WorldWideScience

Sample records for area pollution advisory

  1. Status Report [Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee of the Coordinating Research Council].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinating Research Council, New York, NY. Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee.

    Research projects sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council, Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, and dealing with vehicle emissions and their wide ranging effects on the environment are compiled in this status report. Spanning the range of problems associated with reducing emissions, they are divided into three main areas of research:…

  2. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  3. Snowmelt pollutant removal in bioretention areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Tone Merete; Viklander, Maria; Blecken, Godecke; Thorolfsson, Sveinn T

    2007-10-01

    Snow accumulating in urban areas and alongside roads can accumulate high pollutant loads and the subsequent snowmelt can produce high pollutant loads in receiving waters. This paper examines the treatment of roadside snowmelt in bioretention with respect to pollutant removal, pollutant pathways, and major sinks. Bioretention was used to treat snowmelt from three types of urban roads in Trondheim, Norway: residential, medium, and roads with high-density traffic. Metal retention in bioretention boxes had a mass reduction in zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in the range of 89-99%, and a decrease in outflow concentrations in the range 81-99%. Cadmium was only measured in the water samples, while the other three metals were traced through the system to identify the main sinks. The top mulch layer was the largest sink for the retained metals, with up to 74% of the zinc retained in this mulch layer. The plant metal uptakes were only 2-8% of the total metal retention; however, the plants still play an important role with respect to root zone development and regeneration, which fosters infiltration and reduces the outflow load. Dissolved pollutants in snowmelt tend to be removed with the first flush of meltwater, creating an enrichment ratio with respect to the average pollutant concentrations in the snow. The effect of this enrichment ratio was examined through the bioretention system, and found to be less predominant than that typically reported for untreated snowmelt. The enrichment factors were in the range of 0.65-1.51 for the studied metals.

  4. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  5. Acute pollution of recipients in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen and ammonia concentration are key parameters of acute water pollution in urban rivers. These two abiotic parameters are statistically assessed for a historical rain series by means of a simplified deterministic model of the integrated drainage system. Continuous simulation of the system...... performance indicates that acute water pollution is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total system behavior. Detention basins and alternative operational...... modes in the treatment plant under wet weather loading have a limited positive effect for minimizing acute water pollution. (C) 1997 IAWQ. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  6. Polluted land areas purified by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.L.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    Restoration of polluted land and development of purification methods are among the most topical environment protection issues, IVO, too, has participated in research on microbiological purification methods. The biodegrability of creosote, and agent used for impregnation of wooden power line poles, was tested in the laboratory in 1993-94. The tests revealed that soil polluted by creosote can be cleansed efficiently. In Petaejaevesi, central Finland, the results are being applied in the composting of land masses polluted by creosote. The composting, which began in summer 1995, has succeeded in line with expectations: The content of deleterious compounds fell by half after only a couple of months of composting. (orig.)

  7. Microbial Water Pollution of Drin River in Scutary Area, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINDITA BUSHATI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Drin River joining White Drin and some other small rivers form the longest river of Albania, Drin River, 335 Km long. Drin has two distributaries, one of which empties directly into Adriatic Sea and the other one into Buna river, in Scutary (Shkoder. The Drin area is beautiful and very important for the Albanian economy, for the electricity and has a large agriculture activity as well. Unfortunately mismanagement of agricultural practices and the discharge of industrial and urban wastes into the river are causing a high pollution. River conservation is threatened by pollution. Drin river water is used by people for fishing, swimming and irrigation of plants and the pollution of this river is a problematic issue in environment and human health. We monitored microbial and chemical water pollution of Scutary area of Drin, where Drin goes into Bojana, during 2012-2013 and a high water pollution level was recorded.

  8. Latin American protected areas: Protected from chemical pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Siroski, Pablo; Espejo, Winfred; Nimptsch, Jorge; Choueri, Paloma Gusso; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Moraga, Claudio A; Mora, Miguel; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are critically important means to preserve species and maintain natural ecosystems. However, the potential impacts of chemical pollution on PAs are seldom mentioned in the scientific literature. Research on the extent of the occurrence of chemical pollution inside PAs and in-depth assessments of how chemical contaminants may adversely affect the maintenance of species abundance, species survival, and ecosystem functions are scarce to nonexistent. We investigated 1) the occurrence of chemical contaminants inside 119 PAs in Latin America from publically available databases, and 2) reviewed case studies of chemical contaminants and pollution in 4 Latin American PAs. Cases of chemical pollution and contamination inside Latin American PAs mostly originated from sources such as mining, oil, and gas extraction. To date, the focus of the research on chemical pollution research inside Latin American PAs has been primarily on the detection of contamination, typically limited to trace metals. Where management actions have occurred, they have been reactive rather than proactive. Protected areas established in wetlands are the most affected by chemical pollution. Based on the information from the pollution and/or contamination occurrence and the case studies analyzed, Latin American PAs are not well safeguarded from chemical pollution, resulting in both challenges and opportunities to conserve biodiversity and ecosystems. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:360-370. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. 78 FR 28621 - Notice of Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council Meeting Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council meeting scheduled for May 29, 2013, at the Bill... place on June 26, 2013, at the Bill Heddles Recreation Center, 530 Gunnison River Drive, Delta, CO... above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, seven days a...

  10. Domestic Wastewater Quality and Pollutant Loadings from Urban Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are important spawning and nursery ground for fish and prawns. However, wetlands have been reported to be polluted in different parts of the world. One of the pollution sources is domestic wastewater. Therefore, in this study, domestic wastewater quality was studied at three major housing areas. Samplings were conducted in three trips. Results showed that pH ranged from 6.64 to 7.31 and temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.7 oC. DO values were low, that is, below 3.5 mg/L for all trips at all areas studied indicating that it was not suitable for aquatic life. Nutrients such as ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of the housing areas ranged from 11.1 to 17.2 mg/L and 1.05 to 2.43 mg/L respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids concentrations at all the housing areas exceeded the Standard B maximum permitted values of Effluent Discharge Standard of Environmental Quality Act 1974. Loadings of pollutants from housing areas in Kuching were computed. This study shows that domestic wastewater was low in DO, high in oxygen demand, high in solids and nutrients thus loading the rivers with pollutants. Therefore, domestic wastewater must be treated before being channeled to the adjacent water bodies to avoid eutrophication in the receiving water and to recover nutrients.

  11. [Assessment of Soil Fluorine Pollution in Jinhua Fluorite Ore Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qun-feng; Zhou, Xiao-ling

    2015-07-01

    The contents of. soil total fluorine (TF) and water-soluble fluorine (WF) were measured in fluorite ore areas located in Jinhua City. The single factor index, geoaccumulation index and health risk assessment were used to evaluate fluorine pollution in soil in four fluorite ore areas and one non-ore area, respectively. The results showed that the TF contents in soils were 28. 36-56 052. 39 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 8 325.90 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 1 555. 94 mg.kg-1, and a median of 812. 98 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of TF was 172. 07% . The soil WF contents ranged from 0. 83 to 74. 63 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 16. 94 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 10. 59 mg.kg-1, and a median of 10. 17 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of WF was 100. 10%. The soil TF and WF contents were far higher than the national average level of the local fluorine epidemic occurrence area. The fluoride pollution in soil was significantly affected by human factors. Soil fluorine pollution in Yangjia, Lengshuikeng and Huajie fluorite ore areas was the most serious, followed by Daren fluorite ore area, and in non-ore area there was almost no fluorine pollution. Oral ingestion of soils was the main exposure route. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters showed that children's weight exerted the largest influence over hazard quotient. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found among the three kinds of evaluation methods.

  12. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided.

  13. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Hugo; Vaughan, Geraint; Wareing, David

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  14. Spatial correlations between urbanization and river water pollution in the heavily polluted area of Taihu Lake Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Haixia; DUAN Xuejun; Becky STEWART; YOU Bensheng; JIANG Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Water pollution in the Taihu Lake Basin has been the focus of attention in China and abroad for a long time,due to its position in the forefront of urban development in China.Based on data gathering and processing from 84 monitoring sections in this heavily polluted area,this study first analyzes spatial patterns of urbanization and the distribution of river water pollution,and then uses the GeoDa bivariate spatial autocorrelation model to investigate the spatial correlation between urbanization and river water pollution at the scale of township units.The results show that urbanization has adverse impacts on water pollution,and the influence varies in different levels of development areas.The urban township units have the highest level of urbanization and highest pollution,but the best water quality; the suburban units have lower level of urbanization,but higher pollution and worse water quality;however the rural units have the lowest level of urbanization and lowest pollution,mainly affected by upstream pollution,but worst water quality.Lastly,urban and rural planning committees,while actively promoting the process of development in the region,should gradually resolve the issue of pollution control lagging behind urban life and urban development,giving priority to construction of centralized sewage treatment facilities and associated pipeline network coverage in the rural areas and suburban areas.

  15. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  16. Nonpoint source pollution loading from an undistributed tropic forest area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hua; Wen, Ching-Gung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Shui-Ping; Lee, Chih-Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Water quality and unit nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution load from a forest area were studied in a mountainous watershed in Taiwan. The flow rates were measured with rectangular weirs and samples taken for water quality analysis in both non-rainy and rainy days for 2 years. The subroutine of the Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN was used to simulate runoff for additional 3 years. Total annual loads of various water quality parameters were then estimated by a regression model. Most of the parameter concentrations are higher during the rainy days; their values are typically higher as compared to data from other undisturbed forest areas. Nevertheless, the concentration ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to TN or PO4(3-) -P to TP shows TN or TP no correlations with the flow rates, whereas the concentrations of SS and TP are positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed is significant. For example, six major events of the entire year, for which the total duration is merely 6.4 days, contribute 42% of the annual precipitation and at least 40% of the annual NPS loads. The management for controlling the NPS pollution from this forest watershed is discussed.

  17. The Propagation of Light Pollution in Diffusely Urbanised Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Cinzano, P

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the contribution $b_d(d)$ to the artificial sky luminance in a given point of the sky of a site produced by the sources beyond a given distance $d$ from it is important to understand the behaviour of light pollution in diffusely urbanized areas and to estimate which fraction of the artificial luminance would be regulated by norms or laws limiting the light wasted upward within protection areas of given radii. I studied the behaviour of $b_d(d)$ constructing a model for the propagation of the light pollution based on the modelling technique introduced by Garstang which allows to calculate the contribution to the artificial luminance in a given point of the sky of a site of given altitude above sea level, produced by a source of given emission and geographic position. I obtained $b_d(d)$ integrating the contribution to the artificial luminance from every source situated at a distance greater than $d$. I also presented an analitical expression for $b_d(d)$ depending mainly from one parameter, a ...

  18. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  19. Public-health impact of outdoor air pollution for 2nd air pollution management policy in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Leem, Jong Han; Kim, Soon Tae; Kim, Hwan Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor air pollution on public health in Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Methods Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults ≥ 30 years), respiratory a...

  20. Air pollution analysis in urban areas; Analisis de la contaminacion atmosferica en areas urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massague Roch, G.

    1997-04-01

    The urban atmosphere is a chemical reactor in which pollutant gases such as volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen react under the influence of sunlight to create a variety of products, including ozone and aerosols. An analytical methodology to assess the atmospheric impact in urban areas is described where local emission released by industries and transport sectors are influenced by the meteorological conditions and topography. Altogether they set up an atmospheric scenario with a daily and season motion. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies, morbidity (25 studies, mortality (7 studies, and birth outcome (7 studies. Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  2. Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, A; Contreras, F; Adams, M; Santos, F

    2006-12-01

    Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5-500 microg g(-1)) relative to natural background concentrations (mining districts (>100,000 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The results from this study also show that Hg emissions from the soil are influenced by solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentration. Our data suggest that solar radiation may be the dominant factor affecting Hg degrees emission since the major species of mercury in polluted soil is Hg degrees (85-97% of total Hg). The simple release of Hg degrees vapor is probably the dominant process occurring with incident light in the field. The apparent activation energy for mercury emission indicates that the volatilization of mercury mainly occurred as a result of the vaporization of elemental mercury in soil. The degree of Hg emission differed significantly among the soil sites studied, which may be due to variations in soil texture, organic matter content and soil compaction.

  3. Application of synthetic principal component analysis model to mine area farmland heavy metal pollution assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-lu; WU Chao; WANG Wei-jun

    2008-01-01

    Referring to GB5618-1995 about heavy metal pollution, and using statistical analysis SPSS, the major pollutants of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution were identified by variable clustering analysis. Assessment and classification were done to the mine area farmland heavy metal pollution situation by synthetic principal components analysis (PCA). The results show that variable clustering analysis is efficient to identify the principal components of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution. Sort and clustering were done to the synthetic principal components scores of soil sample, which is given by synthetic principal components analysis. Data structure of soil heavy metal contaminations, relationships and pollution level of different soil samples are discovered. The results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution quality assessed and classified with synthetic component scores reflect the influence of both the major and compound heavy metal pol-lutants. Identification and assessment results of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution can provide reference and guide to propose control measures of mine area farmland heavy metal pollution and focus on the key treatment region.

  4. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may a...

  5. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  6. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  7. Correlations between the air pollution and the rainfall composition in Jiului Valley area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traistă Eugen

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall composition is conditional on the air quality. If the air is polluted, the rainfall will be also polluted. In fact, rainfall contains the same compounds like the air as nitrites, nitrates, sulphites, sulphates, ammonia etc. Some cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium are present in rainfall because of dust. This paper presents the air qualities and the soil composition influenced by the rainfall in one of the most polluted mining areas from our country, Jiului Valley.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Air Pollutant Dispartion a Case Study of an Industrial Area in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulFatai JIMOH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to develop a model equation for predicting air pollutant dispersion. Major air pollutant were identified, their source, how they cause air pollution, effects and control measures were analysed. Chemiluminecent analyser, non dispersive infrared analyzer (NDN, flame ionization detector, charcoal column absorber, and titration techniques were used for the analysis. Great emphasis was laid on the pollutants resulting from united African textile in Lagos State. A predictive model for air pollutant dispersion was developed and simulated using data collected from the industry for the year 2001, 2002 and 2003. Both the model and simulated result shows that pollutants such as NO, CO, and CO2 are dispersed in accordance with the law of the dispersion (which state that there is a trend in the reduction of pollutant concentration with increasing distance, The quantities of air pollutants emitted from the industries were compared with that of FEPA regulated emission limit for each pollutant and it was discover that UNTL Lagos at a certain point in time exceeded the regulated limits. Hence the model could be used in predicting air pollutant dispersion in air pollution control and the safe distance for human habitation from the industrial area.

  9. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China : A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhengtao; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is two-dimensio

  10. Modelling of light pollution in suburban areas using remotely sensed imagery and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, C; Petrakis, M; Psiloglou, B; Lianou, M

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes a methodology for modelling light pollution using geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology. The proposed approach attempts to address the issue of environmental assessment in sensitive suburban areas. The modern way of life in developing countries is conductive to environmental degradation in urban and suburban areas. One specific parameter for this degradation is light pollution due to intense artificial night lighting. This paper aims to assess this parameter for the Athens metropolitan area, using modern analytical and data capturing technologies. For this purpose, night-time satellite images and analogue maps have been used in order to create the spatial database of the GIS for the study area. Using GIS advanced analytical functionality, visibility analysis was implemented. The outputs for this analysis are a series of maps reflecting direct and indirect light pollution around the city of Athens. Direct light pollution corresponds to optical contact with artificial night light sources, while indirect light pollution corresponds to optical contact with the sky glow above the city. Additionally, the assessment of light pollution in different periods allows for dynamic evaluation of the phenomenon. The case study demonstrates high levels of light pollution in Athens suburban areas and its increase over the last decade.

  11. Perception of Air Pollution in the Jinchuan Mining Area, China: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengtao; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-07-21

    Studies on the perception of air pollution in China are very limited. The aim of this paper is to help to fill this gap by analyzing a cross-sectional dataset of 759 residents of the Jinchuan mining area, Gansu Province, China. The estimations suggest that perception of air pollution is two-dimensional. The first dimension is the perceived intensity of air pollution and the second is the perceived hazardousness of the pollutants. Both dimensions are influenced by environmental knowledge. Perceived intensity is furthermore influenced by socio-economic status and proximity to the pollution source; perceived hazardousness is influenced by socio-economic status, family health experience, family size and proximity to the pollution source. There are no reverse effects from perception on environmental knowledge. The main conclusion is that virtually all Jinchuan residents perceive high intensity and hazardousness of air pollution despite the fact that public information on air pollution and its health impacts is classified to a great extent. It is suggested that, to assist the residents to take appropriate preventive action, the local government should develop counseling and educational campaigns and institutionalize disclosure of air quality conditions. These programs should pay special attention to young residents who have limited knowledge of air pollution in the Jinchuan mining area.

  12. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation

  13. Mercury Pollution of Soil—Crop System in Acid precipitation Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOUSHU-SEN; QINGCHANG-LE

    1995-01-01

    In acid precipitation area of Chongqing suburb the average of Hg in soil rose from 0.158mg/kg in 1984 to 0.20mg/kg in 1989,and Hg content of crops grown on these soils increased too.Both soil and vegetable Hg came mainly from power plant emission.which caused Hg and acid precipitiation pollution in environment and the Hg pollution of water,crops and milk in the area.

  14. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham.

  15. [APPROACHES TO URBAN AREA RANKING ACCORDINGLY TO THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N V; Valeeva, E R; Fomina, S F

    2015-01-01

    Urban area ranking was performed according to the level of the heavy metal pollution based on the data of the snow and soil chemical characteristics. With reference to cumulative rates of the snow cover and soil pollution by heavy metals in the territory of the city of Kazan there were selected four areas: I--Derbyshki; II--Teplocontrol; III--Gorki; IV--Kirovsky district. The pollution level of snow cover in the territory of the city was determined by pollution level indices calculated with the application of Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in ambient waters for household and recreational and service facilities use. The assessment of the pollution level in soils in the city showed the total territory of Kazan to be mildly polluted by manganese, concerning other heavy metals the categories of the soil pollution vary on areas. Results of hair biological monitoring in children are an informative auxiliary tool for the evaluation of the present ecological situation concerning heavy metals in certain territories of the city.

  16. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  17. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China.

  18. Particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai, China: health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Bingheng

    2004-04-25

    Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern in China. To obtain the quantitative result of the impact of particulate air pollution on human health and the subsequent economic costs in Shanghai, we used epidemiology-based exposure-response functions to calculate the attributable number of cases due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001, and then we estimated the corresponding economic costs of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes. It was estimated that the total economic cost of health impacts due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Shanghai in 2001 was approximately 625.40 million US dollars, accounting for 1.03% of gross domestic product of the city. The results suggest that the impact of particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in urban Shanghai, whether in physical and economic terms.

  19. Pollution evaluation of heavy metals in soil near smelting area by index of geoaccumulation (Igeo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. H.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, C. Y.; Li, Q.; Ouyang, K.; Wang, B.; Wang, Z. X.

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the heavy metal pollution conditions of soil of smelting area in Zijiang of Chenzhou, Hunan province, 42 samples were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals As, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in the soil were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry(AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry(AFS). Then the potential pollution risks of heavy metal in the soil were evaluated by method of geological acumination index (Igeo). The results indicated that the average concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were 187.79, 2074.52, 15.72, 2178.89, 39.69 mg/kg respectively. The geological evaluation of the cumulative index results showed that the contamination degree of 5 heavy metals follow the sequence of Cd> Zn >Pb > As >Cu. The results show that Cd reached extremely pollution degree, Zn reached strong pollution-extremely pollution levels, the pollution of Pb in the soil is classified as strong pollution degree, Cu and As of no pollution according to the results of Igeo based on the background value of heavy metals in the soil of Hunan Province.

  20. Control of Pollutants in the Trans-Boundary Area of Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on pollution control in the trans-boundary area of Taihu Basin. Considering the unique characteristics of the river network in the study area, a new methodology of pollution control is proposed aiming at improving the water quality in the trans-boundary area and reducing conflicts between up and downstream regions. Based on monitoring data and statistical analysis, important trans-boundary cross sections identified by the regional government were selected as important areas for consideration in developing management objectives; using a 1-D mathematicmodel and an effective weight evaluation model, the trans-boundary effective control scope (TECS of the study area was identified as the scope for pollutant control; the acceptable pollution load was then estimated using an established model targeting bi-directional flow. The results suggest that the water environmental capacity for chemical oxygen demand (COD, in order to guarantee reaching the target water quality standard in the TECS, is 160,806 t/year, and amounts to 16,098 t/year, 3493 t/year, and 39,768 t/year for ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively. Our study method and results have been incorporated into the local government management project, and have been proven to be useful in designing a pollution control strategy and management policy.

  1. Dynamics of the health status of children in an area with atmospheric pollution, as compared with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, A.; Coasan, A.; Vicas, T.; Balasoiu, I.; Horvath, V.; Sabau, S.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on children was studied in two areas of Romania. Development, psychometric aspects, and morphological aspects were studied. Vital capacity, maximum expiratory volume, and muscular strength were examined. Adaptability and learning performance were studied in children from 7 to 14 years old. In polluted areas containing high concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, lead, and carbon black, the health of the children was impaired. Respiratory diseases were frequent, and pleurobronchopulmonary diseases, anemia, and rachitis also occurred. Scholarly performance was poorer in polluted areas than in control areas. Children in polluted areas were also shorted than in control areas.

  2. Soil pollution in an urban area : a GIS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Guermond

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The southern bank of the river Seine, in the urban area of Rouen, was an important industrial suburb in the 19th century and during the first half of the 20th century up to the urban rehabilitation which began around the seventies. The main industries were foundries and mechanical engineering plants, and later, in the harbour districts, oil factories and naphtha refineries. During the "reconstruction" period, after the second world war, and at the time of the "rehabilitation" , a lot of resid...

  3. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  4. Atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-Seine and Alfortville; Pollution atmospherique dans la zone de Vitry-sur-Seine et d'Alfortville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, P.

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this report, demanded by the environmental minister, is the present state and the evolution of the atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-seine and Alfortville, near Paris. In the first part the report takes stock of the air quality to show a decrease in the pollution due to fixed sources. A special interest is given in a second part to exhaust gases from the main factory of the area: the EDF power plant. The report concludes on the decrease of the industrial air pollution, the increase of the traffic air pollution and asks for the public information. (A.L.B.)

  5. Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals - Specific Issues for Baia Mare Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Mirela

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The mining activity, practices in Baia Mare for over 100 years, has led to pollution and economic sealing oflarge areas of land; it has adversely affected the environment and now poses a significant risk to human health. Theactual sources of pollution, current or historical, in Baia Mare Depression are SC Romplumb SA, SC Cuprom SA andCNMPN Remin SA. The mining activities left over wide areas ponds, mine waste dumps and the underground watersthat come across the existing mine galleries spring out contaminated and sometimes in an uncontrolled manner. Heavymetals are present in the environmental factors from this area and significantly affect local ecosystems and humanhealth. The paper presents details on soil pollution with heavy metals, problem that has gradually found a solution in theenvironmental rehabilitation projects, activities that requiring investment of time and specialists in this field.

  6. STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POLLUTING FOG IN GUANGZHOU AREA IN SPRING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dui; LI Fei; DENG Xue-jiao; BI Xue-yan; WANG Xin-hua; HUANG Xiao-ying

    2009-01-01

    Samples of fog water collected in the area of Guangzhou during February,March and April of 2005 are used in this work to study the chemical composition of fog water in polluting fog there. Three typical episodes of polluting tbg are analyzed in terms of ionic concentration and their possible sources. It is fuund that the concentration of various ions in fog water is much higher than those in rainwater. Fog not only blocks visual range but contains liquid particles that result in high degree of pollution and are very harmful to human health. SO4= is the anion with the highest concentration in fog water,followed by NO3.For the cation,Ca++ and NH4+ are the highest in concentration. It is then known that rainwater is more acidic than lbg water,indicating that ionic concentration of lbg water is much higher than that of rainwater,but there are much more buffering materials in fog water,like NH4+ and Ca++. There is significant enrichment of Ca++,SO4=. and Mg++ in fog water. In the Guangzhou area,tbg water from polluting fog is mainly influenced continental environment and human activity. The episodes of serious fog pollution during the time have immediate relationships with the presence of abundant water vapor and large amount of polluting aerosol particles.

  7. Locational determinants of emissions from pollution-intensive firms in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Guo, Mingjing; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Industrial pollution has remained as one of the most daunting challenges for many regions around the world. Characterizing the determinants of industrial pollution should provide important management implications. Unfortunately, due to the absence of high-quality data, rather few studies have systematically examined the locational determinants using a geographical approach. This paper aimed to fill the gap by accessing the pollution source census dataset, which recorded the quantity of discharged wastes (waste water and solid waste) from 717 pollution-intensive firms within Huzhou City, China. Spatial exploratory analysis was applied to analyze the spatial dependency and local clusters of waste emissions. Results demonstrated that waste emissions presented significantly positive autocorrelation in space. The high-high hotspots generally concentrated towards the city boundary, while the low-low clusters approached the Taihu Lake. Their locational determinants were identified by spatial regression. In particular, firms near the city boundary and county road were prone to discharge more wastes. Lower waste emissions were more likely to be observed from firms with high proximity to freight transfer stations or the Taihu Lake. Dense populous districts saw more likelihood of solid waste emissions. Firms in the neighborhood of rivers exhibited higher waste water emissions. Besides, the control variables (firm size, ownership, operation time and industrial type) also exerted significant influence. The present methodology can be applicable to other areas, and further inform the industrial pollution control practices. Our study advanced the knowledge of determinants of emissions from pollution-intensive firms in urban areas.

  8. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species.

  9. TYPICAL WEATHER CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH AIR POLLUTION IN HONG KONG AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xun-lai; FAN Shao-jia; LI Jiang-nan; LIU Ji; WANG An-yu; FONG Soi-kun

    2008-01-01

    With the hourly data of Air Pollution Index (API) by Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) during the 6 years of 2000 - 2005 and NCEP / NCAR reanalysis data of 2.5°×2.5° wind and pressure fields, the characteristics of API in Hong Kong area and the impacts of typical weather characteristics on the air pollution in Hong Kong have been studied. The results are shown as follows. (1) The API exhibits obvious seasonal variability as the number of air pollution days increases by the year. For most of the local monitoring stations, it is the most from January to March, a little less from July to September and the least from April to June. (2) There are four typical types of weather situations that are responsible for the air pollution in Hong Kong: tropical cyclones, continental cold highs, transformed highs that have moved out to sea and low pressure troughs.

  10. Pollution Response Score of Tree Species in Relation to Ambient Air Quality in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2016-02-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques were employed on twelve leaf traits in four selected common tree species (Mangifera indica L., Polyalthia longifolia Sonn., Ficus benghalensis L. and Psidium guajava L.) to evaluate their responses with respect to major air pollutants in an urban area. Discriminant analysis (DA) identified chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio, leaf dry matter content, carotenoids, net water content and ascorbic acid as the major discriminating leaf traits, which varied maximally with respect to the pollution status. Pollution response score (PRS), calculated on the basis of discriminate functional coefficient values, increased with an increase in air pollution variables for all the tested species, with the highest increase in P. longifolia and the lowest in F. benghalensis. The study highlights the usefulness of DA for evaluation of plant specific traits and PRS for selection of tolerant species.

  11. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Pihlstroem, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1995-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  12. Bronchial responsiveness in children living in areas with different air pollution levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forastiere, F.; Michelozzi, P.; Agabiti, N.; Brancato, G.; Perucci, C.A. (Latium Regional Health Authority, Rome (Italy)); Corbo, G.M.; Pistelli, R.; Ciappi, G. (Catholic Univ., Rome (Italy))

    This study evaluated the prevalence of increased bronchial responsiveness (BR) in children living in two areas with different air pollution levels. A total of 1 215 methacholine challenge tests were performed among a random sample of primary school children in an industrial town polluted by oil-fired thermoelectric power plants and in a rural area chosen as a control. The two groups showed similar lung function data (forced vital capacity [FVC] and forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV[sub 1.0

  13. Reproductive effects in hybrid sparrow from a polluted area in Tunisia: Oxidative damage and altered testicular histomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Nahed; Hammouda, Abdessalem; Rahmouni, Fatma; Chokri, Med Ali; Chaabane, Rim; Selmi, Slaheddine; Rebai, Tarek; Badraoui, Riadh

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is a threat for human health and wildlife. The aim of this study is to assess the pathophysiological changes and the oxidative-antioxidative status in testicular tissues of 40 Hybrid sparrows collected from four areas in Gabès city, one of the most polluted areas in Tunisia. The testis histopathological analysis revealed alterations in birds from Ghannouche, the polluted area. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were higher in testis of birds from the contaminated site compared to less polluted areas indicating oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were lower in testis sparrows from the polluted site compared with the reference site, suggesting deficiency of the antioxidant system to compensate for oxidative stress. Overall, our results suggest that the hybrid sparrow offers a suitable model for biomonitoring programs of atmosphere pollutants and the selected biomarkers could be useful tool to evaluate pollution impacts in living organisms.

  14. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  15. Pollution sources identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of soils in Tianjin area, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, B.X.; Zhang, Z.H.; Mao, T. [University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). Faculty of Natural Resources & Information Technology

    2006-07-15

    A total of 188 surface soil samples were collected from different types of utilization soils in Tianjin area. Factor analysis and scatter point surface tension spine function interpolation were used to analyze types and spatial distributions of PAH sources of surface soils in Tianjin area. The results showed that most pollution sources were mixed sources including coal burning and petroleum spill. Mixed sources occupied 56.12%, 58.96%, 46.45% and 59.50% in farmland of wastewater irrigation, common farmland, wild land and city green-belt, respectively. Other pollution sources such as vehicle emission, biogenic conversion, wood burning and natural gas combustion were also significant. The spatial distributions of pollution sources were closely related to geographic location, geographic condition and living habit of indigenes.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented.

  17. Environmental geochemistry and ecological risk of vanadium pollution in Panzhihua mining and smelting area, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Yanguo; NI Shijun; ZHANG Chengjiang; WANG Jinsheng; LIN Xueyu; HUANG Yi

    2006-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Naturally high levels of vanadium are recognized mainly in basic rocks and minerals, particularly in titaniferous magnetite. And the anthropogenic sources of vanadium include fossil fuel combustion and wastes including steel-industry slags. In the last few years, the authors have made investigations and assessments on the environmental geochemistry and ecological risk of vanadium in the Panzhihua mining and smelting area. In the study area, anthropogenic vanadium resulted from mining, extracting and smelting of V-Ti magnetite; vanadium pollution of topsoil and sediments occurs mainly in the mining and extracting area, smelting area, slag dumping area, tailing dam and coal mining area. In the soil, the chemical speciation of vanadium shows: insoluble residue>organically bound>Fe (amorphous) oxide-bound>Mn oxide-bound>soluble component. Vanadium pollution can cause potential harmful effects on ecological systems, and lead to animal poisoning and human disease. So vanadiam pollution should be monitored on a regular basis in the Panzhihua area.

  18. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: a comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males.

  19. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Ghafarian, P.; Najafi, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Being hemmed in on two sides by high mountains, the urban area of Tehran is characterized by high levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which have adverse consequences on human health, ecosystems and environment. Using air quality measurements taken in different regions of Tehran, spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants are analyzed to identify the typical climatological aspects of air pollutants. In terms of particulate matter concentrations, South Tehran is more polluted than Central to North Tehran, while West Tehran is more polluted than the East. Concentrations of particles in North Tehran are lower in the midday compared to the midnight, whereas the opposite is true in South Tehran. The observed annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in North Tehran were 37.5 and 76.3 μg m-3, respectively, which are substantially greater than the national annual mean safety limits of 10 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 20 μg m-3 for PM10. The observed high levels of particulate matter underline the essential need for a coordinated action to reduce the rapidly increasing air pollution over the growing urban area of Tehran. Noticeable monthly (seasonal) variations are evident in the observed PM10 concentrations, with a minimum of 61.5 μg m-3 in March (spring) and a maximum of 82.9 μg m-3 in July (summer), reflecting contribution of weather conditions. Analyzing daily PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations indicate that mid-week Wednesdays (Mondays) are the most polluted days. The higher mid-week concentrations reflect contribution of heavy vehicular traffic, industrial operation and increased commercial activities. Strong diurnal variations in the concentrations of particulate matter in North Tehran are detected, varying from a peak in late night to a minimum in late afternoon, indicating contribution of deeper daytime convective boundary layer and stronger winds in dispersion of particles.

  20. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  1. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhai Zhu

    Full Text Available Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2 to 5.3 g m(-2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1 to 652 mg kg(-1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2 = 0.73 and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1. For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1 to 106.8 mg kg(-1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs, produced a prediction (R(2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1 similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  2. Pollutant loads of surface runoff in Wuhan City Zoo, an urban tourist area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian-wei; SHAN Bao-qing; YIN Cheng-qing

    2007-01-01

    The pollutant loads of surface runoff in an urban tourist area have been investigated for two years in the Wuhan City Zoo, China. Eight sampling sites, including two woodlands, three animal yards, two roofs and one road, were selected for sampling and study. The results indicate that pollutants ranked in a predictable order of decreasing load (e.g. animal yard>roof>woodland>road), with animal yards acting as the key pollution source in the zoo. Pollutants were transported mainly by particulate form in runoff. Particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate phosphorous (PP) accounted on average for 61%, 78% of total pollutant, respectively, over 13 monitored rainfall events. These results indicate the treatment practices should be implemented to improve particulate nutrient removal. Analysis of the M(V) curve indicated that no first flush effect existed in the surface runoff from pervious areas (e.g. woodland, animal ground yard), whereas a first flush effect was evident in runoff from impervious surfaces (e.g. animal cement yard, roof, road).

  3. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health and agriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlated with noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentration level in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the

  4. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  5. Genotoxicity detected in wild mice living in a highly polluted wetland area in south western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Santiago; Daza, Paula; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Cardenas, Jose Antonio [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Cortes, Felipe [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: cortes@us.es

    2008-06-15

    A field study was carried out in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in an industrial area in the neighbourhood of Huelva city, SW Spain, and in a natural area (Donana National Park) for comparison, to estimate the genetic risk induced by environmental pollution in wild mice. Genotoxic effects in a sentinel organism, the Algerian mice (Mus spretus) free living in the industrial area were compared with animals of the same species living in the natural protected area. The single cell gel electrophoresis, or Comet assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in peripheral blood of mice. Our results clearly show that mice free living in the contaminated area bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The results suggest that the assessing of genotoxicity levels by the Comet assay in wild mice can be used as a valuable test in pollution monitoring and environmental conservation. - We have found an increased genotoxic damage in wild mice in a highly polluted area from industry, mining and agriculture in SW Spain, as assessed by the Comet assay.

  6. [Pollution with sulfur dioxide in an inhabited industrial area. Methodologic problems in monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, C; Pontoni, H; Pellicciotti, G

    1989-01-01

    The area around Rho and Pero in the north west of the province of Milan is densely populated and highly industrialised. It is also characterised by high levels of sulphur dioxide pollution. During the 1980s it was decided to check the sources of production of the pollutant and its distribution in the area. The main area for improvement was the refinery at Rho where it was aimed to disperse gases at a higher level by raising the chimneys and to use fuel gas in those burners which were connected to lower chimneys. For domestic systems it was decided to diffuse the use of methane as much as possible and limit oil-fired central heating, by statute from the Mayor. In order to rationalise the programme of action the pollution was to be determined for each single area by subdivision of the territory into a grid. By means of a census of all the production sources of sulphur dioxide appropriate data were collected to estimate each area's contribution to pollution. The theoretical hourly quantity of sulphur dioxide was calculated on the basis of the combustion equation. The data were then analysed, in total and divided into component parts, i.e. the type of fuel used, the season of the year and industrial or domestic usage. With Gifford and Hanna's ATDL mathematical model the data thus obtained, together with meteorological variables, were used to simulate the expected effect on the distribution of pollution after carrying out the programmed actions. The simulations foresee a reduction of up to 80% of sulphur dioxide concentrations in the areas of greatest use of liquid fuels. In the territory in question the monitoring of the pollutant was assured by the presence of five fixed positions of continuous survey. These turned out to be useful above all for analysis of the phenomenon over a period of time. In order to study spatial distribution better 374 findings were gathered in the winter of 1985-6 from various points of the territory by means of a mobile instantaneous

  7. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H. [Office de la protection de l`environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  8. [Nonpoint pollution control for rural areas of China with ecological engineering technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chengqing; Mao, Zhanpo

    2002-02-01

    Nonpoint pollution from rural areas is the results of the ecosystem degradation, and ecological engineering technologies are good ways for the restoration of watershed and enhancing material cycling. There are two types of treatment strategies: to control the polluted runoff and to reduce the pollutants from the sources. Six control technologies are introduced and they are multipond systems, grassed filter trips, wetland systems, eco-agriculture, slope ecological engineering, ecological treatment of wastewater and solid waste. These technologies need to be combined systematically in order to form a watershed ecological engineering. In the control program, it is important to use countermeasure suitable to the local conditions. In addition, the input of sufficient investment, management and education is necessary.

  9. Participatory measurements of individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelin, Malika; Duché, Sarah; Dupuis, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Chronic and high concentration exposure presents a health risk with cardiovascular and respiratory problems and longer term nervous, carcinogenic and endocrine problems. In addition to the estimations based on simulations of both background and regional pollution and of the pollution induced by the traffic, knowing exposure of each individual is a key issue. This exposure reflects the high variability of pollution at fine spatial and time scales, according to the proximity of emission sources and the urban morphology outside. The emergence of citizen science and the progress of miniaturized electronics, low-cost and accessible to (almost) everyone, offers new opportunities for the monitoring of air pollution, but also for the citizens' awareness of their individual exposure to air pollution. In this communication, we propose to present a participatory research project 'What is your air?' (project funded by the Île-de-France region), which aims at raising awareness on the theme of air quality, its monitoring with sensors assembled in a FabLab workshop and an online participatory mapping. Beyond the discussion on technical choices, the stages of manufacture or the sensor calibration procedures, we discuss the measurements made, in this case the fine particle concentration measurements, which are dated and georeferenced (communication via a mobile phone). They show high variability between the measurements (in part linked to the substrates, land use, traffic) and low daily contrasts. In addition to the analysis of the measurements and their comparison with the official data, we also discuss the choice of representation of information, including mapping, and therefore the message about pollution to communicate.

  10. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  11. Pollutants increase song complexity and the volume of the brain area HVC in a songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available Environmental pollutants which alter endocrine function are now known to decrease vertebrate reproductive success. There is considerable evidence for endocrine disruption from aquatic ecosystems, but knowledge is lacking with regard to the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, we show for the first time that birds foraging on invertebrates contaminated with environmental pollutants, show marked changes in both brain and behaviour. We found that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris exposed to environmentally relevant levels of synthetic and natural estrogen mimics developed longer and more complex songs compared to control males, a sexually selected trait important in attracting females for reproduction. Moreover, females preferred the song of males which had higher pollutant exposure, despite the fact that experimentally dosed males showed reduced immune function. We also show that the key brain area controlling male song complexity (HVC is significantly enlarged in the contaminated birds. This is the first evidence that environmental pollutants not only affect, but paradoxically enhance a signal of male quality such as song. Our data suggest that female starlings would bias their choice towards exposed males, with possible consequences at the population level. As the starling is a migratory species, our results suggest that transglobal effects of pollutants on terrestrial vertebrate physiology and reproduction could occur in birds.

  12. Approach to valuing visual pollution from Western Electricity Production. [For Western Systems Coordinating Council area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1977-02-01

    This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.

  13. Air pollution attributable postneonatal infant mortality in U.S. metropolitan areas: a risk assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyzanowski Michal

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of outdoor air pollution on infant mortality has not been quantified. Methods Based on exposure-response functions from a U.S. cohort study, we assessed the attributable risk of postneonatal infant mortality in 23 U.S. metropolitan areas related to particulate matter 10 as a surrogate of total air pollution. Results The estimated proportion of all cause mortality, sudden infant death syndrome (normal birth weight infants only and respiratory disease mortality (normal birth weight attributable to PM10 above a chosen reference value of 12.0 μg/m3 PM10 was 6% (95% confidence interval 3–11%, 16% (95% confidence interval 9–23% and 24% (95% confidence interval 7–44%, respectively. The expected number of infant deaths per year in the selected areas was 106 (95% confidence interval 53–185, 79 (95% confidence interval 46–111 and 15 (95% confidence interval 5–27, respectively. Approximately 75% of cases were from areas where the current levels are at or below the new U.S. PM2.5 standard of 15 μg/m3 (equivalent to 25 μg/m3 PM10. In a country where infant mortality rates and air pollution levels are relatively low, ambient air pollution as measured by particulate matter contributes to a substantial fraction of infant death, especially for those due to sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory disease. Even if all counties would comply to the new PM2.5 standard, the majority of the estimated burden would remain. Conclusion Given the inherent limitations of risk assessments, further studies are needed to support and quantify the relationship between infant mortality and air pollution.

  14. Heavy metal accumulation in Littoraria scabra along polluted and pristine mangrove areas of Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H. de [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.dewolf@ua.ac.be; Rashid, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-04-15

    The periwinkle Littoraria scabra was collected at polluted and pristine mangrove sites along the Tanzanian coastline, including Msimbazi, Mbweni (i.e. Dar es Salaam) and Kisakasaka, Nyamanzi and Maruhubi (i.e. Zanzibar). Periwinkles were morphologically characterized, sexed and their heavy metal content was determined using ICP-MS. Analysis revealed that L. scabra from polluted areas contained higher soft tissue heavy metal levels, were significantly smaller and weighed less compared to their conspecifics from the unpolluted mangroves. The current morphological observations may be explained in terms of growth and/or mortality rate differences between the polluted and non-polluted sites. Although a variety of stressors may account for these adverse morphological patterns, our data suggest a close relationship with the soft tissue heavy metal content. Compared to soft tissue heavy metal levels that were measured in L. scabra along the same area in 1998, most metals, except for arsenic, chromium and iron have decreased dramatically. - Anthropogenic activities result in heavy metal accumulation and adverse morphological effects in the mangrove gastropod Littoraria scabra.

  15. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  16. Groundwater Contamination. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles A.

    Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  17. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-11-10

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7-13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city.

  18. Identifying hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs to mitigate critical source areas of diffuse pollution: development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Jordan, Phil; Mellander, Per-Erik; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.; Creamer, Rachel; McDonald, Noeleen; Dunlop, Paul; Murphy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants such as phosphorus (P). A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that identifies HSAs at the sub-field scale. It uses a soil topographic index (STI) and accounts for the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks such as hedgerows and depressions. High resolution (0.25-2 m) LiDAR Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are utilised to capture these microtopographic controls on flow pathways and hydrological connectivity. The HSA Index was applied to four agricultural catchments (~7.5-12 km2) with contrasting topography and soil types. Catchment HSA sizes were estimated using high resolution rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014, and mapped using the HSA Index. HSA sizes ranged from 1.6-3.4% of the catchment area during median storm events and 2.9-8.5% during upper quartile events depending on whether well or poorly drained soils dominated, which validated HSA Index value distributions. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8,298-59,584 m3 and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways where transported pollutants such as P are delivered to the open drainage network. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips (RBS) reduced costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5 years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. Considering that HSAs are often the dominant P CSA factor in agricultural catchments and can override

  19. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the source area of the Liao River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y

    The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River.

  20. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  1. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  2. Contribution of smoking and air pollution exposure in urban areas to social differences in respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranft Ulrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status, smoking, and exposure to increased levels of environmental air pollution are associated with adverse effects on respiratory health. We assessed the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution as competing factors for the association between socio-economic status and respiratory health indicators in a cohort of women from the Ruhr area aged 55 at the time of investigation between 1985 and 1990. Methods Data of 1251 women with spirometry and complete questionnaire information about respiratory diseases, smoking and potential confounders were used in the analyses. Exposure to large-scale air pollution was assessed with data from monitoring stations. Exposure to small-scale air pollution was assessed as traffic-related exposure by distance to the nearest major road. Socio-economic status was defined by educational level. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution to social differences in respiratory health. Results Women with less than 10 years of school education in comparison to more than 10 years of school education were more often occupationally exposed (16.4% vs. 10.1%, smoked more often (20.3% vs. 13.9%, and lived more often close to major roads (26.0% vs. 22.9%. Long-term exposure to increased levels of PM10 was significantly associated with lower school education. Women with low school education were more likely to suffer from respiratory symptoms and had reduced lung function. In the multivariate analysis the associations between education and respiratory health attenuated after adjusting for occupational exposure, smoking and outdoor air pollution. The crude odds ratio for the association between the lung function indicator FEV1 less than 80% of predicted value and educational level (10 years of school education was 1.83 (95% CI: 1.22–2.74. This changed to 1.56 (95% CI: 1.03–2

  3. ADVECTION - DIFFUSION NUMERICAL MODEL OF AN AIR POLLUTANT EMITTED FROM AN AREA SOURCE OF PRIMARY POLLUTANT WITH CHEMICAL REACTION AND DRY DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHEER PAI K L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A time dependent two dimensional advection-diffusion numerical model for primary pollutant with chemical reaction and dry deposition for an urban area is presented. The proposed numerical model takes into account of realistic form of variable wind velocity and eddy diffusivity profiles. The partial differential equation of primarypollutant is solved by using Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference technique. The results are plotted for concentration of primary pollutant and the effect of chemical reaction and dry deposition on the dispersion of pollutant are analysed extensively.

