WorldWideScience

Sample records for area pollution sources

  1. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the source area of the Liao River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River. PMID:27533862

  2. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... on boiler inspector data-bases from 13 states. The boiler inspector data-bases include steam boilers... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Final Rule #0... Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers AGENCY:...

  3. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, Nicholas; Chao, Bing; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2015-10-01

    The article presents a comprehensive review of research advancing in 2014 on nonpoint source pollution (NPS). The topics presented relate to nonpoint source pollution (NPS) within agricultural and urban areas. NPS pollution from agricultural areas is the main focus in this review. Management of NPS in agricultural, urban and rural areas is presented. Modeling of NPS pollution in different watersheds with various modeling tools is reviewed.

  4. ADVECTION-DIFFUSION NUMERICAL MODEL OF AN AIR POLLUTANT EMITTED FROM AN AREA SOURCE OF PRIMARY POLLUTANT WITH WET DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M SURESHA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A two dimensional advection-diffusion numerical model of air pollutant emitted from an area source of primary pollutant with wet deposition is presented. We study the effect of removal mechanism i.e. wet deposition on primary pollutant with respect to distance and height for stable and neutral cases. The numerical model has been solved by using Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference technique. Concentration contours are plotted and results are analysed for primary pollutant in stable and neutral atmospheric situations for various meteorological parameters.

  5. 76 FR 13514 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Manufacturing Area Sources AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... Manufacturing Area Sources. Among the provisions EPA is reconsidering is a requirement that certain affected... published final National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing...

  6. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  7. 76 FR 57913 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating and Polishing'' which was published on June 20, 2011 (76 FR... direct final rule published at 76 FR 35750 on June 20, 2011. ADDRESSES: Docket: All documents in the... (76 FR 35806) published on the same day as a direct final rule, EPA will not institute a...

  8. Key area identification of pollution sources of drinking water sources in rural areas%村镇饮用水源地污染关键区识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程公德; 殷国玺; 谢崇宝; 张国华; 杨洁

    2014-01-01

    In the upstream of water sources, many pollutants are output from key pollution areas of water sources, and thus identifying key pollution areas of water sources is a key to protection and pollution control of rural drinking water source. In this paper, a method to directly identify key pollution areas was proposed and applied to investigate the pollution situation of rural drinking water sources in Anjishan reservoir area in 2011. Residential areas, farmlands, mines, and other land use types were identified as the pollution sources based on image classification techniques of remote sensing. Hydrology analysis tools for ArcGIS software were used to determine catchment of Anjishan basin. Batch Sub watershed Delineation tool combined with the distribution of the main pollution sources was used to divide Anjishan basin into 19 sub watershed, and land use areas for each sub watershed were summarized. In rural areas, Anjishan reservoir area was mainly affected by pollutants from non-point sources. So, farmland, aquaculture sewage, mines and rural life were considered as main pollution sources of this area. For these sources, COD (chemical oxygen demand), NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen), TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) were the main pollution factors. Source strength coefficient of each factor for each source was obtained from national reports and amended with survey data. Exceeds bid index method was adopted to calculate the weights of pollution factors based on their contributions rates, and degree of pollution was also calculated based on the weights. The pollution degree of water source for each sub watershed was calculated through degree of pollution of each pollution source and its corresponding land use area. The pollution degree of each sub watershed was converted to pollution concentration based on annual rainfall. Environmental quality standards for surface water in China are often used to assess the condition of water sources. In the standard, Class III

  9. The precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) for identifying the critical source areas of non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhui Jeanne; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Hao

    2015-05-01

    Critical source areas (CSAs) are the areas that are relatively more erosion-prone and contribute significantly more pollutants per unit area. They have been widely recognized as optimal locations for the control of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Modeling approach has been frequently used to identify the CSAs of NPS pollution on a basin scale. In previous studies, CSAs were identified based on the simulated average annual nutrient yields for the simulation period at the levels of sub-basin or hydrologic response unit (HRU). However, this method did not consider the impact of uneven spatial distribution of precipitation, which is considered to be the driven force of NPS pollution. In many cases, due to limited length of qualified monitoring data collected, the simulation period may not cover a full spectrum of the precipitation characteristics so that some potential CSAs may be missed. In the present study, the precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) was proposed, which can reduce the impact of uncertain spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation and identify the CSAs of NPS pollution with a better coverage. This method was applied to the Zhang River Basin, a watershed in North China that occupies an area of 18,072 km2. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used for simulation purposes. By using PCM, the maps of CSAs for controlling total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were produced. This study has found that the monthly precipitation is highly correlated with the TN and TP yields. It was observed that TN yields have slightly higher correlation value with the precipitation than TP yields. Hence, the precipitation has more impacts on TN yields than TP yields. The impact is more substantial in urban areas than other areas.

  10. A model for dispersion from area sources in convective turbulence. [for air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, G.; Panofsky, H. A.; Zeman, O.

    1977-01-01

    Four independent estimates of the vertical distribution of the eddy coefficient for dispersion of a passive contaminant from an extensive area source in a convective layer have been presented. The estimates were based on the following methods: (1) a second-order closure prediction, (2) field data of pollutant concentrations over Los Angeles, (3) lab measurements of particle dispersion, and (4) assumption of equality between momentum and mass transfer coefficients in the free convective limit. It is suggested that K-values estimated both from second-order closure theory and from Los Angeles measurements are systematically underestimated.

  11. Identification of micro-pollutant sources in urban areas. Advantage of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In urban areas, important amounts of hydrocarbons are released in the environment and a significant part of these pollutants concentrate in the sewage system leading to environmental problems. Many studies are based only on the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to identify the origin of environmental contamination. This work aims at demonstrating the advantage of aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) in the identification of pollutant sources in urban environments. Their specificity and relative distribution allow the identification and follow up of many hydrocarbon generating sources. The analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbon pathways has permitted to build up an important database for the signature of these pollutants. The coarse fraction of the sewage sludges is mainly contaminated by exhaust particulates and lubricating oils, while the organic fraction and the bio-film concentrate the biological and petroleum product contributions. The estimation of the level of degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons indicates a shorter residence time in the organic and bio-film layer with respect to the coarse deposit. (J.S.)

  12. mpacts of Agricultural Non-point Pollution on Water-source Area in Songhua Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research impacts of agricultural non-point pol- lution on water-source region in Songhua Dam, laying foundation for control of water pollution and scientific protection of water-source region. [Method] Water in Muyang River, lengshui River and Zizania aquatica region were sampled to measure content of pollutants in water and conclude relation between water contamination and agri- cultural non-point pollution to find the major cause of pollution. [Result] Organic pollu- tant in Muyang River was higher; N and P contents in Lengshui River were higher; the measured indices in Zizania aquatica region excessively exceeded related stan- dard. [Conclusion] The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are the toxic materials lead- ing to water contamination and constitute a major cause of pollution in Songhua Dam water-source region. Agricultural non-point pollution should be controlled in a scientific way.

  13. Identifying hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs to mitigate critical source areas of diffuse pollution: development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.; Creamer, Rachel; McDonald, Noeleen; Dunlop, Paul; Murphy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants such as phosphorus (P). A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that identifies HSAs at the sub-field scale. It uses a soil topographic index (STI) and accounts for the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks such as hedgerows and depressions. High resolution (0.25-2 m) LiDAR Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are utilised to capture these microtopographic controls on flow pathways and hydrological connectivity. The HSA Index was applied to four agricultural catchments (~7.5-12 km2) with contrasting topography and soil types. Catchment HSA sizes were estimated using high resolution rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014, and mapped using the HSA Index. HSA sizes ranged from 1.6-3.4% of the catchment area during median storm events and 2.9-8.5% during upper quartile events depending on whether well or poorly drained soils dominated, which validated HSA Index value distributions. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8,298-59,584 m3 and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways where transported pollutants such as P are delivered to the open drainage network. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips (RBS) reduced costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5 years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. Considering that HSAs are often the dominant P CSA factor in agricultural catchments and can override

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  15. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. PMID:25063882

  16. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  17. [Sources and spatial distribution of typical heavy metal pollutants in soils in Xihu Scenic Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Zhen; Tang, Yu-Li; Lu, Jun; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Yun-Qian; Chen, Chuan; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Mei-E

    2014-04-01

    Due to the importance as a famous scenic area in China and its special geographical position, heavy metal pollution in soils in Xihu Scenic Area has attracted great concerns. Typical heavy metals in surface soils (0- 20 cm) in Xihu Scenic Area was investigated using the grid sampling method and statistical analysis and Aregis approaches. It was suggested that there were anthropogenic accumulations of Cu, Zn and Pb in soils, and they were the main heavy metal pollutants in Xihu Scenic Area. The contents of Cu, Zn, Pb in soils are in the ranges of 4.6-197 mg x kg(-1), 11.1-885 mg x kg(-1) and 11.7-346 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The area with the highest 25% of Cu, Pb and Zn content located in the north-east part of the scenic area, which had lower ratios of green land, dense traffic roads and was characterized with high urbanization. Results of multiple comparison among different land uses and spatial cluster and outlier analysis revealed that those three main heavy metal pollutants Cu, Pb and Zn in Xihu Scenic Area were from traffic emissions. The purpose of this study was to provide basic data and theoretical bases for the ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in urban soils and environmental management of urban soils. PMID:24946612

  18. 75 FR 521 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... provision in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). Specifically... the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999). A primary goal of the Strategy... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area...

  19. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article. PMID:27620104

  20. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    .... On October 29, 2009 (74 FR 56008), the EPA issued the NESHAP for the nine chemical manufacturing area... requirement in 2011 (76 FR 15308, March 21, 2011). The chemical manufacturing area source categories were... below. 74 FR 56013-56014. In the preamble to the final rule, we noted that the chemical...

  1. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  2. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  3. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  4. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  5. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level. PMID:26936476

  6. Research on the design of a buffer strip for nonpoint source pollution control in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2015-12-01

    Following the implementation of the Three Gorges Dam Project, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has become a serious problem in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). An urgent need exists to build buffer strips along the TGR to improve water quality. However, to design the optimal buffer strip for NPS pollution control is challenging because of spatial variations in topography, hydrology, slope and drainage patterns in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). This research focus on (1) plan the placement of buffer strip in the TGRA for water quality benefits using terrain analysis. (2) estimate suitable widths of buffer strip for different objectives of water quality protection to reflect regional variations in physical conditions. Terrain analysis can provide assessments for placement of conservation practices. There are some ineffective areas where the performance of conservation practices is minimal at watershed scale. The results showed that with increased conservation objectives, greater widths are required to ensure NPS pollutant removal and improvements in water quality. The widths of the modelling buffer vary significantly in spatial with variation in pollutant concentration, slope and soil conditions. It is necessary to install buffer strip along the tributary streams for NPS pollution control and water quality protection at the watershed scale.

  7. 75 FR 12988 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category (74 FR 63236). Following... specified in Executive Order 13132, Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999). This action does not..., Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000). This...

  8. 76 FR 35744 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... amending this rule? On July 1, 2008 (73 FR 37741), we issued the NESHAP for Area Sources: Plating and... Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is therefore not subject to review under the... Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 6, 2000). This final rule makes certain technical corrections...

  9. Impacts of DEM uncertainties on critical source areas identification for non-point source pollution control based on SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Dong, Guangxia; Wang, Qingrui; Liu, Lumeng; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of different digital elevation model (DEM) resolutions, sources and resampling techniques on nutrient simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivities of DEM resolutions (from 30 m to 1000 m), sources (ASTER GDEM2, SRTM and Topo-DEM) and resampling techniques (nearest neighbor, bilinear interpolation, cubic convolution and majority) to identification of non-point source (NPS) critical source area (CSA) based on nutrient loads using the SWAT model. The Xiangxi River, one of the main tributaries of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. The following findings were obtained: (1) Elevation and slope extracted from the DEMs were more sensitive to DEM resolution changes. Compared with the results of the 30 m DEM, 1000 m DEM underestimated the elevation and slope by 104 m and 41.57°, respectively; (2) The numbers of subwatersheds and hydrologic response units (HRUs) were considerably influenced by DEM resolutions, but the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads of each subwatershed showed higher correlations with different DEM sources; (3) DEM resolutions and sources had larger effects on CSAs identifications, while TN and TP CSAs showed different response to DEM uncertainties. TN CSAs were more sensitive to resolution changes, exhibiting six distribution patterns at all DEM resolutions. TP CSAs were sensitive to source and resampling technique changes, exhibiting three distribution patterns for DEM sources and two distribution patterns for DEM resampling techniques. DEM resolutions and sources are the two most sensitive SWAT model DEM parameters that must be considered when nutrient CSAs are identified.

  10. Arsenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  11. Characterization of sources and loadings of fecal pollutants using microbial source tracking assays in urban and rural areas of the Grand River Watershed, Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T; Weir, Susan C; Thomas, Janis L; Habash, Marc

    2014-04-15

    Sources of fecal water pollution were assessed in the Grand River and two of its tributaries (Ontario, Canada) using total and host-specific (human and bovine) Bacteroidales genetic markers in conjunction with reference information, such as land use and weather. In-stream levels of the markers and culturable Escherichia coli were also monitored during multiple rain events to gain information on fecal loadings to catchment from diffuse sources. Elevated human-specific marker levels were accurately identified in river water impacted by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and at a downstream site in the Grand River. In contrast, the bovine-specific marker showed high levels of cattle fecal pollution in two tributaries, both of which are characterized as intensely farmed areas. The bovine-specific Bacteroidales marker increased with rainfall in the agricultural tributaries, indicating enhanced loading of cattle-derived fecal pollutants to river from non-point sources following rain events. However, rain-triggered fecal loading was not substantiated in urban settings, indicating continuous inputs of human-originated fecal pollutants from point sources, such as WWTP effluent. This study demonstrated that the Bacteroidales source tracking assays, in combination with land use information and hydrological data, may provide additional insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of source-specific fecal contamination in streams impacted by varying land uses. Using the approach described in this study may help to characterize impacted water sources and to design targeted land use management plans in other watersheds in the future. PMID:24509346

  12. 75 FR 10184 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... pollution control. I. Corrections On December 3, 2009 (74 FR 63504), the EPA promulgated the national... explained in detail in the preamble of the final rule (74 FR 63504). Today's action notifies interested..., Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this action is not a ''significant...

  13. 76 FR 80261 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Air Pollutant (HAP) emissions control (75 FR 533). We added the 95-percent design efficiency... published on January 5, 2010, (75 FR 522) if adverse comments are received on this direct final rule. If we.... V. What amendments are being made to this rule? On January 5, 2010 (75 FR 522), the EPA...

  14. Possible sources of water pollution from the catchment area of the Sasa mine

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays we have met with penetrative low regulation regarding to protective of human environmental. Having this in mind, it’s become necessary to take quality and full approach to detect the situation on the ground. Only with full information, the proper steps towards solving problems and satisfied low regulation demands can be taken. In this paper we try to show that, not only human activities as some technological processes could be responsible for environmental pollutions, but in many ...

  15. [Review of urban nonpoint source pollution models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Huang, Yue-Fei; Wang, Guang-Qian

    2010-10-01

    The development history of urban nonpoint source pollution models is reviewed. Features, applicability and limitations of seven popular urban nonpoint source pollution models (SWMM, STORM, SLAMM, HSPF, DR3M-QUAL, MOUSE, and HydroWorks) are discussed. The methodology and research findings of uncertainty in urban nonpoint source pollution modeling are presented. Analytical probabilistic models for estimation of urban nonpoint sources are also presented. The research achievements of urban nonpoint source pollution models in China are summarized. The shortcomings and gaps of approaches on urban nonpoint source pollution models are pointed out. Improvements in modeling of pollutants buildup and washoff, sediments and pollutants transport, and pollutants biochemical reactions are desired for those seven popular models. Most of the models developed by researchers in China are empirical models, so that they can only applied for specific small areas and have inadequate accuracy. Future approaches include improving capability in fate and transport simulation of sediments and pollutants, exploring methodologies of modeling urban nonpoint source pollution in regions with little data or incomplete information, developing stochastic models for urban nonpoint source pollution simulation, and applying GIS to facilitate urban nonpoint source pollution simulation. PMID:21229773

  16. Research on Rural Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Process of Urban-Rural Integration in the Economically-Developed Area in China Based on the Improved STIRPAT Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjun Dai; Tao Sun; Kun Zhang; Wen Guo

    2015-01-01

    The process of urban-rural integration has led to severe ecological environmental pollution in rural areas of China, particularly in the economically-developed areas. This is an urgent issue to be solved. We select Jiangsu Province as a case study. From the perspective of the population, economic scale, energy consumption and financial support, we perform an empirical study of rural non-point source pollution problems in the process of urbanization based on the improved STIRPAT model. We appl...

  17. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    .... IV. Why are we amending this rule? On July 1, 2008 (73 FR 37741), we issued the NESHAP for Area... action'' under the terms of Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is therefore not subject to review under Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 2011). B....

  18. Improving the identification of hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs for the delineation and mitigation of critical source areas of diffuse pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I A; Jordan, P; Mellander, P-E; Fenton, O; Shine, O; Ó hUallacháin, D; Creamer, R; McDonald, N T; Dunlop, P; Murphy, P N C

    2016-06-15

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants. A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that improves the identification of HSAs at the sub-field scale by accounting for microtopographic controls. The Index is based on high resolution LiDAR data and a soil topographic index (STI) and also considers the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks. The HSA Index was applied to four intensive agricultural catchments (~7.5-12km(2)) with contrasting topography and soil types, and validated using rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8298 to 59,584m(3) and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'breakthrough points' and 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways as vulnerable points where diffuse pollutants could be transported between fields or delivered to the open drainage network, respectively. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips reduced potential costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. The HSA Index can be used as a hydrologically realistic transport component within a fully evolved sub-field scale CSA model, and can also be used to guide the implementation of 'treatment-train' mitigation strategies concurrent with sustainable agricultural intensification.

  19. Improving the identification of hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs for the delineation and mitigation of critical source areas of diffuse pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I A; Jordan, P; Mellander, P-E; Fenton, O; Shine, O; Ó hUallacháin, D; Creamer, R; McDonald, N T; Dunlop, P; Murphy, P N C

    2016-06-15

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants. A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that improves the identification of HSAs at the sub-field scale by accounting for microtopographic controls. The Index is based on high resolution LiDAR data and a soil topographic index (STI) and also considers the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks. The HSA Index was applied to four intensive agricultural catchments (~7.5-12km(2)) with contrasting topography and soil types, and validated using rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8298 to 59,584m(3) and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'breakthrough points' and 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways as vulnerable points where diffuse pollutants could be transported between fields or delivered to the open drainage network, respectively. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips reduced potential costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. The HSA Index can be used as a hydrologically realistic transport component within a fully evolved sub-field scale CSA model, and can also be used to guide the implementation of 'treatment-train' mitigation strategies concurrent with sustainable agricultural intensification. PMID:26974575

  20. ADVECTION - DIFFUSION NUMERICAL MODEL OF AN AIR POLLUTANT EMITTED FROM AN AREA SOURCE OF PRIMARY POLLUTANT WITH CHEMICAL REACTION AND DRY DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHEER PAI K L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A time dependent two dimensional advection-diffusion numerical model for primary pollutant with chemical reaction and dry deposition for an urban area is presented. The proposed numerical model takes into account of realistic form of variable wind velocity and eddy diffusivity profiles. The partial differential equation of primarypollutant is solved by using Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference technique. The results are plotted for concentration of primary pollutant and the effect of chemical reaction and dry deposition on the dispersion of pollutant are analysed extensively.

  1. Bacteriological quality evaluation of seawater and oysters from the Hansan-Geojeman area in Korea, 2011-2013: impact of inland pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Poong Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Ha, Kwang Soo; Shim, Kil Bo; Lee, Ka Jeong; Jung, Yeoun Joong; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2016-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, we conducted a full sanitary survey of pollution sources in proximity to a shellfish growing area in the Hansan-Geojeman region in Korea, which includes a designated shellfish growing area. In the sea area, 1152 seawater and 209 oyster samples were collected and examined to evaluate their bacteriological quality. There were 758 potential pollution sources in the drainage area, including 40 sources discharging water in 2013. Fecal coliform (FC) concentrations and impact radii of discharges ranged from 1.8 to 700,000 MPN/100 mL and from 3 to 600 m, respectively; however, the pollutants did not reach the designated area. This demonstrates that the dilution of waste was sufficient such that no significant impact occurred within the designated shellfish growing area. The variation in the FC levels of seawater was closely related to season and rainfall. The FC levels of seawater and oysters from the designated area met the regulation limits set by various countries. No pathogens were found in any oysters. The results of the survey indicate that the oysters produced in this area are apparently safe for raw consumption based on their bacterial quality. PMID:27610330

  2. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  3. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  4. The Use of LiDAR Elevation Data and Satellite Imagery to Locate Critical Source Areas to Diffuse Pollution in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Thériault, Georges; Beaudin, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Jean-François; Denault, Jean-Thomas; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    In Quebec / Canada, water quality improvement in rural areas greatly depends on the reduction of diffuse pollution. Indeed, point source pollution has been reduced significantly in Canada in recent years by creating circumscribed pits for manure and removing animals from stream. Diffuse pollution differs from point source pollution because it is spread over large areas. In agricultural areas, sediment loss by soil and riverbank erosion along with loss of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) and pesticides from fields represent the main source of non-point source pollution. The factor mainly responsible for diffuse pollution in agricultural areas is surface runoff occurring in poorly drained areas in fields. The presence of these poorly drained areas is also one of the most limiting factors in crop productivity. Thus, a reconciliation of objectives at the farm (financial concern for farmers) and off-farm concerns (environmental concern) is possible. In short, drainage, runoff, erosion, water quality and crop production are all interconnected issues that need to be tackled together. Two complementary data sources are mainly used in the diagnosis of drainage, surface runoff and erosion : elevation data and multispectral satellite images. In this study of two watersheds located in Québec (Canada), LiDAR elevation data and satellite imagery (QuickBird, Spot and Landsat) were acquired. The studied territories have been partitioned in hydrologic response units (HRUs) according to sub-basins, soils, elevation (topographic index) and land use. These HRUs are afterwards used in a P index software (P-Edit) that calculates the quantities of sediments and phosphorus exported from each HRUs. These exports of sediments and phosphorus are validated with hydrometric and water quality data obtain in two sub-basins and are also compared to soil brightness index derived from multispectral images. This index is sensitive to soil moisture and thus highlights areas where the soil is

  5. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  6. Multi-isotope approach for the identification and characterisation of nitrate pollution sources in the Marano lagoon (Italy) and parts of its catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multi-tracer approach for the identification and characterisation of nitrate sources in a lagoon environment was used. • Different nitrate pollution sources in the lagoon were identified. • Isotopes in nitrate and boron were applied to distinguish different anthropogenic pollution sources. • Atmospheric depositions (based on Δ17O analyses of nitrate) were recognized as additional nitrate source. - Abstract: A multi-isotope approach has been used in the Marano lagoon (NE Italy) and parts of its catchment area to identify causes of increased NO3- pollution. The hydrogeochemical features of different water types and potential sources of NO3- were characterized using the isotopic composition of NO3- (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) and other source-related species such as B (δ11B), water (δ2H and δ18O) and SO42- (δ34S and δ18O). Water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater up-welling line, groundwater, sewer pipes, and open sea water have been collected at quarterly intervals in the years 2009–2010. The results indicate that the NO3- load in the lagoon was not only derived from agricultural activities but also from other sources such as urban waste water, in situ nitrification and atmospheric deposition. The δ34S signature in the lagoon clearly denotes the largely prevailing origin of aqueous SO42- from seawater, and practically points to the absence of any appreciable redox process involving S species in the lagoon. It also supports the existence of a connection between the lagoon and the nearby Tagliamento river

  7. The new open Flexible Emission Inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area (FEI-GREGAA): Account of pollutant sources and their importance from 2006 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameli, Kyriaki-Maria; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.

    2016-07-01

    Photochemical and particulate pollution problems persist in Athens as they do in various European cities, despite measures taken. Although, for many cities, organized and updated pollutant emissions databases exist, as well as infrastructure for the support of policy implementation, this is not the case for Greece and Athens. So far abstract efforts to create inventories from temporal and spatial annual low resolution data have not lead to the creation of a useful database. The objective of this study was to construct an emission inventory in order to examine the emission trends in Greece and the Greater Athens Area for the period 2006-2012 on a spatial scale of 6 × 6 km2 and 2 × 2 km2, respectively and on a temporal scale of 1 h. Emissions were calculated from stationary combustion sources, transportation (road, navigation and aviation), agriculture and industry obtained from official national and European sources. Moreover, new emission factors were calculated for road transport and aviation. The final database named F.E.I. - GREGAA (Flexible Emission Inventory for GREece and the GAA) is open-structured so as to receive data updates, new pollutants, various emission scenarios and/or different emission factors and be transformed for any grid spacing. Its main purpose is to be used in applications with photochemical models to contribute to the investigation on the type of sources and activities that lead to the configuration of air quality. Results showed a decreasing trend in CO, NOx and VOCs-NMVOCs emissions and an increasing trend from 2011 onwards in PM10 emissions. Road transport and small combustion contribute most to CO emissions, road transport and navigation to NOx and small combustion and industries to PM10. The onset of the economic crisis can be seen from the reduction of emissions from industry and the increase of biomass burning for heating purposes.

  8. 农业非点源污染关键源区识别方法研究进展%Identification approaches of critical source area of agricultural non-point source pollution:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振炜; 于兴修; 姚孝友; 井光花

    2011-01-01

    在农业非点源污染研究中,识别污染发生的关键源区非常重要.在介绍输出系数法、污染指数法和非点源污染模型法等主要农业非点源污染关键源区识别方法的基础上,分析了输出系数取值、污染指数因子权重分级以及非点源模型法参数获取等方面存在问题,并从野外观测、现有不同识别方法的结合、多角度识别方法的研究以及新技术的应用与集成等方面对未来关键源区识别研究进行了展望,以期为农业非点源污染评价与控制提供借鉴.%Non-point source pollution has remarkable spatial variability, and the pollutants coming from several landscape units usually account for the majority of the pollutant loads in a catchment. These landscape units are the critical non-point source pollution areas (CSAs). How to identify the critical source areas of pollutant losses from agricultural lands is very important for the control of agricultural non-point source pollution. The approaches such as export coefficient, pollution index, and non-point source pollution model are adopted to identify the CSAs at field and catchment scales. This paper mainly described the applicability and the problems of the approaches with systematic analysis, and, aiming at the present research characteristics and existing problems, offered the concrete proposals and expectations for the future study, such as field observation, combination of existing identification methods, methods for multi-angle identification, and application and integration of new technologies.

  9. Light sources and light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)

  10. Synergistic impacts of land-use change and soil property variation on non-point source nitrogen pollution in a freeze-thaw area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Haobo; Hao, Fanghua; Guo, Bobo

    2013-07-01

    Quantifying the non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution response to the varied land-use and soil properties in highly agricultural regions is critical for the proper management of NPS pollution. This study simulated the NPS nitrogen loading responses to variations of land-use and soil from 1979 to 2009. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the NPS organic nitrogen and nitrate loading in a freeze-thaw area in northeast China. The temporal-spatial simulations of land-use in four periods indicated that the NPS nitrogen loading responded to the disappearance of wetlands and the conversion of uplands to paddy rice. After updating the soil data, the watershed NPS nitrogen loading decreased, and the spatial distribution of the loading indicated that the NPS organic nitrogen was more sensitive than was the nitrate to soil variation. F-tests were employed to assess the significance of each of the predictor variables in five types of scenarios. Overall, the results indicate that the watershed NPS nitrogen loading is sensitive to changes of soil and land-use, but soil changes have a more significant impact. The results of this study also suggest that temperature has significant effects on NPS nitrogen yield and that it caused the twin peaks in the temporal scale. Increasing the temperature above zero in April caused a temporal shift in soil water movement and transported nitrogen pollution earlier in the year, causing an increased loading in water before the summer irrigation, which is advantageous for NPS nitrogen pollution control.

  11. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  12. [Spatial distribution and pollution source identification of agricultural non-point source pollution in Fujiang watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Wen; Shen, Zhen-Yao

    2012-11-01

    In order to provide regulatory support for management and control of non-point source (NPS) pollution in Fujiang watershed, agricultural NPS pollution is simulated, spatial distribution characteristics of NPS pollution are analyzed, and the primary pollution sources are also identified, by export coefficient model (ECM) and geographic information system (GIS). Agricultural NPS total nitrogen (TN) loading was of research area was 9.11 x 10(4) t in 2010, and the average loading was intensity was 3.10 t x km(-2). Agricultural NPS TN loading mainly distributed over dry lands, Mianyang city and gentle slope areas; high loading intensity areas were dry lands, Deyang city and gentle slope areas. Agricultural land use, of which contribution rate was 62. 12%, was the most important pollution source; fertilizer loss in dry lands, of which contribution rate was 50.49%, was the prominent. Improving methods of agricultural cultivation, implementing "farm land returning to woodland" policy, and enhancing treatment efficiency of domestic sewage and livestock waster wate are effective measures. PMID:23323441

  13. Types of water pollution: point source and nonpoint source

    OpenAIRE

    Oana V. Viman; Ioan Oroian; Andrei Fleșeriu

    2010-01-01

    Water is an important element to human life, this is why around water sources humansettlements have been built which led to the development of these specific areas. One person needs aminimum of 5 L water per day, out of which 1.5-2 L are consumed as know and the rest is beingretained from food (Ghidra 2004). Due to this water pollution has a negative impact on human andanimal health and it also affects the surrounding environment. Water pollution means changes on itsnatural qualities and the ...

  14. 水库水源地面源污染防治对策及实践%Non-point Source Pollution Control Countermeasures and Practice in Water Source Area of Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠; 张锦娟; 庄景

    2013-01-01

    根据水库水源地的地形、水系特点,以小流域为单元,将污染源头和迁移途径作为落足点,提出农村生活污水收集处理、生态农业推广、畜禽养殖污染治理、水土流失治理以及景观格局优化相结合的综合防治措施,最后介绍了浙江省珊溪水库水源地某小流域的污染治理情况,为水库水源地保护和生态清洁型小流域建设提供参考.%Based on the topography and water system characteristics of water source area of reservoirs,taking small basin as unit,pollution source and transport route as point of strength,integrated control measures,consists of domestic sewage treatment,ecological agriculture promotion,livestock cultivation pollution treatment,soil erosion control and optimization of landscape pattern,were proposed.At last,the pollution treatment details in a small basin of Shanxi reservoir in Zhejing Province was introduced in order to supply reference for reservoir water source area protection and constructions of ecological clean small basins.

  15. Calculation of Intercepted Volume of Sewer Overflows: a Model for Control of Nonpoint Pollution Sources in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. Choi; D. I. Jung; C. H. Won; J. M. Rim

    2006-01-01

    The authors discovered large differences in the characteristics of overflows by the calculation of 1) intercepting volume of overflows for sewer systems using SWMM model which takes into consideration the runoff and pollutants from rainfalls and 2) the intercepted volume in the total flow at an investigation site. The intercepting rate at the investigation point of CSOs showed higher values than the SSDs. Based on the modeling of the receiving water quality after calculating the intercepting amount of overflows by considering the characteristics of outflows for a proper management of the overflow of sewer systems with rainfalls, it is clear that the BOD decreased by 82.9%-94.0% for the discharge after intercepting a specific amount of flows compared to the discharge from unprocessed overflows.

  16. Anthropogenic and natural source of methane in the Japan-Sea area and Promoriye Polluting the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Yanovskaya, O.S.; Druzhinin, V.V.; Korovitskaya E.V.

    2006-01-01

    Promoting Environmental Pesearch in Pan-Japan Sea Area : Young Researchers' Network, Schedule: March 8-10,2006,Kanazawa Excel Hotel Tokyu, Japan, Organized by: Kanazawa University 21st-Century COE Program, Environmental Monitoring and Prediction of Long- & Short- Term Dynamics of Pan-Japan Sea Area ; IICRC(Ishikawa International Cooperation Research Centre), Sponsors : Japan Sea Research ; UNU-IAS(United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies)+Ishikawa Prefecture Government ; City o...

  17. 辽河源头区流域农业非点源污染风险评价与关键源区识别%Critical Source Area Identification and Risk Assessment of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution of the Source Areas of Liaohe River Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕川; 张洪钰; 齐琳

    2014-01-01

    在农业非点源污染研究中,确定农业非点源污染的关键源区是开展有针对性研究和控制农业非点源污染的首要问题之一。采用GIS和地统计学为技术手段,在综合分析辽河源头区流域农业非点源风险的源因子和迁移因子的基础上,筛选出影响辽河源头区流域非点源污染的主要因子,建立识别辽河源头区流域农业非点源污染风险程度的指标体系,确定权重并划分因子等级,生成指标体系中各因子的30 m ×30 m栅格图,,采用多因子综合分析法计算非点源污染风险等级,对农业非点源污染风险进行定量化评价,确定流域内非点源污染发生风险高的区域为关键源区,并针对关键源区内最易产生污染物的地段和部位提出反映辽河源头区非点源污染特征的管理控制措施。结果表明:流域中农业非点源污染高风险区即关键源区占全流域面积的21.77%,主要集中在辽河源头区东北部、中部以及东南部丘陵区,大部分为流域中的农田和坡耕地区域,其人口密度、畜禽养殖量以及施肥量都偏高。%The primary issue of efficiently controlling and managing agricultural non-point source pollu-tion is how to identify critical source areas or the sensitive regions of pollutants in agricultural lands .In this pa-per,under GIS and geostatistics technical means ,based on comprehensive analysis of the source factors and the migration of agricultural non-point sources of risk factors ,the authors identify the impact of non-point source pollution factor ,establish the index system to identify agricultural non-point source pollution risk .The study chose 30 m×30 m grid unit to generate the identification system ,determine the factor weights ,used multifactor analysis to calculate the non-point source pollution risk index of each factor and carried out its quantitative e-valuation .Critical source areas were areas whose risk

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF RIVER WATER EXCESSIVE POLLUTION SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    K. J. KACHIASHVILI; D. I. MELIKDZHANIAN

    2006-01-01

    The program package for identification of river water excessive pollution sources located between two controlled cross-sections of the river is described in this paper. The software has been developed by the authors on the basis of mathematical models of pollutant transport in the rivers and statistical hypotheses checking methods. The identification algorithms were elaborated with the supposition that the pollution sources discharge different compositions of pollutants or (at the identical c...

  19. Types of water pollution: point source and nonpoint source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana V. Viman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is an important element to human life, this is why around water sources humansettlements have been built which led to the development of these specific areas. One person needs aminimum of 5 L water per day, out of which 1.5-2 L are consumed as know and the rest is beingretained from food (Ghidra 2004. Due to this water pollution has a negative impact on human andanimal health and it also affects the surrounding environment. Water pollution means changes on itsnatural qualities and the inclusion of foreign elements, resulted from a series of natural and artificialphenomena, making it unsuitable for the previously mentioned aims. Water pollution can be natural orartificial and it can have permanent, irregular or accidental effects.

  20. Nitrate pollution in groundwater: source identification using isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope ratios for identification of pollutant source is an emerging scientific tool. An investigation was carried out to find out the origin of nitrate in groundwater in an area which receives pollutant of different origin like inorganic fertilizers, organic manures besides urban wastes. The δ15N values of nitrate clearly indicated the possibility of groundwater pollution by nitrate originating from human and animal wastes. (author)

  1. Using SWAT to Assess the Critical Areas and Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction Best Management Practices in Lam Takong River Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netnapa Pongpetch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological models are essential tools for water resource and nonpoint source pollution management. This study aimed to evaluate critical areas and best management practices (BMPs of sediment and nutrient loads in Lam Takong River basin, Northeastern Thailand, using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model. The model was calibrated and validated using daily data of streamflow, sediment, NO3-N and TP in Lam Takong River from 2007-2008 and 2009, respectively. In general, the simulated streamflow and sediment were in reasonable agreement with the measured values with coefficient of determination (R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE greater than 0.50 and the percent bias (PBIAS less than 25%. Additionally, nutrient loads showed a fair relationship between observation and simulation with R2 values more than 0.6 and PBIAS values less than 25%. From simulation, September was the month with the highest sediment, NO3-N and TP yields while January and December were the lowest months. From the model, SWAT identified 1 severe and 1 high soil erosion subbasins. Two subbasins were classified into medium loading for NO3-N. However, 9 subbasins were classified into high loading rate of TP. For BMPs, the 30-mwide filter strip was the best scenario reducing 100% of both sediment and TP, and 97.27% of NO3-N. These results could be a useful tool for water resources managements and soil conservation planning in Lam Takong River basin.

  2. Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion from a ground-level area source over urban street canyons with irreversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T. Z.; Liu, C.-H.; Zhao, Y. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants is calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES) in a neutrally stratified urban canopy layer (UCL) over urban areas. As a pilot attempt, idealized street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio are used. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from the ground surface of the first street canyon into the domain doped with ozone (O3). In the absence of ultraviolet radiation, this irreversible chemistry produces nitrogen dioxide (NO2), developing a reactive plume over the rough urban surface. A range of timescales of turbulence and chemistry are utilized to examine the mechanism of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the UCL. The Damköhler number (Da) and the reaction rate (r) are analyzed along the vertical direction on the plane normal to the prevailing flow at 10 m after the source. The maximum reaction rate peaks at an elevation where Damköhler number Da is equal or close to unity. Hence, comparable timescales of turbulence and reaction could enhance the chemical reactions in the plume.

  3. Determination and analysis of PM 10 source apportionment during episodes of air pollution in Central Eastern European urban areas: The case of wintertime 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Reizer, Magdalena; Oudinet, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-01

    Source apportionment of air pollution due to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Russia-Belarus-Ukraine), most were also under LRT from Southern origin (Slovakia, Czech Republic), and northern cities were under national RT influence. PCA analysis shows that ion-sums of secondary inorganic aerosols account for LRT pollution while arsenic and chromium represents markers of RT (industrial) and LP (residential) sources of PM 10, respectively. Determination of several ratios (REG/UB, REG/TRAF, TRAF/UB) calculated between PM 10 levels measured at regional background (REG); urban background (UB) and traffic (TRAF) monitoring sites shows that, with ratios REG/UB ≥ 0.57, PM 10 episodes in both Szczecin and Warsaw bore a marked RT origin. The lower REG/UB ≤ 0.35 in the Southern cities of Cracow and Zabrze indicates that LP was the main contributor to the observed episodes. Only PM 10 episodes in Southern-western Poland (Jelenia Góra) were clearly of LP origin as characterized, by the lowest REG/UB ratio (<0.2). The high TRAF/UB ratios obtained for all cities (close to 1) indicate that there was a great uniformity of PM levels on an urban scale owing to the meteorologically stagnant conditions. A high correlation between PM 10, NO 2 and CO confirms that traffic emission represented a common and an important LP source of urban pollution in most Polish cities during January 2006. On the other hand PM 10 which is also highly correlated with SO 2 in 4 cities out of 6, indicates that coal combustion through domestic heating or industrial activities was also an important LP source of PM 10. Finally, extremely unfavourable meteorological conditions caused by the influence of a Siberian high-pressure system were found to be associated with the occurrence of severe PM 10 episodes of pollution.

  4. Discussion on the Green Tax Stimulation Measure of Nitrogen Fertilizer Non-Point Source Pollution Control - Taking the Dongting Lake Area in China as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ping-an; ZHOU Yan; HUANG Huang; ZHENG Hua

    2007-01-01

    A study on designing the tax of nitrogen fertilizer can provide a new method for controlling nitrogen fertilizer non-point source pollution. The tax design of nitrogen fertilizer was discussed by utilizing the external theory and the demand elasticity theory. The results indicated that the coefficient of price elasticity of nitrogen fertilizer demand is -0.21, which instructed that the market demand is in lack of elasticity in the short period and the impact of nitrogen fertilizer manufacturers is subtle. The 11 counties (cities and boroughs) in the Dongting Lake area in China, where the farmland nitrogen application surpassed the average ecological fertilization dosage, is listed to the taxation scope of nitrogen fertilizer tax. The environment loss will reduce 0.07 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.89 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The loss, which was brought by the decreasing food supplies production, will be 0.58 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.38 hundred million RMB yuan following revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.49%. The variation scope of the income of farmers will range from -8.41 to 6.44%. The 5 areas, Yunxi Borough, Junshan Borough, Hanshou County, Jinshi City, and Ziyang Borough, had an increase in food supplies production after the revenue collection. The environment loss will reduce 0.01 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.16 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The economic benefits, which was brought by the increasing cereals production, will be 0.67 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.84 hundred million RMB yuan after revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.06%. The variation scope of the increasing income of farmers will

  5. Urban Sources of Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    A discusion of the relative importance of different mobile sources, effects of driving on emissions, history of emissions standards, and technological methods to reduce emissions.......A discusion of the relative importance of different mobile sources, effects of driving on emissions, history of emissions standards, and technological methods to reduce emissions....

  6. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  7. Source apportionment of indoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Hayward, Steven B.

    An understanding of the relative contributions from important pollutant sources to human exposures is necessary for the design and implementation of effective control strategies. In the past, societal efforts to control air pollution have focused almost exclusively on the outdoor (ambient) environment. As a result, substantial amounts of time and money have been spent to limit airborne discharges from mobile and stationary sources. Yet it is now recognized that exposures to elevated pollutant concentrations often occur as a result of indoor, rather than outdoor, emissions. While the major indoor sources have been identified, their relative impacts on indoor air quality have not been well defined. Application of existing source apportionment models to nonindustrial indoor environments is only just beginning. It is possible that these models might be used to distinguish between indoor and outdoor emissions, as well as to distinguish among indoor sources themselves. However, before the feasibility and suitability of source-apportionment methods for indoor applications can be assessed adequately, it is necessary to take account of model assumptions and associated data requirements. This paper examines the issue of indoor source apportionment and reviews the need for emission characterization studies to support such source-apportionment efforts.

