S. A.; Samokhina, N. P.; Yazikov, E. G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The fluorine contents in snow melt water find in the impact areas of aluminum production plant and coal and gas-fired power plant are compared. In melt water, soluble fluoride is found in the form of fluoride ion, the content of which was determined by the potentiometric method using ion-selective electrode. According to the measurements of 2013-2014, fluoride content in melt water ranges 10.6-15.4 mg/dm3 at the distance 1-3 km from the borders of Krasnoyarsk aluminum plant with the mean value 13.1 mg/dm3. Four-year monitoring from 2012 to 2015 in the impact area of Tomsk coal and gas-fired power plant showed that fluoride content in melt water in vicinity of the thermal power plant is significantly lower than in the samples from the impact area of the aluminum plant. But higher content of fluoride ion (0.2 - 0.3 mg/dm3) in snow samples in vicinity of coal and gas-fired power plant was revealed in winter of 2015. Intake of soluble fluoride is mostly explained by dust-aerosol emissions of study plants and deposition of fluorine compounds from air.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE RADIATION SITUATION IN THE OBSERVATION AREA OF THE VOLGODONSK NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DURING 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Prokopenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of radiation monitoring which was performed in the observation area of the Volgodonsk NPP (VNPP during 2007-2009. Calculations done using the obtained results for artificial exposure of population living in the observation area of the VNPP are presented. It is shown that annual exposure doses of population living in the observation area of the VNPP do not exceed 10 мSv per year.

  8. Chemical soil data report to support interim response actions, construction staging area, and Administration Building: Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five activities are planned to improve environmental conditions or to improve facilities at the Weldon Spring Site. Each activity must be evaluated for potential environmental impacts. Chemical soil contamination was potentially present in each affected area. A sampling program was designed and implemented to evaluate chemical soil conditions. Samples were analyzed for nitroaromatic compounds, metals, inorganic anions, semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and PCBs. This investigation documented low concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds, pesticides, PCBs and nitroaromatics. Higher concentrations of nitrate, sulfate and some metals were also detected. The contaminants detected are consistent with past operations at the WSS. The concentrations of contaminants do not significantly impact the proposed activities. Data from this investigation has been incorporated into the planning and documentation activities for each activity

  9. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  10. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  11. 55 W peak power from 1100 nm wavelength 60 µm broad-area laser diodes enabled by reduced carrier accumulation in the waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical power from 1100 nm broad-area laser diodes is found to be limited by the accumulation of minority carriers in the waveguide layer, caused by a small effective barrier between the quantum wells and the GaAs waveguide. This effect is visible as enhanced spontaneous emission at high currents. We show that increasing the number of QWs mitigates this effect and leads to higher emitted powers. Optimized devices deliver more than 55 W per 60 µm stripe width under 300 ns pulse operation. In this paper we present the experimental results of our study

  12. Radioecological investigation of soil and plant cover at the neighvouring landscape areas in the zone surroimding Chernobyl' atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on content levels and regularities of radionuclide migration in soil and plant cover at the neighbouring landscape areas in 30-km zone of Chernobyl accident. Quantitative estimation of radionuclide distribution in main components of soil and plant cover is given. Possibility of self-purification of some, most dynamic areas of geochemical integration is shown

