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Sample records for area oklahoma implications

  1. Facies architecture of the Bluejacket Sandstone in the Eufaula Lake area, Oklahoma: Implications for the reservoir characterization of the Bartlesville Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liangmiao; Yang, Kexian [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Outcrop studies of the Bluejacket Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) provide significant insights to reservoir architecture of the subsurface equivalent Bartlesville Sandstone. Quarry walls and road cuts in the Lake Eufaula area offer excellent exposures for detailed facies architectural investigations using high-precision surveying, photo mosaics. Directional minipermeameter measurements are being conducted. Subsurface studies include conventional logs, borehole image log, and core data. Reservoir architectures are reconstructed in four hierarchical levels: multi-storey sandstone, i.e. discrete genetic intervals; individual discrete genetic interval; facies within a discrete genetic interval; and lateral accretion bar deposits. In both outcrop and subsurface, the Bluejacket (Bartlesville) Sandstone comprises two distinctive architectures: a lower braided fluvial and an upper meandering fluvial. Braided fluvial deposits are typically 30 to 80 ft thick, and are laterally persistent filling an incised valley wider than the largest producing fields. The lower contact is irregular with local relief of 50 ft. The braided-fluvial deposits consist of 100-400-ft wide, 5-15-ft thick channel-fill elements. Each channel-fill interval is limited laterally by an erosional contact or overbank deposits, and is separated vertically by discontinuous mudstones or highly concentrated mudstone interclast lag conglomerates. Low-angle parallel-stratified or trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones volumetrically dominate. This section has a blocky well log profile. Meandering fluvial deposits are typically 100 to 150 ft thick and comprise multiple discrete genetic intervals.

  2. Vascular Flora of the Chouteau Wildlife Management Area Wagoner County, Oklahoma Bruce W.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce W. Hoagland; Forrest Johnson

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the results of a vascular plant inventory of the Chouteau Wildlife Management Area in eastern Oklahoma. Oklahoma Native Plant Record Journal of the Oklahoma Native Plant Society One hundred eighty-one species of vascular plants were collected from 144 genera and 63 families. The families with the greatest number of species were the Asteraceae (25), Poaceae (22), and Fabaceae (18). Fifty-seven species were annuals, four biennials, and 120 were perennials. Thirty-nine woody...

  3. Vascular Flora of the Chouteau Wildlife Management Area Wagoner County, Oklahoma Bruce W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Hoagland

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a vascular plant inventory of the Chouteau Wildlife Management Area in eastern Oklahoma. Oklahoma Native Plant Record Journal of the Oklahoma Native Plant Society One hundred eighty-one species of vascular plants were collected from 144 genera and 63 families. The families with the greatest number of species were the Asteraceae (25, Poaceae (22, and Fabaceae (18. Fifty-seven species were annuals, four biennials, and 120 were perennials. Thirty-nine woody plant species were present. Twenty-one species exotic to North America were collected representing 11.6% of the flora. Azolla caroliniana was the only species tracked by the Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory found. This study reports 148 species previously not documented in Wagoner County.

  4. Geographic Information Systems Methods for Determining Drainage-Basin Areas, Stream-Buffered Areas, Stream Length, and Land Uses for the Neosho and Spring Rivers in Northeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; March, Ferrella

    2006-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems have many uses, one of which includes the reproducible computation of environmental characteristics that can be used to categorize hydrologic features. The Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality are investigating Geographic Information Systems techniques to determine partial drainage-basin areas, stream-buffer areas, stream length, and land uses (drainage basin and stream characteristics) in northeastern Oklahoma. The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, documented the methods used to determine drainage-basin and stream characteristics for the Neosho and Spring Rivers above Grand Lake Of the Cherokees in northeastern Oklahoma and calculated the characteristics. The drainage basin and stream characteristics can be used by the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to aid in natural-resource assessments.

  5. Baseline ambient gaseous ammonia concentrations in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Mark E; Mathew, Johnson; Nguyen, Nghia; Lay, John; Golod, George; Vet, Robert; Cotie, Joseph; Hertel, Terry; Aaboe, Erik; Callison, Ryan; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Freise, Jeremy; Hathcoat, April; Sakizzie, Brenda; King, Michael; Lee, Chris; Oliva, Sylvia; San Miguel, George; Crow, Leon; Geasland, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Ambient ammonia monitoring using Ogawa passive samplers was conducted in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA during 2007. The resulting data will be useful in the multipollutant management of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and visibility (atmospheric regional haze) in the Four Corners area, an area with growing oil/gas production and increasing coal-based power plant construction. The passive monitoring data also add new ambient ammonia concentration information for the U.S. and will be useful to scientists involved in present and future visibility modeling exercises. Three week integrated passive ammonia samples were taken at five sites in the Four Corners area and two sites in eastern Oklahoma from December, 2006 through December, 2007 (January, 2008 for two sites). Results show significantly higher regional background ammonia concentrations in eastern Oklahoma (1.8 parts per billion (ppb) arithmetic mean) compared to the Four Corners area (0.2 ppb arithmetic mean). Annual mean ammonia concentrations for all Four Corners area sites for the 2007 study ranged from 0.2 ppb to 1.5 ppb. Peak ambient ammonia concentrations occurred in the spring and summer in both areas. The passive samplers deployed at the Stilwell, Oklahoma site compared favorably with other passive samplers and a continuous ammonia monitoring instrument. PMID:18974901

  6. Vascular Flora of the Keystone Wildlife Management Area, Creek, Pawnee,and Osage Counties, Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce W. Hoagland; Amy K. Buthod

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an inventory of the vascular plants at the Keystone Wildlife Management Area in northeastern Oklahoma. A total of 380 taxa of vascular plants in 254 genera and 79 families were collected. The most species were collected from the families Poaceae (58), Asteraceae (57), and Fabaceae (30). There were 160 annual and 220 perennial species. Fifty-six species of woody plants were present. A total of 59 exotic species were collected representing 15% of the flora. No ...

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake II, Ronald M.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Potter, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 463 million barrels of oil, 11.2 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 35 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Cherokee Platform Province area of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.

  8. Devitrification of the Carlton Rhyolite in the Blue Creek Canyon area, Wichita Mountains, southwestern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigger, S.E. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Geology); Hanson, R.E. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    The Cambrian Carlton Rhyolite is a sequence of lava flows and ignimbrites extruded in association with rifting in the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Rhyolite exposed in the Blue Creek Canyon area consists of a single, originally glassy, porphyritic lava flow > 300 m thick. Abundant flow banding is deformed by variably oriented flow folds present on both outcrop and thin-section scales. A variety of complex texture record the cooling, degassing, and devitrification history of the flow. Acicular Fe, Ti-oxide crystallites aligned in the flow banding document nucleation and limited crystal growth during flow. Spherical microvesicles and larger lithophysal cavities up to 10 cm long crosscut flow banding, showing that degassing continued after flow had ceased. Pseudomorphs of quartz after cristobalite and tridymite are present on cavity walls and are products of high-T vapor-phase crystallization. Devitrification textures overprint the flow banding and developed in two stages. Primary devitrification occurred during initial cooling and formed spherulitic intergrowths in distinct areas bound by sharp devitrification fronts. Spherulites nucleated on phenocrysts, vesicles, and flow bands and show evidence of multiple episodes of growth. Rhyolite outside of the devitrification fronts initially remained glassy but underwent later, low-T hydration to form perlitic texture, which was followed by prolonged secondary devitrification to form extremely fine-grained, equigranular quartzofeldspathic mosaics. Snowflake texture (micropoikilitic quartz surrounding randomly oriented alkali feldspar) developed during both primary and secondary devitrification. Spherical bodies up to 30 cm across are present in discrete horizons within the flow and weather out preferentially from the host rhyolite.

  9. Subsidence and thermal history of Southern Oklahoma aulacogen: implications for petroleum exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinstein, S.

    1981-12-01

    Reconstructed subsidence curves and the thermal history of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen support the concept of thermally controlled isostatic subsidence for the formation of the basin and indicate the significance of this concept for petroleum exploration. Two mechanisms - initial elastic flexure, followed by detachment and differential subsidence of the aulacogen - are inferred from the subsidence curves. Two methods have been used for reconstruction of the thermal history. A tectonophysics model in combination with a history of basin evolution demonstrates that geothermal gradient and depth-of-burial were dynamic variables during the subsidence stage; maximum paleotemperatures were attained during Sylvan (Late Ordovician) time near the close of subsidence; and most of the Arbuckle Group had been subjected to the temperature conditions of oil formation (the oil liquid window) prior to the possible phase of fluid migration in Sylvan time. The second method, involving reconstruction of the geothermal history on the basis of geothermometry (palynomorph carbonization), suggests: (1) paleotemperatures exerted a significant effect on the level of organic metamorphism in the sedimentary rocks; (2) the geothermal gradient varied during the subsidence stage; (3) paleotemperatures were higher than those predicted by the theoretical model and support the hypothesis of formation of the basin by thermally controlled subsidence, and the application of this concept for petroleum exploration.

  10. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Sather

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area.

  11. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant recharge value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  12. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses...

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  14. Records of ground-water levels and effects of pumping in the Ardmore well-field area, Carter County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P.R.

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to outline the results of work done by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Ardmore well-field area, near Newport, Carter County. The work, completed in two periods between April 1964 and June 1965, was done as part of the ground-water program carried out by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The study in the report area included: (1) a physical inventory of wells in the vicinity of the Ardmore well field (fig. 1); (2) information on depths, perforated intervals, ground-water levels, and water use (table 1); (3) records of water-level fluctuations in deep and shallow wells (table 2) to determine if there is a hydraulic connection between the deep zones tapped by Ardmore's wells and the shallow and intermediate zones tapped by domestic and stock wells in the surrounding area; and (4) general information on the geologic and hydrologic features that may be of use in evaluating the ground-water potential of the Wichita Formation, the principal aquifer in the area. (available as photostat copy only)

  15. 76 FR 23522 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ..., Federal Register (46 FR 4902). You can also find later actions concerning the Oklahoma program and program... slopes. Previously mined areas or areas deemed suitable for reforestation could be exempt from these... Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA or the Act). Oklahoma proposes revisions to...

  16. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than

  17. Groundwater quality and the relation between pH values and occurrence of trace elements and radionuclides in water samples collected from private wells in part of the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, central Oklahoma, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    From 1999 to 2007, the Indian Health Service reported that gross alpha-particle activities and concentrations of uranium exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Levels for public drinking-water supplies in water samples from six private wells and two test wells in a rural residential neighborhood in the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma Jurisdictional Area, in central Oklahoma. Residents in this rural area use groundwater from Quaternary-aged terrace deposits and the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington aquifer for domestic purposes. Uranium and other trace elements, specifically arsenic, chromium, and selenium, occur naturally in rocks composing the Garber-Wellington aquifer and in low concentrations in groundwater throughout its extent. Previous studies have shown that pH values above 8.0 from cation-exchange processes in the aquifer cause selected metals such as arsenic, chromium, selenium, and uranium to desorb (if present) from mineral surfaces and become mobile in water. On the basis of this information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, conducted a study in 2011 to describe the occurrence of selected trace elements and radionuclides in groundwater and to determine if pH could be used as a surrogate for laboratory analysis to quickly and inexpensively identify wells that might contain high concentrations of uranium and other trace elements. The pH and specific conductance of groundwater from 59 private wells were measured in the field in an area of about 18 square miles in Lincoln and Pottawatomie Counties. Twenty of the 59 wells also were sampled for dissolved concentrations of major ions, trace elements, gross alpha-particle and gross beta-particle activities, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222 gas. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 micrograms per liter in one sample having a concentration of 24.7 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50

  18. Oklahoma seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent

  19. Pride in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gordon; Blackburn, Bob L.

    This booklet is intended to be used as background material by social studies and history classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Oklahoma's heritage. It includes background information on the land and people of Oklahoma (geology, climate, topography, vegetation, animals, prehistoric peoples, French explorers,…

  20. Census Snapshot: Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in Oklahoma. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in Oklahoma. In many ways, the almost 8,200 same-sex couples living in Oklahoma are similar to married couples. Accord...

  1. Is Oklahoma getting drier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land surface hydrology is important to regional climate, ecosystem, agriculture, and even human activities. Changes in soil moisture can produce considerable impacts on socioeconomics. Analysis of assimilation model results, especially those from the Community Land Model, shows that soil moisture over Oklahoma region is continuously reduced from 1980 to 2009. The potential drying trend in the Oklahoma region is evaluated by observations taken during last three decades in this study. Satellite data from Global Precipitation Climatology Project exhibit a clear precipitation decrease in the Oklahoma region during the last decade or so compared with those of two or three decades ago. Accompanying with the precipitation variation, land surface net radiation and temperature over the region are found increases by satellite and/or in-situ measurements. These changes in regional climate conditions also likely result in reduction of regional evaporation and enhancement of sensible heat transport from land surface into the atmosphere as indicated in assimilated data. These observed and modeled evidences of the changes in regional water and energy cycles lead us to conclude that the soil moisture over the Oklahoma region was reduced during the last decade. This soil moisture drop could increase a risk in water shortage for agriculture in the Oklahoma state if the dry period continues. Further investigations on the drying in the Oklahoma State or even entire Southern Great Plains are needed to mitigate potential droughts, reductions in vegetation products, and other socioeconomic impacts. -- Highlights: ► Decreasing in soil moisture content and potential drying trend during last three decades in the Oklahoma region was found. ► Satellite remote sensing and in-situ measurements, along with other analyses, support this finding. ► The soil moisture drop could increase a risk in water shortage in the Oklahoma state

  2. 78 FR 78318 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Family Broadcasting Group, Inc. (``Family Broadcasting''), the licensee of station KSBI(TV), channel 51, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, requesting the substitution of channel 23 for channel 51 at Oklahoma City. While the Commission instituted a freeze on the acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel......

  3. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

  4. Educational Reform in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorac, Marylin M.; First, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    Oklahoma's answer to the cry for reform and involvement in education emerged as House Bill 1017, a comprehensive $223 million school reform and tax act. This article reviews the HR 1017 story, focusing on its legislative enactment history and offering a content analysis of mandated changes in finance, personnel, governance, student assessment,…

  5. Techniques for estimating flood discharges for Oklahoma streams; techniques for calculating magnitude and frequency of floods in Oklahoma from rural and urban areas under 2500 square miles, with compilations of flood data through 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W.O.; Corley, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Statewide regression equations are defined for estimating peak discharges of floods having recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 500 years. Contributing drainage area, main-channel slope and mean annual precipitation are the independent variables required for estimating flood discharges for rural streams. For urban streams the percentage of the basin that is impervious and served by storm sewers also is required. The regression equations are applicable for watersheds draining less than 2,500 square miles (6,500 square kilometers) that are not significantly affected by regulation. For the rural streams, the regression equations are presented in graphical form for easy application. Calibration of the U.S. Geological Survey rainfall-runoff model and synthesis of long-term annual peak data for 60 small watersheds is discussed. Synthetic frequency curves, generated using six long-term rainfall stations, are combined into one frequency curve and weighted with the observed frequency curve at each site. Use of the rainfall-runoff model parameters to estimate flood discharges reduces the standard error for selected frequencies by 9-12 percent. However, collection of the necessary rainfall-runoff data to determine the model parameters is time consuming and expensive. Annual peak data, basin and climatic characteristics, log-Pearson Type III statistics, and the flood-frequency relations are presented for 188 gaging stations. (PHOTOSTATIC COPIES ONLY ARE AVAILABLE OF THIS REPORT)

  6. Oklahoma Indians and the Cultural Deprivation of an Oklahoma Cherokee Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lynda Dixon

    This paper summarizes the history of Oklahoma Indians, highlights the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, and relates the story of the family of one Oklahoma Cherokee woman, Lou Jane Morgan Jernigan. Oklahoma is the state with the largest population of Indians, largely due to federal policy in the 19th century, which forced Indians into Oklahoma (or…

  7. Tight Oklahoma gas sands remain an attractive play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cherokee tight gas sands of Oklahoma remain an attractive play because of improvements in drilling and completion practices and actions by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) that allow separate allowables for new wells. The expired federal tax credits for tight gas wells have not been the only reason for increased activity. Since decontrol of most regulated gas pricing and since 1986, the number of wells drilled and gas production per well have been increasing in the cherokee area while overall drilling in Oklahoma has decreased. These conclusions are based on wells as categorized by permit date and not by the spud, completion, or first production date. A few wells outside but adjacent to the Cherokee area may have been included, although, their impact on the conclusions is considered nominal. The paper discusses the tight gas credit, proration units, the concept of separate allowables, costs, completion efficiency, and the economic outlook for this area

  8. Industrial extension, the Oklahoma way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Edmund J.

    1994-03-01

    Oklahoma has established a customer-driven industrial extension system. A publicly-chartered, private non-profit corporation, the Oklahoma Alliance for Manufacturing Excellence, Inc. (`the Alliance') coordinates the system. The system incorporates principles that Oklahoma manufacturers value: (1) decentralization and local accessibility; (2) coordinated existing resources; (3) comprehensive help; (4) interfirm cooperation; (5) pro-active outreach; (6) self- help and commitment from firms; (7) customer governance; and (8) performance accountability. The Oklahoma system consists of: (1) a network of locally-based broker/agents who work directly with manufacturers to diagnose problems and find appropriate assistance; (2) a group of industry sector specialists who collect and disseminate sector specific technological and market intelligence to the broker/agents and their clients; (3) all the specialized public and private sector resources coordinated by the system; and (4) a customer- driven coordination and evaluation mechanism, the Alliance.

  9. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, S; Strauss, M J; Snow, J; Rizatdinova, F; Abbott, B; Babu, K; Gutierrez, P; Kao, C; Khanov, A; Milton, K A; Neaman, H; H Severini, P Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma's impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Oklahoma City Quadrangle, Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconnaissance and detailed geologic and radiometric investigations were conducted throughout the Oklahoma City Quadrangle, Oklahoma, to evaluate the uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Surface and subsurface studies were augmented by data from aerial radiometric surveys, hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance studies, basement-rock computer modeling studies, and Track Etch surveys. The results indicate that there are no environments favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include beach placers, all sandstones at the surface, limestones, and evaporites. Some shallow subsurface sandstones in the vicinity of faulted oil fields may have important uranium deposits of the type found at Cement, Oklahoma (which is just outside the quadrangle limits). Subsurface phosphatic shales and marine black shales may also have uranium deposits. Environments of these types are unevaluated because of their inaccessibility

  11. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Blaine,...

  12. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of...

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000 acres and...

  14. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately...

  15. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Elk City aquifer in western Oklahoma. The aquifer covers an area of approximately 193,000...

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant recharge rates for the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of...

  17. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses all...

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries for the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Blaine, Caddo,...

  19. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Rush Springs aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  20. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the High Plains aquifer in Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle...

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of...

  2. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the High Plains aquifer in western Oklahoma. This area encompasses the panhandle counties of Cimarron,...

  3. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  4. Index to names of oil and gas fields in Oklahoma, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacina, J.L.

    1979-05-01

    This index contains the current and discontinued names of the oil and gas fields in Oklahoma. They are listed according to assignments made by the Oklahoma Nomenclature Committee of the Kansas-Oklahoma Division, Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association. Also listed are some names which have been used locally or unofficially for certain areas. Included also are: (1) the date when the field was named; (2) the description of location by county, township, and section; and (3) a statement as to the disposition of a field when it was combined with other fields.

  5. Oklahoma DOE EPSCoR Trainees. Final Report for the Period September 30, 1991 to March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R.C.

    2000-11-01

    This report presents the results of the State of Oklahoma DOE EPSCOR Traineeship program. The program was carried out at the three major research universities in the state: the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and the University of Tulsa. Each of the three universities selected a central thrust area for the DOE EPSCOR traineeships that was in keeping with research strengths of the institution. These thrust areas are related closely enough to be mutually supportive, but are sufficiently distinct to minimize duplication of effort among the institutions. The University of Tulsa emphasized its programs in petroleum exploration, development and processing. The University of Oklahoma is emphasized research related to the supply and applications of natural gas and environmental concerns. Oklahoma State University focused on advanced materials and manufacturing, particularly as they relate to the oil and gas industries.

  6. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...) for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor... currently has no passenger rail service. This corridor is part of the South Central High Speed Rail Corridor and is a federally-designated high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. ODOT envisions the Tulsa--Oklahoma...

  7. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.

  8. Annotated bibliography of the Ardmore and Marietta basins - Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains 828 records related to the geology of the Ardmore and Marietta basins, Oklahoma. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; paleontology; petrology; stratigraphy; tectonics; electric logs; fossils;geophysics; geologic structures; uranium deposits; and ground water. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area. Some of the items (10) are themselves bibliographies

  9. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  10. Vascular Plants of the Oklahoma Ozarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Wallis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available After the completion of a floristic study of Cherokee County, the author saw the need for such a study of the entire Oklahoma Ozarks. Therefore, his original collection of about 1,400 sheets was expanded to about 7,000 sheets between the years of 1953 and 1958. All of these are deposited in the Herbarium of Oklahoma State University. Duplicates of many of these are in the author’s private museum at Fort Gibson, Oklahoma. Also, triplicates of collections made during the last two years are deposited in the Herbarium of Southern Methodist University at Dallas, Texas.

  11. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  12. 78 FR 31998 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00071

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.... Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth,...

  13. 77 FR 26598 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00059

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00059 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.... Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth,...

  14. Oil extraction linked to Oklahoma earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Pumping waste water into the ground - a by-product of new oil and gas extraction processes - was the likely cause of a recent surge of earthquakes in the US state of Oklahoma, according to researchers in the US.

  15. Võrumaa Kutsehariduskeskuses esietendus kuulus "Oklahoma" / Tiit Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    12. aprillil esietendus "Oklahoma", mis valmis Rogersi ja Hammersteini samanimelise muusikali põhjal. Esitasid kutsehariduskeskuse noortekoori lauljad-näitlejad. Tantsujuht Maire Udras, kunstnik Lilian-Hanna Taimla, muusikaline juht Tiit Raud

  16. Proposed shallow drilling at the interface between the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and Ouachita fold belt, Arbuckle Mountains region, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidiak, E.G. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science); Denison, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two major tectonic elements in southern North America are the southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Ouachita foldbelt. The Aulacogen is characterized by basement-cored high-angle fault blocks along which movement occurred throughout much of Paleozoic time. It is one of the most intensely deformed areas in the stable interior platform of the craton. The fold belt, in contrast, consists primarily of thin-skinned compressional structures that formed in Late Paleozoic time. These two prominent tectonic features strike at a high angle to one another and are juxtaposed in southeast Oklahoma where the contact is buried shallowly beneath Cretaceous rocks of the Gulf Coastal Plain. A drilling program comprised of a series of shallow holes drilled across the contact zone will establish the structural and stratigraphic relationships at this important tectonic interface. The results obtained should be critical in elucidating the effect that the transverse aulacogen structures had on the development of the Ouachita frontal zone. Proposed drilling sites are in northern Bryan and Choctaw counties, Oklahoma, along the Tishomingo--Belton anticlines southeast of the basement-cored eastern Arbuckle Mountains. Crystalline rocks in this region are massive middle Proterozoic granitoid rocks overlain by Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Farther southeast, rocks in the frontal zone consist mainly of Late Paleozoic flysch-type sedimentary rocks. Depths to Paleozoic and older rocks beneath the coastal plain deposits are about 300--500 meters so that targeted structures can easily be reached.

  17. Testing a Mahalanobis distance model of black bear habitat use in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, E.C.; Bales, S.L.; Gregory, M.S.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Clark, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Regional wildlife–habitat models are commonly developed but rarely tested with truly independent data. We tested a published habitat model for black bears (Ursus americanus) with new data collected in a different site in the same ecological region (i.e., Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA). We used a Mahalanobis distance model developed from relocations of black bears in Arkansas to produce a map layer of Mahalanobis distances on a study area in neighboring Oklahoma. We tested this modeled map layer with relocations of black bears on the Oklahoma area. The distributions of relocations of female black bears were consistent with model predictions. We conclude that this modeling approach can be used to predict regional suitability for a species of interest.

  18. Record Rainfall and Flooding in Texas and Oklahoma, May 2015; Extent and Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy rains began in Texas and Oklahoma in early May 2015 and continued through the end of the month. Both states set all-time records for mean statewide precipitation; Texas - 227mm (8.93 in), Oklahoma - 357mm (14.06 in) -- for the period of record (1895-2015). These new statewide records were set despite the fact that the western portions of both Texas and Oklahoma received only modest rainfall. Parameters used in this study to evaluate the magnitude and historical perspective of the May 2015 rainfall included daily and total storm precipitation, stream flow, changes in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and changes in reservoir water levels. Although the Dallas-Fort Worth area and the cities of Austin, Houston and Oklahoma City sustained the most serious flood events, more than 100 localities in the two states reported some flooding. The region with the largest amounts of precipitation extended from north-central Texas northeastward into eastern Oklahoma. Cumulative May rainfall in this region exceeded 508 mm (20 in). Provisional stream flow data for the river basins most affected -- Red River, Brazos, Colorado, and Trinity rivers -- reveal significant peaks, but the peaks generally are within the ranges of the historical record. With the exception of the Red River the most significant flooding relative to historic flood peaks, occurred on tributaries to the major rivers. Comparison of the PDSI for the months of April and June reveals the dramatic impact of the precipitation during May. By the first week of June both states are classified as moderately moist - with the exception of the extreme northeastern corner of Oklahoma. Changes in Reservoir levels (as a percent of capacity) between April and June was greatest for the Rolling Plains region (+ 15.5%), with lesser, but significant gains in South and Central Texas and the Central Oklahoma region.

  19. The Impact of the Urban Heat Island during an Intense Heat Wave in Oklahoma City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Basara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During late July and early August 2008, an intense heat wave occurred in Oklahoma City. To quantify the impact of the urban heat island (UHI in Oklahoma City on observed and apparent temperature conditions during the heat wave event, this study used observations from 46 locations in and around Oklahoma City. The methodology utilized composite values of atmospheric conditions for three primary categories defined by population and general land use: rural, suburban, and urban. The results of the analyses demonstrated that a consistent UHI existed during the study period whereby the composite temperature values within the urban core were approximately 0.5∘C warmer during the day than the rural areas and over 2∘C warmer at night. Further, when the warmer temperatures were combined with ambient humidity conditions, the composite values consistently revealed even warmer heat-related variables within the urban environment as compared with the rural zone.

  20. 75 FR 76483 - Land Acquisitions; Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma on November 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director... approximately 16.61 acres of land into trust for the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma under the authority of...

  1. 75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Griffin Licensing, L.L.C. (``Griffin''), the licensee of KWTV-DT, channel 9, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Griffin requests the substitution of channel 39 for channel 9 at Oklahoma...

  2. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Sabatini, María; Verdiell, Adriana; Rodríguez Iglesias, Ricardo M; Vidal, Marta

    2007-04-01

    Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and we evaluate its ecological implications on hypothetical zoning cases. A real-world application is reported for the Talampaya National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Argentina. Our method is a modification of the zoning forest model developed by Bos [Bos, J., 1993. Zoning in forest management: a quadratic assignment problem solved by simulated annealing. Journal of Environmental Management 37, 127-145.]. Main innovations involve a quadratic function of distance between land units, non-reciprocal weights for adjacent land uses (mathematically represented by a non-symmetric matrix), and the possibility of imposing a connectivity constraint. Due to its intrinsic spatial dimension, the zoning problem belongs to the NP-hard class, i.e. a solution can only be obtained in non-polynomial time [Nemhausser, G., Wolsey, L., 1988. Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley, New York.]. For that purpose, we applied a simulated annealing heuristic implemented as a FORTRAN language routine. Our innovations were effective in achieving zoning designs more compatible with biological diversity protection. The quadratic distance term facilitated the delineation of core zones for elements of significance; the connectivity constraint minimized fragmentation; non-reciprocal land use weightings contributed to better representing management decisions, and influenced mainly the edge and shape of zones. This quantitative method can assist the zoning process within protected areas by offering many zonation scheme alternatives with minimum cost, time and effort. This ability provides a new tool to

  3. Identification and evaluation of fluvial-dominated deltaic (Class 1 oil) reservoirs in Oklahoma. Yearly technical progress report, January 1--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankin, C.J. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States); Banken, M.K. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    1995-11-21

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey and the University of Oklahoma are engaged in a five-year program to identify and address Oklahoma`s oil recovery opportunities in fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs. This program includes the systematic and comprehensive collection, evaluation, and distribution of information on all of Oklahoma`s FDD oil reservoirs and the recovery technologies that can be applied to those reservoirs with commercial success. To date, the lead geologists have defined the initial geographic extents of Oklahoma`s FDD plays, and compiled known information about those plays. Nine plays have been defined, all of them Pennsylvanian in age and most from the Cherokee Group. A bibliographic database has been developed to record the literature sources and their related plays. Trend maps are being developed to identify the FDD portions of the relevant reservoirs, through accessing current production databases and through compiling the literature results. A reservoir database system also has been developed, to record specific reservoir data elements that are identified through the literature, and through public and private data sources. The project team is working with the Oklahoma Nomenclature Committee of the Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association to update oil field boundary definitions in the project area. Also, team members are working with several private companies to develop demonstration reservoirs for the reservoir characterization and simulation activities. All of the information gathered through these efforts will be transferred to the Oklahoma petroleum industry through a series of publications and workshops. Additionally, plans are being developed, and hardware and software resources are being acquired, in preparation for the opening of a publicly-accessible computer users laboratory, one component of the technology transfer program.

  4. Aspects of the Current Fiscal - Budgetary Situation in Some Euro Area Countries. Implications for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic global crisis has exacerbated some of the imbalances existent in all EU Member States, in particular the fiscal-budgetary imbalances. For some countries whose currency is euro, the fiscal and budgetary challenges seem to threaten even the stability of the euro area. Thus, in the context of financial and economic global crisis, this article aims at identifying a number of negative aspects of the fiscal-budgetary situation of some euro area countries, more seriously affected (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and at revealing a series of possible implications of this phenomenon for Romania, thus giving originality of the conducted analysis. A fulcrum in this approach is the economic literature and the authors’ research work in the field of European integration. Through a comparative approach, the authors have identified some weaknesses of the Romanian economy generated by the current situation of some euro area countries. Given the place of the theme within the frame of present interest researches, the article’s results will be of interest for both academics and practitioners.

  5. SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE EUROPEAN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Avădanei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to discuss the implications of the Single Euro Payments Area from the perspective of the European SMEs. The current unpredictable and very challenging market situation has not fundamentally changed the fact that payment services need to continue modernization in order to become more flexible, agile and adapt in order to comply with its important purpose in society.SEPA is needed to ensure the new modern payment platform that can enable Europe to move beyond basic services, increase payments efficiency, embrace innovation and integrate further services in the trade process. European Small and Medium-sized Enterprises see SEPA see SEPA as an important step towards the completion of the internal market, but such a major initiative has to be well planed, must meet the practical needs of enterprises and provide, at least in the long run, positive incentives for all market participants.

  6. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slosburg, Tucker

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Oklahoma. The state uses a State Aid Formula to determine the appropriation of funds to various districts. Along with the aid formula, the state collects revenue from the following sources: compensatory programs, special education, vocational programs, transportation…

  7. Oklahoma Handbook: Child Nutrition Programs. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Nutrition concepts, school food service guidelines, and related materials (such as nutrition charts, menu planning worksheets, and student survey forms) are provided in this nutrition handbook. Prepared by the Oklahoma State Department of Education's School Lunch Section, the handbook consists of nine sections that are organized in outline format.…

  8. Tone and Accent in Oklahoma Cherokee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihara, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the tonal and accentual system of Oklahoma Cherokee, which has six possible pitch patterns occurring on a syllable: low, high, low-high, high-low, lowfall and superhigh. This study attempts to provide a comprehensive description and analyses of these patterns: their distribution, their source, the principles which…

  9. 40 CFR 81.337 - Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver County Blaine County Cimarron County Custer County.../Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver County Blaine County Cimarron County Custer County Dewey County Ellis County... 187Northwestern Oklahoma Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Alfalfa County Beaver County Blaine County...

  10. 76 FR 38263 - Oklahoma Disaster # OK-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 05/22/2011 through 05/25/2011. Effective Date:...

  11. 76 FR 31670 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00048

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...-line Winds. Incident Period: 04/14/2011. Effective Date: 05/06/2011. Physical Loan Application...

  12. 75 FR 35103 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00040 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...-line winds. Incident Period: 05/10/2010 through 05/13/2010. Effective Date: 06/11/2010. Physical...

  13. 76 FR 24555 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00045

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...-1970-DR), dated 04/22/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-line Winds....

  14. 78 FR 23622 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00070

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster OK-00070 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  15. Oklahoma: A View of the Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ruthe Blalock; Depriest, Maria; Fowler, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a dialogue on twentieth-century Oklahoma artists and writers given at a conference titled "Working from Community: American Indian Art and Literature in a Historical and Cultural Context" and held in the summer of 2003 at Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. Twenty-five educators converged for six weeks of…

  16. A century of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.

    2015-01-01

    Seismicity rates have increased sharply since 2009 in the central and eastern United States, with especially high rates of activity in the state of Oklahoma. Growing evidence indicates that many of these events are induced, primarily by injection of wastewater in deep disposal wells. The upsurge in activity has raised two questions: What is the background rate of tectonic earthquakes in Oklahoma? How much has the rate varied throughout historical and early instrumental times? In this article, we show that (1) seismicity rates since 2009 surpass previously observed rates throughout the twentieth century; (2) several lines of evidence suggest that most of the significant earthquakes in Oklahoma during the twentieth century were likely induced by oil production activities, as they exhibit statistically significant temporal and spatial correspondence with disposal wells, and intensity measurements for the 1952 El Reno earthquake and possibly the 1956 Tulsa County earthquake follow the pattern observed in other induced earthquakes; and (3) there is evidence for a low level of tectonic seismicity in southeastern Oklahoma associated with the Ouachita structural belt. The 22 October 1882 Choctaw Nation earthquake, for which we estimate Mw 4.8, occurred in this zone.

  17. POST MERGER FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF OKLAHOMA COOPERATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Kenkel, Philip L.; Spence, Becky; Gilbert, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Audited financial statements of 22 Oklahoma cooperatives were used to investigate the success of mergers in improving financial performance. Five categories of annual financial ratios were calculated for each firm. Paired difference tests were used to analyze the success of the merger in improving financial performance.

  18. Photochemical degradation of hydroxy PAHs in ice: Implications for the polar areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Linke; Li, Jun; Na, Guangshui; Chen, Chang-Er; Huo, Cheng; Zhang, Peng; Yao, Ziwei

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are derived from hydroxylated PAHs as contaminants of emerging concern. They are ubiquitous in the aqueous and atmospheric environments and may exist in the polar snow and ice, which urges new insights into their environmental transformation, especially in ice. In present study the simulated-solar (λ > 290 nm) photodegradation kinetics, products and pathways of four OH-PAHs (9-Hydroxyfluorene, 2-Hydroxyfluorene, 1-Hydroxypyrene and 9-Hydroxyphenanthrene) in ice were investigated, and the corresponding implications for the polar areas were explored. It was found that the kinetics followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics with the photolysis quantum yields (Φs) ranging from 7.48 × 10(-3) (1-Hydroxypyrene) to 4.16 × 10(-2) (2-Hydroxyfluorene). These 4 OH-PAHs were proposed to undergo photoinduced hydroxylation, resulting in multiple hydroxylated intermediates, particularly for 9-Hydroxyfluorene. Extrapolation of the lab data to the real environment is expected to provide a reasonable estimate of OH-PAH photolytic half-lives (t1/2,E) in mid-summer of the polar areas. The estimated t1/2,E values ranged from 0.08 h for 1-OHPyr in the Arctic to 54.27 h for 9-OHFl in the Antarctic. In consideration of the lower temperature and less microorganisms in polar areas, the photodegradation can be a key factor in determining the fate of OH-PAHs in sunlit surface snow/ice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the photodegradation of OH-PAHs in polar areas. PMID:27135699

  19. Prevalence of dry methods in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret L; Johnson, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Granite countertop fabricators are at risk of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, which may cause silicosis and other lung conditions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exposure control methods, especially wet methods, in granite countertop fabrication in Oklahoma to assess how many workers might be at risk of overexposure to crystalline silica in this industry. Granite fabrication shops in the three largest metropolitan areas in Oklahoma were enumerated, and 47 of the 52 shops participated in a survey on fabrication methods. Countertop shops were small businesses with average work forces of fewer than 10 employees. Ten shops (21%) reported using exclusively wet methods during all fabrication steps. Thirty-five shops (74%) employing a total of about 200 workers reported using dry methods all or most of the time in at least one fabrication step. The tasks most often performed dry were edge profiling (17% of shops), cutting of grooves for reinforcing rods (62% of shops), and cutting of sink openings (45% of shops). All shops reported providing either half-face or full-face respirators for use during fabrication, but none reported doing respirator fit testing. Few shops reported using any kind of dust collection system. These findings suggest that current consumer demand for granite countertops is giving rise to a new wave of workers at risk of silicosis due to potential overexposure to granite dust. PMID:22650974

  20. Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. (Texas Christian Univ., Ft. Worth, TX (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

  1. Thermal maturation by vitrinite reflectance of Woodford shale, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardott, B.J.; Metcalf, W.J. III; Ahern, J.L. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Vitrinite reflectance was measured on 40 grab samples from outcrops of the Woodford Shale (Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian) collected near the Washita Valley fault in the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma. Samples are widely distributed along 40 km. Sample localities range from 60 m to 7.63 km from the Washita Valley fault. Well-indurated shale samples were collected from below the outcrop surface to reduce the effect of weathering on vitrinite reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance values were measured from standard kerogen concentrate pellets. Implications of the data specific to the Arbuckle Mountains include the Woodford Shale is immature to marginally mature with respect to the generation of liquid hydrocarbons; high heat flow associated with the rifting stage of the southern Oklahoma aulacogen was diminished by Late Devonian; the Woodford Shale was never deeply buried; and frictional heating from the Washita Valley fault did not affect the temperature field significantly.