  8. VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLLUTION EMISSION RATES FROM AREA SOURCES USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SEPCTROSCOPY AND DISPERSION MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a methodology developed to estimate emissions factors for a variety of different area sources in a rapid, accurate, and cost effective manner. he methodology involves using an open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to measure concentrations o...

  9. Impact of gravitation on gaseous pollutant source identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pang Liping; Zhang Yu; Qu Hongquan; Hu Tao; Zhao Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to identify a gaseous pollutant source rapidly so that prompt actions can be taken,but this is one of the difficulties in the inverse problem areas.In this paper,an approach to identifying a sudden continuous emission pollutant source based on single sensor information is developed to locate a source in an enclosed space with a steady velocity field.Because the gravity has a very important influence on the gaseous pollutant transport and the source identification,its influence is analyzed theoretically and a conclusion is drawn that the velocity of fluid is a key factor to effectively help weaken the gravitational influence.Further studies for a given 2-D case by using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method show that when the velocity of inlet is less than one certain value,the influence of gravity on the pollutant transport is very significant,which will change the velocity field obviously.In order to quantitatively judge the practical applicability of identification approach,a synergy degree of the velocity fields before and after a source appearing is proposed as a condition for considering the influence of gravity.An experimental device simulating pollutant transmission was set up and some experiments were conducted to verify the practical application of the above studies in the actual gravitational environment.The results show that the proposed approach can successfully locate the sudden constant source when the experimental situations meet the identified conditions.

  10. Assessing Urban Non-Point Source pollutants at the Virginia Tech Extended Dry Detention Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Kimberly Jean

    1997-01-01

    With a growing concern for the environment and increasing urbanization of rural areas, understanding the characteristics of urban non-point source pollution has become a focus for water quality investigators. Once thought to be a small contributor to the pollution problem, urban non-point sources are now responsible for transporting over 50% of all pollutants into natural waterways. Assessing ...

  11. The Economics of Non-Point-Source Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasios Xepapadeas

    2011-01-01

    Non-point-source (NPS) pollution refers to a form of pollution in which neither the source nor the size of specific emissions can be observed or identified with sufficient accuracy. In NPS pollution the ambient concentration of pollutants associated with the individually unobserved emissions is typically observed. NPS pollution due to agricultural runoff is a major source of water pollution, eutrophication, and hypoxia. Due to informational asymmetries and stochastic effects, the use of tradi...

  12. Nonpoint source pollution management for the multipurpose dam watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J-Y

    2008-01-01

    Main pollution sources in multipurpose dam watersheds in Korea are highland fields, stream banks, livestock farms, roads, and construction sites. Specifically, highland fields are the major nonpoint pollution sources. Excessive organic chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticide can be exuded from the land, and the area is likely to be eroded by heavy rain. Fallow, conservative cultivation, and covering can be alternatives for soil protection and reinforcement. In addition to these, construction of detour waterways and improvement of irrigation method can minimize the impact of runoff. In the case of slope in 15% degree or more, prohibiting cultivation and restoring the surface is preferred to improving cultivation method in order to control nonpoint pollution sources efficiently. PMID:18547938

  13. Numerical simulation of point-sources pollution diffusion in coastal area%浅海点源污染物扩散数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丹; 杨中华; 槐文信

    2012-01-01

    建立了守恒性好且能贴体模拟工程区域的二维潮流-污染物扩散数学模型,采用三角形网格划分计算区域,有限体积法求解控制方程,运用的动边界处理技术能合理地模拟海岸的淹没与出露.利用实测资料对模型进行了验证,模拟结果与实测数据吻合较好,在此基础上对某污水处理厂排放口附近海域的COD浓度分布进行预测计算,其结果为该海域的环境评价提供了科学依据.%A well-conserved 2D mathematical model that described the pollution diffusion in tide is established. Triangle grids are used to divide the calculation area with body-fitted coordinates; and the finite volume method is applied to discretize the control equation. Also, the application of dynamic boundary technique made the simulation in the mergence and emergence of the coastal reasonable. Numerical results are compared with measured data; and show a good agreement. Based on the model, the concentration distribution of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in a coastal area near outlets of a sewage treatment plant is predicted, so as to provide scientific reference for the environmental assessment of the maritime area.

  14. Researches on Non-point Source Pollution and Water Environment Capacity of Drinking Water Source Area in Huanglaxi River%黄腊溪饮用水源地非点源污染及水环境容量初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪丁愈; 张建强; 王庆安; 佘红英; 王东睿

    2011-01-01

    以四川省大英县隆盛镇黄腊溪饮用水源地为研究对象.根据当地丰水期的实际情况和实测数据建立了一维水质模型.测试结果表明,8月CODcr,TN和9月TN已超过地表水III类水质目标.结合水环境容量计算公式得知:8月上中旬污染物中CODS和TN各需要要消减408.25 t·a-1和2.52t·a-1的入河量,而9月则应消减110.92 t·a-1的TN入河量才能满足当地饮用水水源地标准.最后针对污染源的排放情况提出相应的水环境防治对策和建议.%Huang taxi drinking water source area, which locates at Longsheng town in Sichuan province, is considered as the research object.According to the local practical situation in wet season and the measured data,a ane-dimensional water quality model is set up. Survey data show that the TN and CODcr in August and the TN in September have surpassed surface water 1II kind of water quality goal. By means of water environmental capacity formula,the water environmental capacity is calculated. The results show that the TN and CODcr in August should be reduced 2. 52 t · a - 1 and 408.25 t · a - 1 respectively, and the TN in September should be reduced 110. 92 t · a - 1 to meet the standards of the local drinking water sources. Corresponding water environment prevention countermeasure and suggestion to the emissions of pollution sources are proposed.

  15. Estimation of non-point source pollution loads in Tianjin Binhai New Area%天津滨海新区非点源污染负荷量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马奇涛; 王宝庆

    2011-01-01

    非点源污染过程复杂,结果不确定性大.为研究天津滨海新区非点源污染负荷,应用Johnes输出系数模型,在对非点源污染源统计分析的基础上,确定非农业人口、农业人口、大牲畜、猪、羊、家禽、水产养殖、农用地、建设用地和未利用地10种类型的非点源污染源,进而对天津滨海新区进入水体的非点源污染负荷进行估算,并就不同污染源对各种污染物的贡献情况分区域进行分析,计算等标污染负荷,确定主要的污染物和污染源.估算结果显示.对于天津滨海新区非点源总等标污染负荷,塘沽的值最大,大港次之,汉沽最小.1997-2008年,天津滨海新区非点源BOD、COD和TN负荷的最小值均出现在2000年,分别为6 546.59t、29 677.29 t和6 115.56 t;最大值均出现在2006年,分别为7 570.55t、33 431.32t和6 561.75t.TP负荷的最小值出现在1998年,为638.00 t;最大值仍然出现在2006年,为680.78 t.NH3-N负荷在12年间呈上升趋势,最小值出现在1997年,为4 452.98t;最大值出现在2008年,为476.08 t.多种污染物的最大值出现在2006年,这与当年非农业人口数昔增长较快,同时畜禽养殖数量和水产养殖面积又下降较慢有关.而1998年和2000年的水产养殖面积和非农业人口数量相对偏小,这造成了很多污染物在这两年呈现最小值.等标污染负荷的计算结果表明,主要的非点源朽染物为TN、NH3-N和TP,主要的非点源污染源为非农业人口、建设用地和水产养殖.%The complex processes of non-point source pollution have made the predicted results relatively uncertain. In this study, estimation of non-point source pollution loads in Tianjin Binhai New Area was implemented by using Johnes export coefficient model. Based on the statistical analysis of potential pollution sources, the non-point source pollution loads were estimated with ten types of export coefficient, which including urban dweller, rural people

  16. Investigation and Evaluation of Oil Pollution Sources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shiquan; Huang Shanhong; Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ The onshore petroleum enterprises in China conducted systematic investigation, evaluation and research work on pollution sources from 1992 to 1995 to serve the purposes such as bringing new pollution sources under control,treating old pollution sources, monitoring discharge of pollutants from petroleum enterprises, obtaining a better understanding of consumption and utilization of energy and resources by petroleum enterprises, reducing effectively discharge of pollutants and providing petroleum enterprises with policy-making data for formulation of environmental plans.

  17. Identifing Atmospheric Pollutant Sources Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, F. F.; Campos, H. F.; Luz, E. P.; Carvalho, A. R.

    2008-05-01

    The estimation of the area source pollutant strength is a relevant issue for atmospheric environment. This characterizes an inverse problem in the atmospheric pollution dispersion. In the inverse analysis, an area source domain is considered, where the strength of such area source term is assumed unknown. The inverse problem is solved by using a supervised artificial neural network: multi-layer perceptron. The conection weights of the neural network are computed from delta rule - learning process. The neural network inversion is compared with results from standard inverse analysis (regularized inverse solution). In the regularization method, the inverse problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization approach, whose the objective function is given by the square difference between the measured pollutant concentration and the mathematical models, associated with a regularization operator. In our numerical experiments, the forward problem is addressed by a source-receptor scheme, where a regressive Lagrangian model is applied to compute the transition matrix. The second order maximum entropy regularization is used, and the regularization parameter is calculated by the L-curve technique. The objective function is minimized employing a deterministic scheme (a quasi-Newton algorithm) [1] and a stochastic technique (PSO: particle swarm optimization) [2]. The inverse problem methodology is tested with synthetic observational data, from six measurement points in the physical domain. The best inverse solutions were obtained with neural networks. References: [1] D. R. Roberti, D. Anfossi, H. F. Campos Velho, G. A. Degrazia (2005): Estimating Emission Rate and Pollutant Source Location, Ciencia e Natura, p. 131-134. [2] E.F.P. da Luz, H.F. de Campos Velho, J.C. Becceneri, D.R. Roberti (2007): Estimating Atmospheric Area Source Strength Through Particle Swarm Optimization. Inverse Problems, Desing and Optimization Symposium IPDO-2007, April 16-18, Miami (FL), USA, vol 1, p

  18. Likelihood estimations of vegetative alteration near known or proposed sources of air pollution. 1st annual progress report. [Computer simulation of effects on plants of SO/sub 2/ from fossil-fuel power plants sited in rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.

    1978-08-01

    There is an increasing trend to locate fossil-fuel electric generating stations in rural areas. These stations emit large quantities of air pollutants capable of causing serious alterations to the surrounding environment. The major phytotoxic air pollutant emitted is sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). The best way to predict the potential impact of new or expanded sources in rural areas would be to develop a computer model to simulate and predict SO/sub 2/ injury to vegetation. The proposed simulator would provide valuable input information for tasks such as site selection and compilation of environmental impact statements. Such a model would also provide data to management operators for the regulation of emissions. The model would also aid in our basic understanding of the complex interactions which influence plant susceptibility to air pollution. Input to the model would consist of biological and physical data and the output would include the probability of SO/sub 2/ injuring vegetation near existing or proposed sites. The model would be validated using a field situation. This report presents the results obtained during the first year of the project (August 1, 1977 to July 31, 1978).

  19. Domestic Wastewater Quality and Pollutant Loadings from Urban Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are important spawning and nursery ground for fish and prawns. However, wetlands have been reported to be polluted in different parts of the world. One of the pollution sources is domestic wastewater. Therefore, in this study, domestic wastewater quality was studied at three major housing areas. Samplings were conducted in three trips. Results showed that pH ranged from 6.64 to 7.31 and temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.7 oC. DO values were low, that is, below 3.5 mg/L for all trips at all areas studied indicating that it was not suitable for aquatic life. Nutrients such as ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of the housing areas ranged from 11.1 to 17.2 mg/L and 1.05 to 2.43 mg/L respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids concentrations at all the housing areas exceeded the Standard B maximum permitted values of Effluent Discharge Standard of Environmental Quality Act 1974. Loadings of pollutants from housing areas in Kuching were computed. This study shows that domestic wastewater was low in DO, high in oxygen demand, high in solids and nutrients thus loading the rivers with pollutants. Therefore, domestic wastewater must be treated before being channeled to the adjacent water bodies to avoid eutrophication in the receiving water and to recover nutrients.

  20. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  1. GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2011-11-01

    To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084

  2. Toxic metal dispersion in mining areas: from point source to diffusion pollution. The case of the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district (Southern Tuscany - Italy): new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colica, Antonella; Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario; Rinaldi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Rivers draining mining areas may contribute to the diffusion of contaminants through their dispersion and accumulation into different morphological river units. The Paglia River's catchment (southern Tuscany) hosts the SE portion of the Mt. Amiata mercury district, the third most important worldwide (exploited from 1880 to 1980 with a total production of 100,000 tonnes Hg) before becoming a tributary of the Tiber River, which directly flows into Mediterranean Sea. The goals of this study are: 1) to recognize and distinguish different morphological units along the Paglia River watercourse, 2) to determine spatial/temporal distribution and concentration of Hg (and other toxic elements, particularly As) in different units. The analysis of morphological units was made by mapping their evolution from the beginning of mining activity (1883) to present day along 43 km of the Paglia watercourse defining eleven morphological sections across this river, and one across one of its tributaries, the Siele Creek, which drains various Hg mines located upstream. Four fundamental morphological/sedimentary unit types have been distinguished: stream sediments, bar, floodplain, and terraces. The latter occur in various orders and age: Pleistocenic, pre-mining (i.e., dating before 1880), and coeval to the mining activity. A total of 100 samples were taken from the various units in the selected transects, georeferenced and then analyzed for their Hg and As contents by ICP-OES. Arsenic contents generally never exceed 10 mg/kg. The observed ranges are: stream sediments 4.1÷8.2 mg/kg; bars 4.1÷6.6 mg/kg; floodplains 3.8÷6.6 mg/kg; terrace coeval with mining activity 3.2÷10.1 mg/kg. Hg contents in present-day stream sediments and bars are extremely variable (0.2÷27.5 and 1.4÷22.4 mg/kg respectively), and show a sharp increase at the confluence with Siele Creek. Floodplain sediments may reach up to 98 mg/kg. Terraces coeval with mining activity also show variable Hg contents (0.1÷66

  3. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  4. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Grundtvig, Aase; Winther, Pia;

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... variations in leachate composition are very important for locating the main source of the groundwater pollution and for selection of cost-effective remedial action activities.......Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... were evaluated. A pronounced variability in leachate composition was observed in the 31 leachate wells installed through the waste. The spatial variability was analysed by statistical methods, and a semivariogram model was able to describe the variability both on small and large scale. The spatial...

  5. Groundwater pollution by nitrates in irrigated areas with drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies were conducted at three selected sites in irrigated areas of Pakistan to assess magnitude and severity of groundwater pollution by nitrates. The results of these studies indicate that concentration of nitrates in most of the samples collected from irrigated areas having drainage facility is much lower than threshold limit. The nitrate-nitrogen level within drainage projects ranges from 0.01-9.00 mg/l and in the area without drainage system ranges from 10.1-12.5 mg/l. The mineral fertilizers though are making contribution of NO3-N to the groundwater sources but that is much lower than threshold limits. The presence of septic tanks or farmyard manure dumps is also significant contributors of NO3-N to the groundwater. Thus drinking water sources near these polluting points are probable danger to human health. It is, therefore, concluded that still there is a lot of potential for fertilizer use in the agriculture but proper drainage facilities should be provided to minimize the potential threat of NO/sub 3/ pollution. (author)

  6. The Propagation of Light Pollution in Diffusely Urbanised Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Cinzano, P.

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the contribution $b_d(d)$ to the artificial sky luminance in a given point of the sky of a site produced by the sources beyond a given distance $d$ from it is important to understand the behaviour of light pollution in diffusely urbanized areas and to estimate which fraction of the artificial luminance would be regulated by norms or laws limiting the light wasted upward within protection areas of given radii. I studied the behaviour of $b_d(d)$ constructing a model for the pr...

  7. Collective liability in non-point source pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mourad; Rio, Patrick; Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg

    2006-01-01

    Non point source pollution is characterized by the fact that individual emissions are not observable at a reasonable cost. This constitutes a moral hazard problem. Furthermore, we explicitly consider adverse selection, a second type of asymmetric information that arises because of the difficulty to differentiate the polluters with respect to their type (marginal benefit of polluting). In this paper, we design a tradable permits market between non point sources of pollution. In order to involv...

  8. Identification and Quantification of Non-Point Sources of pollution to Sabarmati River, Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Monika H. Panchani, Prof. M. J. Pandya

    2013-01-01

    “Whatever can be measure, can be control”.Non-point pollution sources(NPS) account for more than 50% of the total water quality problem, and they are being recognized and investigated nationally and internationally. In many areas, non-point pollution, such as runoff from crop land, urban storm water, strip mining and runoff from construction sites are becoming major water quality problems.To identify and quantify Non-point sources of pollution the selected stud...

  9. Study on the accident oil spill pollution in Wanshan Archipelago sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses diffusion model and transfer model of instantaneous oil spilling with static point source for forecasting and studying the accident oil spilling pollution in Wanshan Archipelago sea area. The paper also presents prevention and cure measures

  10. 滇池流域大河水库水源保护区面源污染控制方案研究%Study on Control Scheme for Nonpoint Source Pollution in Dahe Reservoir Water Source Protection Area of Dianchi Lake Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李其阳; 王崇云; 彭明春; 周睿; 罗婷; 董磊; 杨莎

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study control scheme for nonpoint source pollution in Dahe Reservoir water source protection area of Dianchi Lake basin. [ Method] On the basis of the SPOTS satellite remote sensing imagery in 2010 and field investigation of GPS record, ecological design for nonpoint source pollution control in Dahe Reservoir water source protection area of Dianchi Lake basin was conducted. Then, the effects of the optimization measures were evaluated by the reductions of N and P outputs on different land-use types. [ Result] Control functions of the water source protection area on soil erosion and the emissions of N, P and other pollutants would be promoted after optimization. The optimization measures had a significant effect for prevention and control of the non-point source pollution in the water source protection area. [Conclusion] The research provided scientific basis for promoting ecological construction of the small green basin in Dahe Reservoir water source protection area of Dianchi lake basin.%[目的]研究滇池流域大河水库水源保护区面源污染控制方案.[方法]以2010年SPOT5卫星遥感影像和野外调查GPS记录为数据源,对滇池流域大河水库水源保护区进行基于面源污染控制的生态设计,并通过各土地利用类型的N、P输出量变化来评估优化措施对面源污染物的削减效果.[结果]优化后,水源保护区控制土壤侵蚀和N、P等污染物排放的功能得到提升,优化措施对水源保护区面源污染的防控具有显著效果.[结论]该研究为促进滇池流域大河水库水源保护区绿色小流域生态建设提供了科学依据.

  11. Investigation and Analysis of Guangzhou Nansha Coast Park Point Source Pollution and Non-point Source Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ruijie; Zeng, Huanghuang; Chen, Budan; Chen, Fang; Wu, Shikai

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To find out the situation of Nansha Coast Park point and non-point source pollution. [Method] By investigating the park water environment analysis of point and non-point source pollutants contribution rate, setting up water quality monitoring sites for basic data related indicators and then using national water quality standards to evaluate water quality.[Result]The Coast Park point source pollution mainly comes from the campus greeting fertilizer spraying. The COD of lakes and riv...

  12. The Propagation of Light Pollution in Diffusely Urbanised Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Cinzano, P

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the contribution $b_d(d)$ to the artificial sky luminance in a given point of the sky of a site produced by the sources beyond a given distance $d$ from it is important to understand the behaviour of light pollution in diffusely urbanized areas and to estimate which fraction of the artificial luminance would be regulated by norms or laws limiting the light wasted upward within protection areas of given radii. I studied the behaviour of $b_d(d)$ constructing a model for the propagation of the light pollution based on the modelling technique introduced by Garstang which allows to calculate the contribution to the artificial luminance in a given point of the sky of a site of given altitude above sea level, produced by a source of given emission and geographic position. I obtained $b_d(d)$ integrating the contribution to the artificial luminance from every source situated at a distance greater than $d$. I also presented an analitical expression for $b_d(d)$ depending mainly from one parameter, a ...

  13. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particu...

  14. Influencing domain of peripheral sources in the urban heavy pollution process of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Xiangde; ZHOU; Li; ZHOU; Xiuji; YAN; Peng; WENG; Yonghu

    2005-01-01

    The effect of city's peripheral pollution sources is one of the key issues urgent to be solved in the decision-making of Beijing's environmental pollution control. This paper comprehensively analyses the surface observations, and the satellite remote sensing data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) during the Beijing City Atmospheric Pollution Experiment (BECAPEX) from January to March, 2001, presents an "upstream" wind field resultant vector method for tracing peripheral pollution sources, and finds that the features of the urban heavy pollution processes of Beijing are significantly correlated with the impact of the emission sources of southern peripheral cities, and the pollutants transferred northwards from distant upstream sources are retarded by the U-shaped "valley" topography in Beijing's periphery. The two factors are responsible for the formation of the S-N zonal influencing domain of pollutants from the southern peripheral areas to Beijing. The paper also comprehensively analyses the features of flow field in the heavy pollution process in the Beijing region, and compares the heavy pollution process with samples of good air-quality days from January to March, 2001. The experiment of Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT-4) further reveals the diffusion trajectory of pollutants of the cities in Hebei and Shandong provinces and Tianjin city in the heavy pollution process of Beijing, and the simulations of the Regional Atmosphere Model System (RAMS) confirm the possible contribution of peripheral sources to the exceptionally heavy pollution process of the urban area of Beijing, thus revealing that the input of pollutants from southern peripheral cities is one of the important factors responsible for aggravating urban heavy pollution processes.

  15. Rainfall Deduction Method for Estimating Non-Point Source Pollution Load for Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Ming CAI; Li, Huai-en; KAWAKAMI, Yoji

    2004-01-01

    The water pollution can be divided into point source pollution (PSP) and non-point source pollution (NSP). Since the point source pollution has been controlled, the non-point source pollution is becoming the main pollution source. The prediction of NSP load is being increasingly important in water pollution controlling and planning in watershed. Considering the monitoring data shortage of NPS in China, a practical estimation method of non-point source pollution load --- rainfall deduction met...

  16. Soil acidity status in polluted and non-polluted areas in southern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 359 study plots on coniferous forest soil in southern Finland, 232 humus and 359 mineral soil (top 5 cm) samples were taken in 1991 and analyzed for their cation exchange capacity, base saturation, pH, total S content (humus samples only), and extractable Al, Fe and Mn concentrations in order to assess the impact of acidic air pollution on soil acidity. The main sources of local air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) were from the capital region and an oil refinery. Although concentrations of S in the humus layer were 8% higher near the emission sources, it was concluded that air pollution has not resulted in a detectable increase in soil acidity. Mean values for humus layer pH (BaCl2), cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation, and extractable Al concentration for the overall study area were 2.9 (0.2), 310 (50) meq kg-1, 48 (12)% of CEC, and 530 (340) mg kg-1. The respective values for the mineral soil layer were 3.3 (0.3), 56 (19) meq kg-1, 13 (8)% of CEC, and 320 (130) mg kg-1. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. 24 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Acute pollution of recipients in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen and ammonia concentration are key parameters of acute water pollution in urban rivers. These two abiotic parameters are statistically assessed for a historical rain series by means of a simplified deterministic model of the integrated drainage system. Continuous simulation of the system...... performance indicates that acute water pollution is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behavior. Detention basins and alternative operational...... modes in the treatment plant under wet weather loading have a limited positive effect for minimizing acute water pollution. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  18. Polluted land areas purified by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.L.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    Restoration of polluted land and development of purification methods are among the most topical environment protection issues, IVO, too, has participated in research on microbiological purification methods. The biodegrability of creosote, and agent used for impregnation of wooden power line poles, was tested in the laboratory in 1993-94. The tests revealed that soil polluted by creosote can be cleansed efficiently. In Petaejaevesi, central Finland, the results are being applied in the composting of land masses polluted by creosote. The composting, which began in summer 1995, has succeeded in line with expectations: The content of deleterious compounds fell by half after only a couple of months of composting. (orig.)

  19. 75 FR 32682 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... the deadline for written comments on the proposed rules (75 FR 32006 (major source boilers), 75 FR 31896 (area source boilers), 75 FR 31938 (CISWI), and 75 FR 31844 (waste definition)) to August 3, 2010... 2050-AG44 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources:...

  20. Identification and Quantification of Non-Point Sources of pollution to Sabarmati River, Ahmedabad

    OpenAIRE

    Monika H. Panchani; Prof. M. J. Pandya

    2013-01-01

    “Whatever can be measure, can be control”.Non-point pollution sources(NPS) account for more than 50% of the total water quality problem, and they are being recognized and investigated nationally and internationally. In many areas, non-point pollution, such as runoff from crop land, urban storm water, strip mining and runoff from construction sites are becoming major water quality problems.To identify and quantify Non-point sources of pollution the selected study area is the stretch of the Sab...

  1. Risk prioritisation of stormwater pollutant sources

    OpenAIRE

    Lundy, Lian; Ellis, John Bryan; Revitt, D. Mike

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a pollutant risk prioritisation methodology for the comparative assessment of stormwater pollutants discharged from differing land use types and activities. Guidelines are presented which evaluate available data with respect to ‘likelihood of occurrence’ and ‘severity of impact’. The use of the developed approach is demonstrated through its application to total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, lead and cadmium. The proposed benchmarking sche...

  2. Water Pollution with Nitrates from Agricultural Sources

    OpenAIRE

    FLESERIU A.; OROIAN I.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest water pollution problem is created by nitrates resulted from agriculture. This paper is areview aimin to emphasiz the main water pollution problems produced by nitrates in Romania and EU. The excessnitrates can accumulate in soil in several ways. First, manure effluents containing both ammonia and organic forms ofnitrogen. Organic nitrogen can be converted to ammonia in the soil. The ammonia, together with any ammoniafertilizer applied, is converted to nitrate by soil bacte...

  3. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m3 of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m3 of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both a local

  4. Environmental pollution in mines and its adjoining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pollution depends on the type of fuel burnt, the type of industry in the locality, the weather condition and other factors. In coal fields, the chief sources of pollutants are coal and gasoline. There has been no systematic and regular survey to find out the extent of atmospheric pollution in the country. However, some works have been done by different organisations on the basis of spot detection and short-term surveys

  5. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi M. Mutter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel shortage and traffic jam problems. Oil pollution can be easily found in many parts of Iraq, even in main streets, houses and gardens due to the residents mismanagement and misuse of oily products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus in detail about the sources and dangers of oil pollution on the environment and soil, as well as to provide some suggestions and measurements that can help in limiting the impact of oil pollution in Iraq.

  6. ABSTRACT OF CONTRACTING FOR NON-POINT-SOURCE POLLUTION ABATEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Olof BYSTROM; Bromley, Daniel W

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an incentive scheme to control agricultural non-point-source pollution. The analysis is based on a nested agent framework with three parties; farmers, a country's government, and the governments of all countries that affect each other's environmental quality. Unlike previous analysis of incentive schemes to control agricultural pollution, we suggest non-individual contracts between farmers and a regulating authority as a solution to the domestic pollution problem. Our ince...

  7. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  8. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1 Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2 Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3 The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  9. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area. PMID:26580644

  10. Water Pollution with Nitrates from Agricultural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLESERIU A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest water pollution problem is created by nitrates resulted from agriculture. This paper is areview aimin to emphasiz the main water pollution problems produced by nitrates in Romania and EU. The excessnitrates can accumulate in soil in several ways. First, manure effluents containing both ammonia and organic forms ofnitrogen. Organic nitrogen can be converted to ammonia in the soil. The ammonia, together with any ammoniafertilizer applied, is converted to nitrate by soil bacteria in a process called nitrification. Nitrification is importantbecause plants can only use nitrogen as nitrate. It is equally harmful in both, animals and humans.

  11. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity analysis for pollutant source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan-Ping; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a similarity analysis method was proposed to evaluate the source-sink relationships among environmental media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were taken as the representative contaminants. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis has been widely used in the fields of natural products chemistry and forensic chemistry, but its application to environmental science has been limited. We established a library of various sources of media containing contaminants (e.g., plastics), recognizing that the establishment of a more comprehensive library allows for a better understanding of the sources of contamination. We then compared an environmental complex mixture (e.g., sediment, soil) with the profiles in the library. These comparisons could be used as the first step in source tracking. The cosine similarities between plastic and soil or sediment ranged from 0.53 to 0.68, suggesting that plastic in electronic waste is an important source of PBDEs in the environment, but it is not the only source. A similarity analysis between soil and sediment indicated that they have a source-sink relationship. Generally, the similarity analysis method can encompass more relevant information of complex mixtures in the environment than a profile-based approach that only focuses on target pollutants. There is an inherent advantage to creating a data matrix containing all peaks and their relative levels after matching the peaks based on retention times and peak areas. This data matrix can be used for source identification via a similarity analysis without quantitative or qualitative analysis of all chemicals in a sample.

  12. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  13. Transactions Costs and Point-Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nga; Shortle, James S.

    2006-01-01

    The implications of transactions costs for the performance of water pollution trading involving point and nonpoint sources are examined. The analysis focuses on the impacts of transaction costs on different classes of trading partners and its consequence on the trading equilibrium. The model of point-nonpoint water pollution trading in the context of the total maximum daily loads explicitly incorporates transactions costs for both buying and selling exchanges of nonpoint source and point sour...

  14. Temporal-spatial distribution of non-point source pollution in a drinking water source reservoir watershed based on SWAT

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, M; Cheng, W.; Yu, B.-S.; Fang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The conservation of drinking water source reservoirs has a close relationship between regional economic development and people’s livelihood. Research on the non-point pollution characteristics in its watershed is crucial for reservoir security. Tang Pu Reservoir watershed was selected as the study area. The non-point pollution model of Tang Pu Reservoir was established based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The model was adjusted to analyse the temporal-spatial distribution...

  15. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengtao; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is two-dimensional. The first dimension is the perceived intensity of air pollution and the second is the perceived hazardousness of the pollutants. Both dimensions are influenced by environmental knowledge. Perceived intensity is furthermore influenced by socio-economic status and proximity to the pollution source; perceived hazardousness is influenced by socio-economic status, family health experience, family size and proximity to the pollution source. There are no reverse effects from perception on environmental knowledge. The main conclusion is that virtually all Jinchuan residents perceive high intensity and hazardousness of air pollution despite the fact that public information on air pollution and its health impacts is classified to a great extent. It is suggested that, to assist the residents to take appropriate preventive action, the local government should develop counseling and educational campaigns and institutionalize disclosure of air quality conditions. These programs should pay special attention to young residents who have limited knowledge of air pollution in the Jinchuan mining area. PMID:27455291

  16. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is two-dimensional. The first dimension is the perceived intensity of air pollution and the second is the perceived hazardousness of the pollutants. Both dimensions are influenced by environmental knowledge. Perceived intensity is furthermore influenced by socio-economic status and proximity to the pollution source; perceived hazardousness is influenced by socio-economic status, family health experience, family size and proximity to the pollution source. There are no reverse effects from perception on environmental knowledge. The main conclusion is that virtually all Jinchuan residents perceive high intensity and hazardousness of air pollution despite the fact that public information on air pollution and its health impacts is classified to a great extent. It is suggested that, to assist the residents to take appropriate preventive action, the local government should develop counseling and educational campaigns and institutionalize disclosure of air quality conditions. These programs should pay special attention to young residents who have limited knowledge of air pollution in the Jinchuan mining area.

  17. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengtao; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is two-dimensional. The first dimension is the perceived intensity of air pollution and the second is the perceived hazardousness of the pollutants. Both dimensions are influenced by environmental knowledge. Perceived intensity is furthermore influenced by socio-economic status and proximity to the pollution source; perceived hazardousness is influenced by socio-economic status, family health experience, family size and proximity to the pollution source. There are no reverse effects from perception on environmental knowledge. The main conclusion is that virtually all Jinchuan residents perceive high intensity and hazardousness of air pollution despite the fact that public information on air pollution and its health impacts is classified to a great extent. It is suggested that, to assist the residents to take appropriate preventive action, the local government should develop counseling and educational campaigns and institutionalize disclosure of air quality conditions. These programs should pay special attention to young residents who have limited knowledge of air pollution in the Jinchuan mining area. PMID:27455291

  18. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengtao; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-07-21

    Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is two-dimensional. The first dimension is the perceived intensity of air pollution and the second is the perceived hazardousness of the pollutants. Both dimensions are influenced by environmental knowledge. Perceived intensity is furthermore influenced by socio-economic status and proximity to the pollution source; perceived hazardousness is influenced by socio-economic status, family health experience, family size and proximity to the pollution source. There are no reverse effects from perception on environmental knowledge. The main conclusion is that virtually all Jinchuan residents perceive high intensity and hazardousness of air pollution despite the fact that public information on air pollution and its health impacts is classified to a great extent. It is suggested that, to assist the residents to take appropriate preventive action, the local government should develop counseling and educational campaigns and institutionalize disclosure of air quality conditions. These programs should pay special attention to young residents who have limited knowledge of air pollution in the Jinchuan mining area.

  19. Spatial structure and scale feature of the atmospheric pollution source impact of city agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiangde; ZHOU Xiuji; SHI Xiaohui

    2005-01-01

    The spatial structure and multi-scale feature of the atmospheric pollution influence domain of Beijing and its peripheral areas (a rapidly developed city agglomeration) is dissected and analyzed in this paper on the basis of the atmospheric pollution dynamic-chemical process observation data of the urban building ensemble boundary layer of the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Experiment (BECAPEX) in winter (February) and summer (August) 2003, and relevant meteorological elements and satellite retrieval aerosol optical depth (AOD), etc. comprehensive data with the dynamic-statistical integrated analysis of "point-surface" spatial structure. Results show that there existed significant difference in the contribution of winter/summer different pollution emission sources to the component character of atmospheric pollution, and the principal component analysis (PCA) results of statistical model also indicate that SO2 and NOX dominated in the component structure of winter aerosol particle; instead, CO and NOX dominated in summer. Surface layer atmospheric dynamic and thermal structures and various pollutant species at the upper boundary of building ensembles at urban different observational sites of Beijing in winter and summer showed an "in-phase" variation and its spatial scale feature of "influence domain". The power spectrum analysis (PSA) shows that the period spectrum of winter/summer particle concentration accorded with those of atmospheric wind field: the longer period was dominative in winter, but the shorter period in summer, revealing the impact of the seasonal scale feature of winter/summer atmospheric general circulation on the period of atmospheric pollution variations. It is found that from analyzing urban area thermal heterogeneity that the multiscale effect of Beijing region urban heat island (UHI) was associated with the heterogeneous expansion of tall buildings area. In urban atmospheric dynamical and thermal characteristic spatial structures, the

  20. Microbial Water Pollution of Drin River in Scutary Area, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINDITA BUSHATI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Drin River joining White Drin and some other small rivers form the longest river of Albania, Drin River, 335 Km long. Drin has two distributaries, one of which empties directly into Adriatic Sea and the other one into Buna river, in Scutary (Shkoder. The Drin area is beautiful and very important for the Albanian economy, for the electricity and has a large agriculture activity as well. Unfortunately mismanagement of agricultural practices and the discharge of industrial and urban wastes into the river are causing a high pollution. River conservation is threatened by pollution. Drin river water is used by people for fishing, swimming and irrigation of plants and the pollution of this river is a problematic issue in environment and human health. We monitored microbial and chemical water pollution of Scutary area of Drin, where Drin goes into Bojana, during 2012-2013 and a high water pollution level was recorded.

  1. Sources of Particular Pollutants in Ambient Air at a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jianliang; Zhao Dongfeng; ChengJianguang; Chen Lu; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study on source apportionment of particular pollutants in ambient air at a petrochemical enterprise is the ba-sis of the control over air pollution. Through analyzing particular pollutants in the samples collected from one petrochemi-cal enterprise in northwestern China, the sources of particular pollutants were discussed. The test results showed that con-centrations of particular pollutants in different sites were remarkably different. Results showed that the sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants, including toluene, xylenes, NH3 and H2S, were located at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. Instead, the concentrations of NMHC in the ambient air sampling sites were higher than those at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. The sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants were located in the area that was close to the petrochemical enterprise. The results obtained from the Pearson correlation co-efifcients analyses, the factor analyses, andχ2-tests of the particular pollutants had revealed that NH3, H2S, toluene and xylenes at all sampling sites came from the same source, while NMHC might come from some other sources besides the petrochemical enterprise.

  2. Source apportionment of toxic chemical pollutants at Trombay region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic activities like industrial production and transportation, a wide range of chemical pollutants such as trace and toxic metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons etc. eventually find their way into various environmental compartments. One of the main issues of environmental pollution is the chemical composition of aerosols and their sources. In spite of all the efforts a considerable part of the atmospheric aerosol mass is still not accounted for. This report describes some of the activities of Environmental Assessment Division which are having direct relevance to the public health and regulatory bodies. Extensive studies were carried out in our laboratories for the Trombay site, over the years; on the organic as well as inorganic pollution in the environment to understand inter compartmental behaviour of these chemical pollutants. In this report an attempt has been made to collect different size fractionated ambient aerosols and to quantify the percentage contribution of each size fraction to the total aerosol mass. Subsequently, an effort has been made for chemical characterization (inorganic, organic and carbon content) of these particulate matter using different analytical techniques. The comprehensive data set on chemical characterization of particulate matter thus generated is being used with receptor modeling techniques to identify the possible sources contributing to the observed concentrations of the measured pollutants. The use of this comprehensive data set in receptor modeling has been helpful in distinguishing the source types in a better way. Receptor modeling techniques are powerful tools that can be used to locate sources of pollutants to the atmosphere. The major advantage of the receptor models is that actual ambient data are used to apportion source contributions, negating the need for dispersion calculations. Pollution sources affecting the sampling site were statistically identified using varimax rotated factor analysis of

  3. FUNDAMENTAL MASS TRANSFER MODELS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a simple, fundamental mass transfer model, based on Fick's Law of Diffusion, for indoor air pollution wet sorbent-based sources. (Note: Models are needed to predict emissions from indoor sources. hile empirical approaches based on dynamic chamber data are usef...

  4. Environmental Radioactive Pollution Sources and Effects on Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of environmental radioactivity are essentially the naturally occurring radionuclides in the earth,s crust and the cosmogenic radionuclides reaching the environmental ecosystems. The other sources of environmental radioactivity are the man made sources which result from the radioactive materials in human life. The naturally occurring environmental radioactivity is an integral component of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial creation, and therefore it is not considered a source of radioactive pollution to the environment. The radioactive waste from human activities is released into the environment, and its radionuclide content becomes incorporated into the different ecosystems. This results in a situation of environmental radioactive pollution. This review presents the main features of environmental radioactive pollution, the radionuclide behaviour in the ecosystems, pathway models of radionuclides in the body and the probability of associated health hazards. The dose effect relationship of internal radiation exposure and its quantitative aspects are considered because of their relevance to this subject

  5. Soil aquifer treatment to remove priority organic pollutants in the Llobregat river area

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Maria; Solé, Josep; Aceves, Mercè; Valhondo González, Cristina; Hernández, Marta; Gullón Santos, Martín

    2013-01-01

    The Llobregat River is the main source of water supply in this area. This river together with its aquifer has suffered from several damages which had contributed to endanger a suitable ecological and hydrological status; among them, pollution is a serious problem to deal with. In the last decades, the presence of organic pollutants in this river has been demonstrated [1,2]. Some of them are persistent to biological degradation and have shown to survive wastewater treatments almost unaltered a...

  6. Method for calculating non-point source pollution distribution in plain rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Long-xi HAN; Huo, Fei; Sun, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The land area in river network is divided into some foursquare cells with certain scale for the demand of precision, proceeding from the physical mechanism of the rainfall-runoff and runoff pollution, the non-point source pollution from cells are estimated using the export coefficient of different land use types. According to the terrain of plain river network area and the positions of land cells and river network’s reaches, a principle is advanced which indicates that the non-point source po...

  7. Voluntary Incentives for Reducing Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Feather, Peter; Cooper, Joseph C.

    1995-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals and sediment from cropland may reduce the quality of America's surface and ground water resources. The Clean Water Act stipulates that individual States are responsible for controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution. Most State plans rely chiefly on education and technical assistance to promote the adoption of less polluting practices. Because profitability drives production decisions, these programs tend to be most successful when they promote inexpensive chang...

  8. Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

  9. A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Wickman, Tonie;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited...

  10. Precise Indication of Air Pollution Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper is a report of an application of Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and PIXE in the characterization of the particulate matter in atmospheric aerosols in Vitoria Metropolitan Region (VMR), Brazil. The main sources of particulate matter, natural, industrial and antropogenic (from human activities), have been studied to identify its contribution in the atmospheric particles. Through the years 1995 to 1999 samples of total suspended particles (TSP, O≤100 μm) were collected from six points within VMR and in two points the inhalable particles (PM10,O≤10 μm). In addition, a receptor modeling was used helping in a precise indication of the source of particulate matter in this urban aerosol.