  13. Radioecology of Vertebrate Animals in the Area Adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Site in 1986-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, E. B.; Gashchak, S. P.; Makliuk, Y. A.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    A widespread environmental contamination of the areas adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) site attracted a great deal of publicity to the biological consequences of the ChNPP catastrophe. However, only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of the local wild fauna and most of them were published in Eastern European languages, making them poorly accessible for Western scientists. In addition, evaluation of this information appears difficult due to significant differences in raw data acquisition and analysis methodologies and final data presentation formats. Using an integrated approach to assessment of all available information, the International Radioecology Laboratory scientists showed that the ChNPP accident had increased the average values of the animals 137Cs and 90Sr contamination by a factor of thousands, followed by its decrease by a factor of tens, primarily resulting from a decrease in the biological accessibility of the radionuclides. However, this trend depended on many factors. Plant and bottom feeding fish species were the first to reach the maximum contamination levels. No data are available on other vertebrates, but it can be assumed that the same trend was true for all plant feeding animals and animals searching for food on the soil surface. The most significant decrease of the average values occurred during the first 3-5 years after the accident and it was the most pronounced for elks and plant and plankton feeding fish. Their diet included elements “alienated” from the major radionuclide inventory; for example, upper soil layers and bottom deposits where the fallout that had originally precipitated on plants, water and soils gradually migrated. Further radionuclide penetration into deeper layers of soils and its bonding with their mineral components intensified decontamination of the fauna. It took a while for the contamination of predatory fish and mammals (wolves) to reach the maximum

  14. Wind power and defense interests on Gotland. Presentation of a joint project between the County Administrative Board, Region Gotland and the Swedish Armed Forces in 2011; Vindkraft och foersvarsintressen paa Gotland. Redovisning av ett samverkansprojekt mellan Laensstyrelsen, Region Gotland och Foersvarsmakten 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The island of Gotland has a large potential for wind power production. An existing weather radar system, however, causes extensive restrictions for further development of wind power on Gotland. In a joint project during 2011 the County Administration Board of Gotland, the Municipality of Gotland and the Swedish Armed Forces have explored ways to overcome the existing conflicts. The project has been sponsored by the Swedish Energy Agency. Through the collaboration, the participants have gained a better understanding of various aspects of the conflicting interests. Studies have been carried out with the prospect to modelling alternative solutions to reduce the conflicts. The study regarding the radar system has been carried out by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst.. This report present some practical solutions to avoid conflict in most of areas which are planned for wind power by the municipality. It is suggested that a complimentary radar can be built. A number of alternative localizations for the complimentary radar have been suggested and the potential effects for wind power production estimated. Costs for the suggested solutions have been calculated.

  15. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  16. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  17. Effects of Economic Dependency on Decision Making Power of Women in Rural Areas of Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanzaib Haider

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural women are economically dependent on men especially in the developing countries. Economic dependency is the degree in which a person relies upon others to fulfilling his or her needs. This study was conducted to known the effects of economic dependency on decision making power of rural women. Rural women were economically depended on their husbands and they were not free to spend their own income on their will because of the culture and patriarchal society. The researcher found that majority of rural women were economically depend on their men and this economic dependency effect their decision making power. Mostly their husband took the decision in their family. They got money for their personal needs from their husbands. The researchers found that majority of rural women were not participating in decisions regarding family affairs and other affairs of their life due to economic dependency. The researcher found there is association between economic dependency and decision making power of women.

  18. System approach for evaluation of air pollution toxic compounds in the 30-km area of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article shows the importance of a systematic approach to address environmental problems that arise during the construction of nuclear power plants, and identified the need to consider the transformation and biotransformation of primary pollutants and monitoring secondary pollutants. The basic pathways of pollutants in the air a 30-km zone of nuclear power plants established. The content of primary and secondary air pollutants identified. The evaluation of general toxic risk from primary pollutant and the calculation of the carcinogenic risk of secondary pollutants entering the body by inhalation are carried out. (authors)

  19. Firefly algorithm optimized fuzzy PID controller for AGC of multi-area multi-source power systems with UPFC and SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Chandra Pradhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Firefly Algorithm (FA optimized fuzzy PID controller is proposed for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area multi-source power system. Initially, a two area six units power system is used and the gains of the fuzzy PID controller are optimized employing FA optimization technique using an ITAE criterion. The superiority of the proposed FA optimized fuzzy PID controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with some recently published approaches such as optimal control and Differential Evolution (DE optimized PID controller for the identical interconnected power system. Then, physical constraints such as Time Delay (TD, reheat turbine and Generation Rate Constraint (GRC are included in the system model and the superiority of FA is demonstrated by comparing the results over DE, Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA and Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization techniques for the same interconnected power system. Additionally, a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is placed in the tie-line and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES units are considered in both areas. Simulation results show that the system performances are improved significantly with the proposed UPFC and SMES units. Sensitivity analysis of the system is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values. It is observed that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller design is verified by considering different types of load patterns.