  2. Soil-water interactions: implications for the sustainability of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2015-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. And yet, mankind can't give up of these structures one step away from collapse. In this paper we visit the ongoing research at the Ribeira dos Covões peri-urban catchment, as the basis to discuss several important processes and relations in the water-soil interface: A] the impact of the build environment and consequently the increase of the impervious area on the generation and magnitude of hydrological processes at different scales, the impact on flash flood risk and the mitigation approaches. B] the pollutant sources transport and fade in urban areas, with particular emphasis in the role of vegetation and soils in the transmission of pollutants from the atmosphere to the soil and to the water processes. C] the use and the environmental services of the urban ecosystems (where the relations of water, soil and vegetation have a dominate role) to promote a better risk and resources governance. D] the special issue of urban agriculture, where all the promises of sustainability and threats to wellbeing interact, and where the soil and water relations in urban areas are more significant and have the widest and deepest implications.

  3. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  4. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubic, Patrick L. [University of Oklahoma

    2013-07-31

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest

  5. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  6. Education for Sustainable Development in Ethnic Autonomous Areas of China: A Comparison of Two Curriculum Initiatives and Their Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Yishin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of two curriculum initiatives in China that have produced curricular materials promoting education for sustainable development (ESD) in minority-populated ethnic autonomous areas in China. The two curriculum projects present distinctive discourses, conceptions, models, frameworks and scopes of ESD…

  7. iWHAM- Integrated water, health and agriculture management : public health implications of integrated watershed management in a tribal area

    OpenAIRE

    Nerkar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water scarcity remains a major hurdle in the overall development of tribal people living on hilly terrain, and it is one of the major reasons for their various health problems. Integrated watershed management (IWM) aims to increase water availability and to enhance socio-economic development in such areas. There is a lack of information on the implications of IWM on various aspects of public health, especially in hilly tribal areas. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was t...

  8. Intimate partner violence injuries--Oklahoma, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-21

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem in the United States and a common cause of injury. Prevalence rates of IPV vary by the surveillance methods and definitions used. National data from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey indicate that 22.1% of women and 7.4% of men experience IPV during their lifetimes and that 1.3% of women and 0.9% of men experience IPV annually. IPV results in an estimated 4.1 billion dollars each year in direct medical and mental health-care costs, including 159 million dollars in emergency department (ED) treatments for IPV physical assaults. IPV might constitute as much as 17% of all violence-related injuries treated in EDs. To determine the magnitude of the IPV problem in Oklahoma, including IPV-related injuries and medical service utilization, researchers analyzed injury surveillance data from ED medical records and data from the Oklahoma Women's Health Survey (OWHS). This report summarizes the findings, which indicated that, during 2002 in Oklahoma, approximately 16% of all ED visits for assaults were for IPV injuries, including 35% of assault visits among females and 3% of assault visits among males. In addition, results of the OWHS for 2001-2003 indicated that 5.9% of surveyed Oklahoma women aged 18-44 years sustained an IPV injury during the preceding year. Overall, IPV resulted in a substantial number of injuries, particularly to women, many of whom required treatment in EDs. Medical recognition and documentation of IPV are important for identification of persons in need of services. PMID:16237374

  9. Floodplain Mapping, Washita County, Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  10. Level IV Ecoregions of Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  11. Level III Ecoregions of Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  12. Digital map of areas of little or no saturated thickness for the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set consists of boundaries for areas of little or no saturated thickness within the High Plains aquifer in the central United States. The High...

  13. The Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Denise

    1982-01-01

    Programs were offered for fine arts students, 14-18 years old, in nine areas: orchestra, ballet, modern dance, acting, creative writing, mime, painting, printmaking, and photography. Guest artists also participated. The effect of the summer session upon the work of the students is easily recognizable. (RM)

  14. Early Cretaceous high-Mg diorites in the Yanji area, northeastern China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing-Hua; Cao, Rui; Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Wen-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Mesozoic granitic rocks are widely distributed in northeast (NE) China. However, high-Mg dioritic rocks are considerably rare. Here, we report a newly recognized high-Mg diorite (the Xintun diorite) in the Yanji area, NE China, to constrain its origin and implications for the tectonic evolution of eastern Asian continental margin. Zircon U-Pb dating yields a crystallization age of 128 ± 1 Ma for the Xintun diorite. The diorites are characterized by high MgO (4.4-6.6 wt.%), Cr (119-239 ppm), Ba (419-514 ppm) and Sr (649-747 ppm) contents and Mg# values (59-64), but low FeOtotal/MgO ratios (1.2-1.4), with geochemical features similar to those of sanukitic high-Mg andesites (HMAs). They show moderate radiogenic Sr (ISr = 0.7047-0.7050) and Nd (εNd = 0.3-1.1), with high La/Sm ratios, which are indicative of contributions from sediment components. The mineral assemblage of euhedral hornblende, magnetite and titanite, implies a water-rich and oxidized signature for their primitive magmas. These features suggest that the Xintun high-Mg diorites were probably formed via partial melting of the subducting sediments and subsequent interaction of mantle peridotites with both melts and aqueous fluids. Geochemical modeling reveals that hornblende-dominated fractional crystallization under water-sufficient conditions enabled the evolved magmas to acquire adakitic signatures. We believe that the Paleo-Pacific subduction beneath eastern Asian continental margin caused large-scale back-arc extension of NE China in the Early Cretaceous, and, consequently, induced the asthenospheric flow toward the mantle wedge, reheating subducting sediments enough to cause melting. Therefore, the occurrence of the Xintun high-Mg diorites signifies the onset of extensive back-arc extension of eastern Asian continental margin at ca. 128 Ma.

  15. Implications of biocrust removal on soil organic carbon losses by water erosion in a badlands area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Raúl Román, José; Miralles, Isabel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cantón, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    immediately after biocrust removal. In the following rains, OC losses decreased in biocrust-removed soils due to the formation of a physical soil crust and the subsequent early colonization by cyanobacteria and less remaining available OC in these soils. Sediment OC losses represented between 61 and 91% of total OC lost. Annual OC losses were up to 9 times higher in biocrust-removed soils than in biocrust-covered soils. While C uptake by biocrusts is able to compensate OC losses by water erosion, OC losses in soils devoid of biocrusts largely exceed C inputs, thus resulting in a net annual balance of C loss. Our findings highlight the key role of biocrusts in increasing spatial heterogeneity of soil OC in arid and semiarid areas and the consequences of biocrust removal on OC depletion in interplant soils and their possible implications on nutrient redistribution from interplant to vegetated patches, which may have profound consequences on vegetation functioning in these vulnerable and nutrient-limited ecosystems.

  16. Oklahoma Aerospace Intellectual Capital/Educational Recommendations: An Inquiry of Oklahoma Aerospace Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct detailed personal interviews with aerospace industry executives/managers from both the private and military sectors from across Oklahoma to determine their perceptions of intellectual capital needs of the industry. Interviews with industry executives regarding…

  17. Goals for Oklahoma Higher Education. Self-Study of Higher Education in Oklahoma; Report 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, John J.; And Others

    This report contains the findings, conclusions and recommendations that emerged from a study of "Functions and Goals of Oklahoma Higher Education." Many individuals and groups were involved in the process which culminated in this report, including a 600-member citizens' group, a special 140-member citizens' advisory committee, several hundred…

  18. PHYSICAL FACILITIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN OKLAHOMA. SELF-STUDY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OKLAHOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COFFELT, JOHN J.; WALKER, CHARLES R.

    THE REPORT IS A SELF-STUDY OF THE PHYSICAL FACILITIES OF 21 INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN OKLAHOMA. IT INVOLVED THE STUDY OF SUCH TOPICS AS--(1) THE INVENTORY AND EVALUATION OF EXISTING LAND AND BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO CURRENT AND REPLACEMENT VALUE, AGE, QUALITY AND FUTURE USE, (2) THE INVENTORY OF ASSIGNABLE SPACE BY SQUARE FOOTAGE,…

  19. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  20. 76 FR 37166 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Oklahoma (FEMA--1989--DR), dated 06/06/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds,...

  1. 75 FR 32821 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Oklahoma (FEMA--1917--DR), dated 05/24/ 2010. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Straight-Line...

  2. 76 FR 41553 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Oklahoma (FEMA-1989-DR), dated 06/06/ 2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds,...

  3. Policies and Procedures Manual for Special Education in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The guide, a support document to the Oklahoma State Plan for Special Education, presents a policies and procedures manual for special education in Oklahoma in accordance with the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142). The manual is intended to establish the minimum standards for special education program approval, to establish…

  4. Differential alcohol-related mortality among American Indian tribes in Oklahoma, 1968-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, C M; Dufour, M; Bertolucci, D

    1989-01-01

    Tribal differences in alcohol-related mortality were examined among 11 Indian tribes living in Oklahoma. Data on alcohol-related deaths from 1968 to 1978 were compiled and assigned to various tribes on the basis of population distributions by county. Results showed significant differences in alcohol-related mortality among the various tribes. Of the 267,238 total deaths in Oklahoma during the study period, 9.3% of Indian deaths were alcohol-related while only 3.2% of those among blacks and 2.4% of those among whites were classified as such. Indian males and females are far more likely to die of alcohol-related deaths than their black and white counterparts. Cheyenne-Arapaho, Comanche and Kiowa areas (located in the western++ part of the state) have higher alcohol-related deaths than Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole and Pawnee areas (located in eastern Oklahoma). Indian residents of the Seminole area have the lowest percentage of deaths identified as alcohol-related. The patterns which emerge may be due to different cultural and historical factors among the Indian tribes. PMID:2784011

  5. 75 FR 40820 - City of Broken Bow, Oklahoma; Project No. 12470-001-Oklahoma Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Broken Bow, Oklahoma; Project No. 12470-001--Oklahoma Broken Bow Re... included in, or eligible for inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places at the Broken Bow Re..., 2010, for the Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam Hydroelectric Project No. 12470 is revised to add...

  6. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  7. Historical water-quality data for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1930-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litke, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States and includes eight primary hydrogeologic units, including the well-known Ogallala Formation. The High Plains aquifer is an important resource, providing water for 27 percent of the Nation?s irrigated agricultural lands in an otherwise dry landscape. Since the 1980?s there has been concern over the sustainability of the aquifer due to water-level declines caused by substantial pumping. Water quality of the aquifer is a more recent concern. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, historical water-quality data have been gathered for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area into a retrospective data base, which can be used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of water-quality constituents of concern.Data from the retrospective data base verify that nitrate, pesticides, and dissolved solids (salinity) are important water-quality concerns in the High Plains study area. Sixteen percent of all measured nitrate concentrations were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. In about 70 percent of the counties within the High Plains study area, nitrate concentrations for 1980-98 were significantly larger than for 1930-69. While nitrate concentrations are largest where depth to water is shallow, concentrations also have increased in the Ogallala Formation where depth to water is large. Pesticide data primarily are available only in the northern half of the study area. About 50 pesticides were detected in the High Plains study area, but only four pesticides (atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and simazine) had concentrations exceeding a drinking-water standard. The occasional detection of pesticides in deeper parts of the Ogallala Formation indicates that contamination pathways exist. Dissolved solids, which are a direct measure of salinity, had 29 percent of measured concentrations in

  8. Seismic and gravity study of the lithospheric structure of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tave, M.; Gurrola, H.; Mickus, K. L.; Thomas, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    processing is underway to map out variation in the Vp/Vs ratio throughout the region and into the mantle. Several uncharacteristically large earthquakes occurred in west Texas and Oklahoma during the period that the TA was in the region (including a 5.6 in east-central Oklahoma, a 5.3 in southeastern Colorado, a 4.8 near the Gulf Coast, and a 4.2 in central Texas; all of which had many aftershocks between 3.5 and 4). We will use these events to perform Pn tomography throughout the area.

  9. Natural Resources Information System for the State of Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research program was to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma's Sarkeys Energy Center, undertook to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state's natural resources. Particular emphasis during this phase of development was placed on computerizing information related to the energy needs of the nation, specifically oil and gas

  10. Mapping Woody Plant Encroachment in Grassland Using Multiple Source Remote Sensing images: Case Study in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Xiao, X.; Qin, Y.; Dong, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Y.; Zou, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, X.; Bajgain, R.

    2015-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment (mainly Juniperus virginiana, a coniferous evergreen tree) in the native grassland has been rapidly increasing in the U.S. Southern Great Plains, largely triggered by overgrazing domestic livestock, fire suppression, and changing rainfall regimes. Increasing dense woody plants have significant implications for local grassland ecosystem dynamics, such as carbon storage, soil nutrient availability, herbaceous forage production, livestock, watershed hydrology and wildlife habitats. However, very limited data are available about the spatio-temporal dynamics of woody plant encroachment to the native grassland at regional scale. Data from remotes sensing could potentially provide relevant information and improve the conversion of native grassland to woody plant encroachment. Previous studies on woody detection in grassland mainly conducted at rangeland scale using airborne or high resolution images, which is sufficient to monitor the dynamics of woody plant encroachment in local grassland. This study examined the potential of medium resolution images to detect the woody encroachment in tallgrass prairie. We selected Cleveland county, Oklahoma, US. as case study area, where eastern area has higher woody coverage than does the western area. A 25-m Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR, N36W98) image was used to map the trees distributed in the grassland. Then, maximum enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the winter calculated from time-series Landsat images was used to identify the invaded woody species (Juniperus virginiana) through phenology-based algorithm. The resulting woody plant encroachment map was compared with the results extracted from the high resolution images provided by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). Field photos were also used to validate the accuracy. These results showed that integrating PALSAR and Landsat had good performance to identify the

  11. Fuelwood procurement, consumption and substitution in selected areas of Botswana: implications for theory and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter summaries the results of the AFREPREN biomass research project examining environmental and socio-economic effects of biomass procurement, consumption and substitution. The economy, energy sector, physical features and population of Botswana are discussed, and household economics and fuelwood scarcity, fuelwood consumption and energy transitions in public institutions and small-scale industries are examined. Policy implications of the project findings are considered. (UK)

  12. Perceptions of fish habitat conditions in Oklahoma tailwater fisheries: a survey of fisheries managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.

    2011-01-01

    While the downstream effects of dams on fish habitat have long been recognized, broad-scale assessments of tailwater fish habitat have rarely been conducted. In this paper, I report on the status of tailwater fisheries in Oklahoma as determined through a web-based survey of fisheries biologists with the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation conducted in July 2010. Respondents addressed 38 tailwaters, encompassing all major areas of the state. The majority of fish species comprising these fisheries included blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), followed by white bass (Morone chrysops), channel catfish (I. punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris). Most respondents indicated no or low concerns with fish habitat in tailwaters under their management supervision; only two tailwaters (Tenkiller Ferry and Fort Gibson) had the majority of concerns with fish habitat identified as high to moderately high. Principal components analysis and subsequent correlation analysis showed that tailwaters that scored high for issues related to shoreline erosion, change in water depth, flow fluctuations, and flow timing were associated with dams with large maximum discharge ability. No other factors related to fish habitat condition in tailwaters were found. In Oklahoma, dams with maximum discharge of at least 6,767.5 m3 sec–1 were more likely to have flow-related fish habitat concerns in the tailwater.

  13. Diagenetic destruction of primary reservoir porosity in Viola Limestone, south-central Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammer, M.G.

    1985-02-01

    The Viola Limestone in south-central Oklahoma is a Middle and Upper Ordovician carbonate unit interpreted as being deposited on a carbonate ramp within and peripheral to the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Depositional environments within the study area ranged from anaerobic deep ramp through aerobic middle and shallow ramp. TOC analyses of the lower anaerobic deep-ramp facies suggest that, at least locally, the Viola is a potential hydrocarbon source rock. Detailed petrographic examination of the Viola indicates that primary porosity in the shallow-ramp skeletal packstones and grainstones was initially quite high. This combination of source potential and original porosity should make the Viola an attractive target for hydrocarbons in southern Oklahoma. The Viola, however, has been subjected to a complex sequence of diagenetic events that have extensively altered the sediments and occluded much of the primary porosity. A thorough understanding of the timing and nature of these events can be critical in evaluating the economic potential of the Viola. Petrographic evidence combined with the use of cathodoluminescence indicates that several generations of calcite cementation occurred within the shallow-ramp packstones and grainstones. An initial phase of very early, possibly synsedimentary, marine cementation is evidenced by cloudy, inclusion-rich syntaxial cements on echinoderm fragments. This early phase of cementation was followed by several generations of clear syntaxial calcite, prismatic calcite, blocky mosaic calcite, and bladed mosaic calcite, all of which indicate changes in the pore-water chemistry after precipitation of the inclusion-rich cements.

  14. Left-lateral intraplate deformation along the Amarillo-Wichita Uplift. Texas Panhandle and Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnik, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The west-northwest trending Amarillo-Wichita Uplift in the Texas Panhandle and southwestern Oklahoma was produced as a result of recurrent large-scale intraplate deformation during the Late Paleozoic Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogeny. The area was broadly folded in the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian. Cambrian through Devonian units were downwarped into the Anadarko Basin, truncated by erosion, and unconformably overlain by Upper Devonian to Mississippian strata. To the south, Mississippian units overlie Ordovician strata and Precambrian basement along the axis of the Texas Arch. Strike-slip faulting along the axis of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen formed the Amarillo-Wichita Uplift during the Pennsylvanian. In the Texas Panhandle, the uplift has been internally deformed into a series of pull-apart grabens which are filled with up to 1500 m of Pennsylvanian arkosic debris. The Whittenburg Trough, a large pull-apart basin along the southwest flank of the uplift, contains about 2300 m of syntectonic deposits. Erosional edges of older units beneath the Mississippian are presently offset 120 km in a left-lateral sense along the uplift. Pre-Mississippian units located in the Hardeman Basin of southwestern Oklahoma originally aligned with those in the western Anadarko Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Restoration to the pre-faulting configuration also realigns offset Proterozoic basement terranes. The orientation of strike-slip and reverse faults and related folds indicate northeast-southwest directed compression during the Pennsylvanian.

  15. The Deese and Collings ranch conglomerates of the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma: Evidence of strike-slip movement during the deformation stage of the southern Oklahoma Aulacogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cemen, I.; Pybas, K.; Stafford, C.; Al-Shaieb, Z. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    It has been widely recognized that the Pennsylvanian conglomerates of the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma, record the deformation stage of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen. Two of these units are the Desmoinesian Deese Conglomerate, exposed in the Mill Creek Syncline area between the Reagan and Mill Creek fault zones, and the Middle Virgilian Collings Ranch Conglomerate, exposed along the Washita Valley fault zone in the Turner Falls area. The authors investigated clast size, geometry, and content, primary sedimentary structures, petrography, petrology, and diagenesis of the two conglomerate units, as well as the geometric relationship of their basins with nearby faults. Their evidence suggests that the two conglomerates were deposited as alluvial fans in basins formed by strike-slip movements. The Collings Ranch Conglomerate was deposited in a basin formed as the result of left-stepping along the nearby Washita Valley strike-slip fault zone. The Deese Conglomerate was deposited in a basin formed due to the combined effect of strike-slip and dip-slip movements along the Reagan and Mill Creek fault zones. In the Collings Ranch basin, the deposition was accomplished primarily by channel-fill and sieve deposits in the proximal region of the fan. The Deese Conglomerate was deposited as an alluvial fan or fans which included several channel deposits while, in the deeper parts of the basin, fine-grained materials and limestones were deposited. These observations and their possible interpretations suggest that the Washita Valley, Mill Creek, and Reagan fault zones have experienced substantial strike-slip movement during the deformation stage of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen.

  16. SFC to cease operations at Gore, Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 16, Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (SFC) formally notified the Nuclear Regulatory Commission it intends to terminate operations and commence decommissioning at its uranium conversion facility at Gore, Oklahoma. SFC officially requested that its NRC operating license be terminated July 31, 1993. SFC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of General Atomics Corporation (GA), will be responsible for the estimated $21.2-million decommissioning plan. GA has contended that it is not financially liable for the cleanup but stated it would be available to offer financial assistance if needed. Over the proposed 10-year cleanup schedule, GA said SFC can finance the decommissioning by drawing on SFC's estimated $70-million in revenue from a fee-for-contract agreement in its recently formed joint-venture with AlliedSignal Inc., called ConverDyn

  17. US hydropower resource assessment for Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose, The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Oklahoma.

  18. Knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: implications for control

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi Kumera; Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge and health seeking behavior for malaria among the local inhabitants in an endemic area of Ethiopia: Implications for control. 98.6% and 80.7% of respondents had awareness about malaria and the cause (‘mosquito bite’) of malaria, respectively. 186 (81.6%) respondents seek treatment for a febrile disease from health care facilities. Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the edu- cational status of respondents a...

  19. Contaminant studies on endangered bats in northeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three federally listed endangered bat species are known to inhabit Oklahoma. The gray bat (Myotis grisescens) is probably the most abundant, and is presently known...

  20. Measurements methods and variability assesment of the Norway spruce total leaf area. Implications for remote sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolová, L.; Lukeš, Petr; Malenovský, Z.; Lhotáková, Z.; Kaplan, Věroslav; Hanuš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2013), s. 111-121. ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1989 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chlorophyll content * conversion factor * Picea abies * projected leaf area * remote sensing * total leaf area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2013

  1. Tobacco use among American Indians in Oklahoma: an epidemiologic view.

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, June E.; Cravatt, Kymberly; Beebe, Laura A.; Blevins, Kathleen S.; Stoddart, Martha L.; Bursac, Zoran; Yeh, Fawn; Lee, Elisa T.; William E. Moore

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the exception of national surveys that sample the entire U.S. population, little information exists on tobacco habits among American Indians. This study is a comparison of tobacco use findings in the 1990s among American Indians in Oklahoma, a state with a large and diverse American Indian population (39 tribes). METHODS: Data on current tobacco use are presented from two statewide surveys, the Oklahoma Youth Tobacco Survey and the Native American Behavioral Risk Factor Surve...

  2. The frequency-area distribution of volcanic units on Venus: Implications for planetary resurfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo Briones, Ignacio; Turcotte, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    The areas of volcanic units on Venus have been measured on the 1:5000000 geological maps published by NASA/USGS. These data were used to obtain a frequency-area distribution. The cumulative frequency-area distribution of 1544 specific occurrence of units cover six orders of magnitude from the largest unit (30 106 km2) to the smallest (20 km2). The probability distribution function has been calculated. The medium and large volcanic units correlate well with a power-law (fractal) r...

  3. Future climate change in the Mediterranean area: implications for water use and weed management

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Lovelli; Michele Perniola; Emanuele Scalcione; Antonio Troccoli; Ziska, Lewis H

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained within research activity from the Climesco Italian Project are summarized. These results suggest that in regards to the impact of climate change in the Mediterranean area, a decrease of water availability and a more frequent occurrence of drought periods are expected. In order to describe the main effects of climate change on water use in some agro-ecosystems in the Mediterranean area we showed that the Penman-Monteith equation can be modified to simulate future changes in r...

  4. Awareness Research Concerning the Existence and Implications of the Avrig – Scorei – Fagaras protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratucu G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based upon a survey conducted in the protected area of Avrig - Scorei - Făgăraş from Romania. The main purpose of the article is to determine the awareness, attitudes and ways in which the inhabitants of a protected area may act towards the conservation of the area and support the community development. The research was based on a direct interview, using a questionnaire comprising 20 direct questions. The sampling method was probabilistic, with a multistage sampling, as it allows the possibility to extrapolate the results obtained for the entire research population. The systematic error is of +/-4%. The results showed a reduced awareness of the residents about the existence, functioning and support of this protected area, as well as a positive approach of the local public institutions involved in the management of the area. The local institutions have started to enforce the rules and regulations concerning the protection of the environment in this area, still with a long way to run, according to the opinions of the locals, until reaching the EU standards in this field.

  5. Isotopic characteristics of groundwater in Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou area and their implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the study of groundwater isotope(2H and 18O, 34S, 15N, 3H, 14C) in Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou area, it is found that the deep confined groundwater has no pollution on the whole, whereas the shallow groundwater is polluted to a different degree in the area. The deep confined aquifers (main exploitation aquifers) in Changzhou area and in Wuxi and Suzhou area likely belong to two different aquifers. The main exploitation aquifers in Changzhou area are not connected with those in Wuxi and Suzhou area, or they are connected but not expedited. The lateral run-off of groundwater is at present directed to the exploitation center because of overexploitation of the deep groundwater for a long time, but the flowing speed of groundwater is still extremely slow. The deep confined groundwater is in a close to half close state. The 14C age of groundwater varies from 10000 a BP to 38000 a BP, with the oldest groundwater found at the nearest exploitation center (along the line of three cities of Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou) and the youngest at the furthest exploitation center.

  6. Isotopic characteristics of groundwater in Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou area and their implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG YueHua; JIA JunYuan; XU NaiZhen; WANG JingDong; KANG XiaoJun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the study of groundwater isotope(2H and 18O, 34S, 15N, 3H, 14O) in Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou area, it is found that the deep confined groundwater has no pollution on the whole, whereas the shallow groundwater is polluted to a different degree in the area. The deep confined aquifers (main exploitation aquifers) in Changzhou area and in Wuxi and Suzhou area likely belong to two different aquifers. The main exploitation aquifers in Changzhou area are not connected with those in Wuxi and Suzhou area, or they are connected but not expedited. The lateral run-off of groundwater is at present directed to the exploitation center because of overexploitation of the deep groundwater for a long time, but the flowing speed of groundwater is still extremely slow. The deep confined groundwater is in a close to half close state. The 140 age of groundwater varies from 10000 a BP to 38000 a BP, with the oldest groundwater found at the nearest exploitation center (along the line of three cities of Changzhou, Wuxi and Suzhou) and the youngest at the furthest exploitation center.

  7. Report on water supply for the proposed Southwestern Reformatory at El Reno, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S.F.

    1931-01-01

    The investigation on which this report is based was made in response to a request from the Bureau of Prisons, United States Department of Justice, for advice in regard to the development of a water supply for the proposed Southwestern Reformatory on the Fort Reno Military Reservation, 2 miles west of El Reno, Oklahoma. The tract set aside for the reformatory includes sec. 12 and the eastern half of sec. 11, T. 12 N, R. 8 W., and is about 1,000 acres in area. The proposed building site is in the north-central part of sec. 12, on a flat-topped hill just north of well No. 69. (See Plate 1.) It is understood that a maximum of 1,200 inmates is contemplated for this reformatory and that a water supply of about 120,000 gallons a day, or 85 gallons a minute, will be required in the summer. However, the potential capacity of the wells should be somewhat greater than 85 gallons a minute to allow for decline in yield. The author, who was assigned to this work by the United States Geological Survey, arrived in Oklahoma City April 21, 1931, and spent one week in field work in the area. After a conference with Dr. C.N. Gould, State Geologist of Oklahoma, it was decided that the possible sources of ground water to be investigated were the 'Red Beds' underlying the whole area, the Tertiary sands capping the hills north of the North Canadian River, and the river alluvium in the North Canadian River Valley. The area in which field work was done is shown on Plate 1 and includes approximately 105 square miles, lying chiefly north and west of El Reno, the county seat of Canadian County. (available as photostat copy only)

  8. Hydrogeochemistry of alluvial groundwaters in an agricultural area: an implication for groundwater contamination susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Kim, Kangjoo; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Soon-Oh; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Rhee, Chul Woo

    2004-04-01

    Alluvial groundwaters in the area where intensive agricultural activity takes place were geochemically investigated to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality of alluvial aquifers. For this study, 55 groundwater samples were taken from the uniformly distributed irrigation wells and were classified into three distinct groups according to their geochemical characteristics. This study reveals that the groundwater quality and the geochemical characteristics of the clustered groups are consistent with the geology of the area. The samples collected from the area where a thick silt bed overlies the sand aquifer are clustered into Group II and show water quality that is only slightly affected by the contaminants originating from the land surface. However, groundwaters of this group are very high in Fe and Mn levels due to strong anoxic condition caused by the thick silt bed. In contrast, Group I shows water quality largely influenced by agricultural activities (i.e., fertilization, liming) and occurs in the area adjacent to the river where the silt bed is not observed and the sand aquifer is covered with sandy soils. Group III mostly occurs in the upgradient of Group I where a thin, silty soil covers the sand aquifer. In overall, the results show that the clustered groups closely reflect the groundwater susceptibility to the contaminants originated from the land surface. This suggests that groundwater clustering based on water chemistry could be applied to the contamination susceptibility assessment for groundwaters in the agricultural area. PMID:14987935

  9. Multispectral analysis of limestone, dolomite, and granite, Mill Creek, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L. C.; Watson, K.

    1970-01-01

    Spectral reflectance and thermal emission data were collected at the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site during NASA missions 132 and 133 in June 1970. The data were collected by three aircraft flown several times during the diurnal cycle at altitudes of 150 to 17,000 m above mean terrain. Reflectance of the main rock types (limestone, dolomite, and granite) was determined from the data collected using a 12-channel multispectral scanner during mission 133 and from thermal infrared images recorded during mission 132 on an RS-7 scanner from 17,000 m above terrain. A preliminary rock recognition map was generated automatically using data collected from 900 m above terrain. The discrimination provided by the map is reasonably accurate. Misidentification occurred in areas of unusually high dolomite reflectivity. High altitude thermal infrared (10 to 12 micrometers) images show regional folds and faults distinguished by the presence of thermally contrasting materials. Linear and curvilinear structural features two to three times smaller than the nominal 17 m resolution could be detected.

  10. Oklahoma Cherokee formation study shows benefits of gas tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To no one's surprise, the administration's recently released energy initiative package does not advocate the use of tax incentives such as the Internal Revenue Code Sec. 29 (tight sand gas) credit that expired Dec. 31, 1992. This is unfortunate since tax credits do stimulate drilling, as the authors' recent study of Oklahoma's Pennsylvanian age Cherokee formation demonstrates. Within this 783,000 acre study area, more than 130 additional wells were drilled between 1991--92 because of tax credit incentives. And such tax credits also increase total federal tax revenues by causing wells to be drilled that would not have been drilled or accelerating the drilling of wells, thereby increasing taxable revenue. In short, tax credits create a win-win situation: they stimulate commerce, increase tax revenues, reduce the outflow of capital to foreign petroleum projects, and add to the nation's natural gas reserve, which is beneficial for national security, balance of payments, the environment, and gas market development. The paper discusses the study assumptions, study results, and the tax credit policy

  11. Variation of oil composition in vicinity of Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemmels, I.; Walters, C.C.

    1987-08-01

    Fifteen oils in an 8-county area in the vicinity of the Arbuckle Mountains were classified into 6 oil types: stable platform type, Mill Creek syncline type, Joiner City field type, Gloeocapsamorpha type, Hoover field A-type; and Fitts field type. The stable platform, Mill Creek syncline, and Joiner City field types have a common element (diminished C/sub 32/ hopane) and are thought to be derived from distinctly different facies of the Woodford Formation. The Viola Limestone oil is typical of oil generated from Ordovician rocks. The Hoover field A-type has an element of Ordovician composition and is thought to have been derived from an Arbuckle Group shale. The Fitts field oil has a unique composition and has not been assigned to a source. The variation of oil composition in the vicinity of the Arbuckle Mountains is attributed to (1) the large number of potential source rocks, (2) the variety of facies going from the stable platform into the southern Oklahoma aulacogen, and (3) biodegradation of oils in shallow reservoirs.

  12. Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

    2013-12-01

    Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

  13. Geochemical provenance of soils in Kerman urban areas, Iran: Implications for the influx of aeolian dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbandi, Reza; Aftabi, Alijan

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of the interaction of aeolian dust with residual soils has not been fully explored in the Kerman urban areas, Iran. To assess the geochemical influence of aeolian dust on the residual soils of the Kerman urban areas of Iran, 27 samples were studied petrogeochemically. The arid-semi-arid climate of the area together with the southwest-northeast prevailing wind, have deposited aeolian sands over the residual soils. Residual soils reflect similar mineral compositions to that of the underlying bedrock and include mostly calcite and quartz. However, the minor occurrences of pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, plagioclase and volcanic clasts in urban soils and aeolian dust are attributed to volcanogenic inputs transported by aeolian dust. Urban soils and aeolian dust show different geochemical signatures from the local carbonate rocks. All samples contain trace element concentrations that are higher than the carbonate bedrock. Discrimination diagrams indicate that immobile trace elements have geochemical affinity to the detrital ferromagnesian dust inputs and are different from the local carbonate bedrock. Based on the elemental bivariate and ternary diagrams, the soils and aeolian dust are derived from the interaction of carbonate and volcanic rocks. This highlights that the urban soils in the Kerman urban areas have been formed by interactions of the aeolian dust with the primitive residual soils.

  14. The Structural and Functional Implications of a School District's Creation of Subject Area Supervisor Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Saundra J.

    1996-01-01

    A case study examined the creation of subject-area supervisory positions in a school district, exploring: ways these positions fit with other positions; teachers', supervisors', and district administrators' views; relationships with instructional programs; and structural issues to consider in creating such positions. (SLD)

  15. Forest area and distribution in the Mississippi alluvial valley: Implications for breeding bird conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Knowing the current forest distribution and patch size characteristics is integral to the development of geographically defined, habitat-based conservation objectives for breeding birds. Towards this end, we classified 2.6 million ha of forest cover within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley using 1992 thematic mapper satellite imagery. Although historically this area, from southern Illinois to southern Louisiana, was dominated by forested wetlands, forest cover remains on less than 25% of the floodplain. Remaining forest cover is comprised of > 38,000 discrete forest patches > 2 ha. Mean patch area (64.1?5.2 ha; 0 ?SE) was highly skewed towards small fragment size. Larger patches had a higher proportion of more hydric forest cover classes than did smaller patches which had a higher proportion of less hydric forest cover classes. Public lands accounted for 16% of remaining forested wetlands. Fewer than 100 forest patches exceeded our hypothesized habitat objective (4000 ha minimum contiguous forest area) intended to support self-sustaining populations of forest breeding birds. To increase the number of forest patches exceeding 4000 ha contiguous area, and thereby increase the likelihood of successful forest bird conservation, we recommend afforestation adjoining existing forest fragments ?1012 ha and focused within designated Forest Bird Conservation Regions.

  16. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget L Borg

    Full Text Available The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP and Yellowstone (YNP, on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies.

  17. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Bridget L; Arthur, Stephen M; Bromen, Nicholas A; Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W; Prugh, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies. PMID:27124729

  18. Variation of b value with hypocentral depth in Beijing area: Implications for earthquake nucleation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ailan; XU Xiwei; HU Ping; ZHOU Yongsheng; CHEN Guihua; GAN Weijun

    2005-01-01

    We relocated 2098 earthquakes that occurred in Beijing area between 1980 and 2000 using a double-difference (DD) earthquake location algorithm, and obtained the high-precision relative locations of 1825 events. b values versus depth were investigated with the relocated hypocenters. The results show that the b values decrease with the increasing hypocentral depth systematically. A dramatic variation in b is observed around the depth of 8 km. It indicates that there are more smaller earthquakes at shallow depth (0-8 km), while more larger earthquakes at greater depth (8-25 km). The physical mechanism behind this phenomenon can be explained by the variations in material heterogeneity and lithostatic stress condition. Large earthquakes are more likely to nucleate at greater depth with more homogenous material and higher lithostatic stress. On the basis of the results, we suggest that future strong earthquakes in Beijing area tend to occur below the depth of 8 km.

  19. Thyroid nodules in Graves′ disease: implications in an endemically iodine deficient area.

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra A; Mishra S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The presence of thyroid nodules with Graves′ disease raises concern about co-existent thyroid malignancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid carcinoma and the need for surgical intervention in, patients with Graves′ disease with co-existent nodules in an endemically iodine deficient area (IDA). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 130 surgically managed patients of Graves′ disease (1990-1999). Out of these 35 (26.9&#...

  20. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Dumitrascu; Mihaela Lungu; S. L. Stefanescu; R. Lacatusu

    2005-01-01

    Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture) is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social be...