  11. ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  12. Compositions and pollutant sources of haze in Beijing urban sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junmei; Song, Yujun; Zuo, Jiangnan; Wu, Hongwen

    2016-05-01

    Haze from urban sites in Beijing was collected with a self-assembled electrostatic dust collector. The sizes and morphologies, thermal properties, and compositions of the particles in the haze were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Based on these results, the causes and pollutant sources of the chemicals in the haze were analyzed, and some countermeasures were further advanced to reduce the related pollutant sources. Graphical abstract ᅟ. PMID:26810665

  13. Underground water quality and pollution sources; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of Underground water quality and pollution sources on the territory of the Slovak Republic contains 90 percentiles of concentrations of the individual water quality indicators for the period of 1995 - 1999. The results of analyses were evaluated pursuing the STN 75 711, Water Quality Standard; Drinking Water. Determination of the type of pollution was based on the analysis of the possible sources of increased concentrations of the individual indicators. The contamination level was calculated as the sum of the measured and limit concentrations of chemicals occurring in the analysed samples. (author)

  14. Compositions and pollutant sources of haze in Beijing urban sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junmei; Song, Yujun; Zuo, Jiangnan; Wu, Hongwen

    2016-05-01

    Haze from urban sites in Beijing was collected with a self-assembled electrostatic dust collector. The sizes and morphologies, thermal properties, and compositions of the particles in the haze were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Based on these results, the causes and pollutant sources of the chemicals in the haze were analyzed, and some countermeasures were further advanced to reduce the related pollutant sources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  15. Nanomaterials for environmental burden reduction, waste treatment, and nonpoint source pollution control: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guobin SHAN; Rao Y. SURAMPALLI; Rajeshwar D. TYAGI; Tian C. ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials are applicable in the areas of reduction of environmental burden, reduction/treatment of industrial and agricultural wastes, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control. First, environmental burden reduction involves green process and engineering, emis-sions control, desulfurization/denitrification of nonrenew-able energy sources, and improvement of agriculture and food systems. Second, reduction/treatment of industrial and agricultural wastes involves converting wastes into products, groundwater remediation, adsorption, delaying photocatalysis, and nanomembranes. Third, NPS pollution control involves controlling water pollution. Nanomater-ials alter physical properties on a nanoscale due to their high specific surface area to volume ratio. They are used as catalysts, adsorbents, membranes, and additives to increase activity and capability due to their high specific surface areas and nano-sized effects. Thus, nanomaterials are more effective at treating environmental wastes because they reduce the amount of material needed.

  16. Atmospheric deposition in an urban area: Implications for assessing the effects of hazardous air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Bouzonville, Adrien; Elsass, Philippe; Elsass, Francoise; Atkins, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants emitted to the atmosphere in urban areas have indirect effects through deposition onto the ground, which, over time, could negatively affect the quality of soil, plants, water and groundwater. In this baseline study, evaluation of topsoil contamination in an urban area of France has been carried out to correlate concentrations observed in the soil with the local air emission sources. The analytical program is an extensive study carried out over a 200 km2 area and the results confir...

  17. Light pollution simulations for planar ground-based light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2008-02-20

    The light pollution model is employed to analyze spatial behavior of luminance at the night sky under cloudless and overcast conditions. Enhanced light excess is particularly identified at cloudy skies, because the clouds efficiently contribute to the downward luminous flux. It is evident that size of ground-based light sources can play an important role in the case of overcast sky conditions. Nevertheless, the realistically sized light sources are rarely embedded into light pollution modeling, and rather they are replaced by simple point sources. We discuss the discrepancies between sky luminance distributions when at first the planar light sources are considered and at second the point-source approximation is accepted. The found differences are noticeable if the size of the light source, distance to the observer, and altitude of a cloudy layer are comparable one to the other. Compared with point-source approximation, an inclusion of the size factor into modeling the light sources leads to partial elimination of the steep changes of sky luminance (typical for point sources of light). The narrow and sharp light pillars normally presented on the sky illuminated by point light sources can disappear or fuse together when two or more nearby light sources are considered with their real sizes. Sky elements situated close to the horizon will glow efficiently if luminous flux originates from two-dimensional ground-based entities (such as cities or villages). PMID:18288228

  18. Air pollution model for an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, N. A.; Venegas, L. E.

    On présente un modèle de diffusion atmosphérique pour des polluants émis en zone urbaine par des sources multiples. On considère l'équation de continuité de la masse et les profils de vent habituels dans la couche limite. On suppose que la distribution verticale des polluants est représentée par une forme polynomiale. Les coefficients du polynôme dépendent des conditions de stabilité atmosphérique. On prend comme hauteur limite supérieure du panache une fonction potentielle de la distance. On compare les estimations de la concentration normalisée aux valeurs obtenues avec le modèle urbain de Gifford-Hanna. Il y a une bonne concordance entre les deux modèles en conditions de stabilité atmosphérique. Les différences augmentent en conditions d'instabilité. L'analyse de la sensibilité du modèle montre que des variations relatives de la rugosité du sol ont peu d'effet sur les valeurs de la concentration calculée. Les variations de l'exposant de la fonction potentielle prise pour le sommet du panache deviennent plus critiques avec la distance. Les distributions de la concentration au sol calculées par le modèle pour Nashville (E.U.), Bremen (R.F.A.) et Frankfort (R.F.A.) sont en bon accord avec les valeurs observées. On obtient un indice de concordance de 0,983 et une erreur relative moyenne de 0,0408 entre les valeurs calculées et observées.

  19. MSW: From pollution/degradation source to resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirlone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Solid Waste is one of the biggest challenges that cities are facing: MSW is considered of the main sources of energy consumption, urban degradation and pollution. This paper defines the major negative effects of MSW on cities and proposes new solutions to guide waste policies. Most contemporary waste management efforts are focused at regional government level and based on high tech waste disposal by methods such as landfill and incineration. However, these methods are becoming increasingly expensive, energy inefficient and pollutant: waste disposal is not sustainable and will have negative implications for future generations. In this paper are proposed all the principle solutions that could be undertaken. New policy instruments are presented updating and adapting policies and encouraging innovation for less wasteful systems. Waste management plans are fundamental to increase the ability of urban areas to effectively adapt to waste challenges. These plans have to give an outline of waste streams and treatment options and provide a scenario for the following years that significantly reduce landfills and incinerators in favor of prevention, reuse and recycling. The key aim of an urban waste management plan is to set out the work towards a zero waste economy as part of the transition to a sustainable economy. Other questions remain still opened: How to change people’s behavior? What is the role of environmental education and risk perception? It is sure that the involvement of the various stakeholders and the wider public in the planning process should aim at ensuring acceptance of the waste policy.

  20. Reducing non-point source pollution with enhancing infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Huan-zhen; ZHENG Tao; HUANG Yan-chu; ZHANG Chun-ping; LIU Chen

    2006-01-01

    The rainfall system was set up on a slope land, which was used with some materials to enhance soil infiltration. The results showed that it was effective to enhance the infiltration of rainwater in soil and reduce the pollutants of surface runoff. After the soil meliorated by the lignin polymer and zeolite, runoff was delayed about 10 min and reduced by 44.40%-50.00%, synchronously, the pollutant loads, such as total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand by ditromate (CODCr), total nitroger (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were reduced on averages by 44.58%, 37.80%, 51.62% and 44.11%, respectively. It is an available technique to control the pollution of non-point source from sources.

  1. Exposure and inequality for select urban air pollutants in the Tampa Bay area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haofei; Stuart, Amy L

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution exposure has been linked to numerous adverse health effects, with some disadvantaged subgroups disproportionately burdened. The objective of this work was to characterize distributions of emissions and concentrations of a few important urban air toxics at high spatiotemporal resolution in order to assess exposure and inequality. Benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were the focus pollutants, with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) estimated for comparisons. Primary pollutant emissions were estimated for the full spectrum of source types in the Tampa area using a hybrid approach that is most detailed for major roadways and includes hourly variations in vehicle speed. Resultant pollutant concentrations were calculated using the CALPUFF dispersion model, and combined with CMAQ model output to account for secondary formation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Census demographic data were applied to estimate residential pollution exposures and inequality among population subgroups. Estimated concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and NOx were generally higher in urban areas and lower in rural areas. Exposures to these pollutants were disproportionately high for subgroups characterized as black, Hispanic and low income (annual household income less than $20,000). For formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, the patterns of concentration and exposure were largely reversed. Results suggest that disparities in exposure depend on pollutant type. PMID:26895157

  2. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA, the cluster analysis (CA and the discriminant analysis (DA were used to assess the water pollution status and analyze its spatio-temporal variation. Ten sites were classified by the high pollution (HP region and the low pollution (LP region, while 12 months were divided into the wet season and the dry season. It was found that the HP region was mainly in the small tributaries with small drainage areas and low average annual discharges, and it was also found that most of these rivers went through urban areas with industrial and domestic sewages input into the water body. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA was applied to reveal potential pollution sources, whereas absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR was used to identify their contributions to each water quality variable. The study area was found as being generally affected by industrial and domestic sewage. Furthermore, the HP region was polluted by chemical industries, and the LP region was influenced by agricultural and livestock sewage.

  3. Is mercury from Hawaiian volcanoes a natural source of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, A.; Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis shows that 98% of mercury from Hawaiian fumaroles is gaseous or solid particles less than 0.3 micron in diameter. It is suggested that both natural and industrial sources may be contributors to mercury pollution of the air in Hawaii.

  4. Pollutant sources, thermal transport, and cardiovascular studies win NSF grants

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Pinpointing sources of unhealthy air pollutants, investigating nanoscale thermal transport, and understanding cardiovascular flows are the goals of three Virginia Tech College of Engineering researchers who recently received Faculty Early Career Development Program (CAREER) awards, the National Science Foundation's most prestigious grants for creative junior faculty considered likely to become academic leaders of the future.

  5. A numerical experiment on light pollution from distant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, M.

    2011-08-01

    To predict the light pollution of the night-time sky realistically over any location or measuring point on the ground presents quite a difficult calculation task. Light pollution of the local atmosphere is caused by stray light, light loss or reflection of artificially illuminated ground objects or surfaces such as streets, advertisement boards or building interiors. Thus it depends on the size, shape, spatial distribution, radiative pattern and spectral characteristics of many neighbouring light sources. The actual state of the atmospheric environment and the orography of the surrounding terrain are also relevant. All of these factors together influence the spectral sky radiance/luminance in a complex manner. Knowledge of the directional behaviour of light pollution is especially important for the correct interpretation of astronomical observations. From a mathematical point of view, the light noise or veil luminance of a specific sky element is given by a superposition of scattered light beams. Theoretical models that simulate light pollution typically take into account all ground-based light sources, thus imposing great requirements on CPU and MEM. As shown in this paper, a contribution of distant sources to the light pollution might be essential under specific conditions of low turbidity and/or Garstang-like radiative patterns. To evaluate the convergence of the theoretical model, numerical experiments are made for different light sources, spectral bands and atmospheric conditions. It is shown that in the worst case the integration limit is approximately 100 km, but it can be significantly shortened for light sources with cosine-like radiative patterns.

  6. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  7. Investigation and Analysis of Guangzhou Nansha Coast Park Point Source Pollution and Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijie; YANG; Huanghuang; ZENG; Budan; CHEN; Fang; CHEN; Shikai; WU

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To find out the situation of Nansha Coast Park point and non-point source pollution.[Method]By investigating the park water environment,analysis of point and non-point source pollutants contribution rate,setting up water quality monitoring sites for basic data related indicators and then using national water quality standards to evaluate water quality.[Result]The Coast Park point source pollution mainly comes from the campus greeting fertilizer spraying.The COD of lakes and river outside the park and ammonia mean concentration belong to grade III.The total nitrogen of lake belongs to grade III.The total phosphorus belongs to grade IV.The total nitrogen of river is the worst.The total phosphorus is grade V.[Conclusion] The lake water quality is highly affected by the point and non-point source pollution,the quality of the river is worse than that of the lake in the park,and it needs powerful governance.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Janina Piekutin

    2014-01-01

    Creation of rain sewer is connected with dehydration of roads and coexisting objects. The paper presents a discussion upon the issue of groundwater contamination by petroleum compounds and other pollutants from transport based on studies of groundwater within the parking lots. The study included 9 parking areas, including 7 in Bialystok, 1 in a residential area outside of Bialystok in Ignatki, and one in Kleosin. The tested waters were subject to determination of COD, total suspension, and pe...

  9. Modeling of land use and reservoir effects on nonpoint source pollution in a highly agricultural basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is tightly linked to land use activities that determine the sources and magnitudes of pollutant loadings to stream water. The pollutant loads may also be alleviated within reservoirs because of the physical interception resulting from changed hydrological regimes and other biochemical processes. It is important but challenging to assess the NPS pollution processes with human effects due to the measurement limitations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of human activities such as land uses and reservoir operation on the hydrological and NPS pollution processes in a highly agricultural area-the Iowa River Basin-using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The evaluation of model performance at multiple sites reveals that SWAT can consistently simulate the daily streamflow, and monthly/annual sediment and nutrient loads (nitrate nitrogen and mineral phosphorus) in the basin. We also used the calibrated model to estimate the trap efficiencies of sediment (~78%) and nutrients (~30%) in the Coralville Reservoir within the basin. These non-negligible effects emphasize the significance of incorporating the sediment and nutrient removal mechanisms into watershed system studies. The spatial quantification of the critical NPS pollution loads can help identify hot-spot areas that are likely locations for the best management practices.

  10. Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals - Specific Issues for Baia Mare Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Mirela

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The mining activity, practices in Baia Mare for over 100 years, has led to pollution and economic sealing oflarge areas of land; it has adversely affected the environment and now poses a significant risk to human health. Theactual sources of pollution, current or historical, in Baia Mare Depression are SC Romplumb SA, SC Cuprom SA andCNMPN Remin SA. The mining activities left over wide areas ponds, mine waste dumps and the underground watersthat come across the existing mine galleries spring out contaminated and sometimes in an uncontrolled manner. Heavymetals are present in the environmental factors from this area and significantly affect local ecosystems and humanhealth. The paper presents details on soil pollution with heavy metals, problem that has gradually found a solution in theenvironmental rehabilitation projects, activities that requiring investment of time and specialists in this field.

  11. Surface ozone concentrations and solar radiation in polluted and remote areas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    this work discusses sources of ozone in the troposphere, particularly with regard to the relative contributions of flues from the stratosphere and that created due to photochemical reactions in the troposphere. Measurements of surface ozone at cairo and the oases Dakhla are used as a a comparative study between the formation of ozone in a polluted area and that of clean atmosphere. The daily maximum ozone concentrations found to be 105 ppb in cairo and 52 ppb in Dakhla. The results show that the budget of ozone in the polluted air masses is dominated by photochemistry, and there is a significant correlation between the monthly mean value use of ozone and global radiation. The ozone budget in free troposphere and rural areas, where the diurnal variation is very low compared to that of polluted areas, is governed by vertical transport

  12. Spatial variations, temporal trends, and emission sources of air pollutants in seven cities of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, WEI; TAO, SHU; WANG, CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the derivatives of PAHs (nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs) were measured each month between April, 2010 and March, 2011 in seven large cities (18 sites) in the ambient air of northern China. Similarities in the concentrations of PM, PAHs and oxy-PAHs between rural village and urban area are found, indicating the severe air pollution in the rural villages and strong contribution of solid fuels combustion. Higher nitro-PAHs concentrations in the cities than those in the rural area suggests the influence of motor vehicles, both on primary emission and secondary formation. Without local emission sources, pollutants levels in the rural field area are the lowest. Air pollution in the less developed west China is as severe as that in the east with more population and urbanization, both heavier than that in the coastal area. Such spatial patterns are caused by differences in the sources of contaminants and the removal process. A strong seasonality of all pollutants with higher concentrations in winter and lower in summer is observed due to large heating demand for solid fuel combustion in winter and rich precipitation in summer. Natural sources such as sandstorms also take effects on the spatial distribution and temporal trend of PM.

  13. RESEARCH ON SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TN &TP OF AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN THE SURROUNDING AREA OF THE POYANG LAKE%环鄱阳湖区农业面源污染TN/TP时空变化与分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅春; 康晚英

    2012-01-01

    以鄱阳湖区周边12县市为研究区域,以氮、磷2种污染物为研究对象,以土地利用、畜禽以及农业人口为三大主要营养源,运用输出系数模型对环鄱阳湖区1997~2007年的面源污染现状负荷进行估算,结果表明TP/TN都呈现平稳上升的趋势,且面源污染高负荷区主要集中在南昌县、新建县和南昌市辖地区;预测2011~2020年TN/TP的变化,结果表明研究区域总磷总氮均有明显增长趋势,环鄱阳湖区年平均TN/TP相对现状年平均增长率为17.46%和16.02%。面源污染负荷的三大营养源贡献中畜禽输出负荷的贡献率随时间的推移有明显增加的趋势,农业人口和土地利用的贡献率有下降的趋势,揭示了环鄱阳湖地区禽畜污染将是农业面源污染的主要污染源。并借助GIS工具分析了TN/TP在环湖各地区的分布特征,指出了面源污染控制的重点工作区域。%Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China,and the non-point source pollution from agriculture is one major cause of water pollution with local intensive industrial and agriculture developing.The systematic analysis of the distribution featur of nitrogen and phosphorus and the source pollution contribution rate will provide necessary basis for the rational allocation of agricultural resource in Poyang Lake. Pollution loads mainly nitrogen,phosphorus pollutants from agricultural non-point pollution sources in 12 counties around the Poyang Lake has been analyzed by Export Coefficient Approach,based on the data from 1997~2007.Meanwhile,Markov model and Gray predication model is used to predict the change of land use and livestock population,and the source pollution during 2011 to 2020.The land use,livestock and poultry,and agricultural population in the research area were considered as major nutrition sources to the loads.The results show that TN/TP take on a steady upward trend,the highly loaded area of non-point pollution mainly

  14. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided.

  15. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided. PMID:26248825

  16. Investigating the effects of point source and nonpoint source pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang) in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the physical processes of point source (PS) and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is critical to evaluate river water quality and identify major pollutant sources in a watershed. In this study, we used the physically-based hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to investigate the influence of PS and NPS pollution on the water quality of the East River (Dongjiang in Chinese) in southern China. Our results indicate that NPS pollution was the dominant contribution (>94%) to nutrient loads except for mineral phosphorus (50%). A comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) computed using eight key water quality variables demonstrates that water quality is better upstream than downstream despite the higher level of ammonium nitrogen found in upstream waters. Also, the temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions of nutrient loads clearly indicate the critical time period (from late dry season to early wet season) and pollution source areas within the basin (middle and downstream agricultural lands), which resource managers can use to accomplish substantial reduction of NPS pollutant loadings. Overall, this study helps our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to decision support for local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region. In particular, the methods presented such as integrating WQI with watershed modeling and identifying the critical time period and pollutions source areas can be valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  17. 40 CFR Table 2-to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Applicability of General Provisions to Metal Fabrication or Finishing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Metal Fabrication or Finishing Area Sources 2 Table 2-to Subpart XXXXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants Area Source Standards for Nine Metal Fabrication and Finishing Source Categories... Finishing Area Sources Instructions for Table 2—As required in § 63.11523, “General Provisions...

  18. Application of source-receptor models to determine source areas of biological components (pollen and butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alarcón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The source-receptor models allow the establishment of relationships between a receptor point (sampling point and the probable source areas (regions of emission through the association of concentration values at the receptor point with the corresponding atmospheric back-trajectories, and, together with other techniques, to interpret transport phenomena on a synoptic scale. These models are generally used in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds measured at a sampling point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutants. However, until now, few studies have applied these types of models to describe the source areas of biological organisms. In Catalonia there are very complete records of pollen (data from the Xarxa Aerobiològica de Catalunya, Aerobiology Network of Catalonia and butterflies (data from the Catalan Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, a biological material that is also liable to be transported long distances and whose areas of origin could be interesting to know. This work presents the results of the use of the Seibert et al. model applied to the study of the source regions of: (1 certain pollen of an allergic nature, observed in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, and (2 the migratory butterfly Vanessa cardui, observed in Catalonia. Based on the results obtained we can corroborate the suitability of these models to determine the area of origin of several species, both chemical and biological, therefore expanding the possibilities of applying the original model to the wider field of Aerobiology.

  19. Radioisotope sources used in environmental-pollution countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation can be used for the treatment of combustion gas, plant effluent, waste plastics and so on, and also for the production of materials for pollution treatment. The sources of radiation available currently for the purpose and the quantities required are described. As the sources, there are spent fuel in cooling period, fission products after fuel reprocessing, etc. Since the quantities being treated are generally large, and also the amounts of RIs required are large, it is advisable to use the irradiation in combination with other available methods. On the other hand, the future prospect in this field is bright due to the increase of nuclear power generation. (Mori, K.)

  20. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

  1. Analysis of non-point and point source pollution in China: case study in Shima Watershed in Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huaiyang; Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    China economy has been rapidly increased since 1978. Rapid economic growth led to fast growth of fertilizer and pesticide consumption. A significant portion of fertilizers and pesticides entered the water and caused water quality degradation. At the same time, rapid economic growth also caused more and more point source pollution discharge into the water. Eutrophication has become a major threat to the water bodies. Worsening environment problems forced governments to take measures to control water pollution. We extracted land cover from Landsat TM images; calculated point source pollution with export coefficient method; then SWAT model was run to simulate non-point source pollution. We found that the annual TP loads from industry pollution into rivers are 115.0 t in the entire watershed. Average annual TP loads from each sub-basin ranged from 0 to 189.4 ton. Higher TP loads of each basin from livestock and human living mainly occurs in the areas where they are far from large towns or cities and the TP loads from industry are relatively low. Mean annual TP loads that delivered to the streams was 246.4 tons and the highest TP loads occurred in north part of this area, and the lowest TP loads is mainly distributed in middle part. Therefore, point source pollution has much high proportion in this area and governments should take measures to control point source pollution.

  2. Study on agricultural structure and non-point source pollution: a case in Dapu Town of Yixing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Xiyuan; Liu Minghui; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The water body of Taihu Lake has been eutrophicated because of area-source pollution. 83% of the total nitrogen and 84% of the total phosphorus of the pollutant that have washed into Taihu Lake originated from the fertilizer of crop land, rural animal husbandry and living sewage and rubbish in rural area. The goal of adjusting agricultural structure is to improve agricultural development, and to increase the peasants income by planting non-grain crop,centralizing animal husbandry, and intensifying aquaculture, etc, It is necessary to research on the influences of agriculture industrial structure on area-source pollution, This paper studies a case of Dapu Town in Yixing City, which is a typical drainage place beside Taihu Lake. On the basis of the analysis on the status quo of area-source pollution and agriculture industrial structure in Dapu Town, the conflicts between them are discussed. Non-grain crop production with a great deal of fertilizer and developing aquaculture with a great deal of organic pollutant, which are directly discharged,make area-source pollution more serious and accelerate the eutrophication in Taihu Lake. This paper suggests taking corresponding technological measures and policies, which have been tested in Dapu Town and demonstrated in Taihu Lake area.

  3. Identification and Quantification of Non-Point Sources of pollution to Sabarmati River, Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika H. Panchani, Prof. M. J. Pandya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available “Whatever can be measure, can be control”.Non-point pollution sources(NPS account for more than 50% of the total water quality problem, and they are being recognized and investigated nationally and internationally. In many areas, non-point pollution, such as runoff from crop land, urban storm water, strip mining and runoff from construction sites are becoming major water quality problems.To identify and quantify Non-point sources of pollution the selected study area is the stretch of the Sabarmati river from gandhinagar to Ahmedabad city. The selected study area is divided into two parts. 1. The upstream of Ahmedabad city. 2. Ahmedabad city. Identification of NPS is done by literature survey and field visit of study area. Quantification can be done by using different runoff calculation methods. Because of limitations of all method, the appropriate one has been chosen for analysis. By quantifying it is observed that the NPS contribute the large amounts of pollution load which can not be underestimated

  4. STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POLLUTING FOG IN GUANGZHOU AREA IN SPRING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dui; LI Fei; DENG Xue-jiao; BI Xue-yan; WANG Xin-hua; HUANG Xiao-ying

    2009-01-01

    Samples of fog water collected in the area of Guangzhou during February,March and April of 2005 are used in this work to study the chemical composition of fog water in polluting fog there. Three typical episodes of polluting tbg are analyzed in terms of ionic concentration and their possible sources. It is fuund that the concentration of various ions in fog water is much higher than those in rainwater. Fog not only blocks visual range but contains liquid particles that result in high degree of pollution and are very harmful to human health. SO4= is the anion with the highest concentration in fog water,followed by NO3.For the cation,Ca++ and NH4+ are the highest in concentration. It is then known that rainwater is more acidic than lbg water,indicating that ionic concentration of lbg water is much higher than that of rainwater,but there are much more buffering materials in fog water,like NH4+ and Ca++. There is significant enrichment of Ca++,SO4=. and Mg++ in fog water. In the Guangzhou area,tbg water from polluting fog is mainly influenced continental environment and human activity. The episodes of serious fog pollution during the time have immediate relationships with the presence of abundant water vapor and large amount of polluting aerosol particles.

  5. Locational determinants of emissions from pollution-intensive firms in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Guo, Mingjing; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Industrial pollution has remained as one of the most daunting challenges for many regions around the world. Characterizing the determinants of industrial pollution should provide important management implications. Unfortunately, due to the absence of high-quality data, rather few studies have systematically examined the locational determinants using a geographical approach. This paper aimed to fill the gap by accessing the pollution source census dataset, which recorded the quantity of discharged wastes (waste water and solid waste) from 717 pollution-intensive firms within Huzhou City, China. Spatial exploratory analysis was applied to analyze the spatial dependency and local clusters of waste emissions. Results demonstrated that waste emissions presented significantly positive autocorrelation in space. The high-high hotspots generally concentrated towards the city boundary, while the low-low clusters approached the Taihu Lake. Their locational determinants were identified by spatial regression. In particular, firms near the city boundary and county road were prone to discharge more wastes. Lower waste emissions were more likely to be observed from firms with high proximity to freight transfer stations or the Taihu Lake. Dense populous districts saw more likelihood of solid waste emissions. Firms in the neighborhood of rivers exhibited higher waste water emissions. Besides, the control variables (firm size, ownership, operation time and industrial type) also exerted significant influence. The present methodology can be applicable to other areas, and further inform the industrial pollution control practices. Our study advanced the knowledge of determinants of emissions from pollution-intensive firms in urban areas. PMID:25927438

  6. Locational determinants of emissions from pollution-intensive firms in urban areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    Full Text Available Industrial pollution has remained as one of the most daunting challenges for many regions around the world. Characterizing the determinants of industrial pollution should provide important management implications. Unfortunately, due to the absence of high-quality data, rather few studies have systematically examined the locational determinants using a geographical approach. This paper aimed to fill the gap by accessing the pollution source census dataset, which recorded the quantity of discharged wastes (waste water and solid waste from 717 pollution-intensive firms within Huzhou City, China. Spatial exploratory analysis was applied to analyze the spatial dependency and local clusters of waste emissions. Results demonstrated that waste emissions presented significantly positive autocorrelation in space. The high-high hotspots generally concentrated towards the city boundary, while the low-low clusters approached the Taihu Lake. Their locational determinants were identified by spatial regression. In particular, firms near the city boundary and county road were prone to discharge more wastes. Lower waste emissions were more likely to be observed from firms with high proximity to freight transfer stations or the Taihu Lake. Dense populous districts saw more likelihood of solid waste emissions. Firms in the neighborhood of rivers exhibited higher waste water emissions. Besides, the control variables (firm size, ownership, operation time and industrial type also exerted significant influence. The present methodology can be applicable to other areas, and further inform the industrial pollution control practices. Our study advanced the knowledge of determinants of emissions from pollution-intensive firms in urban areas.

  7. Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO2 concentrations (μg/m3) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 μg/m3). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km2 and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km2. For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  8. Spatial structure and scale feature of the atmospheric pollution source impact of city agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Xiangde; ZHOU; Xiuji; SHI; Xiaohui

    2005-01-01

    The spatial structure and multi-scale feature of the atmospheric pollution influence domain of Beijing and its peripheral areas (a rapidly developed city agglomeration) is dissected and analyzed in this paper on the basis of the atmospheric pollution dynamic-chemical process observation data of the urban building ensemble boundary layer of the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Experiment (BECAPEX) in winter (February) and summer (August) 2003, and relevant meteorological elements and satellite retrieval aerosol optical depth (AOD), etc. comprehensive data with the dynamic-statistical integrated analysis of "point-surface" spatial structure. Results show that there existed significant difference in the contribution of winter/summer different pollution emission sources to the component character of atmospheric pollution, and the principal component analysis (PCA) results of statistical model also indicate that SO2 and NOX dominated in the component structure of winter aerosol particle; instead, CO and NOX dominated in summer. Surface layer atmospheric dynamic and thermal structures and various pollutant species at the upper boundary of building ensembles at urban different observational sites of Beijing in winter and summer showed an "in-phase" variation and its spatial scale feature of "influence domain". The power spectrum analysis (PSA) shows that the period spectrum of winter/summer particle concentration accorded with those of atmospheric wind field: the longer period was dominative in winter, but the shorter period in summer, revealing the impact of the seasonal scale feature of winter/summer atmospheric general circulation on the period of atmospheric pollution variations. It is found that from analyzing urban area thermal heterogeneity that the multiscale effect of Beijing region urban heat island (UHI) was associated with the heterogeneous expansion of tall buildings area. In urban atmospheric dynamical and thermal characteristic spatial structures, the

  9. [Three patterns of interaction between soil and non-point source P-pollutants in agricultural watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-hui; Yin, Cheng-qing; Yan, Xiao; Shan, Bao-qing; Wang, Wei-dong

    2004-07-01

    Typical agricultural watershed was selected to study the interactions between soil matrix and non-point source P-pollutants in surface runoff under simulative conditions. The soil samples were taken in different spatial locations in this watershed and were under different degree of human disturbance. The results showed that the interactions between different soil matrix and phosphorus could be divided into three patterns:retention, release and combination of retention and release. Soil of retention pattern has strong adsorption capacity of phosphate and will retain phosphorus from polluted runoff. Soil of release pattern has significant desorption capacity of phosphate and will release phosphorus to the runoff. Soil of retention and release combination pattern will retain or release phosphorus according to the phosphate concentration in the polluted runoff. These results showed that soil matrix in different spatial locations in the agricultural watershed have different ecological functions and environmental values under the processing of natural conditions and human disturbance. From the view of occurrence of non-point source pollution, these soils could become the sink of pollutants as well as the source of pollutants. Under some conditions, there has a conversion between sink and source of them. These results are valuable for control of non-point source pollution on watershed level, identification of key source area of pollutants and improvement of efficiency of control measures.

  10. Impact of medium-distance pollution sources in a Galician suburban site (NW Iberian peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Carracedo, M P; Andrade, J M; Ballabio, D; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Consonni, V; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M; López-Mahía, P

    2015-04-15

    This work studies airborne quality in a geographical area that has not been investigated broadly: a suburban site nearby A Coruña (Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula). In contrast to major Spanish cities, the site has Atlantic characteristics: rainy, scarce calm weather and infrequent prolonged sunny periods. The relationships between several gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, NOx, CO, O3, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and their temporal trends (daily, monthly and seasonal) were evaluated. The aim was to unravel whether medium- and long-distance sources were impacting upon the site. Univariate studies focused on factorizing the pollutants according to a codifying factor (wind direction, hour of the day, season and month). Multivariate studies (Varimax-rotated factorial analysis) were done separately on both weekdays and weekends. The intensity of the daily maxima for NO, NO2, NOx and CO was lower during the weekends, with O3 behaving opposite. PM average values agreed with previous historical reports for a rural background station relatively close to the site and they decreased daily between 11:00 and 19:00 h, likely because of the marine breeze. With moderate wind speeds the pollutants were associated to medium-distance pollution sources, mainly the city of A Coruña and a combination of industrial pollution sources (a power plant, a solid waste incinerator and a regional airport). PMID:25616227

  11. Primary Pollutants Monitoring and Modeling Using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB Around Fahaheel Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Al-Salem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four major sources of air pollution were identified and modeled using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB around a residential area. The sources were identified as MAA refinery, downtown area, upstream facilities and main highway road. The sources were analyzed using a series of concentration roses (unfiltered and filtered executed from the data collected. Data collected included primary and secondary pollutants levels as well as major metrological parameters. The model gave a 91% and 89% match at the receptor point for the identified sources in two different durations. Metrological conditions and chemical fingerprints were adapted into the model to minimize the error and mismatch. Seasonal variation analysis was established by choosing the two months that represent the seasonal distribution in the year. Local and international rules and regulations were cross referenced in order to evaluate the air quality of the area under investigation. A number of violations in terms of ambient levels of primary and secondary pollutants were found and reported in this study.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations, to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related, domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future.

  13. Identifying environmentally sensitive areas under the Oil Pollution Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 4202(a)(6) of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) requires the President to issue regulations that require owners or operators of tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities that could impact environmentally sensitive areas, drinking water intakes, and other economically sensitive areas to prepare and submit plans for responding to a worst case discharge of oil and to a substantial threat of such a discharge. The authority to implement the response plan regulations has been delegated to various agencies, including the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Transportation. In addition, Area Committees designated under the OPA are responsible for assuring preplanning of response efforts, including procedures for protecting environmentally sensitive areas, and protection, rescue and rehabilitation of fisheries and wildlife. Area Contingency Plans for each of the designated areas will describe the areas of special economic and environmental importance that might be damaged by discharges. This paper will discuss and compare the identification of environmentally sensitive areas and vulnerability analyses required as elements of response plans for agencies implementing regulations under the OPA authority. This paper will also describe the progress of the Area Committees with respect to contingency planning development for protection of environmentally sensitive areas

  14. The Degree of Farmers’ Cognition on Non-point Source Pollution:Based on the Statistical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Jue; PENG

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution.Therefore,this investigation and study chooses rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our samples,our investigation and statistical analysis includes the following four aspects:farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution concept,farmers’ cognition to rural environment satisfaction,farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution in agricultural production and farmers’ cognition on the consequences of agricultural non-point source pollution and the effects on ecological environment.The analysis and conclusions of farmers’ consciousness cognition on agricultural non-point source pollution,provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing the behavior of farmers,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  15. Proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution of water with plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestdagh, Inge; Bonicelli, Bernard; Laplana, Ramon; Roettele, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results and lessons learned from the TOPPS project (Training the Operators to prevent Pollution from Point Sources), a proposal on a sustainable strategy to avoid point source pollution from Plant Protection Products (PPPs) was made. Within this TOPPS project (2005-2008), stakeholders were interviewed and research and analysis were done in 6 pilot catchment areas (BE, FR, DE, DK, IT, PL). Next, there was a repeated survey on operators' perception and opinion to measure changes resulting from TOPPS activities and good and bad practices were defined based on the Best Management Practices (risk analysis). Aim of the proposal is to suggest a strategy considering the differences between countries which can be implemented on Member State level in order to avoid PPP pollution of water through point sources. The methodology used for the up-scaLing proposal consists of the analysis of the current situation, a gap analysis, a consistency analysis and organisational structures for implementation. The up-scaling proposal focuses on the behaviour of the operators, on the equipment and infrastructure available with the operators. The proposal defines implementation structures to support correct behaviour through the development and updating of Best Management Practices (BMPs) and through the transfer and the implementation of these BMPs. Next, the proposal also defines requirements for the improvement of equipment and infrastructure based on the defined key factors related to point source pollution. It also contains cost estimates for technical and infrastructure upgrades to comply with BMPs.

  16. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Reducing Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution: Based on the Empirical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Qian; Wang, Huaiye; Zuo, Yongyan

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture, agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China, improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution, and the WTP of Farmers for controlling agricultural non-point source pollution strongly reflects the strength of their environmental protection consciousness. Therefore, this investigation and study choose rural areas o...

  17. Influences of Hydrological Regime on Runoff Quality and Pollutant Loadings in Tropical Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, M.; Yusop, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Experience in many developed countries suggests that non point source (NPS) pollution is still the main contributor to pollutant loadings into water bodies in urban areas. However, the mechanism of NPS pollutant transport and the influences of hydrologic regime on the pollutant loading are still unclear. Understanding these interactions will be useful for improving design criteria and strategies for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas. This issue is also extremely relevant in tropical environment because its rainfall and the runoff generation processes are so different from the temperate regions where most of the studies on NPS pollutant have been carried out. In this regard, an intensive study to investigate the extent of this pollution was carried out in Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. Three small catchments, each represents commercial, residential and industrial land use were selected. Stormwater samples and flow rate data were collected at these catchments over 52 storm events from year 2008 to 2009. Samples were analyzed for ten water quality constituents including total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, soluble phosphorus, total phosphorus and zinc. Quality of stormwater runoff is estimated using Event Mean Concentration (EMC) value. The storm characteristics analyzed included rainfall depth, rainfall duration, mean intensity, max 5 minutes intensity, antecedent dry day, runoff volume and peak flow. Correlation coefficients were determined between storm parameters and EMCs for the residential, commercial and industrial catchments. Except for the antecedent storm mean intensity and antecedent dry days, the other rainfall and runoff variables were negatively correlated with EMCs of most pollutants. This study reinforced the earlier findings on the importance of antecedent dry days for causing greater EMC values with exceptions for oil and grease, nitrate

  18. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  19. Biological monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in a highly polluted area of Poland.

    OpenAIRE

    Ovrebø, S; Fjeldstad, P E; Grzybowska, E; Kure, E H; Chorazy, M; Haugen, A

    1995-01-01

    Air pollution in Poland and particularly in Silesia is among the worst in Europe. Many coal mines and coke oven plants are located in this area, representing a major source of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We quantitated the PAH exposure level in air samples using personal sampling devices, collected urine samples from the same individuals, and measured 1-hydroxypyrene with high performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected twice, once in February and once ...

  20. Controlling Non-Point Source Pollution in Australian Agricultural Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. GOURLEY; A. RIDLEY

    2005-01-01

    The Australian farming sector is continuing to intensify, particularly within 300 km of the east and southern coastlines.In the future there will be fewer and larger farms, which will use more fertilizer, support more stock, grow more monoculture crops, and utilise more marginal soils. This is likely to increase the major environmental impacts of soil degradation, salt,nutrient and sediment contamination of waterways, and greenhouse gas emissions. Australian national water policy continues to focus on land, stream and groundwater salinity issues, although there is now a greater recognition of the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agriculture. The general philosophy of policy for dealing with nonpoint source pollution has been towards a voluntary rather than regulatory approach, with state and national governments supporting a range of programs to encourage sustainable agricultural practices. A catchment (watershed) based approach,through the use of integrated catchment management plans, is the primary way that non-point source pollution is addressed at the farm and local level. At an industry level, cotton, grains, meat, sugarcane and dairy amongst others, as well as the Australian fertilizer industry, have responded to non-point source issues by investing in research and development, and developing codes of practice aimed at abating these environmental impacts. Understanding the economic, social, political and cultural contexts of farming as well as the environmental impacts of agriculture are very important in determining the appropriateness of policy responses for Australian farming systems.

  1. Environmental geochemistry and ecological risk of vanadium pollution in Panzhihua mining and smelting area, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Yanguo; NI Shijun; ZHANG Chengjiang; WANG Jinsheng; LIN Xueyu; HUANG Yi

    2006-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Naturally high levels of vanadium are recognized mainly in basic rocks and minerals, particularly in titaniferous magnetite. And the anthropogenic sources of vanadium include fossil fuel combustion and wastes including steel-industry slags. In the last few years, the authors have made investigations and assessments on the environmental geochemistry and ecological risk of vanadium in the Panzhihua mining and smelting area. In the study area, anthropogenic vanadium resulted from mining, extracting and smelting of V-Ti magnetite; vanadium pollution of topsoil and sediments occurs mainly in the mining and extracting area, smelting area, slag dumping area, tailing dam and coal mining area. In the soil, the chemical speciation of vanadium shows: insoluble residue>organically bound>Fe (amorphous) oxide-bound>Mn oxide-bound>soluble component. Vanadium pollution can cause potential harmful effects on ecological systems, and lead to animal poisoning and human disease. So vanadiam pollution should be monitored on a regular basis in the Panzhihua area.

  2. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, P. L.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Abdo, A. A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Axelsson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bignami, G. F., E-mail: digel@stanford.edu, E-mail: Gino.Tosti@pg.infn.it, E-mail: jean.ballet@cea.fr, E-mail: tburnett@u.washington.edu [Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori (IUSS), I-27100 Pavia (Italy); and others

    2012-04-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy {gamma}-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely {gamma}-ray-producing source classes.

  3. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes.

  4. Fermi Large Area Telescope Third Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    We present the third Fermi Large Area Telescope source catalog (3FGL) of sources in the 100~MeV--300~GeV range. Based on the first four years of science data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission, it is the deepest yet in this energy range. Relative to the 2FGL catalog, the 3FGL catalog incorporates twice as much data as well as a number of analysis improvements, including improved calibrations at the event reconstruction level, an updated model for Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, a refined procedure for source detection, and improved methods for associating LAT sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The 3FGL catalog includes 3033 sources above 4 sigma significance, with source location regions, spectral properties, and monthly light curves for each. Of these, 78 are flagged as potentially being due to imperfections in the model for Galactic diffuse emission. Twenty-five sources are modeled explicitly as spatially extended, and overall 232 sources are considered as identifie...

  5. Animals living in polluted environments are potential source of antimicrobials against infectious agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Simon; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobials crisis is a ticking time bomb which could lead to millions of people dying from untreatable infections. With the worsening trends of antimicrobial resistance, we are heading towards a pre-antibiotic era. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful antibiotic agents. The search for new antibiotic compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in germ-infested environments are a potent source of antimicrobials. Under polluted m...

  6. Detection limits of pollutants in water for PGNAA using Am Be source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelifi, R.; Amokrane, A.; Bode, P.

    2007-09-01

    A basic PGNAA facility with an Am-Be neutron source is described to analyze the pollutants in water. The properties of neutron flux were determined by MCNP calculations. In order to determine the efficiency curve of a HPGe detector, the prompt-gamma rays from chlorine were used and an exponential curve was fitted. The detection limits for typical water sample are also estimated using the statistical fluctuations of the background level in the areas of recorded the prompt-gamma spectrum.