  4. Roadside Rhododendron pulchrum leaves as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in traffic areas of Okayama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Yabuki, Toru; Ono, Yoshiro

    2009-02-01

    The leaves of roadside Rhododendron pulchrum Sweet were examined as a bioindicator of traffic-related heavy metal pollution in Okayama. Total contents of heavy metals in roadside soil and the R. pulchrum leaves were determined. Results of correlation analyses showed significant correlations among Pb, Ni, and Zn contents of roadside soil and leaf samples. These results suggest that R. pulchrum is a useful bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in traffic areas. To identify traffic-related heavy metal pollution sources, traffic-related materials such as tires, asphalt pavement, and road paint were collected and analyzed. The results of analyses of our data show that Zn is emitted mainly from the abrasion of tires; Cr is emitted mainly from wear of the asphalt pavement. Furthermore, the respective lead isotope ratios in R. pulchrum leaves, soil, roadside dust, and traffic-related materials were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The isotopic compositions of lead in R. pulchrum leaves were 207Pb/206Pb = 0.861-0.871 and 208Pb/206Pb = 2.093-2.127, which agrees well with ratios in automobile wheel balance weights, suggesting that lead-containing products associated with automobiles, such as wheel balance weights, contribute to traffic-related lead pollution.

  5. Study of atmospheric dynamics and pollution in the coastal area of English Channel using clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmenten, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The problem of atmospheric contamination by principal air pollutants was considered in the industrialized coastal region of English Channel in Dunkirk influenced by north European metropolitan areas. MESO-NH nested models were used for the simulation of the local atmospheric dynamics and the online calculation of Lagrangian backward trajectories with 15-minute temporal resolution and the horizontal resolution down to 500 m. The one-month mesoscale numerical simulation was coupled with local pollution measurements of volatile organic components, particulate matter, ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Principal atmospheric pathways were determined by clustering technique applied to backward trajectories simulated. Six clusters were obtained which describe local atmospheric dynamics, four winds blowing through the English Channel, one coming from the south, and the biggest cluster with small wind speeds. This last cluster includes mostly sea breeze events. The analysis of meteorological data and pollution measurements allows relating the principal atmospheric pathways with local air contamination events. It was shown that contamination events are mostly connected with a channelling of pollution from local sources and low-turbulent states of the local atmosphere.

  6. [Depression and anxiety in mothers of children who grow up in an area with industrial pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, S; Ploumpidis, D; Zervas, J; Papadimitriou, G N; Tzinieri-Kokkosi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of chemical pollution with hexavalent chromium on the mental health of mothers with school/pre-school age children, residents of the area of the Asopos basin in Eastern Central Greece. The people of this area have been experiencing great threat regarding their health each and every day, as a result of the well-documented pollution by hexavalent chromium in drinking and ground-water, which is related to the widespread industrial activity, the usage of hexavalent chromium in various processes and the discharges of Cr-bearing wastes. The environmental impact of hexavalent chromium is a controversial issue critical to the protection of groundwater resources, as it affects the soil and the products from local cultivations used in daily food. This condition has been documented scientifically and was published in the mass media as a serious threat to human and animal life in the specific area. Although in Greece serious environmental-technological disasters have occurred during the last decades, there is a lack of studies on the possible consequences, including the psychological impact on the local population. The sample of this study included eighty-eight mothers of young children, residents of the area of Asopos, who were compared with eighty-eight mothers living in a non-polluted area - the area of Kiato in Northern Peloponnese, as a control group. They were assessed by the CES-D scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI I-II), which have been standardized for the Greek population. Results indicated that depression and anxiety were significantly correlated with the place of residence [CES-D: t(169,496)=3.45, p=0.001; STAI I-II: A-state: t(174)=10,131, p=0.000; A-trait: t(174)=8,728, p=0.000]. Mothers from the Asopos basin reported more symptoms of depression (Mean=24,14, SD=11,345) than the control group (Mean=18,68, SD=9,625). Similarly, they have scored higher in both subscales of STAI I-II, measuring state

  7. Aerosol Plume during a Polluted Event Occuring Over Paris Area and its Potential Photochemical Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamiarisoa, H.; Chazette, P.; Sanak, J.; Hauglustaine, D.

    2002-12-01

    As in many big cities, there are several pollution events in Paris area. A thorough understanding of the processes leading on the formation of pollutants and their transport during pollution episodes is necessary. One of the pertinent factors, which contributions on atmospheric chemistry and radiative effect are not yet well known, is the aerosol. ESQUIF (Etude et Simulation de la QUalité de l?air en Ile de France) is the first program dedicated to study such issues over the Paris area. It was carried out from summer 1998 to winter 2000 (Menut et al., 2000). To characterize all the properties of the urban aerosol, many campaigns were coordinated using both ground and airborne measurements (Chazette et al., 2000). We are focusing on the 31st of July 2000 where a well-defined polluted plume has been observed. Aerosol number concentrations in different size classes were measured and show that urban aerosol in Paris area is mainly submicronic. The absorbent part of the aerosol, mainly associated to the black carbon component, has been observed to be associated to particles with diameter less than 0.1 æm. The single scattering albedo has been assessed to be close to 0.85 leading to a significant influence on the photochemical chemistry. Indeed, a significant decrease of the daily maximum ozone concentration has been calculated using the INCA model and will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Programme National de Chimie Atmosphérique, INSU supported this work. REFERENCES Chazette P., H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, M. Sicard, H. Cachier, F. Aulagnier, R. Sarda-Esteve, L. Gomes, S. Alfaro and A. Gaudichet (2001). ESQUIF 2000 : Aerosol survey over the Ile-de-France area, J. Aerosol Sci ., 32/suppl. 1, S439-S440. Menut, L., R. Vautard, C. Flamant, A. Abonnel, M. Beekmann, P. Chazette, P.H. Flamant, D. Gombert, D. Guédalia, D. Kley, M.P. Lefebvre, B. Lossec, D. Martin, G. Mégie, P. Perros, M. Sicard and G. Toupance (2000). Measurements and modelling

  8. Studies concerning the decontamination of hydrocarbons- polluted soil areas using bioremediation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deac, C.; Barbulescu, A.; Gligor, A.; Bibu, M.; Petrescu, V.

    2016-11-01

    The accidental or historic contamination of soils with hydrocarbons, in areas crossed by oil pipelines or where oil- or gas-extraction installations are located, is a major concern and has significant financial and ecological consequences, both for the owners of those areas and for the oil transportation or exploitation companies. Therefore it is very important to find the optimal method for removing the pollution. The current paper presents measures, mainly involving bioremediation, recommended and applied for the depollution of a contaminated area in Romania. While the topic of dealing with polluted soils is well-established in the Romanian speciality literature, bioremediation is a relatively novel approach and this paper presents important considerations in this regard. Contaminated soil samples were taken from 10 different locations within the targeted area and subjected to a thorough physical and chemical analysis, which led to determining a specific scoring table for assessing the bioremediation potential of the various samples. This has allowed the authors to establish for each of the sampled areas the best mix of factors such as nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), gypsum, microelements etc., that would lead to obtaining the best results in terms of the contaminants' biodegradation.

  9. South Lancashire Fisheries Advisory Committee 19th June, 1980

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    This is the report from the South Lancashire Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 19th June, 1980. It includes information on the report by the area fisheries officer on fisheries activities which comments on river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements for 1980 recorded at Winckley Hall on the River Hodder, and Waddow Weir and Locks Weir on the River Ribble. Also covered is an update on Langcliffe Hatchery, pollution incidents and fish mortalities. It also gi...

  10. Key area identification of pollution sources of drinking water sources in rural areas%村镇饮用水源地污染关键区识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程公德; 殷国玺; 谢崇宝; 张国华; 杨洁

    2014-01-01

    In the upstream of water sources, many pollutants are output from key pollution areas of water sources, and thus identifying key pollution areas of water sources is a key to protection and pollution control of rural drinking water source. In this paper, a method to directly identify key pollution areas was proposed and applied to investigate the pollution situation of rural drinking water sources in Anjishan reservoir area in 2011. Residential areas, farmlands, mines, and other land use types were identified as the pollution sources based on image classification techniques of remote sensing. Hydrology analysis tools for ArcGIS software were used to determine catchment of Anjishan basin. Batch Sub watershed Delineation tool combined with the distribution of the main pollution sources was used to divide Anjishan basin into 19 sub watershed, and land use areas for each sub watershed were summarized. In rural areas, Anjishan reservoir area was mainly affected by pollutants from non-point sources. So, farmland, aquaculture sewage, mines and rural life were considered as main pollution sources of this area. For these sources, COD (chemical oxygen demand), NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen), TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) were the main pollution factors. Source strength coefficient of each factor for each source was obtained from national reports and amended with survey data. Exceeds bid index method was adopted to calculate the weights of pollution factors based on their contributions rates, and degree of pollution was also calculated based on the weights. The pollution degree of water source for each sub watershed was calculated through degree of pollution of each pollution source and its corresponding land use area. The pollution degree of each sub watershed was converted to pollution concentration based on annual rainfall. Environmental quality standards for surface water in China are often used to assess the condition of water sources. In the standard, Class III

  11. Consequence of indoor air pollution in rural area of Nepal: a simplified measurement approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabi Lal Ranabhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People of developing countries especially from rural area are commonly exposed to high levels of household pollution for 3–7 hours daily using biomass in their kitchen. Such biomass produces harmful smoke and makes indoor air pollution. Community based cross-sectional study was performed to identify effects of indoor air pollution (IAP by simplified measurement approach in Sunsari district of Nepal. Representative samples of 157 housewives from household, involving more than 5 years in kitchen were included by cluster sampling. Data was analyzed by SPSS and logistic regression was applied for the statistical test. Most (87.3% housewives used biomass as a cooking fuel. Tearing of eyes, difficulty in breathing and productive cough were the main reported health problems and traditional mud stoves and use of unrefined biomass were statistically significant (p 2 with health problems related to IAP. The treatment cost and episodes of acute respiratory infection (ARI was >2 folders higher in severe IAP than mild IAP. Simplified measurement approach could be helpful to measure IAP in rural area. Some effective intervention is suggested to reduce the severe level of IAP considering women and children.

  12. Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Organic Pollutants In Vegetation From Remote And Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartrons, Mireia; Catalan, Jordi; Penuelas, Josep

    2016-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) used in agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications are widely distributed and bioaccumulate in food webs, causing adverse effects to the biosphere. A review of published data for 1977–2015 for a wide range of vegetation around the globe indicates an extensive load of pollutants in vegetation. On a global perspective, the accumulation of POPs and PAHs in vegetation depends on the industrialization history across continents and distance to emission sources, beyond organism type and climatic variables. International regulations initially reduced the concentrations of POPs in vegetation in rural areas, but concentrations of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs at remote sites did not decrease or even increased over time, pointing to a remobilization of POPs from source areas to remote sites. The concentrations of compounds currently in use, PBDEs and PAHs, are still increasing in vegetation. Differential congener specific accumulation is mostly determined by continent—in accordance to the different regulations of HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs in different countries—and by plant type (PAHs). These results support a concerning general accumulation of toxic pollutants in most ecosystems of the globe that for some compounds is still far from being mitigated in the near future.

  13. Characterization of photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding on the factors that affect photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas, concurrent systematic field measurements (September to November 2010 were conducted at a mountain site and at an urban site at the foot of the mountain in Hong Kong. The mixing ratios of air pollutants were greater at the foot of the mountain (i.e., Tsuen Wan urban site, TW than near the summit (i.e., Tai Mao Shan mountain site, TMS, expect for ozone. In total, only one O3 episode day was observed at TW, whereas twenty-one (21 O3 episode days were observed at TMS. The discrepancy of O3 at the two sites was attributed to the mixed effects of NO titration, vertical meteorological conditions, regional transport and mesoscale circulations. The lower NO levels at TMS and the smaller differences of "oxidant" Ox (O3 + NO2 between the two sites suggested that variations of O3 at the two sites were partly attributed to different degree of NO titration. In addition, analysis of vertical structure of meteorological variables revealed that the inversion layer at the range of altitudes of 500–1000 m might be another factor that caused the high O3 levels at TMS. Furthermore, analyses of the wind fields, the levels of air pollutants in different air flows, ratios of different trace gases and the correlation between variability and the lifetime of VOCs (volatile organic compounds indicated that high O3 concentrations at TMS were somewhat influenced by regional air masses from the highly polluted Pearl River delta (PRD region. In particular, the diurnal profiles and correlations of gaseous pollutants suggested influence of mesoscale circulations, which is confirmed using the Master Chemical Mechanism moving box model (Mbox and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. By investigating the correlations of observed O3 and NOx* and the relationships of O3 and its precursors by an observation-based model (OBM, as well as the ratios

  14. Mercury pollution in two typical areas in Guizhou province, China and its neurotoxic effects in the brains of rats fed with local polluted rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinping; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua; Jia, Jinping; Lin, Xueyu; Qu, Liya; Ding, Zhenhua

    2006-12-01

    Guizhou province, which located in southwestern of China, is an important mercury (Hg) production center. This study was to investigate the environmental levels and ecological effects of mercury in two typical Hg polluted areas in Guizhou province. In addition, to improve the understanding of the neurotoxic effects of Hg, a rats based laboratory study was also carried out in this study. Samples of water, soil, plants, crops and animals collected from Wanshan mercury mine area, Guzhou province, were analyzed by mercury analyzer. The effects of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat's brain and the expression of c-JUN protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed that the mercury contents in most environmental samples of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and the biomass of corn, plant and animals, were higher than the national standard and the corresponding data from unpolluted area. It was found mercury pollutions were significant in soil and air. In the laboratory study, the expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein was significantly induced by Hg polluted rice collected from local area. Selenium could reduce the Hg accumulation in the body and had antagonist effect on Hg in terms of the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-JUN protein. The environmental data and Hg levels in different creatures collected in this study will facilitate the environmental and ecological risk assessment of Hg in the polluted areas. It was urged to be alert of mental health problem in human beings when any kind of Hg-polluted food was taken. More efforts should be performed to protect the local ecosystem and human health in the mercury polluted area of Wanshan, Guizhou province of China.

  15. [Retrieval of Copper Pollution Information from Hyperspectral Satellite Data in a Vegetation Cover Mining Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yong-hua; Jiao, Si-hong; Liu, Su-hong; Zhu, Ye-qing

    2015-11-01

    level, using stepwise multiple linear regression and cross validation on the dataset which is consisting of 44 groups of copper ion content information in the polluted vegetation leaves from Dexing Copper Mine in Jiangxi Province to build up a statistical model by also incorporating the HJ-1 satellite images. This model was then used to estimate the copper content distribution over the whole research area at Dexing Copper Mine. The result has shown that there is strong statistical significance of the model which revealed the most sensitive waveband to copper ion is located at 516 nm. The distribution map illustrated that the copper ion content is generally in the range of 0-130 mg · kg⁻¹ in the vegetation covering area at Dexing Copper Mine and the most seriously polluted area is located at the South-east corner of Dexing City as well as the mining spots with a higher value between 80 and 100 mg · kg⁻¹. This result is consistent with the ground observation experiment data. The distribution map can certainly provide some important basic data on the copper pollution monitoring and treatment.

  16. Effects of air pollution related respiratory symptoms in school children in industrial areas Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradee Asa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of air pollution in school children living near industrial sites were investigated. The respiratory symptoms of 806 school children aged 9-12 years were examined by the American Thoracic Society's Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C questionnaire during February- August 2013. The selected elementary schools in this survey was based on the distance from Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, area A within 1 km., area B 5 km. and area C 10 km. Logistic regression techniques were used to assess the association between prevalence of respiratory symptoms and independent variables. The average 24 hrs PM10 and VOCs concentrations from 2011-2014 in area A were significantly higher than in area C (p < 0.05. Relatively, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in area A were high with odds ratios (OR = 3.41, (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.70-6.85 and in area B with OR = 1.36, (95% CI = 0.54-3.45, in comparison to area C. The prevalent of non-specific respiratory diseases (NSRD and Persistent Cough and Phlegm (PCP in boy student were higher than girls students with OR=2.17, (95%CI=1.33-3.53, whereas those factors such as age, residential years, home size, parental smoking habits, use of air conditioners and domestic pets were not associated. Exposure to particulate matter and volatile organic compounds arising from Industrial sites was associated with worse respiratory impairments in children.

  17. Evaluation on Soil Heavy Metal Pollution around Tailing Areas: A Case Study of Ag-Sb Deposit in Northeastern Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deliang; LIU; Kaifeng; WANG; Qihe; YANG; Qin; Zhu

    2015-01-01

    In October 2012,an evaluation using potential ecological hazard risk index was carried out on soil heavy metal pollution around AgSb deposit tailing areas in northeastern Guangdong. Results indicate that( i) soil heavy metal pollution is mainly Cd-Ni compound pollution,including Cd content 0. 31- 2. 66 mg / kg( average content is 1. 11 mg / kg),the situation of exceeding standard is serious( the rate of exceeding standard is 100%); the total potential ecological hazard risk index( RI) is between 50 and 300,and it is moderate pollution;( ii) in soil heavy metal content,only Ni and Cu are positively correlated. Since there is certain degree of Ni pollution in this deposit,the synergetic effect of Cu and Ni may deteriorate Ni pollution.

  18. Air Pollutants, Climate, and the Prevalence of Pediatric Asthma in Urban Areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Yan, Li; Fu, Wenlong; Yi, Jing; Chen, Yuzhi; Liu, Chuanhe; Xu, Dongqun; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Prevalence of childhood asthma varies significantly among regions, while its reasons are not clear yet with only a few studies reporting relevant causes for this variation. Objective. To investigate the potential role of city-average levels of air pollutants and climatic factors in order to distinguish differences in asthma prevalence in China and explain their reasons. Methods. Data pertaining to 10,777 asthmatic patients were obtained from the third nationwide survey of childhood asthma in China's urban areas. Annual mean concentrations of air pollutants and other climatic factors were obtained for the same period from several government departments. Data analysis was implemented with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis. Results. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the situation of childhood asthma was strongly linked with SO2, relative humidity, and hours of sunshine (p air pollutants or climate, at least in terms of children, plays a major role in explaining regional differences in asthma prevalence in China. PMID:27556031

  19. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Pollutant Transport and Accumulation Areas in the Hangzhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; MAO Zhihua; ZHANG Qinghe

    2009-01-01

    Based on the COHERENS model (a coupled hydrodynamic ecological model for regional and shelf seas), a numerical hydrodynamic model of the Hangzhou Bay, influenced by tide, regional winds and freshwater from the Yangtze River and the Qiantangjiang River was established. The Lagrangian particle tracking was simulated to provide tracer trajectories. For convenience, the modeling area was divided into 8 subdomains and the modeling focused on March (dry season) and July (wet season). Numerical simulation and analysis indicate that the tracer trajectories originated in different subdomains are quite different. Most particles released in the mouth of the bay move outside the bay quickly and reach the farthest place at 122.5°E; while particles released in the inner part of the bay mostly remain in the same subdomain, with only minor migrations in two opposite directions along the shore. The tracer experiments also indicate that the northwest region of the bay is an area where pollutant can easily accumulate in both wet and dry seasons, and that the southeast region of the bay is another area for pollutant to accumulate in dry season because it is the main path for the contaminant.

  1. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  2. Modelling the photochemical pollution over the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Moraes, M. R.; Carvalho, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Miranda, A. I.; Moreira, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the photochemical pollution over the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, where high concentrations of ozone have been registered during the past years. Due to the restricted spatial coverage of the monitoring air quality network, a numerical modelling technique was selected and applied to this assessment exercise. Two different chemistry-transport models - CAMx and CALGRID - were applied for a summer period, driven by the MM5 meteorological model. The meteorological model performance was evaluated comparing its results to available monitoring data measured at the Porto Alegre airport. Validation results point out a good model performance. It was not possible to evaluate the chemistry models performance due to the lack of adequate monitoring data. Nevertheless, the model intercomparison between CAMx and CALGRID shows a similar behaviour in what concerns the simulation of nitrogen dioxide, but some discrepancies concerning ozone. Regarding the fulfilment of the Brazilian air quality targets, the simulated ozone concentrations surpass the legislated value in specific periods, mainly outside the urban area of Porto Alegre. The ozone formation is influenced by the emission of pollutants that act as precursors (like the nitrogen oxides emitted at Porto Alegre urban area and coming from a large refinery complex) and by the meteorological conditions.

  3. Critical Loads of Heavy Metals in a Highly Polluted Catchment Area in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed A. Melegy; T. Paces

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals in different environmental compartments can be hazardous to ecosystems. Budgets of Cd, Pb and Zn in small ecosystems of the Shubra El-Kheima area in Egypt are presented. The budgets are not in steady state because they change with time. So the concentrations of the metals are a function of time. The critical loads of heavy metals to soils can be calculated from an inventory of inputs and outputs of the trace components in the catchment area. Critical time is an important parameter for critical load evaluation because it can indicate which of the heavy metals may be the most acute threat to the soils. Egyptian soil in the Shubra El-Kheima area seems to be in danger of heavy metal pollution by Zn, Cd and Pb. The calculated critical loads and their exceedances are approximate indicators of the hazards in the soil system. The critical time is a warning signal to initiate an environmental evaluation of possible pollution hazards.

  4. The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health: Focusing on the Rudnyi Altay Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Salnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. The air pollution level of cities and industrial centers remains rather high. The highest level of air pollution is registered in Ridder, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Almaty, Zyryanovsk, Aktau, Atyrau, Shymkent, Taraz, Petropavlovsk and Temirtau. The enterprises of the Rudnyi Altay, Pavlodar Oblast and enterprises of oil and gas complex in West-Kazakhstan, Atyrau and Mangistau Oblasts play the negative role in air pollution. About one third of industrial enterprises have no sanitary protective zones of standard sizes. A considerable part of the population of industrial centers live in the zone of a direct impact of harmful industrial factors emissions of polluting substances into the air, noise, vibration, electrical magnet fields and other physical factors (Dahl et al., 2001; Kaiser and Pulsipher, 2007; Farmer and Farmer, 2000. Under the conditions of the air polluter impact there is high morbidity and mortality from cardio-vascular diseases, respiratory disease, nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease and circulatory disease. Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions (Jensena et al., 1997; Namazbaeva et al., 2010. Then we provide details a correlation between the level of disease of malignant tumors and the emissions from stationary sources in Rudnyi Altay industrial area. To reveal the quantitative relationship between the disease of malignant tumors and the change in the quantity of emissions was carried out regression analysis and model. Regression analysis and model confirms a significant direct correlation between the incidence of malignant tumors and the amount of emissions from stationary sources (correlation coefficient R = 0,6. Analysis of vital statistics revealed the increased disease rate. Conclusion: Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental

  5. A model for dispersion from area sources in convective turbulence. [for air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, G.; Panofsky, H. A.; Zeman, O.

    1977-01-01

    Four independent estimates of the vertical distribution of the eddy coefficient for dispersion of a passive contaminant from an extensive area source in a convective layer have been presented. The estimates were based on the following methods: (1) a second-order closure prediction, (2) field data of pollutant concentrations over Los Angeles, (3) lab measurements of particle dispersion, and (4) assumption of equality between momentum and mass transfer coefficients in the free convective limit. It is suggested that K-values estimated both from second-order closure theory and from Los Angeles measurements are systematically underestimated.

  6. Foreshowing of the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track to PM10 air pollution episode in the Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiQuan; WANG ZiFa; YU Tong; GONG YanBang

    2009-01-01

    By utilizing the air quality monitoring data and the NCEP reanalysis data, the relationship between the PM10 air pollution episode and synoptic situation is analyzed in the Beijing area. It is interesting to find that PM10 air pollution episode in and around the Beijing area is correlated with the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track to some extent, namely when a tropical cyclone lands southward to the Chang-jiang River, PM10 air pollution episode is not easy to take place generally in the Beijing area; but when a tropical cyclone moves northward and finally lands at the Korea Peninsula or the Japanese mainland, and under this condition the Beijing area is generally controlled by weak high or weak low for several days, PM10 air pollution episode often takes place in one day or several days. Above findings indicate that predicting the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track can foretell whether or not PM10 air pollution episode takes place in the Beijing area, which can offer a technique for urban air quality prediction and air pollution source management in the Beijing area.

  7. [Groundwater quality in two arid areas of Morocco: impact of pollution on biodiversity and paleogeographic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughrous, A A; Yacoubi Khebiza, M; Boulanouar, M; Boutin, C; Messana, G

    2007-11-01

    The biodiversity and the quality of subterranean waters have been comparatively studied in the Haouz plain near Marrakesh and in the Tafilalet, in south-eastern Morocco. For this purpose, physicochemical and faunistic analyses were carried out on the water of ten wells and springs located in the area of Marrakesh, and in Errachidia area respectively. In the wells of Marrakesh, the average stygobiologic diversity is relatively high in the wells located upstream the dumping from the city where the ground water presents low contents of nitrates and orthophosphates. In contrast, the wells located in the spreading zone of Marrakesh wastewaters are characterized by the scarcity or the absence of stygobitic species; in these latter wells, the water is highly polluted. It is rich in nitrates, nitrites, ammonium, and the conductivity is rather high. In the area of Errachidia the faunistic inventory gathers some ten species, some of which are living in hot springs. The subterranean water is highly mineralised. In the two studied areas, the biodiversity decreases when well water is locally polluted, and the subterranean fauna completely disappears if the degree of contamination is important. This relation between the biodiversity and water quality which had already appeared in surface water, is confirmed within the wells of Marrakech. The groundwater fauna of both two areas presents similarities in relation to their geological history, mainly the various marine cycles of marine transgressions-regressions, which were at the origin of the settlement of the ancestors of the extant species, and the Atlasic orogenesis which separated the common ancestral populations into two separated stocks, involving a different evolution of the ancestors and a resulting speciation by vicariance.

  8. Analysis of Criteria Air Pollutant Trends in Three Mexican Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy-Edith Benítez-García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Data from the annual, seasonal, and hourly behavior of the criteria air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, O3, and PM10 in three Mexican metropolitan areas (the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA, Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA, and Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA over the period 2000–2011 were analyzed; and compliance with Mexican air quality standards was evaluated, highlighting causes of specific episodes of high and low concentrations. Data analyzed were collected from automatic air-monitoring networks located in the MCMA (32 stations, GMA (8 stations, and MMA (5 stations. In the MCMA and MMA, correlations between wind direction and concentrations of SO2 suggest that there was a considerable contribution of trans-boundary transport from outside of these areas. Analysis of annual trends revealed large reductions of CO in the MCMA, and SO2 in the three metropolitan areas. However, the annual mean concentration of O3 increased by 47% and 42% in the GMA and MMA, respectively, from 2000 to 2011, but decreased by 13% in the MCMA from 2005 to 2010. The annual mean concentration of PM10 in the MMA was about 58% and 76% higher than that in the MCMA and GMA, respectively, from 2001 to 2010.

  9. Monitoring persistent organic pollutants in an industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, M.; Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, J.L. [Rovira i Virgili University, Reus (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that combustion of different materials is one of the most important sources of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, environments affected by this kind of processes should be strictly controlled. In relation to it, the 2001 Stockholm Convention for the regulation of POPs was undertaken in order to establish agreements and mechanisms to erase the release of 12 POPs on a global scale. While polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included in this list, other pollutants such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be added in a near future. Since more than 30 years ago, one of the largest chemical and petrochemical industrial complexes in Southern Europe is located in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). Several chemical industries (such as a PVC production facility and a chlor-alkali plant) and a big oil refinery are located in this residential area (up to 300,000 inhabitants), together with a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, the presence of a highway and several roads with an important traffic density influences also the environment of the zone. The current study is a preliminary investigation to assess the levels of several POPs (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs) in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona's industrial and residential areas and to compare them with data obtained in unpolluted sites as well as in other industrial and residential zones.

  10. The role of transboundary air pollution over Galicia and North Portugal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C; Souto, J A; Monteiro, A; Dios, M; Rodríguez, A; Ferreira, J; Saavedra, S; Casares, J J; Miranda, A I

    2013-05-01

    In summer, high levels of ozone (O3) are frequently measured at both Galicia and Northern Portugal air quality monitoring stations, even exceeding the limit values imposed by legislation. This work aims to investigate the origin of these high O3 concentrations by the application of a chemical transport modelling system over the northwestern area of the Iberian Peninsula. The WRF-CHIMERE modelling system was applied with high resolution to simulate the selected air pollution episodes that occurred simultaneously in Galicia and North Portugal and in order to study both the contribution of local emission sources and the influence of transboundary pollution. Emission inputs have been prepared based on the development of the Portuguese and Galician emission inventories. The obtained results for O3 have been evaluated and validated against observations. Modelling results show possible contribution of the transboundary transport over the border of two neighbour regions/countries, indicating that the O3 episode starts over the urban and industrialised area of North coast of Portugal, reaching the maximum peaks over this region; at the same time, O3 levels increased over Galicia region, where lower concentrations, but still high, were observed. These results pointed out that air quality management should not be driven by political boundaries and highlight the importance of joining efforts between neighbouring countries.

  11. Plant biomonitoring of air pollution in urban areas: examples of some French cities and Beijing (P.R. China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrec, J.P.; Rose, C.; Radnai, F. [INRA - Centre de Recherche Forestiere de Nancy, Champenoux (France). Lab. Pollution Atmospherique; He Shang [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, BJ (China). Research Inst. of Forest Ecology and Environmental Science

    2002-07-01

    In urban areas, gaseous and particulate vehicle emissions during periods of high traffic activity consist of primary air pollutants (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, particles, etc.). But under the influence of sunlight these pollutants can also react and create a variety of secondary products including ozone. Sensitive higher plants can be used as indicators of air pollution effects for studying the occurrence and distribution of air pollutants and their consequences in space and time. We report results of an urban survey (Communaute Urbaine du Grand Nancy) of ozone concentrations, using the appearance of visible injury of the leaves of a sensitive plant species (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3) as an indicator of the presence of the pollutant. Far from France, in P.R. China, Beijing is known for its high level of air pollution, but the town is only equipped with a small air monitoring network, and for this reason nothing is known about the location of the different polluted areas, their surface and their level of pollutants. In a first step, Beijing has been divided by a 211-grid plots system. During summer 1998, leaves were sampled from one poplar (Populus tomentosa) in each plot. Among the different elements analysed in the particles collected by the leaves of this bio-accumulator, the two elements Fe and S are particularly interesting: - Fe is a tracer of the air pollution linked to road or railway traffic, - S is a tracer of the air pollution linked to domestic or industrial use of energy from coal or fuel. From the identification of three classes of iron and sulphur levels, the first air pollution maps of Beijing have been drawn up. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding on the factors that affect photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas, concurrent systematic field measurements (September to November 2010 were conducted at a mountain site and at an urban site at the foot of the mountain in Hong Kong. The mixing ratios of air pollutants were greater at the foot of the mountain (i.e. Tsuen Wan urban site, TW than near the summit (i.e. Tai Mao Shan mountain site, TMS, except for ozone. In total, only 1 O3 episode day was observed at TW, whereas 21 O3 episode days were observed at TMS. The discrepancy of O3 at the two sites was attributed to the mixed effects of NO titration, vertical meteorological conditions, regional transport and mesoscale circulations. The lower NO levels at TMS and the smaller differences of "oxidant" Ox (O3 + NO2 than O3 between the two sites suggested that variations of O3 at the two sites were partly attributed to different degree of NO titration. In addition, analysis of vertical structure of meteorological variables revealed that the inversion layer at the range of altitudes of 500–1000 m might be another factor that caused the high O3 levels at TMS. Furthermore, analyses of the wind fields and the levels of air pollutants in different air flows indicated that high O3 concentrations at TMS were somewhat influenced by regional air masses from the highly polluted Pearl River Delta (PRD region. In particular, the analysis of diurnal profiles and correlations of gaseous pollutants suggested influence of mesoscale circulations which was further confirmed using the Master Chemical Mechanism moving box model (Mbox and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. By investigating the correlations of observed O3 and NOx*, as well as the ratios of VOC/NOx, it was concluded that photochemical O

  13. Environmental pollution by persistent toxic substances and health risk in an industrial area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li; Yonglong Lu; Yajuan Shi; Tieyu Wang; Guang Wang; Wei Luo; Wentao Jiao; Chunli Chen; Feng Yan

    2011-01-01

    Soil is an important environmental medium that is closely associated with humans and their health.Despite this,very few studies have measured toxicants in soils,and associated them with health risks in humans.An assessment of health effects from exposure to contaminants in soils surrounding industrial areas of chemical production and storage is important.This article aims at determining pollution characteristics of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in an industrial area in China to unravel the relationship between soil pollution by PTS and human health.One hundred and five soil samples were collected and 742 questionnaires were handed out to residents living in and around an industrial area around Bohai Bay,Tianjin in Northern China.Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in soil.Mann-Whitney U and binary multivariate nonconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the relationship between health indicators of local residents and contaminant levels.Odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) for health incidences were also calculated.The average concentrations of DDT (73.9 rig/g),HCH (654 ng/g) and PAHs (1225 ng/g) were relatively high in the industrial area.Residents living in the chemical industry parks were exposed to a higher levels of PTS than those living outside the chemical industry parks.This exposure was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.87,95% CI 0.12-30.06),stomach cancer (OR 1.87,95% CI 0.26-13.41),dermatitis (OR 1.72,95% CI 1.05-2.80),gastroenteritis (OR 1.59,95% CI 0.94-2.68),and pneumonia (OR 1.05,95% CI 0.58-1.89).

  14. Investigation of the Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in Urban Areas using a New Portable ICAD Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Adler, Tim; Lampel, Johannes; Kanatschnig, Florian; Oesterle, Tobias; Reh, Miriam; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and especially nitrogen dioxide (NO2), are still among of the most problematic pollutants in urban areas not only in developing, but also in industrialized countries. Despite the measures taken to reduce their emissions, NO2 concentrations in many urban areas exceed the WHO recommended limits of 40 μg/m3 for annual mean and 200 μg/m3 for 1 hour mean. Additionally it is known that the NO2 concentration in urban areas has a strong spatial and temporal variability, due to the large number of NOx emitting point sources (mainly traffic) found in densely populated areas. However, the layout of air monitoring networks in most urban areas, installed to continuously monitor the officially prescribed NO2 limits, does not reflect the high spatial variability because they only conduct measurements at a single or few selected sampling points, mainly on major roads, which are often not representative for the whole urban area. At present these uncertainties about the spatial NO2 distribution constitute severe limitations for the assessment of health risks, for the quality of chemical model calculations, and for developing effective measures to reduce NOx emissions. We developed a new light-weight and portable ICAD (Iterative Cavity Enhanced DOAS) instrument which detects NO2 at a detection limit as low as 0.2 μg/m3 with a high time resolution of seconds. The instrument is based on the Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS technique, which directly identifies and quantifies NO2 by its differential optical absorption. Therefore, it does not suffer from interferences by other trace gas species like O3 or NOy. This is a great advantage over other NO2 instruments (e.g. solid state detectors or chemiluminescence instruments). We present the result of ICAD NO2 measurements, which we recently performed in more than 10 German cities. The ICAD instrument was mounted on mobile platforms like cars and bicycles, measuring the NO2 concentrations along carefully selected tracks

  15. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides.

  16. Association of lead concentration in colostrum, maternal and cord blood with newborn weight in polluted vs. non-polluted areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohammadi T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning has proven to be one of the most important environmental health problems among developing countries with both direct and indirect effects on human life. Lead is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and accumulates in soft and hard tissues. Lead can be excreted in urine, stool, milk, sweat, nails and saliva. During pregnancy and lactation, lead is released from bones into the blood along with Ca2+. The toxic effects of lead on various human tissues have been studied extensively, but few studies have addressed its impact on fetal development during pregnancy. Blood levels of lead are higher in people living in lead-polluted regions. It has been reported that Tehran (central and southern parts is the most problematic city in terms of lead poisoning.Methods: From 86 sets of mothers and newborns in a non-polluted area of rural Rasht, Iran, we examined specimens of maternal blood, cord blood and colostrum (86×3=258 and specimens from 85 sets of mothers and newborns in a polluted area of Tehran, Iran (85×3=255 for lead levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS and analyzed the results by t-test, SPSS, and linear regression.Results: The mean blood lead concentrations of mothers, cord blood of newborns and colostrum were 7.6±4.1, 5.9±3 and 4.2±2.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the non-polluted area and 9.1±8.4, 6.5±5.2 and 5.8±5.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the polluted area. The mean weights of the newborns in non-polluted and polluted areas were 3.2±0.5 kg and 3.2±4.5 kg, respectively.Conclusions: Our data revealed an association between mean concentrations in blood lead of mothers and newborns and between mean concentrations of colostrum lead and newborn blood lead in both areas (p=0.01. There was no association between mean blood lead concentration of mothers with the weight of their newborns (p=0.89.

  17. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, A; Tsuboi, N; Nakatani, N; Nakane, K; Sakurai, N; Nakagawa, N; Sakugawa, H

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20 degrees C. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NOx or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2012-11-01

    To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ΣDDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ΣDDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples.

  19. Effect of combined pollution by heavy metals on soil enzymatic activities in areas polluted by tailings from Pb-Zn-Ag mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Cheng-li; LIAO Min; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Some enzymatic activities were determined in the areas polluted by tailings from Tiantai Pb-Zn-Ag Mine in Zhejiang Province of China. The results indicated the soil enzymatic activities decreased significantly with increase of concentrations of heavy metals or the distance away from mining tailing center, especially dehydrogenase and urease activities. Multivariate regression analysis between heavy metal contents and soil enzymatic activities indicated that single dehydrogenase activity was very significantly correlated to combined effect of soil heavy metals in mine area. Moreover, single urease, protease and acid phosphatase activities were significantly related to the combined effect of heavy metals. The results suggest it is feasible to use soil enzymatic activities to indicate the pollution situation by combined heavy metals in the soil of mine area.

  20. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  1. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health.

  2. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L.; Vautard, R.; Flamant, P.H. [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C.; Beekmann, M.; Megie, G.; Sicard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C.; Lefebvre, M.P.; Lossec, B. [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P.; Martin, D. [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D. [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D. [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P.; Toupance, G. [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  3. Proposed tethered unmanned aerial system for the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J.; McKay, J.; Evans, W.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper is based on a proposed unmanned aerial system platform that is to be outfitted with high-resolution sensors. The proposed system is to be tethered to a moveable ground station, which may be a research vessel or some form of ground vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or rover). The sensors include, at a minimum: camera, infrared sensor, thermal, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) camera, global positioning system (GPS), and a light-based radar (LIDAR). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing methods for pollution detection of failing septic systems, and to introduce the proposed system. Future work will look at the high-resolution data from the sensors and integrating the data through a process called information fusion. Typically, this process is done using the popular and well-published Kalman filter (or its nonlinear formulations, such as the extended Kalman filter). However, future work will look at using a new type of strategy based on variable structure estimation for the information fusion portion of the data processing. It is hypothesized that fusing data from the thermal and NDVI sensors will be more accurate and reliable for a multitude of applications, including the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area.

  4. Lichens as sentinels for air pollution at remote alpine areas (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppi, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    The present study was undertaken with the aim of using epiphytic lichens as sentinels for air pollution at two remote alpine sites (1,400 and 1,800 m above sea level (asl)) of NW Italy. The results indicated that the site at 1,800 m prompted for early warning indications of biological changes. Although levels of the many elements assayed in samples of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, ranging from minor elements (e.g., Al) to ultra-trace (e.g., Pt), were at normal levels, indications of a slowly worsening environment were given by the lichen biodiversity and by damage to cell membranes. The analysis of Pb isotopic ratios suggested that the origin of Pb accumulated in lichens is not local, but linked to the long-range transport by air masses. It was concluded that the origin of pollutants is from air mass coming from the Po plain of Italy and from densely populated areas of Switzerland and France.

  5. Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Kumari, Puja; Bano, Shamima; Kumari, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste and overburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas, reaching the ground water and adversely affecting its quality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one eventuality. In the present work, concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20 important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad township situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of ground water in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far below the critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.

  6. Identification of environmental aspects and oil pollution pressure on spontaneous flora in the Patos-Marinëz industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Shehu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil industry activities have contributed to environmental pollution in general showing direct impacts on ecosystems and living creatures. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic or water-insoluble, making difficult their removal or degradation from terrestrial environment. The aim of the study is the "identification of environmental aspects causing environmental impacts and assessment of oil pollution pressure on spontaneous vegetation”. The study area is the oil field of Patos-Marinëz. In the area under study, the pollution lies in about 200 km2, of which 60000 ha are farmland. The water receiver environment of the oil industry emissions is Gjanica River. The effects extend to Seman River delta and then to the Adriatic Sea. Consequently, the water pollution causes impacts on living creatures in marine aquatic environments. These impacts can be accumulated in the marine and terrestrial food chain endangering human health. Leaks from well mouths, oil leaks and water layer leaks from the well hole, discharges and emissions from Ballsh Processing Plant, fluid collection groups and pipelines leaks are some of the most important environmental aspects in the study area. The dominant species of the spontaneous flora are Glyceria plicata dhe Sparganium erectum accompanied by a large number of species. Natural vegetation in this area is degraded and a reduction of the photosynthesis activity is observed. Pollution control and rehabilitation of the area are necessary.

  7. [Atmospheric pollution and chronic respiratory diseases in the blast-furnace areas of iron-works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, D; Valente, T; Rotunno, R; Giusto, R

    1977-01-01

    An epidemiologic research together with a study on the environmental pollution were carried out in order to evaluate the risk of chronic respiratory diseases of blast furnace workers. The environment study was performed mainly using personal samplers given to workers with different jobs. Observations on 222 work shifts have shown that the total dust concentration to which cast workmen, maintenance men and blast furnace service men were exposed, marginally exceed the TLV values. Furthermore the level of respirable dusts for blast furnace service men was found slightly excessive. The average SO2 concentration was largely below the TLV values. However this gas could be found in excess for very short periods during the work. The epidemiologic study, conducted on a cohort of blast furnace area workers against a control group cohort, indicated a moderate prevalence of pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis amongst blast furnaces workers. The clinic and radiological pictures do not seem to go beyond the initial stages.

  8. Air pollution of railways in urban areas. [Denmark]; Luftforurening fra togdrift i byomraeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roerdam Olesen, H.; Ellermann, T.; Winther, M.; Schmidt Plejdrup, M.; Brandt, J. [Aarhus Univ.. Institut for Miljoevidenskab, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The present report describes the results of a project on the air pollution impact of railways in the towns of Copenhagen and Aarhus. The project has comprised three activities. 1) Emission inventory. Detailed information about the activity of diesel fuelled trains in Copenhagen and Aarhus has been acquired. Based on this information emissions of NO{sub X} and PM{sub 2.5} (particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 micron) have been computed for railways and stations. 2) Computations of concentrations. The above mentioned emission data have provided a base for computation of concentrations of air pollutants close to railways and at further distances from them. 3) Indicative measurements. A number of indicative measurements of NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide) have been carried out at a few selected locations - some with an assumed large exposure to road traffic and trains, and others with assumed exposure from trains only. These indicative measurements have been limited in various respects. The focus of the entire work was to obtain an overall assessment, where results are expressed in terms of annual mean values. Features at a scale of less than 100 meters have not been described in the emission inventories, neither in the majority of the dispersion model calculations. Assessments for particle pollution involve only direct emissions of particles as PM{sub 2.5}, whereas resuspension of dust and wear from brakes and rails has been disregarded. Neither has the number of ultrafine particles been considered. The environmental significance of railway service in the two towns can be summarized as: 1) On a national level trains account for 2 % of NO{sub X} emission and 0.3 % of PM{sub 2.5} emission. 2) In the Copenhagen area (defined as a circle with radius 5 km and centre at Copenhagen Central Station) trains account for 3 % on NO{sub X} emission and 0.6 % of PM{sub 2.5} emission. 3) In the Aarhus area (a similar circle around Aarhus Central Station) trains account for 2 % on

  9. Transport and fate of mercury under different hydrologic regimes in polluted stream in mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Larssen, Thorjørn; Vogt, Rolf D; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Seepage from Hg mine wastes and calcines contains high concentrations of mercury (Hg). Hg pollution is a major environmental problem in areas with abandoned mercury mines and retorting units. This study evaluates factors, especially the hydrological and sedimentary variables, governing temporal and spatial variation in levels and state of mercury in streams impacted by Hg contaminated runoff. Samples were taken during different flow regimes in the Wanshan Hg mining area in Guizhou Province, China. In its headwaters the sampled streams/rivers pass by several mine wastes and calcines with high concentration of Hg. Seepage causes serious Hg contamination to the downstream area. Concentrations of Hg in water samples showed significant seasonal variations. Periods of higher flow showed high concentrations of total Hg (THg) in water due to more particles being re-suspended and transported. The concentrations of major anions (e.g., Cl-, F-, NO3- and SO4(2-)) were lower during higher flow due to dilution. Due to both sedimentation of particles and dilution from tributaries the concentration of THg decreased from 2100 ng/L to background levels (MINTEQ) showed that Hg(OH)2 associated with dissolved organic matter is the main form of Hg in dissolved phase in surface waters in Wanshan (over 95%).