  1. Future climate change in the Mediterranean area: implications for water use and weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained within research activity from the Climesco Italian Project are summarized. These results suggest that in regards to the impact of climate change in the Mediterranean area, a decrease of water availability and a more frequent occurrence of drought periods are expected. In order to describe the main effects of climate change on water use in some agro-ecosystems in the Mediterranean area we showed that the Penman-Monteith equation can be modified to simulate future changes in reference evapotranspiration by recalibration of the crop resistive parameter. Moreover, the use of adjusted crop coefficients (Kc can help quantify the climate change impact on water use for irrigated crops grown in Southern Italy and elsewhere in the Mediterannean. For this region temperature rise and the concomitant expected rainfall reduction may lead to an increase yearly potential water deficits. For autumn-spring crops a further increase of water deficit is not expected. In contrast for a significant increase of water deficit, and thus of irrigation needs, is expected for spring-summer crops. Another aspect considered in this review is how in the Mediterranean area, drought conditions and warmer temperatures will alter the competitive balance between crops and some weed species. We report experimental data showing how weed aggressiveness and competition is already increasing due to warmer temperatures in the Mediterranean region.

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 6): Oklahoma Refining Company, Cyril, OK. (First remedial action), June 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 160-acre Oklahoma Refining site is a petroleum refinery located on the eastern edge of Cyril, Oklahoma, in Caddo County. The facility included refinery process areas, bulk storage tanks, waste pits, wastewater treatment ponds, and a land treatment area. During the mid-1980's, EPA investigations revealed large-scale organic and heavy metal contamination of onsite soil and ground water. In 1990, EPA conducted a removal action, which included characterization and removal of drums, plugging wells, and wildlife protection measures. The ROD addresses the remediation of onsite contaminated soil, sediment, surface water, and ground water as a final remedy. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, ground water, and surface water are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PAHs and phenols; and metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  3. Long-Term Broad-Scale Changes in Upland Oak Forests Throughout Oklahoma, USA

    OpenAIRE

    DeSantis, Ryan; Hallgren, Steve W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present evidence of long-term, broad-scale changes in upland oak forests in south-central North America and compare these changes to those reported for other oak-dominated ecosystems. From 2007-2008, we re-sampled 30 forest stands originally sampled in the 1950s throughout the Cross Timbers of Oklahoma, USA. We compared basal area, tree density and sapling density between the sampling periods using paired t-tests and partial canonical (pCCA) and detrended (DCA) correspondenc...

  4. Roads and Roadless Areas in Cyprus: Implications For The Natura 2000 Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomeni Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The road network in Cyprus has seen an 88% increase in the last 20 years. This expansion has not been followed by any kind of assessment on the effects of the network on nature conservation. This is the first island-wide quantitative assessment of the size, character (surface types, pervasiveness and distribution of the road system with particular reference to Natura 2000 network on the island. We mapped roadless areas (i.e. areas at least one km away from nearest road for the whole island and examined the spatial distribution with respect to Natura 2000. We tested the relationship between overall road density and road density of different road categories within terrestrial Natura 2000 sites to four zones which were defined on the basis of landform, principal land use and ownership. We employed three indices i.e. effective mesh size, splitting and division to measure fragmentation caused by the road network within Natura 2000 and investigated the relationship between road density and the above fragmentation metrics. Mean road density in Cyprus is 2.3 km/km2 which is comparable to road density values recorded in other Mediterranean countries such as France, Spain and Italy, which have much larger area and population. Roadless areas cover 4.5% of the island, and despite being scattered 80% is found within Natura 2000, which demonstrates the added value of the network for nature conservation. Road expansion has taken place throughout the island with the same intensity irrespectively of the zones examined. Fragmentation has been lower in sites on mountainous areas where sites are larger and under state ownership. Road density is negatively correlated (r = - 0.383, p = 0.05 with effective mesh size and positively correlated with both landscape division (r = 0.376, p = 0.05 and splitting index (r = 0.376, p = 0.05. Results corroborate that spatial configuration is an important property of the road network in addition to traffic load, length and

  5. From communal forests to protected areas: The implications of tenure changes in natural resource management in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvel Elías

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected area initiatives have sometimes led to conflicts with indigenous peoples who depend on forests for their livelihoods. This article examines the efforts to promote formal protection in the communal forests of the Guatemalan highlands. It analyses the institutional mechanisms used to create protected areas in the context of a history of profound inequity and of Guatemala′s new law recognising the existence of communal lands for the first time. Rather than supporting communal institutions and land rights, however, conservation efforts have strengthened the role of municipal governments, leading to fundamental changes in local governance and livelihood strategies and displacing community participation in natural resource management. The article responds to the following questions: What is the relationship between conservation discourse and the demands of indigenous peoples? How are the daily local practices of natural resource access and use modified with the creation of protected areas? What implications do these processes have on local territorial management institutions? And how can conservation mechanisms be designed to strengthen indigenous peoples′ rights?

  6. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chaminade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. METHODOLOGY: Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. CONCLUSIONS: Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. SIGNIFICANCE: Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  7. Brain Response to a Humanoid Robot in Areas Implicated in the Perception of Human Emotional Gestures

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminade, T.; Zecca, M; Blakemore, S. J.; Takanishi, A; Frith, C D; Micera, S.; Dario, P.; Rizzolatti, G.; V. Gallese; Umilta, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.Methodology: Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the sam...

  8. Annual yield and selected hydrologic data for the Arkansas River basin compact Arkansas-Oklahoma, 1995 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The computed annual yield and deficiency of the subbasins as defined in the Arkansas River Basin Compact, Arkansas-Oklahoma, are given in tables for the 1995 water year. Actual runoff from the subbasins and depletion caused by major reservoirs in the compact area also are given in tabular form. Monthly mean discharges are shown for the 17 streamflow stations used in computing annual yield. Water-quality data are shown for 20 water-quality stations sampled in the Arkansas River Basin.

  9. Implications of genetics and current protected areas for conservation of 5 endangered primates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijin; Liu, Guangjian; Roos, Christian; Wang, Ziming; Xiang, ZuoFu; Zhu, Pingfen; Wang, Boshi; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Fanglei; Pan, Huijuan; Li, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Most of China's 24-28 primate species are threatened with extinction. Habitat reduction and fragmentation are perhaps the greatest threats. We used published data from a conservation genetics study of 5 endangered primates in China (Rhinopithecus roxellana, R. bieti, R. brelichi, Trachypithecus francoisi, and T. leucocephalus); distribution data on these species; and the distribution, area, and location of protected areas to inform conservation strategies for these primates. All 5 species were separated into subpopulations with unique genetic components. Gene flow appeared to be strongly impeded by agricultural land, meadows used for grazing, highways, and humans dwellings. Most species declined severely or diverged concurrently as human population and crop land cover increased. Nature reserves were not evenly distributed across subpopulations with unique genetic backgrounds. Certain small subpopulations were severely fragmented and had higher extinction risk than others. Primate mobility is limited and their genetic structure is strong and susceptible to substantial loss of diversity due to local extinction. Thus, to maximize preservation of genetic diversity in all these primate species, our results suggest protection is required for all sub-populations. Key priorities for their conservation include maintaining R. roxellana in Shennongjia national reserve, subpopulations S4 and S5 of R. bieti and of R. brelichi in Fanjingshan national reserve, subpopulation CGX of T. francoisi in central Guangxi Province, and all 3 T. leucocephalus sub-populations in central Guangxi Province. PMID:26372167

  10. Implications of International Manorial Economy for Development of Characteristic Manorial Economy in Yunnan Plateau Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LUO; Lu; FENG; Xiaobo; DONG; Yuan; YUAN; Xuelin; LI; Liangzheng; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized experience of Vietnam and Taiwan in developing modern agricultural manorial economy. The manorial economy of Vietnam is characterized by intensive and specialized operation and high marketization and wide employment of labors,while the experience of Taiwan can be outlined as " government launching,agricultural association promoting,and farmers acting". Then,it analyzed existing problems of modern agricultural manorial economy in China and opportunities and challenges of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area. Finally in line with these problems and combining experience of international manorial economy,it came up with systematic recommendations for healthy and sustainable development of characteristic modern agricultural manorial economy in Yunnan plateau area:(i) perfecting organization leadership,improving planning guidance,and enhancing standardized management;(ii) putting forth effort on innovation of system and mechanism for land,fund and technology,to break bottleneck of manorial economic development;(iii) increasing input and comprehensively building the service support system to promote long-term development of manorial economy.

  11. Thresholds for runoff and sediment transport in Semi-arid areas; implications for connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, L. J.; Kirkby, M. J.

    2007-05-01

    The concept of connectivity is increasingly being applied within a range of disciplines in the Earth and Environmental sciences as researchers recognize the need to move beyond the traditional view that runoff is generated by either Hortonian infiltration excess or by the variable source area model. In studies which focus on connectivity two key assumptions tend to be made. Firstly, that runoff thresholds must be exceeded for runoff to be produced and secondly, that all factors that influence runoff thresholds are important for hydrological connectivity. It follows that hillslope hydrological connectivity can be initiated by shorter duration, or lower intensity events, whereas catchment-scale hydrological connectivity and flooding, requires prolonged, high intensity storms. Each catchment thus has a base spatial pattern in terms of connectivity, depending on key runoff generating areas, and a response curve as the catchments wets up. In this paper we explore how this base spatial pattern changes according to thresholds in the landscape for runoff generation and sediment transport. By examining a range of events at different spatial scales it is hoped that an understanding can be developed of key thresholds in semi-arid landscapes which will assist in understanding long term landscape development.

  12. Flood Frequency Estimates and Documented and Potential Extreme Peak Discharges in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; McCabe, Lan P.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of floods is required for the safe and economical design of highway bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures on or near streams; and for flood plain management programs. Flood frequency estimates for gaged streamflow sites were updated, documented extreme peak discharges for gaged and miscellaneous measurement sites were tabulated, and potential extreme peak discharges for Oklahoma streamflow sites were estimated. Potential extreme peak discharges, derived from the relation between documented extreme peak discharges and contributing drainage areas, can provide valuable information concerning the maximum peak discharge that could be expected at a stream site. Potential extreme peak discharge is useful in conjunction with flood frequency analysis to give the best evaluation of flood risk at a site. Peak discharge and flood frequency for selected recurrence intervals from 2 to 500 years were estimated for 352 gaged streamflow sites. Data through 1999 water year were used from streamflow-gaging stations with at least 8 years of record within Oklahoma or about 25 kilometers into the bordering states of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, and Texas. These sites were in unregulated basins, and basins affected by regulation, urbanization, and irrigation. Documented extreme peak discharges and associated data were compiled for 514 sites in and near Oklahoma, 352 with streamflow-gaging stations and 162 at miscellaneous measurements sites or streamflow-gaging stations with short record, with a total of 671 measurements.The sites are fairly well distributed statewide, however many streams, large and small, have never been monitored. Potential extreme peak-discharge curves were developed for streamflow sites in hydrologic regions of the state based on documented extreme peak discharges and the contributing drainage areas. Two hydrologic regions, east and west, were defined using 98 degrees 15 minutes longitude as the

  13. 77 FR 47089 - Land Acquisitions; United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians of Oklahoma AGENCY... trust for the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians of Oklahoma on July 30, 2012. FOR FURTHER... U.S.C. 503. The 2.03 acres are located approximately in Tahlequah, Cherokee County, Oklahoma,...

  14. The Development of Oklahoma's Public Two-Year Colleges: An Enigma and a Battleground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael W.

    The focus of this study is to examine the early reports and studies concerning the development of two-year colleges in Oklahoma. The basic inquiry is the examination of the reports of the Oklahoma State Superintendent of Instruction and the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education as well as dissertations or theses produced by University of…

  15. Tallinna Ülikool ja Kesk-Oklahoma allkirjastasid koostööleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Septembris külastas Tallinna Ülikooli Kesk-Oklahoma Ülikooli (University of Central Oklahoma) ajalooprofessor ja rahvusvaheliste õpingute dekaan Richard M. Bernard. Külastuse jätkuna allkirjastasid Tallinna Ülikool ning Kesk-Oklahoma Ülikool koostöö memorandumi

  16. ASEAN free-trade area and its implications on the battery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrucho, Peter D., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    In February, 1992, the six ASEAN member nations agreed to reduce tariffs and thus, eventually, to create an ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) over 15 years. AFTA will lead to more competition in the high-growth ASEAN battery domestic market. Already about ten companies from four countries export both to markets that are rigorous in quality (e.g., the USA and Australia) and to heavily discounted markets, e.g., the Middle East. To date, however, these manufacturers rarely sell to other ASEAN markets outside their home country. AFTA should also encourage manufacturers of battery equipment, mould making, separators, battery electricals, and testing equipment to locate their facilities in an ASEAN country. Technology and productivity is high and wages are reasonable in ASEAN nations and with AFTA, the markets are larger. Manufacturing complementation programmes will also become an attractive option.

  17. THE IMPLICATIONS OF SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA (SEPA ON BANKING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaita-Cosmin POPOVICI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the creation of the euro by the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, European integration has deepened. Even with this step done the financial market is fragmented. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, the European Union has taken a number of measures. The first step is the Financial Services Action Plan in 2000, through the Lisbon Strategy. Second is the European Commission Regulation 2560/2001 to harmonise fees for cross border and domestic euro transactions. Third is the first pan-European Automated Clearing House in 2003. Last great step made is the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA in 2008. In this paper, we want to research the degree of implementation of SEPA by using quantitative indicators: credit transfers, direct debits and payment cards, and the effects of this system on bank efficiency.

  18. The ASEAN Free-Trade Area and its implications on the battery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February, 1992, the six ASEAN member nations agreed to reduce tariffs and thus, eventually, to create an ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) over 15 years. AFTA will lead to more competition in the high-growth ASEAN battery domestic market. Already about ten companies from four countries export both to markets that are rigorous in quality (e.g., the USA and Australia) and to heavily discounted markets, e.g., the Middle East. To date, however, these manufacturers rarely sell to other Asean markets outside their home country. AFTA should also encourage manufacturers of battery equipment, mould making, separators, battery electricals, and testing equipment to locate their facilities in an Asean country. Technology and productivity is high and wages are reasonable in ASEAN nations and with AFTA, the markets are larger. Manufacturing complementation programmes will also become an attractive option. (orig.)

  19. Implications of ecotourism development in protected areas: a study from Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana MP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on visitors profile study of protected area based tourist spots of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary (RKWS, Bangladesh to ascertain the potential of ecotourism. Study findings shows that 69% male constitute the visitors group while the maximum number of visitors was found in the age of below 30 years. Most of the visitors were literate and among them 43% visitors were student. Most (53% of visitors preferred to get recreation in holidays as they were employed. Visitors were highly preferred to come with friends group. About 92% respondents showed positive mind to come here in future while 89% respondents view that park has tourism potential. Most of the respondents reported the presence of wildlife (48% most notable followed by plant diversity and tribal community as recreational. From χ2 test it is found that highly significance association present between tourism potentiality of the wildlife sanctuary and some demographic variable like income of tourists (χ2 = 49.138, p < 0.000, visiting pattern (χ2 = 19.344, p < 0.000, education of tourists (χ2 = 50.226, p < 0.000, travelling distance (Km - χ2 = 11.427, p < 0.022, duration of staying (χ2 = 12.867, p < 0.002, frequency of visit (χ2 = 8.456, p < 0.015, visiting time (χ2 = 6.530, p < 0.011, problem in the study area (χ2 = 14.962, p < 0.021, occupation of tourists (χ2 = 8.848, p < 0.031. If the problems addressed by the visitors were solved, RKWS would be a bright place of eco-tourism in Bangladesh.

  20. Characterization of organics in Whiteshell research area groundwater and the implications for radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring organics in groundwaters of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) of southern Manitoba were investigated to assess their potential role in radionuclide transport within granite fractures of the Canadian Shield. A survey of dissolved organic carbon concentrations, carried out to determine the variability in the organic content of these groundwaters, showed average concentrations of 0.8 ±0.1 mg/L for Fracture Zone 2, 0.8 ± 0.4 mg/L for near-vertical fractures and 2.3 ± 0.8 mg/L for deeper saline groundwater. The dissolved organic carbon consisted mainly of hydrophilic neutral compounds (60 to 75%), and hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids (23 to 39%), along with very small amounts of hydrophobic bases and neutrals, and hydrophilic bases. Significant contamination from drilling operations and plastics, mostly in the form of hydrophobic neutrals, was observed in some samples. These compounds would not contribute to radionuclide migration in a natural system and are not included in the assessment of the organic complexing capacity of these groundwaters. Based on groundwater concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids and on the measured carboxylic functional group content of these acids, the average complexing capacity of natural organics in Whiteshell Research Area groundwaters was calculated to be 2.9 x 10(-6) eq/L. The ability of these organics to complex radionuclides was tested using conditional stability constants from the literature for humic complex formation with Am(III), Th(IV), and U(VI). The chemistry of U(VI) was predicted to be dominated by inorganic complexes and not significantly affected by organics. The literature contains a wide range in values of stability constants for Am(III) and Th(TV) complexes with humics. The aqueous chemistry of Am(III) and Th(VI) could be affected by complexation with natural organics if the higher stability constant values are valid for WRA groundwaters. (UK)

  1. THE VASCULAR FLORA OF HALE SCOUT RESERVATION: LEFLORE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Hoagland

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hale Scout Reservation is located in the Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma, a region of high plant diversity in the state. A vascular plant inventory yielded 463 species of vascular plants in 288 genera and 99 families. The largest families were the Asteraceae (with 65 species and Poaceae (56. The flora consisted of 120 annuals, 1 biennial, and 342 perennials. Forty-two non-native species were collected, representing 8.8% of the flora. Sixteen species tracked by the Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory were present: Amorpha ouachitensis (S1, Aristolochia serpentaria (S1, Baptisia nuttalliana (S2, Brachyelytrum erectum (S1, Brasenia schreberi (S1, Carex ouachitana (S1, Chionanthus virginicus (S2, Clematis crispa (S1, Didiplis diandra (S1S2, Galium arkansanum (S2, Houstonia ouachitana (S1, Juncus repens (S1, Modiola caroliniana (S2, Monotropa hypopithys (S1, Muhlenbergia bushii (S1, and Ribes cynosbati (S2 (Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory, 2010.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Implications of Urban Sprawl in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Ala-Mantila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suburban households living in spacious detached houses and owing multiple cars are often seen as main culprits for negative greenhouse consequences of urban sprawl. Consequently, the effects of sprawl have been mostly studied from the viewpoints of emissions from home energy consumption and private driving. Little attention has been paid to the changes in other consumption. In this paper, urban sprawl is linked to the proliferation of semi-detached and detached housing, described as a low-rise lifestyle, at the expense of apartment house living i.e., high-rise lifestyle. We analyze differences between the low-rise and the high-rise lifestyles and their environmental effects in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, taking into account all consumption activities. Environmental effects are assessed by combining greenhouse gas intensities from a consumption-based environmentally-extended input-output (EE I-O model with expenditure data. Then these carbon footprints are further elucidated with regression analysis. We find that low-rise lifestyles causes approximately 14% more emissions than high-rise lifestyles. However, the relative contributions of emissions from different sources, whether direct or indirect, are almost equal for both. Furthermore, when controlling the level of expenditure, the differences between the two lifestyles unexpectedly disappear and in certain cases are even reversed. We believe that our consumption-based approach facilitates the understanding of sprawling lifestyles and offers important insights for sustainable policy-design and urban planning.

  3. Ultrasound Assessment of the Rectus Femoris Cross-Sectional Area: Subject Position Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Garkova, Miglena

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of the rectus femoris (RF) is a novel, proxy measure for muscle strength. The impact of hip flexion/head of bed positioning on RF cross-sectional area (CSA) has not been fully explored. This study describes and compares differences in RF CSA across four degrees of hip flexion. This repeated-measures, comparative study enrolled healthy, pre-menopausal women (n = 20). RF CSA of the dominant leg was measured using the SonoSite M-Turbo ultrasound system with the head of bed at 0°, 20°, 30°, and 60°. One-way repeated measures indicated significant differences in RF CSA, F(3, 17) = 14.18, p < .001, with variation in hip flexion/head of bed elevation and significant RF CSA differences between: (a) 0° and 20°, (b) 0° and 30°, (c) 0° and 60°, and (d) 20° and 60°. Standardizing patient positioning when conducting ultrasonic measurement of RF CSA is vital for researchers who assess muscle mass. PMID:27090872

  4. Implications of Climate Variability and Change for Smallholder Crop Production in Different Areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Musiyiwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable food production in the rain-fed smallholder sector of Zimbabwe is imperative in current and future climates given the increasing proportion and role of the sector in food security. Backgrounds of the smallholder sector include low resource bases, declining soil productivity, climate variability and increasing human population. Impacts of climatic and non-climatic variables on crop production vary in different Agro-Ecological Regions (AERs. The study identifies the main climatic opportunities and constraints for sustainable rain-fed smallholder crop production systems in current and future climates. Estimated changes in rainfall and temperature by 2050 are not likely to negatively impact crop production in smallholder areas in AER I, increases in temperature may have negative impacts for most of AER III and IV. Most of AER V is likely to become unsuitable for sustainable maize production. Overall projections indicate increased differences in agricultural potential between smallholder farmers in AER I compared to those in AER II and III as well as those in AER IV and V and different management options. Proposed adaptation and coping strategies in AER I and some in AER II include intensification of agriculture and optimization of both C3 and C4 crop production while in AER III to V adoption of stress tolerant crops for family subsistence may be imperative.

  5. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  6. Thyroid nodules in Graves′ disease: implications in an endemically iodine deficient area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The presence of thyroid nodules with Graves′ disease raises concern about co-existent thyroid malignancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid carcinoma and the need for surgical intervention in, patients with Graves′ disease with co-existent nodules in an endemically iodine deficient area (IDA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 130 surgically managed patients of Graves′ disease (1990-1999. Out of these 35 (26.9% cases had palpable nodules. No patient had history of previous head and neck irradiation or radioiodine therapy. The clinico-pathological findings and follow-up of these cases were noted. RESULTS: Mean age of patients with nodules was 40.2 +/- 9.5 years and male to female ratio was 1:2.2. The overall incidence of thyroid carcinoma in Graves′ disease was 6.2% (8/130 cases, while the incidence, in cases having nodule with Graves′ disease was 17.1% (6/35 cases. The median age of patients with carcinoma was 45 years (5 women and 1 man. Besides laboratory investigations for hyperthyroidism, preoperative investigations included fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and thyroid scintigraphy in 29 and 25 cases respectively. Incidence of malignancy in palpable cold nodules was 20%. FNAC could not predict malignancy with certainty in any of these cases. Five patients had papillary thyroid carcinoma while one had follicular carcinoma. Median tumour diameter was 10 mm. Tumour was multi-centric in two cases while one case had metastases to cervical lymph node. In follow-up (median =5.5 years one patient died of unrelated cause, while rest are alive with no evidence of disease. CONCLUSIONS: Nodules are frequently associated with Graves′ disease in IDA. Incidence of carcinoma is high in palpable cold nodule. We recommend early thyroidectomy in these cases.

  7. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  8. THE VASCULAR FLORA OF HALE SCOUT RESERVATION: LEFLORE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce W. Hoagland; Amy K. Buthod

    2010-01-01

    The Hale Scout Reservation is located in the Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma, a region of high plant diversity in the state. A vascular plant inventory yielded 463 species of vascular plants in 288 genera and 99 families. The largest families were the Asteraceae (with 65 species) and Poaceae (56). The flora consisted of 120 annuals, 1 biennial, and 342 perennials. Forty-two non-native species were collected, representing 8.8% of the flora. Sixteen species tracked by the Oklahoma N...

  9. Oklahoma State Plan FY 91-93: Part B of the Education of the Handicapped Act and Its Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Div. of Special Education.

    This document contains Oklahoma's State Plan for education of students with disabilities in fiscal years 1991-93, along with the following support materials: the Oklahoma Policies and Procedures Manual for Special Education; the text of selected Oklahoma state laws on special education; a set of Oklahoma interagency agreements; a guide for parents…

  10. Public health assessment for Oklahoma Refining Company, Cyril, Caddo County, Oklahoma, Region 6. Cerclis No. OKD091598870. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-09

    The Oklahoma Refining Company site, near the town of Cyril, Caddo County, Oklahoma, is approximately 160 acres. Contaminants associated with the site include volatile organic compounds, semi-volatile compounds, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and petroleum hydrocarbons. Heavy metals and PAHs are the primary contaminants at levels of health concern. During refinery operations, ambient air was likely to have been and could be a significant exposure pathway for on-site workers and off-site residents. Residents swimming in Gladys Creek downstream of the ORC site during refinery operations were likely to have been exposed to contaminants in surface water and sediment. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has concluded that the Oklahoma Refining Company site was a public health hazard during its past operation based on probable exposure during the release of wastes from the oil refinery process.

  11. Monitoring forest disturbances in Southeast Oklahoma using Landsat and MODIS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trung V.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Julian, Jason P.

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring forest disturbances using remote sensing data with high spatial and temporal resolution can reveal relationships between forest disturbances and forest ecological patterns and processes. In this study, we fused Landsat data at high spatial resolution (30 m) with 8-day MODIS data to produce high spatial and temporal resolution image time-series. The Spatial Temporal Adaptive Algorithm for mapping Reflectance Change (STAARCH) is a simple but effective fusion method. We adapted the STAARCH fusion method to successfully produce a time-series of disturbances with high overall accuracy (89-92%) in mixed forests in southeast Oklahoma. The results demonstrated that in southeast Oklahoma, forest area disturbed in 2011 was higher than it was in 2000. However, two remarkable drops were identified in 2001 and 2006. We speculated that the drops were related to the economic recessions causing reduction in the demand of woody products. The detected fluctuation of area disturbed calls for continuing monitoring of spatial and temporal changes in this and other forest landscapes using high spatial and temporal resolution imagery datasets to better recognize the economic and environmental factors, as well as the consequences of those changes.

  12. Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

  13. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Oklahoma's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

  14. Child homicide in Oklahoma: a continuing public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, T C; Jordan, F B; Vogel, J S; Brumback, R A; Brandt, E N

    1998-11-01

    Homicide is a leading manner of injury to cause death in children. To assess this phenomenon in Oklahoma, the demographic characteristics and causes of death of the victims of child homicide in Oklahoma have been reviewed. One hundred eleven consecutive cases of homicide in children less than age 13 years were reviewed and the demographic characteristics of the victims were analyzed. The majority of homicides occurred in Tulsa and Oklahoma Counties (55.8%). The ratio of male to female victims was approximately equal. The races of the victims were 66.6 percent White, 24.3 percent Black, 8.1 percent Native American and 0.9 percent Asian. The most common cause of death was head injury (45.9%). An unexpected finding was that in 23.4 percent of cases, an additional fatality occurred in the family due to family violence. This fatality involved either suicide of the perpetrator or homicide of a sibling. These findings indicate a continuing family violence problem in Oklahoma. PMID:9828528

  15. Personal Touches Warm up Oklahoma City U.'s Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Oklahoma City University prides itself on treating its faculty and staff members like family. It is the kind of place where new employees are welcomed in the president's house, staff members kick in to raise money when a colleague faces hard times, and promising young workers are offered flexible work schedules and free tuition to help them…

  16. Fungicides for organic cantaloupe production in Oklahoma: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides that are potentially useful in organic production were evaluated for foliar disease control in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulates ’Israeli’) during 2009 at Lane, Oklahoma. Milstop (85% potassium bicarbonate), Neem oil, Bonide liquid copper (10% copper octanoate), Serenade (QST ...

  17. Oklahoma and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details Oklahoma's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  18. Anencephalic organ donation in Oklahoma. Right problem, wrong answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, G K

    1993-03-01

    The scarcity of donor organs results in the death of some pediatric transplant candidates while they wait for an organ. The use of anencephalic infants has been suggested as a way to increase the donor pool. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach are reviewed, and recommendations made for the state of Oklahoma. PMID:8445460

  19. Industrial unionism and the Oklahoma coal industry, 1870-1935

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewall, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This study traces the development of industrial unionism in Oklahoma's coal industry from the beginnings of the industry in 1870 to its decline in 1935. Chapter topics include the early years of the coal industry, life in the coal towns, and the series of strikes that occurred from 1894 to 1932. The study draws from both labor and management materials, but also from primary sources that reflect the role of both the state and federal governments during strikes. The study also utilizes the newspapers of the coal towns. They are a bountiful source on life in Oklahoma's coal towns. Study concludes that Oklahoma's coal towns were a perfect breeding ground for industrial unionism. Working in the most dangerous mines in the United States, the miners of Oklahoma turned to unionism in their efforts to improve working conditions and to secure a living wage. Above ground, the miners battled to break the company towns system. There the union achieved success in eliminating the company store and company housing, the two principal components of the company town system. At the same time, the miners created a union culture under which miners of all nationalities were welcome.

  20. An Empirical Test of Oklahoma's A-F School Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Barnes, Laura L.; Khojasteb, Jam

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of 16 states electing to use an A-F letter grade as an indicator of school quality. On the surface, letter grades are an attractive policy instrument for school improvement; they are seemingly clear, simple, and easy to interpret. Evidence, however, on the use of letter grades as an instrument to rank and improve schools is scant…

  1. 77 FR 63409 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00063

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00063 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road.... Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC 20416....

  2. 77 FR 61466 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00063

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00063 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road.... Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC 20416....

  3. 78 FR 36630 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration Processing, And Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  4. 78 FR 36632 - Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oklahoma Disaster Number OK-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road.... Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC 20416....

  5. Data Privacy Laws Follow Lead of Oklahoma and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma's Student Data Accessibility, Transparency, and Accountability Act (known as the Student DATA Act) arose just as privacy concerns about student data were beginning to surface. According to Linnette Attai, founder of education technology compliance consultancy PlayWell LLC, "When this climate of data privacy first emerged in its…

  6. A Review and Synthesis of Technical Education Research in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David Allen

    In order to aid teachers and administrators in improving programs in technical education, this report provides a brief review and synthesis of some of the recent research concerning post-high school technical education in the State of Oklahoma. The research is divided into the following topics: history, statewide surveys, placement and employment,…

  7. 75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47...

  8. Percentile Distributions of Median Nitrite Plus Nitrate as Nitrogen, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Oklahoma Streams, 1973-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Brian E.; Masoner, Jason R.; Becker, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients are one of the primary causes of water-quality impairments in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed regional-based nutrient criteria using ecoregions to protect streams in the United States from impairment. However, nutrient criteria were based on nutrient concentrations measured in large aggregated nutrient ecoregions with little relevance to local environmental conditions in states. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is using a dichotomous process known as Use Support Assessment Protocols to define nutrient criteria in Oklahoma streams. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is modifying the Use Support Assessment Protocols to reflect nutrient informa-tion and environmental characteristics relevant to Oklahoma streams, while considering nutrient information grouped by geographic regions based on level III ecoregions and state boundaries. Percentile distributions of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous concentrations were calculated from 563 sites in Oklahoma and 4 sites in Arkansas near the Oklahoma and Arkansas border to facilitate development of nutrient criteria for Oklahoma streams. Sites were grouped into four geographic regions and were categorized into eight stream categories by stream slope and stream order. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations were greater in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and were less in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion when compared to other geographic areas used to group sites. The 50th percentiles of median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were least in first, second, and third order streams. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland and Ouachita Mountains ecoregions were least in

  9. Land Use Changes of an Aeolian-Loessial Soil Area in Northwest China: Implications for Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Fu; LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jing; YAN Jian-Ping; GUO Xu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    China has experienced dramatic land use changes over recent decades,with marked environmental and socio-economic consequences.Hcngshan County,located in the aeolian-loessial area of Northwest China,was investigated to illustrate land use changes and their implications for environmental and long-term rural economic development.The farmland in Hengshan County significantly decreased during 1990-2003,whereas forest land and grassland increased.The conversion rates of farmland,orchard land,forest land and construction land varied markedly among different periods:1990-1995,1995-2000 and 2000-2003.Conversion of orchard land,grassland and construction land was dominant in 1990-1995,whereas the conversion of farmland to forest land mainly occurred in 2000-2003.The results suggested a profound transition in institutional policy and political economy of land management,including implementation of integrated soil erosion control projects,adoption of a market-oriented economy and the 'Grain-for-Green' policy,during this period in China.To achieve long-term sustainable land use in Hengshan County,efforts should aim at increasing off-farm income of rural families as well as establishing land-economizing mechanisms to promote land productivity,in addition to conservation measures.

  10. Structural controls of Holocene reactivation of the Meers fault, southwestern Oklahoma, from magnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Cecil, M.

    1995-01-01

    Holocene reactivation of the aseismic Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma illustrates the limitation of using the historical seismic record for identifying hazardous faults in the central United States. The 26- to 37-km-long fault sarp is one of the few known scarps recording Holocene movement in the central and eastern United States. Two documented late Holocene slip events, each with about 2.5 m of net slip and estimated Ms ranging from 6 3/4 to 7 1/4 , identify the Meers fault as a potentially hazardous fault. In the present-day strike-slip regional stress field, the observed up-to-the-north Holocene displacement suggests that either the fault continues to dip steeply at depth or the regional stress field is approaching a normal-faulting stress regime. If the former is true, the scarcity of near-vertical faults with similar orientation within the areas of the southern Oklahoma aulacogen implies that few are likely candidates for reactivation. from Author

  11. Fracture density and spacing along Washita Valley fault, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferebee, C.D.; Tapp, J.B. (Univ. of Tulsa, OK (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The authors document fracture density and spacing associated with the Washita Valley fault, a major strike-slip fault. The Washita Valley fault strikes northwest-southeast with up to 80 mi of exposure in southern Oklahoma and may be an early bounding fault of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen (Ardmore/Marietta basins). Horizontal displacement on the fault has been estimated to be up to 40 mi, with vertical displacement on the order of 10,000 ft. Samples collected from traverses across the Washita Valley fault have been analyzed. The traverses cross the fault at different stratigraphic levels from Proterozoic igneous basement, through the Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, Ordovician Simpson and Viola Groups, to the Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group. Several types of fracture systems are documented that reflect mechanical stratigraphy, burial depth during deformation, and episodic movement on the fault. The fractures in the study area include open fracture systems, calcite-filled fractures, tension gashes, and fractures related to pressure solution. The samples were cut parallel to the strike of the fault, vertical-normal to the fault, and horizontal-normal to the fault. These cuts allow examination of the total fracture strain, characterization of the fractures, and statistical analysis of fracture density. From these data, fracture density is shown to decrease exponentially moving away from the primary fault zone. The increased understanding of fracture patterns and characteristics will assist future exploration and development programs involving carbonate reservoirs associated with strike-slip systems.

  12. Estimated flood peak discharges on Twin, Brock, and Lightning creeks, Southwest Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The flash flood in southwestern Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, May 8, 1993, was the result of an intense 3-hour rainfall on saturated ground or impervious surfaces. The total precipitation of 5.28 inches was close to the 3-hour, 100-year frequency and produced extensive flooding. The most serious flooding was on Twin, Brock, and Lightning Creeks. Four people died in this flood. Over 1,900 structures were damaged along the 3 creeks. There were about $3 million in damages to Oklahoma City public facilities, the majority of which were in the three basins. A study was conducted to determine the magnitude of the May 8, 1993, flood peak discharge in these three creeks in southwestern Oklahoma City and compare these peaks with published flood estimates. Flood peak-discharge estimates for these creeks were determined at 11 study sites using a step-backwater analysis to match the flood water-surface profiles defined by high-water marks. The unit discharges during peak runoff ranged from 881 cubic feet per second per square mile for Lightning Creek at SW 44th Street to 3,570 cubic feet per second per square mile for Brock Creek at SW 59th Street. The ratios of the 1993 flood peak discharges to the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood peak discharges ranged from 1.25 to 3.29. The water-surface elevations ranged from 0.2 foot to 5.9 feet above the Federal Emergency Management Agency 500-year flood water-surface elevations. The very large flood peaks in these 3 small urban basins were the result of very intense rainfall in a short period of time, close to 100 percent runoff due to ground surfaces being essentially impervious, and the city streets acting as efficient conveyances to the main channels. The unit discharges compare in magnitude to other extraordinary Oklahoma urban floods.

  13. δ13CSC values of the loess-paleosol sequence in Dali area, Shaanxi Province, China, and paleoenvironmental implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The carbon isotopic ratios of carbonate in the two profiles of the Dali area were analyzed and some new understandings on the influencing factors of the δ13CSC value of the loess-paleosol sequence and its paleoenvironmental implications were discussed preliminarily in this report. The 13CSC value of the Dali loess-paleosol sequence is synchronizing with the variance of magnetic susceptibility basically and the negative peaks of the δ13CSC curves are corresponding to the different developmental periods of the paleosol. It is believed that the intervention of the CO2 produced by plants will cause the decrease of the δ13CSC value, the amplitude of which may be relevant to the paleovegetation density and the ancient humidity. The relative biomass of C4 plants in the vegetation will affect the sublevel change of the δ13CSC. Low δ13CSC value by and large indicates the environmental conditions of the relatively abundant vegetation and humid climate. During the last 250000 years, the period with the sparsest vegetation and the most arid climate is the phase of the loess in L2 depositing and the period with the most abundant vegetation and the most humid climate is the last interglacial period. The δ13CSC curves of Dali also show that the High Temperature and Large Precipitation Event of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during 40-30 kaBP had affected the Central Shaanxi Plain with relatively humid climate, and had apparent influence on the local vegetation and humidity.