  7. Detection limits of pollutants in water for PGNAA using Am-Be source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, R. [Departement de Physique, Universite Saad Dahlab, BP: 270, Blida (Algeria)], E-mail: r_khelifi@yahoo.com; Amokrane, A. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Bode, P. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    A basic PGNAA facility with an Am-Be neutron source is described to analyze the pollutants in water. The properties of neutron flux were determined by MCNP calculations. In order to determine the efficiency curve of a HPGe detector, the prompt-gamma rays from chlorine were used and an exponential curve was fitted. The detection limits for typical water sample are also estimated using the statistical fluctuations of the background level in the areas of recorded the prompt-gamma spectrum.

  8. Quantifying the Potential for Non-Point Source Pollution in Model Urban Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Wolyniak, Brian John

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of non-point source pollution to degrading surface water quality is considerable throughout Virginia and beyond. While research on agricultural best management practices in nutrient management and nutrient and soil stabilization has made progress in reducing agricultural contributions to nutrient and sediment loading of watersheds, little is known about how land covers of different vegetation representative of urban areas (e.g., bare soil versus turfgrass lawns versus urban ...

  9. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  10. Isotope ratios as pollutant source and behaviour indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have witnessed significant advances in isotope techniques for identifying origins and for studying the behaviour of trace contaminants and pollutants of the environment under actual existing environmental conditions. Improvements in the supply of stable isotopes and their labelled compounds, instrumental analysis and information on stable or radioactive isotopic ratios of existing environmental contaminants as a function of origin or behaviour have provided relatively new tools for the environmental scientist. While variations in natural or existing environmental stable and radioactive nuclides could be regarded as 'background noise' in conventional tracer experiments they promised unique information about sources and behaviour to those who listened carefully. (author)

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ddddddd... - Applicability of General Provisions to Prepared Feeds Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Prepared Feeds Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDDDDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Area Sources: Prepared Feeds Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDDDDD, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart DDDDDDD of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Prepared Feeds Manufacturing Area Sources...

  12. Air Pollution Monitoring and Use of Nanotechnology Based Solid State Gas Sensors in Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, A. B. A.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Egypt, especially in greater Cairo area. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing sources has not followed at the same pace. Environmental impacts of air pollutants have impact on public health, vegetation, material deterioration etc. To prevent or minimize the damage caused by atmospheric pollution, suitable monitoring systems are urgently needed that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify polluting sources for monitoring by regulating authorities in order to prevent further deterioration of the current pollution levels. Consequently, it is important that the current real-time air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), should be adapted or extended to aid in alleviating this problem. Nanotechnology has been applied to several industrial and domestic fields, for example, applications for gas monitoring systems, gas leak detectors in factories, fire and toxic gas detectors, ventilation control, breath alcohol detectors, and the like. Here we report an application example of studying air quality monitoring based on nanotechnology `solid state gas sensors'. So as to carry out air pollution monitoring over an extensive area, a combination of ground measurements through inexpensive sensors and wireless GIS will be used for this purpose. This portable device, comprising solid state gas sensors integrated to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) linked through Bluetooth communication tools and Global Positioning System (GPS), will allow rapid dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites simultaneously.

  13. Pollution Sources and Standards of Cashew Nut Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Mohod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: India is largest producer, processor, exporter and second largest consumer of cashew in the world with annual production of 6,20,000 MT. India processed about 1.18 million MT of raw cashew seeds through 3650 cashew processing industries scattered in many states of country. The cashew industries employed different unit operations/ methodologies for processing depend on variety of raw material, location, technological mechanization and availability of secured energy supply. Approach: There are two commonly followed methods of cashew nut processing, viz., roasting process and steam (roasting process. The sources of different environmental pollutant discharged in to the atmosphere during the cashew nut processing have been revealed in the article. Results: The environmental standards for air pollution emission for roasting process, steam cooking process and broma oven have been presented. The solid waste disposal practice and new and relocation sitting criteria have been discussed for cashew processing industries. Conclusion: The cashew nut processing by cooking (steam roasting process, which is relatively less pollution intensive and an alternative process to roasting process may be considered to reduce the environmental discharge load.

  14. Pollutant loads of surface runoff in Wuhan City Zoo, an urban tourist area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian-wei; SHAN Bao-qing; YIN Cheng-qing

    2007-01-01

    The pollutant loads of surface runoff in an urban tourist area have been investigated for two years in the Wuhan City Zoo, China. Eight sampling sites, including two woodlands, three animal yards, two roofs and one road, were selected for sampling and study. The results indicate that pollutants ranked in a predictable order of decreasing load (e.g. animal yard>roof>woodland>road), with animal yards acting as the key pollution source in the zoo. Pollutants were transported mainly by particulate form in runoff. Particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate phosphorous (PP) accounted on average for 61%, 78% of total pollutant, respectively, over 13 monitored rainfall events. These results indicate the treatment practices should be implemented to improve particulate nutrient removal. Analysis of the M(V) curve indicated that no first flush effect existed in the surface runoff from pervious areas (e.g. woodland, animal ground yard), whereas a first flush effect was evident in runoff from impervious surfaces (e.g. animal cement yard, roof, road).

  15. Pollutant loads of surface runoff in Wuhan City Zoo, an urban tourist area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-wei; Shan, Bao-qing; Yin, Cheng-qing

    2007-01-01

    The pollutant loads of surface runoff in an urban tourist area have been investigated for two years in the Wuhan City Zoo, China. Eight sampling sites, including two woodlands, three animal yards, two roofs and one road, were selected for sampling and study. The results indicate that pollutants ranked in a predictable order of decreasing load (e.g. animal yard > roof > woodland > road), with animal yards acting as the key pollution source in the zoo. Pollutants were transported mainly by particulate form in runoff. Particulate nitrogen and particulate phosphorous accounted on average for 61%, 78% of total pollutant, respectively, over 13 monitored rainfall events. These results indicate the treatment practices should be implemented to improve particulate nutrient removal. Analysis of the M(V) curve indicate that no first flush effect existed in the surface runoff from pervious areas (e.g. woodland, animal ground yard), whereas a first flush effect was evident in runoff from impervious surfaces (e.g. animal cement yard, roof, road). PMID:17915711

  16. Geochemical Baseline and Trace Metal Pollution of Soil in Panzhihua Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 倪师军; 庹先国; 张成江; 马玉孝

    2002-01-01

    A total of 31 topsoil samples were systematically collected from the Panzhihua mining area including steel smelting, coal mining, urban and rural districts. A normalization procedure was adopted to establish the environmental geochemical baseline models for this area. By using the above baseline models, the regional geochemical baseline values of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined. On the basis of the baselines, the enrichment factors were used to analyze the mechanism of trace metal pollution in topsoil from anthropogenic sources, and the results showed that the serious trace metal pollution is caused by human activities in coal mine, iron mine, smelting factory, tailing dam and other industrial districts in the Panzhihua area.

  17. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  18. Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bignami, G. F.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Cañadas, B.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chipaux, R.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Davis, D. S.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; DeKlotz, M.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Enoto, T.; Escande, L.; Fabiani, D.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Iafrate, G.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. E.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuta, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lionetto, A. M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Salvetti, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sbarra, C.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Shrader, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinebra, F.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Etten, A.; Van Klaveren, B.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes. We dedicate this paper to the memory of our colleague Patrick Nolan, who died on 2011 November 6. His career spanned much of the history of high-energy astronomy from space and his work on the Large Area Telescope (LAT) began nearly 20 years ago when it was just a concept. Pat was a central member in the operation of the LAT collaboration and he is greatly missed.

  19. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Hugo; Vaughan, Geraint; Wareing, David

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  20. [Pollution with sulfur dioxide in an inhabited industrial area. Methodologic problems in monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, C; Pontoni, H; Pellicciotti, G

    1989-01-01

    The area around Rho and Pero in the north west of the province of Milan is densely populated and highly industrialised. It is also characterised by high levels of sulphur dioxide pollution. During the 1980s it was decided to check the sources of production of the pollutant and its distribution in the area. The main area for improvement was the refinery at Rho where it was aimed to disperse gases at a higher level by raising the chimneys and to use fuel gas in those burners which were connected to lower chimneys. For domestic systems it was decided to diffuse the use of methane as much as possible and limit oil-fired central heating, by statute from the Mayor. In order to rationalise the programme of action the pollution was to be determined for each single area by subdivision of the territory into a grid. By means of a census of all the production sources of sulphur dioxide appropriate data were collected to estimate each area's contribution to pollution. The theoretical hourly quantity of sulphur dioxide was calculated on the basis of the combustion equation. The data were then analysed, in total and divided into component parts, i.e. the type of fuel used, the season of the year and industrial or domestic usage. With Gifford and Hanna's ATDL mathematical model the data thus obtained, together with meteorological variables, were used to simulate the expected effect on the distribution of pollution after carrying out the programmed actions. The simulations foresee a reduction of up to 80% of sulphur dioxide concentrations in the areas of greatest use of liquid fuels. In the territory in question the monitoring of the pollutant was assured by the presence of five fixed positions of continuous survey. These turned out to be useful above all for analysis of the phenomenon over a period of time. In order to study spatial distribution better 374 findings were gathered in the winter of 1985-6 from various points of the territory by means of a mobile instantaneous

  1. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng; GUO Huai-cheng; LIU Yong; HAO Ze-jia

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial pattern.

  2. MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, M.; Balan, R.; A. MANESCU

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste inindustrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon ofunderground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronouncedunderground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil andunderground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking and...

  3. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Fu; Binghui Zheng; Xingru Zhao; Lijing Wang; Changming Liu

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009.The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces,5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated.The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater.The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 t0 2008,while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources.The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions.In river drinking water sources,the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally.The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region,while the lowest value was found in Southwest region.In lake/reservoir drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions.In underground drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions.In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels,there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  4. Block Tensor Decomposition for Source Apportionment of Air Pollution

    CERN Document Server

    Hopke, Philip K; Li, Na; Navasca, Carmeliza

    2011-01-01

    The ambient particulate chemical composition data with three particle diameter sizes (2.5mmsource apportionment analysis calls for a novel multiway factor analysis. We apply the regularized block tensor decomposition to the collected air sample data. In particular, we use the Block Term Decomposition (BTD) in rank-(L;L;1) form to identify nine pollution sources (Fe+Zn, Sulfur with Dust, Road Dust, two types of Metal Works, Road Salt, Local Sulfate, and Homogeneous and Cloud Sulfate).

  5. Spatial correlations between urbanization and river water pollution in the heavily polluted area of Taihu Lake Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Haixia; DUAN Xuejun; Becky STEWART; YOU Bensheng; JIANG Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Water pollution in the Taihu Lake Basin has been the focus of attention in China and abroad for a long time,due to its position in the forefront of urban development in China.Based on data gathering and processing from 84 monitoring sections in this heavily polluted area,this study first analyzes spatial patterns of urbanization and the distribution of river water pollution,and then uses the GeoDa bivariate spatial autocorrelation model to investigate the spatial correlation between urbanization and river water pollution at the scale of township units.The results show that urbanization has adverse impacts on water pollution,and the influence varies in different levels of development areas.The urban township units have the highest level of urbanization and highest pollution,but the best water quality; the suburban units have lower level of urbanization,but higher pollution and worse water quality;however the rural units have the lowest level of urbanization and lowest pollution,mainly affected by upstream pollution,but worst water quality.Lastly,urban and rural planning committees,while actively promoting the process of development in the region,should gradually resolve the issue of pollution control lagging behind urban life and urban development,giving priority to construction of centralized sewage treatment facilities and associated pipeline network coverage in the rural areas and suburban areas.

  6. Complex sources of air-soil-water pollution processes in the Miyun reservoir region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Dongzhen; XU; Xiangde; LIU; Xiaoduan; XU; Qing; DING

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive impact of atmospheric dry deposition and wet deposition and the pollution sources of farmlands, mining areas, and towns along the Baihe River on the water quality of Miyun reservoir is investigated from the angle of the complex sources of air-soil-water pollution processes, in the context of the 1990-2001 precipitation chemical data at Shangdianzi station--a WMO regional background air pollution monitoring station 15 km far from the Miyun reservoir, in conjunction with the atmospheric dry deposition and wet deposition data of the 2002-2003 Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX). Analysis results suggest that the major ions in precipitation in the Miyun reservoir region in this period were SO, NO, NH and Ca2+; wet acid deposition quantity of Miyun reservoir in the summer half year (April to September) was greater than the quantity in the winter half year (October to March), and the annual wet acid deposition in the reservoir exhibited a rising trend with the mean 1038.45 t, the maximum 1766.31 t occurred in 1996, and the minimum 604.02 t in 1994; the long-term averaged pH of atmospheric precipitation in the Miyun reservoir region was 5.20, i.e. weakly acidic, and the interannual variation of pH values displayed a falling trend. pH values of water body at various depths in the Miyun reservoir were all greater than 7.0, but they exhibited vertical and horizontal nonhomogeneity, and at the same region pH decreased vertically with depth; the 2002 and 2003 annual dustfalls in the Miyun reservoir were 13513.08 t and 3577.64 t, respectively, and the spring dustfall was the number one in a year, accounting for the 61.91% and 44.56% of the annual totals of 2002 and 2003, respectively. Because the atmospheric dry deposition and wet depositions contain multiple types heavy metal elements and harmful elements, they to some extent exacerbated the eutrophication, acidification and potential heavy metal pollution of the reservoir water

  7. 太滆运河流域平原河网地区非点源污染负荷时空分布规律研究%SPATIOTEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN THE PLAIN RIVER NETWORK AREA OF THE TAIGE CANAL WATERSHED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申萌萌; 苏保林; 李卉; 张倩

    2012-01-01

    平原河网地区地势平坦,河网密布,河流的水力联系复杂,导致对非点源污染的研究有一定的困难.为加强对这一类地区非点源污染的研究、揭示流域内非点源负荷的时空分布规律,在分析现有几种适用于平原河网地区估算方法的基础上,选取太滆运河流域典型区域,以农业非点源污染估算为重点,将非点源污染分为产生量和入河量2部分,按照农田径流、农村生活、畜禽养殖分别计算产生量,再通过现场调查和野外试验估算入河系数和入河量,估算该地区的非点源污染负荷,并对其时空分布规律进行分析.结果表明,农业非点源污染负荷在年内的分布规律主要受农田径流污染的影响,6—8月份的污染负荷比较高,接近全年污染负荷的30%;以行政村为单位的非点源污染空间分布显示大成村区域污染负荷最高.%The load of non-point source pollution in plain river network is difficult to estimate because the land is flat, densely crossed by rivers, and hydraulic connections very complex. To overcome such difficulty and shed light on the spatiotemporal distribution patterns, typical regions were selected, ollution load was evaluated with distinct approaches based on different polluted sources. Non-point source pollution load in plain network area was divided into generation load and load into the river. Generation pollution load was estimated according to source, such as agricultural runoff, rural domestic and livestock wastes. Ratio of loads into river was estimated by field investigation and experiments, loads into river can be estimated by product of generation loads and ratio of loads into river. This estimation was used to reveal the spatiotemporal distribution of nonpoint source pollution. Data showed that agricultural non-point source pollution distribution was mainly affected by agricultural runoff, load being the highest from June to August accounting for 30% of total

  8. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN PARKING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of rain sewer is connected with dehydration of roads and coexisting objects. The paper presents a discussion upon the issue of groundwater contamination by petroleum compounds and other pollutants from transport based on studies of groundwater within the parking lots. The study included 9 parking areas, including 7 in Bialystok, 1 in a residential area outside of Bialystok in Ignatki, and one in Kleosin. The tested waters were subject to determination of COD, total suspension, and petroleum substances expressed as a mineral oil index. The studies have shown that the concentrations of determined parameters were in most cases proportional to the larger runoffs and concentration of petroleum compounds increased with the increase of suspension. It has been shown that from part of the parking lots, the meteoric water was discharged directly into watercourses and exceeds the permissible limits regulated by the Decree.

  9. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

    2004-12-01

    new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff.

  10. EVALUATION OF NOISE POLLUTION RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN SARANSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Skvortsov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research of influence of adverse factors of the environment of life on physical development and population health is one of actual problems of modern ecology. Noise is one of significant factors of negative influence to the man and to environment. That long-term exposure to noise leads to an increase in slow-wave activity, as well as changes in visual and auditory cortical response, with an increase in latency and a decrease in the amplitude values of the main peaks, indicating that the stress response of animals to the stimulus. Additionally, chronic exposure leads to noise reduction in general motor activity, increased anxiety, reduced emotional activity animals. Pathological examination revealed a violation of the vascular nature when exposed to noise for 15 days, longer duration of action of factor causes irreversible changes in the nervous tissue in the form of reduction in the total number of neurons per unit area, the presence of glial scarring in the area of 2 layers of the cerebral cortex. If the noise energies level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (RC, theysound events. This article discusses issues affecting one of the most urgent problems of the modern world, namely the contamination of residential areas by road noise. The estimation of the acoustic pollution of the urban environment from the effects of road traffic flows. Describes the transport, travel, architectural and planning factors acoustic urban pollution. The existing methodology for assessing the sound pressure generated by the flow of vehicles. Suggestions for environmental reconstruction project solutions highways based on a combination of various protective factors.

  11. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources. PMID:27548986

  12. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  13. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health and agriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlated with noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentration level in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the

  14. Fermi Large Area Telescope Second Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    We present the second catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24-month period. The Second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in 5 energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we att...

  15. Risks Associated to Soil Pollution in the Proximity of Tailing Facilities in the Western Area of Baia Mare

    OpenAIRE

    MODOI O.Cristina; Al. OZUNU; I.C. STEZAR

    2010-01-01

    Baia Mare town is situated in Northern side of Romania and it is well known for the old mining activitiesdeployed in the area. The hazardous waste landfills positioning directly on the soil without other protection it is knownas being a source of pollution for the underground, and the wastes resulted from ore processing are included in thehazardous waste category, due to their hazardous substances content and their large quantities. This study presents thesoil pollution in the near vicinity o...

  16. Groundwater pollution studies in Lahore urban area - isotope hydrochemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was undertaken to assess the levels and sources of groundwater pollution in Lahore aquifer. Water samples collected on periodical basis from existing hand pumps, tube wells and drains were analyzed for chemical constituents (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO/sub 3/, CO/sub 3/, NO/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/). Selected samples were analyzed for isotopic composition (C/sup 13/, N/sup 15/) and Coliform bacteria also. The data show that quality of groundwater has significantly deteriorated at most of the locations and concentrations of several parameters are higher than WHO criteria of good quality drinking water. An increase in nitrate concentrations especially in shallow groundwater (10 to 188 mg/l) was noted. Highly enriched delta N/sup 15/ values of high nitrate water samples (+10.3 to +25.1%) indicate that nitrates are derived from domestic wastes thrown into sewage drains. Penetration of polluted water from sewerage drains was also confirmed on the basis of delta C/sup 13/ and Fecal Coliform data (0-26 coliform/100 ml of sample). (author)

  17. Geochemical Baseline and Trace Metal Pollution of Soil in Panzhihua Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 倪师军; 等

    2002-01-01

    A total of 31 topsoil samples were systematically collected from the Panzhihuaminingarea including steel smelting,coal mining ,urban and rural districts.A normalization procedure was adopted to establish the environmental geochemical baseline models for this area.By using the above baseline models,the regional geochemical baseline values of As,Cr,Cu,Ni,Pb and Zn were determined.On the basis of the baselines,the enrichment factors were used to analyze the mechanism of trace metal pollution in topsoil from anthropogenic sources,and the results showed that the serious trace metal pollution is caused by human activities in coal mine,iron mine,smelting factory,tailing dam and other industrial districts in the Panzhihua area.

  18. THE POTENTIAL SOURCES OF POLLUTION AFFECTING THE WATER QUALITY OF LAKE IZNIK

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcın Askın OKTEM; Murat GUMUS; Gokcen BAYRAK YILMAZ

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine Lake Iznik, one of the most significant water resources of the South Marmara Region, and the anthropogenic pollution types affecting the drainage basin and their possible effects. Lake Iznik, a water resource that is quite significant because of its geographical position, is polluted not only with the point and non-point sources of pollution around it, but also with the pollutants spread via highways which are linear pollutants. The fertilization and di...

  19. Negotiating the initial permits allocation as a revelation mechanism in non point source pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mourad; Rio, Patrick; European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists; Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherche en Analyse des Décisions

    2007-01-01

    Non point source pollution is characterized by the fact that individual emissions are not observable at a reasonable cost. This constitutes a moral hazard problem. Furthermore, we explicitly consider adverse selection, a second type of asymmetric information that arises because of the difficulty to differentiate the polluters with respect to their type (marginal benefit of polluting). In this paper, we design a tradable permits market between non point sources of pollution in the vein of Tayl...

  20. Adsorption Control Performance of Phosphorus Removal from Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution by Nano-Aperture Lanthanum-modified Active Alumina

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Bing Luo; Fei Li; Hao Lv; Ying-Mei Zeng; Ke Zhang; Bo Huang

    2012-01-01

    It is great significance to control the phosphorus pollution from agricultural non-point source pollution. In this study, adsorption control performance of phosphorus removal from agricultural non-point source pollution by manual nano-aperture Lanthanum-modified active alumina was a great inspiring from urban-rural-integration-area. About 10 to 30 nanometers aperture on granule surfaces from the active alumina (&gamma-Al2 O3 which average sphere diameters is 3 mm, was formed after modificatio...

  1. Participatory measurements of individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelin, Malika; Duché, Sarah; Dupuis, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Chronic and high concentration exposure presents a health risk with cardiovascular and respiratory problems and longer term nervous, carcinogenic and endocrine problems. In addition to the estimations based on simulations of both background and regional pollution and of the pollution induced by the traffic, knowing exposure of each individual is a key issue. This exposure reflects the high variability of pollution at fine spatial and time scales, according to the proximity of emission sources and the urban morphology outside. The emergence of citizen science and the progress of miniaturized electronics, low-cost and accessible to (almost) everyone, offers new opportunities for the monitoring of air pollution, but also for the citizens' awareness of their individual exposure to air pollution. In this communication, we propose to present a participatory research project 'What is your air?' (project funded by the Île-de-France region), which aims at raising awareness on the theme of air quality, its monitoring with sensors assembled in a FabLab workshop and an online participatory mapping. Beyond the discussion on technical choices, the stages of manufacture or the sensor calibration procedures, we discuss the measurements made, in this case the fine particle concentration measurements, which are dated and georeferenced (communication via a mobile phone). They show high variability between the measurements (in part linked to the substrates, land use, traffic) and low daily contrasts. In addition to the analysis of the measurements and their comparison with the official data, we also discuss the choice of representation of information, including mapping, and therefore the message about pollution to communicate.

  2. Adjoint method for the optimum planning of industrial pollutant sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; HU Fei; ZHU Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The optimum planning of industrial pollutant sources, which optimizes the economic object without violating environmental constraints, is an important and hard task to be conquered. In this paper, an adjoint method is developed to solve the problem. The penalty function is introduced to deal with the environmental inequality constraints, and Lagrange function is constructed to derive the adjoint equation and the gradient of the object function. In this means, the gradient of the object function can be calculated by solving the adjoint equation, and the information from the gradient is used to make the object function descend and approach to an optimal solution after some iterations. A two-dimensional, simplified model is used for numerical experiments. The theoretical derivations are verified by the results of the experiments. Furthermore, the adjoint method is shown to be of excellent convergence and efficiency, which is adaptive to the fast development of air quality numerical models and super computers.

  3. [Studies on the determination of the flux of gaseous pollutant from an area by passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Xie, Pin-Hua; Liu, Wen-Qing; Liu, Jian-Guo; Dou, Ke

    2009-01-01

    An optical remote sensing method based on passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) for the determination of the flux of SO2 or other gaseous pollutants from an area (such as industrial area, city) which includes many different atmospheric pollution sources was studied in the present paper. Passive DOAS using the zenith scattered sunlight as the light source provides the column density (the integrated concentration of atmospheric absorbers along the light path) and has been successfully applied to the determination of the flux of gaseous pollutants emitted from the volcano or point source. Passive DOAS instrument installed in a car scanned the plume emitted from an area by circling around the area in this paper. Column density of each selected gaseous pollutant was retrieved from zenith scattered sunlight spectra collected by the instrument by spectral analysis method of passive DOAS in their particular absorption spectral range respectively. Combined with the meteorological (wind field) information during the period of measurement, the net flux value of gaseous pollutant from this area during the measurement could be estimated. DOAS method used to obtain the column density of gaseous pollutant in the section plane of the plume emitted from source and the method of net flux calculation of gaseous pollutant from a certain area are described. Also a passive DOAS instrument was developed and installed in a car to scan the gaseous pollutants from the area surrounded by the 5th Ring Road in Beijing city during a field campaign in the summer of 2005. The SO2 net flux 1.13 x 10(4) kg x h(-1) and NO2 net flux 9.3 x 10(3) kg x h(-1) from this area were derived separately after the passive DOAS measured the entire ring road and the wind data were roughly estimated from wind profile radar. The results indicate that this optical remote sensing method based on passive DOAS can be used to rapidly determine the flux of gaseous pollutant (such as SO2, NO2

  4. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  5. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  6. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level.

  7. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  8. Foreshowing of the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track to PM10 air pollution episode in the Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiQuan; WANG ZiFa; YU Tong; GONG YanBang

    2009-01-01

    By utilizing the air quality monitoring data and the NCEP reanalysis data, the relationship between the PM10 air pollution episode and synoptic situation is analyzed in the Beijing area. It is interesting to find that PM10 air pollution episode in and around the Beijing area is correlated with the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track to some extent, namely when a tropical cyclone lands southward to the Chang-jiang River, PM10 air pollution episode is not easy to take place generally in the Beijing area; but when a tropical cyclone moves northward and finally lands at the Korea Peninsula or the Japanese mainland, and under this condition the Beijing area is generally controlled by weak high or weak low for several days, PM10 air pollution episode often takes place in one day or several days. Above findings indicate that predicting the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track can foretell whether or not PM10 air pollution episode takes place in the Beijing area, which can offer a technique for urban air quality prediction and air pollution source management in the Beijing area.

  9. [Femoral bone morphogenesis in human fetuses in the area of environmental fluoride pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalina, T I; Vasil'eva, L S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the peculiarities of femoral bone osteogenesis in human fetuses in the areas with different levels of environmental pollution with fluoride compounds (the city of Irkutsk and the town of Shelekhov). The histological structure of femoral bones was studied in 70 fetuses aged 15-16, 19-20, 22-25 and 27-29 gestational weeks. Morphometric methods were used to evaluate the number of blood vessels per total area of epiphysis, the length of endochondral trabeculae, the thickness of hypertrophic and columnar cartilage zones, diaphysis wall and its trabeculae thickness, the thickness of endochondral trabeculae merging with the diaphysis wall, and of the bone growing on the epiphysis. It was found that in the city of Irkutzk, relatively remote from the pollution source, the processes of osteogenesis and osteoresorption are balanced and are characterized by the prevalence of osteoblastic activity over osteoclastic activity, ensuring the active bone growth. During weeks 15-22, the bones are actively growing in length, while during weeks 22-29 they grow mainly in width. In the town of Shelekhov, located closely to the pollution source, the growth of bones in both length and width, is delayed. The bone growth was active till week 16, however, during weeks 18-29, osteoresorption prevailed over the osteosynthesis, the bone thickness decreased, while the activity of their growth in length remained reduced. PMID:20593589

  10. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copºa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 -1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery.Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reductionof industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health andagriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals(Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlatedwith noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentrationlevel in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the closure

  11. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed. PMID:27000830

  12. Analysis of Fluoride Pollution Situation and Source in Poor Rural Areas of Guizhou Province%贵州省贫困农村氟污染现状及贡献源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文冬; 李金娟; 郭兴强; 蒋武明

    2013-01-01

    Stove and fuel types used by local households were investigated in four poor villages (Yangguang, Xiongkuai, Guang-ming and Hongxing) in Nayong County, and samples of ash residues, foodstuff and indoor air were collected. The fluoride concentrations of these samples were determined by fluorine ion-selective electrodes and the contributions to fluorine pollution were analyzed. The results showed that easily-made open stoves and honeycomb briquette stoves with no chimney account for about for 87%, and coal briquettes and honeycomb briquettes used account for about 80. 5%. The average fluorine contents in lump coal, powdered coal, coal briquettes and honeycomb briquettes are 57. 85±27. 64 mg/kg, 83. 03±47. 10 mg/kg, 199. 41 ± 113. 61 mg/kg, 83. 11±44. 16 mg/kg, respectively. However, the average fluorine content of clay used in coal briquettes is 566. 08±266. 65 mg/kg, including one sample whose clay content is as high as 1132. 81 mg/kg. The average contents of fluoride in chili, corn niblet and corn meal are 573. 52±296. 78 mg/kg, 23. 16±12. 79 mg/kg and 9. 20±2. 74 mg/kg, respectively, with the highest value of 1273. 92 mg/kg in the chili. The fluoride contents of indoor air in heating and non-heating periods are found to be 13. 66±3. 01 μg/m3 and 1. 28±0. 76 μg/m3, respectively. Fluorine release rates of coal briquettes and honeycomb briquettes are 66. 31% , 43. 76% , respectively. Based upon the results of this study, the main source of fluoride is still found to be clay binder and the important way by which fluorine is in taken into human bodies is by chili.%选取了纳雍县四个贫困村寨(阳光、熊块、光明和红星)作为研究对象,对居民所用的炉灶、燃料及灰渣、部分食物及室内空气进行了调查和样品采集,使用氟离子选择电极法测定了样品中氟的含量,分析了氟污染的贡献量.研究结果表明,当地约有87%的农民使用无烟囱的简易敞炉和蜂窝煤炉,燃料中约80.5%为

  13. The origin and transport of pollutant lead (Pb) to the Svalbard area of the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Monitoring of pollutants in the biota of the Arctic is a high priority activity of the circumpolar Arctic nations. Considerable, research has been directed at understanding the influence of pollutants on the Arctic ecosystem. The majority of research in the Svalbard area of the Arctic has concentrated on the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCBs in the biota of the area. More recently the role of heavy metal pollutants such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the arctic ecosystem has been highlighted. A possible major sink/source for contaminants are sediments however very little research has been undertaken in the sediments of the Svalbard area. To fully understand the system and allow preventative or remedial steps to be taken, it is necessary to determine the magnitude of pollutant inputs and the major transport pathways. By investigating sediment cores from lakes, fjordic and shelf environments surrounding the Svalbard area it will be possible to understand these processes and assess their importance in modelling the fate of contaminants within the Arctic environment. By utilising stable Pb isotopes (206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) it is possible to identify the source from which it came. For example, in the UK, Pb from petrol has a 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.092, industrial sources have a ratio of around 1.18, and natural sources vary but are typically around 1.20. Therefore by measuring the isotopic ratio of the Pb contained in the Svalbard sediments it is possible to determine what the predominant sources of pollutant Pb are. Sediment cores from a north-south transect (Voering Plateau to the Yermak Plateau) and from an east-west transect (Kongsfjorden to Fram Strait) have been analysed for trace element and heavy metal concentrations and stable Pb isotope ratios. To determine the relative importance of atmospheric transport versus marine transport sediment lake cores have been analysed and compared with the cores from

  14. OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION FROM AGRICULTURE: AN APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is a major source of water quality impairment. When considering responses to non-point source pollution, several policy options have been considered historically, including reducing inputs (e.g. fertilizers) altering technologies on the landscape (e.g. conserv...

  15. Characteristics of Non—Point Source Pollution in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir,Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 贺伟; 等

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are the major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade water quality of the Miyun Reservoir,a very important drinking water source of Bijing,China,and they are mainly from non-point sources.The watershed in Miyun County was selected as the study region with a totoal area of 1400km2.Four typical monitoring catchments and two experimental units were used to monitor the precipitation,runoff,sediment yield and pollutant loading related to various land uses in the meantime.The results show that the total nutrient loss amounts of TN and TP are 898.07t/a,and 40.70t/a,respectively,in which nutrients N and P carried by runoff are 91.3% and 77.3%,respectively.There is relatively heavier soil eroson in the northern mountain area whereas the main nutrient loss occurs near the northeast edge of the reservoir.Different land uses would influence the loss amounts of non-point source pollutants.The amount of nutrient loss from the agricultural land per unit is highest,that from forestry comes next that from grassland is lowest.However,due to the variability of land use areas,agricultural land contributes a lot to TP and forestry lands to TN.

  16. Characteristics of Non-Point Source Pollution in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 王一峋; 李庭芳; 贺伟; 胡秋菊; 张弘芬

    2002-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are the major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade water quality of the Miyun Reservoir, a very important drinking water source of Beijing, China, and they are mainly from non-point sources. The watershed in Miyun County was selected as the study region with a total area of 1400 km2. Four typical monitoring catchments and two experimental units were used to monitor the precipitation, runoff, sediment yield and pollutant loading related to various land uses in the meantime. The results show that the total nutrient loss amounts of TN and TP are 898.07 t/a, and 40.70 t/a, respectively, in which nutrients N and P carried by runoff are 91.3 % and 77.3 %, respectively. There is relatively heavier soil erosion in the northern mountain area whereas the main nutrient loss occurs near the northeast edge of the reservoir. Different land uses would influence the loss amounts of non-point source pollutants. The amount of nutrient loss from the agricultural land per unit is highest, that from forestry comes next and that from grassland is lowest. However, due to the variability of land use areas, agricultural land contributes a lot to TP and forestry lands to TN.

  17. Determining the source of nitrate pollution in the Niger discontinuous aquifers using the natural {15N }/{14N } ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Pierre; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    1997-12-01

    In the semi-arid Niamey area (Niger), more than 10% of the deep wells exploiting the fracture network of the Precambrian aquifer are contaminated by nitrates, with concentrations as high as 10 meq l -1. In order to identify the source(s) of this pollution, nitrate and 15N contents in the polluted wells were monitored over a 20-month period. Potential sources of nitrate contamination were also analyzed for their 15N content. The isotopic compositions of nitrate in polluted waters were > + 12‰ and in rare cases exceeded +17‰. Latrines (˜ + 15‰) may be the major nitrate source for wells showing δ15N values above +15‰. Below this value, waters may be polluted by a combination of nitrates from both latrine and soil sources (˜ + 10‰). In some cases, the soil may account for up to 85% of the groundwater nitrate load. This mode of groundwater pollution is thought to be a consequence of deforestation. Despite their reputation as polluting agents, fertilizers ( +0.5 < δ 15N < + 3.6‰ ) which are used in rice paddies close to the contaminated areas, do not appear to be a significant source of nitrate contamination. Denitrification is probably not a significant process in the study area. Results suggest that nitrate contamination of the aquifer is a consequence of unregulated urbanization (home-made latrines) and deforestation. While latrines are limited to the urban zones, intensive cutting of the forest to meet the city dwellers' wood demand occurs in an ever increasing area around the capital, threatening the local water supply.

  18. A Bayesian Multivariate Receptor Model for Estimating Source Contributions to Particulate Matter Pollution using National Databases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Time series studies have suggested that air pollution can negatively impact health. These studies have typically focused on the total mass of fine particulate matter air pollution or the individual chemical constituents that contribute to it, and not source-specific contributions to air pollution. Source-specific contribution estimates are useful from a regulatory standpoint by allowing regulators to focus limited resources on reducing emissions from sources that are major cont...

  19. Behaviours and attitudes in the management of nonpoint source pollution: Ping River Basin, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Wimolpat

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution is recognised as a major cause of water pollution. The characteristics of nonpoint source pollution suggest that an efficient approach should focus on a source control and hence land-use management. Recently, the concept of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) has been advanced as an efficient market-based approach to protect in-stream water quality, while simultaneously supporting agriculture. Farmers can be rewarded for the adoption of certain ‘Best M...

  20. Role of rural solid waste management in non-point source pollution control of Dianchi Lake catchments, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjing LU; Hongtao WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with control of the main municipal and industrial point pollution sources and implementation of cleaning for some inner pollution sources in the water body, the discharge of point source pollution decreased gradually, while non-point source pollution has become increasingly distressing in Dianchi Lake catchments. As one of the major targets in non-point source pollution control, an integrated solid waste controlling strategy combined with a technological solution and management system was proposed and implemented based on the waste disposal situation and characteristics of rural solid waste in the demonstration area. As the key technoogy in rural solid waste treatment, both centralized plantscale composting and a dispersed farmer-operated waste treating system showed promise in rendering timely benefits in efficiency, large handling capacity, high quality of the end product, as well as good economic return. Problems encountered during multi-substrates co-com-posting such as pathogens, high moisture content, asyn-chronism in the decomposition of different substrates, and low quality of the end product can all be tackled. 92.5% of solid waste was collected in the demonstration area, while the treating and recycling ratio reached 87.9%, which pre-vented 32.2 t nitrogen and 3.9 t phosphorus per year from entering the water body of Dianchi Lake after imple-mentation of the project.

  1. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi M. Mutter; Aqeel R. Lamy

    2014-01-01

    Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel sho...

  2. Mercury as a global pollutant: sources, pathways, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T; Mason, Robert P; Chan, Hing Man; Jacob, Daniel J; Pirrone, Nicola

    2013-05-21

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects human and ecosystem health. We synthesize understanding of sources, atmosphere-land-ocean Hg dynamics and health effects, and consider the implications of Hg-control policies. Primary anthropogenic Hg emissions greatly exceed natural geogenic sources, resulting in increases in Hg reservoirs and subsequent secondary Hg emissions that facilitate its global distribution. The ultimate fate of emitted Hg is primarily recalcitrant soil pools and deep ocean waters and sediments. Transfers of Hg emissions to largely unavailable reservoirs occur over the time scale of centuries, and are primarily mediated through atmospheric exchanges of wet/dry deposition and evasion from vegetation, soil organic matter and ocean surfaces. A key link between inorganic Hg inputs and exposure of humans and wildlife is the net production of methylmercury, which occurs mainly in reducing zones in freshwater, terrestrial, and coastal environments, and the subsurface ocean. Elevated human exposure to methylmercury primarily results from consumption of estuarine and marine fish. Developing fetuses are most at risk from this neurotoxin but health effects of highly exposed populations and wildlife are also a concern. Integration of Hg science with national and international policy efforts is needed to target efforts and evaluate efficacy.

  3. Characterization and source determination of air pollution in Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of air pollution in Ankara and the effect of these sources on rainwater composition were studied by collecting rainwater and aerosol samples over a one year period in 1988. The rain water was not acidic owing to high concentrations of alkaline soil particles in the atmosphere. However, the concentrations of acid forming ions, such as SO42- and NO3-, were higher than concentrations expected in a typical urban atmosphere. Most of the SO42- in rain water was in the form of CaSO4. The ions most efficiently scavenged from the atmosphere were found to be SO42- and Ca2+. Atomspheric concentrations of approximately thirty elements indicated that road dust, motor vehicles, coal and oil combustion are the main components of aerosols over the city. Elements which have origins in industrial processes were not enriched substantially and do not show seasonal dependence, whereas elements which originate from coal combustion for residential heating are highly enriched and have higher concentrations in the winter. Road dust was enriched in Pb and Br and does not show characteristic soil composition. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  4. Air pollution analysis in urban areas; Analisis de la contaminacion atmosferica en areas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massague Roch, G.

    1997-04-01

    The urban atmosphere is a chemical reactor in which pollutant gases such as volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen react under the influence of sunlight to create a variety of products, including ozone and aerosols. An analytical methodology to assess the atmospheric impact in urban areas is described where local emission released by industries and transport sectors are influenced by the meteorological conditions and topography. Altogether they set up an atmospheric scenario with a daily and season motion. (Author) 10 refs.

  5. Characterization and source identification of pollutants in runoff from a mixed land use watershed using ordination analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-05-01

    While identification of critical pollutant sources is the key initial step for cost-effective runoff management, it is challenging due to the highly uncertain nature of runoff pollution, especially during a storm event. To identify critical sources and their quantitative contributions to runoff pollution (especially focusing on phosphorous), two ordination methods were used in this study: principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). For the ordination analyses, we used runoff quality data for 14 storm events, including data for phosphorus, 11 heavy metal species, and eight ionic species measured at the outlets of subcatchments with different land use compositions in a mixed land use watershed. Five factors as sources of runoff pollutants were identified by PCA: agrochemicals, groundwater, native soils, domestic sewage, and urban sources (building materials and automotive activities). PMF identified similar factors to those identified by PCA, with more detailed source mechanisms for groundwater (i.e., nitrate leaching and cation exchange) and urban sources (vehicle components/motor oils/building materials and vehicle exhausts), confirming the sources identified by PCA. PMF was further used to quantify contributions of the identified sources to the water quality. Based on the results, agrochemicals and automotive activities were the two dominant and ubiquitous phosphorus sources (39-61 and 16-47 %, respectively) in the study area, regardless of land use types. PMID:26850099

  6. The Roles of Countrywomen in Controlling Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Zhou Yuanfang; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The main causes of non-point source pollution in Taihu Lake are the improper ways of crop production, animal husbandry, and daily runoff. The paper discusses the relationship between countrywomen and non-point source pollution control by 731 questionnaires in Weidu village and 466 questionnaires in Dapu Town. The roles of countrywomen have changed in families and they have close relationship with non-point source pollution. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility and methods of organizing countrywomen in non-point source pollution control.