  10. Eco-Environmental Geochemistry of Heavy Metal Pollution in Dexing Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 倪师军; 焦鹏程; 邓坚; 张成江; 王金生

    2004-01-01

    An eco-environmental geochemical investigation was carried out in and around the Dexing mining area to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface water, sediments, soils and plants. The main objective of this study is to assess the environmental situation and evaluate the transferring of heavy metals from mining activities into the food chain. Some samples of water, sediment, topsoil and plant were collected along the Lean River in the Dexing mining area. The total concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As were determined by AAS, and Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor AAS. Some indices such as ‘contamination degree',‘geoaccumulation index', and ‘biological absorption coefficient' were used to assess eco-environmental quality. The investigation indicated a highly localized distribution pattern closely associated with the two pollution sources along the Le'an River bank: one is strong acidity and a large amount of Cu in the drainage from the Dexing Cu mining area; and the other is the high concentrations of Pb and Zn in the effluents released from many smelters and mining, processing and extracting activities in the riparian zone. Results from the investigated localities indicated, at least in part, that some problems associated with environmental quality deterioration should be solved in the future.

  11. Effect of air pollution on respiratory tract diseases in small children. Morbidity rate in residential areas with varying degrees of severe pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehling, P.; Bory, J.; Haupt, H.

    1984-09-13

    In a retrospective study of hospitalized patients (children aged between 0 and 4 years) covering four years the dependence of the incidence of croup (infectious laryngitis) and obstructive bronchitis on air pollution was investigated. For this reason the incidence of morbidity in residential areas with various levels of SO/sub 2/ and sedimenting dust were compared. The results show a definitive connection between a high level of SO/sub 2/ and dust, respectively and a high rate of morbidity. This connection was particularly marked in areas with simultaneous high levels of both SO/sub 2/ and dust. The effects of confounding factors, such as infection incidence, meteorological influences, distances from hospital, social status, especially the percentage of foreign guest worker families and population density were investigated and separated from air pollution effects.

  12. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-03-07

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  13. [Pollution Assessment and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soils of Coal Mining Area in Longkou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wu, Quan-yuan; Cao, Xue-jiang; Wang, Ji-ning; Zhang, Long-long; Cai, Dong-quan; Zhou, Li-yuan; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    The present paper takes the coal mining area of Longkou City as the research area. Thirty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and the contents of 5 kinds of heavy metals were determined, including Cd, As, Ni, Ph, Cr. Geo-statistics analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to explore the pollution sources of heavy metals and the degree of heavy metals pollution was evaluated by weighted average comprehensive pollution evaluation method. The results showed that enrichment phenomenon was significant for the 5 kinds of heavy metals. Taking secondary standard of National Environment Quality Standard for Soil as the background value, their exceed standard rates were 72.22%, 100%, 100%, 91.67%, 100%, respectively. Average contents of heavy metals in the soil samples were all over the national standard level two and were 1.53, 11.86, 2.40, 1.31, 4.09 times of the background value. In addition, the average contents were much higher than the background value of the topsoil in the eastern part of Shandong Province and were 9.85, 39.98, 8.85, 4.29, 12.71 times of the background value. According to the semivariogram model, we obtained the nugget-effects of 5 kinds of heavy metals and their values were in the order of As (0.644) > Cd (0.627) > Cr (0.538) > Ni (0.411) > Pb (0.294), all belonging to moderate spatial correlation. On the whole, the central part of the Sangyuan Coal Mine and its surrounding areas were the most seriously polluted, while the pollution of heavy metals in the east and west of the study area was relatively light. Principal component analysis suggested that the enrichment of Cd, As, Ni, Cr was due to irrigation of wastewater, the discharge of industry and enterprise, and the industrial activity. Automobile exhaust and coal combustion were the main pollution sources of Pb. The single-factor assessment of heavy metals pollution showed that the degree of different heavy metals

  14. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: Human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Marti [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. - Highlights: > Traffic is an important emission source of persistent organic pollutants. > Oil refineries could be notable releasers of PAHs and some metals in the area. > Soil pollutant levels are notably lower than threshold values. > The air quality of Tarragona area is not greatly affected by metals and POPs. > The current exposure to micropollutants does not mean additional health risks. - Human exposure to environmental micropollutants in the industrial area of Tarragona does not mean additional health risks.

  15. Heavy metal accumulation, heat shock protein expression and cytogenetic changes in Tetrix tenuicornis (L.) (Tetrigidae, Orthoptera) from polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warchalowska-Sliwa, E. [Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: warchalowska@isez.pan.krakow.pl; Niklinska, M. [Department of Ecotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Studies, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 3, 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Goerlich, A. [Department of Cytology and Histology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Michailova, P. [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tzar Osvoboditiel Boulevard, Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria); Pyza, E. [Department of Cytology and Histology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-01-01

    The orthopteran insect Tetrix tenuicornis, collected from polluted and unpolluted areas, was used to study heavy metal accumulation and its impact on stress protein levels and on changes in the number and morphology of chromosomes in mitotic and meiotic cells. During two consecutive years, insects were collected from polluted areas of zinc-lead mine spoils near Boleslaw (Poland) and from unpolluted areas near Busko and Staszow (Poland). T. tenuicornis from the polluted area showed 1.5, 4.03, 4.32 and 41.73 times higher concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), respectively, than insects of the same species collected from unpolluted areas. Insects exposed to heavy metals showed only small changes, and rather a decrease in the concentration of constitutive and inducible heat shock proteins Hsp70, the level of which increases under stress conditions. A cytogenetic study of T. tenuicornis revealed intra-population anomalies in chromosome number and morphology in mitotic and meiotic cells and the presence of an additional B chromosome in germinal cells. In 50% of females collected from polluted areas, mosaic oogonial mitotic chromosome sets and diploid, hypo- or hypertetraploid, tetraploid, and octoploid chromosome numbers were detected. In turn, 14.6% of males showed a heterozygous deficiency of chromatin in L{sub 2} and M{sub 3} bivalents in addition to the presence of B chromosomes. - Metals accumulation caused genotoxicity in insects.

  16. Environmental externalities caused by SO{sub 2} and ozone pollution in the metropolitan area of Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Lechon; H. Cabal; M. Gomez; E. Sanchez; R. Saez [CIEMAT, Energy Studies Institute, Madrid (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    The work performs an assessment of the environmental externalities of SO{sub 2} and ozone pollution in an area 270 km 200 km surrounding the city of Madrid. The study analyses two situations corresponding to different and extreme cases of atmospheric pollution in the area produced in years 1992 and 1995, respectively. Concentrations fields in these years for these pollutants were estimated in the framework of a project financed by the R and D National Programme and reported elsewhere. Aggregated environmental externalities produced in the area were estimated using these concentration fields and applying the ExternE methodology. Environmental effects analysed were those produced in the health of the people living in the area, effects on agricultural crops, and effects on construction materials. Results obtained for SO{sub 2} show that environmental externalities produced are very high, especially, those related to the effects on health and materials. Results for ozone show also that important damages are produced, specially those related to public health. Total environmental externalities due to SO{sub 2} and ozone amount to 9675 million euro in year 1992 and 7664 million euro in year 1995 representing 7% of the GDP of the area in 1995. These results are very useful for policy-making since they could be used to assess the cost-effectiveness of policies intended to reduce environmental pollution in the area.

  17. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for Coal Storage Area Stabilization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Project and Design Engineering

    2011-03-01

    The scope of this project is to stabilize the abandoned coal storage area and redirect the storm water runoff from sanitary sewer system to the storm drain system. Currently, the existing storm water runoff is directed to a perimeter concrete drainage swale and collected in a containment basin. The collected water is then pumped to a treatment facility and after treatment, is discharged to the Y-12 sanitary sewer system. The existing drainage swale and collection basin along with silt fencing will be used during aggregate placement and grading to provide erosion and sediment control. Inlet protection will also be installed around existing structures during the storm water diversion construction. This project scope will include the installation of a non-woven geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base (paving optional) to stabilize the site. The geotextile specifications are provided on the vendor cut sheets in Appendix B. The installation of a storm water collection/retention area will also be installed on the southern side of the site in accordance with EPA Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. The total area to be disturbed is approximately 2.5 acres. The order of activities for this Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) will be: (1) post notice of coverage (NOC) in a prominent display near entrance of the site; (2) install rain gauge on site or contact Y-12 Plant Shift Superintendent daily for Met tower rain gauge readings; (3) install stabilized construction exit on site; (4) install silt fencing along perimeter as indicated on the attached site plan; (5) regrade site; (6) install geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base; (7) install catch basin inlet protection where required; (8) excavate and lower existing catch basin tops, re-grade and asphalt to drain; and (9) when all disturbed areas are re-stabilized, remove

  18. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Maximilian [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Welker, Antje [Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Hydromechanik, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Nibelungenplatz 1, 60318 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Helmreich, Brigitte, E-mail: b.helmreich@tum.de [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. - Highlights: • Heavy metal runoff concentrations in parking lots, bridges, and roads • Large dataset of dissolved and total metal concentrations in traffic area runoff • Description of site-specific and monitoring method-specific factors • Summary of traffic-related and anthropogenic heavy metals in road runoff • Reduction in Pb

  19. Chemical-physical and ecological characterisation in the environmental project of a polluted coastal area: the Bagnoli case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BERGAMIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bagnoli Bay (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Naples, Italy has been impacted for about one century by heavy anthropogenic pollution due to an important steel plant. A multidisciplinary environmental research, aimed at the reclamation of the marine contaminated area, was planned in order to evaluate, through quantitative data, the chemical-physical and ecological characteristics of marine sediments; the latter ones are strictly related to the composition and structure of benthic foraminiferal assemblages. A comprehensive statistical approach, considering all data, was attempted in order to single out the influence of pollutants on the single species distribution. The results show strong heavy metal pollution (Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the vicinity of the industrial plant. Many foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, Miliolinella subrotunda,Quinqueloculina parvula, have a good tolerance to some trace metals while, Bulimina sublimbata, Elphidiummacellum and Miliolinella dilatata show a good tolerance to PAHs pollution.

  20. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  2. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  3. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals, metalloids, and chlorine in ectomycorrhizae from smelter-polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejpková, Jaroslava; Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Kotrba, Pavel; Řanda, Zdeněk; Synková, Iva; Borovička, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi contribute to the survival of host trees on metal-rich soils by reducing the transfer of toxic metals into roots. However, little is known about the ability of ECM fungi to accumulate elements in ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). Here we report Ag, As, Cd, Cl, Cu, Sb, V, and Zn contents in wild-grown Norway spruce ECMs collected in a smelter-polluted area at Lhota near Příbram, Czech Republic. The ECMs data were compared with the element concentrations determined in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal fine roots, soils, and soil extracts. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated to differentiate the element accumulation ability of ECMs inhabited by different mycobionts, which were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing. Among the target elements, the highest contents were observed for Ag, Cl, Cd, and Zn; Imleria badia ECMs showed the highest capability to accumulate these elements. ECMs of Amanita muscaria, but not of other species, accumulated V. The analysis of the proportions of I. badia and A. muscaria mycelia in ECMs by using species-specific quantitative real-time PCR revealed variable extent of the colonization of roots, with median values close to 5% (w/w). Calculated Ag, Cd, Zn and Cl concentrations in the mycelium of I. badia ECMs were 1 680, 1 510, 2 670, and 37,100 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively, indicating substantial element accumulation capacity of hyphae of this species in ECMs. Our data strengthen the idea of an active role of ECM fungi in soil-fungal-plant interactions in polluted environments.

  4. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  5. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  6. Methodology for the ecotoxicological evaluation of areas polluted by phosphogypsum wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanchez, M. J.; Garcia-Lorenzo, M. L.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M.; Bech, J.

    2012-04-01

    In Spain, the production of phosphoric acid, and hence of phosphogypsum, is restricted to a fertilizer industrial site. The residues contain some radionuclides of the U-series and other contaminants. In order to estimate the risk posed by these materials, chemical methods need to be complemented with biological methods. Then, the aim of this study was to develop a battery of bioassays for the ecotoxicological screening of areas polluted by phosphogypsum wastes. Particularly, the toxicity of water samples, sediments and their pore-water extracts was evaluated by using three assays: bacteria, plants and ostracods. The applied bioassays were: the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri in superficial water samples using Microtox® bioassay; the root and shoot elongation inhibition and the mortality of Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba using Phytotoxkit® bioassay; and inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens by way of Ostracodtoxkit®. Proposed methodology allows the identification of contamination sources and non contaminated areas, corresponding to decreasing toxicity values.

  7. Measurements of Criteria Pollutants in Suburban Locations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanes, O.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, A.; Martinez, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the town of Santa Ana in the southern part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) at an approximate height of 370 meters above the Valley of Mexico, a series of criteria pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, temperature and relative humidity) were measured during the MCMA-2003 field campaign during April 2003. Santa Ana is considered a border site, agriculture being the predominant activity. The generated data in Santa Ana was compared with those from two representative atmospheric monitoring stations from the southeast zone (CENICA Supersite) and southwest (Revolucion Station) of Mexico City. The carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations measured in Santa Ana are atypical for a rural area. The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are characteristic of the local activity. The average obtained during the measurement time for carbon monoxide was 0.86 ppm, the presence of the contaminant was within a 0.3 to 1.5 ppm range, 5 to 95 percentile, and does not follow the observed behavior of the monitoring stations that are located inside the urban area, although during the night (10 pm to 6 am) the carbon monoxide in Santa Ana was preset in levels from 0.4 to 1.5 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles, average 0.92 ppm, above the reported concentrations at Revolucion Station, levels from 0.1 to 1.7 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles; average 0.72 ppm. The presence of this contaminant can be attributed to transportation and accumulation phenomena. The ozone daytime behavior is similar to the one observed in the CENICA and Revolucion stations, but with a lower magnitude, the daily maximum generally occuring 2 or 3 hours after the urban stations. The one-hour average maximum values were 133 ppb in Santa Ana area and 188 ppb in the city. During the night the average concentrations were 37 ppb in Santa Ana and 17 ppb in the urban area. Nevertheless, the ozone average value in Santa Ana

  8. An association between air pollution and daily outpatient visits for respiratory disease in a heavy industry area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available In this work we used daily outpatient data from the Landseed Hospital in a heavily industrial area in northern Taiwan to study the associations between daily outpatient visits and air pollution in the context of a heavily polluted atmospheric environment in Chung-Li area during the period 2007-2011. We test the normality of each data set, control for the confounding factors, and calculate correlation coefficient between the outpatient visits and air pollution and meteorology, and use multiple linear regression analysis to seek significance of these associations. Our results show that temperature and relative humidity tend to be negatively associated with respiratory diseases. NO and [Formula: see text] are two main air pollutants that are positively associated with respiratory diseases, followed by [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], CO, and [Formula: see text]. Young outpatients (age 0-15 years are most sensitive to changing air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by the eldest (age [Formula: see text]66 years and age 16-65 years of outpatients. Outpatients for COPD diseases are most sensitive to air pollution and meteorology factors, followed by allergic rhinitis, asthma, and pneumonia diseases. In the context of sex difference to air pollution and meteorological factors, male outpatients are more sensitive than female outpatients in the 16-65 age groups, while female outpatients are more sensitive than male outpatients in the young 0-15 age groups and in the eldest age groups. In total, female outpatients are more sensitive to air pollution and meteorological factors than male outpatients.

  9. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  10. Biomonitoring of a polluted coastal area (Bay of Muggia, Northern Adriatic Sea): A five-year study using transplanted mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschino, Vanessa; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    The subcellular effects of pollution were evaluated using two lysosomal biomarkers in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, deployed periodically over a period of 5 years in a harbour area in the Bay of Muggia (Gulf of Trieste, North Adriatic Sea) that is strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Mussels were collected from a clean marine farm and analysed (sample T0). A sub-sample was transplanted to the harbour site (sample M) and analysed after about 12 weeks. An additional sub-sample was relocated within the farm as a control and was also tested at the end of the 12-week period (sample T1). The transplantation procedures were repeated twice yearly for 5 consecutive years, starting in 2009. Two well-established lysosomal biomarkers, i.e. lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin accumulation, were evaluated in hepatopancreas cells. The body condition index and mortality rate were also assessed. Moreover, various pollutants were determined in both mussel flesh, for a better comprehension of the biological response, and sediments, for a general characterization of the study area. As a whole, the applied biomarkers were found to be appropriate for determining the responses of mussels to environmental pollutant loads over time. Variations in lysosomal membrane stability and lipofuscin content were mostly related to total PAHs and metals respectively. Our results confirm the usefulness of active biomonitoring in evaluating pollution trends in marine coastal areas and in particular the value of lysosomal biomarkers as a rapid screening tool for highlighting pollutant effects at least at organism level.

  11. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  12. Transport and fate of mercury under different hydrologic regimes in polluted stream in mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lin; Thorjφrm Larssen; Rolf D. Vogt; Xinbin Feng; Hua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Seepage from Hg mine wastes and calcines contains high concentrations of mercury (Hg).Hg pollution is a major environmental problem in areas with abandoned mercury mines and retorting units.This study evaluates factors, especially the hydrological and sedimentary variables, governing temporal and spatial variation in levels and state of mercury in streams impacted by Hg contaminated runoff.Samples were taken during different flow regimes in the Wanshan Hg mining area in Guizhou Province, China.In its headwaters the sampled streams/rivers pass by several mine wastes and calcines with high concentration of Hg.Seepage causes serious Hg contamination to the downstream area.Concentrations of Hg in water samples showed significant seasonal variations.Periods of higher flow showed high concentrations of total Hg (THg) in water due to more particles being re-suspended and transported.The concentrations of major anions (e.g., CI-, F-, NO3- and 8042-) were lower during higher flow due to dilution.Due to both sedimentation of particles and dilution from tributaries the concentration of THg decreased from 2100 ng/L to background levels (< 50 ng/L) within 10 km distance downstream.Sedimentation is the main reason for the fast decrease of the concentration, it accounts for 69% and 60%for higher flow and lower flow regimes respectively in the upper part of the stream.Speciation calculation of the dissolved Hg fraction (DHg) (using Visual MINTEQ) showed that Hg(OH)2 associated with dissolved organic matter is the main form of Hg in dissolved phase in surface waters in Wanshan (over 95%).

  13. mpacts of Agricultural Non-point Pollution on Water-source Area in Songhua Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research impacts of agricultural non-point pol- lution on water-source region in Songhua Dam, laying foundation for control of water pollution and scientific protection of water-source region. [Method] Water in Muyang River, lengshui River and Zizania aquatica region were sampled to measure content of pollutants in water and conclude relation between water contamination and agri- cultural non-point pollution to find the major cause of pollution. [Result] Organic pollu- tant in Muyang River was higher; N and P contents in Lengshui River were higher; the measured indices in Zizania aquatica region excessively exceeded related stan- dard. [Conclusion] The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are the toxic materials lead- ing to water contamination and constitute a major cause of pollution in Songhua Dam water-source region. Agricultural non-point pollution should be controlled in a scientific way.

  14. Alternative Treatment for Asthma: Case Study of Success of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment of Children from Urban Areas with Different Levels of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment in Dutch children with asthma in areas with differing air pollution. The study results indicate that TCM treatment of children living in more polluted urban area is less successful then that of children living in cleaner air area. PMID:23724242

  15. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  16. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  17. Evaluation of Some Organic Pollutants Transport into the Shallow Groundwater and Surface Water of Jiaxing Landfill Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Keita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hangjiahu regions belong to the Yangtze River Delta region in Zhejiang Province in China. The vast majority of this region is flat, so surface and groundwater both have a low flow rate. With the rapid economic development of the area, a large number of industrial and domestic garbage are generated. These landfill or garbage are exposed and stacked. Because of mismanagement of environment, the atmosphere under the leaching rainfall, results in harmful gases and leachate. A serious pollution of the atmosphere surrounding the dump, soil, surface water and groundwater occurred. By studying the area under different hydro geological conditions this groundwater pollution due to the landfill can be stopped and prevented. This research can also provide a scientific basis. Approach: Some samples were taken to some specific sampling points in order to do chemical analysis. A hydro geological investigation was done on the study area. By using all these data, groundwater pollution was evaluated and predicted through numerical simulation software: Groundwater Modeling System (GMS, from 2006-2007. Results: A total of six main organic pollutants were found in the entire study area including: toluene, dichloropropane, benzene, dichloroethane, chloroform and dichloromethane. There concentration increased form 2006 to 2007 and is higher in surface water than groundwater. Conclusion/Recommendations: Experimental and simulation results were compared and showed that close agreement between these two values were obtained. The application of ecological methods to remove harmful substances such as the cultivation of suitable plants is also necessary.

  18. Informal and Formal Environmental Education Infusion: Actions of Malaysian Teachers and Parents among Students in a Polluted Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustam, Baniah; Daniel, Esther Sarojini

    2016-01-01

    The study explored Environmental Education infusion among students by teachers and parents in two schools located in a highly polluted area. Qualitative data was collected through observations, interviews and an open-ended questionnaire. Participants of the observations and interviews were 6 Secondary 4 students, 6 teachers and 6 parents.…

  19. Measurements of biochemical markers of pollution in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal areas of the Saronikos Gulf (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. TSANGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in a number of biochemical parameters in marine organisms represent specific markers of exposure to particular classes of contaminants. They are used as tools for the detection and monitoring of pollution. In this study, two biochemical markers of pollution, metallothionein (MT content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity were measured in indigenous and transplanted mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal areas within the Saronikos Gulf subject to high anthropogenic activities. Biannual measurements of the two biomarkers in indigenous mussel populations for two years revealed no significant differences among stations representing a pollution gradient. Limited differences in MT levels were only found between mussel populations transplanted at lesser and more impacted stations. Both biomarkers showed a variation with respect to the season of sampling, whilst during the second year of measurements a concomitant increase in metallothionein content with a decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity was noted. Our results indicate that the applied biochemical markers in indigenous mussel populations do not reflect the type of pollution in the Saronikos Gulf to a degree that can be used for pollution monitoring in the area.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of the environmental pollutant antibiotics in Gaoqiao mangrove area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Qin; Zhou, Kai; Sun, Xing-Li; Zhao, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yu-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Occurrence and distribution of 15 antibiotics belonging to families of sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and chloramphenicols were investigated in water and sediment in Gaoqiao mangrove area, China, using LC-MS-MS. The influence of tidal level and mangrove vegetation on antibiotic residues were examined. The levels of antibiotics were found to be ranged from 0.15 to 198 ng L(-1) in water and from 0.08 to 849 μg kg(-1) in sediment. No significant difference in concentrations of 15 different antibiotics from water and sediment samples was observed among the high, middle and low intertidal channel. The residues of SMZ, SMTZ, OFL, NOR, ENR, OXY and FLO were significantly higher in Aegiceras corniculatum assemblage than in Avicennia marina assemblage. Although no significant difference in tested antibiotics was found between the surface and bottom sediment, mangrove vegetation can to some extent reduce the accumulation for SMZ, SMTZ, OFL, NOR, CIP, OXY and TET in sediments relative to corresponding bare mudflats, implying that the environmental pollution from antibiotics may be mitigated by mangrove vegetation. Principal components analysis revealed that the terrestrial input and different habitats directly influenced the occurrence and distribution of antibiotics.

  1. Controlling Nonpoint Pollution in Virginia’s Urbanizing Areas: An Institutional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-20

    channel, tunnel , conduit, from which pollutants are or may be discharged." The point is that pollution from 33 U.S. C.A, § 1251 (a) (1978). 9 Id at...concrete formwork ). Likewise, a required permanent on-site BMP would be considered part of the overall site development plan. Such costs are absorbed by

  2. [Division of agricultural areas based on the level of pollution with industrial toxic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonnikova, S M; Maksimova, G F; Iakhina, M P; Magzhanova, S A

    1993-10-01

    Investigation of soil in the region with oil processing industry showed that soil of agricultural fields 10 km around is much polluted and can be used only for growing of technical crops and perennial grasses for seeds. Soil 15-20 km around is less polluted, but also demands limitation in agricultural use, especially on low riverside parts.

  3. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen;

    2014-01-01

    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground environ...

  4. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... standards to control hazardous air pollutants from new and existing industrial, commercial and institutional... not affect the estimated emission reductions, control costs or the benefits of the rule in substance... of subpart JJJJJJ (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  5. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.

    2007-01-01

    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role...... in development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  6. Research and control of well water pollution in high esophageal cancer areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Lan Zhang; Xiu-Lan Bai; Bing Zhang; Xing Zhang; Zhi-Feng Chen; Jun-Zhen Zhang; Shuo-Yuang Liang; Fan-Shu Men; Shu-Liang Zheng; Xiang-Ping Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: In order to detect risk factors for esophageal cancer,a national research program was carried out during the Eighth Five-Year Plan (from 1991 to 1995). METHODS: Cixian County and Chichen County in Hebei Province were selected as the index and the control for the study fields with higher or lower incidence of esophagus cancer in China, respectively. In these areas, we investigated the pollution of three nitrogenous compounds in well water for drinking and the use of nitrogen fertilizer in farming. RESULTS: In well water, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen were 8.77 mg/L, 0.014 mg/L and 0.009 mg/L in Cixian County in 1993, respectively. They were significantly higher than their levels (3.84 mg/L, 0.004 mg/L and 0.004 mg/L) in Chichen County (P<0.01, t=6.281,t=3.784,t=3.775). There was a trend that the nitrogenous compounds in well water increased from 1993 to 1996.The amount of nitrogen fertilizer used in farming was 787.6 kg per hectare land in Cixian County in 1991, significantly higher than 186 kg per hectare in Chichen County (t=9.603,P<0.001). CONCLUSION: These investigations indicate that the poilution of nitrogenous compounds in well water for drinking is closely related to the use of nitrogen fertlizer in farming, and there is a significantly positive correlation between the level of three nitrogenous compounds in well water and the mortality ofesophageal cancer (correlation coefficient =0.5992). We suggest that improvement of well system for drinking water quality should be an effective measure for esophageal cancer prevention and control in rural areas.

  7. Persistent pollutants and the patchiness of urban green areas as drivers of genetic richness in the epiphytic moss Leptodon smithii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeria Spagnuolo; Flavia De Nicola; Stefano Terracciano; Roberto Bargagli; Daniela Baldantoni; Fabrizio Monaci; Anna Alfani

    2014-01-01

    We determined genetic variation and metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in Leptodon smithii moss collected in holm oak stands at cities,outskirts and remote areas of Campania and Tuscany (Italy) to investigate if anthropogenic pressure (pollutant emissions and land use change) affects moss genetic richness.In both regions,metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations reflected the trend urban > outskirts > remote areas,excepting Tuscany remote site.In both regions,the moss gene diversity increased from urban to remote areas.The findings suggest the extent and the fragmentation of urban green areas,as drivers of moss genetic richness.

  8. Benthic foraminifera (Protista) as indicators of metal pollution in areas of historic mining: examples from southwest England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Smart, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Southwest England has been, from Roman times, an important mining area supplying a range of important metals, including copper, tin, tungsten, arsenic, zinc, silver, etc. This mining activity virtually disappeared in the twentieth century, although one tungsten mine near Plymouth has recently re-opened. Large areas of Cornwall and West Devon are now inscribed as the 'Cornish Mining World Heritage Site' on the cultural list of UNESCO. Many of the old mines with their spoil heaps and tailings dams are now protected and, together with the mineral-rich local geology, provide many catchments with on-going metal pollution. In January 1992, after a period of prolonged, heavy rainfall Wheal Jane mine flooded and discharged heavily polluted, acidic, water into Restonguet Creek and the Fal Estuary. This event provided the setting for a detailed investigation of the immediate impact of the pollution and the resulting environmental improvements caused by engineering interventions and natural re-adjustment. Benthic foraminifera disappeared from Restronguet Creek for a number of years and while there is now an abundant, though low diversity, estuarine assemblage of foraminifera living in the creek there are still high levels (Conservation under the EU Habitats Directive, 2000), deformed foraminifera are very rare and the measured levels of pollution can be used to compare with the test deformity data. In other estuarine systems in southwest England, such as the River Fowey and the River Tamar, levels of deformity are less, though still significant for areas no longer being actively mined. This demonstrates that polluted sediments in all these estuaries, which can be disturbed during floods or times of stormy weather, and the background levels of metal elements in the catchments that supply these estuaries, are sufficient to maintain these levels of deformity in the long term. OLUGBODE, O.I., HART, M.B. & STUBBLES, S.J. 2005. Foraminifera from Restronguet Creek: monitoring

  9. Pollutant flows from a phosphogypsum disposal area to an estuarine environment: An insight from geochemical signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-López, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.perez@dgeo.uhu.es [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Macías, Francisco; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, Aguasanta Miguel [Department of Geodynamics and Palaeontology, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Pérez-Moreno, Silvia María [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Campus ‘El Carmen’, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Phosphogypsum wastes from phosphate fertilizer industries are stockpiled in stacks with high contamination potential. An assessment of the environmental impact, including the use of geochemical tracers such as rare earth elements (REE) and Cl/Br ratios, was carried out in the phosphogypsum stack located at the Estuary of Huelva (SW Spain). Inside the pile, highly polluted acid pore-waters flows up to the edge of the stack, emerging as small fluvial courses, known as edge outflows, which discharge directly into the estuary. The disposal area is divided into four zones; two unrestored zones with surface ponds of industrial process water and two a priori already-restored zones. However, an extensive sampling of edge outflows conducted in the perimeter of the four zones demonstrates the high potential of contamination of the whole stack, including those zones that were supposedly restored. These solutions are characterized by a pH of 1.9 and concentrations of 6100 mg/L for P, 1970 mg/L for S, 600 mg/L for F, 200 mg/L for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, 100 mg/L for Fe, 10–30 mg/L for Zn, As and U, and 1–10 mg/L for Cr, Cu and Cd. Preliminary restoration actions and those planned for the future prioritize removal of ponded process water and cover of the phosphogypsum with artificial topsoil. These actions presuppose that the ponded process water percolates through the porous medium towards the edge up to reach the estuary. However, geochemical tracers rule out this connection and point to an estuarine origin for these leachates, suggesting a possible tidal-induced leaching of the waste pile in depth. These findings would explain the ineffectiveness of preliminary restoration measures and should be considered for the development of new action plans. - Highlights: • Acidity and contaminants from phosphogypsum leaching are released to an estuary. • Already-restored zones act as a pollution source just as unrestored zones. • Cl/Br ratios and REE patterns were suitable to assess

  10. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  11. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated.

  12. Spatial modelling of air pollution in urban areas with GIS: a case study on integrated database development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Matejicek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of data collected by monitoring systems and by mathematical and physical modelling can be managed in the frame of spatial models developed in GIS. In addition to data management and standard environmental analysis of air pollution, data from remote sensing (aerial and satellite images can ehance all data sets. In spite of the fact that simulation of air pollutant distribution is carried out by standalone computer systems, the spatial database in the framework of the GIS is used to support decision-making processes in a more efficient way. Mostly, data are included in the map layers as attributes. Other map layers are carried out by the methods of spatial interpolation, raster algebra, and case oriented analysis. A series of extensions is built into the GIS to adapt its functionality. As examples, the spatial models of a flat urban area and a street canyon with extensive traffic polluted with NOx are constructed. Different scales of the spatial models require variable methods of construction, data management, and spatial data sources. The measurement of NOx and O3 by an automatic monitoring system and data from the differential absorption LIDAR are used for investigation of air pollution. Spatial data contain digital maps of both areas, complemented by digital elevation models. Environmental analyses represent spatial interpolations of air pollution that are displayed in horizontal and vertical planes. Case oriented analyses are mostly focused on risk assessment methods. Finally, the LIDAR monitoring results and the results obtained by modelling and spatial analyses are discussed in the context of environmental management of the urban areas. The spatial models and their extensions are developed in the framework of the ESRI's ArcGIS and ArcView programming tools. Aerial and satellite images preprocessed by the ERDAS Imagine represent areas of Prague.

  13. [Observations and comparison analysis of air pollution in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Song, Tao; Lin, Hong; Wang, Yue-Si; Jiang, Chang-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    In order to study regional air quality, evaluate the interaction of air quality among Beijing and four cities and assess the effects of regional collaborative emission abatement in Beijing and surrounding areas for the Olympic Games period on regional air quality, and seek an effective means of early warning of air pollution, a monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and four nearby cities which were Zhuozhou, Langfang, Xianghe and Yanjiao, was established to measure concentrations of NO(x), O3 and particulate matter in June 2008. The results show that the primary pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas are particulates during the study periods. The average mass concentrations of PM10 were (114 +/- 66) microg/m3 and (128 +/- 59) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively, while the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 were (77 +/- 47) microg/m3 and (81 +/- 51) microg/m3, respectively. The average maximum hourly mass concentrations of O3 were (164 +/- 52) microg/m3 and (165 +/- 55) microg/m3, as well as the average mass concentrations of NO(x) were (58 +/- 23) microg/m3 and (25 +/- 14) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively. Compared to June, concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO(x) decreased by 69%, 62%, 18% and 41% during the Olympic period (from August 8 to 24) and 56%, 49%, 17% and 16% during the Paralympic Games period (from September 6 to 17) in Beijing. The mass concentration of PM2.5 was affected by the surrounding areas of Beijing seriously. The relative high concentrations of NO(x) in Beijing implied NO(x) had the potential tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. Ozone showed regional pollution characteristics in summer. It shows that the monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas is significant in early warning of air pollution, and could provide scientific support for interregional cooperation of air pollution control.

  14. Mercury pollution in the Chongqing part of the Three Gorges Reservoir area and its remediation and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen-ning; LIU Xin-an; LU Ting; HUANG Jian-jun

    2008-01-01

    Mercury pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of P. R. China merits special attention. We investigated into the current situation in the Chongqing part of the Reservoir area, identified the pollution sources and proposed some suggestions for the remediation and prevention of mercury pollution in this area. Atmospheric mercury in Chongqing was mainly from coal burning and releases of mercury-containing products such as various types of lights and fever thermometers. Urban drainage in Chongqing and Changshou, and runoffs from the high mercury background area in the lower reaches of the Wujiang River contributed most of the mercury in the water of the Yangtze River. A majority of the blame should be laid on mercury and gold mining in the Wujiang valley. We suggested foresting sloping lands to relieve soil erosion and prevent mercury-bearing soil from running into rivers, educational activities to discourage use of mercury-containing products and improved infrastructure to collect mercury-containing wastes for reducing mercury releases, more facilities for treating wastewater and solid waste to accommodate increased requirements of discharge, and growing selected perennial plants in mercury-contaminated land to absorb the mercury in soil. We also suggested concerted operation of a dedicated water-quality monitoring system, reinforced legislation and an effective administrative mechanism to ensure lasting efforts are invested in curbing mercury releases and restoring mercury contaminated land and water in the Reservoir area.

  15. Development and investigation of a pollution control pit for treatment of stormwater from metal roofs and traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, C; Göbel, P; Lohmann, M; Coldewey, W G

    2006-01-01

    Source control by on-site retention and infiltration of stormwater is a sustainable and proven alternative to classical drainage methods. Unfortunately, sedimentary particles and pollutants from drained surfaces cause clogging and endanger soil and groundwater during long-term operation of infiltration devices. German water authorities recommend the use of infiltration devices, such as swales or swale-trench-systems. Direct infiltration by underground facilities, such as pipes, trenches or sinks, without pretreatment of runoff is generally not permitted. Problems occur with runoff from metal roofs, traffic areas and industrial sites. However, due to site limitations, underground systems are often the only feasible option. To overcome this situation, a pollution control pit was developed with a hydrodynamic separator and a multistage filter made of coated porous concrete. The system treats runoff at source and protects soil, groundwater and receiving waterways. Typically, more than 90% of the pollutants such as sedimentary particles, hydrocarbons and heavy metals can be removed. Filters have been developed to treat even higher polluted stormwater loads from metal roofs and industrial sites. The treatment process is based on sedimentation, filtration, adsorption and chemical precipitation. Sediments are trapped in a special chamber within the pit and can be removed easily. Other pollutants are captured in the concrete filter upstream of the sediment separator chamber. Filters can be easily replaced.

  16. [Distribution of heavy metals in waters and pollution assessment in thallium contaminated area of Yunfu, Guangdong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-ping; Qi, Jian-ying; Wang, Chun-lin; Chen, Yong-heng

    2011-05-01

    Distribution of Thallium(T1), Cadmium( Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) in water and sediments of Yunfu pyrite mine area was studied. The environmental risk assessment was conducted systematically using Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and Hakanson potential ecological risk index. The results indicated that concentration range of Tl in stream water was 0.19-65.25 microg/L, which is higher than the environmental quality standards for surface water. Concentration ranges of Tl, Zn, As, Cd, Pb in sediments were 5.89-63.0 mg/kg, 1215-5754 mg/kg, 208.4-1327 mg/kg, 4.20-17.5 mg/kg, 282-13,770 mg/kg. According to Sediments Quality Guidelines, sediments was moderately to severe level of pollution since concentrations of Tl, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, As, Cu, Zn were much higher than LEL (lowest effect level) values, and the concentrations of Pb, As, Zn were higher than SEL (severe effect level) values, the others were partly higher than SEL values, which may result in severe negative biota effects in the watersheds. Compared to soil background values of Guangdong province, the metals in stream sediment showed strong to severe strong ecological risk, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in the descending order of Tl, Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu. Besides, the sediments were severe contained by toxic element thallium and cadmium. Besides, the mainly ecological risk of heavy metal is thallium. More emphasis should be placed on thallium and cadmium control and disposal in

  17. Pollutant flows from a phosphogypsum disposal area to an estuarine environment: An insight from geochemical signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Macías, Francisco; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Sarmiento, Aguasanta Miguel; Pérez-Moreno, Silvia María

    2016-05-15

    Phosphogypsum wastes from phosphate fertilizer industries are stockpiled in stacks with high contamination potential. An assessment of the environmental impact, including the use of geochemical tracers such as rare earth elements (REE) and Cl/Br ratios, was carried out in the phosphogypsum stack located at the Estuary of Huelva (SW Spain). Inside the pile, highly polluted acid pore-waters flows up to the edge of the stack, emerging as small fluvial courses, known as edge outflows, which discharge directly into the estuary. The disposal area is divided into four zones; two unrestored zones with surface ponds of industrial process water and two a priori already-restored zones. However, an extensive sampling of edge outflows conducted in the perimeter of the four zones demonstrates the high potential of contamination of the whole stack, including those zones that were supposedly restored. These solutions are characterized by a pH of 1.9 and concentrations of 6100 mg/L for P, 1970 mg/L for S, 600 mg/L for F, 200mg/L for NH4(+), 100mg/L for Fe, 10-30 mg/L for Zn, As and U, and 1-10mg/L for Cr, Cu and Cd. Preliminary restoration actions and those planned for the future prioritize removal of ponded process water and cover of the phosphogypsum with artificial topsoil. These actions presuppose that the ponded process water percolates through the porous medium towards the edge up to reach the estuary. However, geochemical tracers rule out this connection and point to an estuarine origin for these leachates, suggesting a possible tidal-induced leaching of the waste pile in depth. These findings would explain the ineffectiveness of preliminary restoration measures and should be considered for the development of new action plans.

  18. Respiratory diseases and allergies in two polluted areas in East Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, J; Hoelscher, B; Wjst, M.; Ritz, B.; J. Cyrys; Wichmann, H

    1999-01-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study collected health data for 2,470 school children between 5 and 14 years of age (89% of eligible children) who had lived most of their lives in either one of two counties strongly impacted by industrial pollution (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) or in a neighboring county without any sources of industrial pollution (Zerbst). The objective of the study was to examine whether regional differences--with respect to the occurrence of childhood respiratory disease...

  19. Assessment of metal pollution associated with an alteration area: Old Gümüşhane, NE Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Alaaddin

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential environmental risks associated with the Kirkpavli (Old Gümüşhane in northern Turkey) alteration area by quantifying pollution in soil. The Kirkpavli (Old Gümüşhane) alteration area is situated at the south of the deposit with the same name of gold-silver-bearing lead, zinc, and copper in the southern part of the Black Sea Tectonic Unit (Eastern Pontides). In this study, 28 soil samples acquired from the alteration area were analyzed for contents of some main elements including lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As). Contents of the elements in the area were determined, and high values were obtained such as 1,171 mg/kg for As, 12.4 mg/kg for Cd, 77.3 mg/kg for Co, 341 mg/kg for Cu, 1,172 mg/kg for Mn, 51.9 mg/kg for Ni, 3,725 mg/kg for Pb, and 880 mg/kg for Zn. Soil contamination was appraised on the basis of Geoaccumulation Index (I geo), Enrichment Factor (EF), Pollution Index, and Integrated Pollution Index. The calculated results of I geo, EF, and PI of the elements can be shown in descending order of parameters as As > Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu > Co > Mn. The parameters for some of these elements indicated extremely high contamination (I geo > 5), extremely high enrichment (EF > 40), and high pollution (PI > 3). High I geo, EF, and PI values of As, Pb, and Cd in the soil samples mean that soil pollution is typically associated with alteration area. Considering its location and the results of this study, the Kirkpavli alteration area is a significant source of pollution and may have ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, groundwater, and aquatic ecosystems in the region.

  20. Heavy Metals Pollution of Ground Water in Urban and Sub-Urban Areas of Makurdi Metropolis – Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    *I. I. Mile; 1J. I. Amonum; 2N. L. Sambe

    2013-01-01

    This study examines heavy metals pollution of ground water in the residential sector of Makurdi urban area and Yaikyô settlement – a peri-urban area of Makurdi metropolis. Water samples from fifteen (15) wells in Makurdi urban area and fifteen (15) wells in Yaikyô settlement were analysed for chromium (Cr), Cadmium (cd), Iron (Fe), and Copper (Cu). Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) method was used for water sample analysis. This was done in the peak of rainy season, in the month of Septemb...

  1. Copper and lead isotopic and metallic pollution record in soils from the Kombat mining area, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Vanek, Ales; Chrastny, Vladislav; Kribek, Bohdan; Penizek, Vit; Sracek, Ondrej

    2013-04-01

    Copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) concentration, isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb, 65Cu/63Cu) and speciation were studied in soils from the Kombat mining area. The Cu and Pb concentrations in the studied soils ranged between 21 mg/kg - 757 mg/kg, and 19 mg/kg - 815 mg/kg respectively. In the sequential extractions, the largest part of soil Cu appeared in the residual and reducible fractions and Pb was predominantly bound in reducible and residual fractions and was more mobile compared to Cu. Copper and Pb concentration are higher in soils close to the slime deposit. Concentration of both metals increased with increasing soil depth in irrigated and cultivated soils. In soils not contaminated by dust eroded from the slime deposit, Cu and Pb contents are not dependent on the soil depth. The Pb isotopic signatures (206Pb/207Pb) ranged between 1.15 - 1.21 in soils from the Kombat area. In most of soil samples, surface horizons exhibited lower 206Pb/207Pb ratio, which originates from the slime dust pollution (206Pb/207Pb ~ 1.15) compared to deeper soil horizons, with lithogenic Pb signatures (206Pb/207Pb > 1.2). Isotopic composition of Cu differs on contaminated and uncontaminated sites and cultivated and non-cultivated sites. The δ65Cu in the studied soil horizon ranged between -0.373 ‰ and 0.561 ‰. The most pronounced variations occurred in contaminated non cultivated and non-irrigated soils (0.529 ‰). The contaminated top horizons are enriched in isotopically heavier Cu (tailing materials), and δ65Cu decreased with depth. Irrigated (cultivated) and contaminated soils exhibited heavier Cu in the surface horizons (originated from tailing dust δ65Cu = 0.260), decrease of δ65Cu in Bt horizons (biological uptake of light isotope by crop, and their incorporation in this horizons) and increase of δ65Cu in Bc horizons. The Bc horizons of cultivated and irrigated Phaeozems are enriched in Mn nodules (0.2 - 1.5 cm diameter, prevailing Mn phase pyrochroite Mn(OH)2) which

  2. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio A Rodriguez-Jorquera

    Full Text Available Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA. Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas.