  14. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  15. Surface and subsurface structural analysis of a part of Washita Valley fault zone, southern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palladino, D.L.

    1984-04-01

    The Washita Valley fault zone is one of the major northwest-trending structures in southern Oklahoma. This fault system is believed to have originated as a series of normal faults during the formation of the southern Oklahoma aulacogen by late Precambrian or early Cambrian time and to have been reactivated during the Arbuckle orogeny in the Pennsylvanian. Descriptions of movement along the Washita Valley fault zone during Pennsylvanian deformation include numerous interpretations, the most common being left-lateral strike slip with 30-40 mi (50-65 km) of displacement. Structures in the area, however, suggest an alternate model. A detailed field study of small folds, faults, fracture arrays, slickensides, and drainage patterns was conducted along the southeastern half of the Washita Valley fault zone. An attempt has been made to relate these small-scale features to the major structures in the area to determine the orientation of the major compressive stress during deformation and the relative amounts of strike-slip vs. reverse dip-slip movement along the fault zone. Exploration for oil and gas along the Washita Valley fault zone has identified several overturned folds and repeated sections. Field observations in the study area include small drag folds and thrust faults parallel to the trend of the Washita Valley fault zone. The two major anticlines in the area, the Arbuckle and the Tishomingo, are both nearly parallel to the trend of the fault zone. These data suggest a model of deformation involving a large component of reverse dip-slip faulting with major duplication of strata.

  16. Techniques for estimating flood peak discharges for unregulated streams and streams regulated by small floodwater retarding structures in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, R.L.; Bergman, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Statewide regression relations for Oklahoma were determined for estimating peak discharge of floods for selected recurrence intervals from 2 to 500 years. The independent variables required for estimating flood discharge for rural streams are contributing drainage area and mean annual precipitation. Main-channel slope, a variable used in previous reports, was found to contribute very little to the accuracy of the relations and was not used. The regression equations are applicable for watersheds with drainage areas less than 2,500 square miles that are not significantly affected by regulation from manmade works. These relations are presented in graphical form for easy application. Limitations on the use of the regression relations and the reliability of regression estimates for rural unregulated streams are discussed. Basin and climatic characteristics, log-Pearson Type III statistics and the flood-frequency relations for 226 gaging stations in Oklahoma and adjacent states are presented. Regression relations are investigated for estimating flood magnitude and frequency for watersheds affected by regulation from small FRS (floodwater retarding structures) built by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service in their watershed protection and flood prevention program. Gaging-station data from nine FRS regulated sites in Oklahoma and one FRS regulated site in Kansas are used. For sites regulated by FRS, an adjustment of the statewide rural regression relations can be used to estimate flood magnitude and frequency. The statewide regression equations are used by substituting the drainage area below the FRS, or drainage area that represents the percent of the basin unregulated, in the contributing drainage area parameter to obtain flood-frequency estimates. Flood-frequency curves and flow-duration curves are presented for five gaged sites to illustrate the effects of FRS regulation on peak discharge.

  17. Exploitation and Optimization of Reservoir Performance in Hunton Formation, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2007-06-30

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has been the subject of attention for the last ten years. The new interest started with the drilling of the West Carney field in 1995 in Lincoln County. Subsequently, many other operators have expanded the search for oil and gas in Hunton formation in other parts of Oklahoma. These fields exhibit many unique production characteristics, including: (1) decreasing water-oil or water-gas ratio over time; (2) decreasing gas-oil ratio followed by an increase; (3) poor prediction capability of the reserves based on the log data; and (4) low geological connectivity but high hydrodynamic connectivity. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the principal mechanisms affecting the production, and propose methods by which we can optimize the production from fields with similar characteristics.

  18. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2002-03-31

    The West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma is one of few newly discovered oil fields in Oklahoma. Although profitable, the field exhibits several unusual characteristics. These include decreasing water-oil ratios, decreasing gas-oil ratios, decreasing bottomhole pressures during shut-ins in some wells, and transient behavior for water production in many wells. This report explains the unusual characteristics of West Carney Field based on detailed geological and engineering analyses. We propose a geological history that explains the presence of mobile water and oil in the reservoir. The combination of matrix and fractures in the reservoir explains the reservoir's flow behavior. We confirm our hypothesis by matching observed performance with a simulated model and develop procedures for correlating core data to log data so that the analysis can be extended to other, similar fields where the core coverage may be limited.

  19. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 62,000 LGBT workers in Oklahoma are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Seven cities in Oklahoma prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation in public sector employment, but do not include gender identity or private sector employment. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, 29 more complaints would be filed in Oklahoma each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would ...

  20. Digital geologic map of Ardmore-Sherman quadrangles, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederstrand, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This data set consists of digital data and accompanying documentation of the surficial geology of the 1:250,000-scale Ardmore and Sherman quadrangles, Oklahoma. The original data are from the Geologic Map, sheet 1 of 4, included in the Oklahoma Geological Survey publication, Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Ardmore and Sherman quadrangles, southern Oklahoma, Hydrologic Atlas 3, Hart, 1974. The geology was compiled by D.L. Hart and R.O. Fay, 1970.

  1. High-flow frequencies for selected streams in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    Streamflow records are analyzed statistically to determine high-flow characteristics of selected streams in Oklahoma. Tables are included which show the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year high-flow frequencies for durations of 1, 3, 7, 30, 90, and 365 days. The log-Pearson Type III frequency distribution was used in the computations. Streamflow records used include data extending from 1903 to 1974.

  2. Pennsylvanian foreland deformation of Wichita uplift, southwest Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, D.

    1986-05-01

    Pennsylvanian foreland deformation associated with the Ouachita orogene reactivated a west-northwest-east-southeast Cambrian basement trend, the southern Oklahoma aulacogen, to form the Wichita uplift, southwest Oklahoma. The 30-km-wide subsurface Frontal fault zone separates the uplift from the Anadarko basin to the north. Horizontal shortening across this fault zone is estimated at 7-15 km (20-40%), vertical displacement totals 9-10 km from the uplift to the basin. Folds are mapped on an interformational scale within the Frontal fault zone, and on an intraformational scale (Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group) in the Slick Hills, southwest Oklahoma. Additional shortening occurred along southwest dipping mountain flank thrusts and on bedding plane thrusts, respectively. Hanging wall blocks of major faults contain the shallow dipping limb and anticlinal hinge zone of the interformational scale folds. Oil and gas production is generally restricted to these anticlinal crests within Paleozoic rocks. Deep wells (> 6000 m) that have penetrated footwall imbricates of the mountain flank thrusts have drilled through steep-overturned beds and tight recumbent folds before passing through faults into a normal stratigraphic sequence. Basement thrust loading of the southern margin of the Anadarko basin controlled the trend (west-northwest-east-southeast) of the axis of maximum deposition within the basin during the Pennsylvanian.

  3. Developing an Operational System for Daily 800-m Resolution Soil Moisture Estimates across Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, T. E.; Patton, J. C.; Dong, J.; Patrignani, A.; Haffner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Researchers often need meso-scale, high resolution soil moisture estimates for research and decision support in the areas of hydrology, agriculture, and ecology. However, current soil moisture measurement techniques are commonly inadequate in terms of spatial resolution (satellites), spatial support or density (in situ networks), or temporal resolution (rovers). The development of operational systems for high resolution soil moisture estimation will create opportunities for improved drought monitoring, flood forecasting, agricultural management, and wildfire preparedness, as well as for calibration and validation of soil moisture satellites. We are working to develop such an estimation system by merging multiple information sources including: a statewide, mesoscale network (the Oklahoma Mesonet), a cosmic-ray neutron rover, high resolution land cover data, and a proven soil water balance model. This presentation will describe our vision and motivations, our methods, and our progress to date.

  4. Forest statistics for East Oklahoma counties, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains the statistical tables and figures derived from data obtained during a recent inventory of east Oklahoma. The multiresource inventory included 18 counties and two survey regions. Data on forest acreage and timber volume involved a three-step procedure. First, estimate of forest acreage were made for each county using aerial photographs. Classification of forest-nonforest points was accomplished, each representing approximately 230 acres. Second, these estimates were adjusted based on ground observations at 2,762 sample locations. Finally, field measurements were made at forest locations on the intersections of grid lines spaced 3 miles apart. At each forest location, per-acre estimates were obtained from trees measured on ten 37.5 basal area factor prism points

  5. Annual yield and selected hydrologic data for the Arkansas River Basin Compact, Arkansas-Oklahoma, 1996 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J. Elton

    1997-01-01

    The computed annual yield and deficiency of the subbasins as defined in the Arkansas River Basin Compact, Arkansas-Oklahoma, are given in tables for the 1996 water year. Actual runoff from the subbasins and depletion caused by major reservoirs in the compact area also are given in tabular form. Computed monthly mean discharges are shown for the 21 streamflow stations in the Arkansas River Basin. Water-quality data are shown for 16 water-quality stations sampled in the Arkansas River Basin.

  6. Annual yield and selected hydrologic data for the Arkansas River Basin Compact, Arkansas-Oklahoma, 1994 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The computed annual yield and deficiency of the subbasins as defined in the Arkansas River Basin Compact, Arkansas-Oklahoma, are given in tables for the 1994 water year. Actual runoff from the subbasins and depletion caused by major reservoirs in the compact area also are given in tabular form. Monthly maximum, minimum, and mean discharges are shown for the 14 streamflow stations used in computing annual yield. Water-quality data are shown for 11 water-quality stations sampled in the Arkansas River Basin.

  7. Annual yield and selected hydrologic data for the Arkansas River Basin Compact Arkansas-Oklahoma 1993 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.E.; Barks, C. Shane

    1994-01-01

    The computed annual yield and deficiency of the subbasins as defined in the Arkansas River Basin Compact, Arkansas-Oklahoma, are given in tables for the 1993 water year. Actual runoff from the subbasins and depletion caused by major reservoirs in the compact area also are given in tabular form. Monthly maximum, minimum, and mean discharges are shown for the 14 streamflow stations used in computing annual yield. Water-quality data are shown for 12 water-quality stations sampled in the Arkansas River Basin.

  8. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    distributions of juvenile cod. The transport of particles showed considerable intra- and interannual variability, but also some general patterns of retention within and dispersion todifferentmanagement areas.Good spatial overlapof particle end positions, representing potential juvenile settlement areas...

  9. Employment Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People in Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Herman, Jody L.; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes evidence of employment discrimination against LGBT people in Oklahoma. We find that LGBT people in Oklahoma face discrimination in the workplace, including lower wages. Evidence also shows that a sexual orientation and gender identity non-discrimination law may have a positive impact on businesses in the state, and will not overwhelm state enforcement agencies or courts.

  10. 75 FR 65524 - United Auto Workers Local 1999, Oklahoma City, OK; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    .... The Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3939... production at the General Motors sport utility vehicle (SUV), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma plant, as alleged in..., the workers rely solely on the subject firm's relationship with the General Motors SUV plant...

  11. Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers as Agents of Change in Oklahoma and the Adoption of Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickeson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that precision agricultural education (PAE) in Oklahoma affects environmental quality, water conservation, and crop yields. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the nature and perceived effectiveness of PAE in Oklahoma secondary agricultural education classes. The study was framed by the diffusion of…

  12. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Oklahoma. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This analysis examines the demographics of the special needs population in public and private schools in Oklahoma and estimates the impact on school enrollments providing tax credit funded scholarship grants for special needs students. The author and his colleagues develop a model that shows how the expenditures of Oklahoma's school districts vary…

  13. 76 FR 18927 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... effective July 1, 2009. 3. F019 Exemption for 73 FR 31756-31769 Oklahoma Statutes Wastewater Treatment June... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision... applied to the EPA for Final authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under...

  14. Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil. Quarterly report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

    1991-03-30

    Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

  15. In situ Colonization of Marine Biofilms on UNS S32760 Duplex Stainless Steel Coupons in Areas with Different Water Qualities:Implications for Corrosion Potential Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciana VR de Messano; Barbara LIgnacio; Maria HCB Neves; Ricardo Coutinho

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of biofilms, stainless steels (SS) exhibits an increase in corrosion potential, called ennoblement. In the present study, the corrosion potential (Ecor ) behavior of the duplex SS UNS S32760 was recorded simultaneously with the in situ marine biofilm formation in two areas at Arraial do Cabo, Southeastern Brazil. The biofilm at Forno Harbor (an anthropogenically disturbed area) was characterized by higher relative abundances of Bacteria at day 2, followed by diatoms (especially Navicula sp.) on day 10 and dinoflagellates on day 18, whereas no clear trend was recorded at Cabo Frio Island (an undisturbed area). The ennoblement of Ecor values was site-dependent. In a complementary laboratory assay, biofilms were removed and the Ecor values registered in sterile conditions for the subsequent 10 days and corroborated in situ results. Understanding biofilms and SS interactions has important implications for materials science and engineering decisions as well as helping to fill in important gaps in this knowledge.

  16. In situ colonization of marine biofilms on UNS S32760 duplex stainless steel coupons in areas with different water qualities: Implications for corrosion potential behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messano, Luciana V. R. de; Ignacio, Barbara L.; Neves, Maria H. C. B.; Coutinho, Ricardo

    2014-09-01

    In the presence of biofilms, stainless steels (SS) exhibits an increase in corrosion potential, called ennoblement. In the present study, the corrosion potential ( E corr) behavior of the duplex SS UNS S32760 was recorded simultaneously with the in situ marine biofilm formation in two areas at Arraial do Cabo, Southeastern Brazil. The biofilm at Forno Harbor (an anthropogenically disturbed area) was characterized by higher relative abundances of Bacteria at day 2, followed by diatoms (especially Navicula sp.) on day 10 and dinoflagellates on day 18, whereas no clear trend was recorded at Cabo Frio Island (an undisturbed area). The ennoblement of E corr values was site-dependent. In a complementary laboratory assay, biofilms were removed and the E corr values registered in sterile conditions for the subsequent 10 days and corroborated in situ results. Understanding biofilms and SS interactions has important implications for materials science and engineering decisions as well as helping to fill in important gaps in this knowledge.

  17. The Meers Fault in Southern Oklahoma: Holocene Movements on a Fault with Pennsylvanian and Cambrian Linages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G. R.; Holland, A. A.; Luza, K.; Oldow, J. S.; Crain, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Meers fault and subparallel fault strands in southern Oklahoma is the southernmost element of the complex and massive (>10 km of throw) frontal fault zone that forms the boundary between the Anadarko basin, which is the deepest intra-continental basin in the United States, and the uplifted Cambrian igneous rocks of the Wichita Mountains. The Wichita uplift is evidence of extraordinary Pennsylvanian intra-plate deformation along the trend of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, which is a classic example of a failed and massively inverted rift. The Meers Fault is the best-documented Holocene fault scarp east of Colorado and probably represents reactivation of a Pennsylvanian oblique thrust that in turn is likely to be an inverted Cambrian normal fault. The magnitude of these structures is shown on images from 3-D industry seismic reflection data ~25 km northwest of the northwestern mapped extent of the Meers fault that indicate the Pennsylvanian structure, or a northern strand of it, has a reverse throw of ~6km at depth. The fault displays a conspicuous and continuous scarp that is at least 25 km long and is evident in air photos and 1:100,000 scale geologic mapping, but this feature is not well mapped in detail beyond the area of trenching studies conducted in the 1980's. In the Holocene, 3-5 m of vertical surface displacement has been documented and left-lateral strike slip displacement on the fault is 2-3 times greater than the vertical displacement. During this movement, Quaternary soils along the fault were folded and ruptured, and the scarp has dammed small gullies where fine-grained alluvium has collected and has been used in the dating efforts. The most recent movement occurred (1100-1300 y ago) with a variety of earlier events having been proposed. As such, this fault represents one of the highest potential seismic hazards in the central/eastern United States.

  18. Horizontal stresses from well-bore breakouts and lithologies associated with their formation, Oklahoma and Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    Orientations of crustal stresses are inferred from stress-induced well-bore breakouts in three areas in the south-central United States: the eastern part of the Anadarko basin in central Oklahoma, the Marietta basin in south-central Oklahoma, and the Bravo dome area of the central Texas Panhandle. Inferred directions of maximum horizontal principal stress (SHmax) are ENE for the eastern Anadarko basin, and NE for the Marietta basin and the Bravo dome area. For the Bravo dome area, the magnitudes of the three principal stresses (S1, S2, S3) are known from existing hydraulic-fracturing (hydrofrac) measurements, and a normal-faulting stress regime (SV > SHmax > SHmin) is implied. For the eastern Anadarko basin and the Marietta basin, the magnitudes of the principal stresses are not known. Because Quaternary left-lateral oblique slip on the Meers fault in south-central Oklahoma suggests strike-slip (SHmax > Sv > SHmin) and reverse faulting (SHmax > SHmin > SV), the study region is inferred to be a possible transition zone between areas of extensional and compressional stresses. Breakout data from the eastern Anadarko basin yield a single consistent SHmax orientation. Data from the Marietta basin and the Bravo dome area have bimodal-orthogonal distributions consisting of breakouts and orthogonal sets of well-bore enlargement orientations. Orthogonal trends in the data are probably related to drilling-induced hydraulic fracturing of the well bore, or to preexisting natural fractures or joint sets intersecting the well bore. On the dipmeter log, breakouts and fracture enlargements have elliptical cross sections of similar size and shape. Orthogonally oriented well-bore enlargements are differentiated by comparing their long-axis orientations with directions of known or inferred horizontal stress. Dispersion, or data scatter, among enlargement orientations (bimodal data sets) increases the standard deviations for many well data sets from the Marietta basin and the Bravo

  19. Subsurface-seismic technique finds gas in Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S.L. (Double Eagle Resources, Tulsa, OK (US)); Mulvany, P.S. (Univ. of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO (US))

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on an integrated subsurface seismic exploration technique developed as a means to optimize the search for new, gas-productive Hunton structural traps in the Anadarko basin, specifically in the S.W. Canton and Hucmac fields of eastern Dewey County, Oklahoma. The authors, who were employed by Ladd Petroleum Corporation during the development of this Hunton play, found that Hunton structures were identifiable on structure-contour maps of properly selected shallow stratigraphic horizons and on isochron maps developed from select seismic profiles. By combining these two types of mapping, structural misinterpretations, which can occur if subsurface or seismic methods are used alone, were minimized.

  20. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates, Oklahoma 2005–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Mowls, Dana S.; McCaffree, D. Robert; Beebe, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and women in the United States. With cigarette smoking causing the majority of cases, patterns in lung cancer are often monitored to understand the impact of anti-tobacco efforts. The purpose of this research was to investigate trends in lung cancer incidence rates for the period 2005–2010 in Oklahoma. Methods Data on Oklahoma’s incident cases of lung cancer (2005–2010) were obtained from the Centers for Disease Cont...

  1. Effusion rate, length, and area relationships for some lava flows on Hawaii and Mount Etna with planetary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D.; Baloga, S.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the radiative cooling of thermally well mixed lava flows is presented and the relationship between effusion rate and length and area is analyzed. If radiative cooling is the prime mode of heat loss for a lava flow, one should expect to see a stronger correlation between the effusion rate and the plan area of the flow, than between effusion rate and just flow length. Different flows on a single volcano with differing initial temperatures, volatile content, and gross compositions should yield different areas for a given effusion rate. Likewise, a range of slopes for the relationship between effusion rate and flow area should result from comparisons between different volcanoes. As a test of these ideas, available data on the effusion rates, lengths, and areas of Hawaiian and Etnean flow is studied. It was found that: (1) the effusion rate/area correlation was statistically more significant than the correlation between effusion rate and length for four out of the five eruption episodes which met the necessary criteria of more than three individual flows with area, length, and effusion rate independently measured; (2) that there exists a minimum length and area for a given effusion rate, reflecting competition between overall characteristic proportionality between effusion rate and flow length, width, and area.

  2. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  3. Land substitution effects of biofuel side products and implications on the land area requirement for EU 2020 biofuel targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Enver Doruk; Haerdtlein, Marlies; Eltrop, Ludger [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy, Hessbruehlstr. 49a, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The provision of biofuels today is based on energy crops rather than residual biomass, which results in the requirement of agricultural land area. The side products may serve as animal feed and thus prevent cultivation of other feedstock and the use of corresponding land area. These effects of biofuel provision have to be taken into account for a comprising assessment of land area requirement for biofuel provision. Between 18.5 and 21.1 Mio. hectares (ha) of land area is needed to meet the EU 2020 biofuel target depending on the biofuel portfolio when substitution effects are neglected. The utilization of the bioethanol side products distiller's dried grain and solubles (DDGS) and pressed beet slices may save up to 0.7 Mio. ha of maize cultivation area in the EU. The substitution effect due to the utilization of biodiesel side products (oil cakes of rape, palm and soy) as animal feed may account for up to 7.1 Mio. ha of soy cultivation area in Brazil. The results show that the substitution of land area due to use of side products might ease the pressures on land area requirement considerably and should therefore not be neglected in assessing the impacts of biofuel provision worldwide. (author)

  4. Land substitution effects of biofuel side products and implications on the land area requirement for EU 2020 biofuel targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Enver Doruk [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy, Hessbruehlstr. 49a, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: do@ier.uni-stuttgart.de; Haerdtlein, Marlies; Eltrop, Ludger [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy, Hessbruehlstr. 49a, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The provision of biofuels today is based on energy crops rather than residual biomass, which results in the requirement of agricultural land area. The side products may serve as animal feed and thus prevent cultivation of other feedstock and the use of corresponding land area. These effects of biofuel provision have to be taken into account for a comprising assessment of land area requirement for biofuel provision. Between 18.5 and 21.1 Mio. hectares (ha) of land area is needed to meet the EU 2020 biofuel target depending on the biofuel portfolio when substitution effects are neglected. The utilization of the bioethanol side products distiller's dried grain and solubles (DDGS) and pressed beet slices may save up to 0.7 Mio. ha of maize cultivation area in the EU. The substitution effect due to the utilization of biodiesel side products (oil cakes of rape, palm and soy) as animal feed may account for up to 7.1 Mio. ha of soy cultivation area in Brazil. The results show that the substitution of land area due to use of side products might ease the pressures on land area requirement considerably and should therefore not be neglected in assessing the impacts of biofuel provision worldwide.

  5. Land substitution effects of biofuel side products and implications on the land area requirement for EU 2020 biofuel targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provision of biofuels today is based on energy crops rather than residual biomass, which results in the requirement of agricultural land area. The side products may serve as animal feed and thus prevent cultivation of other feedstock and the use of corresponding land area. These effects of biofuel provision have to be taken into account for a comprising assessment of land area requirement for biofuel provision. Between 18.5 and 21.1 Mio. hectares (ha) of land area is needed to meet the EU 2020 biofuel target depending on the biofuel portfolio when substitution effects are neglected. The utilization of the bioethanol side products distiller's dried grain and solubles (DDGS) and pressed beet slices may save up to 0.7 Mio. ha of maize cultivation area in the EU. The substitution effect due to the utilization of biodiesel side products (oil cakes of rape, palm and soy) as animal feed may account for up to 7.1 Mio. ha of soy cultivation area in Brazil. The results show that the substitution of land area due to use of side products might ease the pressures on land area requirement considerably and should therefore not be neglected in assessing the impacts of biofuel provision worldwide.

  6. Submarine-fan sedimentation, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiola, R.J.; Shanmugam, G.

    1984-09-01

    More than 10,000 m (32,808 ft) of interbedded sandstones and shales comprise the Upper Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian flysch succession (Stanley, Jackfork, Johns Valley, Atoka) in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Deposited primarily by turbidity current and hemipelagic processes in bathyal and abyssal water depths, these strata formed major submarine-fan complexes that prograded in a westward direction along the axis of an elongate remnant ocean basin that was associated with the collision and suturing of the North American and African-South American plates. A longitudinal fan system is visualized as the depositional framework for these strata, which were deposited in a setting analogous to the modern Bengal fan of the Indian Ocean. Facies analysis of the Jackfork formation indicates that inner fan deposits are present in the vicinity of Little Rock, Arkansas; middle fan channel and interchannel deposits occur at DeGray Dam and Friendship, Arkansas; and outer fan depositional-lobe deposits are present in southeastern Oklahoma. Boulder-bearing units (olistostromes), many with exotic clasts, were shed laterally into the Ouachita basin. They occur throughout the flysch succession and in all fan environments (i.e., inner, middle, and outer). This relationship may serve as a useful criterion for recognizing analogous longitudinal fan systems in the rock record.

  7. Sand Dredging and River Morphology Change along Parts of New Calabar River in Akpor Area of Rivers State, Nigeria and its Implications for Biological Resource Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mmom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was instituted to assess the impact of sand dredging along parts of New Calabar River channel morphology and the implication for biological resources conservation.The study was conducted within a period of two years (2008 and 2009 in two major sand dredging sites (Ogbogoro and Rumuorlumeni areas along the new Calabar River in Rivers State, Nigeria. The channel measurement was ascertained using hydrographic survey report carried out by dredge operators in the areas. The influence of river channel incision on river hydraulics was evaluated by comparing stream velocity of the different years. The volume of sand in the two areas were ascertained from sand search report, sediment lost from the channel were also obtained from the dredge time reports of dredge operators. The study reveals thatsignificant down-cutting in the riverbed along these parts of the New Calabar River. Significant increase in stream velocity was observed with increase the sediment transport capacityand accelerated channel incision; in fact there was significant change in the channel geometry. Consequently, there was an observed decline in the productivity of aquatic resources in the area, which our survey affirms as being a result of intense sand dredging in the area. The study therefore concludes that intense and uncontrolled sand dredging in the study area would mean detrimental impact on river management systems as well as future of the aquatic biodiversity and biological resources in the area. Thus, there is need for stringent restrictions on in-channel sand mining to save the biophysical and socio-economic environment of the affected areas.

  8. A checklist of the reptiles and amphibians found in protected areas along the South African Wild Coast, with notes on conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed six protected areas along the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, to determine general herpetofaunal diversity as well as the representation of species of special conservation concern. Visual encounter survey methods and standard Y-shape trap arrays were used to conduct surveys from 2011 to 2013. A total of 59 species (22 amphibians and 37 reptiles were recorded. A number of previously unknown populations of threatened species and one potential novel species were discovered in these protected areas, and the known ranges of several other species were extended. A total of 243 quarter-degree grid-cell unit records were documented, of which 90 (23% amphibians and 50% reptiles represented the first records for the area. Amphibian and reptile diversity increased along the coast and a number of species of conservation concern were well represented in current protected areas. Our study provides a comprehensive amphibian and reptile checklist for an under-sampled region and highlights the importance of baseline data for improving conservation management.Conservation implications: Small protected areas play an important role in conserving a number of threatened herpetofaunal species along the Wild Coast. The region is currently under significant and increasing pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental degradation, which affects biodiversity and subsequently the local inhabitants. The information presented here represents an important baseline for future conservation management.

  9. Avifaunal diversity in the peripheral areas of the Maduruoya National Park in Sri Lanka: With conservation and management implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh E. Gabadage; W. Madhava S. Botejue; Thilina D. Surasinghe; Mohomed M. Bahir; Majintha B. Madawala; Buddhi Dayananda; Vimukthi U. Weeratunga; D.M.S. Sameera Karunarathna

    2015-01-01

    A survey was randomly conducted in the marginal areas of Maduruoya National Park, Sri Lanka for a period of > 7 years. These study sites are located within the dry zone and the intermediate zone. The main vegetation type of the area is dry mixed evergreen forest. We recorded 196 bird species belonging to 66 families, and they included 161 breeding residents, 25 purely migrants, nine both resident and migrants, one vagrant, 14 nationally threatened, three globally threatened, and 10 endemic sp...

  10. Local Perceptions and Implications for Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) Conservation around Protected Areas in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Michalski; Paula C. Conceição; oyce A. Amador; Juliana Laufer; Darren Norris

    2012-01-01

    The local success of protected areas for effective biodiversity conservation depends largely on ensuring the integration of local communities and the persistence of wildlife species and ecological processes. We investigated the perceptions of riverine residents living around a sustainable-use protected area towards giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis). Between March and December 2011, we conducted 41 interviews with riverine residents in the region of the National Forest of Amapá (AP, Brazil...

  11. Volcanic risk perception of young people in the urban areas of Vesuvius: Comparisons with other volcanic areas and implications for emergency management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Mayberry, G. C.

    2008-05-01

    More than 600 000 people are exposed to volcanic risk in the urban areas near the volcano, Vesuvius, and may need to be evacuated if there is renewed volcanic activity. The success of a future evacuation will strongly depend on the level of risk perception and preparedness of the at-risk communities during the current period of quiescence. The volcanic risk perception and preparedness of young people is of particular importance because hazard education programs in schools have been shown to increase the clarity of risk perception and students often share their knowledge with their parents. In order to evaluate young people's risk perception and preparedness for a volcanic crisis, a multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to 400 high-school students in three municipalities located close to the volcano. The overall results suggest that despite a 60-year period of quiescence at Vesuvius, the interviewed students have an accurate perception of the level of volcanic risk. On the other hand, the respondents demonstrate a clear lack of understanding of volcanic processes and their related hazards. Also, the interviewed students show high levels of fear, poor perceived ability to protect themselves from the effects of a future eruption, and insufficient knowledge of the National Emergency Plan for Vesuvian Area (NEPVA). The latter result suggests that in comparison with volcanic crises in other regions, during a future eruption of Vesuvius, there may not be enough time to educate the large number of people living near the volcano about how to appropriately respond. The inadequate risk education and preparedness of respondents implies that a strong effort is needed to improve communication strategies in order to facilitate successful evacuations. Therefore, it is important to take advantage of the present period of quiescence at Vesuvius to improve the accuracy of risk perception of youth in local communities.

  12. Volcanic risk perception of young people in the urban areas of Vesuvius: Comparisons with other volcanic areas and implications for emergency management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Mayberry, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    More than 600 000 people are exposed to volcanic risk in the urban areas near the volcano, Vesuvius, and may need to be evacuated if there is renewed volcanic activity. The success of a future evacuation will strongly depend on the level of risk perception and preparedness of the at-risk communities during the current period of quiescence. The volcanic risk perception and preparedness of young people is of particular importance because hazard education programs in schools have been shown to increase the clarity of risk perception and students often share their knowledge with their parents. In order to evaluate young people's risk perception and preparedness for a volcanic crisis, a multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to 400 high-school students in three municipalities located close to the volcano. The overall results suggest that despite a 60-year period of quiescence at Vesuvius, the interviewed students have an accurate perception of the level of volcanic risk. On the other hand, the respondents demonstrate a clear lack of understanding of volcanic processes and their related hazards. Also, the interviewed students show high levels of fear, poor perceived ability to protect themselves from the effects of a future eruption, and insufficient knowledge of the National Emergency Plan for Vesuvian Area (NEPVA). The latter result suggests that in comparison with volcanic crises in other regions, during a future eruption of Vesuvius, there may not be enough time to educate the large number of people living near the volcano about how to appropriately respond. The inadequate risk education and preparedness of respondents implies that a strong effort is needed to improve communication strategies in order to facilitate successful evacuations. Therefore, it is important to take advantage of the present period of quiescence at Vesuvius to improve the accuracy of risk perception of youth in local communities. ?? 2008.

  13. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ardmore NTMS Quadrangle, Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Ardmore Quadrangle, Oklahoma are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 745 groundwater samples and 782 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising areas for potential uranium mineralization occur in the western half of the quadrangle. Geologic units in this area include the Oscar Group of Pennsylvanian age, the Hennessey and El Reno Groups, Garber Sandstone, and Wellington Formations of Permian Age. Several high values of uranium occur in groundwater near known asphaltite deposits in the folded Paleozoic rocks of the Arbuckle Mountains. Stream sediment data indicate that high values of uranium are associated with the folded and faulted Paleozoic rocks in the Arbuckle Mountains, the Pennsylvanian-Permian rocks in the western third of the quadrangle, and the Lower Cretaceous rocks in the southeastern part of the quadrangle. Most of the high-uranium values occurring in these rocks appear to be associated with heavy and resistate minerals

  14. Ecology and Taxonomy of Water Canyon, Canadian County, Oklahoma, Master's Thesis, University of Oklahoma 1961 [Revised 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance E. Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous canyons have been cut into the Rush Springs Sandstone of Permian age in West Central Oklahoma and subsequently refilled. Some of these canyons have been partly exposed by erosion of the sediment fill. Fossils collected indicate the canyon fill is sub-Pleistocene to geologically recent. The microclimate of these canyons is more mesic compared to the dryer prairie uplands. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum persists there, far west of its other locations in very eastern Oklahoma. Beginning in 1932 several of these sediment-filled canyons began a process of rapid erosion, exposing the rock walls of the canyons. This study is a comparison of Water Canyon and two of its branches: Water Branch Canyon, a stable canyon wooded with mature vegetation including sugar maple and Activity Branch Canyon, a newly excavated canyon branch that began eroding after excessive rainfall in 1932. This study was completed in 1960. Six transects are used to show the distribution of the 233 plant species found in the Water Canyon complex. Herbaceous species generally were unique to each canyon type.

  15. The subsurface cross section resistivity using magnetotelluric method in Pelabuhan Ratu area, West Java, implication for geological hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2016-02-01

    Pelabuhan Ratu area is located on the south coast of West Java. Pelabuhan Ratu area's rapid development and population growth were partly stimulated by the Indonesian Government Regulation No. 66 the year 1998 that made Pelabuhan Ratu the capital city of the district of Sukabumi. Because of this fact, it is very important to create a geological hazard mitigation plan for the area. Pelabuhan Ratu were passed by two major faults: Cimandiri fault in the western and Citarik fault in the eastern. Cimandiri fault starts from the upstream of Cimandiri River to the southern of Sukabumi and Cianjur city. While Citarik fault starts from the Citarik River until the Salak Mountain. These two faults needs to be observed closely as they are prone to cause earthquake in the area. To mitigate earthquake that is estimated will occur at Cimandiri fault or the Citarik fault, the Research Center for Geotechnology LIPI conducted research using Magnetotelluric (MT) method with artificial Phoenix MT tool to determine the cross-section resistivity of the Pelabuhan Ratu and the surrounding area. Measurements were taken at 40 points along the highway towards Jampang to Pelabuhan Ratu, and to Bandung towards Cibadak with a distance of less than 500 meters between the measuring points. Measurement results using this tool will generate AMT cross-section resistivity to a depth of 1500 meters below the surface. Cross-section resistivity measurement results showed that there was a layer of rock with about 10 Ohm-m to 1000 Ohm-m resistivity. Rocks with resistivity of 10 Ohm-m was interpreted as conductive rocks that were loose or sandstone containing water. If an earthquake to occur in this area, it will lead to a strong movement and liquefaction that will destroy buildings and potentially cause casualties in this area.

  16. Imperata Grassland Mapping in Northern Uplands of Lao PDR: Area, Distribution, Characteristics, and Implications for Slash-and-Burn Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaworn Onpraphai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Slash-and-burn cultivation (SBC is an important food and cash crop production system in mountainous regions of many countries in Southeast Asia. While links between unsustainable SBC and the formation of Imperata grassland (IGL have been well documented, there has been limited research on the issues with the intention of providing appropriate information to communities in Laos aiming at better use of natural resources. This paper reveals the IGL area, distribution, and characteristics in the uplands of northern Laos, and discusses the importance of IGL for upland development based on the synthesis of remotely sensed Landsat-5 TM and GIS data. We have demonstrated the potential use of geoinformation technology as a set of informatics tools that can be applied in other area studies in Laos. Nineteen land uses/land covers of 196,317 hectares in Nambak District in northern Laos were mapped with an overall accuracy of 92.1% and a kappa statistic of 91.3%. IGL achieved >90% mapping accuracy. The current IGL was estimated at about 2.5% (4,878 hectares of the district area and characterized as a “micro-grassland,” with most patch sizes being less than half a hectare. About 37% of the district area in the southeastern part was identified as the most Imperata-infested zone. The study suggests that improper SBC intensification into more permanent crop production systems is a major cause of Imperata infestation in the upland areas and that the spread of IGL can be a threat to the productivity and sustainability of traditional SBC systems and already intensified land use systems. In order to utilize land resources more effectively, government intervention is indispensable; and development efforts should initially focus on the most affected areas.

  17. Wage Flexibility or Wage Coordination? Economic Policy Implications of the Wage-led Demand Regime in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbert Stockhammer

    2008-01-01

    Wage shares have fallen substantially in Europe since the early 1980s. To some extent this is due to a macroeconomic policy package that encourages wage flexibility and wage competition. A system of wage coordination in the Euro area would facility a return to a productivity-oriented wage policy by reducing wage competition. In a recent study on the demand effects of changes in functional income distribution Stockhammer, Onaran und Ederer (2007) find that the Euro area is in a wage-led demand...