  7. Impact of sources of environmental degradation on microbial community dynamics in non-polluted and metal-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, Lur; Martín-Sánchez, Iker; González-Oreja, José A; Anza, Mikel; Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Garbisu, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Soils are currently being degraded at an alarming rate due to increasing pressure from different sources of environmental degradation. Consequently, we carried out a 4-month microcosm experiment to measure the impact of different sources of environmental degradation (biodiversity loss, nitrogen deposition and climate change) on soil health in a non-polluted (non-degraded) and a heavily metal-polluted (degraded) soil, and to compare their responses. To this aim, we determined a variety of soil microbial properties with potential as bioindicators of soil health: basal respiration; β-glucosaminidase and protease activities; abundance (Q-PCR) of bacterial, fungal and chitinase genes; richness (PCR-DGGE) of fungal and chitinase genes. Non-polluted and metal-polluted soils showed different response microbial dynamics when subjected to sources of environmental degradation. The non-polluted soil appeared resilient to "biodiversity loss" and "climate change" treatments. The metal-polluted soil was probably already too severely affected by the presence of high levels of toxic metals to respond to other sources of stress. Our data together suggests that soil microbial activity and biomass parameters are more sensitive to the applied sources of environmental degradation, showing immediate responses of greater magnitude, while soil microbial diversity parameters do not show such variations.

  8. MODELING OF SEDIMENT AND NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTANT YIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai'en LI; Xiaokang Hong; Bing SHEN

    2001-01-01

    For water and soil conservation and water pollution control, it is very important to simulate and predict the load of sediment and pollutant during storm-runoff. On the basis of analyzing the simultaneous measurements of flow, sediment and pollutants observed at watershed outlet, a practical sediment yield model is developed by standardizing the load rate. The results show that the standardized pollutant yield equals effective rainfall and the process of effective load yield is the same as effective rainfall hyetograph. Comparison with measured data show that this model is applicable to various pollutants.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of the relationship between disease occurrence and distance from a putative source of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreassi, Emanuela; Lagazio, Corrado; Maule, Milena M; Magnani, Corrado; Biggeri, Annibale

    2008-05-01

    The relation between disease risk and a point source of pollution is usually investigated using distance from the source as a proxy of exposure. The analysis may be based on case-control data or on aggregated data. The definition of the function relating risk of disease and distance is critical, both in a classical and in a Bayesian framework, because the likelihood is usually very flat, even with large amounts of data. In this paper we investigate how the specification of the function relating risk of disease with distance from the source and of the prior distributions on the parameters of the function affects the results when case-control data and Bayesian methods are used. We consider different popular parametric models for the risk distance function in a Bayesian approach, comparing estimates with those derived by maximum likelihood. As an example we have analyzed the relationship between a putative source of environmental pollution (an asbestos cement plant) and the occurrence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in the area of Casale Monferrato (Italy) in 1987-1993. Risk of pleural malignant mesothelioma turns out to be strongly related to distance from the asbestos cement plant. However, as the models appeared to be sensitive to modeling choices, we suggest that any analysis of disease risk around a putative source should be integrated with a careful sensitivity analysis and possibly with prior knowledge. The choice of prior distribution is extremely important and should be based on epidemiological considerations. PMID:18686274

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the relationship between disease occurrence and distance from a putative source of pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Dreassi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between disease risk and a point source of pollution is usually investigated using distance from the source as a proxy of exposure. The analysis may be based on case-control data or on aggregated data. The definition of the function relating risk of disease and distance is critical, both in a classical and in a Bayesian framework, because the likelihood is usually very flat, even with large amounts of data. In this paper we investigate how the specification of the function relating risk of disease with distance from the source and of the prior distributions on the parameters of the function affects the results when case-control data and Bayesian methods are used. We consider different popular parametric models for the risk distance function in a Bayesian approach, comparing estimates with those derived by maximum likelihood. As an example we have analyzed the relationship between a putative source of environmental pollution (an asbestos cement plant and the occurrence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in the area of Casale Monferrato (Italy in 1987-1993. Risk of pleural malignant mesothelioma turns out to be strongly related to distance from the asbestos cement plant. However, as the models appeared to be sensitive to modeling choices, we suggest that any analysis of disease risk around a putative source should be integrated with a careful sensitivity analysis and possibly with prior knowledge. The choice of prior distribution is extremely important and should be based on epidemiological considerations.

  11. Sources identification of antibiotic pollution combining land use information and multivariate statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Haibo; Chen, Yongshan; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-07-01

    To quantify the extent of antibiotic contamination and to identity the dominant pollutant sources in the Tiaoxi River Watershed, surface water samples were collected at eight locations and analyzed for four tetracyclines and three sulfonamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The observed maximum concentrations of tetracycline (623 ng L(-1)), oxytetracycline (19,810 ng L(-1)), and sulfamethoxazole (112 ng L(-1)) exceeded their corresponding Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values. In particular, high concentrations of antibiotics were observed in wet summer with heavy rainfall. The maximum concentrations of antibiotics appeared in the vicinity of intensive aquaculture areas. High-resolution land use data were used for identifying diffuse source of antibiotic pollution in the watershed. Significant correlations between tetracycline and developed (r = 0.93), tetracycline and barren (r = 0.87), oxytetracycline and barren (r = 0.82), and sulfadiazine and agricultural facilities (r = 0.71) were observed. In addition, the density of aquaculture significantly correlated with doxycycline (r = 0.74) and oxytetracycline (r = 0.76), while the density of livestock significantly correlated with sulfadiazine (r = 0.71). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole were from aquaculture and domestic sources, whereas sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine were from livestock wastewater. Flood or drainage from aquaculture ponds was identified as a major source of antibiotics in the Tiaoxi watershed. A hot-spot map was created based on results of land use analysis and multi-variable statistics, which provided an effective management tool of sources identification in watersheds with multiple diffuse sources of antibiotic pollution. PMID:27338264

  12. Chemometric Analysis for Pollution Source Assessment of Harbour Sediments in Arctic Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2015-01-01

    Pollution levels, pollutant distribution and potential source assessments based on multivariate analysis (chemometrics) were made for harbour sediments from two Arctic locations; Hammerfest in Norway and Sisimiut in Greenland. High levels of heavy metals were detected in addition to organic...... pollutants. Preliminary assessments based on principal component analysis (PCA) revealed different sources and pollutant distribution in the sediments of the two harbours. Tributyltin (TBT) was, however, found to originate from point source(s), and the highest concentrations of TBT in both harbours were...... indicated relation primarily to German, Russian and American mixtures in Hammerfest; and American, Russian and Japanese mixtures in Sisimiut. PCA was shown to be an important tool for identifying pollutant sources and differences in pollutant composition in relation to sediment characteristics....

  13. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  14. 76 FR 74708 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories CFR... means mineral wool to which a hazardous air pollutant-based binder (containing such hazardous air pollutants as phenol or formaldehyde) has been applied. CO means, for the purposes of this subpart,...

  15. Another Look at the Income Elasticity of Non-Point Source Air Pollutants: A Semiparametric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nilanjana Roy; G. Cornelis van Kooten

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a semiparametric model is used to examine the relationship between pollution and income for three non-point source pollutants. Statistical tests reject the quadratic specification in favor of the semiparametric model in all cases. However, the results do not support the inverted-U hypothesis for the pollution-income relationship.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY, SEPARABILITY AND ABATEMENT COSTS OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Wossink, Ada; Denaux, Zulal Sogutlu

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new framework for analyzing abatement costs of nonpoint-source pollution. Unlike previous studies, this framework treats production and pollution as non-separable and also recognizes that production inefficiency is a fundamental cause of pollution. The implications of this approach are illustrated using an empirical analysis for cotton producers.

  17. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  18. Study of atmospheric dynamics and pollution in the coastal area of English Channel using clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmenten, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The problem of atmospheric contamination by principal air pollutants was considered in the industrialized coastal region of English Channel in Dunkirk influenced by north European metropolitan areas. MESO-NH nested models were used for the simulation of the local atmospheric dynamics and the online calculation of Lagrangian backward trajectories with 15-minute temporal resolution and the horizontal resolution down to 500 m. The one-month mesoscale numerical simulation was coupled with local pollution measurements of volatile organic components, particulate matter, ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Principal atmospheric pathways were determined by clustering technique applied to backward trajectories simulated. Six clusters were obtained which describe local atmospheric dynamics, four winds blowing through the English Channel, one coming from the south, and the biggest cluster with small wind speeds. This last cluster includes mostly sea breeze events. The analysis of meteorological data and pollution measurements allows relating the principal atmospheric pathways with local air contamination events. It was shown that contamination events are mostly connected with a channelling of pollution from local sources and low-turbulent states of the local atmosphere.

  19. A land use regression model incorporating data on industrial point source pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Yuming Wang; Peiwu Li; Yaqin Ji; Shaofei Kong; Zhiyong Li; Zhipeng Bai

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the understanding of the spatial aspects of air pollution in the city regional environment is an area where improved methods can be of great benefit to exposure assessment and polcy support.We created land use regression (LUR) models for SO2,NO2 and PM10for Tianjin,China.Traffic volumes,road networks,land use data,population density,meteorological conditions,physical conditions and satellite-derived greenness,brightness and wetness were used for predicting SO2,NO2 and PM10 concentrations.We incorporated data on industrial point sources to improve LUR model performance.In order to consider the impact of different sources,we calculated the PSIndex,LSIndex and area of different land use types (agricultural land,industrial land,commercial land,residential land,green space and water area) within different buffer radii (1 to 20 km).This method makes up for the lack of consideration of source impact based on the LUR model.Remote sensing-derived variables were significantly correlated with gaseous pollutant concentrations such as SO2 and NO2.R2 values of the multiple linear regression equations for SO2,NO2 and PM10 were 0.78,0.89 and 0.84,respectively,and the RMSE values were 0.32,0.18 and 0.21,respectively.Model predictions at validation monitoring sites went well with predictions generally within 15% of measured values.Compared to the relationship between dependent variables and simple variables (such as traffic variables or meteorological condition variables),the relationship between dependent variables and integrated variables was more consistent with a linear relationship.Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall model prediction and health effects assessment on the spatial distribution of air pollution in the city region.

  20. Heavy metal and radionuclide concentration in maize, forage grass and soil in polluted areas in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Redek, Andreja

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of soil and feed on the area of Celje, Jesenice, Mežica and Žirovski Vrh represent an important source of intake of contaminants into the bodies of animals and humans. The purpose of study was to assess the level of contamination of the soil and feed with potentially toxic metals and radioactive isotopes. At each site 2-7 samples were collected. Sample was analyzed using three different methods: XRF, AAS and VLG, by which elements and radionuclides in maize, grass and soil were det...

  1. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu; Dumitru Marian Motelică; Mihai Dumitru; Mihaela Preda; Veronica Tănase

    2010-01-01

    The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper c...

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    AbdulFatai JIMOH; Mohammed ALHASSAN

    2006-01-01

    This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN), flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predic...

  3. Demonstration and Effects of Best Management Practices Applied to Control of Rural Non-point Source Pollution in Poyang Lake Area%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染控制中最佳管理措施示范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万金保; 孙蕾; 刘峰; 汤爱萍

    2012-01-01

    Water environment security in rural areas around Poyang Lake has been threatened by increasingly severe non-point source pollution(NPS pollution).Combined with the features of NPS pollution in the areas,the structural best management practices(BMPs) are established in the demonstration area of Xingzi County to control the rural NPS pollution.Monitoring results show that in the monitoring period,the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN by the BMPs are 568.25,3.06 and 26.90 kg,respectively.Constructed wetland maintains the better and more stable pollutant removal capability and the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN per unit area are about 40,0.4 and 3.0 g/m2,respectively.The removal amounts of the pollutants per unit area by ecological ditch vary greatly.Ecological ditch has better removal ability per unit area than constructed wetland,but has poor stability.In consideration of the advantages of ecological ditch and tri-class surface flow constructed wetland(3-SFW),the plants suitable to ecological ditch are recommended to improve its stability in pollutant removal.%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染问题日益严峻,已威胁到湖泊的水环境安全。结合该区域农村面源污染自身的变化特征,在星子县示范区内构建结构性最佳管理措施BMPs(best management practices)系统对区域内农村面源污染进行控制。结果表明,在监测期间该BMPs系统对COD,TP和TN的削减量分别为568.25,3.06和26.90kg。其中人工湿地对COD,TP和TN的单位面积削减量约达40,0.4和3.0g/m2,有较稳定的污染物去除能力;生态沟渠对各污染物单位面积削减量变化较大,与人工湿地相比虽有更强的污染物削减能力,但稳定性较弱。结合生态沟渠和三级表面流人工湿地的特点,建议通过引入适宜的植物至生态沟渠提高其处理污染物的稳定性。

  4. 社会生态视阈下的敏感区养殖污染治理分析%Analysis of livestock farming pollution control in ecologically sensitive areas through socio-ecological lens:A case of the water sourcing buffer zone of Xiqin Water Plant in Nanping City, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜焱强; 孙小霞; 许佳贤; 苏时鹏

    2014-01-01

    染治理的新思路。%In livestock pollution control, the attitudes and behaviors of various stakeholders have not only been influenced by ecological and economic conditions and their interrelationships, but also directly affected the effectiveness of pollution management which is critical for sustainable development in rural regions. In order to improve the effectiveness and public participation in livestock pollution control in ecologically sensitive areas, this study explored a new idea of governance to effectively control pollution from livestock farms through socio-ecological lens by using the water sourcing buffer zone of Xiqin Water Plant in Nanping City (Fujian Province, China) as a case study. The Mitchell scoring method was used to identify and classify stakeholders. A theory-driven analytical framework was formulated to examine the differences in ecological, social and economic desires among different stakeholders, the relationship networks of pig farmers, village committee members and the general public, and the roles and impacts of these stakeholders in pollution governance. This framework was tested in an empirical analysis using data collected through face-to-face interviews and direct observations of 13 village committees and 111 households in the water sourcing zone of Xiqin Water Plant. Tobit regression was used to identify the factors influencing the attitudes of stakeholders toward pollution control in pig farming. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors influencing the behavior of stakeholders in controlling pollution. The results showed that the social, economic and ecological desires of stakeholders and their social networks had statistically significant impacts on governance decisions-making. Attitudes toward pollution control differed across stakeholders - pig farmers, upstream inhabitants and village committees preferred economic development while downstream inhabitants and village committees favored environmental protection. Village committees had

  5. Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution in China: Causes and Mitigation Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Linxiu; Yang, Linzhang; Zhang, Fusuo; Norse, David; ZHU Zhaoliang

    2012-01-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The increases of agricultural NPS pollution in China is evaluated for the period 2000−2008 by surveying the literature on water and soil pollution from fertilizers and pesticides, and assessing the surplus nitrogen balance within provinces. The main causes for NPS pollution were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, which were partly the result of the inadequate agricultural extension se...

  6. Applications of lead isotope rations for identification and apportionment on pollution sources in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals which can accumulate to an adverse effect level in human bodies through ingestion, inhalation or other pathways. Because of the persistent lead contamination in farmland environment, large risk exists in the primary stage of 'from farm to table' chain. Environmental media such as soils, atmospheric aerosols were the possible lead sources of agro-food. To pinpoint the pollution sources exactly, cut off the contamination pathways in time, and reduce the risk of hazard, pollution sources tracing was very important. Lead isotope ratio combined with certain models is an effective method to discriminate correctly pollution sources and calculate the individual source contributions. In this review, to provide theoretical and technical reference for controlling lead pollution in environment and food, lead pollution sources in food, tracing principle and methods of lead isotope ratios, and its applications on vegetable, tea, wine, cereal and other food products were concerned. (authors)

  7. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: Human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Marti [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. - Highlights: > Traffic is an important emission source of persistent organic pollutants. > Oil refineries could be notable releasers of PAHs and some metals in the area. > Soil pollutant levels are notably lower than threshold values. > The air quality of Tarragona area is not greatly affected by metals and POPs. > The current exposure to micropollutants does not mean additional health risks. - Human exposure to environmental micropollutants in the industrial area of Tarragona does not mean additional health risks.

  8. A Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Non-Point Groundwater Pollution Sources, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, C. K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Dulaiova, H.; Glenn, C. R.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of municipal groundwater supplies on Tutuila, the main island in American Samoa, is currently in question. A high vulnerability for contamination from surface activities has been recognized, and there exists a strong need to clearly identify anthropogenic sources of pollution and quantify their influence on the aquifer. This study examines spatial relationships and time series measurements of nutrients and other tracers to identify predominant pollution sources and determine the water quality impacts of the island's diverse land uses. Elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations are correlated with areas of human development, however, the mixture of residential and agricultural land use in this unique village based agrarian setting makes specific source identification difficult using traditional geospatial analysis. Spatial variation in anthropogenic impact was assessed by linking NO3- concentrations and δ15N(NO3) from an extensive groundwater survey to land-use types within well capture zones and groundwater flow-paths developed with MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater model. Land use types were obtained from high-resolution GIS data and compared to water quality results with multiple-regression analysis to quantify the impact that different land uses have on water quality. In addition, historical water quality data and new analyses of δD and δ18O in precipitation, groundwater, and mountain-front recharge waters were used to constrain the sources and mechanisms of contamination. Our analyses indicate that groundwater nutrient levels on Tutuila are controlled primarily by residential, not agricultural activity. Also a lack of temporal variation suggests that episodic pollution events are limited to individual water sources as opposed to the entire aquifer. These results are not only valuable for water quality management on Tutuila, but also provide insight into the sustainability of groundwater supplies on other islands with similar hydrogeology and land

  9. Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian; Qiu, Haiyuan; Lin, Huangbin; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Zhi; Zhao, Rurong

    2016-09-01

    Source apportionment of fluorine pollution in the regional shallow groundwater at You'xi County, southeast China, has been analyzed by means of monitoring F(-) ion change characteristics in this area. Meanwhile, pollution sources and influencing factors of the shallow groundwater have been uncovered by studying the correlation between F(-) and other related ions such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), as well as (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) ratio (R) and pH effect. The results show that F(-) ions in shallow groundwater at the study area come mainly from the dissolution of fluorinated minerals in a form of fluorite (CaF2), the so-called water-rock interaction, and there is a higher possibility for the occurrence of fluorine water where the ratio of (K(+) + Na(+))/Ca(2+) exceeds a value of 2.1. Moreover, the release and migration of F(-) ions have been favored by the alkaline environment in this study area. PMID:27239970

  10. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use

  11. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. PMID:27294785

  12. Investigation of spatial distributions and sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a heavily polluted industrial region using tree components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Ozgunerge Falay, Ezgi; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Kara, Melik; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Elbir, Tolga

    2016-10-01

    Spatial distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Iskenderun industrial region in Turkey. POP concentrations were measured in different tree components (i.e., pine needle, branch, bark, and stem) collected at several industrial and background sites (n = 27). Also, air, litter, and soil samples were analyzed to determine the relationship of atmospheric pollutants with tree components, litter, and soil. Spatial variation of measured concentrations and factor analysis showed that the iron-steel plants are the most important POP sources in Iskenderun area. Correlations of ambient air levels to those measured in soil, litter, and tree components were significant showing that POPs are exchanged between atmosphere and these compartments. Results have suggested that tree components, litter and soil could be used to determine the spatial distributions and sources of atmospheric POPs in a region. POP quantities (mg/ha) accumulated in different tree components, litter, and soil were also predicted. Generally, the highest quantities were accumulated by stem and needles. In terms of overall inventory, including trees, litter and soil, the highest accumulated quantities were found in soil followed by trees and litter, indicating that in addition to soil, vegetation is a notable reservoir accumulating POPs. Ambient air POP concentrations were also estimated using a bark/air partitioning model. The estimated/measured ratios were close to 1.0 for several compounds and the results showed that the atmospheric POP concentrations could be estimated from the bark measurements within factors of 0.23-3.07, 1.02-6.67, 0.63-7.44, 1.07-3.37 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. PMID:27367178

  13. Air pollutants contribution and control strategies of energy-use related sources in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Jiming; WANG; Litao; LI; Lin; HU; Jingnan; YU; Xuechun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the statistical analysis of emission inventory and ISCST3 model simulation, the emission and ambient concentration contributions of energy-use related sources to the major pollutants of SO2, NOx and PM10 in urban areas of Beijing were analyzed. The SO2 emission contributions of coal burning in power plants, industrial and heating sectors were 49%, 26% and 24% respectively. The vehicle exhaust contributed 74% of the NOx concentration. As to PM10, the industrial sector was the largest emission (28%) and concentration (21%) contributor despite of the fugitive sources. The source emission contributions of VOC and NH3, which greatly influence the generation of secondary pollutants, were discussed as well. This paper also analyzed the control strategies of energy consumption and vehicle sources, based on which the control scenario in 2008 was established and the change of emission and concentration contribution were estimated. The results show that the cleaner energy use, industrial structure improvement, transportation mode modification and single vehicle emission control will greatly improve air quality. The industrial sector will change to the largest contributor of SO2 and as to NOx, vehicle emission control is still important.

  14. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution.

  15. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution. PMID:25602339

  16. Congestion, air pollution, and road fatalities in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, D

    1994-08-01

    The continuous rapid growth in vehicle miles travelled coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is useful to initiate and implement programs that treat jointly traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. Market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high-polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives that may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to investigate thoroughly these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the "socially optimal level of congestion" that will yield the highest net social benefit. PMID:7522455

  17. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL EROSION AND NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION BASED ON GIS IN ERLONG LAKE WATERSHED, JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHANG Hong-yan; WANG Hui-lian; ZHANG Zheng-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Data collection, factor composition, nappe analysis and integrative simulation of natural geographical factors in Erlong Lake watershed have been carried out based on GIS. The risk areas where non-point source pollution may occur were compartmentalized and assessed, and the total soil erosion and the runoffs of N and P with rainfall in this valley were worked out by experiment and GIS mapping. The study indicated that the main type of soil in dry land with variable slope east of the lake and the middle-south parts of steep slope mountainous region (erosion source pollution (NSP) of nitrogen and phosphorus loss was corresponded with the soil erosion. Spatial distribution and the reasons of the distribution difference have been presented and it was emphasized that the human activities among the influence factors was the most important. It surely offers a scientific basis to control and prevent non-point source pollution in the watershed.

  18. Non point source pollution modelling in the watershed managed by Integrated Conctructed Wetlands: A GIS approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Vyavahare, Nilesh

    2008-01-01

    The non-point source pollution has been recognised as main cause of eutrophication in Ireland (EPA Ireland, 2001). Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) is a management practice adopted in Annestown stream watershed, located in the south county of Waterford in Ireland, used to cleanse farmyard runoff. Present study forms the annual pollution budget for the Annestown stream watershed. The amount of pollution from non-point sources flowing into the stream was simulated by using GIS techniques; u...

  19. Improving risk estimates of runoff producing areas: formulating variable source areas as a bivariate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoya; Shaw, Stephen B; Marjerison, Rebecca D; Yearick, Christopher D; DeGloria, Stephen D; Walter, M Todd

    2014-05-01

    Predicting runoff producing areas and their corresponding risks of generating storm runoff is important for developing watershed management strategies to mitigate non-point source pollution. However, few methods for making these predictions have been proposed, especially operational approaches that would be useful in areas where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff. The objective of this study is to develop a simple approach to estimate spatially-distributed risks of runoff production. By considering the development of overland flow as a bivariate process, we incorporated both rainfall and antecedent soil moisture conditions into a method for predicting VSAs based on the Natural Resource Conservation Service-Curve Number equation. We used base-flow immediately preceding storm events as an index of antecedent soil wetness status. Using nine sub-basins of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, we demonstrated that our estimated runoff volumes and extent of VSAs agreed with observations. We further demonstrated a method for mapping these areas in a Geographic Information System using a Soil Topographic Index. The proposed methodology provides a new tool for watershed planners for quantifying runoff risks across watersheds, which can be used to target water quality protection strategies. PMID:24632403

  20. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengtao Li; Henk Folmer; Jianhong Xue

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is two-dimensional. The first dimension is the perceived intensity of air pollution and the second is the perceived hazardousness of the pollutants. Both dimensions are influenced by environmental knowledge. Perc...

  1. Development of Management System for Regional Pollution Source Based on SuperMap Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the integration of C#.net and SuperMap Objects(tool software of component GIS),the management system of regional pollution source is developed.It mainly includes the demand analysis of system,function design,database construction,program design and concrete realization in the management aspect of pollution source.

  2. MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LUCA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste inindustrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon ofunderground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronouncedunderground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil andunderground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking anddata reception characteristic control section. The data taken is processed and interpreted toachieve the best environmental measures in the area of the landfill site. By usingsimulation models provides a forecast of the pollution in different periods of time. Thesimulation model is applicable to the operating period taking into account the change inquantities and concentrations of pollutants. This paper presents remediation measuresappropriate to the type of industrial landfill analyzed. The results obtained allow modelingof environmental protection measures and especially the subsoil and groundwater.

  3. Application of synthetic principal component analysis model to mine area farmland heavy metal pollution assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-lu; WU Chao; WANG Wei-jun

    2008-01-01

    Referring to GB5618-1995 about heavy metal pollution, and using statistical analysis SPSS, the major pollutants of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution were identified by variable clustering analysis. Assessment and classification were done to the mine area farmland heavy metal pollution situation by synthetic principal components analysis (PCA). The results show that variable clustering analysis is efficient to identify the principal components of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution. Sort and clustering were done to the synthetic principal components scores of soil sample, which is given by synthetic principal components analysis. Data structure of soil heavy metal contaminations, relationships and pollution level of different soil samples are discovered. The results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution quality assessed and classified with synthetic component scores reflect the influence of both the major and compound heavy metal pol-lutants. Identification and assessment results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution can provide reference and guide to propose control measures of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution and focus on the key treatment region.

  4. Development and evaluation of a lightweight sensor system for aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  5. Temporal-spatial distribution of non-point source pollution in a drinking water source reservoir watershed based on SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Cheng, W.; Yu, B.-S.; Fang, Y.

    2015-05-01

    The conservation of drinking water source reservoirs has a close relationship between regional economic development and people's livelihood. Research on the non-point pollution characteristics in its watershed is crucial for reservoir security. Tang Pu Reservoir watershed was selected as the study area. The non-point pollution model of Tang Pu Reservoir was established based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The model was adjusted to analyse the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The results showed that the loss of TN and TP in the reservoir watershed were related to precipitation in flood season. And the annual changes showed an "M" shape. It was found that the contribution of loss of TN and TP accounted for 84.5% and 85.3% in high flow years, and for 70.3% and 69.7% in low flow years, respectively. The contributions in normal flow years were 62.9% and 63.3%, respectively. The TN and TP mainly arise from Wangtan town, Gulai town, and Wangyuan town, etc. In addition, it was found that the source of TN and TP showed consistency in space.

  6. Using biophysical models to manage nitrogen pollution from agricultural sources: Utopic or realistic approach for non-scientist users? Case study of a drinking water catchment area in Lorraine, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Pierre-Yves; Benoît, Marc; Roger-Estrade, Jean; Plantureux, Sylvain

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this comparison of two biophysical models of nitrogen losses were to evaluate first whether results were similar and second whether both were equally practical for use by non-scientist users. Results were obtained with the crop model STICS and the environmental model AGRIFLUX based on nitrogen loss simulations across a small groundwater catchment area (challenges for non-scientists such as lack of parameter optimization, which is essential to accurately assessing nitrogen fluxes and indirectly not to limit the diversity of uses of simulated results. Despite current restrictions, with some improvement, biophysical models could become useful environmental assessment tools for non-scientists. PMID:27596940

  7. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of water pollution in different administrative zones of Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Mei, Kun; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Laosheng; Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming; Wang, Fan

    2013-08-01

    Water quality degradation in river systems has caused great concerns all over the world. Identifying the spatial distribution and sources of water pollutants is the very first step for efficient water quality management. A set of water samples collected bimonthly at 12 monitoring sites in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed to determine the spatial distribution of critical parameters and to apportion the sources of pollutants in Wen-Rui-Tang (WRT) river watershed, near the East China Sea. The 12 monitoring sites were divided into three administrative zones of urban, suburban, and rural zones considering differences in land use and population density. Multivariate statistical methods [one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) methods] were used to investigate the spatial distribution of water quality and to apportion the pollution sources. Results showed that most water quality parameters had no significant difference between the urban and suburban zones, whereas these two zones showed worse water quality than the rural zone. Based on PCA and APCS-MLR analysis, urban domestic sewage and commercial/service pollution, suburban domestic sewage along with fluorine point source pollution, and agricultural nonpoint source pollution with rural domestic sewage pollution were identified to the main pollution sources in urban, suburban, and rural zones, respectively. Understanding the water pollution characteristics of different administrative zones could put insights into effective water management policy-making especially in the area across various administrative zones. PMID:23404042

  8. On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirel, Ronit; Dayan, Uri

    2001-07-01

    The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The main sources of pollution in the area are the tall stacks of the Eshkol power plant, the stacks of oil refineries, and areal sources (stationary and mobile). The factors that affect RSN are studied using four regression models: a binary regression tree in original scale, a tree in logarithmic scale, a data partition produced by a combination of the two trees, and a linear regression model. All models have similar relative prediction error, with the combined partition best highlighting the sources of variability in RSN: (a) very low values (interquartile range of [0.12, 0.48]) are associated with traffic, (b) low values ([0.43, 1.00]) are attributed to the power plant and to daytime emissions of local industry, (c) medium values ([0.74, 1.90]) are associated with local industry emissions during cooler hours of the day and refinery emissions mainly on slow wind episodes, and (d) high values ([1.07, 4.30]) are attributed to refinery emissions during moderate to fast wind episodes. Analysis of the number of episodes of increased concentrations indicates that, during 1996 and 1997, about 42% of SO2 episodes are attributable to the power plant and 33% to the refineries. Increased-NOx episodes are mainly contributed by traffic (91%) and power plant (4.5%) emissions.

  9. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  10. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  11. CALCULATION OF THE AREA OF THE RIVER ACCIDENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pshinko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2D numerical model was used to simulate the pollutant dispersion in river after an accident. The model is based on the equation of potential flow and the transport model. The numerical modeling results are presented.

  12. Safety assessment of water resources in Chongqing Section of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area based on DPSIR model from the perspective of agricultural nonpoint pollution source%农业面源污染视角下的三峡库区重庆段水资源的安全性评价——基于DPSIR框架的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖新成; 何丙辉; 倪九派; 谢德体

    2013-01-01

    农业面源污染已成为我国流域污染的主要来源,并已威胁到城乡居民的饮水安全,影响社会经济的可持续发展.三峡库区是生态脆弱区,水资源安全对促进库区生态环境保护与区域经济社会和谐发展尤为重要.为探明三峡库区重庆段农业面源污染与流域水资源安全演进变化的过程与内在机制,根据DPSIR框架原理,运用结构方程模型进行分析,并评价了2000-2011年流域水资源安全程度.结果表明:流域水资源安全程度分为两个阶段,2000-2005年水资源安全等级从一般安全下降到很不安全,2005-2011年水资源安全等级从很不安全上升到安全,出现阶段变化的主要原因在于从2006年开始,政府认识到流域生态环境的重要性并加大了对农业面源污染的控制力度,加强了对水土流失的治理.因此,为有效地减缓农业面源污染、改善流域水体质量,需要调整农业经济发展方式和农业产业结构,依靠科学技术提高农业生产效率,降低农用化学药品的投入,推广有机农业、改善耕地质量;加强水资源监督管理,实施农业生产节水措施;进一步加强面源污染控制投入,有效控制水土流失程度以减缓面源污染,实现流域水资源安全可持续利用.%The agricultural non-point pollution source has become the major source of river basin pollution in China.It threatens the safety of urban and rural residents' drinking water and has some effects on the sustainable development of our economy.The Three Gorges Reservoir area is frangible ecotope.Therefore,water resource security is especially important for promoting the protection of ecological environment in this area and developing the regional economy.To explore the evolutionary process and inherent mechanism between agricultural nonpoint pollution source and river basin water resource security in Chongqing Section,this paper makes an assessment of river basin water resource

  13. Environmental Kuznets curve analysis of the economic development and nonpoint source pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation districts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area.

  14. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area. PMID:24171160

  15. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area.

  16. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Salnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental

  17. Lessons Learned from OMI Observations of Point Source SO2 Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA Aura satellite makes global daily measurements of the total column of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a short-lived trace gas produced by fossil fuel combustion, smelting, and volcanoes. Although anthropogenic SO2 signals may not be detectable in a single OMI pixel, it is possible to see the source and determine its exact location by averaging a large number of individual measurements. We describe new techniques for spatial and temporal averaging that have been applied to the OMI SO2 data to determine the spatial distributions or "fingerprints" of SO2 burdens from top 100 pollution sources in North America. The technique requires averaging of several years of OMI daily measurements to observe SO2 pollution from typical anthropogenic sources. We found that the largest point sources of SO2 in the U.S. produce elevated SO2 values over a relatively small area - within 20-30 km radius. Therefore, one needs higher than OMI spatial resolution to monitor typical SO2 sources. TROPOMI instrument on the ESA Sentinel 5 precursor mission will have improved ground resolution (approximately 7 km at nadir), but is limited to once a day measurement. A pointable geostationary UVB spectrometer with variable spatial resolution and flexible sampling frequency could potentially achieve the goal of daily monitoring of SO2 point sources and resolve downwind plumes. This concept of taking the measurements at high frequency to enhance weak signals needs to be demonstrated with a GEOCAPE precursor mission before 2020, which will help formulating GEOCAPE measurement requirements.

  18. Simulation of Non-point Source Pollution in the Songhua River Basin Using GBNP Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J.; Tang, L.; Chen, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    China is facing increasingly severe water pollution issue with rapid socio-economic development. Non-point source pollution, which is rarely monitored, has become the main forms of water pollution in China. In this study, the Geomorphology-Based Non-point source Pollution (GBNP) model was used to simulate the processes of rain-runoff, soil erosion, sediment routing and pollutant transport in the Songhua River basin from 2001 to 2010. The spatio-temporal variation of non-point source pollution and river water quality were analyzed based on the simulation outputs. In the entire basin, the annual mean loading of TN, TP and soil erosion are 270,000 ton/a, 42,200 ton/a and 55,900,000 ton/a, respectively. The point and non-point source pollution respectively account for 44.9% and 55.1% in TN loading. For TP loading, the proportions of point and non-point source pollution are 14.4% and 85.6%, respectively. It suggests that the non-point source pollution control and treatments should be paid more attention in the Songhua River basin. The inter-annual and intra-annual variations of non-point source pollution components and potential driving mechanisms are further examined. The annual loading of soil erosion, TN and TP are highly correlated with annual runoff, with the correlation coefficients of 0.75, 0.91 and 0.92, respectively, which implies that rain-runoff could be the main driving force of non-point pollution. The monthly sediment concentration in the watercourse is high in flood season and low in non-flood season, which agrees well with the seasonality of monthly runoff. By contrast, the concentrations of TN and TP in watercourse show the opposite features.

  19. Concentrations of PAHs and other gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere of a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Ivana; Pehnec, Gordana; Šišović, Anica; Vađić, Vladimira; Davila, Silvije; Godec, Ranka

    2016-07-28

    In this study, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to PM10 particles were measured in a Croatian rural area. Considering that by now only a limited number of studies have provided data on pollutant concentrations for rural areas, our aim was to do so by determining the PAH levels, their mutagenic effect and relationship with meteorological conditions and other gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, NH3). In this investigation, samples of PM10 particles were collected on quartz filters for 1 month in the cold period and 1 month in the warm period of the year, 24 h a day. Diagnostic PAH concentration ratios and factor analysis were used as tools to identify and characterize the PAH sources. The PAHs found in the warm period of the year were characteristic for car exhaust emissions while the predominant source of these pollutants in the cold period was wood burning. The measurements showed much higher average concentrations of all PAHs in the cold period, most pronounced for fluoranthene 0.347 ng m(-3) and pyrene 0.223 ng m(-3). Mass concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in the cold period ranged from 0.057 to 1.526 ng m(-3), while in the warm period they varied from 0.009 to 0.111 ng m(-3). Mutagenicity related to BaP (BaPMeq) was significantly higher during the cold period (1.095 ng m(-3)) than in the warm period (0.101 ng m(-3)). PMID:27128984

  20. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  1. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  2. Environmental pollution due to gas flaring at Oyigbo area of Rivers State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental degradation due to oil activities in the oil rich Niger Delta of Nigeria is daily approaching a non-tolerance level. Pollutants come from various aspects of operation ranging from seismic operations through drilling to the refinery stage. Gas flared daily by Oil Companies constitute a major health hazard in this country. Environmental pollution due to gas flaring at Oyigbo area of Rivers State is hereby reported. Surface temperature-distance variations were investigated for both dry (March) and rainy (June) seasons. Physical and chemical properties of the rainwater from the areas were also measured and analysed. The results show a surface temperature elevation of about 4.1 Celsius above the mean normal diurnal temperature within a 3.00 km. radius. An average pH 4.25 was recorded thus showing the acidic nature of the environmental rainwater from the area. All other measured parameters showed serious deviations from standards. This temperature elevation and increased acidity of the rainwater have enormous influence on socio-economic lives and the activities of the populace especially on their source of income which is mainly small scale farming. It is therefore necessary that Government agencies empowered to monitor environment especially FEPA should implement all the existing legislation on gas flaring and be more involved in the design and location of gas flaring stacks. These stacks should be located at least 2 km. from towns and villages

  3. Modelling fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the Meuse catchment to assess the contribution of different pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Large river basins have multiple sources of pesticides and usually the pollution sources are spread over the entire catchment. The cumulative effect of pesticides entering the river system in upstream areas and the formation of persistent degradation products can compromise downstream water use e.g. raw water quality for drinking water abstractions. For assessments at catchment scale pesticide fluxes coming from different sources and sub basins need to be taken into account. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the sources, emission routes, transport, environmental fate and conversion of pesticides is needed. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river basin is an important source for drinking water production. The river suffers from elevated concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). For AMPA it is rather unclear to what extent the pollution is related to glyphosate degradation and what is the contribution of other sources, especial phosphonates in domestic and industrial waste water. Based on the available monitoring data only it is difficult to distinguish between AMPA sources in such a large river basin. This hampers interpretation and decision making for water quality management in the Meuse catchment. Here, application of water quality models is very useful to obtain complementary information and insights. Modelling allows accounting for temporal and spatial variability in discharge and concentrations as well as distinguishing the contribution from conversion processes. In this study, a model for the river Meuse was developed and applied to assess the contribution of tributary and transnational influxes, glyphosate degradation and other sources to the AMPA pollution.

  4. The impact of an air quality advisory program on voluntary mobile source air pollution reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Peter D.; Dillon, Jennifer; Wismann, Genevieve

    Air pollution from mobile source emissions is a major cause of air quality degradation in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The projected increase in both population and vehicle miles driven, coupled with the high altitude, predominantly clear skies, and prevalent wintertime temperature inversions aid in the formation and retention of pollutants. The Colorado Department of Public Health issues an air quality advisory daily during the high pollution season (November 1-March 31) with the objective of improving air quality through voluntary driving restrictions and a mandatory wood burning ban. We hypothesized that the advisory had no effect on commuter behavior due to lack of awareness and understanding, lack of alternative means of travel, or lack of concern. We mailed an anonymous, self-administered survey to 1000 commuters living in the cities of Boulder and Westminster, Colorado. Despite the fact that the vast majority of the respondents were aware of the daily advisory (94%), understood what it meant (93%), and heard the posting at least once a day (71%) in time to choose alternative forms of transportation, the advisory did not alter commuter travel. Commuters traveled mainly as the sole occupant of a car and most (76%) never changed the way they commuted based on the daily advisory. Many claimed schedules or work locations did not allow them to use alternative transportation methods. We suggested a practical way to improve the advisory would be to reduce or eliminate public transit fares on poor air quality days.

  5. Analysis and pollution sources speculations of toxic gases in a secondary fiber paper mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Liu, Zhang; Chen, Xiao Q; Shen, Wen H

    2016-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the compositions of the gaseous pollutants in the ambient air of a secondary fiber paper mill. Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), formaldehyde (HCHO), sulfur compounds (H2S), and hydrocarbon compounds (CxHy) were analyzed on six sampling sites with photo-ionisation detector, acetylacetone spectrophotometric method, and gas detector. The results revealed that, the high levels of TVOC and CxHy were detected at the wet end of paper machine and the office area, respectively; all the H2S contents on the six sites exceeded the limit (0.06 mg m(-3)) seriously; the HCHO concentrations at other five sites were out of the limit (0.10 mg m(-3)) except for the wastewater treatment plant. Furthermore, the necessary discussions about the possible pollution sources were considered on the process flow, the chemical agents used, and the ambient conditions in the paper mill. For the sake of air pollution control in paper mills, these remarkable results and analysis lay some technical basis in the following researches that should attract more attentions.

  6. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area. PMID:23369182

  7. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  8. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Abbas Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP. Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs. Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  9. Identification of sources and long term trends for pollutants in the arctic using isentropic trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    more than 26,000 isentropic backward trajectories arriving at Barrow for a 12-year period (1985-1996) at three elevations (0.5, 1.5 and 3 km). These trajectories had been segregated by source region (European and Taymyr as Eurasian; Eastern, Central and Western North Pacific as North Pacific; and Canadian Arctic), month, season, and year. The chemical data being considered includes methane, carbon dioxide, surface ozone, aerosol number density, aerosol scattering coefficient, and carbon monoxide (flask samples only). Two types of analyses are being performed: relationship between various chemical species and statistical analysis of chemical data segregated by transport pathway. The clear pattern of the Eurasian region predominance in the transport of the anthropogenic pollutants such as CO, CO2 and CH4 was identified and it is in a good agreement with the σsp data for the same period. The North Pacific region shows the higher concentration of NC-a-s-l in comparison with others, which is due to larger contribution of natural than anthropogenic sources. The influence of the Prudhoe Bay industrial area emissions is reflected in the aerosol records: throughout the year the concentration is higher if trajectories arrived from the Prudhoe Bay direction. Factor analysis revealed the existence of the following factors: 1) global hemispheric scale pollution factor (GHSPF) and regional scale pollution factor (RSPF) - which represent the contribution of the carbon and aerosol species throughout the year, and 2) stratospheric ozone intrusions factor (SOIF) - which is reflected only during spring. (au)

  10. Identification of sources and long term trends for pollutants in the arctic using isentropic trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.