  3. Effect of mercury and arsenic from industrial effluents on the drinking water and comparison of the water quality of polluted and non-polluted areas: a case study of Peshawar and Lower Dir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M; Jan, F Akbar; Khan, Murad Ali; Ihsanullah, I; Ahmad, I; Shakirullah, M; Roohullah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the sources of mercury and arsenic pollution of water in the industrial area of Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of effluents, mud, and water were collected from the target area (industrial area of Peshawar), the area of water supply source, and from the less polluted area, the Lower Dir district, as the control. Hg was determined by the cold vapor generation technique, while arsenic was determined using the electrothermal atomic absorption technique. Data of the water from the industrial area were compared with that of the source area, control area, as well as with the WHO and some international drinking water quality standards. The results show that some parameters, i.e., TDS, DO, pH, and hardness, were more than the permissible limits. Textile and glass industries were found to be the major sources of Hg and As pollution. Downstream dilution of these contaminants was also observed.

  4. Characteristics of the Transport of a Typical Pollution Event in the Chengdu Area Based on Remote Sensing Data and Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A heavy air pollution event occurred in Chengdu between 7 May 2014 and 8 May 2014. The present study established tracer sources based on HJ-1 satellite data, micropulse light detection and ranging (LiDAR remote sensing data, and backward trajectories simulated using the hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT model. Additionally, the present study analyzed the diffusion conditions for the sources and characteristics of the pollutant transport in this pollution event through simulation using a mesoscale atmospheric chemistry transport model—the weather research forecasting model with chemistry (WRF–CHEM. The results show that the change in the boundary-layer height over Chengdu had a relatively large effect on the vertical diffusion of pollutants. During the pollution event, Chengdu, Meishan, and Leshan were areas of significantly low mean ventilation coefficients ( V H . In Chengdu, the V H was extremely low at night, and there was a temperature inversion near the ground, resulting in the continuous accumulation of pollutants at night and a continuous worsening of the pollution. During the period of heavy pollution, there were straw-burning sites in Meishan, Ziyang, Neijiang, Zigong, and Deyang. On 7 May 2014, the pollutants in Chengdu mainly originated from Meishan. The accumulation in Chengdu of pollutants originating in Meishan and Deyang led to highly concentrated pollution on 8 May 2014, to which the pollutants originating in Deyang were the main contributor. The transport of pollutants resulting from straw burning in the study area and the relatively poor conditions for the pollutant diffusion in Chengdu collectively led to the heavy air pollution event investigated in the present study.

  5. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  6. A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mathilde Pascal; Laurence Pascal; Marie-Laure Bidondo; Amandine Cochet; Hélène Sarter; Morgane Stempfelet; Vérène Wagner

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majori...

  7. Determination of vulnerability areas to pollution: case of alluvial water table of Tebessa (East Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djabri, L.; Hani, A.; Assassi, F.; Djprfi, S.

    2009-07-01

    This work related to the alluvial water table of Tebessa, which is characterised by a semi-dry climate and a very heterogeneous geology. To examine the pollution problem who seems exists, we have used two methods: the DRASTICS method who combines the information given by the seven parameters leading to the map of vulnerability to pollution and a second method that is based on hydrochemistry and take into account the results of the ratio Sr{sup 2}/Ca{sup 2}+. (Author)

  8. Case study of extreme aerosol pollution events in the Paris area by synergy between optical measurements from multiple platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totems, Julien; Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Major pollution events encountered in the Paris area are mainly due to anticyclonic conditions where air masses are blocked and recycled (horizontal wind speed less than 1 m.s-1) or advected from northestern Europe. Such events with aerosol optical thickness larger than 0.4 at 355 nm have been documented by in situ sensors (AirParif network), ground-based sunphotometers (Aeronet network) and fixed and mobile ground-based Rayleigh-Mie lidars. The first studied event occurred during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) summer experiment, on July 1st, 2009. Another favorable period for major pollution events is the spring season and we have highlighted two of them using the opportunity given by lidar experimental tests at LSCE in march 2011. Ground-based observations have been complemented by spaceborne measurements from MODIS and CALIPSO/CALIOP that give information on the spatial extent of the pollution plume in 3 dimensions. From this instrumental synergy we determine the aerosol optical properties (extinction coefficients in the atmospheric column, optical thickness, lidar ratio, ...). The probable aerosol sources have also been investigated using back-trajectories analyses computed by the HYSPLIT model (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php) ; they lie in the French Lorraine, Benelux, and German Saarland and Ruhr industrialized regions.

  9. Protected areas in the Atlantic facing the hazards of micro-plastic pollution: first diagnosis of three islands in the Canary Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baztan, Juan; Carrasco, Ana; Chouinard, Omer; Cleaud, Muriel; Gabaldon, Jesús E; Huck, Thierry; Jaffrès, Lionel; Jorgensen, Bethany; Miguelez, Aquilino; Paillard, Christine; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul

    2014-03-15

    Coastal zones and the biosphere as a whole show signs of cumulative degradation due to the use and disposal of plastics. To better understand the manifestation of plastic pollution in the Atlantic Ocean, we partnered with local communities to determine the concentrations of micro-plastics in 125 beaches on three islands in the Canary Current: Lanzarote, La Graciosa, and Fuerteventura. We found that, in spite of being located in highly-protected natural areas, all beaches in our study area are exceedingly vulnerable to micro-plastic pollution, with pollution levels reaching concentrations greater than 100 g of plastic in 1l of sediment. This paper contributes to ongoing efforts to develop solutions to plastic pollution by addressing the questions: (i) Where does this pollution come from?; (ii) How much plastic pollution is in the world's oceans and coastal zones?; (iii) What are the consequences for the biosphere?; and (iv) What are possible solutions?

  10. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected during the Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene 2006 campaign. The sites of the pollution measurements served as the endpoints for the backward trajectories. Pollutant transport pathways corresponding to the highest air contamination were defined.

  11. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-11-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected during the Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene 2006 campaign. The sites of the pollution measurements served as the endpoints for the backward trajectories. Pollutant transport pathways corresponding to the highest air contamination were defined.

  12. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  13. Cyto- and genotoxic potential of water samples from polluted areas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alija, Avdulla J; Bajraktari, Ismet D; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bojaxhi, Ekramije; Krenn, Margit; Asllani, Fisnik; Eckl, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Reports on the state of the environment in Kosovo have emphasized that river and ground water quality is affected by pollution from untreated urban water as well as the waste water from the industry. One of the main contributors to this pollution is located in Obiliq (coal power plants). Prishtina-the capital city of Kosovo-is heavily influenced too. Furthermore, the pollutants combined together with those from heavy traffic are dissolved in Prishtina runoff water, which is discharged into the creek entering the river Sitnica together with urban waste water. The available data show the complex pollution with excessive quantities of nitrites, suspended materials, organic compounds, detergents, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water samples taken at these sites was tested in primary rat hepatocytes. The results obtained indicate that water samples collected in Prishtina and Obiliq had a significant cytotoxic potential in primary rat hepatocyte cultures even when diluted to 1 %. The increased cytotoxicity, however, was not accompanied by an increased genotoxicity as measured by the percentage of micronucleated cells. Further investigations addressing the chemical composition of the samples and the identification of the toxicants responsible for the cytotoxic effects found will be carried out in a next step.

  14. Economic Valuation of Air Pollution Health Im¬pacts in the Tehran Area, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karimzadegan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution in Tehran, capital of Iran is responsible for several diverse negative effects. It has been estab­lished that air pollution can affect human health. These health effects include increased hospital admissions due to the ex­acerba­tion of cardiac and respiratory diseases, as well as symptoms such as headache, cough, eye irritation, nausea, sputum and even death in the most vulnerable individuals. In evaluating any policy that would reduce air pollution, it is useful to com­pare the policy's costs to its benefits expressed in monetary units.Methods: Since there is no market available that places value on the benefits of improved air quality, we must undertake non market valuation methods. In this paper we used direct medical cost (DMC, contingent valuation (CV and value of sta­tisti­cal life (VOSL approaches and household production model of health. According to this study marginal health dam­age costs for the following type of pollutants impacts: sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, particulate matter (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO are quantified using exposure response functions(ERF which relate pollutant con­centra­tion to the resulting impact on a receptor(health. ERFs for health impacts are derived from epidemiological studies.Results: Health damage costs has been estimated at 16224 US$ per each unit increase of PM10, 28816 US$ per each unit in­crease of CO, 1927 US$ per each unit increase of NO2 and 7739 US$ per each unit increase of SO2.Conclusion: Substituting economic incentives for command and control approach to regulating air quality.

  15. Improving the identification of hydrologically sensitive areas using LiDAR DEMs for the delineation and mitigation of critical source areas of diffuse pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I A; Jordan, P; Mellander, P-E; Fenton, O; Shine, O; Ó hUallacháin, D; Creamer, R; McDonald, N T; Dunlop, P; Murphy, P N C

    2016-06-15

    Identifying critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments requires the accurate identification of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest propensity for generating surface runoff and transporting pollutants. A new GIS-based HSA Index is presented that improves the identification of HSAs at the sub-field scale by accounting for microtopographic controls. The Index is based on high resolution LiDAR data and a soil topographic index (STI) and also considers the hydrological disconnection of overland flow via topographic impediment from flow sinks. The HSA Index was applied to four intensive agricultural catchments (~7.5-12km(2)) with contrasting topography and soil types, and validated using rainfall-quickflow measurements during saturated winter storm events in 2009-2014. Total flow sink volume capacities ranged from 8298 to 59,584m(3) and caused 8.5-24.2% of overland-flow-generating-areas and 16.8-33.4% of catchment areas to become hydrologically disconnected from the open drainage channel network. HSA maps identified 'breakthrough points' and 'delivery points' along surface runoff pathways as vulnerable points where diffuse pollutants could be transported between fields or delivered to the open drainage network, respectively. Using these as proposed locations for targeting mitigation measures such as riparian buffer strips reduced potential costs compared to blanket implementation within an example agri-environment scheme by 66% and 91% over 1 and 5years respectively, which included LiDAR DEM acquisition costs. The HSA Index can be used as a hydrologically realistic transport component within a fully evolved sub-field scale CSA model, and can also be used to guide the implementation of 'treatment-train' mitigation strategies concurrent with sustainable agricultural intensification.

  16. Concentrations and {delta}{sup 13}C values of atmospheric CO{sub 2} from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico [Univ. of Parma (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo [C.N.R., ISMAR, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Marine Geology

    2005-11-01

    CO{sub 2} is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose {delta}{sup 13}C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its {delta}{sup 13}C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO{sub 2} concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO{sub 2} from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO{sub 2} concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative {delta}{sup 13}C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where {delta}{sup 13}C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at

  17. Concentrations and (delta){sup 13}C values of atmospheric CO{sub 2} from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico [Univ. of Parma (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo [C.N.R., ISMAR, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Marine Geology

    2005-11-15

    CO{sub 2} is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta){sup 13}C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta){sup 13}C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO{sub 2} concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO{sub 2} from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO{sub 2} concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta){sup 13}C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta){sup 13}C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at

  18. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  19. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  20. A study of air pollutants and acute asthma exacerbations in urban areas: status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttinger, Daniel; Wilson, Lloyd

    2003-06-01

    Details of a study to investigate the possible roles of a variety of hazardous air pollutants on asthma exacerbations at ambient air concentrations. - A study to try to better understand the interactions between various air contaminants and acute asthma exacerbations is described. The study evaluates temporal associations between a panel of air contaminants and acute asthmatic exacerbations as measured by emergency room visits for asthma in communities in the Bronx and Manhattan in New York City (NYC). In addition, ambient levels of various air pollutants in two NYC communities are being compared. Almost 2 years of daily data have been collected for most of the air contaminants to be investigated. The air contaminants measured include gaseous compounds (ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, nitrous acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and ammonia), particulate matter components (metals, elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, hydrogen ion, pollen, mold spores and particle mass and number)

  1. Availability of Selected (Pollutant Elements and their Influence on Soil Composition in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Zeiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in growing fruits and vegetables in private gardens is rising due to nowadays ecological awareness. Avoiding artificial fertilizers and plant protection products does not guarantee the absence of toxic substances, especially heavy metals in the soil and thus in the fruits harvested. Due to either geological bedrock weathering or environmental pollution, garden soils may be rich in certain potentially toxic elements. In the present study ten garden soils from central Croatia have been analysed by the BCR method for the contents and bioavailability of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. The total amounts of the elements are in the concentration range as reported for agricultural soils in different geographical regions. Only two soils of the capital Zagreb have higher concentrations of pollutant metals, such as chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese and zinc. Regarding nutrients, all soils have met the needs of common garden plants.

  2. Forecasting and Time Series Analysis of Air Pollutants in Several Area of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Z. Ibrahim; Roziah Zailan; Marzuki Ismail; Muhd S. Lola

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In keeping abreast with Malaysias rapid economic development and to meet the nation's aspiration for an improved quality of life, clean-air legislation limiting industrial and automobile emissions was adopted in 1978. Approach: Yet, to this day, air pollution from both sources still poses a problem for the nation. In order to predict the status of future air quality in Malaysia, a Box-Jenkins ARIMA approach was applied to modeling the time series of monthly maximum 1 h carb...

  3. Heavy Metals Pollution of Ground Water in Urban and Sub-Urban Areas of Makurdi Metropolis – Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *I. I. Mile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines heavy metals pollution of ground water in the residential sector of Makurdi urban area and Yaikyô settlement – a peri-urban area of Makurdi metropolis. Water samples from fifteen (15 wells in Makurdi urban area and fifteen (15 wells in Yaikyô settlement were analysed for chromium (Cr, Cadmium (cd, Iron (Fe, and Copper (Cu. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS method was used for water sample analysis. This was done in the peak of rainy season, in the month of September, 2012. The results of the analysis show that 100% of wells in Makurdi urban area had chromium levels above WHO guide limit for drinking water, while Yaikyô, a sub-urban area of Makurdi, had only 35.5% of wells with chromium levels above WHO standards. Ten out of fifteen wells representing 67% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Makurdi urban area, while eleven out of fifteen wells (85% displayed cadmium levels above WHO limits in Yaikyô. Twelve out of fifteen wells representing 80% displayed iron levels above WHO guide limits in Makurdi, while thirteen out of fifteen wells representing 90%, showed iron levels above WHO guide limit in Yaikyô. All wells representing 100% displayed copper levels below WHO guide limit in both areas. High concentrations of heavy metals in drinking water are undesirable, toxic, hazardous, and affects portability of water. Source of metals in these wells is attributed to soil mineralogy, use of agro- chemicals on farms and other land use activities. All land use activities capable of polluting water should be properly controlled. Water from these wells may be used for other domestic purposes other than drinking. Boiling of water from these wells should be encouraged to reduce the risk of contracting illness.

  4. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  5. An environmental index of noise and light pollution at EU by spatial correlation of quiet and unlit areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Pantis, Ioannis D

    2017-02-01

    Quietness exists in places without human induced noise sources and could offer multiple benefits to citizens. Unlit areas are sites free of human intense interference at night time. The aim of this research is to develop an integrated environmental index of noise and light pollution. In order to achieve this goal the spatial pattern of quietness and darkness of Europe was identified, as well as their overlap. The environmental index revealed that the spatial patterns of Quiet and Unlit Areas differ to a great extent highlighting the importance of preserving quietness as well as darkness in EU. The spatial overlap of these two environmental characteristics covers 32.06% of EU surface area, which could be considered a feasible threshold for protection. This diurnal and nocturnal metric of environmental quality accompanied with all direct and indirect benefits to human well-being could indicate a target for environmental protection in the EU policy and practices.

  6. Survey on the pollution of drinking water in Cixian area with the highestincidence rate of esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Lan Zhang; Suo Yuan Liang; Xue Dong Li; Shao Sheng Li; Cui Yun Qiao; Hai Guang Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To understand the pollution status of drinking water in Cixian area and to find out a way to solute it.METHODS Contents of nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen were measured andcompared with controls and national standards.RESULTS Levels of nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen were higher than the nationalpermissive levels by 20.60%, 50.50% and 33.30% respectively. Also the levels in Cixian are significantlyhigher than those of a controls areas of Chicheng - a county with very low incidence rate of esophagealcancer.CONCLUSION Three nitrogen levels in drinking water correlate both with the amount of N-containingfertilizer used in these areas and the mortality rates of esophageal cancer.

  7. 75 FR 12988 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Asphalt Processing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Sources: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing; Technical Correction AGENCY: Environmental... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category (74 FR 63236). Following... the asphalt processing and asphalt roofing manufacturing area source category on December 2, 2009...

  8. High-resolution spatial patterns of long-term mean concentrations of air pollutants in Haifa Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuval; Broday, David M.

    High-resolution maps of the mean concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, O3, and PM10 in the period 2002-2004 were produced using half-hourly data from the local air quality monitoring network in Haifa Bay area, Israel. The network consists of 20 monitoring stations within an area of 206km2, which encompasses a major industrial and power generation centre in the midst of a population of about 500 000. The pollutants' spatial features agree well with their known sources and the expected dispersion by the prevailing meteorology. The ranking of their spatial variations agree with published observations on larger spatial scales. The high-resolution maps capture in a small spatial scale the NOx and O3 cycle relationships expected by theory, and previously observed by analyses of monitoring time series. High correlation was found between the spatial patterns of the PM10, NOx and O3, whereas the correlation between the spatial features of the PM10 and SO2 is low. This suggests that the traffic, a major source of NOx, rather than industry, the major source of SO2, is the main contributor to the anthropogenic PM10 in the study area. This inference is corroborated by the low sulphur to nitrogen ratio throughout the region, which is typical of traffic-dominated pollution. A general conclusion drawn from this study is that high-resolution monitoring and mapping can significantly contribute to air quality management programmes in terms of both pollution abatement and exposure and risk assessment.

  9. Remediation of metal polluted hotspot areas through enhanced soil washing--evaluation of leaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Yillin, Li; Strömvall, Ann-Margret

    2013-10-15

    Soil washing offers a permanent remediation alternative for metal polluted sites. In addition, the washed out metals can be recovered from the leachate and re-introduced into the social material cycle instead of landfilled. In this paper, soil, bark and bark-ash washing was tested on four different metal polluted soil and bark samples from hotspots at former industrial sites. Six different leaching agents; HCl, NH4Cl, lactic acid, EDDS and two acidic process waters from solid waste incineration, were tested, discussed and evaluated. For the soil washing processes, the final pH in the leachate strongly influences the metal leachability. The results show that a pH leaching yield, while metals were leached when the pH was higher than 2 or below 10. The acidic process waste waters were generally the most efficient at leaching metals from all the samples studied, and as much as 90-100 w% of the Cu was released from some samples. Initial experiments show that from one of these un-purified leachates, Cu metal (>99% purity) could be recovered. After a single leaching step, the metal contents of the soil residues still exceed the maximum limits according to the Swedish guidelines. An additional washing step is needed to reduce the contents of easy soluble metal compounds in the soil residues. The overall results from this study show that soil and bark-ash washing followed by metal recovery is a promising on-site permanent alternative to remediate metal polluted soils and to utilize non-used metal resources.

  10. Respiratory diseases and allergies in two polluted areas in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, J; Hoelscher, B; Wjst, M; Ritz, B; Cyrys, J; Wichmann, H

    1999-01-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study collected health data for 2,470 school children between 5 and 14 years of age (89% of eligible children) who had lived most of their lives in either one of two counties strongly impacted by industrial pollution (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) or in a neighboring county without any sources of industrial pollution (Zerbst). The objective of the study was to examine whether regional differences--with respect to the occurrence of childhood respiratory diseases and symptoms or allergies--exist and, if such differences are found, whether they persist when we adjust for the effects of known risk factors such as medical and sociodemographic factors or factors related to the indoor environment. Controlling for medical, sociodemographic, and indoor factors, according to parental reports, children residing in Hettstedt have about a 50% increased lifetime prevalence for physician-diagnosed allergies, eczema, and bronchitis compared to children from Zerbst and about twice the number of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, and cough without cold. Sensitization to common aeroallergens according to skin prick tests [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.86] and specific IgE levels (OR = 1.75; CI, 1.31-2.33) was more common for children from Hettstedt than children from the nonpolluted county. Bitterfeld children, on the other hand, more often received a diagnosis of asthma and eczema than children residing in Zerbst and also showed slightly increased sensitization rates. In conclusion, industrial pollution related to mining and smelting operations in the county of Hettstedt were associated with a higher lifetime prevalence of respiratory disorders and an increased rate of allergic sensitization in children between the ages of 5 and 14 years. Further studies are needed to determine what role the high dust content of heavy metals plays in Hettstedt.

  11. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  12. RANS solver for microscale pollution dispersion problems in areas with vegetation: Development and validation

    CERN Document Server

    Šíp, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We present a description and validation of a finite volume solver aimed at solving the problems of microscale urban flows where vegetation is present. The solver is based on the five equation system of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for atmospheric boundary layer flows, which are complemented by the k-epsilon turbulence model. The vegetation is modelled as a porous zone, and the effects of the vegetation are included in the momentum and turbulence equations. A detailed dry deposition model is incorporated in the pollutant transport equation, allowing the investigation of the filtering properties of urban vegetation. The solver is validated on four test cases to assess the components of the model: the flow and pollutant dispersion around the 2D hill, the temporal evolution of the rising thermal bubble, the flow through and around the forest canopy, and a hedgerow filtering the particle-laden flow. Generally good agreement with the measured values or previously computed numerical solution is observed...

  13. Theoretical and experimental approach to determine pollutant levels in an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solisio, C.; Cecco, I. de; Ferraiolo, G. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Chemical Engineering Science and Technology; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Simulative techniques, carried out by means of scale physical models, prove to be particularly useful because they allow to optimize those prevention and protection measures aimed at the undesired effect reduction. Among the various scale models, the wind tunnel is one of the most common physical models used to simulate real environmental conditions, reproduced in suitable reduced scale by dimensional analysis. Physical modeling, mainly wind tunnel, is typically employed to study plants in complex terrain or to determine how building turbulence can affect dispersion from staks. Moreover, simulative techniques set-up is not simple and it needs particular careful regarding to define its capable to simulate real environmental conditions. The present article deals with the scale simulative technique through wind tunnel, applied to the study about dispersion atmospheric phenomenon. Set-up procedures are discussed, then preliminary results about pollutant dispersion in a street of Genoa (Italy) characterized by great traffic vehicular traffic are showed too. (author)

  14. Effectiveness of national air pollution control policies on the air quality in metropolitan areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Zhao, Bin; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effectiveness of national air pollution controls is important for control policy design to improve the future air quality in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of major national control policies implemented recently in China through a modeling analysis. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) control policy during the 11th Five Year Plan period (2006-2010) had succeeded in reducing the national SO2 emission in 2010 by 14% from its 2005 level, which correspondingly reduced ambient SO2 and sulfate (SO4(2-)) concentrations by 13%-15% and 8%-10% respectively over east China. The nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) control policy during the 12th Five Year Plan period (2011-2015) targets the reduction of the national NO(x) emission in 2015 by 10% on the basis of 2010. The simulation results suggest that such a reduction in NO(x) emission will reduce the ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate (NO3(-)), 1-hr maxima ozone (O3) concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 8%, 3%-14%, 2% and 2%-4%, respectively over east China. The application of new emission standards for power plants will further reduce the NO2, NO3(-), 1-hr maxima O(3 concentrations and total nitrogen deposition by 2%-4%, 1%-6%, 0-2% and 1%-2%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the inter-provincial impacts of emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta, which indicated the need to implement joint regional air pollution control.

  15. [Output characteristics of rainfall runoff phosphorus pollution from a typical small watershed in Yimeng mountainous area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xing-xiu; Li, Zhen-wei; Liu, Qian-jin; Jing, Guang-hua

    2012-08-01

    Relationships between phosphorus pollutant concentrations and precipitation-runoff were analyzed by monitoring pollutant losses at outlets of the Menglianggu watershed in 2010. A typical small watershed was selected to examine the runoff and quality parameters such as total phosphorus (TP), particle phosphorus (PP), dissolve phosphorus (DP) and dissolve inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in rainfall-runoff of 10 rainfall events. Precipitation was above 2 mm for all the 10 rainfall events. The results showed that the peak of phosphorus concentrations occurred before the peak of water flows, whereas change processes of the phosphorus fluxes were consistent with that of the water flows and the phosphorus flux also have a strong linear relationship with the water flows. The minimums of the phosphorus concentrations in every 10 natural rainfall events have small differences with each other, but the maximum and EMCs of the phosphorus concentrations have significant differences with each rainfall event. This was mainly influenced by the precipitation, maximum rainfall intensity and mean rainfall intensity (EMCs) and was less influenced by rainfall duration. DP and TP were mainly composed of DIP and PP, respectively. There were no significant correlations between DIP/DP dynamic changes and rainfall characteristics, whereas significant correlations between PP/TP dynamic changes and maximum rainfall intensity were detected. The production of DIP, DP, AND TP were mainly influenced by the direct runoff (DR) and base flow (BF). The EMCs of DIP, DP, TP and the variations of DIP/DP were all found to have significant polynomial relationships with DR/TR., but the dynamic changes of PP/ TP and the EMCS of PP were less influenced by the DR/TR.

  16. Perspectives of 2D and 3D mapping of atmospheric pollutants over urban areas by means of airborne DOAS spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ravegnani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available tants, offering numerous advantages over conventional networks of in situ analysers. We propose some innovative solutions in the field of DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy remote systems, utilizing diffuse solar light as the radiation source. We examine the numerous potentialities of minor gas slant column calculations, applying the «off-axis» methodology for collecting the diffuse solar radiation. One of these particular approaches, using measurements along horizontal paths, has already been tested with the spectrometer installed on board the Geophysica aircraft during stratospheric flights up to altitudes of 20 km. The theoretical basis of these new measurement techniques using DOAS remote sensing systems are delineated to assess whether low altitude flights can provide 2D and 3D pollution tomography over metropolitan areas. The 2D or 3D trace gas total column mapping could be used to investigate: i transport and dispersion phenomena of air pollution, ii photochemical process rates, iii gas plume tomography, iv minor gas vertical profiles into the Planetary Boundary Layer and v minor gas flux divergence over a large area.

  17. [Nonpoint source pollution model, AnnAGNPS, assessment for a mixed forested watershed in Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-lin; Tian, Yao-wu; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong; Ma, De-ju

    2009-10-15

    Watershed models provide a cost-effective and efficient means of estimating the pollutant loadings entering surface waters, especially when combined with traditional water quality sampling and analyses. But there have often been questions about the accuracy or certainty of models and their predictions. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS (Annualized AGricultural NonPoint Source)Pollution Model, in simulating runoff, sediment loading and nutrient loadings under Three Gorges Reservoir area. Most of model input parameters were sourced from Zigui Forest Ecology Station in Three Gorges Reservoir area, State Forestry Administration. Data year 2003 was used for calibration while data year 2004 was used for validation of the model. The whole evaluation consisted of determining the coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E), and the percentage volume error (VE). Results showed that the model predicted the daily runoff volume within the range of acceptable accuracy. The runoff on a daily basis was underpredicted by 5.0% with R2 of 0.93 (p mixed types of land uses and steep slopes.

  18. Declining trends of PCDD/Fs in lichens over a decade in a Mediterranean area with multiple pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Santos, Artur; Botelho, Maria João; Palma-Oliveira, José; Branquinho, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lichens are one of the most useful environmental biomonitors, due to their ability to clearly reflect atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) emissions have been reported to be decreasing in North European countries as a consequence of European regulations. This reduction has been perceptible across several environmental matrices, but it hasn't yet been shown in lichens as typical biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. In this work we compared concentrations of PCDD/Fs in two lichen species collected in a Mediterranean area with mixed land-uses, encompassing urban, industrial and natural areas, in 2009 and 2011 with the ones obtained in the same species collected in the same region in 2000. We found that PCDD/F concentrations in both lichen species have decreased approximately 70% since 2000 whereas industrial emissions have only decreased 25% for the same period. This substantial greater reduction observed in lichens may be due to several causes; after excluding fires as a possible explanation, we point out that possible causes could not only be the overall decrease in industrial emissions but also other causes such as traffic reduction and/or increase efficiency in the use of fuels. Capsule: PCDD/F concentrations in lichens have decreased 70% over the last decade, whereas industrial emissions have only decreased 25%.

  19. Interdisciplinary study for the evaluation of biochemical alterations on mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to a tributyltin-polluted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magi, Emanuele [University of Genoa, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Liscio, Camilla; Pistarino, Erika; Santamaria, Barbara; Di Carro, Marina; Tiso, Micaela; Cosulich, M.E. [University of Genoa, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Genoa (Italy); Scaloni, Andrea; Renzone, Giovanni [National Research Council, Proteomic and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, ISPAAM, Naples (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    An interdisciplinary approach was employed to monitor the concentration and the effects of butyltin compounds in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Tissues from animals exposed to a marine area (Vado Ligure harbour) with a high concentration of tributyltin (TBT) were analysed and compared with control samples. TBT concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the protein pattern in gill tissues was studied by proteomic analysis. Several proteomic signatures associated with contaminant exposure were observed; spots that were significantly increased in all contaminated samples were identified by mass spectrometry as fragments of {beta}-tubulin. The degradation of {beta}-tubulin was then confirmed by western blot analysis with specific anti-{beta}-tubulin antibody. The effects observed on mussel gills after exposure in the TBT-polluted area are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Interdisciplinary study for the evaluation of biochemical alterations on mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to a tributyltin-polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Emanuele; Liscio, Camilla; Pistarino, Erika; Santamaria, Barbara; Di Carro, Marina; Tiso, Micaela; Scaloni, Andrea; Renzone, Giovanni; Cosulich, M Elisabetta

    2008-05-01

    An interdisciplinary approach was employed to monitor the concentration and the effects of butyltin compounds in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Tissues from animals exposed to a marine area (Vado Ligure harbour) with a high concentration of tributyltin (TBT) were analysed and compared with control samples. TBT concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the protein pattern in gill tissues was studied by proteomic analysis. Several proteomic signatures associated with contaminant exposure were observed; spots that were significantly increased in all contaminated samples were identified by mass spectrometry as fragments of β-tubulin. The degradation of β-tubulin was then confirmed by western blot analysis with specific anti-β-tubulin antibody. The effects observed on mussel gills after exposure in the TBT-polluted area are discussed.

  1. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar; Batic, Franc; Ribaric Lasnik, Cvetka

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO(2) from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO(2).

  2. [Pollution characteristics and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in groundwater at Xiaodian Sewage Irrigation Area, Taiyuan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-le; Zhang, Cai-xiang; Wang, Yan-xin; Liao, Xiao-ping; Yao, Lin-lin; Liu, Min; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sewage irrigation has been widely used in areas of water shortage in northern China, and it may introduce organic contaminants into groundwater. To characterize the organic contaminants in groundwater in sewage irrigation area, the Xiaodian sewage irrigation area in Shanxi Province was chosen as the case study area. A total of 16 groundwater samples (13 from shallow aquifer, 3 from deep aquifer) were collected. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were ainalyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results showed that the concentrations of PAHs ranged from 13.98 to 505.89 ng x L(-1) with an average concentration of 115.67 ng x (L)(-1). The 2 and 3 ring-PAHs were the main components, while naphthalene and phenanthrene were most frequently detected. The concentrations of OCPs were in the range of 13.91-103.23 ng x L(-1) with an average concentration of 40.99 ng x L(-1), while alpha-HCH, delta-HCH, o,p'-DDD, Aldrin, Endosulfan-sulfate and HCB were most frequently detected. Overall, shallow aquifers appeared more contaminated with these pollutants than deep aquifers. In the area, the order of the organic contaminants concentration in groundwater was: East Main Channel groundwater was influenced by the sewage irrigation.

  3. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration.

  4. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  5. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NO{sub x}-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N. [Hiroshima Univ., Center for Forest Decline Studies, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K. [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Hiroshima (Japan); Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H. [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Environmental Studies, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO{sub 2} concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO{sub x} or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  6. Effects of Water Pollution on the Condition Factor, Mortality, Exploitation Ratio and Catch per Unit Effort of Lagocephalus laevigatus in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water pollution on the condition factor, mortality, exploitation ratio and catch per unit effort of Lagocephalus laevigatus in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria was investigated from April 2012 to May 2012; following an oil blow out in the area. To show the impact of the spill on the environment, catch rates are seasonally dependent and vary between 15-120 kg/day. About 120 wooden canoes were sighted in the communities studied. The canoes are basically in two categories namely, small sized boats of less than 5 m length and medium-sized ones ranging between 5 and 7 m long. There was no temporal variation in the condition of the fish with condition index value ranging from 0.86-1.00 and condition factor value of 0.98. The K value of 0.98 estimated from this study shows that Lagocephalus laevigatus from the study area was in extremely poor condition. Total mortality (Z value was 1.5 yrG1. Natural Mortality (M value was 0.97; Fishing mortality (F value was 0.52. Value for the rate of exploitation was 0.35 with corresponding percentage value of 35%. The result shows that Lagocephalus laevigatus with an exploitation rate of 0.35 is below the optimal value for sustainable yield, for the exploitation of the fishery. These populations therefore stand the risk of under exploitation if urgent measures are not taken to develop the fishery.

  7. Evaluation of the Pollution by Toxic Elements around the Small-Scale Mining Area, Boroo, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Bolormaa Oyuntsetseg; Katsunori Kawasaki; Makiko Watanabe; Batkhishig Ochirbat

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the contamination levels of toxic elements (TEs) in the vicinity of the small-scale mining Boroo area, Mongolia. Samples of surface soil, ground water and human hair were collected around the gold washing or milling places, grassland and village areas. After appropriate preparation, all samples were analyzed for major and toxic elements (TEs) by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE). Soil texture, conductivity (EC), pH, total organic...

  8. Investigating the Marine Protected Areas most at risk of current-driven pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, using a Lagrangian transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole C; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of current-driven propagation of contaminants released along a major fairway polluting the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is examined using a 3D circulation model, a Lagrangian transport model and statistics. Not surprisingly, the number of hits to the MPA decreases almost linearly with its distance from the fairway. In addition, the potential pollution released during a ship accident with the pollutants carried by currents may affect MPAs at very large distances. Typically, a fairway section approximately 125 km long (covering about 1/3 of the approximate 400-km-long gulf) may serve as a source of pollution for each MPA. The largest MPA (in the Eastern Gulf of Finland) may receive pollution from an approximately 210-km-long section (covering about 1/2 of the entire length of the gulf). This information may be useful in assisting maritime management.

  9. Google-Earth Based Visualizations for Environmental Flows and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoming Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we address the development and application of an efficient tool for conversion of results obtained by an integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD and computational reaction dynamics (CRD approach and their visualization in the Google Earth. We focus on results typical for environmental fluid mechanics studies at a city scale that include characteristic wind flow patterns and dispersion of reactive scalars. This is achieved by developing a code based on the Java language, which converts the typical four-dimensional structure (spatial and temporal dependency of data results in the Keyhole Markup Language (KML format. The visualization techniques most often used are revisited and implemented into the conversion tool. The potential of the tool is demonstrated in a case study of smog formation due to an intense traffic emission in Rotterdam (The Netherlands. It is shown that the Google Earth can provide a computationally efficient and user-friendly means of data representation. This feature can be very useful for visualization of pollution at street levels, which is of great importance for the city residents. Various meteorological and traffic emissions can be easily visualized and analyzed, providing a powerful, user-friendly tool for traffic regulations and urban climate adaptations.

  10. Phytoremediation: a technology using green plants to remove contaminants from polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbisu, Carlos; Hernández-Allica, Javier; Barrutia, Oihana; Alkorta, Itziar; Becerril, José M

    2002-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging cost-effective, non-intrusive, esthetically pleasing, and low cost technology using the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements and compounds from the environment and to metabolize various molecules in their tissues. Phytoremediation technology is applicable to a broad range of contaminants, including metals and radionuclides, as well as organic compounds like chlorinated solvents, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides/insecticides, explosives, and surfactants. The use of plants to transport and concentrate metals from the soil into the harvestable parts of roots and above-ground shoots, usually called 'phytoextraction', has appeared on the scene as a valid alternative to traditional physicochemical remediation methods that do not provide acceptable solutions for the removal of metals from soils. Positive results are becoming available regarding the ability of plants to degrade certain organic compounds. Nonetheless, despite the firm establishment of phytoremediation technology in the literature and in extensive research study and in small-scale demonstrations, full-scale applications are currently limited to a small number of projects. At present, the phytoremediation of metal pollutants from the environment could be approaching commercialization.

  11. Google-Earth Based Visualizations for Environmental Flows and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daoming; Kenjeres, Sasa

    2017-03-02

    In the present study, we address the development and application of an efficient tool for conversion of results obtained by an integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational reaction dynamics (CRD) approach and their visualization in the Google Earth. We focus on results typical for environmental fluid mechanics studies at a city scale that include characteristic wind flow patterns and dispersion of reactive scalars. This is achieved by developing a code based on the Java language, which converts the typical four-dimensional structure (spatial and temporal dependency) of data results in the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. The visualization techniques most often used are revisited and implemented into the conversion tool. The potential of the tool is demonstrated in a case study of smog formation due to an intense traffic emission in Rotterdam (The Netherlands). It is shown that the Google Earth can provide a computationally efficient and user-friendly means of data representation. This feature can be very useful for visualization of pollution at street levels, which is of great importance for the city residents. Various meteorological and traffic emissions can be easily visualized and analyzed, providing a powerful, user-friendly tool for traffic regulations and urban climate adaptations.

  12. Google-Earth Based Visualizations for Environmental Flows and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daoming; Kenjeres, Sasa

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we address the development and application of an efficient tool for conversion of results obtained by an integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational reaction dynamics (CRD) approach and their visualization in the Google Earth. We focus on results typical for environmental fluid mechanics studies at a city scale that include characteristic wind flow patterns and dispersion of reactive scalars. This is achieved by developing a code based on the Java language, which converts the typical four-dimensional structure (spatial and temporal dependency) of data results in the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. The visualization techniques most often used are revisited and implemented into the conversion tool. The potential of the tool is demonstrated in a case study of smog formation due to an intense traffic emission in Rotterdam (The Netherlands). It is shown that the Google Earth can provide a computationally efficient and user-friendly means of data representation. This feature can be very useful for visualization of pollution at street levels, which is of great importance for the city residents. Various meteorological and traffic emissions can be easily visualized and analyzed, providing a powerful, user-friendly tool for traffic regulations and urban climate adaptations. PMID:28257078

  13. Studies on energy consumption patterns for improving air quality in the seoul metropolitan area. pt. 3 Status of photochemical air pollution and control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Soo; Son, Jae Ik; Park, Young Ok; Kim, Hong Yong; Cho, Sung Ho [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    1. Status of photochemical air pollution in the capital area and control strategy. The results of this study show that the air quality in the capital area has an indication of regional photochemical air pollution. Primary pollutants can be controlled at the emission sources, but it is not easy to find the target of photochemical pollution control. For effective photochemical pollution control, basic studies on the fraction of VOCs in total hydrocarbon emissions, the composition of VOCs, and non-traditional emissions such as those from solvent use should be conducted. Comprehensive studies on photochemical pollution control strategies in this report would be useful for identifying essential factors on devising strategies. 2. Air quality modelling using STEM-II. Modelling domain in the last year was confined to the capital area that was too small for a regional-scale model. Modeling domain in this year covered the east of China to the East Sea. The results of modeling in this year were much better than those of the last year. However, the limitations associated with incomplete input data and modeling domain that was too large for the capital area would not be overcome without sufficient basic studies. (author). 29 refs., 34 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Contribution to the study of pollution of soil and water in Oued El Maleh area (Mohammedia, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El hajjaji, Souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Belhsaien, Kamal; Zouahri, Abdelmjid; Moussadek, Rachid; Douaik, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    In Morocco, diffuse ground and surface water pollution in irrigated areas has caused an increase in the risk of water and soil quality deterioration. This has generated a health and environmental risks. The present study was carried out in the Oued El Maleh region located 65 Km to the south of Rabat on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. It covers a surface area of 310 km2 where agriculture constitutes the main activity of the population. This region is considered as a very important agricultural area, known nationally for its high potential for market gardening. This intensification has been accompanied by an excessive use of agrochemical inputs and poor control of irrigation and drainage. Consequently, salinization phenomena and deterioration of soil structure as well as water are about to create an alarming situation. In order to assess the state of pollution of waters and soil in the region, our study focuses on the determination of physicochemical parameters for the quality of water and soil. The obtained results from sampled wells and surface water show relatively higher values of nitrate and conductivity exceeding Moroccan national standards and revealing net degradation of water quality; therefore the water can be considered not suitable for human consumption and can induce a degradation of soil. The results of the studied soil show that the pH of these soils is weakly to moderately basic; they are usually non-saline with organic matter content moderately filled. Moreover, very high concentrations of nutrients (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen) were recorded, highlighting poor management fertilizing vegetable crops in the region of Oued El Maleh.

  15. Assessment of Rock Magnetic Parameters for Fly Ash Pollution Screening in Topsoil of the Deccan Trap Basalt Area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, U.; Basavaiah, N.; Das, P. K.; Deenadayalan, K.

    2012-04-01

    Rock magnetic parameters of highly magnetic topsoil of the Deccan Trap basalt area are evaluated for their suitability for efficient environmental magnetic pollution screening. Parameters, such as magnetic susceptibility (χ), frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (κ fd%), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), soft isothermal remanent magnetization (Soft IRM), as well as thermo-magnetic analysis (κ-T) are compared and assessed for best depiction of topsoil contamination due to ash deposition around the Nashik thermal power station (NTPS). Fifty-five topsoil samples, collected along north-south and west-east stretching transects of 24 km length, are the basis for evaluation of the specific ash distribution pattern around the plant and its adjacent ash pond. Similar decline of the magnetic signals with increasing distance from the point source is observed in the concentration dependent magnetic parameters and can be modeled. The magnetic grain size parameters instead reveal increasing trends with increasing distance. Verwey-transition and Hopkinson peak obtained from κ-T analyses demonstrate to be important parameters to prove fly ash accumulation in soils of basaltic origin. The importance of magnetic parameters for indirect tracing of pollutants, such as heavy metals, is shown by Pb, Zn and Cu data, revealing similar distribution pattern as obtained from the concentration dependent magnetic parameters. Confirmation of the presence of a very high amount of ash particles in the vicinity of the NTPS and a low number of particles in more distant areas is provided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on quantitatively extracted magnetic particles at 5.5 km and 11.9 km distance in eastern direction. The investigation demonstrates that the majority of the rock magnetic parameters has the potential to be successfully applied in environmental magnetic studies in areas with high magnetic background

  16. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Soil pollution by Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn was characterized in the area of the mining and smelting of metal ores at Guiyang, northeast of Hunan Province. A total of 150 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in May 2012 with a nominal density of one sample per 4 km(2). High concentrations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding paddy soil, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Sequential extraction technique and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to study the mobility of chemical forms of heavy metals in the soils and their ecological risk. The results reveal that Cd represents a high ecological risk due to its highest percentage of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The metals of Zn and Cu pose a medium risk, and the rest of the metals represent a low environmental risk. The range of the potential ecological risk of soil calculated by risk index (RI) was 123.5~2791.2 and revealed a considerable-high ecological risk in study area especially in the neighboring and surrounding the mining activities area. Additionally, cluster analyses suggested that metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Zn, and Cd could be from the same sources probably related to the acidic drainage and wind transport of dust. Cluster analysis also clearly distinguishes the samples with similar characteristics according to their spatial distribution. The results could be used during the ecological risk screening stage, in conjunction with total concentrations and metal fractionation values to better estimate ecological risk.

  17. Organotin pollution from pleasure craft at Paraty, a tourist area of Southeastern Brazil: amelioration or interference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Leon Lousada Borges

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some organotin compounds, such as TBT, are endocrine disruptors and harm marine ecosystems. Even after the global ban on organotins, increasing imposex levels have been detected in Stramonita haemastoma analyzed in 2004 and 2011 in some locations at Paraty, a tourist area in southeastern Brazil. The results of this study indicate that particulate and dissolved organic carbon and xenoestrogens might be interfering in this syndrome's development, leading to underestimation of imposex evaluation. Chemical analysis of three mangrove swamp sediments in the area showed the presence of TBT (16.0 - 205.7 ng Sn g-1, DBT (10.1 - 16.4 ng Sn g-1 and MBT (10.1 - 10.2 ng Sn g-1 even at the reference sites. The concentrations of butyltins and the increased incidence of imposexat some stations indicate recent inputs of TBT in the study area due to its illegal use on small vessels.

  18. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Avignon area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone d'Avignon impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    deaths on a year, whereas a 25% decrease of the year average should allow to avoid 25 ones. According to the uncertainties and limits of the used methodology, the results must be interpreted as order of magnitude of the impact of air pollution on population health in the studied area. This study shows that even if the risks relative to air pollution are low, the proportion of exposed persons leads to a non negligible impact on mortality. It shows that sanitary effects appear at levels under that these ones actually measured and then the most efficient measures would be these ones that would associate a reduction of emissions at the source with an important reduction of the pollution peaks number. (N.C.)