  18. Hydrogeologic subdivision of the Wolfcamp series and Pennsylvanian system of eastern Texas Panhandle, north-central Texas, and southwestern Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pennsylvanian-Wolfcamp section in the Palo Duro Basin includes brine aquifers that are considered to be the most important ground-water flow paths in the deep-basin system. This report is the fifth in a series providing summary documentation of studies that subdivide the section into hydrogeologic units based on their judged relative capacities for transmitting water. This report extends the hydrogeologic study area to the eastern Texas Panhandle, north-central Texas, and southwestern Oklahoma. It includes 37 counties in Texas and Oklahoma. Underground patterns of rock distribution are delineated from a hydrologic perspective and at a level of detail appropriate for numerical modeling of regional ground-water flow. Hydrogeologic units are defined and characterized so that appropriate porosity and permeability values can be assigned to each unit during construction of the numerical models (not part of this study), and so that modelers can combine units where necessary. In this study, hydrogeologic units have been defined as mappable, physically continuous rock bodies that function in bulk as water-transmitting or water-retarding units relative to adjacent rocks. Interpretations are made primarily from geophysical logs. Hydrologic characteristics are assessed on the basis of properties typically associated with certain lithologies (e.g., sandstones are more pervious than shales) and on the basis of gross variations in effective porosity (particularly in carbonate sequences). 44 refs., 32 figs., 1 tab

  19. Avifaunal diversity in the peripheral areas of the Maduruoya National Park in Sri Lanka: With conservation and management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh E. Gabadage

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey was randomly conducted in the marginal areas of Maduruoya National Park, Sri Lanka for a period of > 7 years. These study sites are located within the dry zone and the intermediate zone. The main vegetation type of the area is dry mixed evergreen forest. We recorded 196 bird species belonging to 66 families, and they included 161 breeding residents, 25 purely migrants, nine both resident and migrants, one vagrant, 14 nationally threatened, three globally threatened, and 10 endemic species. We also report the first-ever records of Chestnut-backed Owlet, Red-faced Malkoha, and Spot-winged Thrush from this dry area. However, these precious habitats and its species are threatened because of irresponsible human activities such as forest fires, land filings, hunting, road kills, encroachments, garbage dumping, agrochemicals, granite-rock blasting, logging, and road constructions. Therefore, we recommend that relevant authorities take immediate conservation action to increase the protection of these marginal areas or buffer zone in the near future.

  20. Size and Fraction of Active Surface Area of Some Jupiter Family Comets: Implications with Respect to their Physical Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Fernández

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the sample of measured nuclear magnitudes of the observed Jupiter Family comets (taken as those with orbital periods P 2 to derive sizes of comet nuclei, fraction of active surface areas, as well as to try to gain insight about their physical lifetimes and end states.

  1. Extent of Low-accumulation 'Wind Glaze' Areas on the East Antarctic Plateau: Implications for Continental Ice Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambos, Theodore A.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Haran, T.; Bohlander, J.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.; Jezek, K.; Long, D.; Urbini, S.; Farness, K.; Neumann, T.; Albert, M.; Winther, J.-G.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent katabatic winds form widely distributed localized areas of near-zero net surface accumulation on the East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) plateau. These areas have been called 'glaze' surfaces due to their polished appearance. They are typically 2-200 square kilometers in area and are found on leeward slopes of ice-sheet undulations and megadunes. Adjacent, leeward high-accumulation regions (isolated dunes) are generally smaller and do not compensate for the local low in surface mass balance (SMB). We use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field-gathered datasets to map the extent of wind glaze in the EAIS above 1500m elevation. Mapping criteria are derived from distinctive surface and subsurface characteristics of glaze areas resulting from many years of intense annual temperature cycling without significant burial. Our results show that 11.2 plus or minus 1.7%, or 950 plus or minus 143 x 10(exp 3) square kilometers, of the EAIS above 1500m is wind glaze. Studies of SMB interpolate values across glaze regions, leading to overestimates of net mass input. Using our derived wind-glaze extent, we estimate this excess in three recent models of Antarctic SMB at 46-82 Gt. The lowest-input model appears to best match the mean in regions of extensive wind glaze.

  2. Paleoecologic Implications of Ichnofossils Associated with Slightly Skeletonized Body Fossils, Middle Cambrian of the Barrandian Area, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Fatka, O.; Szabad, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2012), s. 199-210. ISSN 1042-0940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Middle Cambrian * ichnofossils * slightly skeletonized fauna * Barrandian area Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2012

  3. Stratified and nonstratified areas in the North Sea: Long-term variability and biological and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Sonja; Tett, Paul; Mills, David; van der Molen, Johan

    2015-07-01

    The European Unions' Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to limit anthropogenic influences in the marine environment. But marine ecosystems are characterized by high variability, and it is not trivial to define its natural state. Here, we use the physical environment as a basis for marine classification, as it determines the conditions in which organisms must operate to survive and thrive locally. We present a delineation of the North Sea into five distinct regimes, based on multidecadal stratification characteristics. Results are based on a 51 year simulation of the region using the coupled hydrobiogeochemical model GETM-ERSEM-BFM. The five identified regimes are: permanently stratified, seasonally stratified, intermittently stratified, permanently mixed, and Region Of Freshwater Influence (ROFI). The areas characterized by these regimes show some interannual variation in geographical coverage, but are overall remarkable stable features within the North Sea. Results also show that 29% of North Sea waters fail to classify as one of the defined stratification regimes, due to high interannual variability. Biological characteristics of these regimes differ from diatom-based food webs in areas with prolonged stratification to Phaeocystis-dominated food webs in areas experiencing short-lived or no stratification. The spatial stability of the identified regimes indicates that carefully selected monitoring locations can be used to represent a substantive area of the North Sea.

  4. Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwee, Pamela D.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

  5. A Reconnaissance of selected organic compounds in streams in tribal lands in Central Oklahoma, January-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey worked in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma on two separate reconnaissance projects carried out concurrently. Both projects entailed the use of passive samplers as a sampling methodology to investigate the detection of selected organic compounds at stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes in central Oklahoma during January-February 2009. The focus of the project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was the detection of pesticides and pesticide metabolites using Semipermeable Membrane Devices at five stream sites in jurisdictional areas of several tribes. The project with the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma focused on the detection of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and synthetic organic compounds using Semipermeable Membrane Devices and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers at two stream sites adjacent to the Kickapoo tribal lands. The seven stream sites were located in central Oklahoma on the Cimarron River, Little River, North Canadian River, Deep Fork, and Washita River. Extracts from SPMDs submerged at five stream sites, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were analyzed for 46 pesticides and 6 pesticide metabolites. Dacthal, a pre-emergent herbicide, was detected at all five sites. Pendimethalin, also a pre-emergent, was detected at one site. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and dieldrin were detected at three sites and p,p'-DDE, a metabolite of the insecticide DDT, also was detected at three sites. SPMDs and POCIS were submerged at the upstream edge and downstream edge of the Kickapoo tribal boundaries. Both sites are downstream from the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and multiple municipal wastewater treatment plants. Extracts from the passive samplers were analyzed for 62 pesticides, 10 pesticide metabolites, 3 polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 35

  6. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs. The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007. The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades.

  7. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health. PMID:26917093

  8. Identification of Five Stages of Dike Swarms in the Shanxi-Hebei-Inner Mongolia Border Area and Its Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Ji'an; ZHAI Mingguo; ZHANG L(u)qiao; LI Daming

    2004-01-01

    Dike swarms are generally ascribed to intrusion of mantle-source magma result from extension. Basic dike swarms around the Shanxi-Hebei-Inner Mogolia borders in the northern peripheral area of the North China Craton can be divided into five age groups according to isotopic dating: 1800-1700 Ma, 800-700 Ma, 230 Ma, 140-120 Ma, and 50-40 Ma. Geological, petrological and isotope geochemical features of the five groups is investigated in order to explore the variation of the mantle material composition in the concerned area with time. And the various extensional activities reflected by the five groups of dike swarms are compared with some important tectonic events within the North China Craton as well as around the world during the same period.

  9. THE TOXICITY OF EXTRACTS OF TEPHROSIA VIRGINIANA: (FABACEAE IN OKLAHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical usage of the roots of the legume Tephrosia virginiana as a piscicide by Native Americans has been documented. Due to questions about geographic variation in toxicity, an examination of the toxicity of six Oklahoma populations of the species was conducted. Rootstock extracts of plants in all populations exhibited acute toxicity in a standard laboratory bioassay using larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas. Isolation and identification of the compound or compounds responsible were not undertaken, however, toxicity is generally thought to be due to the presence of rotenone and related compounds. Although considerable variation in LC50 values exists among the six populations, this study produced few statistically significant differences. Correlations between plant toxicity and edaphic factors were not seen.

  10. Oklahoma adopts testing laws for inmates, rape suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-15

    Oklahoma Senate Bill 886 requires inmates to undergo HIV and hepatitis B testing if they expose other people to body fluids. The definition of exposure to body fluids is broad and the Department of Corrections sought a narrower definition that reflects actual transmission risk. The bill requires the Department of Corrections to provide the results to the person who was potentially exposed. If the prison already knows that the inmate is HIV-positive, the testing requirement is waived. Existing law requires officers to be notified before contact if the inmate has HIV or AIDS. Prompted by a case involving a Tulsa County rape victim, a second bill, House Bill 2570, was passed to expedite HIV testing of defendants charged with sex offenses. PMID:11365329

  11. Geothermal research at Oklahoma State University: An integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.D.

    1997-12-31

    Oklahoma State University and the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA) are active in providing technical support to government and industry through technology transfer, technology development, technical assistance, and business development support. Technology transfer includes geothermal heat pump (GHP) system training for installers and architects and engineers, national teleconferences, brochures, and other publications. Technology development encompasses design software development, GLHEPRO, in-situ thermal conductivity testing methods and verification of data reduction techniques, and specifications and standards for GHP systems. Examples of technical assistance projects are a Navy officers quarters and a NASA Visitors Center which required design assistance and supporting information in reducing the life cycle cost to make them viable projects.

  12. Cambrian extensional tectonics and magmatism within the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, D. A.; Gilbert, M. C.

    1990-03-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen is partially constrained by the petrological consequences of a bimodal igneous suite associated with the Cambrian rift. Mineralogical and compositional layers and erosional surfaces are recognized as initially subplanar, subhorizontal markers. The progressive rotation of these horizons can be explained by uniform-sense normal faulting. Magmatism, confined to the aulacogen trend, elevated the thermal gradient producing a crustal strength-anisotropy. This ensured the localization of the extension throughout the Cambrian rifting event. The presence of a substantial volume of mafic igneous rocks within the crust along the aulacogen's trend suggests that crustal attenuation was compensated for by the addition of mantle derived material during extension.

  13. Nutritional Status of Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis from a Tropical Area of Bolivia, and Implications for Zinc Bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarte, Claudia; Alegre, Claudia; Rojas, Ernesto; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Macro and micronutrient deficiencies are a significant problem among people in rural areas in developing countries. Deficiencies may lead to an impaired immune system making the organism vulnerable to infections and diseases. In this paper, the dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, zinc and copper levels in serum, of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are compared with a group of healthy controls and reference values. Results showed no significant differences in most nutrient i...

  14. Exchange Rate Variability, Pressures and Optimum Currency Area Criteria: Implications for the Central and Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Roman

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates the medium-term determinants of the bilateral exchange rate variability and exchange rate pressures for 20 developed countries in the 1990s. The results suggest that optimum currency area criteria explain the dynamics of bilateral exchange rate variability and pressures, to a large extent. Next, we predict exchange rate volatility and pressures for the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). We find that CEECs encounter exchange rate pressures approximately at the...

  15. Reusing copper tailings in concrete: corrosion performance and socioeconomic implications for the Lefke-Xeros area of Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Onuaguluchi, Obinna; EREN, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Copper mining and processing activities at an abandoned mine in the Lefke-Xeros area of Cyprus have created a huge environmental contamination problem in the locality. As an alternative mitigation and management measure, we reported in previous studies that these tailings could be used as a concrete making material. In this paper, results of an experimental investigation of the reinforcement corrosion performance and cost efficiency of 0.57 and 0.50 w/b ratio concrete containing copper tailin...

  16. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    OpenAIRE

    Rigby Janette E; Adam-Bradford Andrew; Leake Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than ful...

  17. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. PMID:26219669

  18. Variation in Chlorophyll Content per Unit Leaf Area in Spring Wheat and Implications for Selection in Segregating Material

    OpenAIRE

    John Hamblin; Katia Stefanova; Tefera Tolera Angessa

    2014-01-01

    Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase availab...

  19. An increased understanding of soil organic carbon stocks and changes in non-temperate areas : National and global implications

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, E; K. Paustian; Easter, M; Sessay, M.; Al Adamat, R.; Batjes, N.H.; Bernoux, Martial; Bhattacharyya, T; Cerri, C. C.,; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Coleman, K.; Falloon, P.; Feller, Christian; Gicheru, P.; Kamoni, P.

    2007-01-01

    National and sub-national scale estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and changes can provide information land degradation risk, C sequestration possibilities and the potential sustainability of proposed land management plans. Under a GEF co-financed project, 'The GEFSOC Modelling System' was used to determine SOC stocks and projected stock change rates for four case study areas; The Brazilian Amazon, The Indo-Gangetic Plains of India, Kenya and Jordan. Each case study represented soi...

  20. Local Perceptions and Implications for Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis Conservation around Protected Areas in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Michalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The local success of protected areas for effective biodiversity conservation depends largely on ensuring the integration of local communities and the persistence of wildlife species and ecological processes. We investigated the perceptions of riverine residents living around a sustainable-use protected area towards giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis. Between March and December 2011, we conducted 41 interviews with riverine residents in the region of the National Forest of Amapá (AP, Brazil. These interviews revealed a strong negative attitude towards giant otters, highlighted by recent reports of otters being killed in 12.2% of the interviews. Generalized linear models showed that years of education and age weakly predicted attitudes towards otters in the study area (i.e., respondents with the longest time in education and older were less likely to dislike otters and to consider giant otters as damaging income or fishing activities, respectively. These results suggested that to conserve giant otters in this region efforts should focus on environmental education and long-term research projects.

  1. Sheep and Goat Farming in Greece: Implications and Challenges for the Sustainable Development of Less Favoured Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia N. Sossidou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat farming is considered to be one of the most dynamic sectors of the rural economy in Greece, both in terms of employment and overall income. The aim of this paper is to review the levels of sustainability in the small ruminant production systems in two Less Favoured Areas of Greece (LFAs: (1 in the mountainous areas of Epirus, and (2 in the island of Lesvos. In this context, the characteristics of the production systems that have significant impact on the sustainable development of rural areas under study are underlined. The sustainability is examined by the ecological, social and economic points of view, supplemented with cultural and regional elements. The ultimate purpose is to conclude with the challenges for the future rural development in LFAs through the sustainable development of sheep and goat farming. Data is based on surveys undertaken by the SEE-ERA.NET PLUS ‘INDI_SHEEP TRADI_CHEESE’ Project and the ARIMNET ‘DoMEsTIc’ Project, still in process.

  2. Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

    2012-11-01

    Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

  3. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid...

  4. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone is...

  5. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  6. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal cmmunications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  7. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer covers...

  8. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace aquifer...

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of a digitized polygon of a constant recharge value for the Enid isolated terrace aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma. The Enid isolated terrace...

  10. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers...

  11. JOB OPPORTUNITIES (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, ADA, OKLAHOMA, NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists job opportunities at NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division (SPRD) located in Ada, Oklahoma. These include both EPA Postdoctoral Positions and National Research Council Postdoctoral Positions.SPRD's research programs include basic studies to enha...

  12. Puud pillavad koort, kirjanikud tekste : Michel Butor Oklahomas / Ivar Ivask ; tõlkinud Mart Kuldkepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ivask, Ivar, 1927-1992

    2010-01-01

    Michel Butor külastas 1971-1981 Oklahoma Ülikooli kolmel korral: 1971 esines loengutega, 1974 kuulus Neustadti kirjandusauhinna žüriisse ning 1981 toimus ülikoolis tema loomingule pühendatud Puterbaugh' konverents

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone is an important...

  14. Oklahoma Orchestrates Energy Efficiency Solutions: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oklahoma demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  15. Generalized peak skew coefficients for Oklahoma, 1961-1990 base period.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital-map data set consists of a grid of generalized skew coefficients of logarithms of annual maximum streamflow for Oklahoma streams less than or equal to...

  16. Assessment of contamination in caves located at the Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is located in east central Oklahoma; a sizeable portion of the Refuge is also located along Spavinaw Creek, near...

  17. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age...

  18. Household Adoption of Water Conservation and Resilience Under Drought: The Case of Oklahoma City

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Tracy A.; Patrick Kanza; Monika Ghimire; Moss, Justin Q.

    2015-01-01

    Drought response management by utilities in the semi-arid Midwest has been less common outside of Texas than in the Western United States. In response to Oklahoma's unprecedented drought of 2012, Oklahoma City's Water Utilities Trust sought to identify the potential for targeting outdoor conservation education and other incentives such as rebates for low-flow toilets and soil moisture sensors for irrigation systems. This research uses a unique dataset that combines actual household consumptio...

  19. Additions to the Flora of Garvin County, Oklahoma: Including a Complete Vascular Plant Checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Priscilla H. C.; Phillip T. Crawford

    2005-01-01

    A species list created from the Oklahoma Vascular Plants Database (OVPD) indicated that Garvin County, Oklahoma had been neglected by botanists. Our objective was to collect all vascular plant species encountered during three growing seasons to increase our botanical knowledge of the county. A total of 387 species were collected; 174 of these species had not been previously recorded for Garvin County in the OVPD. As a result, 14 families and 62 genera were added to the known flora of Garvin C...

  20. Household Adoption of Water Conservation and Resilience under Drought: The Case of Oklahoma City

    OpenAIRE

    Kanza, Patrick; Boyer, Tracy A.; Ghimire, Monika; Moss, Justin Q.

    2014-01-01

    Drought response management by utilities in the semi-arid Midwest has been less common outside of Texas than in the Western United States. In response to Oklahoma's unprecedented drought of 2012, Oklahoma City's Water Utilities Trust sought to identify the potential for targeting outdoor conservation education and other incentives such as rebates for low-flow toilets and soil moisture sensors for irrigation systems. This research uses a unique dataset that combines actual household consumptio...

  1. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  2. Multisensor characterization of subsurface structures in a desert plain area in Egypt with implications for groundwater exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Magaly; Gaber, Ahmed; Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Zaghloul, El-Sayed; Arafat, Sayed M.; AbuBakr, Mostafa

    2013-10-01

    A desert plain in Egypt is being investigated to develop new techniques of multisensor data integration for groundwater exploration. A combination of multispectral, thermal and microwave data (ASTER and PALSAR) and supported by ground measurements (GPR, field spectroradiometry and magnetometry) were used to investigate surface sediment characteristics of the El-Gallaba Plain area, NW of Aswan. This desert plain once hosted an ancestral river system long before the Nile even existed. Nowadays the fluvial deposits are largely covered by Aeolian and gravelly sands and thus only detectible with radar and thermal images. Results show two broad strips of thermal cooling anomalies arranged in a linear fashion and diagonally crossing the alluvial basin. Spectral signatures collected along the linear land surface temperature (LST) anomalies show generally higher reflectance values (higher albedo) than the surrounding sediments. Both, the cooler LST and higher albedo, suggest that the surface sediments within the anomaly strips have lower emissivity values (low heat storage capacity). Furthermore, the homogeneity of these sediments was measured with a ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 250 and 100 MHz shielded antenna. The 12 GPR profiles across the LST anomalies confirmed that the near-surface sediments (up to 10 m depth) consist of thin horizontal layers of sandstone with very low gravel content. They show very different textural and compositional characteristics with respect to the surrounding areas suggesting a different depositional environment. Thus 12 magnetic profiles with 1.5 km average length were acquired across the LST anomalies to investigate deep seated structures. The results confirmed the existence of graben-like structures with a maximum depth to the basement of 150 m and shallower depths toward the edges of the LST anomalies. Consequently, these structurally controlled basins could be promising areas for ground water accumulation and exploration in the El

  3. Geochemical Signature of Mesozoic Volcanic and Granitic Rocks in Madina Regency Area, North Sumatra, Indonesia, and its Tectonic Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no2.20094Five samples consisting of two Permian-Triassic basalts, two Triassic-Jurassic granitic rocks, and a Miocene andesite were collected from the Madina Regency area in North Sumatra that is regionally situated on the West Sumatra Block. Previous authors have proposed three different scenarios for the geological setting of West Sumatra Permian Plutonic-Volcanic Belt, namely an island-arc, subduction related continental margin arc, and continental break...

  4. Stable isotopes in southeastern New Mexico groundwater: Implications for dating recharge in the WIPP [Waste Isolation Plant] area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first geologic repository for nuclear waste in the United States, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), is being excavated at a depth of 2150 ft below ground surface in the Salado Formation in southeastern New Mexico. If a breach of the repository occurs, the water-bearing zones of the Rustler Formation, overlying the Salado, are considered to be the most likely pathways for the transport of radionuclides to the biosphere. A thorough characterization of the hydrology of the Rustler Formation is crucial to the evaluation of the consequences of a breach of the WIPP repository. The present study compiles stable isotope data from throughout southeastern New Mexico and compares them to data from the WIPP area. The stable isotopic compositions of most samples of groundwater from the Rustler Formation are similar to the composition of other, verifiably young, groundwater in the area. Though the stable-isotope data cannot indicate ages for water in the various aquifers, neither do the data show any distinction between most Rustler groundwater and verifiably young groundwater

  5. Geoarchaeology of the karstic area of Mirambello, North-East Crete (Greece): palaeoenvironmental investigations and human settlement implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M.; Kunesch, S.; Robert, V.; Farnoux, A.; Wurmser, H.

    2009-04-01

    The present work aims to detail the preliminary researches dealing with the geomorphologic, topographic and archaeological setting from two major settlements located in north east Crete. The project undertook by the French school of Archaeology in Athens aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the whole area during the last millennia. Fieldworks, including coring, had already been done in August 2006, April 2007 and September 2008; we propose to present the main results. The settlements of Latô and Dreros belong to the area of Mirambello characterized by its spectacular karstic processes and landforms, different karstic depressions with different size can be identified and classified into Dolines and Poljés. As far as the archaeological interest is concerned, villages and cities were occupied during the hellenestic period; several remains are still present around and inside these depressions. Using a G.I.S., the first step consisted in establishing a local geomorphological mapping, taking into account the geological background and the historical occupation of the area. The second step consisted in establishing topographic cross sections of the doline, where the ancient settlement of Latô is located, based on various DGPS surveys. Several questions concerning the occupation of this depression arose : how and for which reasons people decided to leave close to this specific landform ? Which type of activities (farming, grazing, cultivation…) existed and did they were related with natural resources exploitation ? A project associating the local greek archaeological services (Ephoria of Aghios Nikolaos, Director Ms. Apostolakou), the mayor of Nea Polis, the University of Paris 12 (GEONAT EA 435) and the French School of Athens tries to depict the historical evolution of the landscape. Four boreholes (up to a maximum depth of 5 meters) had been drilled in the poljé of Dreros and in a doline situated 1 km away from the ancient settlement of Lat

  6. Metals bioaccumulation and biomarkers responses in the Neotropical freshwater clam Anodontites trapesialis: Implications for monitoring coal mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana Fernandes de; Cabral, Millena Terezinha; Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino; Antoniazzi, Matheus Henrique; Risso, Wagner Ezequiel; Martinez, Claudia Bueno Dos Reis

    2016-11-15

    As one of the most impactful industries, coal mining can promote several alterations at surrounding environment. In surface water, elevated concentrations of metals like Mn, Zn, Fe and Al are often observed. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation and the sub-lethal effects of these metals on various organs of the Neotropical bivalve Anodontites trapesialis confined along a stream located near a coal mine, in order to assess a set of biomarkers that could be used for effectively monitoring coal mining areas. Clams were caged, for 96h, at two sites located upstream (Up1 and Up2) and two sites downstream (Dw1 and Dw2) from the mine. Metals bioaccumulation was determined in gills, mantle, digestive gland, muscle and hemolymph and the following biomarkers were measured in A. trapesialis tissues: total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals, metallothionein content, lipid peroxidation (LPO), proteins carbonylation, glutathione S-transferase activity, superoxide dismutase activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The results showed that Al and Fe bioaccumulation in the gills and hemolymph, Al bioaccumulation in the mantle and muscle, increased LPO in the gills (Dw1 and Dw2) and mantle (Dw1), as well as reduced AChE activity in the muscle (Dw1 and Dw2) should be considered effective biomarkers for monitoring coal mining areas. A. trapesialis proved to be an efficient biological model, considering that biomarkers responses were observed in the clams after only 96h of confinement at Dw sites, accordingly this species could be a good candidate for monitoring Neotropical freshwaters. PMID:27453135

  7. UPDATED OKLAHOMA OZARK FLORA: A Checklist for the Vascular Flora of Ozark Plateau in Oklahoma based on the work of C.S. Wallis and records from the Oklahoma Vascular Plants Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Hoagland

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Charles Wallis’ 1959 dissertation “Vascular Plants of the Oklahoma Ozarks” is one of the most important florisitic works for state botanists and conservationists. Although a number of local and county floras for Oklahoma have been published, only Wallis and C. T. Eskew (1937 have completed regional studies. Wallis’s interest in the Ozark flora began with his 1953 masters thesis, “The Spermophyta of Cherokee County Oklahoma,” and subsequent studies in collaboration with U. T. Waterfall at Oklahoma A&M (Wallis 1957; Wallis and Waterfall 1953; Waterfall and Wallis 1962, 1963. This paper has two objectives, to update the taxonomy of Wallis’s Ozark list (WOL and to provide a current Ozark checklist (OC by inclusion of records that did not appear in WOL. Since several decades have passed since the WOL was completed, there have been many changes in the taxonomy of the plants listed. These updates will enhance the utility of the WOL for modern users and not detract from Wallis’s original work.

  8. The stratigraphy of the Malmani dolomite subgroup in the Carletonville area, Transvaal: genetic implications for lead-zinc mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological setting of a borehole intersection of lead-zinc mineralization in the Malmani Dolomite Subgroup in the Carletonville area is discussed. It is suggested that the lead and zinc ions were derived from the overlying shales, transported as bisulphide complexes in silica-enriched, alkaline solutions, and deposited during silicification in the upper part of the dolomite succession which contains relic evaporites. Lead isotope data suggests that the known lead-zinc deposits in the Transvaal sequence are not of major importance. However, the dolomites are regarded as very probable hosts for Mississippi Valley type base metal deposits and offer important exploration targets. This study includes lead isotopic data. Lead isotope compositions and model lead ages for galenas in the zinc deposits are shown. It is concluded that the leads have undergone either a two-stage evolution process, or have mixed with 206Pb-enriched ores. Model ages suggest that the lead was derived from an approximate 2,7 Ga source and that mineralization took place at 1,7 Ga

  9. Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Lu, Lanlan

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soil is of great concern, as heavy metals can be finally transferred to the human body through the food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the lead (Pb) levels and distribution in soil, agricultural products (wheat, paddy, and soybean), and fish, in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA), Anhui Province, China, to provide reference information to local inhabitants. The daily intake and target hazard quotients of Pb through food consumption were assessed. Results showed that the mean Pb concentration in soil was higher than the Huainan soil background Pb value but lower than the maximum allowance Pb concentration for agricultural soil (GB 15618-2008). The elevated Pb in soil, especially in rainy months (June to August in Huainan), might be related to Pb leaching from ambient coal gangue piles. Excessive Pb concentration was found in the grains of food crops, which would pose a potential health risk to local inhabitants. Therein, wheat showed higher Pb bioaccumulation ability than other crops. With regard to the Pb levels in muscles, fishes were considered to be safe for consumption. The calculations on daily intake and tolerable hazard quotient of Pb suggest that the potential health hazard posed by Pb is currently insignificant for the inhabitants in the HCMA. PMID:25724617

  10. The late holocene palaeoenvironment in the Lake Njupi area, west Cameroon: implications regarding the history of Lake Nyos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Giresse, Pierre; Maley, Jean; Gadel, François

    1997-04-01

    Lake Njupi, 1 km east of Lake Nyos, on the Cameroon Volcanic Line, was formed by the damming of a local crustal depression. Two cores from Lake Nyos were analysed which penetrated sediments at the margin of the lake. The older deposits give an age of 3400 years BP and this date is proposed as a minimum age for Lake Njupi. Sedimentological, palynological and geochemical studies of a 2 m section provide an opportunity to reconstruct the Late Holocene environmental history. It is an organic-rich deposit (organic carbon up to 30%) with an abundant Silicospongia spicules fraction. An obvious sedimentary homogeneity is interrupted by 5 fine to coarse layers with sandy quartz and lignitic remains. Such inputs were denoted by carbohydrate maxima or sometimes by phenolic compounds. This study confirms the evidence of an arid period culminating between 2500 and 2000 yrs BP. This crisis began around 3000 yrs BP in the rain forest area of West Cameroon and also further to the south in Congo. Lake Njupi, situated today in a mostly grassland savanna environment known as the "Grass Fields", provides evidence for environmental changes from a mosaic of forest and savanna before 2500 years BP to a savanna characterised by high grass pollen contents (75 to 85%), with small islands of forest. The mountain vegetation characterised by Podocarpus and Olea capensis retreated around 2300 years BP at the time Elaeis guineensis (the Oil Palm) began its extension as a pioneer tree, later providing opportunities for its domestication by man.

  11. Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of Cambrian-Ordovician strata at the Jinggangshan area in Jiangxi Province:Tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN WeiZhou; LING HongFei; SHU LiangShu; ZHANG FangRong; XIANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Whole-rock Sm-Nd Isotopes were investigated for Cambrian-Ordovician strata from the Jinggangshan area beTween the Yangtze Block and Cathysla Block in South China. These strata were deposited as a greatly thick unit of muddy-sandy laminas with intercalated carbonate and organic carbon-bearing layers. They have low ε(t) values of -13.9 to -7.9 and old Nd model ages of 1842 to 2375 Ma. In t-tdiagram, they are far away from the concordant line but fall within the evolution zone of the Proterozoic crust of South China. This indicates that the Cambrian-Ordovician strata are mainly composed of mat-ters eroded from ancient Paleoproterozoic crust that may mainly consist of continental-derived detrital sediments with high maturity in the Cathyaia Block. However, the Ordovician Jueshangou Formation and Dui'erehi Formation have ε(t) values of -10.5 and -7.9 at the higher end of the above range and Nd model ages of 1842 to 2059 Ma at the lower end of the above range. This suggests involvement of more detritus that were eroded from the relatively juvenile crust from Late Paleoproterozoic to the Early Neoproterozoic. All the Nd model ages for the Cambrian-Ordovlcian sedimentary rocks in the Cathysia Block and the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block are older than 1800 Ma, suggesting that no material from the Early Paleozoic depleted mantle-derived magmas was involved in these regions.

  12. First report of the concentrations and implications of DDT residues in chicken eggs from a malaria-controlled area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Bornman, Riana; van Dyk, Cobus; Barnhoorn, Irene

    2015-10-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, where DDT is still used for vector control by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the concentrations of DDT in human blood and breast milk are high, and there are indications of human health impacts. To identify the possible avenues of exposure reduction, we created the concept of a Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA). THEA characterizes the interactions between DDT, humans, and the biota within and around homesteads. One dietary route of human exposure and uptake of DDT, namely, chicken egg consumption, has to our knowledge never been studied. The ΣDDT in eggs from a DDT-sprayed village ranged between 5200 and 48,000 ng/g wm (wet mass), with a median of 11,000 ng/g wm. On a lipid mass-basis (lm), the mean ΣDDT for eggs from the sprayed village was 100,000 ng/g lm. The maximum egg concentration observed was three orders of magnitude higher than the median. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded based on the consumption of three eggs per week for a 60 kg person. This equates to an intake of 0.089 g DDT per person per year. Chicken egg consumption is therefore a possible target for exposure reduction, probably best achieved by reducing the DDT concentrations in soils. PMID:26197434

  13. Halotolerant aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, T M; Witte, L R; Ngyuen, H D; Buchheim, J A; Buchheim, M A; Schneegurt, M A

    2004-11-01

    The Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge (SPNWR) near Cherokee, Oklahoma, contains a barren salt flat where Permian brine rises to the surface and evaporates under dry conditions to leave a crust of white salt. Rainfall events dissolve the salt crust and create ephemeral streams and ponds. The rapidly changing salinity and high surface temperatures, salinity, and UV exposure make this an extreme environment. The Salt Plains Microbial Observatory (SPMO) examined the soil microbial community of this habitat using classic enrichment and isolation techniques and phylogenetic rDNA studies. Rich growth media have been emphasized that differ in total salt concentration and composition. Aerobic heterotrophic enrichments were performed under a variety of conditions. Heterotrophic enrichments and dilution plates have generated 105 bacterial isolates, representing 46 phylotypes. The bacterial isolates have been characterized phenotypically and subjected to rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Fast-growing isolates obtained from enrichments with 10% salt are predominantly from the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria and from the low GC Gram-positive cluster. Several different areas on the salt flats have yielded a variety of isolates from the Gram-negative genera Halomonas, Idiomarina, Salinivibrio, and Bacteroidetes. Gram-positive bacteria are well represented in the culture collection including members of the Bacillus, Salibacillus, Oceanobacillus, and Halobacillus. PMID:15696379

  14. Seasonal differences in the vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over rural Oklahoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Andrews

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A small airplane made more than 450 aerosol optical property (light absorption and light scattering vertical profile measurements (up to 4 km over a rural Oklahoma site between March 2000 and July 2005. These profiles suggest significant seasonal differences in aerosol properties. The highest amounts of scattering and absorbing aerosol are observed during the summer, while the relative contribution of aerosol absorption is highest in the winter (i.e., single scattering albedo is lowest in winter. Aerosol absorption generally decreased with altitude below ∼1.5 km and then was relatively constant above that. Aerosol scattering decreased sharply with altitude below ∼1.5 km but, unlike absorption, also decreased at higher altitudes, albeit less sharply. The seasonal variability observed for aerosol loading is consistent with other aerosol measurements in the region including AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD, CALIPSO vertical profiles, and IMPROVE aerosol mass. The column averaged single scattering albedo derived from in situ airplane measurements shows a similar seasonal cycle as the AERONET single scattering albedo inversion product, but a comparison of aerosol asymmetry parameter from airplane and AERONET platforms suggests differences in seasonal variability. The observed seasonal cycle of aerosol loading corresponds with changes in air mass back trajectories: the aerosol scattering was higher when transport was from polluted areas (e.g., the Gulf Coast and lower when the air came from cleaner regions and/or the upper atmosphere.

  15. Geochemical Signature of Mesozoic Volcanic and Granitic Rocks in Madina Regency Area, North Sumatra, Indonesia, and its Tectonic Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Zulkarnain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no2.20094Five samples consisting of two Permian-Triassic basalts, two Triassic-Jurassic granitic rocks, and a Miocene andesite were collected from the Madina Regency area in North Sumatra that is regionally situated on the West Sumatra Block. Previous authors have proposed three different scenarios for the geological setting of West Sumatra Permian Plutonic-Volcanic Belt, namely an island-arc, subduction related continental margin arc, and continental break-up. Petrographic analysis of the Mesozoic basaltic samples indicates that they are island-arcs in origin; however their trace element spider diagram patterns (Rock/MORB ratio also show the character of back-arc marginal basin, besides the island-arc. Furthermore, their REE spider diagram patterns (Rock/ Chondrite ratio clearly reveal that they were actually generated in a back-arc marginal basin tectonic setting. Meanwhile, the two Mesozoic granitic rocks and the Miocene andesite reflect the character of an active continental margin. Their spider diagram patterns show a significant enrichment on incompat- ible elements, usually derived from fluids of the subducted slab beneath the subduction zone. The high enrichment on Th makes their plots on Ta/Yb versus Th/Yb diagram are shifted to outside the active continental margin field. Although the volcanic-plutonic products represent different ages, their La/Ce ratio leads to a probability that they have been derived from the same magma sources. This study offers another different scenario for the geological setting of West Sumatra Permian Plutonic-Volcanic Belt, where the magmatic activities started in a back-arc marginal basin tectonic setting during the Permian-Triassic time and changed to an active continental margin during Triassic to Miocene. The data are collected through petrographic and chemical analyses for major, trace, and REE includ- ing literature studies.  