    2003-07-01

    atmospheric composition in the Arctic. We calculated more than 26,000 isentropic backward trajectories arriving at Barrow for a 12-year period (1985-1996) at three elevations (0.5, 1.5 and 3 km). These trajectories had been segregated by source region (European and Taymyr as Eurasian; Eastern, Central and Western North Pacific as North Pacific; and Canadian Arctic), month, season, and year. The chemical data being considered includes methane, carbon dioxide, surface ozone, aerosol number density, aerosol scattering coefficient, and carbon monoxide (flask samples only). Two types of analyses are being performed: relationship between various chemical species and statistical analysis of chemical data segregated by transport pathway. The clear pattern of the Eurasian region predominance in the transport of the anthropogenic pollutants such as CO, CO{sub 2} and CH4 was identified and it is in a good agreement with the {sigma}{sub sp} data for the same period. The North Pacific region shows the higher concentration of NC-a-s-l in comparison with others, which is due to larger contribution of natural than anthropogenic sources. The influence of the Prudhoe Bay industrial area emissions is reflected in the aerosol records: throughout the year the concentration is higher if trajectories arrived from the Prudhoe Bay direction. Factor analysis revealed the existence of the following factors: 1) global hemispheric scale pollution factor (GHSPF) and regional scale pollution factor (RSPF) - which represent the contribution of the carbon and aerosol species throughout the year, and 2) stratospheric ozone intrusions factor (SOIF) - which is reflected only during spring. (au)

  11. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period. PMID:23737126

  12. Locational Determinants of Emissions from Pollution-Intensive Firms in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhou; Shukui Tan; Mingjing Guo; Lu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Industrial pollution has remained as one of the most daunting challenges for many regions around the world. Characterizing the determinants of industrial pollution should provide important management implications. Unfortunately, due to the absence of high-quality data, rather few studies have systematically examined the locational determinants using a geographical approach. This paper aimed to fill the gap by accessing the pollution source census dataset, which recorded the quantity of discha...

  13. [Pollution Assessment and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soils of Coal Mining Area in Longkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wu, Quan-yuan; Cao, Xue-jiang; Wang, Ji-ning; Zhang, Long-long; Cai, Dong-quan; Zhou, Li-yuan; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    The present paper takes the coal mining area of Longkou City as the research area. Thirty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals were determined, including Cd, As, Ni, Ph, Cr. Geo-statistics analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the pollution sources of heavy metals and the degree of heavy metals pollution was evaluated by weighted average comprehensive pollution evaluation method. The results showed that enrichment phenomenon was significant for the 5 kinds of heavy metals. Taking secondary standard of National Environment Quality Standard for Soil as the background value, their exceed standard rates were 72.22%, 100%, 100%, 91.67%, 100%, respectively. Average contents of heavy metals in the soil samples were all over the national standard level two and were 1.53, 11.86, 2.40, 1.31, 4.09 times of the background value. In addition, the average contents were much higher than the background value of the topsoil in the eastern part of Shandong Province and were 9.85, 39.98, 8.85, 4.29, 12.71 times of the background value. According to the semivariogram model, we obtained the nugget-effects of 5 kinds of heavy metals and their values were in the order of As (0.644) > Cd (0.627) > Cr (0.538) > Ni (0.411) > Pb (0.294), all belonging to moderate spatial correlation. On the whole, the central part of the Sangyuan Coal Mine and its surrounding areas were the most seriously polluted, while the pollution of heavy metals in the east and west of the study area was relatively light. Principal component analysis suggested that the enrichment of Cd, As, Ni, Cr was due to irrigation of wastewater, the discharge of industry and enterprise, and the industrial activity. Automobile exhaust and coal combustion were the main pollution sources of Pb. The single-factor assessment of heavy metals pollution showed that the degree of different heavy metals

  14. [Pollution Assessment and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soils of Coal Mining Area in Longkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wu, Quan-yuan; Cao, Xue-jiang; Wang, Ji-ning; Zhang, Long-long; Cai, Dong-quan; Zhou, Li-yuan; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    The present paper takes the coal mining area of Longkou City as the research area. Thirty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals were determined, including Cd, As, Ni, Ph, Cr. Geo-statistics analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the pollution sources of heavy metals and the degree of heavy metals pollution was evaluated by weighted average comprehensive pollution evaluation method. The results showed that enrichment phenomenon was significant for the 5 kinds of heavy metals. Taking secondary standard of National Environment Quality Standard for Soil as the background value, their exceed standard rates were 72.22%, 100%, 100%, 91.67%, 100%, respectively. Average contents of heavy metals in the soil samples were all over the national standard level two and were 1.53, 11.86, 2.40, 1.31, 4.09 times of the background value. In addition, the average contents were much higher than the background value of the topsoil in the eastern part of Shandong Province and were 9.85, 39.98, 8.85, 4.29, 12.71 times of the background value. According to the semivariogram model, we obtained the nugget-effects of 5 kinds of heavy metals and their values were in the order of As (0.644) > Cd (0.627) > Cr (0.538) > Ni (0.411) > Pb (0.294), all belonging to moderate spatial correlation. On the whole, the central part of the Sangyuan Coal Mine and its surrounding areas were the most seriously polluted, while the pollution of heavy metals in the east and west of the study area was relatively light. Principal component analysis suggested that the enrichment of Cd, As, Ni, Cr was due to irrigation of wastewater, the discharge of industry and enterprise, and the industrial activity. Automobile exhaust and coal combustion were the main pollution sources of Pb. The single-factor assessment of heavy metals pollution showed that the degree of different heavy metals

  15. Estimated atmospheric emissions from biodiesel and characterization of pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre-RS

    OpenAIRE

    Elba C. Teixeira; Mattiuzi, Camila D. P.; Sabrina Feltes; Flavio Wiegand; Eduardo R.R. Santana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM) in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA). The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The result...

  16. The Degree of Farmers’ Cognition on Non-point Source Pollution: Based on the Statistical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Qian; Wang, Huaiye; Peng, Jue

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture, agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China, improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution. Therefore, this investigation and study chooses rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our samples, our investigation and statistical analysis includes the following four aspects: farm...

  17. Extraterritoriality from the Port: EU’s approach to jurisdiction over ship-source pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Ship-source pollution represents a threat to the environment, regardless of where it occurs. The European Union has been developing standards that aim to counter accidental, operational and intentional pollution in the waters under its member-state’s jurisdiction. However, and precisely because marine pollution knows no boundaries, the EU is not coy in contemplating what ships do beyond waters under the sovereignty of its member states. This article analyses the international lawfulness of EU...

  18. Monitoring of Non-Point Source Pollutions from an Agriculture Watershed in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Haiying Hu; Guoru Huang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of non-point sources (NPS) pollutions can provide theoretical support for improving water quality. Siheshui watershed located in south China was selected to explore the characteristics of NPS pollutions in rainfall-runoff process. In this small agricultural watershed, five flood events and one non-flood event were monitored, and the water quantity and quality constituents were measured. The event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutant constituents in runoff ...

  19. Lichens as integrating air pollution monitors biomonitoring studies of heavy metals speciation around mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Biomonitoring may be defined as the use of organisms and biomaterial to obtain information on pollution in the biosphere. There is a rapidly increasing interest in the use of lichens as a biomonitoring species. Their morphology does not vary with seasons; thus the accumulation can occur throughout the year. There is known lichens specific sensitivity to gaseous pollutants (SO2, NOx, and CO2), fluorides and strongly oxidizing compounds. Chemical and physical properties of lichens also enable them to be used as monitors of metal deposition from the atmosphere, since they can accumulate trace elements to the levels far greater than their expected physiological needs. Passive and active biomonitoring using lichens can be used on national scale as well as around particular pollution sources. However, there are not known biomonitoring studies using lichens in South Africa. Also no reports are available on using lichens for monitoring of metals speciation in the environment. This study presents the use of lichens for biomonitoring of air pollution due to chromium and uranium containing dust around a ferrochrome smelter and gold mines respectively in SA. The optimized lichens treatment and extraction procedures were developed to determine not only the total metal concentration but also, for the first time, the Cr(III)/(VI) speciation. Leaching has significant influence on the uptake of metals. It has been shown experimentally that leaching strongly affects the uptake of Mn and Cr and less Ni, V, and Fe. Also reducing properties of many soils strongly alter the chromium speciation in the environment making it less toxic. The current gold tailings reclamation activities in the Central Rand goldfield generate significant loads of dust containing uranium. High concentrations of this highly soluble radionuclide were obtained in the lichens sampled in dust-prone areas. The traditionally used soil samples were included in the study and

  20. Mapping Air Pollution Concentrations and Sources in China from Ground-Level Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, R. A.; Muller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    China has recently established an extensive air quality monitoring system with over 1500 sites providing hourly data on airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 / PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Based on Kriging interpolation of these surface data, we derive a detailed map of air pollution across the eastern half of China. In northern and central China, the pollution is widespread; contrary to popular belief, pollution is not simply localized to major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, or Chongqing, or in geologic basins. Pollution levels are lower in southern China, in part due to frequent rains. By incorporating wind measurements and estimating pollution transport, we also infer source distributions for key pollutants. Sources are widespread, but many of the largest sources are often situated in or near major population centers. A northeast corridor extending from near Shanghai to north of Beijing includes many of the most significant pollution sources in China. Roughly 5% of the study region accounts for 25% of observed particulate matter emissions. During the analysis period, roughly half of the population of China was subjected to a long-term average pollution level in the unhealthy range, according to standards used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, nearly all of China's population (>90%) was exposed to unhealthy levels of air pollution at least some of the time. Based on health impact estimates from the Huai River Study, we estimate that the observed levels of particulate matter pollution contribute to about 1.4 million deaths every year in China, about 3500 per day, in agreement with prior estimates. Identification of sources from pollution data was facilitated by the reporting of hourly measurements, and we encourage other nations around the world to follow China's example and provide such time-resolved data.

  1. Study on Management and Control of Nonpoint Source Pollution from Urban Surface Runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Keliang; Zhu Xiaodong; Wang Xianghua; Ma Yan

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization is the dominant form of land-use change in terms of impacts on water quality, hydrology, physical properties of watersheds and their nonpoint source (NPS) pollution potential at present. Urbanization has changed the source, process and sink of urban NPS pollution, especially raised the pollution load of urban runoff NPS in receiving water. Urban runoff pollution is a hot spot of research on NPS. This paper analyzed type,source and harm of the NPS pollutants of urban runoff and its influence on the receiving water. Through estimating NPS pollution load of urban runoff and summarizing the law and characteristics of urban runoff NPS systemically, study on management and control of urban runoff NPS pollution was focused on the application of BMPs (best management practices). It is a fresh methodology that management and control on NPS pollution from urban surface runoff was analyzed by methods of landscape ecology,environmental economics and environmental management. The paper provided a scientific reference for mitigating urban water environment pressure and an effective method for management and control of NPS pollution from urban surface runoff..

  2. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.)

  3. [Nitrogen non-point source pollution identification based on ArcSWAT in Changle River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ou-Ping; Sun, Si-Yang; Lü, Jun

    2013-04-01

    The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35%, 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources. PMID:23798104

  4. Content of toxic and essential metals in medicinal herbs growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Baceva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajce

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare Ba, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sr, Pb, and Zn content in medicinal herbs Urtica dioica L., Taraxacum officinale, and Matricaria recutita growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Republic of Macedonia. The metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the unpolluted area of Mt. Plackovica the metal content in Taraxacum officinale was in the descending order: Fe>Sr>Zn>Ba>Cr, while Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection. In the polluted area of Veles, the order was as follows: Fe>Zn>Sr>Pb>Ba>Cd>Cr. Our results suggest that quality assurance and monitoring of toxic metals is needed for plants intended for human use and consumption. Medicinal plants should be picked in areas free of any contamination sources. PMID:20860970

  5. Adaptation of the Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model to Lithuania, An

    OpenAIRE

    Antanas Sigitas Sileika

    1996-01-01

    The Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model was developed by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and Soil Conservation Service. As part of a project to model the effects of land management alternatives in the polders of the Nemunas River Delta of Lithuania, the AGNPS model input parameters are modified here to reflect Lithuanian conditions.

  6. 77 FR 11476 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October...

  7. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  8. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan Qiu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

  9. Another Look at the Income Elasticity of Non-point Source Air Pollutants: A Semiparametric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, N.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a semiparametric model is used to examine the relationship between pollution and income for three non-point source pollutants. Statistical tests reject the quadratic specification in favor of the semiparametric model in all cases. However, the results do not support the inverted-U hyp

  10. Extraterritoriality from the Port: EU’s approach to jurisdiction over ship-source pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Ship-source pollution represents a threat to the environment, regardless of where it occurs. The European Union has been developing standards that aim to counter accidental, operational and intentional pollution in the waters under its member-state’s jurisdiction. However, and precisely because mari

  11. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Mao; Ningning Zhai; Jingchao Yang; Yongzhong Feng; Yanchun Cao; Xinhui Han; Guangxin Ren; Gaihe Yang; Qing-xiang Meng

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in livin...

  12. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  13. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-01-01

    This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  14. Correlations between the air pollution and the rainfall composition in Jiului Valley area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traistă Eugen

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall composition is conditional on the air quality. If the air is polluted, the rainfall will be also polluted. In fact, rainfall contains the same compounds like the air as nitrites, nitrates, sulphites, sulphates, ammonia etc. Some cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium are present in rainfall because of dust. This paper presents the air qualities and the soil composition influenced by the rainfall in one of the most polluted mining areas from our country, Jiului Valley.

  15. Correlations between the air pollution and the rainfall composition in Jiului Valley area

    OpenAIRE

    Traistă Eugen; Ionică Mădălina; Codrea Vlad; Barbu Ovidiu

    2003-01-01

    Rainfall composition is conditional on the air quality. If the air is polluted, the rainfall will be also polluted. In fact, rainfall contains the same compounds like the air as nitrites, nitrates, sulphites, sulphates, ammonia etc. Some cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium are present in rainfall because of dust. This paper presents the air qualities and the soil composition influenced by the rainfall in one of the most polluted mining areas from our country, Jiului Valley.

  16. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  17. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  18. A hybrid simulation-optimization approach for solving the areal groundwater pollution source identification problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, M. Tamer

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new simulation-optimization approach is proposed for solving the areal groundwater pollution source identification problems which is an ill-posed inverse problem. In the simulation part of the proposed approach, groundwater flow and pollution transport processes are simulated by modeling the given aquifer system on MODFLOW and MT3DMS models. The developed simulation model is then integrated to a newly proposed hybrid optimization model where a binary genetic algorithm and a generalized reduced gradient method are mutually used. This is a novel approach and it is employed for the first time in the areal pollution source identification problems. The objective of the proposed hybrid optimization approach is to simultaneously identify the spatial distributions and input concentrations of the unknown areal groundwater pollution sources by using the limited number of pollution concentration time series at the monitoring well locations. The applicability of the proposed simulation-optimization approach is evaluated on a hypothetical aquifer model for different pollution source distributions. Furthermore, model performance is evaluated for measurement error conditions, different genetic algorithm parameter combinations, different numbers and locations of the monitoring wells, and different heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields. Identified results indicated that the proposed simulation-optimization approach may be an effective way to solve the areal groundwater pollution source identification problems.

  19. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  20. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  1. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  2. Relationships Between Landscape Characteristics and Nonpoint Source Pollution Inputs to Coastal Estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASNYAT; TEETER; FLYNN; LOCKABY

    1999-05-01

    / Land-use activities affect water quality by altering sediment, chemical loads, and watershed hydrology. Some land uses may contribute to the maintenance of water quality due to a biogeochemical transformation process. These land-use/land-cover types can serve as nutrient detention zones or as nutrient transformation zones as dissolved or suspended nutrients or sediments move downstream. Despite research on the effects of individual land-use/land-cover types, very little has been done to analyze the joint contributions of multiple land-use activities. This paper examines a methodology to assess the relationships between land-use complex and nitrate and sediment concentrations [nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants] in streams. In this process, selected basins of the Fish River, Alabama, USA, were delineated, land-use/land-cover types were classified, and contributing zones were identified using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) analysis tools. Water samples collected from these basins were analyzed for selected chemical and physical properties. Based on the contributions of the NPS pollutants, a linkage model was developed. This linkage model relates land use/land cover with the pollution levels in the stream. Linkage models were constructed and evaluated at three different scales: (1) the basin scale; (2) the contributing-zone scale; and (3) the stream-buffer/riparian-zone scale. The contributing-zones linkage model suggests that forests act as a transformation zone, and as the proportion of forest inside a contributing zone increases (or agricultural land decreases), nitrate levels downstream will decrease. Residential/urban/built-up areas were identified as the strongest contributors of nitrate in the contributing-zones model and active agriculture was identified as the second largest contributor. The regression results for the streambank land-use/land-cover model (stream-buffer/riparian-zone scale) suggest that water quality is highest

  3. Vulnerability of Slovenian coastal area to oil pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Bosnič, Mitja

    2014-01-01

    In all EU countries the European legislation demands the preparation of a plan for the prevention of possible coastline contamination and of mitigation measures in such events. The legislation also states that such a plan should be rational and not too general. The Republic of Slovenia will need such a plan and this thesis, offering an overview of the types and vulnerability of the entire Slovene coastline, can be used as the basis for further studies of preventing oil pollution in the coasta...

  4. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyuan Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

  5. Sources, occurrence and fate of hydrocarbon pollutants in sustainable drainage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Roinas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons are produced from various domestic, commercial and industrial sources. Releases of PAHs are increasing and automobile is one of the major sources. Pollutants from road runoff therefore pose a risk to surface waters if not managed. Sustainable Drainage systems (SuDs) design philosophy offers water management, water quality and biodiversity benefits over conventional drainage, by replicating natural systems and use cost effective solutions with low envi...

  6. Regulation of Heterogenous Non-Point Sources of Pollution Under Imperfect Information, The

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cabe; Herriges, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the rose of information structure (i.e., information cost, reliability, and distribution among agents) in the design of a regulatory mechanism for controlling non-point source pollution. An ambient concentration tax mechanism is examined for non-point source pollution with spatial transport among multiple zones. Imposition of the tax requires costly measurement of ambient concentrations in selected zones, and the selection of zones for measurement must be undertaken witho...

  7. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanwen; MOU, Xinli; Xie, Hui; Lu, Hong; YAN, Xingyun

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model, for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index system model framework, combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues, we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system, and then study the agricultural system pressure, agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories, develope an agricultural non-p...

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of particulate pollution in London from high-temperature combustion sources

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The urban atmospheric environment contains a complex cocktail of pollution from numerous sources. However, the contribution to this mixture from power stations and other high-temperature combustion point sources is uncertain. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) and inorganic ash spheres (IASs) are uniquely formed as a by-product of high-temperature combustion of fossil fuels and therefore are ideal indicators of fossil-fuel derived pollution in London. Deposition of ...

  9. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China : A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhengtao; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is two-dimensio

  10. Identifying non-point source critical source areas based on multi-factors at a basin scale with SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Peipei; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong

    2016-02-01

    The identification of critical source areas (CSAs) is a precondition for non-point source (NPS) pollution control at a basin scale, especially in areas with limited resources. Based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), nutrient loads coupled with population density and water quality requirements are regarded as multi-factors for CSAs identification in Xiangxi river watershed, the first tributary of the Yangtze River. The results based on the calibrated model found that the subbasins heavily and seriously polluted by nutrient loads were different from the subbasins identified as CSAs, demonstrating integrating socio-economic factors like population density and water quality requirements to identify CSAs is of much necessity. The CSAs occupied 19.7% of the total subbasins, and accounted for 53% total nitrogen loads, 54% total phosphorus loads and 36% of the total population. Considering the model calibration and validation will take a long time as well as data deficiency in some subbasins, the influence of uncalibrated SWAT on CSAs identifications was discussed. The comparative results between CSAs identification with calibrated and uncalibrated SWAT model revealed that model calibration had little effect on nutrients distribution and CSAs locations in the study area. Uncalibrated SWAT model may be applied when the research objective is less related to model calibration. The results will be greatly effective for CSAs identification and NPS pollution control at a basin scale.

  11. Response of bacterial community compositions to different sources of pollutants in sediments of a tributary of Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Sediment bacterial communities are sensitive to water conditions in river ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the influences of different pollution sources, including urban areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), suburban areas, and agricultural areas, on sediment bacterial communities along a typical tributary of Taihu Lake, China. The dominant composition of the sediment bacterial community was determined using a combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and a 16S rRNA clone library. The results showed that the sediment bacterial communities were distinctly affected by the four pollution sources. Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria (>50 % in total) were the predominant bacterial taxa across the sediment samples. Apart from those, the sediment bacterial community composition (BCC) affected by WWTP effluent was subsequently dominated by Nitrospira (12.4 %) and Bacteroidetes (11.5 %), agriculture was dominated by Firmicutes (13.2 %) and Deltaproteobacteria (7.2 %), while urban and suburban were dominated by Bacteroidetes (7.6 and 7.9 %, respectively) and Deltaproteobacteria (7.9 and 7.6 %, respectively). Cluster analysis indicated that the BCC affected by WWTP effluent was distinct from the BCC in urban, suburban, and agricultural areas. In addition, the bacterial community richness and evenness affected by WWTP effluent were much less than those by the other pollution sources. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the variation in BCC across the sediment samples was significantly associated with ammonium (17 %), organic matter (12 %), and cadmium (3 %) (p < 0.01). Overall, the results indicated that the four different pollution sources (WWTP, urban, suburban, and agriculture) have dissimilar impacts on the sediment BCC in the tributary of Taihu Lake, while WWTPs exhibited the greatest potential to lead to biotic homogenization in river sediments. PMID:27040536

  12. 江西省燃煤污染型氟中毒病区氟化物来源调查分析%Investigation and analysis on the sources of fluoride in fluorosis areas by coal-burning pollution in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志宏; 刘玮; 熊小玲; 裘海清; 陈都; 万建平; 上官俊

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查分析江西省燃煤污染型氟中毒病区氟化物的来源,为制定防治措施提供理论依据.方法 对调查地区8 ~12岁儿童采用Dean法进行氟斑牙普查,并采集调查地区饮用水、地表水、室内外空气、食物(大米)、煤、粘土进行氟含量的测定.结果 8~12岁儿童病区村氟斑牙检出率为34.12% (58/170),非病区村氟斑牙检出率为10.05%(37/368),病区村与非病区村氟斑牙检出率差异有统计学意义(x2=44.67,P<0.001).8~ 12岁儿童病区村尿氟含量几何均数为1.07 mg/L,非病区村为0.74 mg/L,差异有统计学意义(t=3.71,P<0.001).病区村室内空气平均氟含量为0.056 mg/m3,而非病区村为0.015 mg/m3,且病区村室内空气氟含量高于非病区村(t=2.33,P=0.031).病区村的原煤、蜂窝煤、拌煤粘土平均氟含量分别为296.08 mg/kg、327.11 mg/kg、935.56mg/kg,拌煤粘土氟含量最高达1 350.00 mg/kg,病区村原煤、蜂窝煤、拌煤粘土的氟含量高于非病区村,差异均有统计学意义(均有P<0.05).结论 江西省燃煤污染型氟中毒病区氟源主要是煤和拌煤粘土.%Objective To investigate and analyze the sources of fluoride in fluorosis areas by coal-burning pollution in Jiangxi Province,and provide evidence for making proper measures on prevention.Methods The dental fluorosis in children aged from 8 to 12 years were surveyed generally by the method of Dean in study areas.Meanwhile drinking water,surface water,indoor and outdoor air,food (rice),coal and clay of the filled sites were collected and the fluorine contents of these samples were determined.Results The detection rate of dental fluorosis of children aged from 8 to 12 years in endemic areas was 34.12% (58/170),and the detection rate of dental fluorosis in non-endemic areas was 10.05% (37/368).Detection rates between the two kinds of areas showed a significant difference (x2 =44.67,P < 0.001).The geometric mean of children's urine

  13. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336...

  14. 农村治污减排的重点及对策研究%Pollution in Rural Areas and Countermeasures for Emission Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜红; 于文娟; 潘风清

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了农村地区存在的主要生活污水、生活垃圾、工业污染、养殖污染、化肥农药污染状况,针对农村地区存在的环境问题,从农村水源地保护、生活污水防治、生活垃圾防治、工业污染防治、养殖污染治理、农村土壤污染防治、农业面源污染防治、生态示范工程建设、农村环境管理能力建设等9个方面进行分析,并提出了污染防治对策。%This paper introduces the main livelihood in rural areas,sewage,solid waste,industrial pollution,pollution,farming,chemical fertilizer and pesticide pollution,for environmental problems in rural areas,rural water source protection,sewage control,waste control,industrial Pollution control,aquaculture pollution control,prevention of soil pollution in rural areas,agricultural non-point source pollution control,ecological demonstration projects,rural environmental management capacity building 9 were analyzed,and proposed pollution control measures.

  15. The isotopic fingerprint. Investigation of pollution levels and identification of pollution sources in case of mineral oil pollution; Der isotopische Fingerabdruck. Schadensuntersuchungen und Stoerbestimmung bei Mineraloelschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl, T.

    1998-09-01

    It is often difficult to identify soil or water polluters, especially when land was sold and resold several times, or if there are several neighbours that may be the source of pollution. Where classic chemical analyses can no longer help, the isotopic fingerprint may offer a solution. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oft laesst sich der Verursacher eine Boden- oder Grundwasserverunreinigung nur schwer zur Verantwortung ziehen. Vor allem, wenn ein Grundstueck oefter den Besitzer gewechselt hat. Oder wenn mehrere Nachbarn fuer den Schaden verantwortlich sein koennten. Wenn die klassische chemische Analytik zur Entlarvung der Zustandsstoerer am Ende ist, hilft eine neue Methode weiter: Der isotopische Fingerabdruck. (orig.)

  16. Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollán Marina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to ascertain whether there might be excess lung cancer mortality among the population residing in the vicinity of Spanish paper and board industries which report their emissions to the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER. Methods This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994–2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. An exploratory, near-versus-far analysis was conducted, using mixed Poisson regression models and an analysis of the effect of municipal proximity within a 50-kilometre radius of each of the 18 installations. Results Results varied for the different facilities. In two instances there was an increasing mortality gradient with proximity to the installation, though this was exclusively observed among men. Conclusion The study of cancer mortality in areas surrounding pollutant foci is a useful tool for environmental surveillance, and serves to highlight areas of interest susceptible to being investigated by ad hoc studies. Despite present limitations, recognition is therefore due to the advance represented by publication of the EPER and the study of pollutant foci.

  17. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation

  18. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs as a non-point source (NPS pollution indicator and the green factor (GF as a low impact development (LID land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated with storm factors whereas they showed significant differences according to the land use types. The calculated REMCs for BOD, COD, TSS, TN, and TP showed negative correlations with the GFs. However, even though the GFs of the agricultural area were concentrated in values of 80 like the green areas, the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were especially high. There were few differences in REMC runoff characteristics according to the GFs such as recreational facilities areas in suburbs and highways and trunk roads that connect to major roads between major cities. Except for those areas, the REMCs for BOD and COD were significantly related to the GFs. The REMCs for BOD and COD decreased when the rate of natural green area increased. On the other hand, some of the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were still high where the catchments encountered mixed land use patterns, especially public facility areas with bare ground and artificial grassland areas. The GF could therefore be used as a major planning indicator when establishing land use planning aimed at sustainable development with NPS management in urban areas if the weighted GF values will be improved.

  19. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution.

  20. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  1. Semiworks source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the Semi-Works Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) . Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations WD and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations. This approach is described and justified in The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Package. This strategy provides new concepts for: accelerating decision-malting by maximizing the use of existing data consistent with data quality objectives (DQOs); and undertaking expedited response actions (ERAS) and/or interim remedial measures (IRMs), as appropriate, to either remove threats to human health and welfare and the environment, or to reduce risk by reducing toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants

  2. Investigation of the Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in Urban Areas using a New Portable ICAD Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Adler, Tim; Lampel, Johannes; Kanatschnig, Florian; Oesterle, Tobias; Reh, Miriam; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and especially nitrogen dioxide (NO2), are still among of the most problematic pollutants in urban areas not only in developing, but also in industrialized countries. Despite the measures taken to reduce their emissions, NO2 concentrations in many urban areas exceed the WHO recommended limits of 40 μg/m3 for annual mean and 200 μg/m3 for 1 hour mean. Additionally it is known that the NO2 concentration in urban areas has a strong spatial and temporal variability, due to the large number of NOx emitting point sources (mainly traffic) found in densely populated areas. However, the layout of air monitoring networks in most urban areas, installed to continuously monitor the officially prescribed NO2 limits, does not reflect the high spatial variability because they only conduct measurements at a single or few selected sampling points, mainly on major roads, which are often not representative for the whole urban area. At present these uncertainties about the spatial NO2 distribution constitute severe limitations for the assessment of health risks, for the quality of chemical model calculations, and for developing effective measures to reduce NOx emissions. We developed a new light-weight and portable ICAD (Iterative Cavity Enhanced DOAS) instrument which detects NO2 at a detection limit as low as 0.2 μg/m3 with a high time resolution of seconds. The instrument is based on the Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS technique, which directly identifies and quantifies NO2 by its differential optical absorption. Therefore, it does not suffer from interferences by other trace gas species like O3 or NOy. This is a great advantage over other NO2 instruments (e.g. solid state detectors or chemiluminescence instruments). We present the result of ICAD NO2 measurements, which we recently performed in more than 10 German cities. The ICAD instrument was mounted on mobile platforms like cars and bicycles, measuring the NO2 concentrations along carefully selected tracks

  3. An Analysis of Air Pollution in Makkah - a View Point of Source Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki M. Habeebullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Makkah is one of the busiest cities in Saudi Arabia and remains busy all year around, especially during the season of Hajj and the month of Ramadan when millions of people visit this city. This emphasizes the importance of clean air and of understanding the sources of various air pollutants, which is vital for the management and advanced modeling of air pollution. This study intends to identify the major sources of air pollutants in Makkah, near the Holy Mosque (Al-Haram using a graphical approach. Air pollutants considered in this study are nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, carbon monoxide (CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with aero-dynamic diameter of 10 um or less (PM10. Polar plots, time variation plots and correlation analysis are used to analyse the data and identify the major sources of emissions. Most of the pollutants demonstrate high concentrations during the morning traffic peak hours, suggesting road traffic as the main source of emission. The main sources of pollutant emissions identified in Makkahwere road traffic, re-suspended and windblown dust and sand particles. Further investigation on detailedsource apportionment is required, which is part of the ongoing project.

  4. Mercury Pollution of Soil—Crop System in Acid precipitation Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOUSHU-SEN; QINGCHANG-LE

    1995-01-01

    In acid precipitation area of Chongqing suburb the average of Hg in soil rose from 0.158mg/kg in 1984 to 0.20mg/kg in 1989,and Hg content of crops grown on these soils increased too.Both soil and vegetable Hg came mainly from power plant emission.which caused Hg and acid precipitiation pollution in environment and the Hg pollution of water,crops and milk in the area.

  5. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah,

    2012-01-01

    HAMZAH. Management Pollution Model for Sustainability Tourism and Fisheries in Coastal Areas of Makassar City. Under direction of ACHMAD FAHRUDIN, HEFNI EFFENDI, ISMUDI MUCHSIN Coastal areas of Makassar have a rapid development growth deployed with various activities including tourism and fisheries. Such resource utilizations have impacted coastal environment particularly its water quality. This research is intended to assess bio-physical condition, water quality, pollution loading, poll...

  6. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  7. IMPACT OF POLLUTION ON THE CLAY MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME SOILS FROM ZLATNA AREA (ROMANIA)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Craciun; Alexandrina Manea; Laura Paulette; Marius Eftene; Victoria Mocanu

    2008-01-01

    Zlatna area is a high polluted zone with heavy metals due to industrial activity (extraction and processing of non-ferrous area). In spite of the fact that industrial activity was stoped for 2-3 years, the effect of pollution are still obvious. The aim of this paper is to make evident some aspects concerning the impact of pollution on the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction (below 2μ) from some soils belonging to dystric cambisol and luvisol type. From the chemical point of view, ...

  8. SOURCE, FORMATION, POLLUTION AND ITSCOUNTERMEASURE OF DIOXIN IN PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuiLi; YoumingLi; MingliFu; yanjinBi

    2004-01-01

    Dioxins are believed the most poisonous compounds in the world. Dioxin pollution is a strategic problem in papermaking industry which must be solved. Dioxin not only exists in pulp, paper products, but also in the volatile of woods, hips or other non-wood fiber material which are treated with PCP, even in the exhaust gas of chemical recovery system. So there are great needs to know what is dioxin, the channel and mechanism of the formation of it in papermaking industry. With these understanding, herein those are discussed as follows, the harness measure of dioxin: dioxin in wastewater, in exhaust gas, from raw material. And some countermeasure to decrease the content of dioxin. Furthermore, several novel treatment technologies ofdioxin in China and abroad were introduced. The fundamental measure to eliminate the pollution ofdioxin is presented with the aim to control the origin, decrease the use of bleachercontaining chlorine or without the use of chlorine. Elemental Chlorine Free and Total Chlorine Free bleaching are advocated.

  9. A GIS-based study on non-point source pollutant distribution around Miyun Reservoir Watershed, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; wang, y; cai, x; wang, x

    2001-12-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus, coming mainly from non-point sources (NPS), are major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade water quality of Miyun Reservoir, the only one surface drinking water source of Beijing, China. The spatial nature of the NPS pollution problem necessitates the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to manipulate, retrieve, and display the large volumes of spatial data. Based on the relevant data which range from meteorological and hydrological data to land use, fertilizer and pesticide usage, and even livestock raising information, the database of NPS of Shixia Catchment in Miyun Reservoir watershed were established. Using GIS, abstracting attribute data, digitizing, editing, coordinate transferring and generating the digital elevation model (DEM) could be finished. A total of four land use scenarios were modeled to evaluate various land management strategies on sediment and nutrient loading from catchment. The results suggest that high nutrient loads are associated with village, which has unsuitable livestock raising. Different land use influences intensively the loss of pollutants, especially slope tilling in agricultural land. The amount of nutrient loss from the agricultural land per unit is the highest, that from forestry is the secondary and that from grassland is the lowest. However, due to the variability of land use areas, agricultural land contributes the greatest effort to TP and forestry lands to TN. The loss amount of pollutant in flood season is nearly 60% of annual loss amount. The amount of nutrient loss from hill areas is larger than that from mountain areas. Pattern of non-point source pollution in Miyun County is showed that near the north and east boundary of the Reservoir is the heaviest area. It is indicated that nutrient loss is correlated with people density, fertilizer usage and soil erosion.

  10. The main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumantakis, J.; Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Markantonis, K.; Grigorakou, E.; Vassiliou, E.

    2003-04-01

    The research team of the laboratory of Engineering Geology &Hydrogeology of NTUA and P.P.C. have carried out several research projects since 1990. The conclusions of these projects for the main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in Hellas are the following: Human activities : a) Urban and industrial wastes (solid and liquids) are disposed or discharged to the surface or groundwater bodies causing degradation of their quality (case studies of Athens Basin, Lavrio region, Atalanti plain), b) intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers for agriculture, through the process of percolation or leaching causes the deterioration of aquifers and surface water (case studies of Plolemais Basin, Korinth region, Elassona Basin, Atalanti plain, Thrapsana Basin Iraklio), c) current exploitations and old or abandoned mining sites, disturb the aquatic environment and create new hydraulic connections between clean and polluted aquifers or the sea (case studies of Lavrio region, Ptolemais Basin, Megalopoli Basin), d) over-pumping of aquifers mainly for irrigation but also in some cases for dewatering of mines, results in continues drawdown of the groundwater level and intrusion of sea (case studies of Korinth region, Athens basin, Naxos island, Nea Peramos Kavala, Marathon, Argolida Field, Atalanti plain, Achaia region, Stratoni area Chalkidiki, Gouves Iraklio). Geological Environment: a) extensive karstification of limestones that spread up all over the Greek region (33%) causes the intrusion of the sea far into the land (case studies of Lavrio region, Kefalonia island, Hymettus mountain), b) the chemical composition of the geological formations through the process of ion exchange and solubility pollute the groundwater resources (case studies of Vegoritis Basin, Katsika Chalkidiki, Florina region). The proposed measures to face these problems are : - the orthological management of the water resources - the artificial recharge of the aquifers, - proper waste management

  11. Potential Sources and Formations of the PM2.5 Pollution in Urban Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of meteorological parameters, gaseous pollutants, particulate matters, and the major chemical species in PM2.5 were conducted in urban Hangzhou from 1 September to 30 November 2013 to study the potential sources and formations of PM2.5 pollution. The average PM2.5 concentration was 69 µg·m−3, ~97% higher than the annual concentration limit in the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS of China. Relative humidity (RH and wind speed (WS were two important factors responsible for the increase of PM2.5 concentration, with the highest value observed under RH of 70%–90%. PM2.5 was in good correlation with both NO2 and CO, but not with SO2, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF results displayed that local emissions were important potential sources contributing to the elevated PM2.5 and NO2 in Hangzhou. Thus, local vehicle emission was suggested as a major contribution to the PM2.5 pollution. Concentrations of NO2 and CO significantly increased in pollution episodes, while the SO2 concentration even decreased, implying local emission rather than region transport was the major source contributing to the formation of pollution episodes. The sum of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for ~50% of PM2.5 in mass in pollution episodes and the NO3−/EC ratios were significantly elevated, revealing that the formation of secondary inorganic species, particularly NO3−, was an important contributor to the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou. This study highlights that controlling local pollution emissions was essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou, and the control of vehicle emission in particular should be further promoted in the future.

  12. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  13. Air quality of Prague: traffic as a main pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branis, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Political and economical transition in the Central and Eastern Europe at the end of eighties significantly influenced all aspects of life as well as technological infrastructure. Collapse of outdated energy demanding industry and adoption of environmental legislation resulted in seeming improvements of urban environmental quality. Hand in hand with modernization the newly adopted regulations also helped to phase out low quality coal frequently used for domestic heating. However, at the same time, the number of vehicles registered in the city increased. The two processes interestingly acted as parallel but antagonistic forces. To interpret the trends in urban air quality of Prague, Czech capital, monthly averages of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), NO, O(3) and CO concentrations from the national network of automated monitoring stations were analyzed together with long term trends in fuel consumption and number of vehicles registered in Prague within a period of 1992-2005. The results showed that concentrations of SO(2) (a pollutant strongly related to fossil fuel burning) dropped significantly during the period of concern. Similarly NO(X) and PM(10) concentrations decreased significantly in the first half of the nineties (as a result of solid fuel use drop), but remained rather stable or increased after 2000, presumably reflecting rapid increase of traffic density. In conclusion, infrastructural changes in early nineties had a strong positive effect on Prague air quality namely in the first half of the period studied, nevertheless, the current trend in concentrations of automotive exhaust related pollutants (such as PM(10), NO(X)) needs adoption of stricter measures. PMID:18709434

  14. Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

  15. Eco-Environmental Geochemistry of Heavy Metal Pollution in Dexing Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 倪师军; 焦鹏程; 邓坚; 张成江; 王金生

    2004-01-01

    An eco-environmental geochemical investigation was carried out in and around the Dexing mining area to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface water, sediments, soils and plants. The main objective of this study is to assess the environmental situation and evaluate the transferring of heavy metals from mining activities into the food chain. Some samples of water, sediment, topsoil and plant were collected along the Lean River in the Dexing mining area. The total concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As were determined by AAS, and Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor AAS. Some indices such as ‘contamination degree',‘geoaccumulation index', and ‘biological absorption coefficient' were used to assess eco-environmental quality. The investigation indicated a highly localized distribution pattern closely associated with the two pollution sources along the Le'an River bank: one is strong acidity and a large amount of Cu in the drainage from the Dexing Cu mining area; and the other is the high concentrations of Pb and Zn in the effluents released from many smelters and mining, processing and extracting activities in the riparian zone. Results from the investigated localities indicated, at least in part, that some problems associated with environmental quality deterioration should be solved in the future.

  16. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heavy metal contamination in coastal areas of South China has been reviewed. • Heavy metal levels were closely related to economic development in past decades. • Heavy metal levels from Hong Kong continually decreased from the early 1990s. • Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in mollusk. • Levels of heavy metals in part of seafood exceeded the safety limit. -- Abstract: Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit

  17. Modeling of photochemical air pollution in the Barcelona area with highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The city of Barcelona and its surrounding area, located in the western Mediterranean basin, can reach high levels of O3 in spring and summertime. To study the origin of this photochemical pollution, a numerical modeling approach was adopted and the episode that took place between 3 and 5 August 1990 was chosen. The main meteorological mesoscale flows were reproduced with the meteorological non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO for 5 August 1990, when weak pressure synoptic conditions took place. The emissions inventory was calculated with the EIM-LEM model, giving highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in the zone studied, an 80 x 80 km2 area around the city of Barcelona. Major sources of VOC were road traffic (51%) and vegetation (34%), while NOx were mostly emitted by road traffic (88%). However, emissions from some industrial stacks can be locally important and higher than those from road traffic. Photochemical simulation with the MARS model revealed that the combination of mesoscale wind flows and the above-mentioned local emissions is crucial in the production and transport of O3 in the area. On the other hand, the geostrophic wind also played an important role in advecting the air masses away from the places O3 had been generated. The model simulations were also evaluated by comparing meteorological measurements from nine surface stations and concentration measurements from five surface stations, and the results proved to be fairly satisfactory. (author)

  18. Mercury pollution in the Chongqing part of the Three Gorges Reservoir area and its remediation and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen-ning; LIU Xin-an; LU Ting; HUANG Jian-jun

    2008-01-01

    Mercury pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of P. R. China merits special attention. We investigated into the current situation in the Chongqing part of the Reservoir area, identified the pollution sources and proposed some suggestions for the remediation and prevention of mercury pollution in this area. Atmospheric mercury in Chongqing was mainly from coal burning and releases of mercury-containing products such as various types of lights and fever thermometers. Urban drainage in Chongqing and Changshou, and runoffs from the high mercury background area in the lower reaches of the Wujiang River contributed most of the mercury in the water of the Yangtze River. A majority of the blame should be laid on mercury and gold mining in the Wujiang valley. We suggested foresting sloping lands to relieve soil erosion and prevent mercury-bearing soil from running into rivers, educational activities to discourage use of mercury-containing products and improved infrastructure to collect mercury-containing wastes for reducing mercury releases, more facilities for treating wastewater and solid waste to accommodate increased requirements of discharge, and growing selected perennial plants in mercury-contaminated land to absorb the mercury in soil. We also suggested concerted operation of a dedicated water-quality monitoring system, reinforced legislation and an effective administrative mechanism to ensure lasting efforts are invested in curbing mercury releases and restoring mercury contaminated land and water in the Reservoir area.