  19. Effects of particulate air pollution on the respiratory health of subjects who live in three areas in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Kumar, V Narendra; Katiyar, Subodh K; Sharma, Richa; Shukla, Bhanu P; Sengupta, Babu

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the relationship between daily changes in respiratory health and particulate levels with diameters of (a) less than 10 microm (PM10) and (b) less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in Kanpur, India. The subjects (N = 91) were recruited from 3 areas in Kanpur: (1) Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), which was a relatively clean area; (b) Vikas Nagar, a typical commercial area; and (c) finally, the residential area of Juhilal Colony. All subjects resided near to air quality monitoring sites. Air quality and peak expiratory flow rate samplings were conducted for 39 d. Once during the sampling period, lung-function tests (i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity) were performed on each subject. Subjects who resided at the clean site performed at predicted (i.e., acceptable) values more often than did subjects who lived at the remaining 2 sites. Subjects who lived at all 3 sites demonstrated a substantial average deficit in baseline forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values. The authors used a statistical model to estimate that an increase of 100 microg/m3 of the pollutant PM10 could reduce the mean peak expiratory flow rate of an individual by approximately 3.2 l/min.

  20. Spatial Distribution and Pollution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Soil of Mentougou Mining Area of Beijing City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Yu-xin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution characteristics and spatial distribution of soil heavy metals around mine-concentrated area in Mentougou were comprehensive studied using ArcGIS carried by inverse distance weighted interpolation mathematical model and SPSS multivariate statistical analysis. The ecological risk assessment was carried out by the potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentrations increased gradually from the west to the east of study area. Harmful degrees of heavy metals decreased in the order of Hg > Cd > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu > Ni > As. Combination of coal mining and human activity caused the strongest risk, while the risks caused by heavy metals from sandstone minerals was relatively weak. The potential ecological risk indexes(RI of eight heavy metals were between 67.81 and 668.53. The order of the potential ecological risk was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn. In summary, the heavy metals in soil of the study area were harmful. Because the study area is located in the ecological conservation district of Beijing, the ecological harm should not be overlooked, and needs to be evaluated and repaired.

  1. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  2. Atmospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutant concentrations in Bucharest area using first datasets from the city AQ monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaceanu, Cristina; Iorga, Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    City of Bucharest is the largest and most populated (about 2.8 million inhabitants) city in the Romanian Plain and encounters environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in southeastern Europe. City environment includes intense emissions arising from traffic (about 1 million cars per day), five thermo-electrical power-generation stations, that use both natural gas and oil derivatives for power generation and domestic heating, and from industrial sources (more than 800 small and medium plants). In the present work we performed an extensive analysis of the air pollution state for the Bucharest area (inside and outside the city) using filter measurement aerosol data PM10 and PM2.5. Data spanning over first year of continuous sampling (2005) were taken from the city Air Quality Monitoring Network, which consists of eight sampling stations: three industrial and two traffic, one EPA urban background, one suburban and one regional station located outside of Bucharest. The objective was to assess the PM10 recorded levels and their degree of compliance with the EU-legislated air quality standards and to provide a statistical investigation of the factors controlling seasonal and spatial variations of PM levels. PM10 relationships with other measured air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx) and meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction) were investigated by statistical analysis. Back trajectory modeling and wind direction frequency distributions were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Contribution of combustion (slopes) and non-combustion (intercepts) sources to PM10 recorded levels was quantified by linear analysis, for two seasonal periods: cold (15 October-14 April) and warm (15 April-14 October). PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were compared with corresponding values in other European urban areas. Main conclusions are as follows: Traffic and industrial sites contribute to the

  3. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com; Afifi, S.Y.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Salman, A.B.; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (R{sub eq}) and the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  4. 76 FR 13514 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Manufacturing Area Sources AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is issuing this final rule to stay the requirement for certain affected sources to comply with the title...

  5. Characterization of particulate air pollution in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.C.; Hoek, G.; Harssema, H.; Brunekreef, B.

    1998-01-01

    During the winters of 1992/1993, 1993/1994 and 1994/1995 a monitoring study was performed in three urban and three non-urban areas in the Netherlands. PM10, black smoke (BS), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium (non-organic secondary aerosols, ''NOSA'') and aerosol acidity were measured on a daily basis in b

  6. Is the increase in oil pollution a possibility of the presence of diverse microorganisms? An experimental dataset on oil prevalent areas of Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N; Khobragade, Chandrahaysa N

    2016-12-01

    Survey data and wet lab reports presented in this paper were collected from Western coastlines of India from Goan beaches. Oil polluted areas were captured on camera as evidence for oil and tar pollution. Several microorganisms showing diverse characteristics such as pigment producers, salt tolerant and hydrocarbon resistance were isolated and cultured in the laboratory. The dataset presented in this paper supports "A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2015) [1] and "Microbial diversity of oil spills and tar resistant bacteria isolated from beaches of Goa (India)" (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2016) [2].

  7. Is the increase in oil pollution a possibility of the presence of diverse microorganisms? An experimental dataset on oil prevalent areas of Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey data and wet lab reports presented in this paper were collected from Western coastlines of India from Goan beaches. Oil polluted areas were captured on camera as evidence for oil and tar pollution. Several microorganisms showing diverse characteristics such as pigment producers, salt tolerant and hydrocarbon resistance were isolated and cultured in the laboratory. The dataset presented in this paper supports “A case study on effects of oil spills and tar-ball pollution on beaches of Goa (India” (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2015 [1] and “Microbial diversity of oil spills and tar resistant bacteria isolated from beaches of Goa (India” (Rekadwad and Khobragade, 2016 [2].

  8. Water pollution in relation to mineral exploration: a case study from Alayi-Ovim area of southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Kalu K; Akaolisa, Casmir C Zanders

    2012-05-01

    Water samples from rivers, streams, springs, and shallow wells in Alayi-Ovim area of southeast Nigeria have been analyzed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mg, PO(4), NO(3), CO(3), SO(4), Cl, and pH. The analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer and Hach Direct Reading Equipment. Results of the analyses from the area conform to the WHO (1995) standards for drinking water. However, the results show relative enrichment of Ca, pH, Mg, CO(3), and Cl. Low values were obtained for Fe, SO(4), and NO(3). While the Cl and Pb enrichment in the area north of Alayi-Ovim axis is attributed to proximity to the lead-zinc and chloride-rich formations of the Turonian Eze-Aku and the Albian Asu River; the Ca, Mg, SO(4), and CO(3) enrichment in Southern part of Alayi-Ovim is due to the limestone-bearing Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation. Furthermore, the very low values of less than 5 ppm for these characters in water in the central region correlate well with the relatively clean Maastrichtian quartz arenite Ajali Sandstone Formation. The Pb-Zn and Cl incursions into the water system from the Older Albian Asu River/Turonian Eze-Aku Formations in the northern part of Alayi-Ovim area and the leaching of Mg, and Ca into the water system in the Maastrichtian limestone area in the south thus constitute geochemical indices for chemical pollution and mineral exploration for brine and dolomitic limestone in the area.

  9. Biological indication of heavy metal pollution in the areas of Donje Vlase and Cerje (southeastern Serbia using epiphytic lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of two epiphytic lichen species (Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. and Parmelia sulcata Taylor as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in natural areas around the city of Niš (southeastern Serbia were evaluated. The concentration of 19 heavy metals in lichen samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. For the majority of the elements the concentrations found in Parmelia sulcata Taylor were higher than in Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. In addition, interspecific differences in heavy metal accumulation between Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. and Parmelia sulcata Taylor are observed. Parmelia sulcata Taylor showed a tendency to accumulate Fe, Mn, Ni and Ti while Evernia prunastri (L. Ach. preferentially concentrated Cu on both locations. A clear distinction between lithogenic (Mn-Cu-Ti and atmospheric elements (Ni-Co-Cr-Ag-Pb-Hg was achieved by cluster analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41018, br. OI 171025, br. 172017 and br. III41017

  10. Tracing lead pollution sources in abandoned mine areas using stable Pb isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Seon; Lee, Khanghyun; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jong-Woo

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on Pb isotope ratios of sediments in areas around an abandoned mine to determine if the ratios can be used as a source tracer. For pretreatment, sediment samples were dissolved with mixed acids, and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Nu plasma II) was used to investigate the Pb isotopic composition of the samples. The measured isotope ratios were then corrected for instrumental mass fractionation by measuring the (203)Tl/(205)Tl ratio. Repeated measurements with the NIST SRM 981 reference material showed that the precision of all ratios was below 104 ppm (±2σ) for 50 ng/g. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb) found were 0.85073 ± 0.0004~0.85373 ± 0.0003 for the main stream, while they were 0.83736 ± 0.0010 for the tributary and 0.84393 ± 0.0002 for the confluence. A binary mixing equation for isotope ratios showed that the contributions of mine lead to neighboring areas were up to 60%. Therefore, Pb isotope ratios can be a good source tracer for areas around abandoned mines.

  11. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  12. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  13. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Montpellier area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone de Montpellier impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of the health impact of urban atmospheric pollution in Montpellier agglomeration has been carried out as part of the development of atmosphere protection plan. The study, based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment, has two objectives. First of all, it aims at assessing the short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons). Second, the long-term impact is assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. On the other part, the computation of the expected health gain, as a function of different scenarios of atmospheric pollutants reduction, can allow to plan air quality improvement measures. The assessment of atmospheric pollution impact has been carried out in eleven cities, homogeneously exposed, belonging to Montpellier agglomeration (Castelnau-le-Lez, Clapiers, Le Cres, Grabels, Jacou, Juvignac, Montferrier-sur-Lez, Montpellier, Saint-Clement-de-Riviere, Saint- Jean-de-Vedas, Vendargues). It is based on the analysis of mortality figures during two years (1999 and 2000) and of hospital intakes during four years (from 1999 to 2002). The studied population is made up 288.059 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Every year, the atmospheric pollution is directly responsible in the studied area of 34 anticipated deaths, among including 13 for cardiovascular reason and 4 for respiratory reason. For morbidity, it generates every year 79 hospital admissions for cardiovascular reason, 15 for cardiac reason, 9 for respiratory reason for older than 65 years old people and 4 for 15-64 years old people. Older than 65 years old people are proportionally more impacted. These events could theoretically be avoided with pollution levels in the order of those reached the less polluted days. Health

  14. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children.

  15. Succession in rocky intertidal benthic communities in areas with different pollution levels at Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Breves-Ramos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and compare the succession of intertidal benthic communities in two areas at Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil: Urca, an area submitted to moderated organic pollution and Catalão, an extremely polluted area. Three transects in each area were scraped one month before the beginning of this study in order to evaluate the recruitment (recruitment-treatments. Three other transects were monitored without manipulation (monitoring treatments. Species composition and relative abundance were evaluated monthly between September and December, 2000. A total of 26 species was found at Urca and 13 at Catalão. The percent cover of the most abundant organisms was not similar between treatments at Urca after four months, while in Catalão, the similarity was 72% in the second month. The faster community development and recovery at the most polluted area was probably related to the existence of simple and resilient communities in more impacted areas.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e comparar a sucessão das comunidades bentônicas da região entre-marés, em duas áreas na Baía de Guanabara, RJ, Brasil: Urca, uma área sujeita a moderado nível de poluição orgânica, e Catalão, uma área extremamente poluída. Em cada área, três transectos verticais foram raspados um mês antes do início do estudo, para se avaliar o recrutamento dos organismos (tratamento Recrutamento, enquanto três outros transectos foram monitorados sem manipulação (tratamento Monitoramento. A porcentagem de cobertura dos organismos foi avaliada pelo método de interseção. A composição específica e a abundância relativa dos organismos foram avaliadas mensalmente entre Setembro e Dezembro de 2000. Um total de 26 espécies foi encontrado na Urca, enquanto 13 foram encontradas no Catalão. Após quatro meses, a composição específica observada no recrutamento na Urca foi muito similar (76% a observada no monitoramento. No Catalão, três meses

  16. Water Environment Pollution in Three—Gorge Reservoir Area and Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOGuyuan; XUXiaoyi; 等

    2002-01-01

    After the erecgtion of Three-Gorge Reservoir,The Water Environment in the reservoir area will be turned into water dobies like laker,and the self-clarification ability of water will also be moch slower than ever,Now,the quality of water in most segments in upper reaches of Yangtze River cannot meet the requiremets of I-II class Environment Quality Standard (GHZB1-1999),In Yangtze River,Jialing River and Wujiang River,the mian indexes such as colon bacillus,nonionic ammonia,chemical oxygen demand(COD),petroleum,phenol,total phosphorus(TP),heavy metal,etc.,have exceeded the standard limits.The water bodies of the reservoir area are facing serious risk of eutrophicatioinm.To solve that problem.A countermeasure of multi-spot diverted treatment and separate discharge is recommended,for doing this,lots of smallscale wastemwate treatment facilities employing updated activated sludge treatment technologies are to be set up.Up to now,a number of sewage treatment technologies to control eutrophication of water have been developed,which include processes of sequencing batch activated sludge(SBR),absorbing bio-degradation (AB),oxidation channel,package intermittent aeration system(PIAS),intermittent cylce extended aeration system(ICEAS),UNITANK and so on ,The Efective one to be applied in the reservoir area should convey the requirements of ecological agriculture,forestry and urban planning ,and be accompanied by legal support for appropriate exploitation of natural resources.

  17. Determination of heavy metals concentration in raw sheep milk from mercury polluted area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on determining the content of monitored contaminants (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in 53 samples of raw sheep milk collected in 2013 and 2014 on the sites Poráč and Matejovce nad Hornádom (middle Spiš. The area is characterized by historical mining and metalworking activity (mining and processing of polymetallic ores rich in Hg, Cd and Pb. Currently, the area is one of the most mercury contaminated areas in Central Europe. All statistical analyses were carried out using the statistical software Statistica 10.0 (Statsoft, USA. Descriptive data analysis included minimum value, maximum value, arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results of the studied contaminant content show that the limit value for cadmium (10 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 25 samples. In the case of lead, the limit value of 20 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 16 cases. The limit value for copper (0.4 mg.kg-1 was exceeded in one case. The limit value for zinc is not defined by a legislative standard. The risk level of the studied contaminants in the samples of raw sheep milk decreases as follows: Cd > Pb > Hg > Cu > Zn. It can be concluded that frequent and long-term consumption of the raw sheep milk originating from the studied sites poses a health risk. The content of the contaminants in the milk and their eventual transition into dairy products should be monitored over a longer term in more detail. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  18. Influence of morphology on the ventilation of polluted areas – a case study from Rybnik Plateau, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosz Jolanta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an attempt was made to determine the degree of effective ventilation of the valleys in the area of the Rybnik Plateau, based on the example of the environs of Jastrzębie Zdrój, a city with high air pollution. For the analysis of the conditions of airing of valleys the areas with different physico-geographical characteristics, primarily in terms of density of the valley network, origin and morphology of the valleys, and type of surface deposits were selected. 49 cross-valley profiles were drawn for the selected valleys; on the basis of the profiles the following parameters were calculated: the distances between the edges of each valley, valley bottom width, and depth of the valleys. The degree of ventilation of each valley was calculated after the formulae of Kaps (1955 and Błażejczyk (1975. The lowest values of the index of effective ventilation were recorded almost in all main loessial valleys in the southern part of the area. This indicates their weak or even extremely weak degree of ventilation. The valleys in the remaining area, open predominantly to N and E, are most commonly aired to a sufficient degree. This is determined by their morphology, especially smaller depth, smaller relative heights and higher mean wind speed. The example presented in this study shows that the index of effective ventilation, even if it is calculated for a relatively small area, reflects the characteristics of the local environment extremely well which is relevant from the perspective of the movement of contaminated air.

  19. Photochemical Pollution Modeling of Ozone at Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre - RS/Brazil using WRF/Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchiara, G. C.; Carvalho, J.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main problems related to air pollution in urban areas is caused by photochemical oxidants, particularly troposphere ozone (O3), which is considered a harmful substance. The O3 precursors (carbon monoxide CO, nitrogen oxides NOx and hydrocarbons HCs) are predominantly of anthropogenic origin in these areas, and vehicles are the main emission sources. Due to the increased urbanization and industrial development in recent decades, air pollutant emissions have increased likewise, mainly by mobile sources in the highly urbanized and developed areas, such as the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre-RS (MAPA). According to legal regulations implemented in Brazil in 2005, which aimed at increasing the fraction of biofuels in the national energy matrix, 2% biodiesel were supposed to be added to the fuel mixture within three years, and up to 5% after eight years of implementation of these regulations. Our work performs an analysis of surface concentrations for O3, NOx, CO, and HCs through numerical simulations with WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry). The model is validated against observational data obtained from the local urban air quality network for the period from January 5 to 9, 2009 (96 hours). One part of the study focused on the comparison of simulated meteorological variables, to observational data from two stations in MAPA. The results showed that the model simulates well the diurnal evolution of pressure and temperature at the surface, but is much less accurate for wind speed. Another part included the evaluation of model results of WRF/Chem for O3 versus observed data at air quality stations Esteio and Porto Alegre. Comparisons between simulated and observed O3 revealed that the model simulates well the evolution of the observed values, but on many occasions the model did not reproduce well the maximum and minimum concentrations. Finally, a preliminary quantitative sensitivity study on the impact of biofuel on the

  20. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L. [Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This report describes the development of a monitor which can measure concentrations of hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. The system consists of a carbon dioxide laser combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter.

  1. GROUNDWATER OF OREL REGION AND FORECAST OF THEIR POLLUTION IN AREAS OF LIVESTOCK COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seleznev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In areas with intense economic activity showed a significant variety of forms of man-made ecological imbalance in the geological environment, as well as a manifestation of the natural geological environment of negative processes caused by groundwater. They give rise to environmental changes, both global and local scales. The degree of risk is determined to a large extent the processes taking place en masse in the geological environment, as a rule, have an inertial character and hidden from direct observation. For the first time for groundwater of Orel region is set by a previously unknown contaminant natural character due to the advancement of strontium in the groundwater complex, and is composed geofiltration model that allows to carry out prediction of the front of strontium in 27 years. Developed a model of the radial pull of nitrate intake group to establish the pathways of contaminant in water wells.

  2. Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Parvez, Lutfar; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-07-15

    An integrated approach of pollution evaluation indices, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) was employed to evaluate the intensity and sources of pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems of northwestern Bangladesh. Temperature, BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Pb levels in most of the water samples exceed the Bangladesh and international standards. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (C(d)) yield different results despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) shows strong correlations with HPI and C(d), and gives a better assessment of pollution levels. Modifications to the existing HPI and C(d) schemes show comparable results with HEI, and indicate that about 55% of the mine drainage/irrigation waters and 50% of the groundwaters are moderately to highly contaminated. The CA, PCA and pollution indices suggest that the mine drainage water (DW) is contaminated by anthropogenic (mining operation and agrogenic) sources, and the proximal parts are more contaminated than the distal part. The groundwater system in the vicinity of the coal mine site is also heavily polluted by anthropogenic sources. The pollution status of irrigation and drinking water systems in the study area are of great environmental and health concerns.

  3. Research on soil multi-media environmental pollution around a Pb-Zn mining and smelting plant in the karst area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chaobing; WANG Shuangfei; LI Fasheng

    2009-01-01

    The method of principal component analysis was applied to systematical research on the soil multi-media environment, including soil, surface water, ground water, waterbody sediment and agricultural crops, as well as pollution-inducing wastewater, mullock (or waste ore) and slag in the periphery of a large-sized Pb-Zn mining and smelting plant in a karst area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The results revealed that soils in the area studied have been heavily polluted by Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg, and the levels of these metals in the samples of agricultural crop greatly exceed the standards. The above-mentioned pollutants exist in all soil-multi-media environments. The mullock, slag, wastewater, surface water, ground water, soil, and agricultural crops constitute a composite ecological chain. Therefore, the improper disposal of mullock and slag, and the use of polluted wastewater for agricultural irrigation are the main causes of soil pollution. Heavy metals in the soil have three transition progresses: point (improved soil with slag, ground water inflow plot), linear (river transition) and non-point transition (regional pollution by slag) patterns, and the tailing yard is the most important locus for heavy metals to release into the environment.

  4. Spatial distribution of anthropogoenic pollution acumulated on tree leaves, soil and street dust in the park area in the centre of Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytłow, Sylwia; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic method has been successfully used to evaluate and characterise the degree of air pollution. This method is based on investigation of properties of magnetic particles of pollution such as magnetic susceptibility, parameters of hysteresis loops and temperature-dependence of magnetic parameters etc. The motivation to undertake this study was to find the distribution of pollution emitted by traffic vehicles in a green area situated in urban environment. The investigated area is the oldest public park named Saxon Garden in the centre of Warsaw, Poland. The Saxon Garden is located between the very busy main road with tram line, two local streets (low traffic volume) and big plaza without car traffic and trees. In order to quantify the degree of pollution we measured magnetic susceptibility of pollution deposited on chestnut leaves (the most abundant tree species in the park), surface of the roads (street dust) and in soil from the park area. The highest values of magnetic susceptibility of pollution were observed on tree leaves located along the edges/borders of park area (190 [m3/kg]), directly adjacent to busy roads. The lowest values of magnetic susceptibility (20 [m3/kg]) were obtained for leave samples from the borders of park, directly adjacent to plaza and roads with low traffic volume. It was observed that the intensity of magnetic susceptibility decreases with the distance of pollution source i.e. main streets. A similar distribution of intensity of magnetic susceptibility was observed for the soil samples collected from park area. With the exception of a few samples, the magnetic susceptibility of soil samples were higher than for leave samples. Our study showed that the distribution of magnetic susceptibility of soil and leave samples correlate with the intensity of magnetic susceptibility of street dust taken from the road surfaces situated along the boundary of the park area. On the basis of the detailed research of the domain structure and

  5. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 μg dm-2ṡday and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 μg dm-2 day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 μg dm-2ṡday and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 μg m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 μg m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 μg m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 μg m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in

  6. Plastic pollution of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (NW pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Viola; Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Brenke, Nils; Schwabe, Enrico; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    During the German-Russian expedition KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) to the northwest Pacific Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plain, we found several kinds and sizes of plastic debris ranging from fishing nets and packaging to microplastic in the sediment of the deep-sea floor. Microplastics were ubiquitous in the smaller fractions of the box corer samples from every station from depths between 4869 and 5766 m. They were found on the abyssal plain and in the sediments of the trench slope on both sides. The amount of microplastics differed between the stations, with lowest concentration of 60 pieces per m2 and highest concentrations of more than 2000 pieces per m2. Around 75% of the microplastics (defined here as particles marine fauna (Zenkevich, 1963). Yet we can only guess how these microplastics accumulated in the deep sea of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area and what consequences the microplastic itself and its adsorbed chemicals will have on this very special and rich deep-sea fauna. But we herewith present an evaluation of the different kinds of plastic debris we found, as a documentation of human impact into the deep sea of this region of the Northwest Pacific.

  7. Annual pattern of sulphur content in spruce needles from heavily and less polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoncic, P.; Kalan, P. [Slovenia Forestry Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1996-12-31

    Needles of twenty years old spruces from Prednji vrh, an area affected by the Sostanj power station (Slovenia) and from Pojljuka, Alps region, with a relatively unpolluted environment, were analysed for total sulphur (S-t) and total nitrogen content (N-t). Sulphur measurements were taken in a period between April and August twice monthly, and in the period from August to April every four weeks (May 1993-June 1994). Sulphur content in the current and one year old spruce needles from Prednji vrh were much higher (current year needles, 2.06-2.50 mg/m dry weight, 1993) than in needles from Pokljuka (current year needles 1.05-1.25 mg/g dry weight, 1993). Nitrogen contents and ratio N-t/S-t for current year needles from Pokljuka were higher (12.3 mg/g dry weight, N-t/S-t 10.2, November 1993) than in needles from Prednji vrh (10.8 mg/g dry weight, N-t/S-t 5.3, November 1993).

  8. Education campaigns to reduce stormwater pollution in commercial areas: do they work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, André; Curnow, Rob; Fletcher, Tim; Lewis, Justin

    2007-08-01

    A monitoring and evaluation program was undertaken, involving six different styles of evaluation to determine whether a low-cost, eight month education campaign that operated within a small commercial district was successful at changing people's behavior and reducing stormwater litter loads. This project also tested newly developed guidelines for monitoring and evaluating all types of non-structural stormwater quality best management practices (BMPs). The project evaluated: the extent and quality of the campaign's implementation; the degree to which it changed the awareness, attitudes, self-reported behavior and actual behavior of merchants and the public; and the nature of changes in stormwater litter loads. Overall, the education campaign produced mixed results, with the net result being modestly positive. Specifically, it was: unsuccessful at significantly influencing the knowledge or attitudes of merchants or the public; modestly successful at influencing the behavior of merchants and the public; and modestly successful at reducing litter loads in stormwater. At a theoretical level, the project highlights how using different 'styles' of BMP evaluation can help to build a more complete picture of a BMP's performance. At a practical level, the project helped to improve the monitoring and evaluation guidelines and produced evidence-based design guidelines for future campaigns that aim to reduce littering in commercial areas.

  9. Estimation of matal balances a tool for improving of management in a farm from polluted area Copsa Mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpia Vrinceanu, Nicoleta; Simota, Catalin; Motelica, Dumitru-Marian; Dumitru, Mihail; Ignat, Petru; Vrinceanu, Andrei; Mircea Rotaru, Lucian

    2015-04-01

    Long-term accumulation of heavy metals in arable ecosystems from Copsa Mica area negatively affecting soil fertility and product quality. A sustainable heavy metal management in these agro-ecosystems allows to ensure that the soils continues to fulfill its functions and to provide its ecosystem services (especially supporting and provisioning services). An analysis of the input and output flows of heavy metals in agro-ecosystems and of their resulting accumulation is necessary to define strategies that ensure sustainable management of these metals in agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to calculate the farm-gate and barn balances for the heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) using the data from a farm located in polluted area Copşa Mică. For all heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) farm-gate balances are negative; the export of metal in the farm was done mainly through the manure. The barn balance for cadmium was positive, indicating an accumulation of metal in the system. Inputs of cadmium in the system were estimated at 163.67 g Cd / year and losses of cadmium from the system were made mainly through manure (77.22g Cd / year). Both lead and zinc barn-gate balances are negative. Also externalization of lead and zinc in the system was achieved by manure (969 g Pb / year and 2390 g Zn / year). Monitoring metal balances at different scales (farm-gate, barn) proved to a successful way to identifying farm management issues not revealed by determining metal balances at the farm-gate alone. The main finding was that the substantial amounts of cadmium, lead and zinc were released from internal sources, mainly through fodder obtained from their own land (some plots are located in polluted area). The manure is the main contributor to outflows both for heavy metals. Using this manure as organic fertilizer could lead to accumulation of cadmium in soil with major risk on soil fertility and crop quality.

  10. Waste Disposal and Pollution Management in Urban Areas: A Workable Remedy for the Environment in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Awomeso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Both wastes and the crude disposal techniques have created subtle and yet serious environmental pollution havoc in many developing countries. This has lead to the degradation of abiotic and biotic components of these nations’ ecological systems. Poor industrial waste disposal systems as well as the indiscriminate and inappropriate domestic litter disposal habit have been identified and proved to be basic features in rural settlements, semi-urban areas and urban centers of the developing world. These have seriously contributed to environmental pollution and ecological deterioration. The major reasons for these were identified to be inadequate information and insufficient modern waste disposal facilities. Approach: This study highlighted the use of simple, yet efficient waste disposal techniques and recommends the adequate supply and optimal utilization of trashcan and rubbish drums in private and public places; the consistent and wide use of recyclable materials and recycling equipment; information flow and training of all on the use of new techniques and methods and the need for the production and/or introduction of other appropriate technology and policy to enhance the implementation and execution of proper waste management schemes that will contribute to a cleaner and safer environment in developing countries. Results: As a result, sanitary landfills were developed to replace the practice of open dumping and to reduce the reliance on waste incineration. Conclusion: In the light of this review research, I recommend that there should be private participation in managing wastes in the developing nation. Since the largest percentage of wastes in developing countries is mainly organic, composting of wastes should be encouraged.

  11. A review of the epidemiological methods used to investigate the health impacts of air pollution around major industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  12. Sources of potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants in an urban area subjected to an industrial impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, Anabela; Pereira, Maria Eduarda; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Duarte, Armando Costa

    2012-01-01

    Urban and industrial development has caused a major impact on environmental soil quality. This work assesses the extent and severity of contamination in a small urban area subjected to an industrial impact and identifies the major anthropogenic inputs. Twenty-six soil samples were collected from agricultural and urban sites, and concentrations of potentially toxic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), PAHs and PCBs, were determined. In spite of the low median concentrations observed, some sites represent a potential hazard for human health and ecosystems. Concentrations of contaminants were higher than those found in a nearby city, indicating that the study area is affected by the surrounding industry. The use of multivariate statistical analyses allowed for the identification of the main factors controlling the variability of potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants in the soils. The presence of Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni was associated with geogenic inputs, and Cu, Pb, Zn, As, PAHs and PCBs were associated with anthropogenic inputs. Industry and traffic were the most important anthropogenic sources. Soil characteristics were identified as important factors controlling the spatial variability of elements, both from recognised natural and anthropogenic origin. Differences between land uses were observed, which may be attributed to both management practices and proximity to sources.

  13. Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

    2013-01-01

    Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area. PMID:23401668

  14. Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area.

  15. From soil to leaves--aluminum fractionation by single step extraction procedures in polluted and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Siepak, Jerzy

    2013-09-30

    The paper presents the fractionation of aluminum in the samples of soil and plants of different species using a selective single-step extraction method. The study was conducted in the area located near a chemical plant, which for many years served as a post-crystallization leachate disposal site storing chemical waste (sector I), and in the area around the site: in Wielkopolski National Park, Rogalin Landscape Park and toward the infiltration ponds at the "Dębina" groundwater well-field for the city of Poznań (Poland) (sector II). The results of aluminum fractionation in samples of soil, leaves and plants showed heavy pollution with aluminum, especially in the water soluble aluminum fraction - Alsw (maximum concentration of aluminum in soil extract was 234.8 ± 4.8 mg kg(-1), in the leaves of Betula pendula it was 107.4 ± 1.8 mg kg(-1) and in the plants of Artemisia vulgaris (root) and Medicago sativa (leaves) it amounted to 464.7 ± 10.7 mg kg(-1)and 146.8 ± 1.2 mg kg(-1) respectively). In addition, the paper presents the problem of organic aluminum fractionation in biological samples and it shows the relationship between aluminum concentration in soil and the analysed woody and herbaceous species.

  16. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  17. [Pollution characteristics and ecological risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in river sediments from an electrical equipment dismantling area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan-Yu; Xue, Nan-Dong; Zhang, Shi-Lei; Li, Fa-Sheng; Gong, Dao-Xin; Liu, Bo; Meng, Lei

    2014-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sediments collected from a river which through an electrical equipment dismantling area. The results showed that concentrations of PBDEs ranged from 101 to 20,400 ng · g(-1) with an average of 3,700 ng · g(-1), and BDE209 was the most dominant homologue accounted for more than 94% of all detected homologues. The concentration of PBDEs was higher in the middle of river than that in upstream and downstream and the average concentration in downstream was higher than the upstream, with a peak of concentration in the area near by dismantling industrial park. PBDEs pollution in this region is relatively serious compared with other regions. It was estimated that 0.39 t PBDEs (including 0.36 t BDE209) was discharged into the river as a result of dismantling industrial activities in last 40 years. A preliminary ecological risk assessment for PBDEs in sediments was conducted by hazard quotient method, the results showed that the OctaBDEs and DecaBDEs were in a low ecological risk, while the PentaBDEs was in a particularly high risk and could cause great harm to the environment.

  18. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  19. 三亚海域污染区域3D重建方法研究%Sanya Marine Pollution Area 3 D Reconstruction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷婷; 贾树文

    2016-01-01

    为了提高三亚海域污染区域3D建模的精度,提出一种基于多媒体视觉的三亚海域污染区域3D重建方法。利用多层次B样条曲面拟合的方法对三亚区域污染海域的多媒体视觉图像进行三维拟合,获得精确的污染区域曲面拟合函数;将控制点映射为3D图像,并根据污染区域曲面函数和污染区域特征提高污染区域的轮廓线,并将其作为局部信息;利用二维主成分法提取3D图像的整体信息,最后进行整体信息与局部信息的融合,从而实现三亚海域污染区域的3D建模。仿真实验结果表明,改进算法能够对三亚海域污染区域进行3D建模,效果令人满意。%In order to improve the sanya Marine pollution area of 3 d modeling accuracy, put forward a kind of sanya Marine pollution area based on multimedia visual 3 d reconstruction method. Using multilevel b-spline curved surface fitting method to pollution of the sea area of sanya multimedia to simulate three-dimensional visual images, and obtain accurate pollution area of curved surface fitting functions; Map the control point for 3 d image, and according to the regional function and pollution of surface characteristics improve pollution area of contour line, and as a partial information; Two-dimensional principal component method is used to extract 3 d images of the whole information, the whole information and the integration of local information, so as to realize the 3 d modeling of sanya Marine pollution area. The simulation experimental results show that the improved algorithm can carry on the 3 d modeling to the sanya Marine pollution area, effect is satisfactory.

  20. Geostatistical validation and cross-validation of magnetometric measurements of soil pollution with Potentially Toxic Elements in problematic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Field magnetometry is fast method that was previously effectively used to assess the potential soil pollution. One of the most popular devices that are used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. In this connection, measured values of soil magnetic susceptibility have to be usually validated using more precise, but also much more expensive, chemical measurements. The goal of this study was to analyze validation methods of magnetometric measurements using chemical analyses of a concentration of elements in soil. Additionally, validation of surface measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility was performed using selected parameters of a distribution of magnetic susceptibility in a soil profile. Validation was performed using selected geostatistical measures of cross-correlation. The geostatistical approach was compared with validation performed using the classic statistics. Measurements were performed at selected areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in the selected parts of Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device and in the soil profile using MS2C Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  1. [Atopy, environmental pollution and respiratory function. Study of 1000 children from 2 areas of the city of Naples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, L; Della Pietra, B; Striano, S; Vuilleumier, P; Principe, A M; Vignone, G; Poeta, F; Balzano, N

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the chronic respiratory deficiency in childhood caused by two possible motives: allergy and ambiental pollution. We executed aerial samples in two zones of Naples, one (USL 45) with heavy pollution because many factories present and other with slight pollution (USL 40). The authors calculated the PEF (Peak Expiratory Flow at the first second) and in a group of subject also the spirometric values, in two groups of subjects, one of atopic children and in the other of non atopic children. The study showed a greater number of atopic subjects with abnormal PEF in the zone with heavy pollution; in non atopic children the abnormal PEF was greater in the zone with heavy pollution (35.2%) in comparison with slight pollution zone (3%).

  2. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way.

  3. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant

  4. Particulate air pollution and health effects for cardiovascular and respiratory causes in Temuco, Chile: a wood-smoke-polluted urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Pedro A; Torreblanca, Monica A; Diaz-Robles, Luis A; Schiappacasse, L Nicolas; Silva, Maria P; Astete, Teresa D

    2009-12-01

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke-polluted cities in the world. Its population in 2004 was 340,000 inhabitants with 1587 annual deaths, of which 24% were due to cardiovascular and 11% to respiratory causes. For hospital admissions, cardiovascular diseases represented 6% and respiratory diseases 13%. Emergency room visits for acute respiratory infections represented 28%. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the relationship between air pollution from particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10; mostly PM2.5, or particulate matter effects measured as the daily number of deaths, hospital admissions, and emergency room visits for cardiovascular, respiratory, and acute respiratory infection (ARI) diseases. The Air Pollution Health Effects European Approach (APHEA2) protocol was followed, and a multivariate Poisson regression model was fitted, controlling for trend, seasonality, and confounders for Temuco during 1998-2006. The results show that PM10 had a significant association with daily mortality and morbidity, with the elderly (population >65 yr of age) being the group that presented the greatest risk. The relative risk for respiratory causes, with an increase of 100 microg/m3 of PM10, was 1.163 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.057-1.279 for mortality, 1.137 (CI 1.096-1.178) for hospital admissions, and 1.162 for ARI (CI 1.144-1.181). There is evidence in Temuco of positive relationships between ambient particulate levels and mortality, hospital admissions, and ARI for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These results are consistent with those of comparable studies in other similar cities where wood smoke is the most important air pollution problem.

  5. Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Ill-Health Attributable to Residential Wood Combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Fairley, D.; Smith, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Residential wood combustion is recognized as a major source of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially during the winter heating season. Both indoor and outdoor exposure to air pollution from residential wood combustion negatively impact human health, causing premature deaths and ill-health. Previous research has described the regional impact of wood smoke on air quality. Here, we estimate by county the proportion of ambient (outdoor) PM2.5 air pollution attributable to residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area. We also explore the implications of residential wood burning emissions for human health in the San Francisco Bay Area, reporting the burden of disease associated with this emission source by county. We also describe differences between counties in wood burning behavior, air pollution levels, and human health effects. The results of this research have relevance for air quality regulation and source abatement prioritization in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond.

  6. A comparative study of lichen biochemistry and air pollution status of urban, semi urban and industrial area of Hooghly and Burdwan district, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are group of nonvascular plants. Lichen absorbs water and nutrient passively from their environment. Because of this lichens are particularly sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, water availability, and air pollutants and/or by substances accumulates in lichen from the environment through variety of mechanisms including particulate trapping, ion exchange, extracellular electrolyte adsorption, hydrolysis and intra cellular uptake. Air pollution control is more complex than most other environmental changes. A study has been done to evaluate the air pollution status by means of lichen through the biochemical variability of three macro environment (semiurban area Arambagh, urban area Burdwan and industrial area Durgapur. The study results revealed that there exist inverse relationship between pollutant load and pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoid content. Average concentration of chlorophyll ‘a’, ‘b’, and total chlorophyll was found in following order, Site-II>Site-III>Site-I. From the result of Chlorophyll Stability Index (CSI it has been found that the chlorophyll degradation is highest in Site-II followed by Site-III and lowest in Site-I. There is a strong inverse relationship of chlorophyll content in lichen with SO2 and NOx but the level of SPM found highest in Site-I followed by Site-III and lowest in Site-II. Moreover, biochemical constituents (protein, sugar, phenol and proline of all the representative samples were also vary from site to site. The study results reveal that the amount of soluble sugar was highest recorded at Site-III followed by Site–I and lowest in Site-II. Again correlation study indicates that there is positive relationship between soluble sugar and phenol content at 5% level of significance. Therefore, it also indicates that the lichen metabolite and other physiological action monitored by SO2, NOx and SPM level in the air. Studies showed that the semiurban area was under more

  7. An integrated assessment of pollution and biological effects in flounder, mussels and sediment in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Kopko, Orest; Lehtonen, Kari K; Lang, Thomas; Waszak, Ilona; Balode, Maija; Strode, Evita

    2017-02-01

    Organic and metal contaminants and biological effects were investigated in flounder, mussels, and sediments in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area in order to assess environmental quality status in that area. Four sites were selected, including two within the Gulf of Gdańsk (GoG). In biota and sediment at each site, DDTs dominated over PCBs and PBDEs were the least abundant among organic contaminants. Their concentrations decreased progressively outward from GoG. Among metal contaminants, the levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd were elevated in GoG. Biomarkers in flounder, EROD activity and DNA SB, showed moderate positive correlations with organic and metal contaminants. In flounder, the integrated biomarker index (IBR/n) presented a spatial trend coherent with chemical pollution index (CPI), but there was no clear spatial correspondence between IBR/n and CPI in mussels nor between sediment toxicity index (STI) and sediment CPI. The integrated assessment of contaminant and biological effect data against available assessment criteria indicated that in biota, the contaminant assessment thresholds were most often exceeded by CB-118, heptachlor, PBDE, and Hg (in the GoG sediments by p,p'-DDT, Hg and Cd), while of the biological determinants, the threshold was breeched by AChE activity in mussels in GoG. Applying the ICES/OSPAR traffic-light approach showed that of the 50 parameters assessed at each site, there were 18% of determinants in the red color category in the two GoG sites and 8% of determinants in the two sites outside GoG, which indicated that none of the four investigated sites attained good environmental status (GES).

  8. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, Nicholas; Chao, Bing; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2015-10-01

    The article presents a comprehensive review of research advancing in 2014 on nonpoint source pollution (NPS). The topics presented relate to nonpoint source pollution (NPS) within agricultural and urban areas. NPS pollution from agricultural areas is the main focus in this review. Management of NPS in agricultural, urban and rural areas is presented. Modeling of NPS pollution in different watersheds with various modeling tools is reviewed.

  9. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine.

  10. Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrie Lars

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have shown that exposure to air pollutants in the area of residence and the socio-economic status of an individual may be related. Therefore, when conducting an epidemiological study on the health effect of air pollution, socio-economy may act as a confounding factor. In this paper we examine to what extent socio-economic status and concentrations of NO2 in the county/region of Scania, southern Sweden, are associated and if such associations between these factors differ when studying them at county or city level. To perform this study we used high-resolution census data and modelled the annual exposure to NO2 using an emission database, a dispersion modelling program and a geographical information system (GIS. Results The results from this study confirm that socio-economic status and the levels of NO2 in the area of residence are associated in some cities. The associations vary considerably between cities within the same county (Scania. Even for cities of similar sizes and population bases the associations observed are different. Studying the cities together or separately yields contradictory results, especially when education is used as a socio-economic indicator. Conclusion Four conclusions have been drawn from the results of this study. 1 Adjusting for socio-economy is important when investigating the health effects of air pollution. 2 The county of Scania seems to be heterogeneous regarding the association between air pollution and socio-economy. 3 The relationship between air pollution and socio-economy differs in the five cities included in our study, depending on whether they are analysed separately or together. It is therefore inadvisable to determine and analyse associations between socio-economy and exposure to air pollutants on county level. This study indicates that the size and choice of study area is of great importance. 4 The selection of socio-economic indices (in this study: country of birth

  11. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  12. Use of doubly stochastic poisson processes in estimating health effects due to air pollution. [Effects of air pollution on incidence of acute respiratory diseases in New York City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzick, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Some questions associated with statistical inference of doubly stochastic Poisson processes are discussed. This general model appears to be of value in studying a number of problems in environmental health in which the factors which affect the rate at which certain diseases occur cannot be deterministically characterized. The model's applicability to a study of air pollution and incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the New York City area is examined.

  13. Preliminary fundamental aspects on the thyroid volume and function in the population of long term heavily polluted area in East Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tajtakova, M. [Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia). First Clinic of Internal Medicine; Kocan, A. [Slovak Health Univ. - IPCM, Bratislava (SK). Research Base] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Our previous examinations of employees of chemical factory formerly producing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) repeatedly showed increased thyroid volume as measured by ultrasound as well as increased frequency of thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. At the same time a considerable PCB pollution of soil, waters and food chain in large area surrounding that chemical factory was found. The aim of present preliminary evaluation of data obtained within the EC project PCBRISK was to search for further interrelations between long-term organochlorine pollution and fundamental markers of thyroid volume and function in large cohorts of population from three districts of East Slovakia.

  14. Source apportionment of organic pollutants of a highway-traffic-influenced urban area in Bayreuth (Germany) using biomarker and stable carbon isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bruno; Dreyer, Annekatrin; Bock, Michael; Fiedler, Stefan; Mehring, Marion; Heitmann, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Traffic- and urban-influenced areas are prone to enhanced pollution with products of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass such as black carbon or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Black carbon is composed of aromatic and graphitic structures and may act as a carrier for pollutants such as PAHs and heavy metals. However, little is known about possible contributions of traffic-derived black carbon to the black carbon inventory in soils. Similar uncertainties exist regarding the contribution of different pollutant sources to total PAH and black carbon contents. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the importance of traffic pollution to black carbon and PAH inventories in soils. PAH contamination of soils adjacent to a major German highway in the urban area of Bayreuth with about 50,000 vehicles per day was in the same order of magnitude compared to highway-close soils reported in other studies. Using molecular (black carbon and PAHs) and compound-specific stable carbon isotope evidence (PAHs) it was demonstrated that this contamination originated not only from automobile exhausts, here primarily diesel, but also from tire abrasion and tailpipe soot which significantly contributed to the traffic-caused black carbon and PAH contamination. Low molecular weight PAHs were more widely transported than their heavy molecular counterparts (local distillation), whereas highway-traffic-caused black carbon contamination was distributed to at least 30 m from the highway. On the other hand, urban fire exhausts were distributed more homogeneously among the urban area.

  15. Biomonitoring of air pollution by organic compounds in the city of Graz and the industrial area of Leoben-Donawitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Stuttgart (Germany). Bau und Betrieb Umwelt Service; Pirker, D.; Pongratz, T.; Schopper, A. [Amt der Steiermaerkischen Landesregierung, Graz (Austria). Fachabteilung 1a; Waikinat, I. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Muenchen (Germany). Bau und Betrieb

    2002-07-01

    The air pollution of some persistent organic compounds (PAH, PCB, PCDD/F) was measured in two regions of Styria/Austria, Graz and Leoben, by biomonitoring methods. These measurements were carried out in addition to the air quality monitoring network, the monitoring of airborne dust, contaminated with dioxines and furanes and the contamination of soil. Urban emissions (traffic, domestic heating) of air pollutants dominate the pollution level in Graz. Emissions of iron and steel industry are responsible for problems in air quality in Leoben-Donawitz. (orig.)