  20. Application of wind power systems to the Service Area of the Minnesota Power and Light Company. Final report, July 1975--August 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, O.H.; Malver, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    Honeywell, in a joint effort with Minnesota Power and Light Company (MP and L), Boeing Vertol Company, and Dr. C.G. Justus, Georgia Institute of Technology, has conducted a regional application study of wind energy systems. Minnesota Power and Light Company, an investor-owned company with 853-MW owned capacity, has served as the case study subject utility. An initial system definition was developed based on available wind information and near-term wind turbine generator (WTG) technology. The system was tailored to fit MP and L's forecasted generation needs and the company's existing transmission and distribution system. Honeywell developed a WECS simulation to convert wind data to wind energy available for input to the utility's grid. The simulation was used to evaluate the performance of preliminary design wind turbine generators developed for ERDA/NASA by the General Electric Company and Kaman Aerospace Corporation, and to evaluate the performance of a wind turbine optimized for the Northern Minnesota wind regime and developed by the Boeing Vertol Company under subcontract to Honeywell.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 19, 1996 - October 24, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity surrounding the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 μR/h in adjacent areas and along roadways, and (c) below 6 μR/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (102-202 μR/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Point Beach site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  2. Baseline study of corals and associated biological resources near Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNP) area: final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project aims to study the corals and other associated biological resources near KKNPP area which will further help to monitor and protect the precious marine biodiversity and environment in the KKNPP region

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels

  4. A novel quasi-oppositional harmony search algorithm for AGC optimization of three-area multi-unit power system after deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Shiva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses a decentralized, well tested three-area multi-unit power system for its automatic generation control (AGC after deregulation which is characterized by price-based market operation. To match with the actual deregulated environment, as prevailing in the real one, the market structure is kept generic enough enabling to capture all possibilities occurring in real-time day-to-day power environment. In accordance to the modifications, as done in the investigated three-area power system model, the concerned objective is to intensify the deregulated AGC operation followed by load disturbances. At the present platform, three different classes of case study results are postulated for the studied test system. The first two illustrate the behavior of unilateral and bilateral based power contract transactions while the third one considers the contract violation case as it exists in present time. The contractual agreement, instituted by DISCO participation matrix, is initialized to address the power transaction contracts. In this work, a novel quasi-oppositional harmony search (QOHS algorithm is explored and presented its significances in deregulated AGC operation. In the second phase of investigation, fast acting Sugeno fuzzy logic technique is explored for on-line, off-nominal operating conditions. For analysis purpose, both the qualitative and the quantitative aspects of the proposed QOHS are presented in reference to genetic algorithm (GA. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis is also performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed QOHS based controller. Simulation work reveals that the proposed QOHS may be, effectively, worked out to order to improve the deregulated AGC performance. It is also being observed that the proposed QOHS outperforms the GA in sense of deregulated AGC operation of power system.

  5. A small-area low-power current readout circuit using two-stage conversion method for 64-channel CNT sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-San; Lee, Seongsoo; Wee, Jae-Kyung; Song, Inchae

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a small-area and low-power current readout circuit with a novel two-stage conversion method is presented for 64-channel CNT (carbon nanotube) sensor arrays. In the first stage, current of each CNT sensor is amplified by 64 active input current mirrors (AICMs). In the second stage, the amplified current is converted to a voltage level through the shared variable gain amplifier (S-VGA). Then the S-VGA output is digitalized by successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR-ADC). The proposed readout circuit significantly reduces chip area and power consumption, since VGA is shared over 64 channels and passive elements are used only in S-VGA. Fabricated chip area is 0.173 mm(2) in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. Measured power consumption and linearity error are 73.06 μW and 5.3%, respectively, at the input current range of 10 nA-10 μA and conversion rate of 640 samples/s. A prototype real-time CNT sensor system was implemented using the fabricated readout circuit, and successfully detected alcohol reaction. PMID:23853327