  19. Analysis of Nonlinear Dispersion of a Pollutant Ejected by an External Source into a Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinyoka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the transient analysis of nonlinear dispersion of a pollutant ejected by an external source into a laminar flow of an incompressible fluid in a channel. The influence of density variation with pollutant concentration is approximated according to the Boussinesq approximation, and the nonlinear governing equations of momentum and pollutant concentration are obtained. The problem is solved numerically using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Solutions are presented in graphical form and given in terms of fluid velocity, pollutant concentration, skin friction, and wall mass transfer rate for various parametric values. The model can be a useful tool for understanding the polluting situations of an improper discharge incident and evaluating the effects of decontaminating measures for the water body.

  20. Non-point source analysis of a railway bridge area using statistical method: case study of a concrete road-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Kyungik; Im, Jiyeol

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to protect the quality of the water system, interest in non-point source pollution is increasing. Recently, studies of non-point sources pollution are continuing in relation to various land-use areas, but such studies have not been fully conducted in railway facility sites. Using monitoring data of railway bridge area with concrete road-bed, the runoff characteristics, pollutant unit loads, and first flush criteria were assessed. Railway bridge area with concrete road-bed typically show the first flush effect, and the pollutant unit load was determined to be higher than other public facilities areas. Further, the first flush criteria show an effective rainfall amount of 7 mm. In other words, from the runoff of railway facilities, considerable amounts of non-point source pollutants are occurred, indicating the need to create best management practices which are adequate for railway facility sites.

  1. Optimization of Policy and Management Service System on Control of Rural Non-Point Source Pollution-A Case Study of the Rural Area of Shanghai%农村面源污染治理的政策与管理服务体系优化——以上海郊区农村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文芳; 沈哲

    2012-01-01

    It is a common view that control of rural non-point source pollution is not only a technology issue, but also a management system issue. So hard currently it has become a hot spot and a hard nut as well to probe and consummate the policy, management and service system for control of rural non-point source pollution. Selecting the rural suburbs of Shanghai for case study, the status quo of the rural non-point source pollution and its management have been analyzed and summarized. While affirming the effect of the current work on pollution management, the limitations of the work are discerned and it was pointed out that inharmony between the agriculture development policy and the environmental protection policy and the lag of the management mechanism and service system behind the change in the rural development model are the basic causes. To counter the major contributors of the rural non-point source pollution, i. e. chemical fertilizers, pesticides , livestock excretes and rural domestic sewage, countermeasures and suggestions are presented for management of the pollution from the aspects of modification of the agricultural subsidization system, reconfiguration and implementation of the rural multi-value system and consummation of agricultural production service system.%农村面源污染控制不仅是技术问题,也是管理体制与机制问题,探讨并完善农村面源污染治理的政策、管理与服务体系已成为当前研究的热点与难点.以上海郊区农村为例,梳理总结农村面源污染及其控制现状;在肯定当前治理效果的同时,识别其局限性,指出农业政策与环境保护政策的不协调、农村发展模式转变下制度与服务体系的相对滞后是根本原因;针对当前农村面源污染重要的贡献者——化肥、农药、畜禽粪便以及农村生活污水,分别从改革农业补贴制度、重构实现农村多重价值的制度以及完善农业生产服务体系等方面给出了治理的对策与建议.

  2. Respiratory diseases and allergies in two polluted areas in East Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, J; Hoelscher, B; Wjst, M.; Ritz, B.; J. Cyrys; Wichmann, H

    1999-01-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study collected health data for 2,470 school children between 5 and 14 years of age (89% of eligible children) who had lived most of their lives in either one of two counties strongly impacted by industrial pollution (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) or in a neighboring county without any sources of industrial pollution (Zerbst). The objective of the study was to examine whether regional differences--with respect to the occurrence of childhood respiratory disease...

  3. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China. PMID:26409886

  4. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dürr; R. Jaffe

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  5. A study of polluted eco-system around industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial pollution is one of the most serious problems in Pakistan. The uncontrolled release of untreated industrial effluents to large water bodies has deleterious effects on water quality, aquatic life and human health. The concentration of heavy metals in eco-system is reaching at alarming levels and is increasing yearly. In reality, the industries are not equipped with proper effluent treatment plants. The environmental protection law is not strictly implemented to limit the release and/or proper disposal of industrial effluents. Therefore, volume of specified industrial discharge is growing at an exponential rate without any specific safeguards. Effective measures, which can eliminate or considerably reduce hazardous factors from the human environment to minimize the associated health risks, must be identified and eradicated. In order to achieve these objectives, the study has been done to reach a balanced assessment of the risks and benefits involved. For this purpose two industrial cities of Pakistan namely, Gujranwala and Faisalabad have been selected. Four major industries existing in these cities, namely Yam, textile, paper and board and ceramics, have been studied. The specimens of the irrigated soil exposed to the industrial effluent, crops and vegetables grown on that soil have been analyzed study the hazardous effects on human health. (author)

  6. Magnetic response to atmospheric heavy metal pollution recorded by dust-loaded leaves in Shougang industrial area, western Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShouYun; DUAN XueMei; SHEN MingJie; U BLAHA; W ROESLER; YAN HaiTao; E APPEL; V HOFFMANN

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-five evergreen tree's leaves growing less than one year were collected from Shougang industrial area in western suburb of Beijing, including steel plants and its ambient residential areas, recreational parks and farmlands. Rook magnetic properties and heavy metal contents were studied. The results show that the magnetic properties of leaf samples are predominated by Iow-coercivity magnetite, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the distance from the main pollution source increases. Moreover, there is a significant linear relationship between mag-netic parameters (the low-field magnetic susceptibility, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization and anhysteretic remanent magnetization) and heavy metals contents (Fe, Pb, V, Cr and Zn) (0.73≤R≤0.88). Hence, the magnetic parameters of leaves can serve as a proxy for quick detecting of the recent atmospheric metallic pollution.

  7. STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON POLLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE AREA SC ROMPLUMB BAIA MARE FROM ANTHROPOGENICAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    COCIORHAN CAMELIA SIMONA; MICLE VALER

    2011-01-01

    The main ways of soil pollution are: on path air or atmospheric path and on terrestrial path, pollution path of direct their. Sources of air pollution are two categories: natural sources (volcanic eruptions, decomposition acts, etc.) and artificial, resulting from human activities (mining and metallurgy, energy, etc.). Solid air pollutants are those treated in the paper. They are dispersed in the air from emissions of particles which containing heavy metal ions in the atmosphere having a low ...

  8. A Laboratory Study of Auctions for Reducing Non-Point Source Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Cason, Timothy N.; Gangadharan, Lata; Duke, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Non-point source pollution, such as nutrient runoff to waterways from agricultural production, is an environmental problem that typically involves asymmetric information. Land use changes to reduce pollution incur opportunity costs that are privately known to landholders, but these changes provide environmental benefits that may be more accurately estimated by regulators. This paper reports a testbed laboratory experiment in which landholder/sellers in multi-round, sealed-offer auctions compe...

  9. Evaluating the Effects of Land Use Planning for Non-Point Source Pollution Based on a System Dynamics Approach in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kuai, Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Nianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is proceeding rapidly in several developing countries such as China. This accelerating urbanization alters the existing land use types in a way that results in more Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution to local surface waters. Reasonable land use planning is necessary. This paper compares seven planning scenarios of a case study area, namely Wulijie, China, from the perspective of NPS pollution. A System Dynamics (SD) model was built for the comparison to adequately capture the plann...

  10. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  11. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  12. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. PMID:26897576

  13. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels.

  14. Determining Sources of Fecal Pollution in the Blackwater River Watershed, Franklin County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Amy Marie

    2001-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) was used to determine sources of fecal pollution in the Blackwater River in South-central Virginia. The Department of Environmental Quality designated six segments as impaired due to high fecal coliform concentrations with non-point source (NPS) agriculture the suspected source of impairment. The Blackwater River watershed encompasses 72,000 ha of dairy, beef, and intensive production agriculture, abundant wildlife populations and many homes with onsite s...

  15. Determining Sources of Fecal Pollution in Water for a Rural Virginia Community

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Alexandria Kristen

    2000-01-01

    This project involves developing and applying bacterial source tracking (BST) methodology to determine sources of fecal pollution in water for a rural community (Millwood, VA). Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) is the primary BST method for fecal source identification, followed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for confirmation. Millwood consists of 66 homes, all served by individual septic systems, and a stream (Spout Run) passes through the center of the community. Sp...

  16. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Lien Lo; Pei-Te Chiueh; Wei-Ting Shang

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water qual...

  17. Using SWAT to Target Critical Source Sediment and Phosphorus Areas in the Wister Lake Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R. Busteed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Wister Lake is located in the San Bois Mountains in southeastern Oklahoma, USA. The reservoir is primarily used as a water supply and flood storage to over 40,000 residents in the area. Due to high levels of phosphorus and sediment, Wister Lake is listed as a high priority basin for the State of Oklahoma. To help address these water quality problems, the Oklahoma Conservation Commission provided cost share funds for landowners in the basin to implement conservation practices. Approach: The objective of this study was to identify or target agricultural land that contributed disproportional pollutant losses, i.e. critical source areas. Results: Implementing conservation practice in these critical source areas allowed optimal placement conservation practices. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was used to identify critical source areas of phosphorus and sediment in the Wister Lake basin. SWAT predicted 57,000 metric tons a year of sediment and 84,000 kilograms a year of total phosphorus from upland areas in the basin. Eighty-five percent of the pollutant load originated from just 10% of the basin. Conclusion/Recommendations: This allowed the OCC to identify and contact specific agricultural producers to recruit into their water quality program, which optimized the use of limited cost share funds.

  18. The anthropogenic magnetic particles contain in indoor dust as markers of pollution emitted by different outside sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Iga; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the impact of magnetic particles originated from different external sources of pollution on the air quality inside apartments. We used the indoor dust as an indicator of air pollution inside apartments. For the study, a small town was chosen, in which dominated the local sources of pollution: (1) vehicle traffic (in the city center), (2) local heating plant, (3) individual households (in the suburbs) and (4) re-emission of soil particles from the contaminated post-industrial area. In each of four areas were selected several private apartments as a sampling points. Dust samples were collected by the owners of apartments from the floor surface using vacuum cleaners in the same time period (September 2014). The concentration-dependent magnetic parameters (magnetic susceptibility - and magnetization MS) were used to determine the level of the magnetic pollution of the indoor dust. The properties of magnetic particles (mineralogy, domain structure and grain size), and their chemical composition were used to describe and identify the source of air pollution inside the apartments. Generally, the results showed that in each of studied areas were observed flats with both: very high and low values of parameters depending on the concentration of magnetic particles. The biggest differences between the areas were visible in mineralogy of magnetic fraction of pollution. The research of apartments exposed to pollution generated by vehicle traffic (located in the city center) show a wide range of values χ (75-1021 -10-8 m3kg-1) and MS (35-656 -10-3 Am2kg-1). These differences were due to the high contribution of pure iron to magnetic fraction of pollution. Detailed analysis of the M (T) curves revealed two magnetic transitions: first at a temperature Tc = 585oC for magnetite and the second at Tc = 760oC for pure iron. For the dust samples from the city center the high values of χ and MS well correlated with high level of anthropogenic elements

  19. Microbial Water Pollution of Drin River in Scutary Area, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    LINDITA BUSHATI; MARGARITA HYSKO

    2014-01-01

    Black Drin River joining White Drin and some other small rivers form the longest river of Albania, Drin River, 335 Km long. Drin has two distributaries, one of which empties directly into Adriatic Sea and the other one into Buna river, in Scutary (Shkoder). The Drin area is beautiful and very important for the Albanian economy, for the electricity and has a large agriculture activity as well. Unfortunately mismanagement of agricultural practices and the discharge of industrial and urban waste...

  20. Soil pollution in an urban area : a GIS approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yves Guermond; Daniel Delahaye; Pierrich Folligne; Jean-Pierre Vapaille; Renaud Zambeaux

    1998-01-01

    The southern bank of the river Seine, in the urban area of Rouen, was an important industrial suburb in the 19th century and during the first half of the 20th century up to the urban rehabilitation which began around the seventies. The main industries were foundries and mechanical engineering plants, and later, in the harbour districts, oil factories and naphtha refineries. During the "reconstruction" period, after the second world war, and at the time of the "rehabilitation" , a lot of resid...

  1. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  2. Animals living in polluted environments are potential source of antimicrobials against infectious agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Simon; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobials crisis is a ticking time bomb which could lead to millions of people dying from untreatable infections. With the worsening trends of antimicrobial resistance, we are heading towards a pre-antibiotic era. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful antibiotic agents. The search for new antibiotic compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in germ-infested environments are a potent source of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of bacteria, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances which show potent activity in the nervous system. We hope that the discovery of antimicrobial activity in the cockroach brain will stimulate research in finding antimicrobials from unusual sources, and has potential for the development of novel antibiotics. Nevertheless, intensive research in the next few years will be required to approach or realize these expectations. PMID:23265422

  3. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO3−–N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO3−–N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO3−–N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO3−–N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious seasonal variations. • Nitrate of surface water in

  4. Tracing nitrate pollution sources and transformation in surface- and ground-waters using environmental isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Fadong, E-mail: lifadong@igsnrr.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Qiuying [Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021 (China); Li, Jing [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Water pollution in the form of nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N) contamination is a major concern in most agricultural areas in the world. Concentrations and nitrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate, as well as oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of surface and groundwater from a typical irrigated region in the North China Plain (NCP) collected from May to October in 2012 were analyzed to examine the major nitrate sources and transformations. Concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N ranged from 0.2 to 29.6 mg/L (mean of 11.2 mg/L) in surface water, and from 0.1 to 19.4 mg/L (mean of 2.8 mg/L) in groundwater. Approximately 46.7% of the surface water samples and 10% of the groundwater samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard for NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N. Surface water samples that exceeded the standard were collected mainly in the dry season (May and October), while groundwater samples that exceeded the standard were collected in the wet season (June). Overall, the highest nitrate levels were observed in surface water in May and in groundwater in June, indicating that fertilizer application, precipitation, and irrigation strongly influence the NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N concentrations. Analyses of isotopic compositions suggest that the main sources of nitrate are nitrification of fertilizer and sewage in surface water, in contrast, mineralization of soil organic N and sewage is the groundwater sources during the dry season. When fertilizers are applied, nitrate will be transported by precipitation through the soil layers to the groundwater in the wet season (June). Denitrification only occurred in surface water in the wet season. Attempts should be made to minimize overuse of nitrogen fertilizers and to improve nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agricultural regions. - Highlights: • Nitrate sources in surface and groundwater were identified by multiple isotopes. • Nitrate pollution displayed obvious

  5. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  6. Methodology for the ecotoxicological evaluation of areas polluted by phosphogypsum wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchez, M. J.; Garcia-Lorenzo, M. L.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M.; Bech, J.

    2012-04-01

    In Spain, the production of phosphoric acid, and hence of phosphogypsum, is restricted to a fertilizer industrial site. The residues contain some radionuclides of the U-series and other contaminants. In order to estimate the risk posed by these materials, chemical methods need to be complemented with biological methods. Then, the aim of this study was to develop a battery of bioassays for the ecotoxicological screening of areas polluted by phosphogypsum wastes. Particularly, the toxicity of water samples, sediments and their pore-water extracts was evaluated by using three assays: bacteria, plants and ostracods. The applied bioassays were: the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri in superficial water samples using Microtox® bioassay; the root and shoot elongation inhibition and the mortality of Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba using Phytotoxkit® bioassay; and inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens by way of Ostracodtoxkit®. Proposed methodology allows the identification of contamination sources and non contaminated areas, corresponding to decreasing toxicity values.

  7. Urban increments of gaseous and aerosol pollutants and their sources using mobile aerosol mass spectrometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Miriam; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Teinemaa, Erik; Richter, Rene; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is one of the main environmental concerns in urban areas, where anthropogenic emissions strongly affect air quality. This work presents the first spatially resolved detailed characterization of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic equivalent diameter daero ≤ 2.5 µm) in two major Estonian cities, Tallinn and Tartu. The measurements were performed in March 2014 using a mobile platform. In both cities, the non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 was characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) using a recently developed lens which increases the transmission of super-micron particles. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) and several trace gases including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were also measured. The chemical composition of PM2.5 was found to be very similar in the two cities. Organic aerosol (OA) constituted the largest fraction, explaining on average about 52 to 60 % of the PM2.5 mass. Four sources of OA were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF): hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, from traffic emissions), biomass burning OA (BBOA, from biomass combustion), residential influenced OA (RIOA, probably mostly from cooking processes with possible contributions from waste and coal burning), and oxygenated OA (OOA, related to secondary aerosol formation). OOA was the major OA source during nighttime, explaining on average half of the OA mass, while during daytime mobile measurements the OA was affected by point sources and dominated by the primary fraction. A strong increase in the secondary organic and inorganic components was observed during periods with transport of air masses from northern Germany, while the primary local emissions accumulated during periods with temperature inversions. Mobile measurements offered the identification of different source regions within the urban areas and the assessment of the extent to which pollutants concentrations exceeded regional background

  8. Soil pollution in an urban area : a GIS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Guermond

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The southern bank of the river Seine, in the urban area of Rouen, was an important industrial suburb in the 19th century and during the first half of the 20th century up to the urban rehabilitation which began around the seventies. The main industries were foundries and mechanical engineering plants, and later, in the harbour districts, oil factories and naphtha refineries. During the "reconstruction" period, after the second world war, and at the time of the "rehabilitation" , a lot of resid...

  9. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals pollution in industrial area and its comparison with relatively less polluted area: A case study from the City of Peshawar and district Dir Lower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariate and univariate statistical techniques i.e., cluster analysis PCA, regression and correlation analysis, one way ANOVA, were applied to the metal data of effluents soil and ground water to point out the contribution of different industries towards the metals pollution, their source identification and distribution. The samples were collected from different industries and different downstream points of the main effluents stream and from the relatively less polluted area considered as control area. The samples were analyzed for metal concentration levels by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The metal concentration data in the three media of the polluted area were compared with background data and control data as well as with the WHO safe limits. The results showed that soil has high metals concentration compared to effluents and water. The data also showed elevated levels of Mn and Pb in water that are 8.268 and 2.971 mg/L, respectively. Principal component analysis along with regression analysis showed that the elevated levels of metals in the effluents contaminate adjacent soil and ultimately the ground water. The other elements Co, Cd, Ni and Cu were also found to have correlation in the three media.

  10. Data requirements and data sources for biodiversity priority area selection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P H Williams; C R Margules; D W Hilbert

    2002-07-01

    The data needed to prioritize areas for biodiversity protection are records of biodiversity features – species, species assemblages, environmental classes – for each candidate area. Prioritizing areas means comparing candidate areas, so the data used to make such comparisons should be comparable in quality and quantity. Potential sources of suitable data include museums, herbariums and natural resource management agencies. Issues of data precision, accuracy and sampling bias in data sets from such sources are discussed and methods for treating data to minimize bias are reviewed.

  11. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  12. Study of the distribution of non-point source pollution in the watershed of the Miyun Reservoir, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Li, T; Xu, A; He, W

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are major nutrients to cause eutrophication to degrade the water quality of the Miyun Reservoir, a very important drinking water source of Beijing in China. These are mainly from non-point sources. The watershed in Miyun County is selected as the study region with a total area of 1400 km2. Four typical monitoring catchments and two experimental units were used to monitor the precipitation, runoff, sediment yield and pollutant loading related to various land uses in the meantime. The results show that the total nutrient loss amount of TN and TP is 898.07 t/a, and 40.70 t/a, respectively, in which nutrient N and P carried by runoff is 91.3% and 77.3%, respectively. There is relatively heavier soil erosion at the northern mountain area whereas the main nutrient loss occurs near the northeast rim of the reservoir. Different land uses influence the loss of non-point source pollutants. The amount of nutrient loss from agricultural land per unit is the highest, nutrient loss from forestry is the second highest and that from grassland is the lowest. However, due to the variability of land use areas, agricultural land contributes the greatest amount of TP and forestry lands the greatest amount of TN. PMID:11724492

  13. Contributions To The Study Of Heavy Metals Concentration Variation In Sedimentable Dusts According To The Distance From The Pollution Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DOBRA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment in areas where geological and mining activities, such as the extraction of ores containing heavy metals, take place, is heavily polluted with dusts resulting from these activities, as well as with residual waters from the mines. Depending on the meteorological conditions, as well as on the conditions under which sedimentable dusts or dusts in suspension are emitted into the air, the distance from the main pollution source varies considerably. In order to estimate the pollution level and the danger presented by this phenomenon, some analyses are required with regard to determining the concentration of heavy pollutant metals in air, soil and plants samples, as well as in dusts from the air. For the precise determination of the major components, as well as the minor ones, and also the ones in traces, the analytical techniques used must have low detection limits and the lowest matrix effects possible [1,2]. The methods that respond to these requirements are from the category of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. The research was done in an area where there are industrial units whose main field of activity is extraction of certain ores which contain Pb, Cu and Zn as major components, as well as Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Ag, Au, Al, and Fe as minor components or in traces. It is obvious that the presence of these metals in the air, water and soil has a negative impact on human health, plants and animals. This paper is a study of these aspects in an area where pollution with heavy metals reaches alarming quotas.

  14. Determining Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Rural Virginia Watershed with Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Fecal Streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, Charles; Robinson, Sandra L.; Filtz, Jennifer R.; Grubbs, Sarah M.; Angier, Theresa A.; Reneau, Raymond B.

    1999-01-01

    Nonpoint sources of pollution that contribute fecal bacteria to surface waters have proven difficult to identify. Knowledge of pollution sources could aid in restoration of the water quality, reduce the amounts of nutrients leaving watersheds, and reduce the danger of infectious disease resulting from exposure to contaminated waters. Patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal streptococci were analyzed by discriminant and cluster analysis and used to identify sources of fecal pollution in a r...

  15. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  16. Oxidative potential and inflammatory impacts of source apportioned ambient air pollution in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyang; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Liu, Yanju; Sun, Yongjun; Zhang, Meigen

    2014-11-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Knowledge of the chemical components and sources of air pollution most responsible for these health effects could lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of such effects and more targeted risk reduction strategies. We measured daily ambient fine particulate matter (Beijing, and assessed the contribution of its chemical components to the oxidative potential of ambient air pollution using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The composition data were applied to a multivariate source apportionment model to determine the PM contributions of six sources or factors: a zinc factor, an aluminum factor, a lead point factor, a secondary source (e.g., SO4(2-), NO3(2-)), an iron source, and a soil dust source. Finally, we assessed the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity-related PM sources and inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. In peri-urban Beijing, the soil dust source accounted for the largest fraction (47%) of measured ROS variability. In central Beijing, a secondary source explained the greatest fraction (29%) of measured ROS variability. The ROS activities of PM collected in central Beijing were exponentially associated with in vivo inflammatory responses in epithelial cells (R2=0.65-0.89). We also observed a high correlation between three ROS-related PM sources (a lead point factor, a zinc factor, and a secondary source) and expression of an inflammatory marker (r=0.45-0.80). Our results suggest large differences in the contribution of different PM sources to ROS variability at the central versus peri-urban study sites in Beijing and that secondary sources may play an important role in PM2.5-related oxidative potential and inflammatory health impacts.

  17. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory, we selected terrestrial mosses with different life forms: the orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. Metal concentrations were determined in both species growing together at sites situated at various distances approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 km from polluters. MARS analysis evaluated different tendencies of both species for Cd, Co and Pb accumulation depending on the distance from the emitter. In P. schreberi, the concentration of these metals diminished relatively rapidly with an increasing distance from the emitter up to 3000 m and then stabilised. For P. commune, a steady decrease could be observed with increasing the distance up to 6000 m. PCCA ordination explained that both species from the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant were correlated with the highest Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb as well as Mn and Ni concentrations in their tissues. The mosses from sites closest to both power plants were correlated with the highest Cd and Zn concentrations. P. commune contained significantly higher Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations compared to P. schreberi. This may be caused by the lamellae found in the leaves of P. commune which increase the surface area of the possible aerial absorption of contaminants. Soil may also be an additional source of metals, and it affects the uptake in endohydric P. commune more than in ectohydric P. schreberi. However, the precise explanation of these relations needs further investigation. PMID:26910826

  18. N pollution sources and denitrification in waterbodies in-Taihu Lake region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Herein presented are the researches of the past few years related to characteristics of N pollution of waterbodies and N transport from croplands to the waterbodies in Suzhou and Wuxi regions, the center of the Taihu Lake valley. Based on the types of waterbodies, concentrations of inorganic N of different forms, concentrations of , d15NH4 values in river and lake waterbodies, the pollution sources of N in the river, lake and well waters are distinguished, and comparisons are made of trend of variation and amplitude of concentration between years, seasons and N pollutants in waterbodies. The increase in N2O concentration in different waterbodies and high d 15 value in different waterbodies are deemed as an evidence of the existence of denitrification in the river, lake and well waters. Moreover, the role of denitrification in the waterbodies plays in stabilizing chronically concentration of N as pollutant in the waterbodies and mitigating N load in the water-bodies.

  19. N pollution sources and denitrification in waterbodies in Taihu Lake region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢光熹; 曹亚澄; 施书莲; 孙国庆; 杜丽娟; 朱建国

    2001-01-01

    Herein presented are the researches of the past few years related to characteristics of N pollution of waterbodies and N transport from croplands to the waterbodies in Suzhou and Wuxi regions, the center of the Taihu Lake valley. Based on the types of waterbodies, concentrations ofinorganic N of different forms, concentrations of PO43-, δ15NH4 values in river and lake waterbodies,the pollution sources of N in the river, lake and well waters are distinguished, and comparisons are made of trend of variation and amplitude of concentration between years, seasons and N pollutants in waterbodies. The increase in N2O concentration in different waterbodies and high δ15NO3-value in different waterbodies are deemed as an evidence of the existence of denitrification in the river, lake and well waters. Moreover, the role of denitrification in the waterbodies plays in stabilizing chronically concentration of N as pollutant in the waterbodies and mitigating N load in the waterbodies.

  20. Point source pollution and variability of nitrate concentrations in water from shallow aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Jazbec, Anamarija

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the several major sources of nitrate pollution, and therefore the EU Nitrate Directive, designed to decrease pollution, has been implemented. Point sources like septic systems and broken sewage systems also contribute to water pollution. Pollution of groundwater by nitrate from 19 shallow wells was studied in a typical agricultural region, middle Podravina, in northwest Croatia. The concentration of nitrate ranged from R6, there was no statistically significant difference in nitrate concentrations (F = 1.98; p = 0.15) during the years 2002-2007. Average concentrations of nitrate in all 19 wells for all the analyzed years were between recommended limit value of 25 mg/l (RLV) and MAV except in 2002 (concentration was under RLV). The results of the repeated measures ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the wells at the point source distance (proximity) of 20 m (F = 10.6; p < 0.001). Average annual concentrations of nitrate during the years studied are not statistically different, but interaction between proximity and years is statistically significant (F = 2.07; p = 0.04). Results of k-means clustering confirmed division into four clusters according to the pollution. Principal component analysis showed that there is only one significant factor, proximity, which explains 91.6 % of the total variability of nitrate. Differences in water quality were found as a result of different environmental factors. These results will contribute to the implementation of the Nitrate Directive in Croatia and the EU.

  1. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  2. Identifying potentially high risk areas for environmental pollution in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Andreas; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Getzlaff, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The study aims at the identification of areas in the Baltic Sea from where potential pollution is transported to vulnerable regions. Generally, there is higher risk of ship accidents along the shipping routes and along the approaching routes to the harbors. The spreading of harmful substances is mainly controlled by prevailing atmospheric conditions and wind-induced local sea surface currents. Especially, spawning, nursery and tourist areas are considered high-vulnerable areas. With sophistic...

  3. IMPACT OF POLLUTION ON THE CLAY MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION OF SOME SOILS FROM ZLATNA AREA (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Craciun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Zlatna area is a high polluted zone with heavy metals due to industrial activity (extraction and processing of non-ferrous area. In spite of the fact that industrial activity was stoped for 2-3 years, the effect of pollution are still obvious. The aim of this paper is to make evident some aspects concerning the impact of pollution on the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction (below 2μ from some soils belonging to dystric cambisol and luvisol type. From the chemical point of view, the effect of pollution is the acidifiation and depletion of bases, reflected by the decrease of values of indices which express soil reaction (pH and soil exchange properties, especially in the surface horizon. From mineralogical point of view, the acidifiation determines a strong alteration of primary minerals (micas and feldspars and just of secondary minerals (illite, evolution beeing towards hydroxy interlayered minerals (intergrade and kaolinite. As result of this alteration the content of kaolinite increases, achiving a double content in the surface horizon of some polluted soils. Sometimes kaolinite becomes the dominant mineral in the clay fraction of some strong polluted soil.

  4. Detecting the sensitivity of magnetic response on different pollution sources--A case study from typical mining cities in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Dunsheng; Yu, Ye; Jia, Jia; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Rapid monitoring and discriminating different anthropogenic pollution is a key scientific issue. To detect the applicability and sensitivity of magnetic measurements for evaluating different industrial pollution in urban environment, characteristics of topsoil from three typical fast developing industrial cities (Jinchang, Baiyin and Jiayuguan in Gansu province, northwestern China) were studied by magnetic and geochemical analyses. The results showed that magnetic susceptibility was enhanced near industrial areas, and PSD-MD magnetite dominated the magnetic properties. Magnetic concentration parameters (χlf, SIRM, and χARM) showed different correlations with heavy metals and PLI in the three cities, indicating significantly different magnetic response to different pollution sources. Principal component analysis showed that ferrimagnetic minerals coexist with heavy metals of Fe, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in Baiyin and Fe, V, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Cr in Jiayuguan. Fuzzy cluster analysis and regression analysis further indicated that the sensitivity of magnetic monitoring to fuel dust is higher than that to mineral dust near non-ferrous metal smelters, and fossil fuel consumption is an important factor for increasing magnetite content. In all the three cities, the sensitivity of magnetic monitoring to pollutants from steel plants is much higher than that from non-ferrous metal plants. Therefore, magnetic proxies provide a rapid means for detecting heavy metal contamination caused by multi-anthropogenic pollution sources in a large scale area, however, the sensitivity was controlled by pollution sources.

  5. Detecting the sensitivity of magnetic response on different pollution sources--A case study from typical mining cities in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Dunsheng; Yu, Ye; Jia, Jia; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Rapid monitoring and discriminating different anthropogenic pollution is a key scientific issue. To detect the applicability and sensitivity of magnetic measurements for evaluating different industrial pollution in urban environment, characteristics of topsoil from three typical fast developing industrial cities (Jinchang, Baiyin and Jiayuguan in Gansu province, northwestern China) were studied by magnetic and geochemical analyses. The results showed that magnetic susceptibility was enhanced near industrial areas, and PSD-MD magnetite dominated the magnetic properties. Magnetic concentration parameters (χlf, SIRM, and χARM) showed different correlations with heavy metals and PLI in the three cities, indicating significantly different magnetic response to different pollution sources. Principal component analysis showed that ferrimagnetic minerals coexist with heavy metals of Fe, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in Baiyin and Fe, V, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Cr in Jiayuguan. Fuzzy cluster analysis and regression analysis further indicated that the sensitivity of magnetic monitoring to fuel dust is higher than that to mineral dust near non-ferrous metal smelters, and fossil fuel consumption is an important factor for increasing magnetite content. In all the three cities, the sensitivity of magnetic monitoring to pollutants from steel plants is much higher than that from non-ferrous metal plants. Therefore, magnetic proxies provide a rapid means for detecting heavy metal contamination caused by multi-anthropogenic pollution sources in a large scale area, however, the sensitivity was controlled by pollution sources. PMID:26412269

  6. Research on Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment Method in Data Sparse Regions: A Case Study of Xichong River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NPS pollution is difficult to manage and control due to its complicated generation and formation mechanism, especially in the data sparse area. Thus the ECM and BTOPMC were, respectively, adopted to develop an easy and practical assessment method, and a comparison between the outputs of them is then conducted in this paper. The literature survey and field data were acquired to confirm the export coefficients of the ECM, and the loads of TN and TP were statistically analyzed in the study area. Based on hydrological similarity, runoff data from nearby gauged sites were pooled to compensate for the lack of at-site data and the water quality submodel of BTOPMC was then applied to simulate the monthly pollutant fluxes in the two sections from 2010 to 2012. The results showed agricultural fertilizer, rural sewage, and livestock and poultry sewage were the main pollution sources, and under the consideration of self-purification capacity of river, the outputs of the two models were almost identical. The proposed method with a main thought of combining and comparing an empirical model and a mechanistic model can assess the water quality conditions in the study area scientifically, which indicated it has a good potential for popularization in other regions.

  7. Environmental pollution study around a large industrial area near Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most extensively used methods for environmental studies due to its high sensitivity, precision, versatility and multielemental character. Cement factories at Helwan, south of Cairo, contribute substantially to environmental pollution. Determination of minor and trace-elements in dust particulates from the cement industrial areas has been performed to assess the air quality from an environmental and human health point of view. Soil-7 standard reference material from IAEA and SRM-1571 from NBS were used for quality assurance testing. The data obtained indicate there is an indication that the pollution could be hazardous to people living in and around the area surveyed. (author)

  8. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Pihlstroem, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1995-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  9. Pollution Response Score of Tree Species in Relation to Ambient Air Quality in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2016-02-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques were employed on twelve leaf traits in four selected common tree species (Mangifera indica L., Polyalthia longifolia Sonn., Ficus benghalensis L. and Psidium guajava L.) to evaluate their responses with respect to major air pollutants in an urban area. Discriminant analysis (DA) identified chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio, leaf dry matter content, carotenoids, net water content and ascorbic acid as the major discriminating leaf traits, which varied maximally with respect to the pollution status. Pollution response score (PRS), calculated on the basis of discriminate functional coefficient values, increased with an increase in air pollution variables for all the tested species, with the highest increase in P. longifolia and the lowest in F. benghalensis. The study highlights the usefulness of DA for evaluation of plant specific traits and PRS for selection of tolerant species.

  10. TYPICAL WEATHER CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH AIR POLLUTION IN HONG KONG AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xun-lai; FAN Shao-jia; LI Jiang-nan; LIU Ji; WANG An-yu; FONG Soi-kun

    2008-01-01

    With the hourly data of Air Pollution Index (API) by Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) during the 6 years of 2000 - 2005 and NCEP / NCAR reanalysis data of 2.5°×2.5° wind and pressure fields, the characteristics of API in Hong Kong area and the impacts of typical weather characteristics on the air pollution in Hong Kong have been studied. The results are shown as follows. (1) The API exhibits obvious seasonal variability as the number of air pollution days increases by the year. For most of the local monitoring stations, it is the most from January to March, a little less from July to September and the least from April to June. (2) There are four typical types of weather situations that are responsible for the air pollution in Hong Kong: tropical cyclones, continental cold highs, transformed highs that have moved out to sea and low pressure troughs.

  11. Fraxinus pollen as a source of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández-González

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Southern Europe there are but a few studies focused on the allergenic impact of ash (Fraxinus pollen as a result of its scarce distribution. In the city of Ourense this type of pollen represents 2% of the total atmospheric pollen recorded. The goal of this study is to determine the atmospheric concentrations of Fraxinus pollen and its allergen in Ourense’s atmosphere in 2015, and to assess their relationship with the main meteorological variables. The aim is to assess whether the pollen counts match the actual exposure conditions for allergen-sensitive patients. A Lanzoni VPPS-2000 volumetric sampler was used for pollen sampling, whereas a Burkard Cyclone sampler was used for allergen detection.The flowering period of Fraxinus was long, having a duration of 76 days between the third week of January and the rst week of April as consequence of the asynchronous flowering of the different species growing in the study area. The presence of the ash allergen in the atmosphere can be detected using the main olive tree allergen, Ole e 1. Our study indicates that the combination of pollen counts and allergen quanti cation should be contemplated to estimate the real exposure of sensitive people. In the case of Fraxinus pollen, there may be allergy risk periods before and after the occurrence of the highest pollen concentrations in the atmosphere as a result of special rain and humidity conditions during its flowering period.

  12. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  13. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The sediment source controls the distribution of the heavy metals. • There is no Cu, Pb, Zn and As pollution instead of slight Cd pollution. • Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic while Cd and As are mixed in origin. • Cd in polluted stations showed obvious anthropogenic origin. - Abstract: Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, 210Pbexcess and 137Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin

  14. Risk assessment of water pollution sources based on an integrated k-means clustering and set pair analysis method in the region of Shiyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Sun, Lian; Jia, Junxiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    Source water areas are facing many potential water pollution risks. Risk assessment is an effective method to evaluate such risks. In this paper an integrated model based on k-means clustering analysis and set pair analysis was established aiming at evaluating the risks associated with water pollution in source water areas, in which the weights of indicators were determined through the entropy weight method. Then the proposed model was applied to assess water pollution risks in the region of Shiyan in which China's key source water area Danjiangkou Reservoir for the water source of the middle route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project is located. The results showed that eleven sources with relative high risk value were identified. At the regional scale, Shiyan City and Danjiangkou City would have a high risk value in term of the industrial discharge. Comparatively, Danjiangkou City and Yunxian County would have a high risk value in terms of agricultural pollution. Overall, the risk values of north regions close to the main stream and reservoir of the region of Shiyan were higher than that in the south. The results of risk level indicated that five sources were in lower risk level (i.e., level II), two in moderate risk level (i.e., level III), one in higher risk level (i.e., level IV) and three in highest risk level (i.e., level V). Also risks of industrial discharge are higher than that of the agricultural sector. It is thus essential to manage the pillar industry of the region of Shiyan and certain agricultural companies in the vicinity of the reservoir to reduce water pollution risks of source water areas. PMID:27016678

  15. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals. PMID:25116489

  16. Report to Congress: nonpoint source pollution in the U. S. Final report Sep 83-Jan 84

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The report examines the nature and magnitude of nonpoint source water quality problems in the U.S. and outlines the key components of state strategies to prevent and control such pollution. The focus of the report is the identification of high-payoff approaches that are likely to result in the greatest water quality improvements.

  17. Source of lead pollution, its influence on public health and the countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a well-known toxic heavy metal, which can have serious public health hazards at very low levels, especially for young children. This report summarized the background information on lead as well as its applications, pollution sources, poisoning pathways, biomarkers of exposure and effect, toxicities, poisoning mechanisms, preventive actions, decontamination strategies, and detoxification methods. 

  18. Estimation of Non-point Source Pollution Loads Under Uncertain Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruzhong

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of uncertainties are involved, such as random, fuzzy, grey, unascertained property and so on, in soil erosion process. To exactly predict the non-point source pollution loads, some uncertainties should be taken into consideration. Aiming at the deficiency of present blind number theory being helpless for fuzziness, a novel blind number, i.e. extended-blind number, was introduced by substituting a set of triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs), ex-pressed as α-cuts, for interval values in present blind number, and the expected value of extended-blind number was also brought forward by referring to the current blind number theory. On the basis of denoting the parameters of Uni-versal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) as extended-blind parameters, a novel USLE model was established for quantita-tively evaluating soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads. As a case, the uncertain USLE was employed for predicting the soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads of absorbed nitrogen and phosphorus in a dis-trict in the Hangbu-Fengle River basin, in the upstream of Chaohu Lake watershed. The results show that it is feasible in theory to extend blind number into fuzzy environment and reliable on conclusion to apply extended-blind number theory for predicting non-point source pollution loads.

  19. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  20. EU Water Policy: Pollution source control by water companies in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Spiller, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Water management is undergoing a transformation towards integration, source control and ecological thinking. In the EU, the Water Framework Directive can be considered as a driver towards this new approach to water management. Innovations are deemed necessary to deliver this ideal of water management. In this thesis efforts by water sewerage companies in England & Wales to rectify agricultural pollution at source are viewed as an organisational innovation towards more sustainab...