  16. [The risk of infectious morbidity among population under the pollution of the sanitary protective and recreation areas of water consumption in the city of Krasnodar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruchuk, O E; Shchepin, V O; Bedrin, A V

    2007-01-01

    The probability of development of public health derangements among population due to the anthropogenic pollution of the environment in the most cases depends on specific public, social economic and other characteristics of the community on the investigated territory. In the article the data related to the infectious morbidity developed because of water factor and due to the pollution of the soil and water in the sanitary protective and recreation areas of water consumption in the city of Krasnodar is presented. The mentioned recommendations include the organizational and medical preventive measures targeted to the optimization of the industrial and domestic water consumption and to the elimination the causes of the pollution of drinking water with xenobiotics in the centralized water supply system.

  17. A new preparation of doped photocatalytic TiO2 anatase nanoparticles: a preliminary study for the removal of pollutants in confined museum areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Enrico; Ciliberto, Enrico; Cirino, Antonio M. E.; Capitani, Donatella; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2016-05-01

    The use of nanotechnology in conservation is a relatively new concept. Usually, classical cleanup methods take into account the use of other chemicals: On the one hand they help the environment destroying pollutants, but on the other hand they often become new pollutants. Among the new oxidation methods called advanced oxidation processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis has appeared an emerging technology with several economic and environmental advantages. A new sol-gel method of synthesis of TiO2 anatase is reported in this work using lithium and cobalt (II) salts. The activation energy of the doped photocatalyst was analyzed by solid-state UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The mobility of Li ions on TiO2 NPs surface was studied by 7Li MAS NMR spectroscopy. Use of doped nanotitania is suggested from authors for the removal of pollutants in confined areas containing goods that must be preserved from decomposition and aging phenomena.

  18. Air pollution positively correlates with daily stroke admission and in hospital mortality: a study in the urban area of Como, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, Simone; Bonanomi, A; Guidotti, M; Arnaboldi, M; Sterzi, R

    2010-04-01

    Some current evidences suggest that stroke incidence and mortality may be higher in elevated air pollution areas. Our study examined the hypothesis of a correlation between air pollution level and ischemic stroke admission and in Hospital mortality in an urban population. Data on a total of 759 stroke admissions and 180 deaths have been obtained over a 4-year period (2000-2003). Five air ambient particles have been studied. A general additive model estimating Poisson distribution has been used, adding meteorological variables as covariates. NO(2) and PM(10) were significantly associated with admission and mortality (P value < 0.05) and with estimated RR of 1.039 (95% CI 1.066-1.013) and 1.078 (95% CI 1.104-1.052) for hospital admission at 2- and 4-day lags, respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests an association between short-term outdoor air pollution exposure and ischemic stroke admission and mortality.

  19. A multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in three New York State metropolitan areas: results for 1988 and 1989 summers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, G.D.; Ito, K.; Kinney, P.L.; Lippmann, M. (Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States))

    1992-10-01

    As part of a multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in the Buffalo, Albany, and New York City, New York, metropolitan areas, filter samples were collected daily at suburban air monitoring sites and analyzed for their content of particulate phase aerosol strong acidity (i.e., hydrogen ion, H+) and sulfate (SO4 =). In addition, daily hospital admissions for respiratory causes, other community air pollutant measurements (e.g., ozone, O3), and meteorological data (e.g., temperature) were also obtained for these metropolitan areas. The summer months (June-August) were selected for analysis because that is when the highest H+ (and O3) are usually experienced at these sites, and because these months are rarely complicated by other major influences (e.g., high pollen counts). Thus, any pollution-admissions relationships were expected to be most clearly discernible in this season. Prior to the health effects analysis, the summer admissions and environmental data were first detrended to eliminate long-wave autocorrelations, and day-of-week effects were removed via regression. Cross-correlations of the filtered 1988 and 1989 admissions and environmental data revealed strong associations between elevated summer haze pollution (i.e., H+, SO4 =, and O3) and increased total respiratory and asthma admissions on the same day and/or on subsequent days in Buffalo and New York City, especially during the summer of 1988 (when pollution levels were more extreme). Regression analyses indicated that the pollution-admissions associations remained significant (p < 0.05) even after the simultaneous inclusion of lagged daily maximum temperature. Mean effects calculations for these cities indicated that summertime haze can play a significant role in the occurrence of respiratory admissions in that season: accounting for an average 6 to 24% of 1988 Buffalo and NYC asthma admissions. O3 consistently had the highest mean effects estimates.

  20. 78 FR 48721 - Advisory Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... meeting of the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Advisory Board. At least one portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. Name of the Committee: NIC Advisory Board. General Function of the... development, and recommend guidance to assist NIC's efforts in the areas of training, technical...

  1. Study of Reciprocal Effects between Mandatory Pollutant Emissions Reduction Policy and Structural Change within the Manufacturing Sector in a Chinese Coastal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Guo, Xianglin; Tian, Jinping; Chen, Lujun

    2015-11-01

    We develop a multicriteria decision-making model coupled with scenario analysis to quantitatively elucidate the reciprocal effect between a mandatory pollutant emissions reduction policy and industrial structure change within the manufacturing sector on the basis of an in-depth study of a well-developed coastal area in East China, Ningbo City, toward 2020. First, 18 two-digit level industries (TDLIs) in the manufacturing sector are screened out due to intensive emissions of the four pollutants (COD, NH3-N, SO2, and NOx). Second, a model is established to identify the optimal solution for the industrial structure adjustment of the 18 TDLIs under two scenarios, the "business-as-usual" scenario and the "industrial structure adjustment" scenario. Both scenarios are expanded into three subscenarios. Quantitative constraint conditions and two criteria are formulated to screen out the optimal solutions. We propose a coefficient of industrial structure adjustment, Ki, which could clearly reflect the policy preference in terms of industrial development and reallocate the quota of the four-pollutant emission among the 18 TDLIs with regards to the different expectations of economy development in 2020. The model will help local authorities make tailored policies to reduce pollution emissions effectively through industrial structure change by delicately allocating the pollutant emission quota and setting reasonable targets of emission intensity reduction among TDLIs.

  2. The spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents during the period 2000-2005 in the Urban Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hermes U Ramírez; García, María D Andrade; Bejaran, Rubén; Guadalupe, Mario E García; Vázquez, Antonio Wallo; Toledano, Ana C Pompa; Villasenor, Odila de la Torre

    2009-06-15

    In the large cities, the disordered urban development, the industrial activities, and the transport, have caused elevated concentrations of polluting agents and possible risks to the health of the population. The metropolises located in valleys with little ventilation (such as the Urban Area of Guadalajara: UAG) present low dispersion of polluting agents can cause high risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this work was to describe the spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particles smaller than 10 microns (microm) (PM(10)) and ozone (O(3)) in the UAG during the period 2000-2005. A spatial-temporal distribution analysis was made by means of graphic interpolation (Kriging method) of the statistical parameters of CO, NO(2), SO(2), PM(10) and O(3) with the collected data from eight stations of atmospheric monitoring in the UAG. The results show that the distributions of the atmospheric polluting agents are variable during the analyzed years. The polluting agent with highest concentration is PM(10) (265.42 microg/m(3)), followed by O(3) (0.11 ppm), NO(2) (0.11 ppm), CO (9.17 ppm) and SO(2) (0.05 ppm). The most affected zone is the southeast of the UAG. The results showed that an important percentage of days exceed the Mexican norms of air quality (93-199 days/year).

  3. Acromegaly Is More Severe in Patients With AHR or AIP Gene Variants Living in Highly Polluted Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, S; Ragonese, M; Puglisi, S; Romeo, P D; Torre, M L; Alibrandi, A; Scaroni, C; Occhi, G; Ceccato, F; Regazzo, D; De Menis, E; Sartorato, P; Arnaldi, G; Trementino, L; Trimarchi, F; Ferrau, F

    2016-04-01

    In this multicentric study, we aimed to correlate the occurrence of AHR and/or AIP. genes variants in acromegalic patients with the disease severity and/or with the response to somatostatin analogs (SSa) treatment, according to pollution exposition.

  4. Contribution of man-made activities to the pollution of the Tigris within Mosul area/IRAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, S M

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents an overall view of major sources that may lead to the pollution of the Tigris within Mosul city. A stretch exceeding 20kms in length is selected that represents the "sick" path of the river. Many sites along the studied stretch are likely to affect the river quality in some way or another. Samples from 40 sources sites are taken for quality analyses These sources--as huge as 400000 m3 a day--are characterized as (medium - strong) in composition. Such wastewaters with the pollutants they carry alter the river water quality rendering it unsuitable for beneficial uses. Such alterations--do leave--many negative consequences concerning human beings and aquatic life. It is found that domestic discharges are among the most important sources of pollution. Sanitary wastes are often discharged--untreated--into the Tigris. Other illegal practices such as in-house slaughtering add to the pollution as well. Industrial, tourist and institutional wastes put an additional burden on pollution of the river water quality. These wastes contain lead, chrome, and other heavy metals that may pose health risks. Wastewater treatment plants that exist in some sectors do not perform as they are expected. They need proper evaluation and rehabilitation. Eutrophication--a characteristic problem in lakes--finds an access to occur into the Tigris. This problem results from intensive use of detergents rich in nutrients (P&N compounds). In general, pollutants of different sources heavily affect the river water. Recovery and self purification of the river is estimated to occur at 40 km far from reference point. The paper concludes with the necessity of construction of a central treatment plant(s) or tackling the pollutants at their origin. The paper also stresses on importance of environmental education and awareness in order to combat pollution problems.

  5. A health-based assessment of particulate air pollution in urban areas of Beijing in 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minsi; Song, Yu; Cai, Xuhui

    2007-04-15

    Particulate air pollution is a serious problem in Beijing. The annual concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM(10)), ranging from 141 to 166 microg m(-3) in 2000-2004, could be very harmful to human health. In this paper, we presented the mortality and morbidity effects of PM(10) pollution based on statistical data and the epidemiological exposure-response function. The economic costs to health during the 5 years were estimated to lie between US$1670 and $3655 million annually, accounting for about 6.55% of Beijing's gross domestic product each year. The total costs were apportioned into two parts caused by: the local emissions and long-range transported pollution. The contribution from local emissions dominated the total costs, accounting on average for 3.60% of GDP. However, the contributions from transported pollution cannot be neglected, and the relative percentage to the total costs from the other regions could account for about 45%. An energy policy and effective measures should be proposed to reduce particulate matter, especially PM(2.5) pollution in Beijing to protect public health. The Beijing government also needs to cooperate with the other local governments to reduce high background level of particulate air pollution.

  6. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag; Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ovidiu Călin Safirescu; Mihaela Hetvary; Ioan Gheorghe Oroian; Dumitru Vâju

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas) are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green tech...

  7. A Bayesian kriging model for estimating residential exposure to air pollution of children living in a high-risk area in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Barbone, Fabio; Catelan, Dolores

    2013-11-01

    A core challenge in epidemiological analysis of the impact of exposure to air pollution on health is assessment of the individual exposure for subjects at risk. Geographical information systems (GIS)-based pollution mapping, such as kriging, has become one of the main tools for evaluating individual exposure to ambient pollutants. We applied universal Bayesian kriging to estimate the residential exposure to gaseous air pollutants for children living in a high-risk area (Milazzo- Valle del Mela in Sicily, Italy). Ad hoc air quality monitoring campaigns were carried out: 12 weekly measurements for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were obtained from 21 passive dosimeters located at each school yard of the study area from November 2007 to April 2008. Universal Bayesian kriging was performed to predict individual exposure levels at each residential address for all 6- to 12-years-old children attending primary school at various locations in the study area. Land use, altitude, distance to main roads and population density were included as covariates in the models. A large geographical heterogeneity in air quality was recorded suggesting complex exposure patterns. We obtained a predicted mean level of 25.78 (± 10.61) µg/m(3) of NO2 and 4.10 (± 2.71) µg/m(3) of SO2 at 1,682 children's residential addresses, with a normalised root mean squared error of 28% and 25%, respectively. We conclude that universal Bayesian kriging approach is a useful tool for the assessment of realistic exposure estimates with regard to ambient pollutants at home addresses. Its prediction uncertainty is highly informative and can be used for both designing subsequent campaigns and for improved modelling of epidemiological associations.

  8. A Bayesian kriging model for estimating residential exposure to air pollution of children living in a high-risk area in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Vicedo-Cabrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A core challenge in epidemiological analysis of the impact of exposure to air pollution on health is assessment of the individual exposure for subjects at risk. Geographical information systems (GIS-based pollution mapping, such as kriging, has become one of the main tools for evaluating individual exposure to ambient pollutants. We applied universal Bayesian kriging to estimate the residential exposure to gaseous air pollutants for children living in a high-risk area (Milazzo- Valle del Mela in Sicily, Italy. Ad hoc air quality monitoring campaigns were carried out: 12 weekly measurements for sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 were obtained from 21 passive dosimeters located at each school yard of the study area from November 2007 to April 2008. Universal Bayesian kriging was performed to predict individual exposure levels at each residential address for all 6- to 12-years-old children attending primary school at various locations in the study area. Land use, altitude, distance to main roads and population density were included as covariates in the models. A large geographical heterogeneity in air quality was recorded suggesting complex exposure patterns. We obtained a predicted mean level of 25.78 (±10.61 μg/m3 of NO2 and 4.10 (±2.71 μg/m3 of SO2 at 1,682 children’s residential addresses, with a normalised root mean squared error of 28% and 25%, respectively. We conclude that universal Bayesian kriging approach is a useful tool for the assessment of realistic exposure estimates with regard to ambient pollutants at home addresses. Its prediction uncertainty is highly informative and can be used for both designing subsequent campaigns and for improved modelling of epidemiological associations.

  9. Integrated approach for demarcating subsurface pollution and saline water intrusion zones in SIPCOT area: a case study from Cuddalore in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S; Sonkamble, S; Krishnakumar, K; Mondal, N C

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with a systematic hydrogeological, geophysical, and hydrochemical investigations carried out in SIPCOT area in Southern India to demarcate groundwater pollution and saline intrusion through Uppanar River, which flows parallel to sea coast with high salinity (average TDS 28, 870 mg/l) due to back waters as well as discharge of industrial and domestic effluents. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations comprising topographic survey, self-potential, multi-electrode resistivity imaging, and water quality monitoring were found the extent of saline water intrusion in the south and pockets of subsurface pollution in the north of the study area. Since the area is beset with highly permeable unconfined quaternary alluvium forming potential aquifer at shallow depth, long-term excessive pumping and influence of the River have led to lowering of the water table and degradation of water quality through increased salinity there by generating reversal of hydraulic gradient in the south. The improper management of industrial wastes and left over chemicals by closed industries has led surface and subsurface pollution in the north of the study area.

  10. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiao-Di [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Qian, Zhengmin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Vaughn, Michael G. [School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Paul, Gunther [Facuty of Health, School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hao, Yuan-Tao [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: donggh5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m{sup 2}, respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality

  11. Impacts of greenhouse and local gases mitigation options on air pollution in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: Valuation of human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Conte Grand, Mariana; Gaioli, Fabián; Perone, Elizabeth; Sörensson, Anna; Svensson, Tomas; Tarela, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess through the "avoided health cost method" what would be the economic benefits of undertaking greenhouse (and local) gases mitigation policies in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area. To do so, we have developed six steps: Mitigation Scenarios (which policies to undertake), Emissions Inventory according to those, an Ambient Air Pollution Model to calculate the physical impacts, Health Effects Estimation to assess the health consequences of reducing air poll...

  12. The lichen Parmelia physodes (L. Ach. as indicator for determination of the degree of atmospheric air pollution in the area contaminated by flourine and sulphur dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the area involved in the influence of conteminations emitted by the aluminium works and electric power plant, the degree of atmospheric air pollution was evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of healthy thallus of the lichen Parmelia physodes, analysis of fluorine and sulphur content in this thallus and in the bark substrate and the F and SO2 concentrations in the air.

  13. Assessment of Current Energy Consumption Practices, Carbon Emissions and Indoor Air Pollution in Samagaun, Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Suwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is one of the lowest energy consuming countries in the world. More than 85 percent of its total energy comes from traditional biomass energy such as forests, agricultural residues and by-products from crops. Due to increasing per capita energy consumption, natural resources are being depleted with heavy emissions of GHGs in the atmosphere, which causes global warming. The main objective of the study was to investigate current energy consumption practices, to estimate particulate matter and carbon emissions from current practices and to recommend the most suitable alternative energy technologies. The fieldwork was based on primary and secondary data with a design methodology. Firewood burning was found to be the major source of energy used for cooking purposes in Samagaun. The use of this traditional fuel has negative environmental implications, such as deforestation, indoor air pollution and it ultimately affects human health. The results show that traditional cooking stoves (TCS are used more than improved cooking stoves (ICS. The total amount of firewood used per day by TCS is 2135 kg/day, and by ICS it is 349 kg/day. The average amount of firewood consumed by traditional and improved cooking stoves per day is 62.79 kg and 43.63 kg, respectively. The annual per capita firewood consumption of TCS and ICS is 4401.9 kg and 3266.7 kg, respectively. The calculation shows that per capita firewood consumption by TCS users is 1.3 times higher than that of ICS users. The annual per capita carbon emissions from TCS and ICS is 8055.47 kg CO2e and 5978.15 kg CO2e, respectively. This calculation shows that ICS emits 1.3 times less CO2 into the atmosphere than the TCS. The average mean particulate concentration at normal atmospheric conditions for a traditional cooking stove was found to be 2866 μg/Nm3 and for an improved cooking stove 1333 μg/Nm3, both of which far exceed the national standard of 230 μg/m3 TSP. Based on the study results, metallic

  14. Environmental geochemistry of a highly polluted area: the Mazarambroz Pb-Zn mine (Castilla-La Mancha region, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Higueras, Pablo; Jurado, Verónica; María Esbrí, José; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2013-04-01

    analyses of the samples were carried out using a Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy analyser (EDXRF). Results were statistically processed with Minitab 15.0 and mapped with Surfer 9. The mean concentrations of the studied heavy metals are significantly higher than the world average, the Castilla-La Mancha region mean and the local reference value for soils, so the studied area can be considered a polluted area as consequence of the mining process carried out in the Mazarambroz Pb-Zn mine. The total affected area by high concentrations of heavy metals differs depending on the studied element, reaching the maximum extension and importance for lead and zinc. In the studied area, soil and sediments are also affected by very low pH and high conductivity, which indicates the presence of soluble salts, likely sulfates, products of the sulfide oxidation. These results would imply an increase in the heavy metal mobility and transference to the plants and, as a consequence, an increase in the environmental damage since the area close to the mine is used for the cultivation of cereals and rabbit hutting. The results of the extractions show that the highest extracted concentrations are obtained from the sediment samples due to the influence of the stream in the weathering of this type of materials. References - Chao, T.T., 1984. Use of partial dissolution techniques in geochemical exploration. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 20, 101-135. - Moreno Grau, M.D., 2003. Environmental Toxicology: Risk Assessment to Human Health. Mc Graw Hill, Madrid. - Novozamsky, I., Lexmond, T.M., Houba, V.J.G., 1993. A single extraction procedure of soil for evaluation of uptake f some heavy metals by plants. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 51, 47-58. - Quevauviller, P., Lachica, M., Barahona, E., Rauret, G., Ure, A., Gomez, A., Muntau, H., 1996. Interlaboratory comparison of EDTA and DTPA procedures prior to certification of extractable trace elements in

  15. Air pollution in the Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area: Numerical simulations with a multi-scale regional chemistry-transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmesheimer, M.; Jakobs, H. J.; Wurzler, S.; Friese, E.; Piekorz, G.; Ebel, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Rhine-Ruhr area is a strongly industrialized region with about 10 Million inhabitants. It is one of the regions in Europe, which has the characteristics of a megacity with respect to population density, traffic, industry and environmental issues. The main centre of European steel production and the biggest inland port of the world is located in Duisburg, one of the major cities in the Rhine-Ruhr area. Together with the nearby urban agglomerations in the Benelux area including Brussels, Amsterdam and in particular Rotterdam as one of the most important sea-harbours of the world together with Singapore and Shanghai, it forms one of the regions in Europe heavily loaded with air pollutants as ozone, NO2 and particulate matter. Ammonia emissions outside the urban agglomerations but within the domain are also on a quite high level due to intense agricultural usage in Benelux, North-Rhine-Westphalia and lower Saxony. Therefore this area acts also as an important source region for gaseous precursors contributing to the formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere. The Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area therefore has been selected within the framework of the recently established FP7 research project CityZen as one hot spot for detailed investigations of the past and current status of air pollution and its future development on different spatial and temporal scales. Some examples from numerical simulations with the regional multi-scale chemistry transport model EURAD for Central Europe and the Rhine-Ruhr area will be presented. The model calculates the transport, chemical transformations and deposition of trace constituents in the troposphere from the surface up to about 16 km using MM5 as meteorological driver, the RACM-MIM gas-phase chemistry and MADE-SORGAM for the treatment of particulate matter. Horizontal grid sizes are in the range of 100 km down to 1 km for heavily polluted urbanized areas within Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr. The planetary boundary layer is resolved by 15

  16. Characterization of sources and loadings of fecal pollutants using microbial source tracking assays in urban and rural areas of the Grand River Watershed, Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T; Weir, Susan C; Thomas, Janis L; Habash, Marc

    2014-04-15

    Sources of fecal water pollution were assessed in the Grand River and two of its tributaries (Ontario, Canada) using total and host-specific (human and bovine) Bacteroidales genetic markers in conjunction with reference information, such as land use and weather. In-stream levels of the markers and culturable Escherichia coli were also monitored during multiple rain events to gain information on fecal loadings to catchment from diffuse sources. Elevated human-specific marker levels were accurately identified in river water impacted by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and at a downstream site in the Grand River. In contrast, the bovine-specific marker showed high levels of cattle fecal pollution in two tributaries, both of which are characterized as intensely farmed areas. The bovine-specific Bacteroidales marker increased with rainfall in the agricultural tributaries, indicating enhanced loading of cattle-derived fecal pollutants to river from non-point sources following rain events. However, rain-triggered fecal loading was not substantiated in urban settings, indicating continuous inputs of human-originated fecal pollutants from point sources, such as WWTP effluent. This study demonstrated that the Bacteroidales source tracking assays, in combination with land use information and hydrological data, may provide additional insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of source-specific fecal contamination in streams impacted by varying land uses. Using the approach described in this study may help to characterize impacted water sources and to design targeted land use management plans in other watersheds in the future.

  17. Development of EMC-based empirical model for estimating spatial distribution of pollutant loads and its application in rural areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qitao; Li, Hui; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-09-01

    An integrated approach to easily calculate pollutant loads from agricultural watersheds is suggested and verified in this research. The basic concepts of this empirical tool were based on the assumption that variations in event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants from a given agricultural watershed during rainstorms were only attributable to the rainfall pattern. Fifty one sets of EMC values were obtained from nine different watersheds located in the rural areas of Korea, and these data were used to develop predictive tools for the EMCs in rainfall runoff. The results of statistical tests of these formulas show that they are fairly good in predicting actual EMC values of some parameters, and useful in terms of calculating pollutant loads for any rainfall event time span such as daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. This model was further checked in for its field applicability in a reservoir receiving stormwater after a cleanup of the sediments, covering 17 consecutive rainfall events from 1 July to 15 August in 2007. Overall the predicted values matched the observed values, indicating the feasibility of this empirical tool as a simple and useful solution in evaluating timely distribution of nonpoint source pollution loads from small rural watersheds of Korea.

  18. [Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area, China ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-wen; Ma, Ying-qun; Zhao, Yan-min; Shi, Yao

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the pollution level of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area. The contents and spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ph and Zn in surface water, suspended solids and surface sediments were analyzed respectively. The integrated pollution index and geoaccumulation index were used to evaluate the contamination degree of heavy metals in surface water and surface sediments respectively. The results indicated that the contents of heavy metals in surface water was in the order of Pb sea. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface water of the typical domestic estuary in China, the overall contents of heavy metals in surface water were at a higher level. The contents of heavy metals in suspended solids was in the order of Cd pollution index assessment showed that the water quality was good except individual stations. The geoaccumulation index assessment showed that As was the major pollution element in surface sediments.

  19. Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements of Pollutant Gases in the Mexico City Urban Area: a Useful Technique to Evaluate Emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Grivicke, R.; Pressley, S.; Allwine, G.; Jobson, T.; Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Ramos, R.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    Direct measurements of emissions of pollutant gases that include all major and minor emissions sources in urban areas are a missing requirement to improve and evaluate emissions inventories. The quality of an urban emissions inventory relies on the accuracy of the information of anthropogenic activities, which in many cases is not available, in particular in urban areas of developing countries. As part of the MCMA-2003 field campaign, we demonstrated the feasibility of using eddy covariance (EC) techniques coupled with fast-response sensors to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and CO2 from a residential district of Mexico City. Those flux measurements demonstrated to be also a valuable tool to evaluate the emissions inventory used for air quality modeling. With the objective to confirm the representativeness of the 2003 flux measurements in terms of magnitude, composition and diurnal distribution, as well to evaluate the most recent emissions inventory, a second flux system was deployed in a different district of Mexico City during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign. This system was located in a busy district surrounded by congested avenues close to the center of the city. In 2003 and 2006 fluxes of olefins and CO2 were measured by the EC technique using a Fast Isoprene Sensor calibrated with a propylene standard and an open path Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA), respectively. Fluxes of aromatic and oxygenated VOCs were analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectroscopy (PTR-MS) and the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) technique. In 2006 the number of VOCs was extended using a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) system. This system collected whole air samples as function of the direction of the vertical wind component, and the samples were analyzed on site by gas chromatography / flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In both studies we found that the urban surface is a net source of CO2 and VOCs. The diurnal patterns were similar, but the 2006 fluxes

  20. 76 FR 18757 - Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... AGENCY Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory... Advisory Committee Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Local Government Advisory Committee's... the Local Government Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  1. 77 FR 71591 - Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... AGENCY Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory... environmental issues affecting small communities. The Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) will meet in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) and Small Communities Advisory...

  2. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  3. Cellular stress reactions assessed by gender and species in spiders from areas variously polluted with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Grazyna; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Piotr; Dolezych, Bogdan; Migula, Paweł; Młyńska, Hanna

    2008-05-01

    In the funnel web spider Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae; A. l.), sheet web spider Linyphia triangularis (Linyphiidae; L. t.) and wolf spider Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae; X. n.) from two differently polluted meadow sites in southern Poland, we studied the relations between antioxidant parameters (glutathione, GSH; glutathione peroxidases, GPOX, GSTPx; catalase, CAT; stress proteins-Hsp70, metallothioneins Mts), the intensity of apoptosis and necrosis, and heavy metal burdens of the midgut gland. Cellular reactions against stress caused by pollutants seemed to be sex-dependent. The concentrations of Zn and Cu in the midgut glands of male A. l. and X. n. were more than double that of the females, from both study sites. In male spiders from the heavily polluted site, both negative correlations (activity of caspase-3-like proteins vs Cu, Zn concentration; number of depolarized mitochondria vs Cu concentration) and positive correlations (number of necrotic cells vs Cu concentrations; activity of CAT vs Zn ) were noted. The defense of males against high metal content and its prooxidative effects is based mainly on GSH and CAT. In females the antioxidative reactions are species-specific and depend mainly on high peroxidase activity and on stress protein level. The increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the midgut gland of female spiders from the heavily polluted site suggests the defensive role of this process in maintaining the proper functioning of this organ.

  4. Can ecological history influence response to pollutants? Transcriptomic analysis of Manila clam collected in different Venice lagoon areas and exposed to heavy metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Massimo; Matozzo, Valerio; Pauletto, Marianna; Di Camillo, Barbara; Giacomazzo, Matteo; Boffo, Luciano; Binato, Giovanni; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Chronic exposure to environmental pollutants can exert strong selective pressures on natural populations, favoring the transmission over generations of traits that enable individuals to survive and thrive in highly impacted environments. The lagoon of Venice is an ecosystem subject to heavy anthropogenic impact, mainly due to the industrial activities of Porto Marghera (PM), which led to a severe chemical contamination of soil, groundwater, and sediments. Gene expression analysis on wild Manila clams collected in different Venice lagoon areas enabled to identify differences in gene expression profiles between clams collected in PM and those sampled in clean areas, and the definition of molecular signatures of chemical stress. However, it remains largely unexplored to which extent modifications of gene expression patterns persists after removing the source of contamination. It is also relatively unknown whether chronic exposure to xenobiotics affects the response to other chemical pollutants. To start exploring such issues, in the present study a common-garden experiment was coupled with transcriptomic analysis, to compare gene expression profiles of PM clams with those of clams collected in the less impacted area of Chioggia (CH) during a period under the same control conditions. Part of the two experimental groups were also exposed to copper for seven days to assess whether different "ecological history" does influence response to such pollutant. The results obtained suggest that the chronic exposure to chemical pollution generated a response at the transcriptional level that persists after removal for the contaminated site. These transcriptional changes are centered on key biological processes, such as defense against either oxidative stress or tissue/protein damage, and detoxification, suggesting an adaptive strategy for surviving in the deeply impacted environment of Porto Marghera. On the other hand, CH clams appeared to respond more effectively to copper

  5. Using Benthic Macroinvertebrate and Fish Communities as Bioindicators of the Tanshui River Basin Around the Greater Taipei Area — Multivariate Analysis of Spatial Variation Related to Levels of Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Sen Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After decades of strict pollution control and municipal sewage treatment, the water quality of the Tanshui River increased significantly after pollution mitigation as indicated by the River Pollution Index (RPI. The pollution level of the estuarine region decreased from severe pollution to mostly moderately impaired. The most polluted waters are presently restricted to a flow track length between 15–35 km relative to the river mouth. From July 2011 to September 2012, four surveys of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted at 45 sampling sites around the Tanshui River basin. The pollution level of all the study area indicated by the RPI could also be explained by the Family Biotic Index (FBI and Biotic Index (BI from the benthic macroinvertebrate community, and the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI of the fish community. The result of canonical correlation analysis between aquatic environmental factors and community structure indicated that the community structure was closely related to the level of water pollution. Fish species richness in the estuarine area has increased significantly in recent years. Some catadromous fish and crustaceans could cross the moderate polluted water into the upstream freshwater, and have re-colonized their populations. The benthic macroinvertebrate community relying on the benthic substrate of the estuarine region is still very poor, and the water layer was still moderately polluted.

  6. Measurements of ozone and its precursors in Beijing during summertime: impact of urban plumes on ozone pollution in downwind rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Ma, J. Z.; Zhang, X. L.; Xu, X. B.; Xu, X. F.; Lin, W. L.; Wang, Y.; Meng, W.; Ma, Z. Q.

    2011-12-01

    Sea-land and mount-valley circulations are the dominant mesoscale synoptic systems affecting the Beijing area during summertime. Under the influence of these two circulations, the prevailing wind is southwesterly from afternoon to midnight, and then changes to northeasterly till forenoon. In this study, surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at four sites located along the route of prevailing wind, including two upwind urban sites (Fengtai "FT" and Baolian "BL"), an upwind suburban site (Shunyi "SY") and a downwind rural site (Shangdianzi "SDZ") during 20 June-16 September 2007. The purpose is to improve our understanding of ozone photochemistry in urban and rural areas of Beijing and the influence of urban plumes on ozone pollution in downwind rural areas. It is found that ozone pollution was synchronism in the urban and rural areas of Beijing, coinciding with the regional-scale synoptic processes. Due to the high traffic density and local emissions, the average levels of reactive gases NOx and NMHCs at the non-rural sites were much higher than those at SDZ. The level of long-lived gas CO at SDZ was comparable to, though slightly lower than, at the urban sites. We estimate the photochemical reactivity (LOH and the ozone formation potential (OFP) in the urban (BL) and rural (SDZ) areas using measured CO and NMHCs. The OH loss rate coefficient (LOH by total NMHCs at the BL and SDZ sites are estimated to be 50.7 s-1 and 15.8 s-1, respectively. While alkenes make a major contribution to the LOH, aromatics dominate OFP at both urban and rural sites. With respect to the individual species, CO has the largest ozone formation potential at the rural site, and at the urban site aromatic species are the leading contributors. While the O3 diurnal variations at the four sites are typical for polluted areas, the ozone peak values are found to lag behind one site

  7. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  8. Simulating the production and dispersion of environmental pollutants in aerosol phase in an urban area of great historical and cultural value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librando, Vito; Tringali, Giuseppe; Calastrini, Francesca; Gualtieri, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    Mathematical models were developed to simulate the production and dispersion of aerosol phase atmospheric pollutants which are the main cause of the deterioration of monuments of great historical and cultural value. This work focuses on Particulate Matter (PM) considered the primary cause of monument darkening. Road traffic is the greatest contributor to PM in urban areas. Specific emission and dispersion models were used to study typical urban configurations. The area selected for this study was the city of Florence, a suitable test bench considering the magnitude of architectural heritage together with the remarkable effect of the PM pollution from road traffic. The COPERT model, to calculate emissions, and the street canyon model coupled with the CALINE model, to simulate pollutant dispersion, were used. The PM concentrations estimated by the models were compared to actual PM concentration measurements, as well as related to the trend of some meteorological variables. The results obtained may be defined as very encouraging even the models correlated poorly: the estimated concentration trends as daily averages moderately reproduce the same trends of the measured values.

  9. The Use of LiDAR Elevation Data and Satellite Imagery to Locate Critical Source Areas to Diffuse Pollution in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Thériault, Georges; Beaudin, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Jean-François; Denault, Jean-Thomas; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    In Quebec / Canada, water quality improvement in rural areas greatly depends on the reduction of diffuse pollution. Indeed, point source pollution has been reduced significantly in Canada in recent years by creating circumscribed pits for manure and removing animals from stream. Diffuse pollution differs from point source pollution because it is spread over large areas. In agricultural areas, sediment loss by soil and riverbank erosion along with loss of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) and pesticides from fields represent the main source of non-point source pollution. The factor mainly responsible for diffuse pollution in agricultural areas is surface runoff occurring in poorly drained areas in fields. The presence of these poorly drained areas is also one of the most limiting factors in crop productivity. Thus, a reconciliation of objectives at the farm (financial concern for farmers) and off-farm concerns (environmental concern) is possible. In short, drainage, runoff, erosion, water quality and crop production are all interconnected issues that need to be tackled together. Two complementary data sources are mainly used in the diagnosis of drainage, surface runoff and erosion : elevation data and multispectral satellite images. In this study of two watersheds located in Québec (Canada), LiDAR elevation data and satellite imagery (QuickBird, Spot and Landsat) were acquired. The studied territories have been partitioned in hydrologic response units (HRUs) according to sub-basins, soils, elevation (topographic index) and land use. These HRUs are afterwards used in a P index software (P-Edit) that calculates the quantities of sediments and phosphorus exported from each HRUs. These exports of sediments and phosphorus are validated with hydrometric and water quality data obtain in two sub-basins and are also compared to soil brightness index derived from multispectral images. This index is sensitive to soil moisture and thus highlights areas where the soil is

  10. [Concentrations and pollution assessment of soil heavy metals at different water-level altitudes in the draw-down areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye-Chun; Lei, Bo; Yang, San-Ming; Zhang, Sheng

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effect of 175 m trial impounding (2008 and 2009) of the Three Gorges Reservoir on soil heavy metals, three draw-down areas with similar geological environment and history of land-use in Zhongxian County were chosen. Altogether 36 surface soil samples (including 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer) from water-level altitude of 160 m and 170 m were obtained, and their heavy metals concentrations (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method. Geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and Håkanson potential ecological risk index were applied to assess the heavy metals pollution status and potential ecological risk, respectively. Results indicated that although the inundation period of 160 m was 224 d longer than that of 170 m, significant difference in concentrations of heavy metals were not found between the two water-level altitudes. Except for Cd, most of the heavy metals highly related with each other positively. According to the geoaccumulation index, the pollution extent of the heavy metals followed the order: As > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn = Pb > Cr. The I(geo) value of As, Cd and Cu were 0.45, 0.39 and 0.06, respectively, indicating that the soil was only lightly polluted by these heavy metals. Håkanson single potential ecological risk index followed the order: Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn. Cd with E(i) values of 59.10, had a medium potential for ecological risk,while As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn only had a light potential. Consequently, although As, Cd and Cu were the major heavy metals with potential ecological risk for surface soil pollution in the draw-down areas in Zhongxian County, the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  11. The occurrence of pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in Italian organic honeys from different productive areas in relation to potential environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, L M; Labella, G F; Giorgi, A; Panseri, S; Pavlovic, R; Bonacci, S; Arioli, F

    2016-07-01

    Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and consumer interest is currently oriented towards organic foods. Regarding this, the European Commission establishes that the qualification of organic honey and other beekeeping products as being from organic production is closely bound with the characteristics of hive treatments as well as the quality of the environment. Agricultural contamination with pesticides is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed, in particular in the field of organic production systems. In this study, the occurrence of different classes of contaminants selected as representative of potential contamination sources were investigated in 59 organic honeys: organochlorines, OCs; organophosphates, OPs; polychlorobiphenyls, PCBs and polybromodiphenylethers, PBDEs. A method based on Accelerated Solvent Extraction with "in line" clean-up and GC-MS/MS detection was developed to detect contaminants. Residues of many pesticides were found in most of the samples investigated. The majority of honey samples contained at least one of the pesticides, even if their concentrations were found to be lower than its MRL. Diazinon, Mevinphos, Coumaphos, Chlorpyrifos and Quinoxyfen were the residues frequently detected in samples coming from the apple and citrus orchard areas. Furthermore, the results of the present study show that the presence of the residue in organic honey may also be affected by the geographical area (e.g. the presence of an agricultural system) confirming honey bee and beehive matrices as appropriate sentinels for monitoring contamination in the environment. The optimised method proved to be simple and rapid, requiring small sample sizes and minimising solvent consumption, due to the ASE having an "in line" clean-up step.

  12. Can benthic foraminifera be used as bio-indicators of pollution in areas with a wide range of physicochemical variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Pinto, Anita Fernandes Souza; Frontalini, Fabrizio; da Fonseca, Maria Clara Machado; Terroso, Denise Lara; Laut, Lazaro Luiz Mattos; Zaaboub, Noureddine; da Conceição Rodrigues, Maria Antonieta; Rocha, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    The Ria de Aveiro, a lagoon located in the NW coast of Portugal, presents a wide range of changes to the natural hydrodynamical and physicochemical conditions induced for instance by works of port engineering and pollution. In order to evaluate the response of living benthic foraminifera to the fluctuations in physicochemical parameters and pollution (metals and TOC), eight sediment samples were collected from canals and salt pans within the Aveiro City, in four different sampling events. During the sampling events, salinity showed the most significant fluctuations among the physicochemical parameters with the maximum range of variation at Troncalhada and Santiago salt pans. Species such as Haynesina germanica, Trochammina inflata and Entzia macrescens were found inhabiting these hypersaline environments with the widest fluctuations of physicochemical parameters. In contrast, Ammonia tepida dominated zones with high concentrations of metals and organic matter and in lower salinity waters. Parameters related to benthic foraminiferal assemblages (i.e., diversity and evenness) were found to significantly decline in stations polluted by metals and characterized by higher TOC content. Foraminiferal density reduced significantly in locations with a wide range of physicochemical temporal variability. This work shows that, even under extreme conditions caused by highly variable physicochemical parameters, benthic foraminiferal assemblages might be used as valuable bioindicators of environmental stress.

  13. The atmospheric pollution in the area of the Goczałkowice Reservoir changes based on wet and dry deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław LEŚNIOK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Goczałkowice Reservoir was formed as a result of the accumulation of waters from the Vistula River caused by the construction of the earth dam of 2980 m in length between the town of Goczałkowice-Zdrój and Zabrzeg. It is located in Subcaprathia, near the Silesian Beskids mountain range (Outer Western Carpathians. Discussed reservoir was investigated in several environmental aspects. One of those researched elements was wet and dry pollution deposition in Integrated System Supporting Management and Protection of Water Reservoir (ZiZOZap.The research on wet and dry pollution deposition was carried out at two measurement points situated on the opposite sides of the Goczałkowice Reservoir. From the east side it was a station in Goczałkowice and from the west side a station in Frelichów (fig. 1.  The location of points allowed to assess influence of air masses from different directions and define sources of the pollutants.

  14. Citizens Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemnock, Suzanne K.

    1968-01-01

    This document contains the results of a national survey designed to determine the composition and location of permanent citizens advisory committees operating within the nation's school districts. The 52 district-wide, continuing citizens advisory bodies identified by 290 responding school systems are listed alphabetically by State. The following…

  15. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metal concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consisting of residential areas, kindergarten/school, and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012-2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90, and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71, and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the reference area, and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination, and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had a high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust, respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk.

  16. 76 FR 81516 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...) Frequent Traveler Program; examine evolving threats in cyber security; and provide information on the... (EMP) Threat--Lessons Learned and Areas of Vulnerability, and Evolving Threats in Cyber Security. Basis... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Closed...

  17. The Role Of Mineralogy And Geochemistry In The Understanding Of The Trace Elements Soil Pollution And Remediation. Cases Study In Mining Areas Of Andalucia (South Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Galán, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical and mineralogical studies of soils potentially polluted by trace elements are basic to find the source of pollution, to understand the behaviour of the contaminants in the environment and, finally, to propose remediation and reclamation actions. This work reviews the role of the Mineralogy and Geochemistry to assess the hazard of soil contamination, focusing on several studies carried out in the Andalusian Community (South Spain). To assess the degree of contamination, regional and local geochemical baselines should be established in order to distinguish the geogenic from the anthropogenic contribution, particularly in mining areas where both sources overlap. In these areas, mineralogical studies of the primary phases releasing contaminant elements and the secondary phases precipitating will help to understand the processes affecting the contamination. Agricultural activities are also important sources of trace elements into soils. Several examples show they may be relevant even in mining areas. The metals reaching the soil tend to be accumulated, but they can mobilize under certain physical-chemical environments. The hazard of the contamination will depend on the availability of the trace elements, the adsorption processes and the stability of mineral phases storing the trace elements. Several results show that the availability of trace elements is usually higher in contaminated sites than in geogenic soils, regardless the total concentration. Mineralogical and geochemical studies are then interesting to understand the processes affecting the contamination, as well as to prevent the hazard to the population.

  18. [Groundwater quality in an arid area of Morocco: impact of pollution on the biodiversity and relationships between crustaceans and bacteria of health interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, F; Yacoubi-Khebiza, M; Oufdou, K; Boulanouar, M

    2008-11-01

    In the north of Marrakesh (Morocco), the high anthropogenic activity and the permeable nature of the geological ground makes the water of Jbilet vulnerable to contamination. The results of physico-chemical analyses conducted in 2006 showed that two groups of wells could be distinguished. Groundwater of wells located on the right bank of the Tensift River, which are far from any source of pollution, is of fairly good quality, well oxygenated, at neutral pH and with rather weak levels of organic compounds. In contrast, in the other wells in the area of the landfill of the city of Marrakesh and those in the peri-urban area demonstrate deteriorated water quality. The nutriment and organic matter content is quite high. Results of bacteriological analyses of water showed a fairly high faecal contamination. In this area the soil is highly permeable and promotes infiltration of organic pollutants and minerals as well as of pathogen and opportunistic bacteria into groundwater. After their penetration, these microorganisms form films around grain particles. The movements of the stygofauna in the interstices allow bacteria to settle on their exoskeleton and seep into their gut, thus being a potential source of groundwater contamination. An analysis of bacterial flora showed that the rate of bacteria is high in the digestive tract of two crustacean species of the stygobites Typhlocirolana haouzensis and Metacrangonyx spinicaudatus, and that it depends on the species and the bacteria. Bacteria may be one of the potential nutritional resources for stygobites.

  19. Features and Remediation technologies of Pollution in Lead - Zinc Mining Areas of China%我国铅锌矿污染特点及修复技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁桂莲; 钱建平; 张力

    2011-01-01

    我国铅锌矿污染的一般特点是:多元素复合污染;污染元素赋存形式复杂;常叠加化学药剂的污染;重金属污染具有隐蔽性、累积性及不可逆性;部分矿山伴生放射性污染等。针对铅锌矿区的不同污染特点,目前常用的污染修复方法有:电动修复法、合磷物质修复法和植物修复法等。电动修复法适宜于低渗透性污染土壤的修复,具有修复时间短、修复彻底、不会引入环境有害物质等优点。含磷物质是一种廉价有效的重金属污染土壤修复剂,可针对土壤重金属污染的实际状况施以不同类型的含磷化合物以降低有效态重金属的含量。超富集植物修复则具有操作技术简单、成本低%The pollution of the lead- zinc mining areas in China is characterized by combined multi - element pollution, complex existing forms of contaminating elements, generally combined with the chemical agents pollution, the concealment, accumulation and irreversibility of heavy metal pollution, accompanying radioactive contamination in some mines, and so on. The com- mon methods of pollution remediation include electrokinetic re mediation; contaminated soil remediation using phosphorus - containing substances and phytoremediation in lead - zinc miningareas. Electrokinetic remediation is suitable for low permeability polluted soil, and has many advantages such as short repairing time, complete effect, without introduction of harmful substances into the environment. Phosphorus - containing substances are cheap and effective agent for the remediation of heavy metal - contaminated soil. Different types of phosphorus compounds can be reduced the content of available heavy metals in soil according to contaminated situation. The remediation of heavy metal - contaminated soil by hyper accumulator plants, is a promising technology, which has the advantages of simple,low cost, less environmental disturbance and being suitable

  20. Radiocarbon as a biomarker of urban pollution in leaves of evergreen species sampled in Rome and in rural areas (Lazio—Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, M.; Anselmi, S.; Conforto, L.; Improta, S.; Manes, F.; Manfra, L.