  16. Early Eocene rodents (Mammalia) from the Subathu Formation of type area (Himachal Pradesh), NW sub-Himalaya, India: Palaeobiogeographic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smita Gupta; Kishor Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Based on isolated upper cheek teeth, two new early Eocene rodents (Subathumys solanorius gen. et sp. nov. and Subathumys globulus gen. et sp. nov.) and three others (Birbalomys cf. sondaari, Birbalomys sp., cf. Chapattimys sp.) are recorded from the lower–middle part of the Subathu Formation of the type area in Himachal Pradesh, northwestern sub-Himalaya (India). The new rodents exhibit morphological features most similar to the unified ctenodactyloid family Chapattimyidae (including Yuomyidae), which is also represented in the assemblage from the upper part (middle Eocene) of the Subathu Formation. The associated lower cheek teeth are provisionally described as three indeterminate chapattimyid taxa. The new Subathu rodents are somewhat younger than the previously documented early Eocene assemblages from the Indian subcontinent, and are chronologically intermediate between the early Eocene ailuravines from Gujarat in the western peninsular India and the middle Eocene chapattimyids from northwestern India and Pakistan. They suggest that chapattimyids originated in the sub-Himalayan region during the Ypresian, which is earlier than previously believed. The absence of ailuravines in this as well as younger rodent assemblages from the subcontinent seems to suggest that ailuravines (Ischyromyidae), within a relatively short time after their appearance in the peninsular India in the early Eocene, may have been replaced by the indigenous chapattimyids. The co-occurrence in the early Eocene Subathu assemblage of three or more chapattimyids indicates their early radiation and dominance during the early and middle Eocene. This record of rodents opens the possibility of recovery of other small mammal remains in older levels of the Subathu Formation, which will be important for understanding linkage with early Eocene faunas from peninsular India, Europe and North America.

  17. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    them to implement soil moisture and evaporation data for the near-future in the region Sierre-Montana. REFERENCES Niklaus M. 2012. An Object-oriented Approach for Mapping Current Land Use/Land Cover in the Study Area Crans-Montana-Sierre, Valais. MSc, Geography Institute, University of Bern Dolman A.J., Verhagen A. & Rovers C.A. 2003. Global environmental change and land use. Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dordrecht. Schneider F. & Rist S. 2013. Envisioning sustainable water futures in a transdisciplinary learning process: combining normative, explorative, and participatory scenario approaches. Sustainability Science, in press. Georges D. & Thuiller W. 2012. An example of species distribution modelling with biomod2. biomod2 version : 2.0.17

  18. Petrology of late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic Pyeongan Group sandstones, Gohan area, South Korea and its provenance and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kang-Min; Lee, Gie-Hyeon; Boggs, Sam

    1997-04-01

    Carboniferous to Triassic strata of the Pyeongan Group crop out in the Gohan area, northeastern South Korea. These strata consist, in ascending order, of the Hongjeom, Sadong, Gobangsan, and Nogam formations. Sandstones in these formations comprise three distinct framework-mineral suites. Suite 1 sandstones (Hongjeom Formation through the Middle Member of Gobangsan Formation) are quartz and quartzose arenites/wackes that contain abundant quartz, little or no feldspar, and few acid volcanic clasts. Heavy minerals are mainly tourmaline, rutile, and zircon. Suite 2 sandstones (Upper Member of Gobangsan Formation) are lithic arenites/wackes characterized by moderate quartz content, low amounts of feldspar, and moderate to abundant volcanic clasts. Sphene is the predominant heavy mineral. Suite 3 sandstones (Nogam Formation) are feldspathic arenites/wackes distinguished by low quartz content, moderate to abundant feldspar, and low amounts of acid volcanic clasts. The heavy-mineral assemblage of the Nogam Formation is characterized particularly by epidote and sphene. Feldspar-poor Suite 1 sandstones were derived from a source terrain rich in quartzite and quartzose sandstone. Abundant quartz and stable heavy minerals were supplied initially during Late Carboniferous time to a shallow-marine shelf, which changed gradually near the end of Carboniferous time to a nonmarine, paralic platform setting. Electron probe microanalysis shows that Suite 1 tourmaline was derived originally from Li-poor granitoids, pegmatites, and Ca-poor aplite and metapsammite. Petrographic evidence demonstrates that the scarcity of feldspars in Suite 1 sandstones is not the result of diagenetic intrastratal solution. Major changes in mineralogy from Suite 1 into Suite 2 and Suite 3 sandstone indicate changes in provenance. Suite 2 sandstones were derived from diorite, granodiorite, acid volcanic rocks, and possibly some metamorphic rocks, which furnished feldspars and sphene. The appearance of

  19. Population-based incidence of typhoid fever in an urban informal settlement and a rural area in Kenya: implications for typhoid vaccine use in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Breiman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing higher rates in the urban area, given crowding and suboptimal access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. METHODS: During 2007-9, we conducted population-based surveillance in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, and in Lwak, a rural area in western Kenya. Participants had free access to study clinics; field workers visited their homes biweekly to collect information about acute illnesses. In clinic, blood cultures were processed from patients with fever or pneumonia. Crude and adjusted incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: In the urban site, the overall crude incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi bacteremia was 247 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation (pyo with highest rates in children 5-9 years old (596 per 100,000 pyo and 2-4 years old (521 per 100,000 pyo. Crude overall incidence in Lwak was 29 cases per 100,000 pyo with low rates in children 2-4 and 5-9 years old (28 and 18 cases per 100,000 pyo, respectively. Adjusted incidence rates were highest in 2-4 year old urban children (2,243 per 100,000 pyo which were >15-fold higher than rates in the rural site for the same age group. Nearly 75% of S. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic urban slum and rural comparison showed dramatically higher typhoid incidence among urban children <10 years old with rates similar to those from Asian urban slums. The findings have potential policy implications for use of typhoid vaccines in increasingly urban Africa.

  20. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  1. Subsidence and basin development in the southern Oklahoma aulacogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferebee, C. (Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Development of the southern Oklahoma aulacogen was the result of Cambrian tectonism along Proterozoic zones of weakness that caused northwest-trending extensional normal faults related to a rifting event. These faults were reactivated during upper Paleozoic compressional stress with fault patterns indicative of sinistral transpressive and transtensional movement. Mapping in the region has allowed classification of the myriad of faults into six major systems, from the north to south: the Washita Valley, Madill-Aylesworth, Caddo, Criner, Horseshoe Bend, and Muenster systems. Development of the fault systems occurred somewhat independently as energy was transferred between them owing to changes in stress from the uneven collision of the Ouachita front. This model may account for the episodic movement recognized by past investigators. The determination of relative timing of development within these systems has shown that the Madill-Aylesworth and Criner systems were active during the Upper Mississippian. As deformation continued along the Criner system structural activity moved southward to include the Horseshoe Bend and Muenster systems during the Early Pennsylvanian. During the Middle Pennsylvanian, fault development along the southern margin of the aulacogen subsided, and deformation activity was initiated in the northern portions of the Ardmore basin. The amount of horizontal displacement along fault systems in the region is still unresolved. However, by regional mapping along the Criner systems, a minimum of 6 mi left-lateral movement can be documented as having occurred during the Upper Pennsylvanian using models of sediment deposition and transport in strike-slip basins.

  2. Poorly characterized critical rock units within the southern Oklahoma Aulacogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, M.C.; Hogan, J.P. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics); Denison, R.E. (Kingstree, Dallas, TX (United States)); Lidiak, E.G. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planet Science)

    1993-02-01

    The Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (SOA) apparently developed during late Proterozoic-early Cambrian rifting of the southern continental margin. This margin appears to be related to the Grenville suture' formed when the Llano terrane was accreted to N.A. The SOA is representative, as well as the best exposed, of a series of penecontemporaneous rifts along the southern and eastern margin of the North American plate. Pronounced Pennsylvanian structural inversion has lifted the igneous basal sections of this rift (the SOA) to shallow crustal levels and exposed parts of it in the Wichita Mountains. Two previously identified but poorly characterized rock units within the SOA, the Tillman Metasedimentary Group and the Navajoe Mountain Basalt/Spilite Group, do not crop out at the surface, having only been recognized from well cuttings. No well-described or well-dated samples exist. The Tillman may be the basement rock which was extended during initial rifting and hosted the igneous infill of the SOA. The Navajoe may represent the earliest phase of magmatism in the SOA. Isotopic dating and geochemistry, and textural/structural relations, of 100--500 m core sections in these two units would go a long way toward clarifying paleotectonic relations and crustal structure in the late Proterozoic. Several drill sites for scientific holes up to 1 km in depth targeted to these enigmatic units can be identified and the rationale for their selection will be presented.

  3. Additions to the Flora of Garvin County, Oklahoma: Including a Complete Vascular Plant Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla H. C. Crawford

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A species list created from the Oklahoma Vascular Plants Database (OVPD indicated that Garvin County, Oklahoma had been neglected by botanists. Our objective was to collect all vascular plant species encountered during three growing seasons to increase our botanical knowledge of the county. A total of 387 species were collected; 174 of these species had not been previously recorded for Garvin County in the OVPD. As a result, 14 families and 62 genera were added to the known flora of Garvin County. The majority of the species collected during this survey are assigned to five families of flowering plants: Poaceae (70 species, Asteraceae (63, Fabaceae (39, Cyperaceae (17, and Euphorbiaceae (16. Forty eight species (representing 13% of the taxa collected during this study were not native to the United States; the families Poaceae and Fabaceae (with 18 and 10species, respectively exhibited the greatest number of introduced species collected in this survey. Five taxa on the Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory working list of rare Oklahoma plants were encountered. This collection effort increased the total number of vascular plant species recorded in the Oklahoma Vascular Plants Database for Garvin County to 628 species.

  4. Evaluation of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data as Applied to Geologic Exploration: Summary of Results. [Death Valley, California, Cement-Velma, Oklahoma; Big Horn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming; Spanish Peaks, Colorado; and the Four Corners area (Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.; Everett, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    As with any tool applied to geologic exploration, maximum value results from the innovative integration of optimally processed LANDSAT-4 data with existing pertinent information and perceptive geologic thinking. The synoptic view of the satellite images and the relatively high resolution of the data permits recognization of regional tectonic patterns and their detailed mapping. The refined spatial and spectral characteristics and digital nature surface alterations associated with hydrothermal activity and microseepage of hydrocarbons. In general, as vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases with respect to the value of the spatial component of the data. This observation reinforces the experience from working with MSS data that digital processing must be optimized both for the area and for the application.

  5. Occurrence of tephra/volcanic tuff in the tertiary sediments of Himachal Himalaya from Tileli area, Mandi district, H.P.: implication for stratigraphy and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presence of Early Tertiary pyroclastic material (tephra) has been documented petrographically, for the first time, in the Mandi-Bilaspur Sector from Tileli area, Dharamsala basin of Himachal Pradesh. The tephra is reported from the red shale, identified as tuffaceous siltstone belonging to lower Dharamsala Formation that lies above the uraniferous sandstone body and occurs as thin layers of over 300m along the strike, close to the contact of lower and upper Dharamsala formations. The tuffaceous material shows crude but preferred orientation of minerals like biotite, muscovite, chlorite, clay, hematite and specularite. Various features indicating presence of tephra are, glass shards altered to clay but retaining 'U' shaped outline, spindle-shaped hematite with preferred orientation, spherical to sub-spherical clay and altered Fe oxide rich balls, clay groundmass with flow pattern, flaky minerals in association with clast depicting asymmetrical ramp structure. A zone of approximately 300 m length containing tuffaceous material has been established at Tileli overlying the uraniferous sandstone body. Identification of tephra at Tileli has significant implications as it enabled in demarcating the boundary between the upper and lower Dharamsala formations in central part of the basin in Bilaspur-Mandi Sector of HP Himalaya and also in guiding the uranium exploration programme in the lower Dharamsala Formation. (author)

  6. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  7. Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of

  8. A simple urban dispersion model tested with tracer data from Oklahoma City and Manhattan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven; Baja, Emmanuel

    A simple urban dispersion model is tested that is based on the Gaussian plume model and modifications to the Briggs urban dispersion curves. An initial dispersion coefficient ( σo) of 40 m is assumed to apply in built-up downtown areas, and the stability is assumed to be slightly unstable during the day and slightly stable during the night. Observations from tracer experiments during the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study in Oklahoma City and the Madison Square Garden 2005 (MSG05) field study in Manhattan are used for model testing. The tracer SF 6 was released during JU2003 near ground level in the downtown area and concentrations were observed at over 100 locations within 4 km from the source. Six perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gases were released near ground level during MSG05 and sampled by about 20 samplers at the surface and on building roofs. The evaluations compare concentrations normalized by source release rate, C/ Q, for each sampler location and each tracer release, where data were used only if both the observed and predicted concentrations exceeded threshold levels. At JU2003, for all samplers and release times, the fractional mean bias (FB) is about 0.2 during the day (20% mean underprediction) and 0.0 during the night. About 45 -50% of the predictions are within a factor of two (FAC2) of the observations day and night at JU2003. The maximum observed C/ Q is about two times the maximum predicted C/ Q both day and night. At MSG05, for all PFTs, surface samplers, and release times, FB is 0.14 and FAC2 is about 45%. The overall 60 min-averaged maximum C/ Q is underpredicted by about 40% for the surface samplers and is overpredicted by about 25% for the building-roof samplers.

  9. A Grid/Group Study of Gender Perceptions of the Culture of the Oklahoma Civil Air Patrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Kelly Ann

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe member perceptions of the culture of the Oklahoma CAP using an online version of the Douglas Grid/Group typology. This study further described and compared differences in how men and women in the organization view its culture. All senior members of the Oklahoma CAP with a valid email address on file…

  10. 75 FR 2860 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Call for Data for the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Call for Data for the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma and... developing a watershed model for the Illinois River watershed in Oklahoma and Arkansas to address nutrient water quality impairments. The results of this watershed model may be used to develop one or more...

  11. Vascular Flora of a Red Sandstone Hills Site Canadian County, Oklahoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Hoagland

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of an inventory of the vascular plants from a site in central Oklahoma. Three hundred thirty-four species of vascular plants in 237 genera and 76 families were collected. The most species were collected from the families Poaceae (56 and Asteraceae (54. The genera with the most species were Euphorbia and Eragrostis, both with six species. One hundred six species were annuals, 227 perennials, and 1 biennial. Forty-nine species of woody plants were present. Forty-one species, or 12.3% of the flora, were exotic to Oklahoma. No species listed as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service were encountered, but two species (Escobaria vivipara and Muhlenbergia bushii are tracked by the Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory.

  12. Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy; November 16-17, 1996; Bartlesville, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-27

    Thirty-three Native American tribal members, council members, and other interested parties gathered in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, to attend the Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy on October 16 and 17 1996, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. Tribes represented at the workshop included the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, Osage, Seminole, and Ute. Representatives of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) also attended. BDM-Oklahoma developed and organized the Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy to help meet the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Domestic Gas and Oil Initiative to help Native American Tribes become more self-sufficient in developing and managing petroleum resources.

  13. Employment Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People in Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Herman, Jody L.; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes evidence of employment discrimination against LGBT people in Oklahoma, and asses the impact of adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s non-discrimination law.  We find that LGBT people in Oklahoma face discrimination in the workplace, including lower wages. Evidence also shows that a sexual orientation and gender identity non-discrimination law may have a positive impact on businesses in the state, and will not overwhelm state enforcement agencies or ...

  14. Economic Impact of Oklahoma's Smoke-Free Air Policies on Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Fritz

    2015-11-01

    A comparison of sales tax and employment data from before and after the new statewide secondhand smoke laws took effect on March 1, 2006, finds that both revenue and employment levels have increased for Oklahoma restaurants since imposition of the new rules. Furthermore, comparing revenue and employment levels across states, with Kansas, and controlling for changes in overall economic activity, shows that Oklahoma has done relatively better than Kansas, since imposition of the new law. Kansas had no similar change to its restaurant smoking rules, which still largely permitted smoking, during the study timeframe. PMID:26817063

  15. Vascular Flora of a Riparian Site on the Canadian River, Cleveland County, Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy Burgess; Bruce W. Hoagland

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of an inventory of the vascular plants from a riparian site in central Oklahoma. One hundred and sixty-three species of vascular plants in 131 genera and 45 families were collected. The most species were collected from the families Asteraceae (32) and Poaceae (26). Fifty-eight species were annuals, 97 perennials, and 8 biennials. Eight species of woody plants were present. Twenty-nine species, or 18% of the flora, were exotic to Oklahoma. No species listed as ...

  16. Voluminous subalkaline silicic magmas related to intracontinental rifting in the southern Oklahoma aulacogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard E.; Al-Shaieb, Zuhair

    1980-04-01

    Extrusive rhyolites and cogenetic granites of the Wichita province genetically related to the southern Oklahoma aulacogen are entirely sub-alkaline in character. Peralkaline granites occur in the province but are volumetrically minor and have been interpreted by earlier workers as differentiation products of subalkaline magma. The large volumes of sub-alkaline silicic magma in the southern Oklahoma aulacogen represent a style of magmatism which contrasts markedly with the alkaline igneous activity generally associated with intracontinental rifting. *Present address: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory and Department of Geological Sciences of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964

  17. Assessment of anti mosquito measures in households and resistance status ofCulex species in urban areas in southern Ghana:Implications for the sustainability of ITN use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas A Kudom; Ben A Mensah; Jacob Nunoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine resistance status ofCulex species to different class of insecticides and assess the major anti-mosquito strategies employed by urban households and their possible effects on malaria acquisition. Methods:Structured questionnaires were randomly administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics, measures that people use to prevent mosquito bites and their perception of where mosquitoes breed in their communities.Adult susceptibility assays were also carried out usingWHO discriminating dosages of four insecticides from different chemical classes againstCulex species.Results:Majority of respondents(54.75%) preferred the use of domestic insecticides in the form of aerosols and coils.Among households that used domestic insecticides, the use of coil was most frequent(62.9%) with a mean(95%CI) of9.18(8.99,9.37) coils per week.Strong level of pyrethroid-resistance and multiple insecticide resistance inCulex species were also detected in some of the study sites.Conclusions:The excessive use of domestic insecticides and high level of resistance inCulex species observed in the study area has implications for theITN component of the nation’s malaria control program in more subtle ways.People will lose interest in the use ofITN when it fails to protect users from bites of resistantCulex species.Excessive use of domestic insecticides may also select resistance in both malaria vectors andCulex species.On this account we recommend that nuisance mosquitoes must be controlled as part of malaria control programs to improve acceptance and utilization ofITN.

  18. Long-term environmental research: the upper washita river experimental watersheds, oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jean L; Starks, Patrick J; Garbrecht, Jurgen D; Moriasi, Daniel N; Zhang, Xunchang; Schneider, Jeanne M; Guzman, Jorge A; Osei, Edward

    2014-07-01

    Water is central to life and earth processes, connecting physical, biological, chemical, ecological, and economic forces across the landscape. The vast scope of hydrologic sciences requires research efforts worldwide and across a wide range of disciplines. While hydrologic processes and scientific investigations related to sustainable agricultural systems are based on universal principles, research to understand processes and evaluate management practices is often site-specific to achieve a critical mass of expertise and research infrastructure to address spatially, temporally, and ecologically complex systems. In the face of dynamic climate, market, and policy environments, long-term research is required to understand and predict risks and possible outcomes of alternative scenarios. This special section describes the USDA-ARS's long-term research (1961 to present) in the Upper Washita River basin of Oklahoma. Data papers document datasets in detail (weather, hydrology, physiography, land cover, and sediment and nutrient water quality), and associated research papers present analyses based on those data. This living history of research is presented to engage collaborative scientists across institutions and disciplines to further explore complex, interactive processes and systems. Application of scientific understanding to resolve pressing challenges to agriculture while enhancing resilience of linked land and human systems will require complex research approaches. Research areas that this watershed research program continues to address include: resilience to current and future climate pressures; sources, fate, and transport of contaminants at a watershed scale; linked atmospheric-surface-subsurface hydrologic processes; high spatiotemporal resolution analyses of linked hydrologic processes; and multiple-objective decision making across linked farm to watershed scales. PMID:25603071

  19. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Samuel H.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2012-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and reliable water supplies, but they also entail risk: dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or misoperation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning the emergency response if a dam breach occurs. Accurate topographic data are vital for developing flood-inundation maps. This report presents results of a cooperative study by the city of Lawton, Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to model dam-breach scenarios at Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the city of Lawton with completion of the emergency action plans for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka Dams, the USGS collected light detection and ranging (lidar) data that were used to develop a high-resolution digital elevation model and a 1-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains downstream from Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka. This digital elevation model and field measurements, streamflow-gaging station data (USGS streamflow-gaging station 07311000, East Cache Creek near Walters, Okla.), and hydraulic values were used as inputs for the dynamic (unsteady-flow) model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum

  20. An evaluation of the management of the selection process for educators at primary schools in the North West Area : theoretical and practical implications / A.T. Aphane

    OpenAIRE

    Aphane, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research is about the evaluation of the management of the selection for educators at a primary school in the North West, Klerksdorp District and to consider theoretical and practical implications. Questionnaires were used as the main measuring instrument. The findings of the research revealed that some of the role players lack necessary skills and expertise to be part of the selection process. Policy implications were found to have an effect on the process. Ne...

  1. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LE FLORE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  2. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WASHITA COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA and Incorporated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  3. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, OKMULGEE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  4. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, CUSTER COUNTY, OKLAHOMA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  5. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, MUSKOGEE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  6. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, STEPHENS COUNTY, OKLAHOMA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  7. Basemap Framework Submission for WASHITA COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA and Incorporated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  8. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, CHEROKEE COUNTY, OKLAHOMA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  9. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, McCURTAIN COUNTY, OKLAHOMA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  10. Grid of mean annual precipitation for Oklahoma, 1961-1990 base period.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital-map data set consists of a grid of mean annual precipitation, in inches, based on the period 1961-90, for Oklahoma. The data set was derived from the...

  11. Non-Adoption of Best Management Practices: Demographics and Adoption Constraints of Oklahoma Cattle Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Stephanie; Peel, Derrell S.; Raper, Kellie Curry

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from Oklahoma Cow-Calf producers, a binomial logit model is employed to estimate the probability of non-adoption of specific management or marketing practices based on producers' demographics. Thirteen individual management and marketing practices are examined. Additional logit models examine relationships between non-adopters' characteristics and reasons given for non-adoption.

  12. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... container or receptacle used for holding liquor. (j) Public Place. Includes state or county or tribal or... Ordinance, on Miami Tribe of Oklahoma Trust Land, and sells it, whether in the original container or not... 1. Any room, house, building, vehicle, structure, or other place where liquor or alcoholic...

  13. Five Indian Tribes of Eastern Oklahoma: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Dorothy; Bland, Anna

    The 18 lessons in this unit of study are intended to promote an awareness of the contribution of the American Indian to the development of Oklahoma and to preserve the culture and heritage of the American Indians of the state. Each lesson includes a concept (one-sentence statement of the main idea), background information, learning activities…

  14. Indian Education in Eastern Oklahoma. A Report of Fieldwork Among the Cherokee. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Murray L.; And Others

    A field study of Cherokee Indians in Eastern Oklahoma revealed the following information: (1) educators were ignorant of and indifferent to the language, values, and cultural traditions of the Tribal (rural) Cherokee; (2) the Tribal Cherokees were an impoverished people; (3) both adults and children were educationally disadvantaged; and (4) Tribal…

  15. American Indian Women and Screening Mammography: Findings from a Qualitative Study in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni; Batterton, Chasity; Hamm, Robert M.; Thompson, David; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue within the American Indian (AI) community in Oklahoma; however, there is limited information to explain the low screening mammography rates among AI women. Purpose: To identify the motivational factors affecting an AI woman's decision to obtain a mammogram. Methods: Through the use of…

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS OF A PRISTINE GROUNDWATER STUDY SITE IN OKLAHOMA (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most-probable-number counting methods were applied to determine the distribution of protozoa in a depth profile at a groundwater microbiology study site near Lula, Oklahoma in January and June, 1985. Aseptic procedures were used to ensure minimal airborne contamination samples. N...

  17. 33 CFR 208.27 - Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond..., Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir in... inflow below the dam, will not produce flows in excess of bankfull on Pond (Cobb) Creek downstream of...

  18. Three Year Oklahoma Annual Program Plan for Adult Education. Fiscal Years 1983-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This document contains the State plan designed to enable the State Department of Education to implement an adult education program in Oklahoma that will meet the critical educational needs of the adult population. Sections of the plan include purpose; state definitions; legal authority; audits, goal statement, administrative provisions;…

  19. CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS PROGRAM FOR THE OKLAHOMA STATE SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION, 1965-75. PHASE TWO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLEEK, JOHN E.; COFFELT, JOHN J.

    THIS STUDY UPDATES THE 1963 TEN-YEAR PROJECTION OF CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS FOR THE INSTITUTIONS OF THE OKLAHOMA STATE SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION. SPACE NEEDS OF THE STATE SYSTEM WERE DETERMINED BY A COMPARISON OF FACILITY INVENTORIES FOR CURRENT SPACE NEEDS AND PROJECTED SPACE NEEDS. THE SPACE NEEDS WERE TABULATED FOR CLASSROOMS, FACULTY OFFICES,…

  20. Report on the projected future climate of the Fort Cobb Watershed, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides technical information on projected climate change and associated monotonic trends of precipitation and air temperature at the ARS Fort Cobb Experimental Watershed in west-central Oklahoma. The report is an attachment to the full report of the multi-location project MLP 464: “Est...

  1. 'Right-to-Work' Laws and Economic Development in Oklahoma. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.

    The bulk of this position paper consists of statements in opposition to a September 2001 referendum on adopting 'right-to-work' (RTW) legislation in Oklahoma. The statements are by Joan Fitzgerald, William Sschweke, Raymond Hogler, Steven Shulman, Stephan Weiler, Ann Markusen, Robert G. Lynch, David R. Howell, James Galbraith, Colin Gordon, Wim…

  2. 78 FR 34117 - Oklahoma; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050, Presidentially Declared... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major...

  3. 77 FR 61424 - Oklahoma; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... Assistance--Disaster Housing Operations for Individuals and Households; 97.050 Presidentially Declared... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major...

  4. Investigaciones en la producción orgánica de vegetales en Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nationally recognized standards for certified organic farming were established in 2002 in the United States. This action stimulated increased scientific research on production methods that can be used in certified organic growing. In 2003, a multi-disciplinary scientific team in Oklahoma that cons...

  5. Delivering an Organizational Leadership PhD Program at a Distance: University of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Williams, T. H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors identify and review a number of key features in the successful development and maintenance of a PhD program delivered at a distance. The University of Oklahoma's PhD program in organizational leadership was developed in the early 1990s and delivered (primarily, but not completely) to military personnel and families…

  6. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of a constant recharge value for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to...

  7. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in...

  8. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula...

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer, in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an...

  10. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water...

  11. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer...

  12. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital aquifer boundaries for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace aquifer encompasses...

  13. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace and...

  14. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important...

  15. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant recharge values for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The Tillman terrace...

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Tillman terrace and alluvial aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma. The...

  17. Digital Data Sets of Depth-Duration Frequency of Precipitation for Oklahoma, USGS OFR 99-463.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These geospatial data sets consist of precipitation stations used in a regional precipitation frequency analysis for Oklahoma. Data were used from precipitation...

  18. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding workshops to other regions, providing coverage in its newsletter, through columns and case studies in trade journals, and through coordinating presentations at association and professional society meetings. Combined, there were more than 800 participants. Applying ''application percentages'' from PTTC's total technology transfer program, more than 250 participants are likely to be applying technologies (39% of industry participants). Polymer gel water-shutoff (WSO) treatments and wellbore management were a focus in the Midcontinent area. A major provider of polymer gel WSO treatments has experienced a significant increase in treatment activity in Oklahoma, some of which can be logically attributed to this project. A provider of polylined tubing, a product related to wellbore management, has noted a 280% increase in their independent customer base and opening of a new market due to their involvement in PUMP-spinoff technology transfer. Detailed case studies on polymer gel WSO treatments and wellbore management, along with more global analyses, demonstrate the economic value of these technologies to producers. Among the many information sources that producers consider when applying technology, PTTC knows it is an important source in these technology areas.

  19. Identification and evaluation of fluvial-dominated deltaic (Class I oil) reservoirs in Oklahoma. Final report, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banken, M.K.

    1998-11-01

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS), the Geo Information Systems department, and the School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma have engaged in a five-year program to identify and address Oklahoma`s oil recovery opportunities in fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs. This program included a systematic and comprehensive collection and evaluation of information on all FDD oil reservoirs in Oklahoma and the recovery technologies that have been (or could be) applied to those reservoirs with commercial success. The execution of this project was approached in phases. The first phase began in January, 1993 and consisted of planning, play identification and analysis, data acquisition, database development, and computer systems design. By the middle of 1994, many of these tasks were completed or nearly finished including the identification of all FDD reservoirs in Oklahoma, data collection, and defining play boundaries. By early 1995, a preliminary workshop schedule had been developed for project implementation and technology transfer activities. Later in 1995, the play workshop and publication series was initiated with the Morrow and the Booch plays. Concurrent with the initiation of the workshop series was the opening of a computer user lab that was developed for use by the petroleum industry. Industry response to the facility initially was slow, but after the first year lab usage began to increase and is sustaining. The remaining six play workshops were completed through 1996 and 1997, with the project ending on December 31, 1997.

  20. Seasonal differences in the vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over rural Oklahoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Andrews

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A small airplane made 597 aerosol optical property (light absorption and light scattering vertical profile measurements over a rural Oklahoma site between March 2000 and December 2007. The aerosol profiles obtained during these 8 yr of measurements suggest significant seasonal differences in aerosol loading (scattering and absorption. The highest amounts of scattering and absorbing aerosol are observed during the summer and the lowest loading occurs during the winter. The relative contribution of aerosol absorption is highest in the winter (i.e., single scattering albedo is lowest in winter, particularly aloft. Aerosol absorption generally decreased with altitude below ~1.5 km and then was relatively constant or decreased more gradually above that. Aerosol scattering decreased sharply with altitude below ~1.5 km but, unlike absorption, also decreased at higher altitudes, albeit less sharply. Scattering Ångström exponents suggest that the aerosol was dominated by sub-micron aerosol during the summer at all altitudes, but that larger particles were present, especially in the spring and winter above 1 km. The seasonal variability observed for aerosol loading is consistent with AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD although the AOD values calculated from in situ adjusted to ambient conditions and matching wavelengths are up to a factor of two lower than AERONET AOD values depending on season. The column averaged single scattering albedo derived from in situ airplane measurements are similar in value to the AERONET single scattering albedo inversion product but the seasonal patterns are different – possibly a consequence of the strict constraints on obtaining single scattering albedo from AERONET data. A comparison of extinction Ångström exponent and asymmetry parameter from the airplane and AERONET platforms suggests similar seasonal variability with smaller particles observed in the summer and fall and larger particles observed in spring and

  1. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The reason for this difference is the higher oil saturation in low porosity region. As the average porosity

  2. SOME THOUGHTS ON OKLAHOMA PLANTS AND SUMMER 2011’S EXCEPTIONAL DROUGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie E. Cole

    2011-01-01

    Oklahoma has just had a summer of incredible heat and exceptional drought (D4), the worst such designation possible from the National Drought Monitor and marked by a menacing dark red on the drought maps they make. The impacts of this tough climate event can be seen everywhere one looks from the dormant or dead Blackjacks and EasternRedcedars to the thin young crows, and felt in the economy and our communities.

  3. Long-Term Economic Impacts of USDAWater and Sewer Infrastructure Investments in Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Janeski, Ivica; Whitacre, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    One of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Development’s most popular programs is the funding for public water and sewer infrastructure projects in rural communities. This article reviews the water and sewer infrastructure projects funded in the state of Oklahoma between 1990 and 2000 and evaluates their impact on different measures of economic growth over both the short (one to 10 years) and long (10 to 20 years) term. Evaluation techniques include multivariate regression and average ...

  4. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1997, the Oklahoma legislature passed a bill to restructure the state's electric industry, requiring that the generation sector be deregulated and allowing retail competition by July 2002. Details of the market structure were to be established later. Senate Bill No.220, introduced in the 2000 legislature, provided additional details on this market, but the bill did not pass. Subsequent discussions have identified the need for an objective analysis of the impact of restructuring on electricity prices and the state's economy, especially considering the experiences of other states following restructuring of their electric systems. Because of the recent experiences of other states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. Energy and ancillary services markets both play a role in having a well-functioning system. Customer responsiveness to market signals can enhance the flexibility of the market. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The goal is to provide sufficient objective analysis to the Oklahoma legislature that they may make a more informed decision on the timing and details of any future restructuring. It will also serve to inform other stakeholders on the economic issues surrounding restructuring. The project is being conducted in two phases. The Phase I report (Hadley 2001) concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation and transmission resources. This Phase II report looks further in the future, incorporating the potential of new

  5. Vascular Flora of a Red Sandstone Hills Site Canadian County, Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce W. Hoagland; Amy Buthod

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of an inventory of the vascular plants from a site in central Oklahoma. Three hundred thirty-four species of vascular plants in 237 genera and 76 families were collected. The most species were collected from the families Poaceae (56) and Asteraceae (54). The genera with the most species were Euphorbia and Eragrostis, both with six species. One hundred six species were annuals, 227 perennials, and 1 biennial. Forty-nine species of woody plants were present. For...

  6. Tobacco Control and Prevention in Oklahoma: Best Practices in a Preemptive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Rebekah R; Beebe, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    For more than a decade, the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust and Oklahoma State Department of Health have collaborated to implement best practices in tobacco control through state and community interventions, including legislated and voluntary policy approaches, health communication, cessation programs, and surveillance and evaluation activities. This partnership eliminates duplication and ensures efficient use of public health dollars for a comprehensive tobacco control program based on a systems and social norm change approach. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe strategies to reduce tobacco use despite a rare policy environment imposed by the presence of near-complete state preemption of tobacco-related law. Key outcome indicators were used to track progress related to state tobacco control and prevention programs. Data sources included cigarette excise tax stamp sales, statewide surveillance systems, Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data, and local policy tracking databases. Data were collected in 2001-2013 and analyzed in 2012 and 2013. Significant declines in cigarette consumption and adult smoking prevalence occurred in 2001-2012, and smoking among high school students fell 45%. Changes were also observed in attitudes and behaviors related to secondhand smoke. Community coalitions promoted adoption of local policies where allowable, with 92 ordinances mirroring state clean indoor air laws and 88 ordinances mirroring state youth access laws. Tobacco-free property policies were adopted by 292 school districts and 309 worksites. Moving forward, tobacco use will be prioritized as an avoidable health hazard in Oklahoma as it is integrated into a wellness approach that also targets obesity reduction. PMID:26817059

  7. Forest statistics for southeast Oklahoma counties, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabulated results were derived from data obtained during the 1993 forest inventory of southeast Oklahoma counties. Field work for the southeastern unit was completed in late 1992. Core tables (1 through 25) are compatible among Forest Inventory and Analysis units in the Eastern United States. Supplemental tables (26 through 43) provide information beyond that provided by the core tables. Comparisons are made between results of the 1993 inventory and previous inventories conducted in 1986 and 1975

  8. Tobacco control and prevention in Oklahoma: best practices in a preemptive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Rebekah R; Beebe, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust and Oklahoma State Department of Health have collaborated to implement best practices in tobacco control through state and community interventions, including legislated and voluntary policy approaches, health communication, cessation programs, and surveillance and evaluation activities. This partnership eliminates duplication and ensures efficient use of public health dollars for a comprehensive tobacco control program based on a systems and social norm change approach. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe strategies to reduce tobacco use despite a rare policy environment imposed by the presence of near-complete state preemption of tobacco-related law. Key outcome indicators were used to track progress related to state tobacco control and prevention programs. Data sources included cigarette excise tax stamp sales, statewide surveillance systems, Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data, and local policy tracking databases. Data were collected in 2001-2013 and analyzed in 2012 and 2013. Significant declines in cigarette consumption and adult smoking prevalence occurred in 2001-2012, and smoking among high school students fell 45%. Changes were also observed in attitudes and behaviors related to secondhand smoke. Community coalitions promoted adoption of local policies where allowable, with 92 ordinances mirroring state clean indoor air laws and 88 ordinances mirroring state youth access laws. Tobacco-free property policies were adopted by 292 school districts and 309 worksites. Moving forward, tobacco use will be prioritized as an avoidable health hazard in Oklahoma as it is integrated into a wellness approach that also targets obesity reduction. PMID:25528709

  9. Factors Impacting Participation In and Purchases Made by Members of the Oklahoma Food Cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Holcomb, Rodney B.; Kenkel, Philip L.; Brown, Lisa N.

    2012-01-01

    The Oklahoma Food Cooperative (OFC) facilitates transactions between producers and consumers of locally-grown food items. Although the OFC has more than 3,000 members, the cooperative is still working to discover member needs and ensure its long-term sustainability. Both consumer-members and producer-members of the OFC were surveyed to determine the factors driving their current and continued participation in the cooperative. Findings suggest that producer-members and consumer-members differ ...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OKLAHOMA ABANDONED DRILLING AND PRODUCTION SITES AND ASSOCIATED PUBLIC EDUCATION/OUTREACH ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Terry

    2002-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has participated with the Oklahoma Energy Resource Board (OERB) since 1995 by providing grant funding for on-going work in both environmental assessment of abandoned oilfield exploration and production sites and associated public education/outreach activities. The OERB, a state agency created in 1993 by the Oklahoma legislature, administers programs funded by an assessment of one tenth of one percent on all oil and natural gas produced and sold in the state of Oklahoma. Approximately one half of the funds are used to assess and remediate abandoned oilfield sites and the other half are being used to educate about the importance of the oil and natural gas industry and OERB's environmental efforts. Financial participation through grant funding by the U.S. D.O.E. has been $200,000 annually which represents approximately 3 percent of OERB's private funding. Most of OERB's revenues come from an assessment of 1/10th of 1% on the sale of crude and natural gas in Oklahoma. The assessment is considered voluntary in that any interest owner may ask for a refund annually of their contributions to the fund. On average, 95% of the assessment dollars have remained with OERB, which shows tremendous support by the industry. This Final Report summarizes the progress of the three year grant. The purpose of this three-year project was to continue the progress of the OERB to accomplish its environmental and educational objectives and transfer information learned to other organizations and producing states in the industry.