  1. Aerosol composition and sources during high and low pollution periods in Ningbo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Sha; Xu, Hong-Hui; Xiao, Hang; Tong, Lei; Snape, Colin E.; Wang, Cheng-Jun; He, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Due to the rapid industrialization of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China, heavy air pollution episodes have occurred frequently over the past five years which are of great concern due to their environmental and health impacts. To investigate the chemical characteristics of the highly polluted aerosols in this region, a sampling campaign had been conducted in Ningbo from 3 December 2012 to 27 June 2013, during which a month long high pollution episode had been captured. Daily average PM2.5 concentrations during high and low pollution periods were 111 μg m-3 and 53 μg m-3, respectively. The most polluted day was 8 January 2013 with a PM2.5 concentration up to 175 μg m- 3. To understand the origin of the highly polluted aerosols, meteorological conditions, air mass backward trajectories, distribution of fire spots in surrounding areas and various categories of aerosol pollutants were analyzed, including trace metals, inorganic species, PAHs and anhydrosugars. Total metal concentrations were 3.8 and 1.6 μg m-3 for the high and low pollution episodes, respectively, accounting for 3.4% and 3.1% of the total PM2.5 mass. Total concentrations of ionic species accounted for more than 50.0% of the PM2.5 by mass, with dominant ions (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium) accounting for over 42.0% of the PM2.5 mass concentrations in both periods. During the high pollution episode, enhanced Cd-Pb and biomarker (levoglucosan, mannosan) levels indicated the contributions from coal combustion, traffic and biomass burning to fine aerosol PM2.5. The average diagnostic ratio of Fla/(Fla + Pyr) was 0.54 in high pollution episode, which was intermediate between that for wood (> 0.50) and coal combustion (0.58). BaP/Bpe was 0.49 and 0.30 for the highly and lightly polluted aerosols respectively, associated with the significant non-traffic emissions (weather conditions during the high pollution period and long-range transport of air masses from heavy industries and biomass burning

  2. Aerosol composition and sources during high and low pollution periods in Ningbo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Sha; Xu, Hong-Hui; Xiao, Hang; Tong, Lei; Snape, Colin E.; Wang, Cheng-Jun; He, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Due to the rapid industrialization of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China, heavy air pollution episodes have occurred frequently over the past five years which are of great concern due to their environmental and health impacts. To investigate the chemical characteristics of the highly polluted aerosols in this region, a sampling campaign had been conducted in Ningbo from 3 December 2012 to 27 June 2013, during which a month long high pollution episode had been captured. Daily average PM2.5 concentrations during high and low pollution periods were 111 μg m-3 and 53 μg m-3, respectively. The most polluted day was 8 January 2013 with a PM2.5 concentration up to 175 μg m- 3. To understand the origin of the highly polluted aerosols, meteorological conditions, air mass backward trajectories, distribution of fire spots in surrounding areas and various categories of aerosol pollutants were analyzed, including trace metals, inorganic species, PAHs and anhydrosugars. Total metal concentrations were 3.8 and 1.6 μg m-3 for the high and low pollution episodes, respectively, accounting for 3.4% and 3.1% of the total PM2.5 mass. Total concentrations of ionic species accounted for more than 50.0% of the PM2.5 by mass, with dominant ions (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium) accounting for over 42.0% of the PM2.5 mass concentrations in both periods. During the high pollution episode, enhanced Cd-Pb and biomarker (levoglucosan, mannosan) levels indicated the contributions from coal combustion, traffic and biomass burning to fine aerosol PM2.5. The average diagnostic ratio of Fla/(Fla + Pyr) was 0.54 in high pollution episode, which was intermediate between that for wood (> 0.50) and coal combustion (0.58). BaP/Bpe was 0.49 and 0.30 for the highly and lightly polluted aerosols respectively, associated with the significant non-traffic emissions (pollution period and long-range transport of air masses from heavy industries and biomass burning from northern China to Ningbo could be

  3. Multi-source water pollution in a highly anthropized wetland system associated with the estuary of Huelva (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major ions, nutrients, trace elements and pesticides distribution were studied in a coastal wetland heavily impacted by human development in Spain. Past land use has altered the local hydrodynamics leading to the partitioning of the ecosystem into a tideland subject to marine influence, and an artificial freshwater reservoir created by stream impoundment. The tideland stretch is flooded twice a day with a heavy metal plume that emerges from the mine-polluted estuary of Huelva and propagates landward depicting the same dispersal trend of major seawater ions. Additionally, the tidal channel receives acid discharges from industrial point sources that contribute to metal enhancement. The impounded area and stream tributaries are affected by agrochemicals runoff (nitrate, phosphate, pendimethalin, simazine, diuron and therbuthylazine) from surrounding agricultural lands. The tidal regime plays a crucial role in the transport and dispersion of pollutants, except in the artificial reservoir where freshwater exhibits a seasonal mineralization pattern.

  4. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle;

    2013-01-01

    were performed to identify the best strategy to limit confounding by unmeasured factors varying with area type. We examined the relation between modeled concentrations and respiratory health in infants using regression models with and without adjustment or interaction terms with area type. RESULTS......: Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure...

  5. Algorithms and analytical solutions for rapidly approximating long-term dispersion from line and area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.

    Predicting long-term mean pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of airports, roads and other industrial sources are frequently of concern in regulatory and public health contexts. Many emissions are represented geometrically as ground-level line or area sources. Well developed modelling tools such as AERMOD and ADMS are able to model dispersion from finite (i.e. non-point) sources with considerable accuracy, drawing upon an up-to-date understanding of boundary layer behaviour. Due to mathematical difficulties associated with line and area sources, computationally expensive numerical integration schemes have been developed. For example, some models decompose area sources into a large number of line sources orthogonal to the mean wind direction, for which an analytical (Gaussian) solution exists. Models also employ a time-series approach, which involves computing mean pollutant concentrations for every hour over one or more years of meteorological data. This can give rise to computer runtimes of several days for assessment of a site. While this may be acceptable for assessment of a single industrial complex, airport, etc., this level of computational cost precludes national or international policy assessments at the level of detail available with dispersion modelling. In this paper, we extend previous work [S.R.H. Barrett, R.E. Britter, 2008. Development of algorithms and approximations for rapid operational air quality modelling. Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 8105-8111] to line and area sources. We introduce approximations which allow for the development of new analytical solutions for long-term mean dispersion from line and area sources, based on hypergeometric functions. We describe how these solutions can be parameterized from a single point source run from an existing advanced dispersion model, thereby accounting for all processes modelled in the more costly algorithms. The parameterization method combined with the analytical solutions for long-term mean

  6. Toronto area ozone: Long-term measurements and modeled sources of poor air quality events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, C. H.; Strong, K.; Jones, D. B. A.; Walker, T. W.; Jiang, Z.; Henze, D. K.; Cooke, M. A.; McLinden, C. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Pommier, M.; Fogal, P. F.

    2015-11-01

    The University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory and Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments each has over a decade of ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements in southern Ontario. We present the Toronto area FTIR time series from 2002 to 2013 of two tropospheric trace gases—ozone and carbon monoxide—along with surface in situ measurements taken by government monitoring programs. We interpret their variability with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and determine the atmospheric conditions that cause pollution events in the time series. Our analysis includes a regionally tagged O3 model of the 2004-2007 time period, which quantifies the geographical contributions to Toronto area O3. The important emission types for 15 pollution events are then determined with a high-resolution adjoint model. Toronto O3, during pollution events, is most sensitive to southern Ontario and U.S. fossil fuel NOx emissions and natural isoprene emissions. The sources of Toronto pollution events are found to be highly variable, and this is demonstrated in four case studies representing local, short-, middle-, and long-range transport scenarios. This suggests that continental-scale emission reductions could improve air quality in the Toronto region. We also find that abnormally high temperatures and high-pressure systems are common to all pollution events studied, suggesting that climate change may impact Toronto O3. Finally, we quantitatively compare the sensitivity of the surface and column measurements to anthropogenic NOx emissions and show that they are remarkably similar. This work thus demonstrates the usefulness of FTIR measurements in an urban area to assess air quality.

  7. Characterizing anthropogenic sources of pollution and their influence on regional air quality and meteorology during the VOCALS-REX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Spak, S.; Molina, L. T.; Saide, P.

    2010-12-01

    During the VOCALS REX campaign multiple anthropogenic sources of aerosol (both primary and secondary) were related to small effective radii of cloud droplets observed both in situ, and from satellite sources. Also enhanced concentrations of secondary pollutants such as ozone and sulfate were observed. Some of these sources come from copper smelters, power plants, and large urban areas. These impacts on the properties of marine stratocumulus is relevant on the region's radiative balance. For this project the contribution of urban, industrial, and power sector emissions will be compared to attribute these to observed values using WRF-Chem using a new Chilean National Emissions Inventory developed for this project. Finally regional ozone formation from Santiago and it's impact to observed enhancements off the coast of Northern Chile will be assessed. Modeled plumes will be compared to satellite observations of anthropogenic impacted clouds. Considering the projected increase of coal power plants in northern Chile, some projected impacts will also be shown.

  8. Identifying and quantifying transported vs. local sources of New York City PM 2.5 fine particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    New York City (NYC) is presently in violation of the nation's PM 2.5 annual mass standard, and will have to take actions to control the sources contributing to these violations. This paper seeks to differentiate the impact of long-range transported aerosols on the air quality of downtown NYC, so that the roles of local sources can more clearly be evaluated. Past source apportionment studies have considered single sites individually in their source apportionment analyses to identify and determine sources affecting that site, often finding secondary sulfates to be an important contributor, but not being able to quantify the portion that is transported vs. local. In this study, a rural site located in Sterling Forest, NY, which is near to the NYC area, but unaffected by local NYC sources, is instead used as a reference to separate the portion of the aerosol that is transported to our Manhattan, NYC site before conducting the source apportionment analysis. Sterling Forest is confirmed as a background site via elemental comparisons with NYC during regional transport episodes of Asian and Sahara sandstorm dusts, as well as by comparisons with a second background site in Chester, NJ. Two different approaches that incorporate Sterling Forest background data into the NYC source apportionment analysis are then applied to quantify local vs. transported aerosols. Six source categories are identified for NYC: regional transported sulfate, trans-continental desert dust, traffic, residual oil, "local" dust and World Trade Center fires pollution. Of these, the transported sulfates and trans-continental desert dust accounted for nearly half of the total PM 2.5 mass in Manhattan during 2001, with more than half coming from these transported sources during the summer months. More than 90% of the Manhattan elemental carbon was found to be of local origins. Conversely, roughly 90% of the NYC sulfate mass was identified as transported into the city. Our results indicate that transported

  9. Studies on energy consumption patterns for improving air quality in the seoul metropolitan area. pt. 3 Status of photochemical air pollution and control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Soo; Son, Jae Ik; Park, Young Ok; Kim, Hong Yong; Cho, Sung Ho [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    1. Status of photochemical air pollution in the capital area and control strategy. The results of this study show that the air quality in the capital area has an indication of regional photochemical air pollution. Primary pollutants can be controlled at the emission sources, but it is not easy to find the target of photochemical pollution control. For effective photochemical pollution control, basic studies on the fraction of VOCs in total hydrocarbon emissions, the composition of VOCs, and non-traditional emissions such as those from solvent use should be conducted. Comprehensive studies on photochemical pollution control strategies in this report would be useful for identifying essential factors on devising strategies. 2. Air quality modelling using STEM-II. Modelling domain in the last year was confined to the capital area that was too small for a regional-scale model. Modeling domain in this year covered the east of China to the East Sea. The results of modeling in this year were much better than those of the last year. However, the limitations associated with incomplete input data and modeling domain that was too large for the capital area would not be overcome without sufficient basic studies. (author). 29 refs., 34 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects. PMID:26838238

  11. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay( WTP ) for Reducing Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution: Based on the Empirical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Yongyan; ZUO

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution,and the WTP of Farmers for controlling agricultural non-point source pollution strongly reflects the strength of their environmental protection consciousness. Therefore,this investigation and study choose rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our sample,respectively make interview survey with the WTP(money or voluntary work) of farmers for improving local water and soil quality. Based on the statistical analysis of survey data,this study also takes empirical test and analysis with the influence factors on the WTP of farmers for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution. The analysis and conclusions of this research provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing farmers’ behavior,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  12. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. -- Review of sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of key pollutants (contaminants, toxins, ship breaking, overfishing) in marine ecosystems

  13. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: Analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; CAI Xue-fen; WANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level(LEL)and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  14. Chemical composition and sources of particle pollution in affluent and poor neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Dionisio, Kathie L.; Verissimo, Thiago G.; Kerr, Americo S.; Coull, Brent; Arku, Raphael E.; Koutrakis, Petros; Spengler, John D.; Hughes, Allison F.; Vallarino, Jose; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-12-01

    The highest levels of air pollution in the world now occur in developing country cities, where air pollution sources differ from high-income countries. We analyzed particulate matter (PM) chemical composition and estimated the contributions of various sources to particle pollution in poor and affluent neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Elements from earth’s crust were most abundant during the seasonal Harmattan period between late December and late January when Saharan dust is carried to coastal West Africa. During Harmattan, crustal particles accounted for 55 μg m-3 (37%) of fine particle (PM2.5) mass and 128 μg m-3 (42%) of PM10 mass. Outside Harmattan, biomass combustion, which was associated with higher black carbon, potassium, and sulfur, accounted for between 10.6 and 21.3 μg m-3 of fine particle mass in different neighborhoods, with its contribution largest in the poorest neighborhood. Other sources were sea salt, vehicle emissions, tire and brake wear, road dust, and solid waste burning. Reducing air pollution in African cities requires policies related to energy, transportation and urban planning, and forestry and agriculture, with explicit attention to impacts of each strategy in poor communities. Such cross-sectoral integration requires emphasis on urban environment and urban poverty in the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  15. Assessment of Nitrogen Pollutant Sources in Surface Waters of Taihu Lake Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ying-Xin; XIONG Zheng-Qin; XING Guang-Xi; SUN Guo-Qing; ZHU Zhao-Liang

    2007-01-01

    The nitrogen(N)pollution status of the 12 most important rivers in Changshu,Taihu Lake region was investigated.Water samples were collected from depths of 0.5-1.0 m with the aid of the global positioning system (GPS).The seasonal variations in the concentrations of different N components in the rivers were measured.Using tension-free monolith lysimeters and 15 N-labeled fertilizer,field experiments were carried out in this region to determine variations of 15Nabundance of NO-3 in the leachate during the rice and wheat growing seasons,respectively.Results showed that the main source of N pollution of surface waters in the Taihu Lake region was not the N fertilizer applied in the farmland but the urban domestic sewage and rural human and animal excreta directly discharged into the water bodies without treatment.Atmospheric dry and wet N deposition was another evident source of N pollutant of the surface waters.In conclusion.it would not be correct to attribute the N applied to farmlands as the source of N pollution of the surface waters in this region.

  16. Chemical composition and sources of particle pollution in affluent and poor neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highest levels of air pollution in the world now occur in developing country cities, where air pollution sources differ from high-income countries. We analyzed particulate matter (PM) chemical composition and estimated the contributions of various sources to particle pollution in poor and affluent neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Elements from earth’s crust were most abundant during the seasonal Harmattan period between late December and late January when Saharan dust is carried to coastal West Africa. During Harmattan, crustal particles accounted for 55 μg m−3 (37%) of fine particle (PM2.5) mass and 128 μg m−3 (42%) of PM10 mass. Outside Harmattan, biomass combustion, which was associated with higher black carbon, potassium, and sulfur, accounted for between 10.6 and 21.3 μg m−3 of fine particle mass in different neighborhoods, with its contribution largest in the poorest neighborhood. Other sources were sea salt, vehicle emissions, tire and brake wear, road dust, and solid waste burning. Reducing air pollution in African cities requires policies related to energy, transportation and urban planning, and forestry and agriculture, with explicit attention to impacts of each strategy in poor communities. Such cross-sectoral integration requires emphasis on urban environment and urban poverty in the post-2015 Development Agenda. (letter)

  17. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  18. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Ghafarian, P.; Najafi, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Being hemmed in on two sides by high mountains, the urban area of Tehran is characterized by high levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which have adverse consequences on human health, ecosystems and environment. Using air quality measurements taken in different regions of Tehran, spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants are analyzed to identify the typical climatological aspects of air pollutants. In terms of particulate matter concentrations, South Tehran is more polluted than Central to North Tehran, while West Tehran is more polluted than the East. Concentrations of particles in North Tehran are lower in the midday compared to the midnight, whereas the opposite is true in South Tehran. The observed annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in North Tehran were 37.5 and 76.3 μg m-3, respectively, which are substantially greater than the national annual mean safety limits of 10 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 20 μg m-3 for PM10. The observed high levels of particulate matter underline the essential need for a coordinated action to reduce the rapidly increasing air pollution over the growing urban area of Tehran. Noticeable monthly (seasonal) variations are evident in the observed PM10 concentrations, with a minimum of 61.5 μg m-3 in March (spring) and a maximum of 82.9 μg m-3 in July (summer), reflecting contribution of weather conditions. Analyzing daily PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations indicate that mid-week Wednesdays (Mondays) are the most polluted days. The higher mid-week concentrations reflect contribution of heavy vehicular traffic, industrial operation and increased commercial activities. Strong diurnal variations in the concentrations of particulate matter in North Tehran are detected, varying from a peak in late night to a minimum in late afternoon, indicating contribution of deeper daytime convective boundary layer and stronger winds in dispersion of particles.

  19. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhai Zhu

    Full Text Available Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2 to 5.3 g m(-2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1 to 652 mg kg(-1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2 = 0.73 and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1. For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1 to 106.8 mg kg(-1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs, produced a prediction (R(2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1 similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  20. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  1. Investigation of Pollution from Land Based Sources and Activities and their Impacts on the Marine Environment: the Caroni River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbadon, P.; Banjoo, D.; Bullock, C; Norville, W.; Sookbir, S.; Lloyd, G.; Ragbirsingh, Y.; Juman, R.; Chin, X.; Souza, G.; Lall, R; Rambarath-Parasram, V.; O'Brien-Delpesh, C.

    2006-01-01

    "The Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA) is investigating the impacts of pollution from land-based sources and activities of the Caroni River Basin (CRB) on the marine environment... The project will investigate the types, sources, levels of pollution, fate of pollutants, and potential impacts on the marine environment. In addition, the project will investigate the impacts of physical alterations of habitats caused by land uses in the Caroni River Basin."

  2. Identification of sources of pollution and contamination in water distribution networks based on pattern recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao TAO; Ying-jun LU; Xiang FU; Kun-lun XIN

    2012-01-01

    An intrusion of contaminants into the water distribution network (WDN) can occur through storage tanks (via animals.dust-carrying bacteria,and infiltration) and pipes.A sensor network could yield useful observations that help identify the location of the source,the strength,the time of occurrence.and the duration of contamination.This paper proposes a methodology for identifying the contamination sources in a water distribution system,which identifies the key characteristics of contamination.such as location,starting time.and injection rates at different time intervals.Based on simplified hypotheses and associated with a high computational efficiency.the methodology is designed to be a simple and easy-to-use tool for water companies to ensure rapid identification of the contamination sources,The proposed methodology identifies the characteristics of pollution sources by matching the dynamic patterns of the simulated and measured concentrations.The application of this methodology to a literature network and a real WDN are illustrated with the aid of an example.The results showed that if contaminants are transported from the sources to the sensors at intervals,then this method can identify the most possible ones from candidate pollution sources.However,if the contamination data is minimal,a greater number of redundant contamination source nodes will be present.Consequently,more data from different sensors obtained through network monitoring are required to effectively use this method for locating multi-sources of contamination in the WDN.

  3. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  4. 76 FR 80597 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...., distillate oil, biodiesel, or vegetable oil) and less than 10 percent coal and less than 10 percent biomass... exchange in various areas of air pollution control. ] II. Background Information On March 21, 2011, the EPA... burns at least 10 percent biomass on an annual average heat input \\1\\ basis, the unit is in one of...

  5. Dependence of indoor-pollutant concentrations on sources, ventilation rates, and other removal factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of several classes of chemical and physical pollutants include emissions from combustion appliances, radon and its progeny, formaldehyde, and other organic compounds. Current research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is described and research needs in the area of indoor air quality is pointed out

  6. Summary of Adsorption/Desorption Experiments for the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte; Tirkkonen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings.......Experimental data for adsorption/desorption in building materials. Contribution to the European Database on Indoor Air Pollution Sources in buildings....

  7. Identifying sources of soil inorganic pollutants on a regional scale using a multivariate statistical approach: Role of pollutant migration and soil physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changbo [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 821, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 3908, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Longhua [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 821, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 821, Nanjing 210008 (China)], E-mail: ymluo@issas.ac.cn; Zhang Haibo [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 821, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 3908, Beijing 100049 (China); Christie, Peter [Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    Principal components analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were used to estimate the contribution of four components related to pollutant sources on the total variation in concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Se, Hg, Fe and Mn in surface soil samples from a valley in east China with numerous copper and zinc smelters. Results indicate that when carrying out source identification of inorganic pollutants their tendency to migrate in soils may result in differences between the pollutant composition of the source and the receptor soil, potentially leading to errors in the characterization of pollutants using multivariate statistics. The stability and potential migration or movement of pollutants in soils must therefore be taken into account. Soil physicochemical properties may offer additional useful information. Two different mechanisms have been hypothesized for correlations between soil heavy metal concentrations and soil organic matter content and these may be helpful in interpreting the statistical analysis. - Principal components analysis with Varimax rotation can help identify sources of soil inorganic pollutants but pollutant migration and soil properties can exert important effects.

  8. Comparison of Land-Use Regression Modeling with Dispersion and Chemistry Transport Modeling to Assign Air Pollution Concentrations within the Ruhr Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Hennig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two commonly used models to assess air pollution concentration for investigating health effects of air pollution in epidemiological studies are Land Use Regression (LUR models and Dispersion and Chemistry Transport Models (DCTM. Both modeling approaches have been applied in the Ruhr area, Germany, a location where multiple cohort studies are being conducted. Application of these different modelling approaches leads to differences in exposure estimation and interpretation due to the specific characteristics of each model. We aimed to compare both model approaches by means of their respective aims, modeling characteristics, validation, temporal and spatial resolution, and agreement of residential exposure estimation, referring to the air pollutants PM2.5, PM10, and NO2. Residential exposure referred to air pollution exposure at residences of participants of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, located in the Ruhr area. The point-specific ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts on Air Pollution Effects-LUR aims to temporally estimate stable long-term exposure to local, mostly traffic-related air pollution with respect to very small-scale spatial variations (≤100 m. In contrast, the EURAD (European Air Pollution Dispersion-CTM aims to estimate a time-varying average air pollutant concentration in a small area (i.e., 1 km2, taking into account a range of major sources, e.g., traffic, industry, meteorological conditions, and transport. Overall agreement between EURAD-CTM and ESCAPE-LUR was weak to moderate on a residential basis. Restricting EURAD-CTM to sources of local traffic only, respective agreement was good. The possibility of combining the strengths of both applications will be the next step to enhance exposure assessment.

  9. Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Ill-Health Attributable to Residential Wood Combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Fairley, D.; Smith, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Residential wood combustion is recognized as a major source of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially during the winter heating season. Both indoor and outdoor exposure to air pollution from residential wood combustion negatively impact human health, causing premature deaths and ill-health. Previous research has described the regional impact of wood smoke on air quality. Here, we estimate by county the proportion of ambient (outdoor) PM2.5 air pollution attributable to residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area. We also explore the implications of residential wood burning emissions for human health in the San Francisco Bay Area, reporting the burden of disease associated with this emission source by county. We also describe differences between counties in wood burning behavior, air pollution levels, and human health effects. The results of this research have relevance for air quality regulation and source abatement prioritization in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond.

  10. The Environmental Pollution Perception of Residents in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study in the Hancheng Mine Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  11. Characterization of pollutants cycles evolution in a coastal mediterranean area under summer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work performs a jointly interpretation of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements during three experimental campaigns in the coastal and inland zones of Castellon, in summer time and prevailing local conditions. Thermal origin circulations, sea and land breezes, slope and valley winds, and local topography, give rise to daily cycle recirculation of pollutants, both at surface and higher levels. Related to the associated ozone levels, the observed natural background varies from 40-50 ppb, whom can be added 20-50 ppb as contribution by photochemical generation. This has been observed to be transported up to 100 Km inland and re-circulated again through the coastal Area. (Author) 7 refs

  12. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H. [Office de la protection de l`environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  13. Evaluation of a non-point source pollution model, AnnAGNPS, in a tropical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V.; Fares, A.; Kubo, D.; Jacobi, J.; Smith, C.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired water quality caused by human activity and the spread of invasive plant and animal species has been identified as a major factor of degradation of coastal ecosystems in the tropics. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS (Annualized Non-Point Source Pollution Model), in simulating runoff and soil erosion in a 48 km2 watershed located on the Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The model was calibrated and validated using 2 years of observed stream flow and sediment load data. Alternative scenarios of spatial rainfall distribution and canopy interception were evaluated. Monthly runoff volumes predicted by AnnAGNPS compared well with the measured data (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.05); however, up to 60% difference between the actual and simulated runoff were observed during the driest months (May and July). Prediction of daily runoff was less accurate (R2 = 0.55, P < 0.05). Predicted and observed sediment yield on a daily basis was poorly correlated (R2 = 0.5, P < 0.05). For the events of small magnitude, the model generally overestimated sediment yield, while the opposite was true for larger events. Total monthly sediment yield varied within 50% of the observed values, except for May 2004. Among the input parameters the model was most sensitive to the values of ground residue cover and canopy cover. It was found that approximately one third of the watershed area had low sediment yield (0-1 t ha-1 y-1), and presented limited erosion threat. However, 5% of the area had sediment yields in excess of 5 t ha-1 y-1. Overall, the model performed reasonably well, and it can be used as a management tool on tropical watersheds to estimate and compare sediment loads, and identify "hot spots" on the landscape. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  15. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries. PMID:12173425

  16. Environmental protection and management: A water pollution case study within the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.A.; Wright, S.; Graham, K.; Burgin, S. [University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    The Grose River is contained almost entirely within a World Heritage Area. While sewage pollution in the area has been addressed, pollution at damaging levels continues from a disused coal mine, closed in 1997. Despite some surface rehabilitation, no action has occurred to remediate zinc polluted waters emanating from the mine. We examine the historical regulation and management of the Australian Commonwealth and New South Wales governments and highlight gaps in both regulatory systems. We conclude that there is an urgent need to improve regulation of water pollution, mining and management of the environment in highly valued world heritage areas.

  17. Runoff characteristics and non-point source pollution analysis in the Taihu Lake Basin: a case study of the town of Xueyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q D; Sun, J H; Hua, G F; Wang, J H; Wang, H

    2015-10-01

    Non-point source pollution is a significant environmental issue in small watersheds in China. To study the effects of rainfall on pollutants transported by runoff, rainfall was monitored in Xueyan town in the Taihu Lake Basin (TLB) for over 12 consecutive months. The concentrations of different forms of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and chemical oxygen demand, were monitored in runoff and river water across different land use types. The results indicated that pollutant loads were highly variable. Most N losses due to runoff were found around industrial areas (printing factories), while residential areas exhibited the lowest nitrogen losses through runoff. Nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) were the dominant forms of soluble N around printing factories and hotels, respectively. The levels of N in river water were stable prior to the generation of runoff from a rainfall event, after which they were positively correlated to rainfall intensity. In addition, three sites with different areas were selected for a case study to analyze trends in pollutant levels during two rainfall events, using the AnnAGNPS model. The modeled results generally agreed with the observed data, which suggests that AnnAGNPS can be used successfully for modeling runoff nutrient loading in this region. The conclusions of this study provide important information on controlling non-point source pollution in TLB. PMID:26002368

  18. An Analysis of the Development of Renewable Energy Sources in the Western Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yanfei; Liu Mingyang

    2016-01-01

    The biggest challenge for China’s energy is sustainability of the environment. Espe-cially in recent years, global warming, frequent natural disasters, and the serious reduction of the natural resources and energy are gravely affecting normal production and mankind’s existence. Burn-ing large amounts of fossil fuel produces green-house gases and polluted soot. The development and utilization of renewable energy is extremely ur-gent. In other words, renewable energy sources must grow briskly. Under the guidance of the na-tional policy of the“13 th Five Year Plan”, the de-velopment and utilization of renewable energy sources in the Western Minority Areas must be strengthened based on local conditions, by paying attention to relevant personnel training, and en-couraging innovation and entrepreneurship so that the development of local renewable energy sources can reach a new level.

  19. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deasy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  20. Landscape planning for agricultural nonpoint source pollution reduction III: Assessing phosphorus and sediment reduction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, M.W.; Maxted, J.T.; Robertson, D.M.; Han, S.; Vander Zanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Riparian buffers have the potential to improve stream water quality in agricultural landscapes. This potential may vary in response to landscape characteristics such as soils, topography, land use, and human activities, including legacies of historical land management. We built a predictive model to estimate the sediment and phosphorus load reduction that should be achievable following the implementation of riparian buffers; then we estimated load reduction potential for a set of 1598 watersheds (average 54 km2) in Wisconsin. Our results indicate that land cover is generally the most important driver of constituent loads in Wisconsin streams, but its influence varies among pollutants and according to the scale at which it is measured. Physiographic (drainage density) variation also influenced sediment and phosphorus loads. The effect of historical land use on present-day channel erosion and variation in soil texture are the most important sources of phosphorus and sediment that riparian buffers cannot attenuate. However, in most watersheds, a large proportion (approximately 70%) of these pollutants can be eliminated from streams with buffers. Cumulative frequency distributions of load reduction potential indicate that targeting pollution reduction in the highest 10% of Wisconsin watersheds would reduce total phosphorus and sediment loads in the entire state by approximately 20%. These results support our approach of geographically targeting nonpoint source pollution reduction at multiple scales, including the watershed scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  2. Risks Associated to Soil Pollution in the Proximity of Tailing Facilities in the Western Area of Baia Mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MODOI O.Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Baia Mare town is situated in Northern side of Romania and it is well known for the old mining activitiesdeployed in the area. The hazardous waste landfills positioning directly on the soil without other protection it is knownas being a source of pollution for the underground, and the wastes resulted from ore processing are included in thehazardous waste category, due to their hazardous substances content and their large quantities. This study presents thesoil pollution in the near vicinity of the tailing dams: Aurul, Bozânta Nou and Bozânta Vechi. Soil samples located inthe proximity of the tailing dams as well as samples from inside the tailing dams were analysed in order to determinethe acid water drainage. For the soil samples were determined the concentrations for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn, totalcyanide and the pH values. The results were compared with the maximum admissible threshold values in the Romanianenvironmental protection regulations, for less sensitive soils. Exceeding concentrations for the analyzed elements weredetermined, especially in the proximity of the Aurul tailing dam pump station used to recycle the water inside the dam.It can be possible that these high concentrations for the analyzed elements are due to some local leakage. The cyanideconcentration did not exceed the thresholds values in any of the analyzed sample. The following metals and metalloidshad concentration values above the maximum threshold value: Pb, As, Cd, Cu, and Zn. For the pH indicator theminimum value was also determined in the area of the water recycling pumps inside the Aurul dam. (3.99. The risksassociated to soil pollution in the near vicinity of the analyzed tailing dams consist of soil alteration including thefarming land, the possibility of pollutant migration in the groundwater, with a direct impact on it and on the humanhealth of the inhabitants in the villages nearby who use the groundwater for several housing chores, including asdrinking

  3. A Monitoring of Air Pollutants (CO, SO2 and NO) in Ambient Air Near an Industrial Area

    OpenAIRE

    Radin Mohamed Radin Maya Saphira; Hakim Rahim Ahmad Faizol; Mohd Kassim Amir Hashim

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring assessment was carried out to measure the concentration of air pollutants in ambient air in the university campus, which is located adjacent to the industrial area. The air pollutants were monitored for CO (Carbon monoxide), SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and NO (Nitrous oxide) at the three sampling points, with distance reference based from the industrial area. Air pollutant gases were sampled from the I-Brid Toxic Gases Analyzer with the sampling hour referred to the Recommended Malaysia...

  4. Pollutants increase song complexity and the volume of the brain area HVC in a songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available Environmental pollutants which alter endocrine function are now known to decrease vertebrate reproductive success. There is considerable evidence for endocrine disruption from aquatic ecosystems, but knowledge is lacking with regard to the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, we show for the first time that birds foraging on invertebrates contaminated with environmental pollutants, show marked changes in both brain and behaviour. We found that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris exposed to environmentally relevant levels of synthetic and natural estrogen mimics developed longer and more complex songs compared to control males, a sexually selected trait important in attracting females for reproduction. Moreover, females preferred the song of males which had higher pollutant exposure, despite the fact that experimentally dosed males showed reduced immune function. We also show that the key brain area controlling male song complexity (HVC is significantly enlarged in the contaminated birds. This is the first evidence that environmental pollutants not only affect, but paradoxically enhance a signal of male quality such as song. Our data suggest that female starlings would bias their choice towards exposed males, with possible consequences at the population level. As the starling is a migratory species, our results suggest that transglobal effects of pollutants on terrestrial vertebrate physiology and reproduction could occur in birds.

  5. Approach to valuing visual pollution from Western Electricity Production. [For Western Systems Coordinating Council area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1977-02-01

    This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.

  6. Speciation of Pb, Cu and Zn determined by sequential extraction for identification of air pollution sources in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Al-Shamali, K.

    Speciation of three trace elements (Zn, Pb, Cu) in air particulates of two Syrian cities (Tartous and Darya) with different climate conditions and industrial emissions has been studied. Air filters were collected during 2000-2001 and extracted chemically using different selective fluids in an attempt to identify the different forms of trace elements. Approximately 60% of lead in air particulates of both cities was found to be associated with organic materials produced by incomplete burning of vehicles fuels and residential heating; the remaining 40% of lead was as lead oxides and mineral acids soluble compounds. Zinc was found in oxides (28-65%) samples collected in Tartous city, indicating that the Tartous cement factory and phosphate loading cargoes are the main source of emissions. In the Darya filters, zinc associated with organic materials (28-49%) was related to the presence of plastic molding industries and corroding car tires. In addition, copper was also found to be in the form of oxides (19-46%) in both cities in the summer periods, while 13-25% and 35% are associated with organic materials and silicates, respectively. Differences in chemical forms of the studied trace elements in air particulates were found to be related to differences in air pollution sources and differences in human behaviour throughout the year. Therefore, chemical fractionation of trace elements in air particulates using sequential leaching can be used for identification of air pollutions sources in urban and industrial areas.

  7. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of agricultural crops and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of the Aegean Region - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The study area Güzelhisar Basin is 6 km far from the city Aliaga, Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel factories, but also areas of agriculture. Steel industry in Aliaga is causing metal pollution. Around Güzelhisar Basin and nearby, the dominant crop fields are cotton, maize, vegetables, olive trees and vineyards. Güzelhisar stream and dam water is used for irrigation of the agricultural land. Due to contamination from metal industry in Aliaga, organic farming is not allowed in this region. Industrial activities in the region present a threat on sustainable agriculture. The region is a multi-impacted area in terms of several pollutant sources affecting soil and water quality. The overall objective of the project is to trace back plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B), hazardous substances (i. e. persistent organic pollutants), radionuclides (40K, 232Th, 226Ra/238U), and metal contents (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by examining the soils, agricultural crops and natural plants from Güzelhisar Basin and water and sediments from Güzelhisar stream and dam. Spatial distribution of pollution will be evaluated by regionalization methods. For this, an advanced analytical methodology will be applied which provides an understanding of sources and occurrence of the respective substances of concern. An innovative multi-tracer approach comprising organic and inorganic marker substances, will identify and quantitatively assess sources and their impact on water pollution and the pollutant pathways in this agricultural crop production system.

  8. Forecasting and Time Series Analysis of Air Pollutants in Several Area of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Z. Ibrahim; Roziah Zailan; Marzuki Ismail; Muhd S. Lola

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In keeping abreast with Malaysias rapid economic development and to meet the nation's aspiration for an improved quality of life, clean-air legislation limiting industrial and automobile emissions was adopted in 1978. Approach: Yet, to this day, air pollution from both sources still poses a problem for the nation. In order to predict the status of future air quality in Malaysia, a Box-Jenkins ARIMA approach was applied to modeling the time series of monthly maximum 1 h carb...

  9. Application of a Stereo Constructed Wetland Mode to the Treatment of Slightly Polluted Source Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yu-quan; ZUO; Zhuo; GUO; Xiao

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the application of a stereo constructed wetland to the treatment of slightly polluted source water. [Method] In this study, a new stereo constructed wetland mode was put forward, and a pilot project of water ecological purification in Xinsheng River, the diversion channel of Shijiuyang Waterwork in Jiaxing City, were analyzed. Afterwards, the impact factors of water purification by the technology were discussed from water quality and quantity, season and climate, species configuration, management and maintenance. [Result] Under three different hydraulic loading conditions, the pilot project effectively improved water SD and DO level, and reduced SS, CODCr, NH3-N, TN and TP significantly in summer and autumn, so that effluent water quality reached surface water standard at Grade III. [Conclusion] The stereo constructed wetland mode composed of constructed wetland and underwater forest used to treat slightly polluted source water is feasible and has a good promotion prospect.

  10. Heavy Metals Pollution of Ground Water in Urban and Sub-Urban Areas of Makurdi Metropolis – Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *I. I. Mile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines heavy metals pollution of ground water in the residential sector of Makurdi urban area and Yaikyô settlement – a peri-urban area of Makurdi metropolis. Water samples from fifteen (15 wells in Makurdi urban area and fifteen (15 wells in Yaikyô settlement were analysed for chromium (Cr, Cadmium (cd, Iron (Fe, and Copper (Cu. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS method was used for water sample analysis. This was done in the peak of rainy season, in the month of September, 2012. The results of the analysis show that 100% of wells in Makurdi urban area had chromium levels above WHO guide limit for drinking water, while Yaikyô, a sub-urban area of Makurdi, had only 35.5% of wells with chromium levels above WHO standards. Ten out of fifteen wells representing 67% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Makurdi urban area, while eleven out of fifteen wells (85% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Yaikyô. Twelve out of fifteen wells representing 80% displayed iron levels above WHO guide limits in Makurdi, while thirteen out of fifteen wells representing 90%, showed iron levels above WHO guide limit in Yaikyô. All wells representing 100% displayed copper levels below WHO guide limit in both areas. High concentrations of heavy metals in drinking water are undesirable, toxic, hazardous, and affects portability of water. Source of metals in these wells is attributed to soil mineralogy, use of agro- chemicals on farms and other land use activities. All land use activities capable of polluting water should be properly controlled. Water from these wells may be used for other domestic purposes other than drinking. Boiling of water from these wells should be encouraged to reduce the risk of contracting illness.

  11. MULTIPLE AGENTS, AND AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT-SOURCE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Rodney B.W.; Tomasi, Theodore D.

    1999-01-01

    Assuming asymmetric information over farmer profits and zero transaction costs, prior literature has suggested that when regulating nonpoint source water pollution, a tax on management practices (inputs) can implement full-information allocations and is superior to a tax on estimated runoff. Using mechanism design theory under asymmetric information, this paper show that under the same assumptions, management practice taxes and taxes on estimated runoff are equally efficient.

  12. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Chul Lee; In-Hyeok Park; Byung Sik Kim; and Sung Ryong Ha

    2015-01-01

    In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC) which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs) as a non-point source (NPS) pollution indicator and the green factor (GF) as a low impact development (LID) land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated wit...

  13. Sources, transport and deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacyna, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with a study on the behaviour of heavy metals (HMs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. The conclusion is that many of these compounds create serious problems due their toxicity and bioaccumulation in various environmental compartments. Several scientific questions have been posed for improved understanding of the nature and the extent of these problems. The present paper addresses questions related to sources, fluxes, and atmospheric pathways of HMs and POPs in Europe

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of Water Pollution in Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Chen; Lan Li; Hongbin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatio-temporal variation and the potential source of water pollution could greatly improve our knowledge of human impacts on the environment. In this work, data of 11 water quality indices were collected during 2012–2014 at 10 monitoring sites in the mainstream and major tributaries of the Danjiangkou Reservoir Basin, Central China. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), the cluster analysis (CA) and the discriminant analysis (DA) were used to assess the water pollutio...

  15. Genetic Characterization of Escherichia coli Populations from Host Sources of Fecal Pollution by Using DNA Fingerprinting†

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, Sandra L; Daniels, Annette D.; Salmore, Alissa K.

    2003-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from common host sources of fecal pollution and characterized by using repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR fingerprinting. The genetic relationship of strains within each host group was assessed as was the relationship of strains among different host groups. Multiple isolates from a single host animal (gull, human, or dog) were found to be identical; however, in some of the animals, additional strains occurred at a lower frequency. REP PCR finge...

  16. Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Chen; Kangping Zhao; Yueying Wu; Shuoshuo Gao; Wei Cao; Yan Bo; Ziyin Shang; Jing Wu; Feng Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations), to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April) and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B) based on similarit...

  17. Heavy metal accumulation in Littoraria scabra along polluted and pristine mangrove areas of Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H. de [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.dewolf@ua.ac.be; Rashid, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    The periwinkle Littoraria scabra was collected at polluted and pristine mangrove sites along the Tanzanian coastline, including Msimbazi, Mbweni (i.e. Dar es Salaam) and Kisakasaka, Nyamanzi and Maruhubi (i.e. Zanzibar). Periwinkles were morphologically characterized, sexed and their heavy metal content was determined using ICP-MS. Analysis revealed that L. scabra from polluted areas contained higher soft tissue heavy metal levels, were significantly smaller and weighed less compared to their conspecifics from the unpolluted mangroves. The current morphological observations may be explained in terms of growth and/or mortality rate differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. Although a variety of stressors may account for these adverse morphological patterns, our data suggest a close relationship with the soft tissue heavy metal content. Compared to soft tissue heavy metal levels that were measured in L. scabra along the same area in 1998, most metals, except for arsenic, chromium and iron have decreased dramatically. - Anthropogenic activities result in heavy metal accumulation and adverse morphological effects in the mangrove gastropod Littoraria scabra.

  18. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  19. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)reg-sign: Source-term release formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses

  20. Which meteorological conditions produce worst-case odors from area sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Melanie; Devanathan, Sapna

    2007-11-01

    Two competing meteorological factors influence atmospheric concentrations of