    The aim of the present study is the use of 14C, sampled in leaves of evergreen species, as a natural geochemical marker to estimate the contribution of artificial sources (heating plants, vehicles, etc.) to the complex of atmospheric gases in an urban environment. Leaves were chosen due to sampling easiness and their reliability: in particular the evergreen species, being exposed all the year round to pollutants are especially indicated for bioindication and biomonitoring studies. The response to atmospheric pollutants has been studied of two plant species ( Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinea L.) measuring isotopic ( 14r, δ13C), chemical (Pb concentration) and ecophysiological (gaseous exchange and leaf fluorescence of chlorophyll a) parameters. Leaves of holm-oaks and stone pine needles collected over a 3-year time span in an urban park in Rome (Villa Ada) and in reference localities outside the city on the Tyrrhenian coast and in the pre-Appennine area have been analysed. In Villa Ada measurements were carried out along a transect from the road bordering the park towards the interior; all the parameters, together in agreement, showed a decreasing pollution gradient towards the inner park. It was possible to estimate a 5.5±0.3% contribution of CO 2 from fossil fuels close to the road, decreasing to 1.7±0.3% at <300 m from it towards the inner park. The isotopic analyses conducted on stone pines and holm-oaks show that 14C provides indications on the degree of pollution from fossil fuels, while δ13C appears to be conditioned mainly by the interspecific difference, and also by many other environmental factors that affect the plant functionality. Results confirmed that radiocarbon is a useful tool in environmental studies, allowing to quantify the contributions of CO 2 of anthropic origin: this parameter, together with appropriate isotopic, chemical and ecophysiological analyses, could provide a good indication of the "air quality" in urban and rural contexts.

  1. Estimate of Aerosol Optical Depth Using Broadband Direct Normal Observations at Highest Polluted Area in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Rahoma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The measurement of different components of direct solar radiation for this research has been carried out in Helwan, Egypt. Helwan (Latitude 29°52 N, Longitude 31°20 E. This is a considered as the largest polluted region in the world. The level of pollution in Helwan region is higher, compared to the international limit by about 7 or 10 times in industrial and populated region respectively. Approach: The daily variation for different components of solar radiation bands as global, direct (total, yellow, red and infrared and diffuse solar radiation had been studied and discussed. The data measurements have been taken for nine years (1991-2000. Hourly data of solar irradiance on a horizontal plane had also been recorded simultaneously together with relative humidity and wind speed along with some traditional techniques for selecting the clear sky days of the period examined. Results: The results clearly showed seasonal dynamics in aerosol loading, type and perceptible water. Conclusion: Background levels of aerosols, which we defined as yellow color less than 0.10, had observed at almost all sites but varying frequencies.

  2. The potential of Sentinel 2 and PROBA-V images for supporting early warnings of particulate matter pollution episodes in Ploiesti urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunea, Daniel; Iordache, Stefania; Pohoata, Alin; Lungu, Emil; Ianache, Cornel; Ianache, Radu

    2016-04-01

    One of the major air quality stressors in the urban area is particulate matter (PM). PM includes dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets emitted into the air by various sources such as vehicles, factories, and construction activities. PM has been linked to asthma and other respiratory illnesses. Inner-city residents need timely access to air quality synthetic indicators for protecting their respiratory health. Access to air quality forecasts and real-time data can allow residents, especially children and elders, to reduce their exposure when PM levels in conjunction with other pollutants are of potential concern. Ploiesti city is an important industrial center, which experienced a rapid economic growth in the last decade. Its industrial activity is concentrated especially on the oil production and refining industry. Ploiesti is the only city in Europe surrounded by four oil refineries. Monitoring campaigns were carried out in 12 sampling points during the "rush" hours (7.00-12.00 a.m. and 3.00-7.00 p.m.) to assess the potential exposure to high PM levels using an optical portable monitoring system, which is measuring fine and submicrometric fractions with a laser beam (DusttrakTM DRX 8533EP with environmental enclosure). Inverse distance weighting algorithm was used to obtain potential isolines of concentrations at town's scale in GIS environment. NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT), respectively the backward trajectory type, was used to overview the contribution of long range transport from the most probable source region of the significant episodes characterized by PM rising of concentrations. Extraction of radiometric indicators from historical databases with multispectral images allowed the spatiotemporal characterization of land use and cloud distribution i.e. Sentinel 2 and PROBA-V (allowing specific characterization of NDVI, which provided canopy and surface reflectance in the pilot area). Resulted data were

  3. 6. Immunological and other parameters in function of residence in area's differing in terms of air pollution.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In the old industrial region of La Louviere in Wallonia (southern part of Belgium) 4 area's can be distinguished differing in sources of emissions, population density, and presence of green zones. The central“La Louviere-Steelworks” area is densely populated and harbours big steel work; the “Power plant-Landfill” semi-urban area contains and old style landfill, a coke oven and an old power plant fueled with coal. Between these two old industrial area's lies the more rural “Intermediate

  4. 云南元江山地香蕉无公害栽培%Pollution Free Cultivation of Banana in Mountainous Areas of Yuanjiang,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建辉; 李云生; 杨丽华; 马云飞; 周昆华

    2012-01-01

    元江是云南最适宜发展香蕉的区域之一,目前坝区香蕉种植开始往山地发展。山地土壤灌溉条件以及香蕉栽培的特殊性,导致山地香蕉生产难以产生较好的经济回报。通过近几年山地香蕉栽培实践,总结了一套山地香蕉无公害栽培关键技术,解决了山地香蕉栽培的特殊性与土壤水肥灌溉条件的矛盾。%Yuanjiang is one of the most suitable areas for banana production in Yunnan.Banana planting is developing towards the mountainous areas at present.The mountainous soil and irrigation conditions and the particularity of banana cultivation lead to difficulties to produce good economic return of banana production in mountainous areas.A set of key techniques were summarized for pollution free cultivation of banana in mountainous areas after several years practice of banana cultivation in mountainous areas,which solved the contradiction between particularity of banana cultivation in mountainous areas and conditions of soil,water,fertilizer and irrigation.

  5. mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from differently polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, Martina Galatea [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Biology, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Rusten, Marte; Goksøyr, Anders [University of Bergen, Department of Biology, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Genes regulating lipid metabolism were studied in ringed seals. •We compared highly contaminated Baltic seals and less contaminated Svalbard seals. •mRNA expression of hepatic PPARγ was higher in the Baltic seals. •mRNA expression of adipose PPARγ target genes was higher in the Baltic seals. •Contaminant exposure may affect lipid metabolism in the Baltic ringed seals. -- Abstract: There is a growing concern about the ability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to influence lipid metabolism. Although POPs are found at high concentrations in some populations of marine mammals, for example in the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) from the Baltic Sea, little is known about the effects of POPs on their lipid metabolism. An optimal regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial for ringed seals during the fasting/molting season. This is a physiologically stressful period, during which they rely on the energy stored in their fat reserves. The mRNA expression levels for seven genes involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed in liver and/or blubber tissue from molting ringed seals from the polluted Baltic Sea and a less polluted reference location, Svalbard (Norway). mRNA expression of genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α and γ and their target genes acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) were analyzed in liver. mRNA expression level of genes encoding PPARβ, PPARγ and their target genes encoding fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) were measured in inner and middle blubber layers. In addition, we evaluated the influence of molting status on hepatic mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARs and their target genes in ringed seals from Svalbard. Our results show higher mRNA expression of genes encoding hepatic PPARγ and adipose PPARβ, FABP4, and ADIPOQ in the Baltic seals compared to the Svalbard seals. A positive relationship between mRNA expressions of genes

  6. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  7. Micronucleus (MN) frequency in nasal respiratory epithelium cells from young adults living in urban areas with different levels of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsebatt, M.E.; Valle, M. del; Fourtoul, T. [UNAM, Merida (Mexico)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Air pollution in the valley of Mexico is a risk to human health due to the high levels of ozone, acidic sulfates, nitrogen oxides, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present. Epidemiologic studies have found an increase incidence of adverse respiratory symptoms among the residents of Mexico City. Histopathologic changes and DNA strand breaks have been observed in the nasal cells of residents of an area with high ozone levels. Since the nasal respiratory epithelium is directly exposed to air pollution we decided to investigate the frequency of MN in this tissue, in a group of 60 young adults (20-25 years old) that live in Mexico City and to compare it with the frequency of MN observed in a similar group of 60 individuals living in Merida, an urban area of the Yucatan peninsula, with lower air pollution. Volunteers completed questionnaires to give information about their health status, smoking habits and previous exposure to confounding factors such as radiation. Nasal cells were obtained by gently scraping the inner turbinate. The cells were smeared on previously coded glass slides, fixed and then stained with Feulgen`s method. 6000 cells were scored for each individual. Results from the analysis of twenty nasal cell samples from Mexico City residents and thirteen samples from Merida residents do not show significant differences in MN prevalence, although Mexico City showed in average a 50% increase in the frequency of MN. The presence of MN was not associated to smoking in either group. Condensed, karyorrhetic and karyolitic nuclei predominated (p<0.05) among the cell samples from Mexico City residents. These changes occur as an response to cellular injury in normal nonkeratinizing epithelium or can be observed in cell undergoing necrosis following injury by agents that cause perturbation of the cellular environment. These preliminary results showed clear cytotoxic effects in the nasal respiratory epithelium of Mexico City residents.

  8. Calculation of Intercepted Volume of Sewer Overflows: a Model for Control of Nonpoint Pollution Sources in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. Choi; D. I. Jung; C. H. Won; J. M. Rim

    2006-01-01

    The authors discovered large differences in the characteristics of overflows by the calculation of 1) intercepting volume of overflows for sewer systems using SWMM model which takes into consideration the runoff and pollutants from rainfalls and 2) the intercepted volume in the total flow at an investigation site. The intercepting rate at the investigation point of CSOs showed higher values than the SSDs. Based on the modeling of the receiving water quality after calculating the intercepting amount of overflows by considering the characteristics of outflows for a proper management of the overflow of sewer systems with rainfalls, it is clear that the BOD decreased by 82.9%-94.0% for the discharge after intercepting a specific amount of flows compared to the discharge from unprocessed overflows.

  9. Environmental pollutions impacts on the bacteriological and physicochemical quality of suburban and rural groundwater supplies in Marrakesh area (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamrani Alaoui, H; Oufdou, K; Mezrioui, N

    2008-10-01

    This study scrutinized bacteriological and chemical quality of groundwater supplies of Marrakesh (Morocco) within a year. It assessed the influence of some chemical factors on fecal and opportunistic pathogenic bacterial communities. The annual average densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were respectively: 1891 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL, 1246 CFU/100 mL and 206 CFU/100 mL. The total occurrence of these bacteria during the period of study was 94%. Detectable non-O1 Vibrio cholerae was present in 81% of samples and the mean abundances ranged from 0 to 11100 MPN/100 mL. Significant correlations between fecal coliforms and streptococci and between fecal coliforms and non-O1 V. cholerae (p pollution to acceptable levels.

  10. Linking pollutant exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean to their feeding habits and feeding areas off Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Krishna; Malarvannan, Govindan; Dirtu, Alin; Dulau, Violaine; Dumont, Magali; Lepoint, Gilles; Mongin, Philippe; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter grounds in the Indian Ocean. The main scope of the current study was to investigate chemical exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean by providing the first published data on this breeding stock concerning persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Analyses of stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N in skin resulted in further insight in their feeding ecology, which was in agreement with a diet focused mainly on low trophic level prey species, such as krill from Antarctica. POPs were measured in all humpback whales in the order of HCB > DDTs > CHLs > HCHs > PCBs > PBDEs > MeO-BDEs. HCB (median: 24 ng g(-1) lw) and DDTs (median: 7.7 ng g(-1) lw) were the predominant compounds in all whale biopsies. Among DDT compounds, p,p'-DDE was the major organohalogenated pollutant, reflecting its long-term accumulation in humpback whales. Significantly lower concentrations of HCB and DDTs were found in females than in males (p  0.05). Differences in the HCB and DDTs suggested gender-specific transfer of some compounds to the offspring. POP concentrations were lower than previously reported results for humpback whales sampled near the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting potential influence of their nutritional status and may indicate different exposures of the whales according to their feeding zones. Further investigations are required to assess exposure of southern humpback whales throughout their feeding zones.

  11. Effects of Environmental Lead Pollution on Blood Lead and Sex Hormone Levels among Occupationally Exposed Group in An E-waste Dismantling Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; LU Xiao Song; LI Ding Long; YU Yun Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. Methods An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. Results The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45μg/L , respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. Conclusion There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks.

  12. Measurements of ozone and its precursors in Beijing during summertime: impact of urban plumes on ozone pollution in downwind rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea-land and mount-valley circulations are the dominant mesoscale synoptic systems affecting the Beijing area during summertime. Under the influence of these two circulations, the prevailing wind is southwesterly from afternoon to midnight, and then changes to northeasterly till forenoon. In this study, surface ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxide (NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs were measured at four sites located along the route of prevailing wind, including two upwind urban sites (Fengtai (FT and Baolian (BL, an upwind suburban site (Shunyi (SY and a downwind rural site (Shangdianzi (SDZ during 20 June–16 September 2007. The purpose is to improve our understanding of ozone photochemistry in urban and rural areas of Beijing and the influence of urban plumes on ozone pollution in downwind rural areas. It is found that ozone pollution was synchronism in the urban and rural areas of Beijing, coinciding with the regional-scale synoptic processes. Due to the high traffic density and local emissions, the average levels of reactive gases NOx and NMHCs at the non-rural sites were much higher than those at SDZ. The level of long-lived gas CO at SDZ was comparable to and slightly lower than it was at other sites. The daily-averaged ozone concentration at SDZ was much higher than at other sites due to weak titration. Ranking by OH loss rate coefficient (LOH, alkenes played a dominant role in total NMHCs reactivity at both urban and rural sites during the experiment, accounting for 48.6 % and 52.1 % of total LOH, respectively. The NMHCs data were also used to estimate the ozone potential formation (OFP in Beijing. The leading contributors to ozone formation were aromatics at both urban and rural sites during the experiment, which accounts for 55.5 % and 49.4 % of total OFP, respectively. The ozone peak values are

  13. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  14. [Pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters of the sea area of Daya Bay and assessment on potential ecological risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan-Nan; Li, Chun-Hou; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to gain a clear understanding on the status of pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage and the potential ecological risk caused by heavy metal pollution in the sea area of Daya Bay. The contents and spatial distributions of heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in seawater, sediment and fishes collected from Daya Bay were analyzed. The comprehensive pollution index (CPI) and ecological risk indexes (ERIs) were used to evaluate the contaminated severity and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in seawater and sediment. The results showed that the contents of these heavy metals, except for those of Zn and Pb, in several stations set in Daya Bay from 2011 to 2012 were relatively low, which were lower than the quality standard of class I according to the China National Standard Criteria for Seawater Quality, suggesting that the seawater in Daya Bay has not been polluted yet by these heavy metals. The average CPI of heavy metals in seawater during flooding season (0.72) was higher than that during dry season (0.38) whereas the average CPI of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (7.77) was higher than that during flooding season (5.70). Hg was found to be the primary contaminating heavy metal in sediment during dry season, which was followed by As and Zn whereas during flooding season, Hg was the primary contaminating metal in sediment, followed by Zn and Cu. The contents of these 7 heavy metals in fishes collected from the surveyed areas were lower than those of the standard requirements. A correlation analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the correlations between the midst of the heavy metals in sea water and the different periods. The ERIs of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (129.20) was higher than that during flooding season (102.86), and 25% of the sampling sites among all stations were under the risk of high-level alarm. The potential ERIs of heavy metals in sediment in

  15. Health risk of inhalation exposure to sub-10 µm particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in an urban-industrial area in South Africa: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the health risks associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). Design The study is an ecological study that used the year 2014 hourly ambient pollution data. Setting The study was conducted in an industrial area located in Pretoria West, South Africa. The area accommodates a coal-fired power station, metallurgical industries such as a coke plant and a manganese smelter. Data and method Estimate of possible health risks from exposure to airborne PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 was performed using the US Environmental Protection Agency human health risk assessment framework. A scenario-assessment approach where normal (average exposure) and worst-case (continuous exposure) scenarios were developed for intermediate (24-hour) and chronic (annual) exposure periods for different exposure groups (infants, children, adults). The normal acute (1-hour) exposure to these pollutants was also determined. Outcome measures Presence or absence of adverse health effects from exposure to airborne pollutants. Results Average annual ambient concentration of PM10, NO2 and SO2 recorded was 48.3±43.4, 11.50±11.6 and 18.68±25.4 µg/m3, respectively, whereas the South African National Ambient Air Quality recommended 40, 40 and 50 µg/m3 for PM10, NO2 and SO2, respectively. Exposure to an hour's concentration of NO2, SO2, CO and O3, an 8-hour concentration of CO and O3, and a 24-hour concentration of PM10, NO2 and SO2 will not likely produce adverse effects to sensitive exposed groups. However, infants and children, rather than adults, are more likely to be affected. Moreover, for chronic annual exposure, PM10, NO2 and SO2 posed a health risk to sensitive individuals, with the severity of risk varying across exposed groups. Conclusions Long-term chronic exposure to airborne PM10, NO2 and SO2 pollutants may result in health risks among the study population. PMID:28289048

  16. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  17. 78 FR 69991 - Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. This document removes the Veterinary Advisory Committee from the Agency's list of...

  18. Off-grid photovoltaic systems as a solution for the ambient pollution avoidance and Iraq’s rural areas electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Qusay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for local pollution free renewable energy sources in the world considered the solar energy as a one of the important renewable energy technologies and becomes dominant to the renewable energy source being exploited. The paper presents a unique approach to study and analysis off-grid photovoltaic (PV system in order to provide the required energy for a one fold household in Diyala State, Iraq as well as the CO2 emissions and life cycle (LCC and economical aspect was considered. The results of the study by depending on site metrological data shows that the unit of electrical cost of (1 kWh about ($0.51 and this value is not expensive compared to the current unit cost of electricity and becomes effect and encouraged the use the PV system to electrify the rare sites. The average of CO2 emissions get avoidance about 1840 kg/year compared with conventional fuels used in Iraq to generate electricity.

  19. Apoptosis and biochemical biomarkers of stress in spiders from industrially polluted areas exposed to high temperature and dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Grazyna

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between apoptosis and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase; catalase) and quantitative changes in stress protein positive cells (Hsp70; metallothionein) in midgut glands of funnel web spiders Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae) and wolf spiders Pardosa lugubris (Lycosidae) exposed to high temperature and pesticide under laboratory conditions. The spiders were collected from two meadow ecosystems differently polluted with metals (Olkusz and Pilica, southern Poland). Under stress conditions, P. lugubris had fewer apoptotic cells in the midgut glands than A. labyrinthica. In P. lugubris from both sites, the observed increase in the percentage of metallothionein and Hsp70-positive cells, simultaneous with intensification of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, suggests an anti-apoptotic function of those proteins in representatives of wandering spiders. In the midgut glands of A. labyrinthica, heat shock and dimethoate increased the number of Annexin V-positive cells as well as the amounts of mitochondria with low transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) versus the control. The changes in the percentage of MT- and Hsp70-positive cells in funnel web spiders were less than in wolf spiders. The absence of change in SOD and CAT activity in A. labyrinthica shows that the participation of those enzymes in antioxidant reactions is minimal in this species.

  20. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  1. The new open Flexible Emission Inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area (FEI-GREGAA): Account of pollutant sources and their importance from 2006 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fameli, Kyriaki-Maria; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.

    2016-07-01

    Photochemical and particulate pollution problems persist in Athens as they do in various European cities, despite measures taken. Although, for many cities, organized and updated pollutant emissions databases exist, as well as infrastructure for the support of policy implementation, this is not the case for Greece and Athens. So far abstract efforts to create inventories from temporal and spatial annual low resolution data have not lead to the creation of a useful database. The objective of this study was to construct an emission inventory in order to examine the emission trends in Greece and the Greater Athens Area for the period 2006-2012 on a spatial scale of 6 × 6 km2 and 2 × 2 km2, respectively and on a temporal scale of 1 h. Emissions were calculated from stationary combustion sources, transportation (road, navigation and aviation), agriculture and industry obtained from official national and European sources. Moreover, new emission factors were calculated for road transport and aviation. The final database named F.E.I. - GREGAA (Flexible Emission Inventory for GREece and the GAA) is open-structured so as to receive data updates, new pollutants, various emission scenarios and/or different emission factors and be transformed for any grid spacing. Its main purpose is to be used in applications with photochemical models to contribute to the investigation on the type of sources and activities that lead to the configuration of air quality. Results showed a decreasing trend in CO, NOx and VOCs-NMVOCs emissions and an increasing trend from 2011 onwards in PM10 emissions. Road transport and small combustion contribute most to CO emissions, road transport and navigation to NOx and small combustion and industries to PM10. The onset of the economic crisis can be seen from the reduction of emissions from industry and the increase of biomass burning for heating purposes.

  2. 75 FR 65014 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Request for Nominations of Experts for the Consultation on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... following areas: Environmental monitoring and sampling, geology, hydrogeology, measurement protocols for... Advisory Panels and Ad Hoc Committees Being Formed'' provided on the SAB Web site. The instructions can...

  3. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  4. Nitrate pollution of groundwater in the alsatian plain (France)—A multidisciplinary study of an agricultural area: The Central Ried of the ill river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, C.; Carbiener, R.; Cloots, A. R.; Froehlicher, R.; Schenck, Ch.; Zilliox, L.

    1992-09-01

    The area studied is part of the “Ried Central” of the Ill river (Middle Alsatian plain in northeastern France). This area is located mainly in the present floodplain of the Ill. The closeness of the water table to the surface results in quasi general soil hydromorphism. The economic constraints of the last two decades led to deep changes in agricultural activities in the study area. These have essentially involved a marked extension of intensive cultivation of grain corn at the expense of grasslands. The study of the influence of this change on the parallel increase in the concentration of nitrate in groundwater is only feasible when a multidisciplinary approach is adopted. The analyses carried out in the field and in the laboratory show that nitrate reduction occurs in gleyed or peaty horizons of hydromorphic soils. The aptitude and efficiency of the permanent ambient vegetation (alluvial forests and grasslands) in retaining nitrate must be emphasized. The amount of nitrate eliminated from the aquifer by rivers fed by this aquifer is considerable. This evacuation of nitrate into the Ill is a fine example of waste and illustrates the absurdity of the economic situation responsible for excessive nitrogen fertilization of farmlands. In determining hazard zones, this study also proposes practical solutions to the problem of nitrate pollution: diminution of land area under cultivation, reintroduction of grasslands, and a more judicious use of nitrogen manure.

  5. Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatari, Michael; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter; Kinney, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution. Reducing PM emissions from motor vehicles would have direct health benefits for residents of Nairobi and other SSA cities. However, further studies are required to depict the seasonal variations, include gaseous pollution aspect, and strengthen the knowledge on air quality in the region as well as improving the data base for health impact assessment. Acknowledgement This study was initiated and funded by Columbia University's Earth Institute's Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CSUD). CSUD is a Volvo Research and Educational Foundations Center of Excellence for Future Urban Transport. International Science Programs (ISP), Uppsala University, Sweden is recognized for its research support to Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology. Additional technical support for air monitoring and analysis was provided by the Exposure Assessment Facility Core of the Center for Environmental Health in Northern Manhattan (NIEHS P30 ES09089).

  6. Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Cançado, José Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time‐series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (μg/m3) was obtained using Handi‐vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long‐time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1 day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 5‐day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205

  7. The design and realization of a large-area flexible nanofiber-based mat for pollutant degradation: an application in photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Meng; Wang, Wenzhong; Sun, Songmei; Gao, Erping; Zhang, Zhijie; Zhang, Ling; O'Hayre, Ryan

    2013-05-01

    This work demonstrates a novel multifunctional nanofibrous mat for photocatalytic applications based on TiO2 nanocables functionalized by Ag nanoparticles and coated with a thin (~2 nm) graphitic shell. In this mat, which was realized by an electrospinning technique, each component serves a unique function: the carbon coating acts as both an adsorption material for capturing pollutants and as a charge-transfer material, the Ag nanoparticles act as a visible-light sensitizing agent and also as a charge-transfer material, finally the TiO2 nanocable mat acts as a UV sensitive photocatalytic matrix and as the flexible substrate for the other functional components. This multicomponent nanocable mat exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity under simulated solar irradiation for the degradation of model pollutants including RhB and phenol. The significant photocatalytic properties are attributed to the synergetic effect of the three functional components and the unique charge transport ``freeway'' property of the nanofibrous mat. In addition, the porous carbon coating infiltrated into the nanocable matrix endows the mat with excellent flexibility and enables robust, large-area (10 × 10 cm) fabrication, representing a significant advantage over previous brittle ceramic nanofibrous mat photocatalyst substrates. This study provides new insight into the design and preparation of an advanced, yet commercially practical and scaleable photocatalytic composite membrane material. The as-prepared photocatalytic mat might also be of interest in solar cell, catalysis, separation technology, biomedical engineering, and nanotechnology.

  8. A Novel Approach in Quantifying the Effect of Urban Design Features on Local-Scale Air Pollution in Central Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskell, Georgia; Salmond, Jennifer; Longley, Ian; Dirks, Kim N

    2015-08-04

    Differences in urban design features may affect emission and dispersion patterns of air pollution at local-scales within cities. However, the complexity of urban forms, interdependence of variables, and temporal and spatial variability of processes make it difficult to quantify determinants of local-scale air pollution. This paper uses a combination of dense measurements and a novel approach to land-use regression (LUR) modeling to identify key controls on concentrations of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at a local-scale within a central business district (CBD). Sixty-two locations were measured over 44 days in Auckland, New Zealand at high density (study area 0.15 km(2)). A local-scale LUR model was developed, with seven variables identified as determinants based on standard model criteria. A novel method for improving standard LUR design was developed using two independent data sets (at local and "city" scales) to generate improved accuracy in predictions and greater confidence in results. This revised multiscale LUR model identified three urban design variables (intersection, proximity to a bus stop, and street width) as having the more significant determination on local-scale air quality, and had improved adaptability between data sets.

  9. Clay minerals of Pliocene deposits and their potential use for the purification of polluted wastewater in the Sohag area, Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Refaey; B. Jansen; A.H. El-Shater; A.A. El-Haddad; K. Kalbitz

    2015-01-01

    In our study we investigated the clay fraction composition of Pliocene clay deposits in the Sohag area, Egypt. Our goal was to obtain insights into the origin of the deposits, and to assess their potential for use in inexpensive wastewater purification. The rationale for the latter was that in Egypt

  10. Radiocarbon as a bio marker of urban pollution in leaves of evergreen species sampled in Rome and in rural areas (Lazio-Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessio, M.; Improta, S. [La Sapienza University, Rome (Italy). Department of Physics; Anselmi, S. [University of Molise, Isernia (Italy). Department of Sciences and Technologies for the Environment; Conforto, L.; Manfra, L. [La Sapienza University, Rome (Italy). Department of Earth Sciences; Manes, F. [La Sapienza University, Rome (Italy). Department of Plant Biology

    2002-11-01

    The aim of the present study is the use of {sup 14}C, sampled in leaves of evergreen species, as a natural geochemical marker to estimate the contribution of artificial sources (heating plants, vehicles, etc.) to the complex of atmospheric gases in an urban environment. Leaves were chosen due to sampling easiness and their reliability: in particular the evergreen species, being exposed all the year round to pollutants are especially indicated for bioindication and biomonitoring studies. The response to atmospheric pollutants has been studied of two plant species (Quercus ilex L., Pinus pinea L.) measuring isotopic ({sup 14}r, {delta}{sup 13}C), chemical (Pb concentration) and ecophysiological (gaseous exchange and leaf fluorescence of chlorophyll a) parameters. Leaves of holm-oaks and stone pine needles collected over a 3-year time span in an urban park in Rome (Villa Ada) and in reference localities outside the city on the Tyrrhenian coast and in the pre-Appennine area have been analysed. In Villa Ada measurements were carried out along a transect from the road bordering the park towards the interior; all the parameters, together in agreement, showed a decreasing pollution gradient towards the inner park. It was possible to estimate a 5.5{+-}0.3% contribution of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels close to the road, decreasing to 1.7{+-}0.3% at <300 m from it towards the inner park. The isotopic analyses conducted on stone pines and holm-oaks show that {sup 14}C provides indications on the degree of pollution from fossil fuels, while {delta}{sup 13}C appears to be conditioned mainly by the interspecific difference, and also by many other environmental factors that affect the plant functionality. Results confirmed that radiocarbon is a useful tool in environmental studies, allowing to quantify the contributions of CO{sub 2} of anthropic origin: this parameter, together with appropriate isotopic, chemical and ecophysiological analyses, could provide a good indication of the

  11. Vertical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil cores taken from a typical electronic waste polluted area in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Z; Li, Y F; Hou, Y X; Liang, H Y; Qin, Z F; Fu, S

    2010-02-01

    37 PBDE congeners were analyzed at six different depths in two soil cores taken from a typical electronic waste polluted area in South China. The PBDEs were congregated in the surface layer (0-5 cm) of soil cores and were 29 times in MK and 18 times in NW higher than the second lower layers (5-10 cm). As a whole, the concentrations of PBDEs were decreased with the soil depth increased in two cores. Lower brominated PBDE had higher penetrability than the deca-BDE in soil. The deca-BDE could be detected in deeper soil layers (15-20 cm in MK and 20-30 cm in NW) and the percentage of deca-BDE decreased with the increase of depth.

  12. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  13. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  14. Studies on planting trees in a smoke-polluted area. On the actual state of damage of trees due to air pollution in Iwaki area. [Quercus serrata; Pinus densiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Damage to trees in the Iwaki area, ranging from slight growth suppression to changes in leaf color, leaf-fall, and withering, was examined in relation to industrial sulfur oxide emissions. A survey of local conditions, amount of tree growth, index of damage, and the sulfur content of leaves from each of 20 pine trees (Pinus densiflora) 10 to 20 yr old was performed. There was a positive logarithmic relationship between the elongation of new twigs and the distance from the smoke source. Generally, the vigor of trees was higher, the greater the distance from the smoke source, with some exceptions suggesting the effect of topography. Sulfur content showed the same inverse tendency with some exceptions, and it was lower than that determined previously. The sulfur content of leaves of Quercus serrata was one and a half to two times greater than that of P. densiflora.

  15. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter, and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher, revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies.

  16. 16 CFR 1018.26 - Advisory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advisory functions. 1018.26 Section 1018.26... Advisory Committees § 1018.26 Advisory functions. (a) Unless otherwise specifically provided by statute, advisory committees shall be utilized solely for advisory functions. (b) The Commission shall ensure...

  17. Handle With Care: An Air Pollution Module for Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grade Teachers of Health Education, Science, and Other Subject Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Dolores

    Presented is a module on air pollution for sixth through eighth graders. Six subsections address the many aspects of air and air pollution: (1) sensory awareness, (2) the nature of the atmosphere, (3) air pollution's effects on health and property, (4) values conflicts, (5) air quality control, and (6) individual responsibility. Learning…

  18. Nonvolatile organic pollutants in domestic dust samples from the urban Hamburg area; Schwerfluechtige organische Umweltchemikalien in Hamburger Hausstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Nonvolatile organic pollutants were measured in 65 private apartments, i.e. biocides, softeners, flame protection agents, stabilisers, soot, tar and bitumen which are contained in many everyday products and building materials. The homes were the private homes of staff members of the Hamburg Environmental Office and their friends; none of the homes were problem cases. The information was obtained by collecting vacuum cleaner dust. The inhomogeneous dust was screened, and the < 63 {mu}m fraction was analyzed. This fraction was homogeneously enough to provide reproducible results. Chloroparaffins and organic tin compounds were measured for the first time ever in this project. While the concentrations of chloroparaffins were significant, organic tin compounds are rather scarce. Bis(2,ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was the main component in nearly all household dust samples. Phthalates in general had the highest concentrations. Next to phthalates, chloroparaffins and the biocide permethrin were found in high concentrations, followed by organic phosphates, further biocides, organic tin compounds and benzo(a)pyrene. The individual substances wre assessed on the basis of 95 percent percentiles obtained from the measured frequency distributions. This figure means that 95 percent of the household dust have a lower or equal concentration than the 95 percent percentile. 95 percent percentiles are generally used as reference values in environmental measurements. The reference values presented here should be considered as preliminary values, owing to the fact that the apartments are not representative of the city of Hamburg, and 65 dust samples are too small a data base. Among the most important substances, owing to their high concentrations and/or toxic effects, are DEHP with a preliminary reference value of 1600 mg/kg of household dust, dibutyl phthalate with 180 mg/kg of dust, short-chain chloroparaffins with 180 mg/kg of dust, permethrin with 110 mg/kg of dust, monobutyl tin

  19. Evaluating Different Weeds for Phytoremediation Potential Available in Tannery Polluted Area by Conducting Pot and Hydroponic Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Girdhar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pot experiments were conducted to determine and compare the toxic effects of Chromium, Copper, Cadmium, Nickel and Lead on different parameters like shoot length, number of branches and area of leaf on different wild weedCannabis sativa, Solanumnigrum and Chenopodium album. The investigated amounts of metal were in the range of 7 different concentrations i.e. 5ppm, 10ppm,50ppm,100ppm,200ppm,300ppm and 350ppm.The average toxicity increases with increase in the concentration of metals but in certain cases variations were observed in toxicity parameters. The morphological response in Cannabis sativa showed that most of the changes on the morphological characteristics were observed at 100 ppm. The shoot length, leaf area and number of branches decrease at 100 ppm and above. The maximum variations as compared to other metals were shown in copper stress condition. In Chenopodium album all the metals except lead show morphological variation with increase in metal concentration. The morphological toxicity increases with increase in metal concentration. The overall pollen fertility analysis shows that metal exposure leads to the development of sterile pollens. This shows the relative toxic effect of metals on the pollen fertility. In the hydroponic experiments, the Chromium metal exposure on the weed Cannabis sativa(C and (P for 15 days shows decrease in the amount of Chromium in the medium detected throughdiphenylcarbazide method, which shows the hyper accumulation of chromium by these weeds.

  20. User's guide to the LIRAQ model: an air pollution model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1975-12-19

    The Livermore Regional Air Quality (LIRAQ) model comprises a set of computer programs that have been integrated into an easily used tool for the air quality planner. To assemble and modify the necessary data files and to direct model execution, a problem formulation program has been developed that makes possible the setup of a wide variety of studies involving perturbation of the emission inventory, changes to the initial and boundary conditions, and different choices of grid size and problem domain. In addition to describing the types of air quality problems for which the LIRAQ model may be used, this User's Guide provides detailed information on how to set up and conduct model simulations. Also included are descriptions of the formats of input data files so that the LIRAQ model may be applied to regions other than the San Francisco Bay Area.

  1. Biomarker responses in mudskipper (Periophthalmus waltoni) from the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf with oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Mehrnoosh; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    A suite of 5 different biomarker responses were selected and measured in 3 different phases of detoxification process in mudskipper Periophthalmus waltoni from 3 different stations including Soltani Inlet, Shif Island and Ameri Port in Bushehr coastal area of the Persian Gulf. The selected biomarkers were 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), DNA damage using the Comet assay and micronucleus (MN). Spatial variations in biomarker responses were observed in different sites. EROD, GST, FACs, DNA damage and MN were significantly elevated in mudskippers in the most oil impacted site (Soltani inlet). Based on the assessments, bile metabolites, EROD and GST induction appear to be sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and can be considered as complementary biomarkers; therefore P. waltoni has the potential to be used as a bioindicator in these types of ecosystems.

  2. Pollution with Heavy Metals in the River Lepenc and Agricultural Areas from Cement Factory in Elez Han “Sharrcem”

    OpenAIRE

    , S Demaku; , I. Shehu; , B Dobra; , A Malsiu; , A Gjokaj; , A Suhogerllaj; , F Dobra; , A. Shala

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we determinate the concentration of heavy metals as; Zn, Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni and Mn in water, sludge of river Lepenc and agricultural areas around the river. The Şrst sampling point, Ml-Soil, values as presented; Pb; 0.516 mg/kg, Zn; 0.394 mg/kg, Cu; 0.248 mg/kg, Ni; 0.142 mg/kg, Fe; 0.963 mg/kg and Mn; 0.516 mg/kg, While Ml-Water, presented values; Pb; 0.049 mg/dm3, Zn; 0.169 mg/dm3, Cu; 0.168 mg/dm3, Ni; 0.060 mg/dm3, Fe; 0.537 mg/dm3 dheMn; 0.025 mg/dm3,whereas Ml-Sludge, values a...

  3. Impacts of DEM uncertainties on critical source areas identification for non-point source pollution control based on SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Dong, Guangxia; Wang, Qingrui; Liu, Lumeng; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of different digital elevation model (DEM) resolutions, sources and resampling techniques on nutrient simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivities of DEM resolutions (from 30 m to 1000 m), sources (ASTER GDEM2, SRTM and Topo-DEM) and resampling techniques (nearest neighbor, bilinear interpolation, cubic convolution and majority) to identification of non-point source (NPS) critical source area (CSA) based on nutrient loads using the SWAT model. The Xiangxi River, one of the main tributaries of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. The following findings were obtained: (1) Elevation and slope extracted from the DEMs were more sensitive to DEM resolution changes. Compared with the results of the 30 m DEM, 1000 m DEM underestimated the elevation and slope by 104 m and 41.57°, respectively; (2) The numbers of subwatersheds and hydrologic response units (HRUs) were considerably influenced by DEM resolutions, but the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads of each subwatershed showed higher correlations with different DEM sources; (3) DEM resolutions and sources had larger effects on CSAs identifications, while TN and TP CSAs showed different response to DEM uncertainties. TN CSAs were more sensitive to resolution changes, exhibiting six distribution patterns at all DEM resolutions. TP CSAs were sensitive to source and resampling technique changes, exhibiting three distribution patterns for DEM sources and two distribution patterns for DEM resampling techniques. DEM resolutions and sources are the two most sensitive SWAT model DEM parameters that must be considered when nutrient CSAs are identified.

  4. Nonvolatile organic pollutants in domestic dust samples from the urban Hamburg area; Schwerfluechtige organische Umweltchemikalien in Hamburger Hausstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Nonvolatile organic pollutants were measured in 65 private apartments, i.e. biocides, softeners, flame protection agents, stabilisers, soot, tar and bitumen which are contained in many everyday products and building materials. The homes were the private homes of staff members of the Hamburg Environmental Office and their friends; none of the homes were problem cases. The information was obtained by collecting vacuum cleaner dust. The inhomogeneous dust was screened, and the < 63 {mu}m fraction was analyzed. This fraction was homogeneously enough to provide reproducible results. Chloroparaffins and organic tin compounds were measured for the first time ever in this project. While the concentrations of chloroparaffins were significant, organic tin compounds are rather scarce. Bis(2,ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was the main component in nearly all household dust samples. Phthalates in general had the highest concentrations. Next to phthalates, chloroparaffins and the biocide permethrin were found in high concentrations, followed by organic phosphates, further biocides, organic tin compounds and benzo(a)pyrene. The individual substances wre assessed on the basis of 95 percent percentiles obtained from the measured frequency distributions. This figure means that 95 percent of the household dust have a lower or equal concentration than the 95 percent percentile. 95 percent percentiles are generally used as reference values in environmental measurements. The reference values presented here should be considered as preliminary values, owing to the fact that the apartments are not representative of the city of Hamburg, and 65 dust samples are too small a data base. Among the most important substances, owing to their high concentrations and/or toxic effects, are DEHP with a preliminary reference value of 1600 mg/kg of household dust, dibutyl phthalate with 180 mg/kg of dust, short-chain chloroparaffins with 180 mg/kg of dust, permethrin with 110 mg/kg of dust, monobutyl tin

  5. 77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a marine protected area designed to...

  6. 78 FR 9060 - Request for Nominations for Voting Members on Public Advisory Panels or Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... failure. Dental Products Panel of the 3 November 1, 2013. Medical Devices Advisory Committee--Dentists, engineers and scientists who have expertise in the areas of dental implants, dental materials... Radiological Health, Food and Drug Assurance Advisory Committee. Administration, 10903 New Hampshire...

  7. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this

  8. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  9. Combination of beehive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity to study heavy metal pollution impact in a post-mining area (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alberto; Verdinelli, Marcello; Ruiu, Luca; Buffa, Franco; Salis, Severyn; Sassu, Antonio; Floris, Ignazio

    2012-11-01

    Mining activities represent a major source of environment contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of bees and ants as bioindicators to detect the heavy metal impact in post-mining areas. A biomonitoring programme involving a combination of honeybee hive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity survey was conducted over a 3-year period. The experimental design involved three monitoring stations where repeated sampling activities focused on chemical detection of cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr) and lead (Pb) from different matrices, both from hosted beehives (foraging bees, honey and pollen) and from the surrounding environment (stream water and soil). At the same time, ant biodiversity (number and abundance of species) was determined through a monitoring programme based on the use of pitfall traps placed in different habitats inside each mining site. The heavy metal content detected in stream water from the control station was always below the analytical limit of quantification. In the case of soil, the content of Cd and Pb from the control was lower than that of mining sites. The mean heavy metal concentrations in beehive matrices from mining sites were mainly higher than the control, and as a result of regression and discriminant analysis, forager bee sampling was an efficient environmental pollution bioindicator. Ant collection and identification highlighted a wide species variety with differences among habitats mostly associated with vegetation features. A lower variability was observed in the polluted landfill characterised by lack of vegetation. Combined biomonitoring with forager bees and ants represents a reliable tool for heavy metal environmental impact studies.

  10. 75 FR 9416 - Advisory Committee Information Hotline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee Information Hotline AGENCY: Food and Drug... revised the Advisory Committee Information Hotline (the hotline). The hotline provides the public with... supersedes all previously published announcements of FDA's Advisory Committee Information Hotline....

  11. 76 FR 64111 - NASA Advisory Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public... Advisory Council Administrative Officer, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington,...

  12. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  13. Geographic variation of persistent organic pollutant levels in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding areas of the North Pacific and North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Cristiane T; Vanblaricom, Glenn R; Boyd, Daryle; Calambokidis, John; Clapham, Phillip J; Pearce, Ronald W; Robbins, Jooke; Salinas, Juan Carlos; Straley, Janice M; Wade, Paul R; Krahn, Margaret M

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal feeding behavior and high fidelity to feeding areas allow humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to be used as biological indicators of regional contamination. Biopsy blubber samples from male individuals (n = 67) were collected through SPLASH, a multinational research project, in eight North Pacific feeding grounds. Additional male samples (n = 20) were collected from one North Atlantic feeding ground. Persistent organic pollutants were measured in the samples and used to assess contaminant distribution in the study areas. North Atlantic (Gulf of Maine) whales were more contaminated than North Pacific whales, showing the highest levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and chlordanes. The highest dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels were detected in whales feeding off southern California, USA. High-latitude regions were characterized by elevated levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) but generally nondetectable concentrations of PBDEs. Age was shown to have a positive relationship with SigmaPCBs, SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordanes, and total percent lipid. Contaminant levels in humpback whales were comparable to other mysticetes and lower than those found in odontocete cetaceans and pinnipeds. Although these concentrations likely do not represent a significant conservation threat, levels in the Gulf of Maine and southern California may warrant further study.

  14. Nitrate pollution and its transfer in surface water and groundwater in irrigated areas: a case study of the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong; Liu, Qiang; Suzuki, Yoshimi

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation projects have diverted water from the lower reaches of the Yellow River in China for more than 50 years and are unique in the world. This study investigated the effect of irrigation practices on the transfer and regional migration mechanisms of nitrate (NO3(-)) in surface water and groundwater in a Yellow River alluvial fan. Hydrochemical indices (EC, pH, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and HCO(3-)) and stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δD) were determined for samples. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to identify the sources of water constituents. Kriging was employed to simulate the spatial diffusion of NO3(-) and stable isotopes. Our results demonstrated that the groundwater exhibited more complex saline conditions than the surface water, likely resulting from alkaline conditions and lixiviation. NO3(-) was detected in all samples, 87.0% of which were influenced by anthropogenic activity. The NO3(-) pollution in groundwater was more serious than the common groundwater irrigation areas in the North China Plain (NCP), and was also slightly higher than that in surface water in the study area, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In addition, the groundwater sites with higher NO3(-) concentrations did not overlap with the spatial distribution of fertilizer consumption, especially in the central and western parts of the study area. NO3(-) distributions along the hydrogeological cross-sections were related to the groundwater flow system. Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic evidences indicate that surface water-groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of NO3(-) in the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains.