  11. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the University of Oklahoma Research Reactor (Docket No. 50-112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the University of Oklahoma for a renewal of Operating License R-53 to continue to operate a research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the University of Oklahoma and is located on the campus in Norman, Cleveland County, Oklahoma. The staff concludes that the Aerojet General Nucleonics (AGN) reactor facility can continue to be operated by University of Oklahoma without endangering the health and safety of the public

  12. Thickness variation of Simpson group in south-central Oklahoma and its tectonic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Q.T.; Crump, J. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Middle Ordovician Simpson Group in the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen is composed of interbedded sandstone, limestone, and shale. Several pulses of subsidence controlled the deposition of these sediments. Simpson Group thickness variations, based on an isopach map and corresponding regional cross sections, define the presence of two distinct depositional basins flanked on their northern sides by a stable cratonic shelf. The anomalous thickness of Simpson sediments within these basins is related to syndepositional subsidence along zones of weakness initiated during the rifting stage of aulacogen development. The larger basin covers the western part of south-central Oklahoma. The northern flank of this basin illustrates a zone of rapid thickening of sediments. The updip portion of the northern flank is the northernmost limit of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. The depocenter of the larger basin is positioned in the Ardmore basin. Paleostress studies using calcite twin lamellae along the southeastern portion of the Sulfur fault within the smaller basin reveal an east-west compression followed by north-south compression. Surface folds formed by the east-west compression are highly faulted and overturned, whereas the folds formed by the north-south compression are open, slightly asymmetric, with rounded hinges and limbs. Similar east-west-trending structures in the subsurface could be a favorable target for hydrocarbon exploration. In general, these basins are genetically related but are separated by a large Precambrian basement block (Tishomingo Granite).

  13. Southeast Hoover field: model of foreland tectonics of Arbuckle region, southern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, J.H.

    1986-05-01

    The Southwest Hoover field, located on the northern side of the Arbuckel Mountains, typifies the structural style common to the foreland of southern Oklahoma. This oil field, which produces primarily from the upper Arbuckle Group carbonates, was created in response to the Late Pennsylvanian Arbuckle orogeny. Various interpretations of the mode of deformation have been proposed such as wrench faulting, gravity sliding, and overthrusting. This research supports the idea of moderately dipping thrust faults created by northeast-southwest compression. Paleozoic rocks, originally deposited on the northern edge of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen, have been transported to the northeast on southwest-dipping thrust faults, and now comprise the leading edge of the Arbuckle Mountains. In a detailed study, the Southeast Hoover field was reinterpreted in light of the compressional thrust-fault theory. Large-scale structural closure controls the location of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Arbuckle Group. Structures in the shallower horizons are characterized by detached anticlines that were created as a response to volume adjustments in adjacent upward-tightening synclines. Fault cutoff lengths and hanging-wall cutoff angles provide clues to predeformation fault-plane geometry. Comparison of the Southeast Hoover field with other structures in the Arbuckle region indicates a close similarity of style, which suggests this study can be used as a geologic model for interpreting foreland oil fields throughout southern Oklahoma.

  14. Developing Terrestrial Trophic Models for Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Sites: The Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, M; Coty, J; Stewart, J; Carlsen, T; Callaham, M

    2001-01-26

    This document details procedures to be used when constructing a conceptual terrestrial trophic model for natural gas and oil exploration and production sites. A site conceptual trophic model is intended for use in evaluating ecological impacts of oil and brine releases at E&P sites from a landscape or ecosystem perspective. The terrestrial trophic model protocol was developed using an example site, the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP) in Oklahoma. The procedure focuses on developing a terrestrial trophic model using information found in the primary literature, and augmented using site-specific research where available. Although the TPP has been the subject of considerable research and public interest since the high-profile reintroduction of bison (Bison bison) in 1993, little formal work has been done to develop a food web for the plant and animal communities found at the preserve. We describe how to divide species into guilds using explicit criteria on the basis of resource use and spatial distribution. For the TPP, sixteen guilds were developed for use in the trophic model, and the relationships among these guilds were analyzed. A brief discussion of the results of this model is provided, along with considerations for its use and areas for further study.

  15. Linkages Between Boundary-Layer Structure and the Development of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets in Central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M.; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Shapiro, Alan; Xue, Ming

    2016-03-01

    In the Southern Great Plains, nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) develop frequently after sunset and play an important role in the transport and dispersion of moisture and atmospheric pollutants. However, our knowledge regarding the LLJ evolution and its feedback on the structure of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) is still limited. In the present study, NBL characteristics and their interdependencies with LLJ evolution are investigated using datasets collected across the Oklahoma City metropolitan area during the Joint Urban field experiment in July 2003 and from three-dimensional simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The strength of the LLJs and turbulent mixing in the NBL both increase with the geostrophic forcing. During nights with the strongest LLJs, turbulent mixing persisted after sunset in the NBL and a strong surface temperature inversion did not develop. However, the strongest increase in LLJ speed relative to the mixed-layer wind speed in the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) occurred when the geostrophic forcing was relatively weak and thermally-induced turbulence in the CBL was strong. Under these conditions, turbulent mixing at night was typically much weaker and a strong surface-based inversion developed. Sensitivity tests with the WRF model confirm that weakening of turbulent mixing during the decay of the CBL in the early evening transition is critical for LLJ formation. The cessation of thermally-induced CBL turbulence during the early evening transition triggers an inertial oscillation, which contributes to the LLJ formation.

  16. Final Report for the Joint Urban 2003 Atmospheric Dispersion Study in Oklahoma City: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M J

    2005-10-12

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was designed to collect meteorological and tracer data resolving atmospheric dispersion at scales-of-motion ranging from flows in and around a single city block, in and around several blocks in the downtown Central Business District (CBD), and into the suburban Oklahoma City area a few km from the CBD. Indoor tracer and flow measurements within four downtown study buildings were also made in conjunction with detailed outdoor measurements investigating the outdoor-indoor exchange rates and mechanisms. The movement of tracer within the study buildings was also studied. The data from the field experiment is being used to evaluate models that are being developed for predicting dispersion of contaminants in urban areas. These models may be fast-response models based on semi-empirical algorithms that are used in real-time emergencies, or highly sophisticated computational fluid dynamics models that resolve individual building faces and crevices. The data from the field experiment, together with the models, can then be used to develop other advanced tools that are especially valuable in the efforts to thwart terrorists. These include tools for finding location and characteristics of a contaminant source; tools that can be used for real-time response or for forensic investigation. The tools will make use of monitoring networks for biological agents that are being established in several sensitive cities throughout the nation. This major urban study was conducted beginning June 28 and ending July 31, 2003. It included several integrated scientific components necessary to describe and understand the physical processes governing dispersion within and surrounding an urban area and into and within building environments. The components included characterizing: (1) the urban boundary layer and the development of the urban boundary layer within the atmospheric boundary layer, (2) the flows within and downwind of the tall-building core, (3

  17. Depositional environments and paleoecology of the Oil Creek Formation (Middle Ordovician), Arbuckle Mountains and Criner Hills, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Oil Creek Formation (Whiterockian) is the second oldest of the five formations which make up the Simpson Group. Although widespread in the subsurface, it is exposed only in the study area and possibly in West Texas. The formation was deposited in a linear basin known as the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen during a phase of apparent episodic subsidence. Deposition occurred in supratidal to shallow marine environments which were subjected to occasional tropical storms. Six depositional facies within the shaly upper member of the formation, previously known as the Oil Creek shale are defined. These facies are based on the lithology and fossil content of the quartzarenite and limestone beds because the alternating shale beds are monotonous and essentially lack skeletal fossils. This facies tract shows that, as in other formations of the Simpson Group, deposition apparently took place in one major cycle of transgression and regression. The transgressive phase of deposition is represented by the vertical sequence consisting of the Basal Sandstone Unit, Upper Offshore Facies, Transition Zone 1, and Lower Offshore Facies. The regressive phase includes Transition Zone 2, the Shoal Facies, Lagoon Facies, and Tidal Flat Facies. The Shoal Facies has relatively thick limestone beds composed of skeletal debris, quartz sand, and goethitic ooids, while the Lagoon Facies is dominated by terrigenous shale. The species composition and number in the different communities seem to have been largely determined by the nature of the substrate.

  18. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING AND REDELINEATION SUBMISSION, BRYAN COUNTY, OKLAHOMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  19. Rupture of Model 48Y UF6 cylinder and release of uranium hexafluoride, Sequoyah Fuels Facility, Gore, Oklahoma, January 4, 1986. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 11:30 a.m. on January 4, 1986, a Model 48Y UF6 cylinder filled with uranium hexafluoride (UF6) ruptured while it was being heated in a steam chest at the Sequoyah Fuels Conversion Facility near Gore, Oklahoma. One worker died because he inhaled hydrogen fluoride fumes, a reaction product of UF6 and airborne moisture. Several other workers were injured by the fumes, but none seriously. Much of the facility complex and some offsite areas to the south were contaminated with hydrogen fluoride and a second reaction product, uranyl fluoride. The interval of release was approximately 40 minutes. The cylinder, which had been overfilled, ruptured while it was being heated because of the expansion of UF6 as it changed from the solid to the liquid phase. The maximum safe capacity for the cylinder is 27,560 pounds of product. Evidence indicates that it was filled with an amount exceeding this limit. 18 figs

  20. Concoction of harmful substances in homemade alcoholic beverages in rural areas of Mopani district in Limpopo province-RSA: implications for social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhubele, J C

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this article is to explore and describe the production and consumption of homemade alcohol and its associated challenges in relation to implications for social work practice. Qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was ideal and purposive and snowball sampling methods were used in this research. Data was collected through interviews with brewers and consumers of homemade alcoholic beverages. It was found that foreign substances are put into homemade alcoholic beverages for commercial reasons in an attempt to address social exclusion. PMID:24066633

  1. Marketing Strategies Preferred by South Carolina One-Stop Career Center Area Directors to Attract Dislocated Workers under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Eugene F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the marketing strategies South Carolina One-Stop Career Centers Area Directors felt provided the best opportunity for dislocated workers to learn about their services. Two theories emerged: the Service Marketing Theory and the Word-of-Mouth Marketing Theory. Of the 36 area directors cited for this study,…

  2. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Toro-Mujica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms of social and environmental impacts, as well as their implications for climate change.

  3. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Baruch-Mordo

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus, little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years, where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from

  4. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R; Lewis, David L; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S; Breck, Stewart W

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks

  5. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY WITH DOWNHOLE VIBRATION STIMULATION IN OSAGE COUNTY OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Westermark; J. Ford Brett

    2003-11-01

    This Final Report covers the entire project from July 13, 2000 to June 30, 2003. The report summarizes the details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma'' under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-00BC15191. The project was divided into nine separate tasks. This report is written in an effort to document the lessons learned during the completion of each task. Therefore each task will be discussed as the work evolved for that task throughout the duration of the project. Most of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, but certain tasks were dependent on earlier tasks being completed. During the three years of project activities, twelve quarterly technical reports were submitted for the project. Many individual topic and task specific reports were included as appendices in the quarterly reports. Ten of these reports have been included as appendices to this final report. Two technical papers, which were written and accepted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, have also been included as appendices. The three primary goals of the project were to build a downhole vibration tool (DHVT) to be installed in seven inch casing, conduct a field test of vibration stimulation in a mature waterflooded field and evaluate the effects of the vibration on both the produced fluid characteristics and injection well performance. The field test results are as follows: In Phase I of the field test the DHVT performed exceeding well, generating strong clean signals on command and as designed. During this phase Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had installed downhole geophones and hydrophones to monitor the signal generated by the downhole vibrator. The signals recorded were strong and clear. Phase II was planned to be ninety-day reservoir stimulation field test. This portion of the field tests was abruptly ended after one week of operations, when the DHVT became stuck in the well

  6. Identification and evaluation of fluvial-dominated deltaic (Class 1 oil) reservoirs in Oklahoma. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankin, C.J. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States); Banken, M.K. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    1995-07-07

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS), the Geological Information Systems department, and the School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma are engaging in a program to identify and address Oklahoma`s oil recovery opportunities in fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs. This program includes the systematic and comprehensive collection and evaluation of information on all of Oklahoma`s FDD reservoirs and the recovery technologies that have been (or could be) applied to those reservoirs with commercial success. This data collection and evaluation effort will be the foundation for an aggressive, multifaceted technology transfer program that is designed to support all of Oklahoma`s oil industry, with particular emphasis on smaller companies and independent operators in their attempts to maximize the economic producibility of FDD reservoirs. Specifically, this project will identify all FDD oil reservoirs in the State; group those reservoirs into plays that have similar depositional and subsequent geologic histories; collect, organize and analyze all available data; conduct characterization and simulation studies on selected reservoirs in each play; and implement a technology transfer program targeted to the operators of FDD reservoirs to sustain the life expectancy of existing wells with the ultimate objective of increasing oil recovery. The elements of the technology transfer program include developing and publishing play portfolios, holding workshops to release play analyses and identify opportunities in each of the plays, and establishing a computer laboratory that is available for industry users.

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern. PMID:26330321

  8. Water-level changes in the Flevo area, central Netherlands (5300-1500 BC): implications for relative mean sea-level rise in the Western Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Plassche, O; Bohncke, SJP; Makaske, B.; Van der Plicht, J

    2005-01-01

    The younger (post 4000 cal BC) part of the water-level curve for the eastern Flevo area, central Netherlands runs below the relative mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the western and northern Netherlands (Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 36(l) (1982) 93pp). We investigated if this difference can be attributed to (i) root rejuvenation of the bulk-dated basal peat samples on which the curve for the eastern Flevo area is based and/or (ii) underestimation of the water depth in which the dated p...

  9. Detrital mode and whole-rock geochemistry of the fluvial succession, Pishin Belt, Pakistan: Implications on provenance and source area weathering in periferal foreland basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    Detrital mode and geochemical composition of sandstones and mudstones of the Miocene Dasht Murgha Group (DMG) and Pliocene Malthanai Formation (MF) of the Pishin Belt, north-western Pakistan have been examined to identify their provenance and source area weathering. Sandstones of the Dasht Murgha...... area. In A-CN-K diagrams the samples make linear trend towards illite which suggests that the sediments were derived from a tectonically active source going through non-steady-state weathering, where the detritus has been derived from different zones of weathering profiles....

  10. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  11. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  12. On the utility of in situ soil moisture observations for flash drought early warning in Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Trent W.; McRoberts, D. Brent; Quiring, Steven M.; Hall, Ryann E.

    2015-11-01

    Drought early warning systems are a vital component of drought monitoring and require information at submonthly time scales because of the rapidly evolving nature of drought. This study evaluates the utility of in situ soil moisture observations for drought early warning in Oklahoma. Soil moisture was used to identify drought events, and the results were compared with the U.S. Drought Monitor with respect to the identification of drought onset. Soil moisture observations consistently identify rapid-onset (flash) drought events earlier than the U.S. Drought Monitor. Our results show that soil moisture percentiles provide a 2-3 week lead time over the U.S. Drought Monitor based on five flash drought events that occurred in Oklahoma between 2000 and 2013. We conclude that in situ soil moisture observations are an important source of information for early warning of flash drought events in the Oklahoma.

  13. Reconnaissance of Soil, Ground Water, and Plant Contamination at an Abandoned Oilfield-Service Site near Shawnee, Oklahoma, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, began a reconnaissance study of a site in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, in 2005 by testing soil, shallow ground water, and plant material for the presence of trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Chemical analysis of plant material at the site was investigated as a preliminary tool to determine the extent of contamination at the site. Thirty soil samples were collected from 15 soil cores during October 2005 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Five small-diameter, polyvinyl-chloride-cased wells were installed and ground-water samples were collected during December 2005 and May 2006 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Thirty Johnsongrass samples and 16 Coralberry samples were collected during September 2005 and analyzed for 53 constituents, including trace elements. Results of the soil, ground-water, and plant data indicate that the areas of trace element and semivolatile organic compound contamination are located in the shallow (A-horizon) soils near the threading barn. Most of the trace-element concentrations in the soils on the study site were either similar to or less than trace-element concentrations in background soils. Several trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Levels 2007 for Tap Water, Residential Soils, Industrial Indoor Soils, and Industrial Outdoor Soils. There was little or no correlation between the plant and soil sample concentrations and the plant and ground-water concentrations based on the current sample size and study design. The lack of correlation between trace-element concentrations in plants and soils, and plants and ground water indicate that plant sampling was not useful as a preliminary tool to assess contamination at the study site.

  14. Occurrence of Hexabromocyclododecane in soil and road dust from mixed-land-use areas of Shanghai, China, and its implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hong; Han, Tao; Xu, Gang; Zang, Chao; Li, Yi-Jie; Sun, Rui; Xu, Ben-Tuo; Sun, Yan; Chen, Fen-Fen; Tang, Liang

    2016-07-15

    Herein, the occurrence of three Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) diastereoisomers in soil and road dust from the mixed-land-use areas in Shanghai was investigated. The total concentrations of HBCDDs (∑HBCDDs) in soil ranged from 0.30 to 249ngg(-1)dw, with a median level of 5.14ngg(-1)dw. For the road dust samples, the ΣHBCDD concentrations varied from 4.11 to 508ngg(-1)dw, with a median level of 23.4ngg(-1)dw. The levels of HBCDDs varied in different mixed-land-use areas. In soil, the levels of HBCDDs increased in the following sequence: residential area & agricultural area (R&A)dust were A&Idust samples were significantly higher than those of α-HBCDD in the soil. For soil, the portion of α-HBCDD increased in the following sequence: R&Idust was R&Cdust from R&C and R&I were found, which suggested that they may share similar sources in these regions. On the basis of the HBCDD concentrations of road dust and soil, the contributions of ingestion, dermal contact absorption and inhalation intake to total estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were estimated. The highest total EDIs of ∑HBCDDs (sum of ingestion, dermal contact absorption and inhalation intake) were 0.154, 7.5×10(-2)ngkg(-1)d(-1) for infants from road dust and soil in R&I, respectively. PMID:27065447

  15. Changes in Vegetation Cover in Reforested Areas in the State of São Paulo, Brazil and the Implication for Landslide Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia dos Santos Alvalá

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, plantations of exotic species such as Eucalyptus have expanded substantially in recent years, due in large part to the great demand for cellulose and wood. The combination of the steep slopes in some of these regions, such as the municipalities located close to the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, and the soil exposure that occurs in some stages in the Eucalyptus cultivation cycle, can cause landslides. The use of a geographic information system (GIS assists with the identification of areas that are susceptible to landslides, and one of the GIS tools used is the spatial inference technique. In this work, the landslide susceptibility of areas occupied by Eucalyptus plantations in different stages of development in municipalities in the state of São Paulo was examined. Eight thematic maps were used, and, the fuzzy gamma technique was used for data integration and the generation of susceptibility maps, in which scenarios were created with different gamma values for the dry and rainy seasons. The results for areas planted with Eucalyptus were compared with those obtained for other land uses and covers. In the moderate and high susceptibility classes, the pasture is the land use type that presented the greatest susceptibility, followed by new Eucalyptus plantations and urban areas.

  16. Zinc and Copper Isotopes in Central European Tektites and Sediments from the Ries Impact AreaImplications for Material Sources and Loss of Volatile Elements During Tektite Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodovská, Z.; Magna, T.; Kato, C.; Savage, P. S.; Moynier, F.; Žák, Karel

    Houston: Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2015. [Lunar and Planetary Science Conference /46./. 16.03.2015-20.03.2015, Woodlands] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : tektites * sediments * Ries area Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2015/pdf/1951.pdf

  17. Integrating Remotely Sensed and Hydrologically Modeled ET for Better Water Resources Management in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.; Hong, Y.; Vieux, B.; Crawford, K.

    2008-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the hydrologic cycle and links diverse disciplines such as those involved in water resource planning with agriculture, ecology and climate science. Oklahoma typically hosts irrigated agriculture, rainfed wetlands, and riparian vegetation. As demand for water increases, water managers need to know how much water is actually consumed. For the past decades, the primary method for estimating ET relies on site-based weather station measurements, which are inadequate to monitor the spatial variability of ET over large regions and focus on potential rather than actual ET. With the advent of new satellite technology and comprehensive water balance and runoff models, opportunities exist to develop algorithms and apply remote sensing information to estimate actual ET. The main objective of this presentation is to evaluate the ability and usefulness of the remote sensing ET estimation algorithms in Oklahoma that does not require placement of in-situ monitoring/metering devices. First, a surface-energy-balance ET estimation algorithm is implemented with modification for two counties with differing climate, soil, and land surface types. Accuracy of the estimated ET is evaluated at the site scale using available Mesonet stations and an Ameriflux tower. Second, modeled actual ET from a distributed hydrologic model is compared with the remotely sensed actual ET at catchment scales on the order of several hundreds of square kilometers. Results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing real-time monitoring of actual ET estimation system for more accurate water use monitoring and, therefore, provide for better water resources management in Oklahoma.

  18. Parameterization and application of the AquaCrop model for simulating bioenergy crops in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilga, Navneet Kaur

    The objective of this study was to parameterize the AquaCrop model for two bioenergy crops, switchgrass and forage sorghum, using field measurements from Stillwater, Oklahoma in 2011. The parameterized model was then validated for additional sites at Chickasha and Woodward, Oklahoma. After parameterization at Stillwater, the simulated canopy cover closely matched the measured canopy cover dynamics with a RMSE of 6% in switchgrass and 5% in forage sorghum. The water stress thresholds for canopy expansion and stomatal conductance were similar for switchgrass and forage sorghum, but senescence was induced at 35% available water depletion for forage sorghum compared to 85% for switchgrass. The maximum rooting depth of switchgrass was estimated at 190 cm and that of forage sorghum at 120 cm. The normalized water productivity of switchgrass was found to be 14 g m-2, approximately half that of forage sorghum which was 27 g m-2. The parameterized model reasonably simulated soil water depletion at Stillwater (RMSE corn, forage sorghum and switchgrass were simulated using AquaCrop five water levels: rainfed with initial soil moisture conditions of 60% available water capacity, 80% available water capacity, 100% available water capacity, and irrigation treatments at 70% allowable depletion, and at 50% allowable depletion. The simulation study was done over a period of ten years 2002-2011 to assess the long term performance. County average yields were consistent with simulated grain yields for corn under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Forage sorghum produced 30 % higher theoretical ethanol yields than corn under irrigated environments but not under rainfed environments. Switchgrass did not produce significantly higher theoretical ethanol yields than corn at any water level. Based on this modeling study, forage sorghum may have potential as an alternative to corn in the Oklahoma Panhandle given the advent of cellulosic ethanol production but forage sorghum is unlikely to

  19. Analytical data for geologic units in Missouri and parts of Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerngen, Josephine G.; VanTrump, George; Ebens, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    This report lists the geochemical data collected during the course of a reconnaissance study of compositional variation in the bedrock and surficial gelogic untis exposed in Missouri and adjoining parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.  The primar object of the study was to assess scale-related components of geochemical variance with a view of determining the importance of regional geochemical variation in these units (cf. Connor and other, 1972).  Geologic evaluation, geochemical interpretation and summaries, and sampling designs employed in the collection of most of these data may be found in U.S. Geological Survey (1972a-1972f, 1973) and Connor and Shacklette (1975).

  20. Geological Fluid Mapping in the Tongling Area: Implications for the Paleozoic Submarine Hydrothermal System in the Middle-Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Tongling area is one of the 7 ore-cluster areas in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt, East China, and has tectonically undergone a long-term geologic history from the late Paleozoic continental rifting, through the Middle Triassic continent-continent collision to the Jurassic-Cretaceous intracontinental tectono-magmatic activation. The Carboniferous sedimentary-exhalative processes in the area produced widespread massive sulfides with ages of 303-321 Ma, which partly formed massive pyrite-Cu deposits, but mostly provided significant sulfur and metals to the skarn Cu mineralization associated with the Yanshanian felsic intrusions.To understand the Carboniferous submarine hydrothermal system, an area of about 1046 km2 was chosen to carry out the geological fluid mapping. Associated with massive sulfide formation, footwall sequences 948 m to 1146 m thick, composed of the Lower Silurian-Upper Devonian sandstone, siltstone and thin-layered shale, were widely altered. This hydrothermal alteration is interpreted to reflect largescale hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the late Paleozoic crustal rifting and subsidence. Three hydrothermal alteration types, i.e., deep-level semiconformable silicification (S1), fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration (S2-3), and upper-level sub-discordant quartz-sericite-chlorite alteration (D3), were developed to form distinct zones in the mapped area. About 50-m thick semiconformable siliclfication zones are located at ~1-km depth below massive sulfides and developed between an impermeable shale caprock (S1) and the underlying Ordovician unaltered limestone.Comparisons with modern geothermal systems suggest that the alteration zones record a sub-seafloor aquifer with the most productive hydrothermal fluid flow. Fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration formed transgressive zones, which downward crosscut the semiconformable alteration zones,and upwards grade into sub-discordant alteration zones

  1. Poverty alleviation among fishermen within the floodplains of Kaduna River: implication for introducing commercial fish farming at village level in Doko local government area of Niger State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yaro, I.; Gana, F.S.

    2005-01-01

    A diagnostic survey was conducted among the fishermen in six selected villages in Doko Local Government Area of Niger State. One hundred and fifty fishermen were randomly selected and interviewed to find out whether or not they had interest in commercial fish farming aimed at improving their livelihood. The dwindling fish catches in the natural flood plain ponds and Ex-bow Lakes continue to have a serious negative effect on the socio-economic well being of the village communities in question....

  2. Sequence Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Facies of Lower Oligocene Yacheng Formation in Deepwater Area of Qiongdongnan Basin, Northern South China Sea:Implications for Coal-Bearing Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng Ren; Hua Wang; Ming Sun; Huajun Gan; Guangzeng Song; Zhipeng Sun

    2014-01-01

    For unveiling coal-bearing source rocks in terrestrial-marine transitional sequences, the sequence stratigraphic framework and sedimentary facies of Lower Oligocene Yacheng Formation of Qiongdongnan Basin were investigated using seismic profiles, complemented by well bores and cores. Three third-order sequences are identified on the basis of unconformities on basin margins and cor-relative conformities in the basin center, namely SQYC3, SQYC2 and SQYC1 from bottom to top. Coal measure in Yacheng Formation of Qiongdongnan Basin were deposited within a range of facies asso-ciations from delta plain/tidal zone to neritic sea, and three types of favourable sedimentary facies as-sociations for coal measure were established within the sequence stratigraphic framework, including braided delta plain and alluvial fan, lagoon and tidal flat, and fan delta and coastal plain facies associa-tions. Results shown that, in the third-order sequences, coal accumulation in landward areas (such as delta plain) of the study area predominantly correlates with the early transgressive systems tract (TST) to middle highstand systems tract (HST), while in seaward areas (such as tidal flat-lagoon) it correlates with the early TST and middle HST. The most potential coal-bearing source rocks formed where the accommodation creation rate (Ra) and the peat-accumulation rate (Rp) could reach a state of balance, which varied among different sedimentary settings. Furthermore, intense tectonic subsidence and fre-quent alternative marine-continental changes of Yacheng Formation during the middle rift stage were the main reasons why the coal beds shown the characteristics of multi-beds, thin single-bed, and rapidly lateral changes. The proposed sedimentary facies associations may aid in predicting distribution of coal-bearing source rocks. This study also demonstrates that controlling factors analysis using sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology may serve as an effective approach for coal

  3. ArcGIS studies and field relationships of Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms from the south of Devarakonda area, Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India: Implications for their relative ages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amiya K Samal; Rajesh K Srivastava; Lokesh K Sinha

    2015-07-01

    Google Earth Image and cross-cutting field relationships of distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from south of Devarakonda area in the Eastern Dharwar Craton has been studied to establish relative emplacement ages. The Devarakonda, covering an area of ∼700 km2, shows spectacular cross-cutting field relationships between different generations of mafic dykes, and is therefore selected for the present study. Although some recent radiometric age data are available for distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from the Eastern Dharwar Craton, there is no analogous age data available for the study area. Therefore, relative age relationships of distinct mafic dykes have been established for the study area using cross-cutting field relationships and GIS techniques, which shows slightly different picture than other parts of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. It is suggested that NE–SW trending mafic dykes are youngest in age (probably belong to ∼1.89 Ga dyke swarm), whereas NNW–SSE trending mafic dykes have oldest emplacement age. Further, the NNW–SSE mafic dykes are older to the other two identified mafic dyke swarms, i.e., WNW–ESE (∼2.18 Ga) and N–S trending (∼2.21 Ga) mafic dyke swarms, as dykes of these two swarms cross-cut a NNW–SSE dyke. It provides an evidence for existence of a new set of mafic dykes that is older to the ∼2.21 Ga and probably younger to the ∼2.37 Ga swarm. Present study also supports existence of two mafic dyke swarms having similar trend (ENE–WSW to NE–SW) but emplaced in two different ages (one is ∼2.37 Ga and other ∼1.89 Ga).

  4. Victims of location: Health Implications on household living proximal to the Owhim solid waste dump in the Kumasi Metropolitan Area (KMA) of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ebenezer Owusu-Sekyere; Abdul- Kadri Yahaya

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of acquiring land for the final disposal of solid waste in urban areas of Ghana has become a critical issue in the urban planning process because of its enormous impact on the economy, ecology and environmental health. Waste dumps have been blamed for the upsurge in disease such as malaria, diarrhea, dermal infection, respiratory tract infection and typhoid among others in the communities they are located. This has therefore resulted in conflicts and demonstrations between city ...

  5. Geochemistry of fluids discharged over the seismic area of the Southern Apennines (Calabria region, Southern Italy): Implications for Fluid-Fault relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first comprehensive geochemical data-set of the fluids circulating over a 14,000 km2-wide seismic-prone area of the Southern Apennines, Calabria Region (Italy), is presented here. The geochemical investigations were carried out with the twofold aim of constraining the origin and interactions of the circulating fluids and to investigate possible relationships with local faults. Sixty samples of both thermal and cold waters were collected, from which the dissolved gases were extracted. The geochemical features of the water samples display different types and degrees of water-rock interactions, irrespective of the outlet temperature. The calculated equilibrium temperatures of the thermal waters (60-160 deg. C) and the low heat flow of the whole study area, are consistent with a heating process due to deep water circulation and rapid upflow through lithospheric structures. The composition of the dissolved gases reveals that crustal-originating gases (N2 and CO2-dominated) feed all the groundwaters. The 3He/4He ratios of the dissolved He, in the range of 0.03-0.22Rac for the thermal waters and 0.05-0.63Rac for the cold waters (Rac = He isotope ratio corrected for atmospheric contamination), are mainly the result of a two-component (radiogenic and atmospheric) mixing, although indications of mantle-derived He are found in some cold waters. As the study area had been hit by 18 of the most destructive earthquakes (magnitude ranging from 5.9 to 7.2) occurring over a 280-a time span (1626-1908) in the Southern Apennines, the reported results on the circulating fluids may represent the reference for a better inside knowledge of the fault-fluid relationships and for the development of long-term geochemical monitoring strategies for the area.

  6. Late Paleozoic magmatic record of Middle Gobi area, South Mongolia and its implications for tectonic evolution: Evidences from zircon U-Pb dating and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshuai; Miao, Laicheng; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Zhang, Fochin; Anaad, Chimedtseren; Yang, Shunhu; Li, Xingbo

    2016-01-01

    Late Paleozoic subduction-accretion complexes occur widely in Middle Gobi area and provide a good opportunity for unraveling the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of South Mongolia. The magmatic rocks in the Tsavchir hudug district mainly consist of rhyolites and volcaniclastic rocks. The rhyolites show enrichment in LREE and LILE and negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, indicating genesis in the subduction zone. A rhyolite sample from the Tsavchir hudug region yielded a SHRIMP 206Pb/238U zircon age of 315 ± 4 Ma (MSWD = 0.79, n = 15). The andesite overlying the Namdain hundy Early Paleozoic ophiolite shows adakite geochemical features, and the two andesite samples yielded SHRIMP 206Pb/238U zircon ages of 325 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 1.6, n = 14) and 319 ± 4 Ma (MSWD = 0.56, n = 13), respectively, suggesting that the Carboniferous island arc formed on the basis of Early Paleozoic accretionary complex. The granodiorite sample that intrudes the Early Paleozoic accretion complex with adakite geochemical features yielded a SHRIMP 206Pb/238U zircon age of 333 ± 4 Ma (MSWD = 1.6, n = 16), representing the Late Paleozoic island arc intrusive. The SHRIMP U-Pb analyses for the tuff sandstones that occur associated with Early Paleozic oceanic inliers in Middle Gobi area suggest detrital zircons mainly stem from the Devonian-Carboniferous arc. The age data obtained from the ophiolite (528-509 Ma) and tuff sandstone indicate the accretion in Middle Gobi area lasted from Early Paleozoic to Late Paleozoic for at least ca. 200 Ma, suggesting the ocean of the accretionary complex was the major Paleo-Asain ocean basin. The subduction related magmatic belt in Middle Gobi area includes both Early Paleozoic and Late Paleozoic island arc activities, which is consistent with the accretion duration time obtained from accretionary complex and also attests the argument of major Paleo-Asain ocean basin.

  7. Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Baruch-Mordo; Kenneth R Wilson; Lewis, David L.; John Broderick; Mao, Julie S.; Breck, Stewart W.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological...

  8. Wide-area estimates of stand structure and water use of tamarix spp. on the lower colorado river: Implications for restoration and water management projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Didan, K.; Osterberg, J.; Jordan, F.; Cunningham, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tamarix spp. removal has been proposed to salvage water and allow native vegetation to recolonize western U.S. riparian corridors. We conducted wide-area studies on the Lower Colorado River to answer some of the scientific questions about Tamarix water use and the consequences of removal, combining ground surveys with remote sensing methods. Tamarix stands had moderate rates of evapotranspiration (ET), based on remote sensing estimates, averaging 1.1 m/yr, similar to rates determined for other locations on the river and other rivers. Leaf area index values were also moderate, and stands were relatively open, with areas of bare soil interspersed within stands. At three Tamarix sites in the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge, groundwater salinity at the site nearest to the river (200 m) was relatively low (circa 2,250 mg/L) and was within 3 m of the surface. However, 750 and 1,500 m from the river, the groundwater salinity was 5,000-10,000 mg/L due to removal of water by the Tamarix stands. Despite the high groundwater salinity, the sites away from the river did not have saline surface soils. Only 1% of the mean annual river flow is lost to Tamarix ET on the Lower Colorado River in the United States, and the opportunities for water salvage through Tamarix removal are constrained by its modest ET rates. A possible alternative to Tamarix removal is to intersperse native plants among the stands to improve the habitat value of the riparian zone. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  9. Seasonal variation of 228Ra/226Ra ratio in seaweed: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine water circulation patterns of coastal water, 72 seaweed (Sargasso) samples and 27 coastal water samples were collected from coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan, during the period from December 1998 to June 2002. The 228Ra and 226Ra activities of those samples were measured by low-background γ-ray spectrometry. There was a wide range of activities of 228Ra (0.5-2 Bq/kg-fresh) and 226Ra (0.5-1.2 Bq/kg-fresh) in the Sargasso samples. The 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of Sargasso samples exhibited seasonal variation with minimum values in June (228Ra/226Ra = ∼1) and maximum values in December (1.5-2.5), which was mainly governed by changes in 228Ra activity. It is also notable that the seasonal variation of the 228Ra/226Ra ratio of Sargasso is in approximate agreement with that of the ambient coastal water. Sargasso samples appear to have retained the 228Ra/226Ra ratio of the ambient coastal waters, and the temporal variations in that ratio provide insight into seasonal changes in water circulation in the Noto Peninsula coastal area

  10. Implications for reconstruction of the relationship between nuclear industry and siting areas in Japan. Lessons learnt from the cases of Site Stakeholder Groups in United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, the Japanese nuclear community began to recognize the need for establishing local stakeholder meetings in nuclear siting areas for information sharing and communication in reference to the experiences in European countries. This report shows the patterns of institutional design and the management style of stakeholder meetings in UK based on the interview survey, including SSGs (Site Stakeholder Groups) around the NDA (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) sites and LCLCs (Local Community Liaison Councils) around the nuclear power stations in operation. SSGs have developed a local-oriented management style under the leadership of independent chairs elected from local stakeholders, in contrast to LCLCs where the operator of nuclear energy facilities has the initiative of management. SSGs play critical roles in improving quality of decision-making and enhancing its legitimacy through providing forums for local stakeholder engagement in the process of NDA's consultations and BPEO (Best Practicable Environmental Option) implementation. Based on these insights from UK's cases, the author suggests the following remedies for the relationship between the nuclear industry and siting areas in Japan: (1) introducing evaluation systems of stakeholder engagement linked to the insurance rates of nuclear energy liability, and (2) modifying the nuclear safety agreements into risk management principles. (author)

  11. Outcomes-based planning and implementation led to the success of the Hawaii fruit fly suppression programme: Implications to adoption of area-wide programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A critical component of successful area-wide pest management (AWPM) programmes are organised, coordinated and comprehensive outreach educational programmes. The Hawaii area-wide fruit fly pest management (HAW-FLYPM) programme's educational programme, a part of a USDA AWPM programme in Hawaii, utilised the 'logic model' approach to organise, plan, execute and evaluate farmer and community educational programmes statewide. The logic model approach was an outcome-driven rather than activity based method that employed a linear sequence that developed relationships between programme inputs, outputs and outcomes. This model was utilised extensively to transfer sustainable, science-based technologies to suppress tephritid fruit fly pests. HAW-FLYPM's educational programme targeted growers and community door yard growers, three teaching curricula aimed at elementary through high school students, and a statewide awareness programme for the public at large. Additional key components of the HAW-FLYPM education programme was the development of implementation schedules used to track programme progress, a comprehensive media matrix developed to ensure educational materials met the needs of target audience groups, and a sustainability calculator to assess the likelihood of programme sustainability after the initial five year funding cycle. The model served as a 'blue print' for ensuring programme elements were planned, delivered and executed on a timely basis. Utilisation of the logic model to organise efforts and manage diverse, multi agency programmes such as the HAW-FLYPM programme has shown to be a successful method of programme advancement and outcome achievement. (author)

  12. Heavy minerals and garnet geochemistry of stream sediments and bedrocks from the Almklovdalen area, Western Gneiss Region, SW Norway: Implications for provenance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Anne; Meinhold, Guido; Morton, Andrew C.; Schönig, Jan; von Eynatten, Hilmar

    2016-05-01

    Detrital heavy minerals commonly document the geological setting in the source area, hence they are widely used in sedimentary provenance analysis. In heavy mineral studies, the 63-125 and 63-250 μm grain size fractions are most commonly used. Heavy mineral data and garnet geochemistry of stream sediments and bedrocks from the catchment area draining the Almklovdalen peridotite massif in SW Norway reveal that a wider grain size spectrum needs to be considered to avoid misleading interpretations. The Almklovdalen peridotite massif consists mainly of dunite and harzburgite, as testified by the heavy mineral suite. At the outlet of the main river, the heavy mineral spectrum is very monotonous due to dilution by a strong influx of olivine. Heavy minerals like apatite and epidote characterising the host gneisses have almost disappeared. MgO-rich almandine garnets are more frequent in the coarser grain size fractions, whereas MnO-rich almandine garnets are more frequent in the finer grain size fractions. Garnets with pyrope content exceeding 50% are only found in the 500-1000 μm grain size fraction. Therefore, the sample location and the selected grain size fraction are of paramount importance when dealing with heavy minerals and mineral geochemical data; otherwise, provenance-sensitive information may be missed.