  6. Energy and exergy analyses on a novel hybrid solar heating, cooling and power generation system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a small scale hybrid solar heating, chilling and power generation system, including parabolic trough solar collector with cavity receiver, a helical screw expander and silica gel-water adsorption chiller, etc., was proposed and extensively investigated. The system has the merits of effecting the power generation cycle at lower temperature level with solar energy more efficiently and can provide both thermal energy and power for remote off-grid regions. A case study was carried out to evaluate an annual energy and exergy efficiency of the system under the climate of northwestern region of China. It is found that both the main energy and exergy loss take place at the parabolic trough collector, amount to 36.2% and 70.4%, respectively. Also found is that the studied system can have a higher solar energy conversion efficiency than the conventional solar thermal power generation system alone. The energy efficiency can be increased to 58.0% from 10.2%, and the exergy efficiency can be increased to 15.2% from 12.5%. Moreover, the economical analysis in terms of cost and payback period (PP) has been carried out. The study reveals that the proposed system the PP of the proposed system is about 18 years under present energy price conditions. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the interest rate decreases to 3% or energy price increase by 50%, PP will be less than 10 years.

  7. Ytterbium-doped low-NA P-Al-silicate large-mode-area fiber for high power applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, J.K.; Yoo, S.; Boyland, A. J.; Webb, A; Codemard, C.; Standish, R.J.; Nilsson, J.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an efficient, ytterbium-doped low-NA fiber with core glass containing high levels of Al2O3 and P2O5 in silica host that shows low-photodarkening and generated 175 W of continuous-wave output power with 80% laser efficiency.

  8. Energy and exergy analyses on a novel hybrid solar heating, cooling and power generation system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a small scale hybrid solar heating, chilling and power generation system, including parabolic trough solar collector with cavity receiver, a helical screw expander and silica gel-water adsorption chiller, etc., was proposed and extensively investigated. The system has the merits of effecting the power generation cycle at lower temperature level with solar energy more efficiently and can provide both thermal energy and power for remote off-grid regions. A case study was carried out to evaluate an annual energy and exergy efficiency of the system under the climate of northwestern region of China. It is found that both the main energy and exergy loss take place at the parabolic trough collector, amount to 36.2% and 70.4%, respectively. Also found is that the studied system can have a higher solar energy conversion efficiency than the conventional solar thermal power generation system alone. The energy efficiency can be increased to 58.0% from 10.2%, and the exergy efficiency can be increased to 15.2% from 12.5%. Moreover, the economical analysis in terms of cost and payback period (PP) has been carried out. The study reveals that the proposed system the PP of the proposed system is about 18 years under present energy price conditions. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the interest rate decreases to 3% or energy price increase by 50%, PP will be less than 10 years. (author)

  9. The Federal Administrative Court confirms unlawfulness of nuclear power moratorium. Political primacy is only valid in the bounds of justice; Bundesverwaltungsgericht bestaetigt Rechtswidrigkeit des Kernkraftmoratoriums. Primat der Politik gilt nur in den Schranken des Rechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Gleiss-Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    With its decision on December 20{sup th}, the Federal Administrative Court (BVwerfG) came to the legally valid conclusion that after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the supervision court order related to the law on nuclear installation by the Hessian Ministry for the Environment, in order to stop operating nuclear power plants Biblis A and B for 3 months or rather not to put in operation again, was unlawful (BVwerfG 7 B 18.13 und 7 B 19.13). Beforehand, the Hessian Administrative Court (Hess. VGH) had already pronounced its judgement on February 27{sup th} 2013. The supervising orders were part of the so-called nuclear power moratorium. They were issued after the resolution of the federal government, at demand of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) towards their nearby countries, and were identically executed by the supervisory authority of the other site-countries. Besides Biblis in Hesse, nuclear power plants in Neckarwestheim I and Philippsburg 1, Baden-Wurttemberg, Isar 1 in Bavaria, Unterweser in Lower Saxony, as well as Brunsbuettel in Schleswig-Holstein, were affected. However only RWE took legal action and was now affirmed - after the Hessian VGH verdict- by the highest German administrative court: The nuclear power moratorium - the first step to withdrawal of nuclear power in Germany - was unlawful. The decision taken by the BVerwG - as well as the one by the Hessian VGH - indicates a juridical clear and precise argumentation. The partially polemic and unobjective critic, which the VHG-verdict experienced, did not disguise, just as little as the political conflict concerning the withdrawal from nuclear energy, the view of federal judges, regarding the decision-relevant questions nor did they influence their reply. The political primacy finds its limits in the bounds of justice. Existing rights do not become thus a paper waste because there is a fundamental decision. This takes effectiveness for