  15. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  16. Underground water and pollution vulnerability assessment of lower Imo sedimentary basin of South-eastern Nigeria: A case study of Nwangele Local Government Area of Imo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onunkwo – A, A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water exploitation and population explosion are two major problems facing Nwangele Local Government. This study was therefore predicated on these problems to assess the underground water and pollution vulnerability of the study area. The method of study involves literature survey of previous work done in Imo River sedimentary basin and other works considered necessary for the study. A total of ten (10 vertical electricity soundings (VES was conducted for data generation using terrameter 300 SAS employing Schlumberger configuration. Aquifer (sands from boreholes within three (3 communities and ten (10 water samples were collected and used for statistical and geochemical analysis. The result shows that the lithology is made of sand, silt sand, clay and shale. Three (3 aquifer systems exits in the area confined, semi confined and unconfined aquifers, these occur as upper (33.5m, middle (82m and lower (102 to 115m aquifers. The lithology comprises 4 to 6 layers with water bearing bed occurring at the fifth layer. Average aquifer thickness measured 38 metres. Multiaquifer system exists in some localities. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 25.6m/day to 28.9m/day, transmissivity ranges from 450.842/day to 111.7m2/day while the storativity values ranges from 0.468 x 10-5 to 1.13 x 10-5, all indicate aquifer of good yield. Aquifer thickness ranges from 12.5 to 45m. The water chemistry is neutral, mildly acidic to mildly alkaline. The underground water is of calcium by carbonate type (CaHCO3 fresh and ideal for consumption, irrigation and laundry industry. None of the constituents fell short of WHO (1984 standard . Environmental pollution is only confined to upper aquifer. It is recommended that the three aquifer horizons can be tapped at the depth range of 18 to 102 metres. Multiple screen should be employed where there are more than one aquifer horizon. It is advisable that down the hole electric logging be conducted prior to the installation of

  17. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of mitigation methods for multiple pollutants at farm scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, R D; Anthony, S G; Chadwick, D R; Newell-Price, P; Harris, D; Duethmann, D; Fish, R; Collins, A L; Winter, M

    2014-01-15

    Reductions in agricultural pollution are essential for meeting nationally and internationally agreed policy targets for losses to both air and water. Numerous studies quantify the impact of relevant mitigation methods by field experimentation or computer modelling. The majority of these studies have addressed individual methods and frequently also individual pollutants. This paper presents a conceptual model for the synthesis of the evidence base to calculate the impact of multiple methods addressing multiple pollutants in order to identify least cost solutions for multiple policy objectives. The model is implemented as a farm scale decision support tool that quantifies baseline pollutant losses for identifiable sources, areas and pathways and incorporates a genetic algorithm based multi-objective procedure for determining optimal suites of mitigation methods. The tool is generic as baseline losses can be replaced with measured data and the default library of mitigation methods can be edited and expanded. The tool is demonstrated through application to two contrasting farm systems, using survey data on agricultural practices typical of England and Wales. These examples show how the tool could be used to help target the adoption of mitigation options for the control of diffuse pollution from agriculture. The feedback from workshops where Farmscoper was demonstrated is included to highlight the potential role of Farmscoper as part of the farm advisory process.

  18. Study on the calculation method of polluted sea area based on WEB service%基于WEB服务的海水污染面积计算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付瑞全; 向先全; 杨翼; 路文海

    2014-01-01

    Using the GIS spatial analysis technology and the spatial interpolation processing, various types of polluted sea areas in the target area were graded, and then the calculation method of each type of the polluted sea area was achieved. A series of spatial analysis on the pollution area factors was implemented, including grid overlay statistical analysis, converting raster to vector plane, boundary smoothing, small area fusion, element face seamless processing, as well as the same-level pollution surface fusion processing. A vector pollution area was finally formed. Using ArcGIS Server , Geopocessing service was published on specific ocean network. Pollution area in the region can be obtained by interpolation calculation tool with remote services for users, after importing interpolation data and range, and setting the conditions. This study innovatively developed the pollution area calculation tool, and would help to improve work efficiency, meet the requirements of the comprehensive assessment of environmental quality for effectiveness and intuitive, and with the significance of good popularization.%提出了一种利用GIS空间分析技术,通过空间插值处理,对目标区域内的各类污染海域进行等级划分,得出各类污染海域面积的方法。通过对污染面积要素进行空间分析:栅格叠加统计分析、栅格转换矢量面、边界平滑处理、微小面积融合处理、要素面无缝处理以及同等级污染面融合处理,生成矢量污染面积图,计算各等级污染面积值,通过海洋专网,利用ArcGIS Server,发布Geopocessing服务。当用户导入插值数据,插值范围,设定条件,就可以获得区域的污染面积,为用户提供远程服务。研发了污染面积计算工具,有助于环保工作者提高工作效率,满足环境质量综合评价中时效性和直观性的要求,具有良好的推广意义。

  19. 唐山市工业区大气污染对儿童健康影响的研究%Study on Effects of Air Pollution on Children's Health in Industrial Area of Tangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红霞; 冯福民; 张志坤; 李才广

    2000-01-01

    [目的]探讨工业区大气污染对儿童健康的影响。[方法]在唐山市工业污染区和对照区选取452名儿童为研究对象,进行上呼吸道疾病、肺功能、局部免疫功能的检测和问卷调查。[结果]在均衡了两区儿童的个人生理因素和室内空气污染因素后,污染区儿童上呼吸道疾病检出率增高;肺功能下降;唾液溶菌酶活性降低;SIgA水平升高。[结论]工业区大气污染已对儿童健康产生了危害。%[Objective] To explore the effects of air pollution on children's health in industrial area. [Methocls]The questionnaires and health examination on diseases of upper respiratory tract, pulmonary function and local immune function were carried out among 452 children selected from industrial polluted area and control area in Tangshan. [Results] After the balance of personal physiological factors of observed children and factors of indoor air pollution in two areas, higher detectable rates of diseases of upper respiratory tract,lower pulmonary function, lower activity of lysozyrne of saliva,higher levels of secretory immunoglobulin A were observed in children in polluted area. [Conclusion] Air pollution had attacked children's health in industrial area.

  20. Relationship between urinary cadmium and mortality in habitants of a cadmium-polluted area: a 22-year follow-up study in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; Muneko Nishijo; Hideaki Nakagawa; Yuko Morikawa; Masaru Sakurai; Koshi Nakamura; Teruhiko Kido; Koji Nogawa; DAI Min

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested that the exposure to cadmium (Cd) increased mortalities from renal diseases,cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasm,including lung cancer and prostate cancer among inhabitants living in Cd-polluted areas and factory workers.This study aimed to assess the influence of environmental exposure to Cd on long term outcome of inhabitants living in an area polluted by Cd.Methods A 22-year follow-up study was conducted with 3119 inhabitants (1403 men and 1716 women) living in the Cd polluted Kakehashi River basin in Japan.The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the amount of urinary Cd level (<3.0 μg/g creatinine (Cr),3.0-4.9 μg/g Cr,5.0-9.9 μg/g Cr,and ≥10.0 μg/g Cr).Mortality was calculated by the person-years method.Hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (C/) were assessed by the Cox's proportional hazard model.Results Compared with urinary Cd <3.0 μg/g Cr group,the HR of 5.0-9.9 μg/g Cr and >10.0 μg/g Cr groups were significantly increased after adjustment for age in both sexes:1.24 (95% CI 1.01-1.51) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.17-1.90) for men; 1.64 (95% C/ 1.17-2.28) and 1.78 (95% C/ 1.27-2.50) for women.The most frequent cause of death was malignant neoplasm in men and cardiovascular diseases in women.The significant increase in mortality risk for cardiovascular diseases was observed in the subjects with ≥10 μg/g Cr in both sexes:1.79 for men (95% Cl 1.02-3.12) and 2.38 for women (95% CI 1.11-5.07).When the subjects were divided into 2 categories (<20 μg/g Cr and >20 μg/g Cr),the HR of the urinary Cd ≥20 μg/g Cr group for nephritis and nephrosis were 4.82 (95% CI 1.07-21.61) in men and 7.92 (95% Cl 1.77-35.33) in women,respectively.The significant increase was not observed for malignant neoplasm.Conclusion These results suggest a dose-response relationship between Cd body burden and mortality for cardiovascular diseases,cerebrovascular diseases and nephritis

  1. Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion from a ground-level area source over urban street canyons with irreversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T. Z.; Liu, C.-H.; Zhao, Y. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants is calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES) in a neutrally stratified urban canopy layer (UCL) over urban areas. As a pilot attempt, idealized street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio are used. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from the ground surface of the first street canyon into the domain doped with ozone (O3). In the absence of ultraviolet radiation, this irreversible chemistry produces nitrogen dioxide (NO2), developing a reactive plume over the rough urban surface. A range of timescales of turbulence and chemistry are utilized to examine the mechanism of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the UCL. The Damköhler number (Da) and the reaction rate (r) are analyzed along the vertical direction on the plane normal to the prevailing flow at 10 m after the source. The maximum reaction rate peaks at an elevation where Damköhler number Da is equal or close to unity. Hence, comparable timescales of turbulence and reaction could enhance the chemical reactions in the plume.

  2. Delta13C values of grasses as a novel indicator of pollution by fossil-fuel-derived greenhouse gas CO2 in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Jaffrézic, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A novel fossil fuel pollution indicator based on the 13C/12C isotopic composition of plants has been designed. This bioindicator is a promising tool for future mapping of the sequestration of fossil fuel CO2 into urban vegetation. Theoretically, plants growing in fossil-fuel-CO2-contaminated areas, such as major cities, industrial centers, and highway borders, should assimilate a mixture of global atmospheric CO2 of delta13C value of -8.02 per thousand and of fossil fuel CO2 of average delta13C value of -27.28 per thousand. This isotopic difference should, thus, be recorded in plant carbon. Indeed, this study reveals that grasses growing near a major highway in Paris, France, have strikingly depleted delta13C values, averaging at -35.08 per thousand, versus rural grasses that show an average delta13C value of -30.59 per thousand. A simple mixing model was used to calculate the contributions of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 to the plant tissue. Calculation based on contaminated and noncontaminated isotopic end members shows that urban grasses assimilate up to 29.1% of fossil-fuel-CO2-derived carbon in their tissues. The 13C isotopic composition of grasses thus represents a promising new tool for the study of the impact of fossil fuel CO2 in major cities.

  3. Aerosol radiative effects on the meteorology and distribution of pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohui; Bei, Naifang; Molina, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols scatter or absorb incoming solar radiation, perturb the temperature structure of the atmosphere, and impact meteorological fields and further the distribution of gas phase species and aerosols. In the present study, the aerosol radiative effects on the meteorology and photochemistry in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) are investigated using the WRF-CHEM model during the period from March 24th to 29th associated with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Aerosols decrease incoming solar radiation by up to 20% and reduce the surface temperature by up to 0.5 °C due to scattering and absorbing the incoming solar radiation in Mexico City. The absorption of black carbon aerosols can also enhance slightly the temperature in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Generally, the change of the PBL height in the city is less than 200 m during daytime due to the aerosol-induced perturbation of temperature profile. Wind fields are also adjusted with the variation of temperatures, but all the aerosol-induced meteorological changes cannot significantly influence the distribution of pollutants in the city. In addition, when convective events occur in the city, the aerosol radiative effects reduce the convective available potential energy (CAPE) and the convective precipitation is generally decreased. Further studies still need to be performed to evaluate the aerosol indirect effect on precipitation in Mexico City.

  4. Evaluation of ground level concentration of pollutant due to gas flaring by computer simulation: A case study of Niger - Delta area of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. ABDULKAREEM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of associated gases through flaring has been a major problem for the Nigerian oil and gas industries and most of theses gases are flared due to the lack of commercial out lets. The resultant effects of gas flaring are the damaging effect of the environment due to acid rain formation, green house effect, global warming and ozone depletion.This writes up is aimed at evaluating ground level concentration of CO2, SO2, NO2 and total hydrocarbon (THC, which are product of gas flared in oil producing areas. Volumes of gas flared at different flow station were collected as well as geometrical parameters. The results of simulation of model developed based on the principles of gaseous dispersion by Gaussian showed a good agreement with dispersion pattern.The results showed that the dispersion pattern of pollutants at ground level depends on the volume of gas flared, wind speed, velocity of discharge and nearness to the source of flaring. The results shows that continuous gas flaring irrespective of the quantity deposited in the immediate environment will in long run lead to change in the physicochemical properties of soil.

  5. Yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus as zoomonitors of environmental contamination at a polluted area in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jančová Alena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-living wild rodents are often used as zoomonitors of environmental contamination. In the present study, accumulation of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, and zinc (Zn in critical organs of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis and bank voles (Myodes glareolus trapped in a polluted area in Nováky, Slovakia was investigated. Methods Yellow-necked mice (n = 8 and bank voles (n = 10 were collected using standard theriological methods for wood ecosystems. All animals were adult males in good physical condition. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the liver, kidney, and bone were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results The highest concentrations of Cd and Zn were found in the bone of both species while Cu and Fe accumulated mainly in kidney or liver. Significant higher concentrations of Cd and Cu were detected in the liver of bank voles than in yellow-necked mice. Similar significant higher levels of Cd and Zn were found in the bone of bank voles. In contrast, significant higher concentrations of Cu and Fe were present in the kidney of yellow-necked mice. Conclusions In the yellow-necked mouse and bank vole, bone seems to accumulate Cd and Zn following prolonged exposure. On the contrary, kidney and liver store Cu and Fe after a long-term environmental exposure. In the present study, bank voles seemed to be more heavy metal loaded zoomonitors than yellow-necked mice.

  6. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  7. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  8. Study on Pollution Characterization of Rainfall Runoff in Hefei Campus Area%合肥市校园区降雨径流污染特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢继锋; 徐挺; 胡志新; 蔡婷; 朱朝云

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究合肥市校园区屋面和路面两类不同下垫面降雨径流污染特征.[方法]以SS、CODCr、TN和TP作为主要水质指标进行比较,分析校园内屋面和路面2010年4场降雨径流污染物输出规律和降雨径流水质特征及其差异.[结果]合肥市校园区降雨径流污染负荷水平较高,降雨径流主要污染物浓度一般在降雨初期较高,后期随着降雨历时的延长浓度下降,并趋于稳定;不同类型下垫面对降雨径流水质的影响差异较大,受人为活动直接干扰的路面降雨径流中SS和TP平均浓度远高于屋面,COD和TN平均浓度略高于屋面;舍肥地区大气湿沉降对降雨径流中TN的贡献很大.[结论]该研究可为合理开展城市径流面源污染控制和有效利用城区雨水资源提供科学依据.%[ Objective ] The aim was to study the pollution characterization of rainfall runoff of two different underlying surface, roof runoff and road runoff, in Hefei campus area. [ Method] Choosing SS, CODcr, TN and TP as the main analyzing items of water quality, the distinction law and characterization of contamination from roof runoff and road runoff collected in 4 rainfall events in urban campus area of Hefei in 2010 were analyzed, and their difference was compared. [Result] The pollutioa loading of rainfall runoff in Hefei campus area was high, and the main contamination concentration was high at the initial stage commonly, while at the later stage the concentration was decreased with prolonging of the rainfall time and trended stable. The effects of different underlying surface on water characterization of rainfall runoff had great differences. Thereinto, the SS and TP average concentration of road runoff directly effected by human action were significantly higher than that of roof rainfall, while CODcr and TN average concentration of road runoff were a little higher than that of roof rainfall. Atmospheric wet deposition in Hefei contributed a lot to

  9. The impact of informal irrigation practices on soil drainage condition, soil pollution and land suitability for agriculture in El Saf area of El Giza Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan E.M. El Azab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area was selected in El Saf District of El Giza Governorate in Egypt, covering 21461.4 ha of Nile sediments and their outskirts of alluvial higher and lower terraces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of informal irrigation practices on drainage deterioration, soil pollution and land suitability for agricultural use using the satellite LDCM data 2013. From the lower alluvial terraces (partly cultivated using wastewater, the drainage flows westward via descending slopes resulting in land deterioration in both the alluvial lower terraces and alluvial plain of River Nile. The drainage conditions are excessively drained soils in the alluvial upper terraces within soils of Typic Haplocalcids, sandy skeletal, but in the lower terraces it partly occurred within soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal. Moderately well drained soils occurred in soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy in the alluvial lower terraces, while in the alluvial plain of Nile sediments are Sodic Haplotorrerts, fine. Poorly drained soils in the lower alluvial terraces have soils of Typic Epiaquents, sandy associated with Sodic Psammaquents and Aquic Haplocalcids, coarse loamy, while in the alluvial plain of River Nile the soils are Halic Epiaquerts, fine. Very poorly drained soils (submerged areas are scattered spots in both the lower alluvial terraces and the alluvial plain. In the alluvial plain of River Nile, 1967.1 ha become not suitable for the traditional cultivated crops, while in the alluvial terraces 3251.0 ha are not suitable for the proposed cultivation of Jojoba plants. Heavy metals of Cadmium (Cd, Cobalt (Co, Lead (Pb and Nickel (Ni were added to the soil surface and sub-surface in the irrigated areas by wastewater in the lower alluvial terraces (moderately well drained soils, but Cd and Co exceeded the standards of permissible total concentrations in these soils. The same metals were added to soil sub-surface layers in the alluvial plain

  10. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  11. Characterization of pollutants cycles evolution in a coastal mediterranean area under summer conditions; Caracterizacion de ciclos de evolucion de contaminantes en una zona costera mediterranea en situaciones de verano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, J.; Artinano, B.

    1994-07-01

    This work performs a jointly interpretation of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements during three experimental campaigns in the coastal and inland zones of Castellon, in summer time and prevailing local conditions. Thermal origin circulations, sea and land breezes, slope and valley winds, and local topography, give rise to daily cycle recirculation of pollutants, both at surface and higher levels. Related to the associated ozone levels, the observed natural background varies from 40-50 ppb, whom can be added 20-50 ppb as contribution by photochemical generation. This has been observed to be transported up to 100 Km inland and re-circulated again through the coastal Area. (Author) 7 refs.

  12. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  13. 76 FR 14009 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Wednesday, March 30, 2011 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p..., DC 20554. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Technical Advisory...

  14. 78 FR 55255 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological Advisory Council will discuss progress... Advisory Council (TAC) will hold a meeting in the Commission Meeting Room to discuss progress on...

  15. 78 FR 33092 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Thursday, June 13, 2013 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological Advisory...

  16. 76 FR 58513 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Tuesday, September 27th, 2011, in the Commission Meeting Room, from...., Washington, DC 20554. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Technical Advisory...

  17. 77 FR 12839 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Wednesday, March 28, 2012 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p... 20554. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Technical Advisory Council...

  18. 78 FR 67362 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Monday, December 9, 2013 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological Advisory...

  19. 77 FR 30289 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Wednesday, June 27, 2012 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological Advisory...

  20. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution in urban area; Surveillance epidemiologique - air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to quantify the short term relationship between the air pollution and its effects on health and to monitor its evolution, the Institute of Sanitary Watch, with the help of the Department of development and environment and the Department in charge of health, has realised a study in eight towns: Bordeaux, Le Havre, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Rouen, Strasbourg and Toulouse. These towns have been chosen for the contrasted character of their sources, of their pollution levels and their geo climatic conditions. Paris contributes to the study with the E.R.P.U.R.S results. (N.C.)

  1. Silica- and sulfate-bearing rock coatings in smelter areas: Products of chemical weathering and atmospheric pollution I. Formation and mineralogical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Nathalie M.; Schindler, Michael; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hochella, Michael F.

    2012-05-01

    Black rock-coatings occur in proximity to smelters and roast yards of the Greater Sudbury area, Ontario, Canada and contain information about the past interactions between surface minerals, and gaseous and particulate atmospheric components, many of which were pollutants. Rock-coatings were collected from various locations within the Sudbury area and are characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Acidic fumigations and rain, the result of vast quantities of SO2 released from smelting, increased the chemical weathering rate of exposed rocks in the Sudbury area. Non-stoichiometric dissolution of the silicate minerals under acidic conditions resulted in the accumulation of silicic acid and the subsequent formation of a silica-gel type coating. The silica gel transformed overtime into amorphous silica, opal (opal C and opal-CT) and cristobalite. Dissolution of the underlying rock and also of metal-bearing particles by sulfuric acid resulted in the in situ formation of metal-sulfate-rich layers on the interfaces between the atmosphere and the silica-rich coating (atmosphere-coating interface, ACI) and between the silica-rich coating and the underlying rock (rock-coating interface, RCI). These metal-sulfate-rich layers contain nanometer aggregates of Fe-Cu-sulfate-hydroxide, goldichite, mereiterite, guildite, butlerite and antlerite. The silica-rich matrix also contains a mix of detrital grains from adjacent rocks and soils (feldspar, quartz, hematite, chlorite, montmorillonite) and non-dissolved smelter-derived nano- to micro-size particulates (metal-silicates, metal-oxides, C-spheres). The apparent disequilibrium between the embedded particles and the Fe-Cu-sulfates suggests that trapped nanoparticles were encapsulated into pores which prevented their equilibration with acidic metal-sulfate-bearing fluids. An XPS depth

  2. Discussion on the Green Tax Stimulation Measure of Nitrogen Fertilizer Non-Point Source Pollution Control - Taking the Dongting Lake Area in China as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ping-an; ZHOU Yan; HUANG Huang; ZHENG Hua

    2007-01-01

    A study on designing the tax of nitrogen fertilizer can provide a new method for controlling nitrogen fertilizer non-point source pollution. The tax design of nitrogen fertilizer was discussed by utilizing the external theory and the demand elasticity theory. The results indicated that the coefficient of price elasticity of nitrogen fertilizer demand is -0.21, which instructed that the market demand is in lack of elasticity in the short period and the impact of nitrogen fertilizer manufacturers is subtle. The 11 counties (cities and boroughs) in the Dongting Lake area in China, where the farmland nitrogen application surpassed the average ecological fertilization dosage, is listed to the taxation scope of nitrogen fertilizer tax. The environment loss will reduce 0.07 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.89 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The loss, which was brought by the decreasing food supplies production, will be 0.58 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.38 hundred million RMB yuan following revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.49%. The variation scope of the income of farmers will range from -8.41 to 6.44%. The 5 areas, Yunxi Borough, Junshan Borough, Hanshou County, Jinshi City, and Ziyang Borough, had an increase in food supplies production after the revenue collection. The environment loss will reduce 0.01 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.16 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The economic benefits, which was brought by the increasing cereals production, will be 0.67 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.84 hundred million RMB yuan after revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.06%. The variation scope of the increasing income of farmers will

  3. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  4. 78 FR 77443 - Electricity Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Department of... Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770.../oe/services/electricity-advisory-committee-eac . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matthew...

  5. 浅析贵州省大气煤烟型污染及防治对策%Pollution of Coal- burning Smoke and Its Preventive Measures in Guizhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建玲

    2001-01-01

    A series of preventive measures for atmospheric pollution wereput forward based on the present status analysis of atmospheric pollution caused by coal burning smoke in Guizhou province and the existing policies, laws and regulations for environmental protection, which are of great reference value to the control of the atmospheric pollution in Guizhou area.%通过分析贵州省煤炭工业造成的大气污染现状,结合当前有关环保政策、法规,提出一系列防治对策,对贵州省大气污染治理具有一定的参考价值。

  6. 浅谈富拉尔基区农村环境问题及治理建议%Discussion on Environmental Pollution Problems in Rural Areas of Fulaerji District and Control Meas-ures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2013-01-01

    随着农村经济的发展,环境污染问题日趋突出,污染问题亟待解决。针对富拉尔基区农村环境污染问题的主要原因进行分析,并提出解决农村环境污染问题的建议。%With the development of the rural economy, the environmental pollution problems become more and more serious. The paper analyses the main reasons of environmental pollution in rural areas of Fulaerji district and puts forward suggestions to solve the environmental pollution problems.

  7. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  8. 5 CFR 591.244 - How does OPM select COLA Advisory Committee members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Program Administration § 591.244 How does OPM select COLA Advisory Committee members? (a)...

  9. 75 FR 20844 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  10. 77 FR 6113 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC's) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  11. 75 FR 70004 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  12. 77 FR 57085 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  13. 78 FR 21354 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  14. 75 FR 6031 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  15. 76 FR 64348 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  16. 75 FR 60458 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  17. 78 FR 39289 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  18. 76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety... International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. The purpose of this... consideration by NASA for Commercial Resupply Services for the International Space Station (ISS),...

  19. OCLC and Its Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Shirley K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) advisory committees in terms of research, public, college and university, and special libraries. All four of the type-of-library advisory groups work to shape OCLC policies and programs, according to the particular needs of each group. OCLC's financial and programmatic success depends upon…

  20. Status and Control Measures of Environmental Pollution of Karst Rural Area in Guizhou Province%贵州省喀斯特地区农村环境污染现状及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏春; 陈琨

    2014-01-01

    Status of rural environmental pollution of Guizhou karst area was analyzed ,including rural sewage pollution ,rural living garbage pollution,environmental pollution caused by agricultural production ,and environmental pollution caused by rural tourism ,etc.The control measures were proposed from the following aspects:raising awareness ,sewage treatment ,garbage disposal ,ecological agriculture development and strengthening environmental monitoring ,etc.%分析贵州喀斯特地区农村环境污染现状,包括农村生活污水污染、农村生活垃圾污染、农业生产引起的环境污染和“农家乐”旅游带来的环境污染等方面;并从提高意识、处理生活污水、处理生活垃圾、发展生态农业和加强环境监测等方面提出防治对策。

  1. Relationship between pulmonary function and indoor air pollution from coal combustion among adult residents in an inner-city area of southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Y; Houjin, H; Xun, M; Kebin, L; Xuesong, Y; Jie, X

    2014-11-01

    Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM₂.₅) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (≥18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), the FEV₁/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM₂.₅ was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM₂.₅ in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV₁, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV₁/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV₁, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM₂.₅ exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke.

  2. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  3. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirk R.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  4. 78 FR 28237 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory... Telecommunications Advisory Committee, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland...

  5. [Distribution of soil heavy metal and pollution evaluation on the different sampling scales in farmland on Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia: a case study in Xingqing County of Yinchuan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Qi; Bai, Yi-Ru; Wang, Jian-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Determining spatial distributions and analyses contamination condition of soil heavy metals play an important role in evaluation of the quality of agricultural ecological environment and the protection of food safety and human health. Topsoil samples (0-20 cm) from 223 sites in farmland were collected at two scales of sampling grid (1 m x 1 m, 10 m x 10 m) in the Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia. The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial variability of total copper (Cu), total zinc (Zn), total chrome (Cr), total cadmium (Cd) and total lead (Pb) on the two sampling scales by the classical and geostatistical analyses. The single pollution index (P(i)) and the Nemerow pollution index (P) were used to evaluate the soil heavy metal pollution. The classical statistical analyses showed that all soil heavy metals demonstrated moderate variability, the coefficient of variation (CV) changed in the following sequence: Cd > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu. Geostatistical analyses showed that the nugget coefficient of Cd on the 10 m x 10 m scale and Pb on the 1 m x 1 m scale were 100% with pure nugget variograms, which showed weak variability affected by random factors. The nugget coefficient of the other indexes was less than 25%, which showed a strong variability affected by structural factors. The results combined with P(i) and P indicated that most soil heavy metals have slight pollution except total copper, and in general there were the trend of heavy metal accumulation in the study area.

  6. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Maria Chiara; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Fuselli, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6), concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a) node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b) node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c) node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW) non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%); most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  7. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Mura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6, concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%; most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  8. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  9. 13 CFR 130.360 - SBDC advisory boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBDC advisory boards. 130.360 Section 130.360 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... include small business owners and other representatives from the entire Area of Service. (4) New...

  10. Response of bacterial pdo1, nah, and C12O genes to aged soil PAH pollution in a coke factory area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; He, Ji-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Soil pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is threatening human health and environmental safety. Investigating the relative prevalence of different PAH-degrading genes in PAH-polluted soils and searching for potential bioindicators reflecting the impact of PAH pollution on microbial communities are useful for microbial monitoring, risk evaluation, and potential bioremediation of soils polluted by PAHs. In this study, three functional genes, pdo1, nah, and C12O, which might be involved in the degradation of PAHs from a coke factory, were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and clone library approaches. The results showed that the pdo1 and C12O genes were more abundant than the nah gene in the soils. There was a significantly positive relationship between the nah or pdo1 gene abundances and PAH content, while there was no correlation between C12O gene abundance and PAH content. Analyses of clone libraries showed that all the pdo1 sequences were grouped into Mycobacterium, while all the nah sequences were classified into three groups: Pseudomonas, Comamonas, and Polaromonas. These results indicated that the abundances of nah and pdo1 genes were positively influenced by levels of PAHs in soil and could be potential microbial indicators reflecting the impact of soil PAH pollution and that Mycobacteria were one of the most prevalent PAHs degraders in these PAH-polluted soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analyses between microbial parameters and environmental factors revealed that total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) had positive effects on the abundances of all PAH-degrading genes. It suggests that increasing TC, TN, and DOC inputs could be a useful way to remediate PAH-polluted soils.

  11. 76 FR 56458 - Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation; Meeting of the Advisory Council on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...: Topics of the Meeting: The Advisory Council will hear presentations and provide feedback on inventories... the meeting. In lieu of oral comments, formal written comments may be submitted for the record to... areas. After each presentation, the Advisory Council will openly discuss the inventory and the...

  12. Sex-specific difference of the association between ambient air pollution and the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: 33 Communities Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael; Boutwell, Brian; Ward, Patrick; Lu, Tao; Lin, Shao; Zhao, Yang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Qing; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Experimental data suggests that exposure to airborne fine particulate matter is associated with obesity. There is little supporting epidemiologic evidence of this, however. To evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on the prevalence of obesity among adults living in a primarily industrial province of northeast China, 24,845 Chinese adults between the ages of 18 and 74 were randomly recruited from 33 communities in 11 districts of three northeastern Chinese cities during 2009. The participants' weight and height were measured. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. Two-level logistic regressions models were used to examine the effects of pollutants exposure. Overall, 35.3% (8764) were overweight and 5.8% (1435) were obese. After adjusting for confounding factors, significant associations between concentrations of air pollutants and prevalence of obesity were found. When the analysis was stratified by sex, the associations were significant only in women. Among women, an increased prevalence of obesity was associated with an interquartile range increase in PM10 (19 μg/m3; odds ratio [ORs] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.06-1.32), NO2 (9 μg/m3; ORs = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09-1.41), and O3 (22 μg/m3; ORs = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). Associations were stronger among older participants. In conclusion, this study reveals a positive association between the long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of obesity, and that these associations were more apparent in women than in men.

  13. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  14. Calculation and discussion of non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area%丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷的计算与讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳霞; 程超; 辛小康

    2015-01-01

    正确估算丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷对于水源区水环境保护具有重要意义. 根据丹江口库区6条主要入库河流汉江、天河、堵河、丹江、老灌河、淇河控制水文站2013年逐日流量数据,采用数字滤波法对基流进行了分割. 以逐日流量、河川基流量和代表污染物(CODMn和TP)2013年逐月浓度监测值为基础,采用通量法计算了背景污染负荷和点源污染负荷、非点源污染负荷. 结果表明:(1) 6条河流入库流量占总入库流量的95. 9%,非点源污染已成为丹江口水库水质变化的主导因素. (2) 汉江是入库污染负荷的最大来源,其次是堵河. (3) 由于非点源污染伴随降雨汇入河道,水库污染负荷主要集中于丰水期,2013年度丰水期CODMn和TP的比例分别达到了80. 8%和90. 9%.%Correctly estimating the non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area is important to the envi-ronmental protection of the water source area. The Digital Filter method is used to separate the base flows of Hanjiang River, Tianhe River, Duhe River, Danjiang River, Laoguan River and Qihe River in the reservoir basin according to the daily discharge data. Based on the daily flow, the base flow and monthly typical pollutant concentration in 2013, a flux model is set up to calcu-late the background pollution loads, point-source pollution loads and non-point source pollution loads respectively. The calcu-lation results show that in 2013, the inflow discharge of the 6 rivers accounted for 95. 9% of the total inflow, and the total pollu-tion loads of CODMn and TP from the 6 rivers are 58. 2 thousand t and 1. 86 thousand t, while the non-point source pollution loads are 39. 82 thousand t and 1. 544 thousand t, so the non-point source pollution is the decisive factor;Hanjiang River is the largest pollutants contributor to Danjiangkou Reservoir and followed by Duhe River; the non-point source pollution enters into the river channel

  15. Comparative estimation of soil and plant pollution in the impact area of air emissions from an aluminium plant after technogenic load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Mozgova, Natalya P

    2015-01-01

    The work provides a comparative analysis of changes in soil properties in the last 10-13 years along the pollution gradient of air emissions from Kandalaksha aluminium plant in connection with the reduction of their volume. The content of the priority pollutant fluorine (F) in atmospheric precipitation and in the organic horizon of soil in the plant impact zone significantly decreased in 2011-2013 compared to 2001. The aluminium concentrations reduced only in immediate proximity to the plant (2 km). The fluorine, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations are higher in liquid phase compared to solid phase thus these elements can migrated to greater distances from the pollution source (up to 15-20 km). Silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) can be found only in solid phases and in fall-out within the 5 km. The acidity of soil litter reduced by 2 pH units in the proximity to the plot within the 2 km. The zone of maximum soil contamination decreased from 2.5 km to 1.5 km from the emission source, the zones of heavy and moderate pollution reduced by 5 km in connection with the reduction of pollutant emissions in the plant. A high correlation between the fluorine concentrations in vegetables and litter was found. Higher fluorine concentrations in the soil result in its accumulation in plants. Mosses accumulate fluorine most intensively.

  16. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Serge Peraire with regard to exceptional advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 17 to 31 May 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  17. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Judith Igo-Kemenes concerning the application of procedures foreseen by Administrative Circular N§ 26 (Rev. 3). As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 6 to 20 June 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  18. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Maria DIMOU with regard to a periodic one-step increase. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 30 April to 14 May 2004. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  19. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Aloïs Girardoz with regard to classification and advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the Board's report and the Director-General's decision will be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 15 to 29 August 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  20. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Bertrand Nicquevert with regard to the non-resident allowance. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 29 November to 13 December 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  1. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Jack Blanchard with regard to 'non recognition of specific functions'. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 12th to 26th April 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  2. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Antonio Millich with regard to advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 27 September to 11 October 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  3. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Poul Frandsen concerning his assimilation into the new career structure. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 13 to 24 January 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  4. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Luc Vos with regard to advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 14 to 28 June 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  5. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Personnel Division

    1999-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Joào Bento with regard to residential category. As the appellant has not objected, the recommendations of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article RÊVIÊ1.20 of the Staff Regulations.The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N¡ 60) from 29 October to 12 November 1999.Personnel DivisionTel. 74128

  6. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to advancement. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) from 24 March to 10 April 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  7. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  8. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a former member of the personnel, a beneficiary of the CERN Pension Fund, against the calculation of his pension in the framework of the Progressive Retirement Programme.   The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be available from 26 July to 11 August 2013 at the following link. HR Department Head Office

  9. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  10. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  11. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  12. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  13. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  14. Contribution of Man – Made Activities to the Pollution of the Tigris within Mosul Area/IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Al-Rawi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overall view of major sources that may lead to the pollution of the Tigris within Mosul city. A stretch exceeding 20kms in length is selected that represents the ‘‘sick’’ path of the river. Many sites along the studied stretch are likely to affect the river quality in some way or another. Samples from 40 sources sites are taken for quality analyses These sources – as huge as 400000 m3 a day – are characterized as (medium – strong in composition. Such wastewaters with the pollutants they carry alter the river water quality rendering it unsuitable for beneficial uses. Such alterations – do leave –many negative consequences concerning human beings and aquatic life. It is found that domestic discharges are among the most important sources of pollution. Sanitary wastes are often discharged – untreated -into the Tigris. Other illegal practices such as in- house slaughtering add to the pollution as well. Industrial, tourist and institutional wastes put an additional burden on pollution of the river water quality. These wastes contain lead, chrome, and other heavy metals that may pose health risks. Wastewater treatment plants that exist in some sectors do not perform as they are expected. They need proper evaluation and rehabilitation. Eutrophication - a characteristic problem in lakes - finds an access to occur into the Tigris. This problem results from intensive use of detergents rich in nutrients (P&N compounds. In general, pollutants of different sources heavily affect the river water. Recovery and self purification of the river is estimated to occur at 40 km far from reference point. The paper concludes with the necessity of construction of a central treatment plant(s or tackling the pollutants at their origin. The paper also stresses on importance of environmental education and awareness in order to

  15. Issues of Rural Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, W. H.; Hammer, R. L.; Hammer, A.

    2001-12-01

    Light pollution is generally considered mostly an urban problem. Common sources of light pollution are poorly designed lighting of streets, parking lots, businesses and advertizing signs and for security. These sources, and the amount of light pollution generated, increase with population density. Nevertheless, light pollution can also be significant in rural areas. Rural light pollution differs from that in urban settings, both in the types of pollution and in the means that must be employed to control it. In the country the offending sources are often isolated lights such as from farm barns, vacation cottages, radio and cell phone towers, and road intersections. A culture of strong property rights and privacy rights affects attempts to control rural light pollution. We describe how some of these issues may be addressed based on the results from an Eagle Scout project carried out in central Michigan.

  16. On Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊

    2005-01-01

    Long long ago,our world was very beautiful, there were trees, flowers,rivers ... they were very clean and tidy.But now, the hillsarenrt green, the rivers aren't clean,the fish has died. Pollution is becoming more and more serious all over the world. We are living in a polluted environment which is bad forour health.

  17. Heavy metals pollution assessment of edible parts of crops grown around e-waste disassembling areas%电子垃圾拆解区农作物可食部重金属污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翠; 杨祥田; 何贤彪; 安玲瑶; 刘领

    2011-01-01

    A survey on the heavy metal contents in edible parts was conducted for crops grown around e-waste disassembling areas. The results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts were 0. 08 - 10. 56 mg·kg-1 for Cr, 0. 02 -0. 76 mg·kg-1 for Cd, and 0. 05 - 1. 51 mg·kg-1 for Pb. The assessment of single factor pollution indexes indicated that the Pb pollution was most severe, with the pollution rate being 56. 52% , while pollution rate of Cr and Cd were 39. 13% and 34. 78% , respectively. Comprehensive pollution index indicated that 65. 22% of the crops were polluted, with the medium and heavy pollution grade being 13. 04% and 30.43% , respectively. The absorption and accumulation of heavy metals had interspecific and intraspecific differences. Among the crops, the levels of heavy metal pollution could be ranked in the order from low to high as follows: cereals < beans < potatoes < vegetables.%对电子垃圾拆解区的农作物可食部的重金属含量进行分析和评价.结果表明:Cr,Cd和Pb的含量范围分别为0.08 ~ 10.56,0.02 ~0.76和0.05~1.51 mg·kg-1;从单项污染指数来看,Pb的污染最为严重,达到56.52%,Cd和Cr的污染相对较轻,分别为39.13%和34.78%;从综合污染指数来看,65.22%的农作物可食部受到污染,其中中度和重度污染分别达到13.04%和30.43%,以重度污染为主.不同农作物对重金属的吸收和积累存在着较大差异,同一种农作物的不同品种之间的重金属含量也存在着较大差异.总之,各类农作物综合污染水平:谷类<豆类<薯类<蔬菜类.

  18. A proposal of "core enzyme" bioindicator in long-term Pb-Zn ore pollution areas based on topsoil property analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, JinShui; Yang, FengLong; Yang, Yang; Xing, GuanLan; Deng, ChunPing; Shen, YaTing; Luo, LiQiang; Li, BaoZhen; Yuan, HongLi

    2016-06-01

    To study the effects of long-term mining activities on the agricultural soil quality of Mengnuo town in Yunnan province, China, the heavy metal and soil enzyme activities of soil samples from 47 sites were examined. The results showed that long-term mining processes led to point source heavy metal pollution and Pb, Cd, Zn and As were the primary metal pollutants. Polyphenoloxidase was found the most sensitive soil enzyme activity and significantly correlated with almost all the metals (P < 0.05). Amylase (for C cycling), acid phosphatase (for P cycling) and catalase (for redox reaction) activities showed significantly positive correlations (P < 0.05) with Pb, Cd, Zn and As contents. The correlations between soil enzymes activities and Cd, Pb and Zn contents were verified in microcosm experiments, it was found that catalase activity had significant correlations (P < 0.05) with these three metals in short-term experiments using different soils under different conditions. Based on both field investigation and microcosm simulation analysis, oxidoreductases activities (rather than a specific enzyme activity) were suggested to be used as "core enzyme", which could simply and universally indicate the heavy metal pollution degrees of different environments. And hydrolases (for C, N, P and S recycling) could be used as a supplement to improve correlation accuracy for heavy metal indication in various polluted environments.

  19. Impacts of Hazardous Air Pollutants Emitted from Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants on their Ambient Concentration Levels in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations and distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) metals emitted from four phosphate fertilizer plants in Central Florida, as well as their environmental and health impacts, were assessed. The dominant HAP metals emitted from the stacks of these plants were M...

  20. Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollutants on the Inflammatory Response and Respiratory Symptoms: A Panel Study in Schoolchildren from Rural Areas of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Ueki, Masaru; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between particulate air pollutants and respiratory symptoms in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to different particulate air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms and the inflammatory response in schoolchildren. Three hundred-and-sixty children were included in the study. The children recorded daily respiratory symptom scores for October 2015. In addition, the daily amount of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which was collected every day during the study period. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations among respiratory symptoms and the daily levels of SPM, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Daily SPM levels were not associated with respiratory symptoms or the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. Conversely, there was a significant association between respiratory symptoms and the daily IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels. These results suggested that the effects of particulate air pollutants on respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response to them than on their mass concentration. PMID:27706066

  1. Dendrochemistry Application as a Tool for Biomonitoring Environmental Pollution of Mining Areas%年轮化学示踪技术及在重现矿区重金属污染历史中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷梅; 郭立新; 张山岭

    2011-01-01

    The trees, naturally growing in the mining areas, can uptake heavy metals from air, soil, and irrigation water. The pathways of heavy metals entering the trees might be roots, barks, and leaves. After entering the trees, heavy metals will deposit in the tree-rings during cambium development. The long-term fluctuations of element contents in tree rings can be analysed by the laser ablation system coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Therefore, the pollution processes of mining areas can be recorded by the variation of heavy metal concentrations in the tree-rings, and the influential ratios of different pollution routes can be semi-quantitatively determined. Cases of applications of dendrochemistry in biomonitofing of air, water and soil pollution were reviewed in this article. Based on the point pollution characteristics of mining areas, the possibility of applying dendrochemistry for pollution monitoring was discussed. Aiming to improve the accuracy of research of atmospheric and soil pollution in mining areas by dendrochemistry, different influential factors of heavy metal concentrations in tree rings, such as tree species, selective uptake of elements by trees, climate variation and nutrient providing, were reviewed. Geostatistics, stable isotope tracer, and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence can improve the accuracy of dendrochemistry for environmental pollution recording. Atmospheric dispersion model predicting ground-level concentrations from a point source of metal emissions, such as smelters, can be calibrated on tree rings in order to reconstruet the spatial and temporal Pb-contamination pattern. Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis, for example 210Pb and 137Cs. With the development of analytical techniques of heavy metals in tree rings, dendrochemistry will play a more important role in pollution monitoring in mining areas. This review highlights the strong potential for dendrochemistry to

  2. 75 FR 22754 - Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Charter... that it is renewing the charter for the Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Advisory...

  3. 75 FR 22560 - Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter... that it is renewing the charter for the U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Advisory Committee...

  4. 78 FR 77663 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (``the Committee''). This... Wednesday, January 29, 2014, from, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Geospatial-Intelligence...

  5. 77 FR 15751 - Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... AGENCY Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory... requests for appearances requires it. The Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) will meet at EPA's...: Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) contact Frances Eargle at (202) 564-3115 or email at...

  6. 77 FR 2539 - Meetings of the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee and the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... AGENCY Meetings of the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee and the Local Government Advisory... if the number of requests for appearances requires it. The Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC... at davis.catherinem@epa.gov . For the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) contact...

  7. 76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory... and amendment of the Charter of the International Space Station Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Space Station Advisory Committee is in the public interest in connection with the performance of...

  8. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  9. KZMA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  10. KZLC Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  11. KZBW Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national