  10. On the mechanical power of joint extensions as affected by the change in muscle force (or cross-sectional area), ceteris paribus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Alberto E

    2002-02-01

    This paper offers a reference prediction for the changes of mechanical power generated during a maximal (vertical, horizontal or inclined) joint extension, as a consequence of just the changes of muscle force or cross-sectional area (CSA). Ceteris paribus (all other things being equal), for a given joint, the exponents at which the force changes have to be raised to predict the duration, final speed and power of the maximal extension are -0.5, 0.5, and 1.5, respectively, for horizontal movements. For example, a force decrease of 30% leads to an increase of 19.5% of the duration of the extension and to a decrease of 16.3% and of 41.4% of its final speed and power. The equations for vertical or inclined extension performances are subject to the same exponents. However, the actual prediction is dependent upon the ratio between muscle strength and body weight, reflecting the fraction of the muscle strength (or CSA) acting against gravity during the manoeuvre. For instance, during a vertical extension, a force decrease of 30% leads to an increase of 30.9% of the duration of the extension and to a decrease of 29.3% and of 50.5% of its final speed and power. Based on the proposed model, a methodology is also described to detect the effects on the extension power of other determinants, in addition to CSA, of the useful force change (e.g. neuromuscular factors, motor control). PMID:11990751

  11. A High Power InGaN-Based Blue-Violet Laser Diode Array with a Broad-Area Stripe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An array of high power InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well laser diodes with a broad waveguide is fabricated. The laser diode structure is grown on a GaN substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The laser diode array consists of five emitter stripes which share common electrodes on one laser chip. The electrical and optical characteristics of the laser diode array are investigated under the pulse current injection with 10kHz frequency and 100 ns pulse width. The laser diode array emits at the wavelength of 409 nm, which is located in the blue-violet region, and the threshold current is 2.9 A. The maximum output light peak power is measured to be 7.5 W at the wavelength of 411.8 nm under the current of 25 A

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Nine Mile Point and James Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plants and surrounding areas, Lycoming, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Nine Mile Point and James FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plants was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plants and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant sites. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant sites varied from below 5.5 to 9 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant sites. Radiation due to nitrogen-16, which is produced in the steam cycle of boiling-water reactors, was the primary source of activity found at the plant sites. Areas away from the plant sites were free of detectable man-made radioactivity

  13. EMERGENCY RESPONSE OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN SAKHALIN REGION TO THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Darizhapov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Sakhalin Region in organizing prevention of conditions that endanger the public radiation safety related to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The authors present results of the measurements of the radiation situation in the Sakhalin region and propose ways to improve organizational and sanitary-hygienic measures aimed on ensuring public protectiony in events of radiation accidents.

  14. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36–6.23) and 1.00 (0.67–1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  15. 7 CFR 29.9231 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 29.9231 Section 29.9231 Agriculture... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Administration § 29.9231 Administration. The Director... the administration of the act. The conduct of all services and the licensing or employment...

  16. Information Systems in Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kánský, Václav

    2013-01-01

    My final thesis is dedicated to information systems in public administration, focused on one of the key information systems for the area of authority punishment within the competence of Customs Administration of the Czech Republic. On this information system there can be clearly qualitatively described essential elements affecting not just the creation and development but mainly the future growth and importance of it self within other systems of customs administration. This thesis is also d...

  17. Experimental investigation and modelling of tritium washout by precipitation in the area of the nuclear power plant of Paks, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koello, Z., E-mail: kolloz42@gmail.co [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem ter 18/c, Debrecen 4026 (Hungary); Palcsu, L.; Major, Z.; Papp, L.; Molnar, M. [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem ter 18/c, Debrecen 4026 (Hungary); Ranga, T.; Dombovari, P.; Manga, L. [Department of Radiation Protection, Nuclear Power Plant of Paks, Paks (Hungary)

    2011-01-15

    Tritium occurs in nature in trace amounts, but its concentration is changing due to natural and artificial sources. Studies focusing on natural tritium have to take into account the effect of artificial sources. Also, the impact of tritium is an important issue in environmental protection, e.g. in connection with the emissions from nuclear power plants. The present work focuses on the rain washout of tritium emitted from the Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary. Rainwater collectors were placed around the plant and after a period of precipitation, rainwater was collected and analysed for tritium content. Samples were analysed using low-level liquid scintillation counting, with some also subject to the more accurate {sup 3}He ingrowth method. The results clearly show the trace of the tritium plume emitted from the plant; however, values are only about one order of magnitude higher than environmental background levels. A washout model was devised to estimate the distribution of tritium around the plant. The model gives slightly higher concentrations than those measured in the field, but in general the agreement is satisfactory. The modelled values demonstrate that the effect of the plant on rainwater tritium levels is negligible over a distance of some kilometres. - Research highlights: {yields}The rainwater around a nuclear power plant was collected with a special rainwater collector {yields}The rainwater after a rain event was analysed for tritium with LSC and with the helium ingrowth method. {yields}The trace of the tritium plume is clearly detectable in the rainwater. {yields}The agreement between a reversible washout model and experimental data is satisfactory. {yields}According to the model the tritium plume is hardly detectable over some kilometers from the plant

  18. Influence of heat treatments on thermoelectric power of pressure vessel steels: effect of microstructural evolutions of strongly segregated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoelectric power measurement (TEP) is a very potential non destructive evaluation method considered to follow ageing under neutron irradiation of pressure vessel steel of nuclear reactor. Prior to these problems, the aim of this study is to establish correlations between TEP variations and microstructural evolutions of pressure vessel steels during heat treatments. Different steels, permitting to simulate heterogeneities of pressure vessel steels and to deconvoluate main metallurgical phenomenons effects were studied. This work allowed to emphasize effect on TEP of: austenitizing and cooling conditions and therefore of microstructure, metallurgical transformations during tempering (recovery, precipitation of alloying elements), and particularly molybdenum precipitation associated to secondary hardening, residual austenite amount or partial austenitizing. (author)

  19. Contaminant dispersion simulation with micrometeorological parameters generated by LES in the area around the Angra Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we report a numerical and statistical comparison between ADMM (Advection-Diffusion Multilayer Method) and GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique) approaches to simulate radioactive pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere using micrometeorological parameters generated by LES (Large Eddy Simulation). To a better description of the wind profile for the irregular ground level terrain, we consider the wind profile as solution of the MesoNH model. Furthermore, we show the aptness of the discussed methods to solve contaminant dispersion problem in the atmosphere for more realistic micrometeorological parameters and wind field considering experimental data of the Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  20. Hydrobiological survey of some surface waters in the area of Mochovce nuclear power plant and their saprobiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a hydrobiological study of three flows and one retention reservoir in the surroundings of the Mochovce nuclear power plant (Western Slovakia) performed in June 1982 and May 1983. The research was aimed at obtaining necessary information on the species composition of the algal flora (include blue-green algae) and selected groups of invertebrate hydrofauna (Sarcodina, Rotatoria, Cladocera, Copepoda, Oligochaeta and Chironomidae) in this territory. Natural waters were classified on the basis of the species composition of water organisms according to saprobiological criteria. (author). 4 refs