  13. Geomorphic assessment of late Quaternary volcanism in the Yucca Mountain area, southern Nevada: Implications for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, S. G.; McFadden, L. D.; Renault, C. E.; Crowe, B. M.

    1990-06-01

    Volcanic hazard studies for high-level radioactive waste isolation in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, require a detailed understanding of Quaternary volcanism to forecast rates of volcanic processes. Recent studies of the Quaternary Cima volcanic field in southern California have demonstrated that K-Ar dates of volcanic landforms are consistent with their geomorphic and pedologic properties. The systematic change of these properties with time may be used to provide age estimates of undated or questionably dated volcanic features. The reliability off radiometric age determinations of the youngest volcanic center, Lathrop Wells, near the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been problematic. In this study, a comparison of morphometric, pedogenic, and stratigraphic data establishes that correlation of geomorphic and soil properties between the Cima volcanic field and the Yucca Mountain area is valid. Comparison of the Lathrop Wells cinder cone to a 15-20 ka cinder cone in California shows that their geomorphic-pedogenic properties are similar and implies that the two cones are of similar age. We conclude that previous determinations of ca. 0.27 Ma for the latest volcanic activity at Lathrop Wells, approximately 20 km from the proposed repository, may be in error by as much as an order of magnitude and that the most recent volcanic activity is no older than 20 ka.

  14. Correlation between Changes in Seismicity Rates and Well Injection Volumes in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Walsh, R.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a statistical approach to establish correlations between locations with seismicity increase in Oklahoma and nearby well injection volumes. Seismicity rates in the state have significantly increased since approximately 2008. Fluid injection into deep wells has been theorized to be the cause of this seismicity, but the increase occurred significantly after the start of injection activities in the region. Further, injection-induced earthquakes depend on the presence and orientation of basement faults and the stress state in the region. Because of these complexities, it has been difficult to directly correlate fluid injection with seismicity. Here we show that a statistical correlation between increase in seismicity and injection volumes can be established in Oklahoma. We first employ a change point method to locate the regions where a change in seismicity rates has occurred. We then use a logistic regression model to relate the injection volumes in a region with the presence or absence of seismicity change in the region. This model is further used to evaluate the relative contribution of cumulative injection volumes and monthly injection rates to seismicity. The model can be used to identify "seismically sensitive regions" where seismicity increase has been observed with little fluid injection, and "seismically stable regions" where seismicity changes have not been observed even with high fluid injection. This information can be combined with geological information in a region, and used to make decisions about acceptable volumes for injection and to identify lower-risk regions for injection.

  15. A bird community on the edge: habitat use of forest songbirds In eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Vincent S.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Several species of forest songbirds reach a western limit of their respective distributions in eastern Oklahoma. The relative infl uence of various habitat variables on patterns of occurrence in this region may differ from those same infl uences in the core of species’ ranges. We examined the infl uence of 16 habitat variables on the occurrence and density of a suite of forest songbirds. We sampled breeding birds with four, fi xed-radius point counts along 1-km transects at 75 forested sites in eastern Oklahoma in 2006. Forest cover at fi ne scales varied by numerous structural characteristics (e.g., canopy cover) as well as species composition (e.g., pines vs. hardwoods). We performed both Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) ordinations using 16 environmental variables and 37 bird species to examine bird habitat relationships. Forward Selection in CCA indicated that the most important environmental variables affecting bird habitat relationships were the amount of forest cover in the surrounding landscape matrix, and at a local scale, canopy height and elevation.

  16. Gut Microbiome Diversity among Cheyenne and Arapaho Individuals from Western Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Ozga, Andrew T; Warinner, Christina; Tito, Raul Y; Obregon-Tito, Alexandra J; Xu, Jiawu; Gaffney, Patrick M; Jervis, Lori L; Cox, Derrell; Stephens, Lancer; Foster, Morris; Tallbull, Gloria; Spicer, Paul; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-12-21

    Existing studies characterizing gut microbiome variation in the United States suffer from population ascertainment biases, with individuals of American Indian ancestry being among the most underrepresented. Here, we describe the first gut microbiome diversity study of an American Indian community. We partnered with the Cheyenne and Arapaho (C&A), federally recognized American Indian tribes in Oklahoma, and compared gut microbiome diversity and metabolic function of C&A participants to individuals of non-native ancestry in Oklahoma (NNIs). While the C&A and NNI participants share microbiome features common to industrialized populations, the C&A participants had taxonomic profiles characterized by a reduced abundance of the anti-inflammatory bacterial genus Faecalibacterium, along with a fecal metabolite profile similar to dysbiotic states described for metabolic disorders. American Indians are known to be at elevated risk for metabolic disorders. While many aspects of this health disparity remain poorly understood, our results support the need to further study the microbiome as a contributing factor. As the field of microbiome research transitions to therapeutic interventions, it raises concerns that the continued exclusion and lack of participation of American Indian communities in these studies will further exacerbate health disparities. To increase momentum in fostering these much needed partnerships, it is essential that the scientific community actively engage in and recruit these vulnerable populations in basic research through a strategy that promotes mutual trust and understanding, as outlined in this study. PMID:26671671

  17. Evaluation of MODIS NDVI and NDWI for vegetation drought monitoring using Oklahoma Mesonet soil moisture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.; Hunt, E.; Wardlow, B.; Basara, J.B.; Brown, J.F.; Verdin, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of the relationship between satellite-derived vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index and normalized difference water index) and soil moisture improves our understanding of how these indices respond to soil moisture fluctuations. Soil moisture deficits are ultimately tied to drought stress on plants. The diverse terrain and climate of Oklahoma, the extensive soil moisture network of the Oklahoma Mesonet, and satellite-derived indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provided an opportunity to study correlations between soil moisture and vegetation indices over the 2002-2006 growing seasons. Results showed that the correlation between both indices and the fractional water index (FWI) was highly dependent on land cover heterogeneity and soil type. Sites surrounded by relatively homogeneous vegetation cover with silt loam soils had the highest correlation between the FWI and both vegetation-related indices (r???0.73), while sites with heterogeneous vegetation cover and loam soils had the lowest correlation (r???0.22). Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Diagenesis of Viola Limestone (Middle and Upper Ordovician), southeastern Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammer, G.M.

    1983-03-01

    The Viola Limestone in the Arbuckle Mountains was deposited on a carbonate ramp within the southern Oklahoma aulacogen. A complex diagenetic history has occluded virtually all primary porosity within the Viola. Petrographic evidence suggests that the following approximate sequence of diagenetic events has occurred; (1) microboring and subsequent micritization of bioclasts to form micrite envelopes; (2) very early submarine cementation that bound the loosely sorted allochems and partly occluded porosity, characterized by drusy overgrowths on trilobite and brachiopod fragments, bladed, void-filling cement, and turbid, inclusion-rich syntaxial overgrowths on pelmatozoan fragments; (3) initial compaction evidenced by local fracturing of elongate bioclasts; (4) neomorphism, including the inversion of aragonitic allochems to calcite and the recrystallization of micrite to microspar and pseudospar in the presence of low-salinity pore fluids; (5) freshwater cementation that filled virtually all remaining pore space; (6) selective dolomitization; (7) silicification, including the formation of chert nodules and the replacement of bioclasts and calcite cements by microgranular quartz and/or lutecite; (8) compaction and pressure solution, probably due to deep burial, characterized by nonsutured seam stylolites, sutured seam stylolites oriented subparallel to bedding, and sutured grain boundaries; and (9) tectonically imposed pressure solution indicated by sutured seam stylolites oriented at high angles to bedding that developed during the late Paleozoic deformation of the Arbuckle Mountain. The Viola Limestone is known as a reservoir rock and possible source unit for hydrocarbons throughout much of south-central Oklahoma.

  19. Tectonic and deformation history of the Gyeonggi Massif in and around the Hongcheon area, and its implications in the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengkhom, Kesorjit S.; Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Yi, Kee Wook; Kang, Ji Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The Gyeonggi Massif (GM) in South Korea is considered to be a part of the North China Craton. The Precambrian rocks of the GM in and around the Hongcheon area, South Korea, consist of the Yongduri Gneiss Complex (YGC), Euiam Group (EG) and Euiam Gneiss Complex (EGC). The YGC and EG composed mainly of partially migmatised metasedimentary rocks and the EGC is Paleoproterozoic intrusive rock that intruded the EG. At least three major folding (F1, F2 & F3), two-stage ductile shearing and three-stages of metamorphic events (M1, M2 & M3) occurred in the study area. The F1 folds are extremely drawn out, isoclinal, intrafolial folds and have Class 2 to Class 1C geometry. The F1 folds and regional S1 foliation in the YGC and EG are results of the E-W compression during the D1 deformation. Ductile shearing in the southern part of the EG is marked by the Palbongsan Shear Zone that indicates top-to-the SW sheared movement during syn to post-F1 folding. The F2 folds are open to tight, SW plunging and inclined folds, and have Class 1A to 1C geometry. The F2 folding and subsequent NNE thrusting along multiple ductile shear zones parallel to S2 planar fabrics are results of the D2 deformation due to N-S progressive shortening. The D3 deformation was coaxial with the D1 deformation, leading to the development of the F3 kink bands in the mylonite zones. The SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon ages from quartzite and banded gneisses in the EG indicate that the sedimentation in the Chunseong basins began after ca. 2094 Ma. The banded gneisses yield M1 metamorphic age of 1917-1925 Ma. However ca.1867-1883 Ma, M2 metamorphism previously reported from the YGC is absent or weakly preserved in the EG representing that the M2 metamorphism was not strong enough to form new zircon in the EG. The igneous zircons form augen gneisses in the EGC yield intrusion age of ca. 1867-1881 Ma and the geochemistries of the EGC gneisses show post-collision tectonic origin. The D1deformation observed in the YGC and

  20. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations. PMID:26966494

  1. Developing Flexible Dual Master's Degree Programs at UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregas-Janeiro, Maria G.; de la Parra, Pablo Nuno

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University) signed a MOU (memorandum of understanding) to develop more than 20 dual master's degree programs. This special partnership has allowed students from Mexico and the United States to study two master degree programs, in two languages, in two…

  2. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE FIRMS ASSISTED BY THE OKLAHOMA FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerschied, Ann; Woods, Michael D.; Willoughby, Charles V.; Holcomb, Rodney B.; Tilley, Daniel S.

    2003-01-01

    An economic impact study of the Oklahoma Food and Agricultural Products Research and Technology Center was conducted to analyze the impact of the firms the Center has assisted and the impact of services provided by the Center. The economic impact of the firms assisted was calculated using an IMPLAN model.

  3. Identification of Skills Standards for Entry Level Legal Office Support Staff in Urban Oklahoma: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese Ward, Tonya Maria

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to use industry experts to identify critical skills or competencies perceived by the legal profession to be required by competent team members in the legal office environment. Specifically, this study focused on fulfilling this purpose in the context of urban Oklahoma, where a large number…

  4. HIV on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU): A Study of Five Campuses in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Chwee-Lye; Carlon, Alfonso; Toynes, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Students (N = 1,146) from five Historically Black Colleges and Universities in Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma participated in this study. Although students report a moderate level of HIV knowledge, they are deficient on three items related to the role of Nonoxynol-9 on HIV transmission, role of prior STD history on HIV transmission, and meaning of…

  5. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  6. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoproterozoic Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area, western Yangtze Block, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Jin; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Bai, Zhong-Jie; Zhong, Hong; Ye, Xian-Tao; Fan, Hong-Peng

    2016-03-01

    Mafic-ultramafic dykes are important geological markers that can punctuate the onset of crustal extension during the breakup of a continent and provide valuable information on the mantle source. This study reports secondary ion mass spectroscopy zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb ages, elemental and Nd isotopic data for the Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area, western Yangtze Block, SW China. Two kinds of rocks are confirmed: the picritic rock and the dolerite. Based on petrographic and geochemical features, the dolerite dykes are further subdivided into two groups: Group I mafic and Group II mafic dykes, which emplaced at ~760 Ma (zircon U-Pb) and ~800 Ma (zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb), respectively. All samples from the picritic rocks and the Group I mafic rocks show the features of high-Ti and alkaline basaltic magma in composition as well as "humped" trace element patterns, which are similar to those of typical alkaline basalts associated with continental rifts except for the slightly negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The Group II mafic rocks display the features of low-Ti and tholeiitic magma, moderately enriched in LILE and LREE, and characterized by distinctively negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The primary magmas of the picritic rocks and the Group I mafic rocks were generated from ca 25 % partial melting of an OIB-like, Nd isotopically depleted but incompatible elements relatively enriched mantle source within a garnet stable field. The Group II mafic rocks crystallized from crustal contaminated mafic magmas that were derived from a spinel-bearing sub-continental lithospheric mantle source, because of low ratios of La/Yb, Ti/Y and Sm/Yb. Geochemical features suggest that these groups of mafic-ultramafic dykes were formed in a continental rift setting, but derived from different mantle sources. In combination with other Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the western margin of Yangtze Block, it is suggested that the Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area

  7. Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma) adakitic intrusive rocks in the Kelu area, Gangdese Belt (southern Tibet): Slab melting and implications for Cu-Au mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zi-Qi; Wang, Qiang; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Tang, Gong-Jian; Jia, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2012-07-01

    The Gangdese Belt in southern Tibet (GBST) is a major Cu-Au-Mo mineralization zone that mostly formed after the India-Asia collision in association with the small-volume, though widespread, Miocene (18-10 Ma) adakitic porphyries. Cu-Au mineralization has scarcely been found in the regional Jurassic-Early Tertiary batholiths related to subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate. Here, we report petrological, zircon geochronological and geochemical data for Late Cretaceous (˜90 Ma) intrusive rocks that contain Cu-Au mineralization from the Kelu area in the GBST. These rocks consist of quartz monzonites and diorites. The quartz monzonites, with SiO2 of 58-59 wt.% and Na2O/K2O of 1.1-1.2, are geochemically similar to slab-derived adakites characterized by apparent depletions in heavy rare earth elements (e.g., Yb = 1.4-1.5 ppm) and Y (16-18 ppm) contents, positive Sr but negative Nb and Ti anomalies on multi-element variation diagrams. They have relatively low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7038-0.7039) ratios and high ɛNd(t) (+3.4 to +3.9) and in situ zircon ɛHf(t) (+9.3 to +15.8) values. The diorites exhibit high Mg-numbers (0.57-0.61) similar to those of magnesian andesites, and have (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7040-0.7041) and ɛNd(t) (+3.0 to +4.4) values similar to those of the quartz monzonites. We suggest that the quartz monzonitic magmas were most likely generated by partial melting of the subducted Neo-Tethyan basaltic oceanic crust and minor associated oceanic sediments, with subsequent melt-mantle interaction, and the dioritic magmas were mainly derived by the interaction between slab melts and mantle wedge peridotites, with fractionation of apatite and hornblende. These slab-derived adakitic magmas have high oxygen fugacity that may have facilitated Cu-Au mineralization. The close association of the Late Cretaceous adakitic intrusive rocks and Cu-Au mineralization in the Kelu area suggests that the arc magmatic rocks in the GBST may have higher potential than previously thought

  8. Characterization of traffic-related air pollutant metrics at four schools in El Paso, Texas, USA: Implications for exposure assessment and siting schools in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Stock, Thomas H.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Montoya Sosa, Teresa; Ebelt Sarnat, Stefanie; Holguin, Fernando; Greenwald, Roby; Johnson, Brent; Li, Wen-Whai

    2013-12-01

    Children spend substantial amount of time within school microenvironments; therefore, assessing school-based exposures is essential for characterizing and preventing children's health risks to air pollutants. Indeed, the importance of characterizing children's exposures in schools is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency's recent initiative to promote outdoor air monitoring networks near schools. As part of a health effects study investigating the impact of traffic-related air pollution on asthmatic children along the US-Mexico border, this research examines children's exposures to, and spatio-temporal heterogeneity in concentrations of, traffic-related air pollutants at four elementary schools in El Paso, Texas. Three schools were located in an area of high traffic density and one school in an area of low traffic density. Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of 48-h fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5), 48-h black carbon (BC), 96-h nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 96-h volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured for 13 weeks at each school. Outdoor concentrations of PM, NO2, BC, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene) compounds were similar among the three schools in the high-traffic zone in contrast to the school in the low-traffic zone. Results from this study and previous studies in this region corroborate the fact that PM pollution in El Paso is dominated by coarse PM (PM10-2.5) and fine fraction (PM2.5) accounts for only 25-30% of the total PM mass in PM10. BTEX species and BC are better surrogates for traffic air pollution in this region. Correlation analyses indicate a range of association between indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations due to uncontrollable factors like student foot traffic and varying building and ventilation configurations across the four schools. Results suggest the need of micro-scale monitoring for children's exposure assessment, which may not be adequately characterized

  9. Zircon U-Pb age, Hf isotope and geochemistry of Carboniferous intrusions from the Langshan area, Inner Mongolia: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Da; Xiong, Guangqiang; Zhao, Hongtao; Di, Yongjun; Wang, Zhong; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2016-04-01

    Late Paleozoic was a critical period for the tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the Alxa-North China craton, but the evolutionary history is not well constrained. The Carboniferous intrusions in the Langshan area in the western part of the northern margin of the Alxa-North China craton are mainly composed of tonalite, quartz diorite, olivine gabbro and pyroxene peridotite. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating indicates that the Langshan Carboniferous intrusions were emplaced at ca. 338-324 Ma. The quartz diorites are characterized by high amounts of compatible trace elements (Cr, Ni and V) and high Mg# values, which may suggest a significant mantle source. The positive Pb and negative Nb-Ta-Ti anomalies, the variable εHf(t) (-6.9 to 2.0) values and the old Hf model ages (1218-1783 Ma) imply some involvement of ancient continental materials in its petrogenesis. The tonalite has relatively high Sr/Y ratios, low Mg#, Yb and Y contents, features of adakite-like rocks, negative εHf(t) values (-9.8 to -0.1) and older Hf model ages (1344-1953 Ma), which suggest significant involvement of ancient crust materials and mantle-derived basaltic component in its petrogenesis. The high Mg# values, high Cr and Ni contents, and low Zr and Hf contents of the mafic-ultramafic rocks show evidence of a mantle source, and the relatively low zircon εHf(t) values (-5.9 to 3.2) might point to an enriched mantle. The trace element characteristics indicate the influence of subducted sediments and slab-derived fluids. In the tectonic discrimination diagrams, all the rocks plot in subduction-related environment, such as volcanic arc and continental arc. Considering the regional geology, we suggest that the Carboniferous intrusions in the Langshan area were likely emplaced during the late stage of the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean plate, which formed a continental arc along the northern margin of the Alxa-North China craton.

  10. Geochronology and Hf–Fe isotopic geochemistry of the Phanerozoic mafic–ultramafic intrusions in the Damiao area, northern North China Craton: Implications for lithospheric destruction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiulong Zhou; Zhaohua Luo

    2014-06-01

    Timing and source of several Fe-mineralized mafic–ultramafic intrusions in the Damiao area are investigated here by coupling new geochronological and Hf–Fe isotopic data with previous results. Although regarded as a Late Paleoproterozoic assemblage previously, two ∼140 Ma intrusions are recognized by zircon U–Pb dating, indicating emplacement of these intrusions from Middle Devonian to Early Cretaceous times. Both Hf and Fe isotopic features lead to the conclusion that distinct mantle components contributed to their magma generation. As the first magmatic phase, the ∼395 Ma intrusions were mainly derived from the slightly-enriched SCLM that was prevalent during the Paleozoic. However, asthenospheric material was strongly involved in the formation of the ∼215 Ma Gaositai intrusion. Therefore, the initiation of lithospheric destruction in the northern NCC is inferred to have occurred in Late Triassic time, triggered by post-orogenic extension following the ∼250 Ma collision between the Siberian Craton and the NCC. The ∼140 Ma intrusions originated from a significantly-enriched mantle component probably resided in the predominant slightly-enriched SCLM. This mantle source would have melted in the Late Mesozoic, when the thin lithosphere enabled enhanced heat transfer from the asthenosphere. In summary, these distinct mantle sources of mafic–ultramafic magmatism provide a record of mantle heterogeneity and the gradual upward migration of the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary during lithospheric destruction.

  11. The ecology of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina and its implications for the control of bilharziasis in the Egypt-49 project area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazo, B C; Hairston, N G; Dawood, I K

    1966-01-01

    The respective vectors of the two forms of bilharziasis in Egypt do not have the same ecological distribution. Bulinus truncatus is most abundant in large canals, and decreases in density as the water approaches and flows into drains. Biomphalaria alexandrina is most abundant in drains, and decreases in density upstream from these habitats. Both species are most abundant in the presence of aquatic vegetation, but they differ in their respective associations with the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Biomph. alexandrina reaches maximum abundance in the presence of this plant, but Bul. truncatus is as uncommon in the absence of plants as in the presence of E. crassipes.Calculation of life-table parameters from field data shows that, under optimum field conditions, both species can double their populations in 14-16 days. The reproductive rates of both species are greatest in March and the death rates in midsummer. The observed peak densities in May and June give a false impression of optima because of undercollection of young snails, which are most abundant in March and April.Control operations should take advantage of the findings on population parameters. A single area-wide treatment with molluscicide in April is recommended. During the remainder of the year, search for isolated foci of snail breeding and individual treatment of these will effect large savings of chemical and will be effective in controlling the transmission of the parasites. PMID:5297630

  12. Victims of location: Health Implications on household living proximal to the Owhim solid waste dump in the Kumasi Metropolitan Area (KMA of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Owusu-Sekyere

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of acquiring land for the final disposal of solid waste in urban areas of Ghana has become a critical issue in the urban planning process because of its enormous impact on the economy, ecology and environmental health. Waste dumps have been blamed for the upsurge in disease such as malaria, diarrhea, dermal infection, respiratory tract infection and typhoid among others in the communities they are located. This has therefore resulted in conflicts and demonstrations between city authorities and communities where waste dumps are located.The Owhim disposal site in the KMA which is generally sited based on access to tipping vehicles rather than hydrological or public health considerations does not conform to international environmental standards. Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches, the research reveals that residents of Owhim are continousely exposed to environmental health hazards from the waste dump and this has brought an upsurge of diseases such as malaria,diarrhea, respiratory tract infection and skin diseases since the inception of the solid waste dump.The paper concludes that the residents have just become victims of poor location dicision which also reflects the much bigger policy context of spatial planning, in which land use, and development policies are shaped.

  13. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  14. DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects support Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographical area: Implications for Astyanax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blind Mexican tetra fish, Astyanax mexicanus, has become the most influential model for research of cave adapted organisms. Many authors assume that the Sierra de Guatemala populations and the Sierra de El Abra populations are derived from two independent colonizations. This assumption arises in part from biogeography. The 100 m high, 100 m wide Servilleta Canyon of the Boquillas River separates both mountain ranges and is an apparent barrier for troglobite dispersion. Anelpistina quinterensis (Nicoletiidae, Zygentoma, Insecta is one of the most troglomorphic nicoletiid silverfish insects ever described. 16S rRNA sequences support that this species migrated underground to reach both mountain ranges within less than 12,000 years. Furthermore, literature shows a plethora of aquatic and terrestrial cave restricted species that inhabit both mountain ranges. Thus, the Servilleta canyon has not been an effective biological barrier that prevented underground migration of troglobites between the Sierra de Guatemala and the Sierra de El Abra. The Boquillas River has changed its course throughout time. Caves that in the past connected the two Sierras were only recently geologically truncated by the erosion of the new river course. It is likely that, with the geological changes of the area and throughout the 2-8 million years of evolutionary history of cave Astyanax, there have been opportunities to migrate across the Servilleta canyon.

  15. Geochronology and Hf-Fe isotopic geochemistry of the Phanerozoic mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Damiao area, Northern North China craton: implications for lithospheric destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timing and source of several Fe-mineralized mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Damiao area are investigated here by coupling new geochronological and Hf-Fe isotopic data with previous results. Although regarded as a Late Paleoproterozoic assemblage previously, two ∼140 Ma intrusions are recognized by zircon U-Pb dating, indicating emplacement of these intrusions from Middle Devonian to Early Cretaceous times. Both Hf and Fe isotopic features lead to the conclusion that distinct mantle components contributed to their magma generation. As the first magmatic phase, the 395 Ma intrusions were mainly derived from the slightly-enriched SCLM that was prevalent during the Paleozoic. However, asthenospheric material was strongly involved in the formation of the ∼ 215 Ma Gaositai intrusion. Therefore, the initiation of lithospheric destruction in the northern NCC is inferred to have occurred in Late Triassic time, triggered by post-orogenic extension following the ∼ 250 Ma collision between the Siberian Craton and the NCC. The ∼140 Ma intrusions originated from a significantly-enriched mantle component probably resided in the predominant slightly-enriched SCLM. This mantle source would have melted in the Late Mesozoic, when the thin lithosphere enabled enhanced heat transfer from the asthenosphere. In summary, these distinct mantle sources of mafic-ultramafic magmatism provide a record of mantle heterogeneity and the gradual upward migration of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary during lithospheric destruction. (author)

  16. Temporal and spatial variability in water quality of wetlands in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area: Implications for monitoring strategies and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detenbeck, N E; Taylor, D L; Lima, A; Hagley, C

    1996-03-01

    Temporal and spatial variability in wetland water-quality variables were examined for twenty-one wetlands in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area and eighteen wetlands in adjacent Wright County. Wetland water quality was significantly affected by contact with the sediment (surface water vs. groundwater), season, degree of hydrologic isolation, wetland class, and predominant land-use in the surrounding watershed (pedaphic factors>detritivory>land-use factors>biotic-redox or other multiple factors.For two wetlands sampled intensively, soluble reactive phosphate and total dissolved phosphorus were the most spatially variable (c.v.=76-249%), while temperature, color, dissolved organic carbon, and DO were least variable (c.v.=6-43%). Geostatistical analyses demonstrated that the average distance across which water-quality variables were spatially correlated (variogram range) was 61-112% of the mean radius of each wetland. Within the shallower of the two wetlands, nitrogen speciation was explained as a function of dissolved oxygen, while deeper marsh water-quality variables were explained as a function of water depth or distance from the wetland edge. Compositing water-quality samples produced unbiased estimates of individual sample means for all water quality variables examined except for ammonium. PMID:24198069

  17. Ecological characterization of toxic phytoplankton species (Dinophysis spp., Dinophyceae) in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and the implications for monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events are often registered in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and are related to the occurrence of Dinophysis spp. The annual dynamic of this genus and succession of the most important species were studied at two shellfish farms during monitoring fieldwork in the period 1995-2003. Results indicate that the Dinophysis genus maintains a relatively stable inter-annual dynamic at both sites. The Dinophysis community is characterized by two surface maxima in June and September, while in the middle layer only the autumn peak is pronounced (peak median 92 cells l-1). Occasional abundance maxima of around 2000 cells l-1 in the surface layer indicate that potential outbursts of toxic species are less predictable than their seasonal dynamic. On the basis of multivariate analysis, Dinophysis sacculus was characterized as a typical late spring-early summer species, and Dinophysis caudata and Dinophysis fortii as autumn species. Correlation analysis revealed the influence of stratified conditions only on the most abundant species, D. sacculus. Ecological characteristics of the species were combined with shellfish safety requirements towards a more effective monitoring

  18. Measuring the specific surface area of snow with X-ray tomography and gas adsorption: comparison and implications for surface smoothness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kerbrat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical processes, such as heterogeneous chemical reactions, light scattering, and metamorphism occur in the natural snowpack. To model these processes in the snowpack, the specific surface area (SSA is a key parameter. In this study, two methods, computed tomography and methane adsorption, which have intrinsically different spatial resolutions –molecular and 30 μm, respectively – were used to determine the SSA of identical natural snow samples. The two methods give identical results, with an uncertainty of 3%. This implies that the surface of natural snow is smooth up to a scale of about 30 μm and that for optical methods a voxel size of 10 μm is sufficient to capture all structural features of natural snow. This smoothness can be physically explained by calculating sublimation and surface diffusion on the snow particles. The methane adsorption method is superior to computed tomography for very fresh snow, but thin layers typical for natural snowpacks can not be resolved. Computed tomography can measure SSA in layers of less than 1 mm thickness, and is therefore advantageous in layered snowpacks.

  19. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Metal Loads from Chat Leachate and Mine Outflow into Tar Creek, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Caleb C.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Picher mining district is an abandoned lead and zinc mining area located in Ottawa County, northeastern Oklahoma. During the first half of the 20th century, the area was a primary producer of lead and zinc in the United States. Large accumulations of mine tailings, locally referred to as chat, produce leachate containing cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that enter drainages within the mining area. Metals also seep to local ground water and streams from unplugged shafts, vent holes, seeps, and abandoned mine dewatering wells. Streamflow measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected and analyzed from two locations in Picher mining district from August 16 to August 29 following a rain event beginning on August 14, 2005, to determine likely concentrations and loads of metals from tailings and mine outflows in the part of Picher mining district near Tar Creek. Locations selected for sampling included a tailings pile with an adjacent mill pond, referred to as the Western location, and a segment of Tar Creek from above the confluence with Lytle Creek to below Douthat bridge, referred to as Tar Creek Study Segment. Measured streamflow was less than 0.01 cubic foot per second at the Western location, with streamflow only being measurable at that site on August 16, 2005. Measured streamflows ranged from leachate ranged from 0.062 to 0.212 pound per day of cadmium, leachate and mine outflow was determined by subtracting values at appropriate upstream and downstream stations. Four sources of calculated metal loads are from Tar Creek and Lytle Creek entering the study segment, from chat pile leachate, and from old Lytle Creek mine outflow. Less than 1 percent of total and dissolved iron loading came from chat leachate, while about 99 percent of total iron loading came from mine outflow. Total and dissolved lead loading percentages from chat leachate were greater than total and dissolved lead loading percentages from mine outflow. About 19 percent of total zinc

  20. The cross-sectional area of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to habitual exercise loading: Implications for activity-related and evolutionary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Nikander, Riku; Abe, Shinya; Knüsel, Christopher; Sievänen, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Greater size of the gluteus maximus muscle in humans compared to non-human primates has been considered an indication of its function in bipedal posture and gait, especially running capabilities. Our aim was to find out how the size of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to sports while controlling for variation in muscle strength and body weight. Data on gluteus maximus muscle cross-sectional area (MCA) were acquired from magnetic resonance images of the hip region of female athletes (N=91), and physically active controls (N=20). Dynamic muscle force was measured as counter movement jump and isometric knee extension force as leg press. Five exercise loading groups were created: high impact (triple-jumpers and high-jumpers), odd impact (soccer and squash players), high magnitude (power-lifters), repetitive impact (endurance runners) and repetitive non-impact (swimmers) loadings. Individuals in high impact, odd impact or high-magnitude loading groups had greater MCA compared to those of controls, requiring powerful hip extension, trunk stabilization in rapid directional change and high explosive muscle force. Larger body size and greater muscle strength were associated with larger MCA. An increase in dynamic force was associated with larger MCA, but the strength of this relationship varied with body weight. Thus, gluteal adaptation in humans promotes powerful lower limb movements required in sprinting and rapid changes in direction, as well as maintenance and stabilization of an erect trunk which also provides a platform for powerful motions of the upper limbs. These movements have likely evolved to facilitate food acquisition, including hunting. PMID:26384568

  1. Dependence of the cyclization of branched tetraethers (CBT) on soil moisture in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the adjacent areas: implications for palaeorainfall reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Liu, W.; Zhang, C. L.

    2014-06-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) have been show promising for continental paleotemperature studies in loess-paleosol sequences (LPSs). Thus far, however, little is known about the effect of soil moisture on their distributions on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). In this study, the relationships between environmental variables and the cyclization of bGDGTs (the so called CBT index) were investigated in a comprehensive set of surface soils in the CLP and its adjacent arid/semi-arid areas. We find that CBT correlates best with soil water content (SWC) or mean annual precipitation (MAP) for the total sample set. Particularly for the CLP soils, there is a significant positive relationship between CBT and MAP (CBT = -0.0021 · MAP + 1.7, n = 37, R2 = 0.87; MAP range: 210-680 mm). This indicates that CBT is mainly controlled by soil moisture in the alkalescent soils (pH > 7) in arid/semi-arid regions, where it is not sensitive to soil pH. Therefore, we suggest that CBT can potentially be used as a palaeorainfall proxy on the CLP. According to the preliminary CBT-MAP relationship for modern CLP soils, palaeorainfall history was reconstructed from three LPSs (Yuanbao, Lantian, and Mangshan) with published bGDGT data spanning the past 70 ka. The CBT-derived MAP records of the three sites consistently show precession-driven variations resembling the speleothem δ18O monsoon record, and are also in general accord with the fluctuations of the respective magnetic susceptibility (MS) record, supporting CBT as a reasonable proxy for palaeorainfall reconstruction in LPS studies. Moreover, the comparison of CBT-derived MAP and bGDGT-derived temperature may enable us to further assess the relative timing and magnitude of hydrological and thermal changes on the CLP, independent of chronology.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjur, Oris I; Piperno, Dolores R; Andres, Thomas C; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico. PMID:11782554

  3. Interpretation of crustal structure from regional gravity anomalies, Ouachita Mountains area and adjacent Gulf coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, J.M.; Keller, G.R.

    1986-06-01

    A gravity data base from more than 35,000 stations was used to generate a series of regional gravity maps of the Ouachita Mountains area including adjacent parts of the craton and the Gulf coastal plain. These maps were used in conjunction with information from 96 wells, data from preexisting geophysical and geological investigations, and computer models to interpret four gravity profiles that transect the study area (approximately lat. 30-37/sup 0/N, long. 91.5-99/sup 0/W). These models, gravity maps, and previous investigations were then used to analyze various regional gravity anomalies and to interpret the gross crustal structure of the region and its tectonic implications. These data suggest that variably attenuated continental crust lies beneath the Gulf coastal plain, south of the Ouachita system gravity gradient, as opposed to typical continental crust of the craton north of this gradient. This variation in crustal structure probably reflects the complexity of Eocambrian and early Mesozoic rifting in the area. The Arkoma basin gravity minima may result from the combined effect of a late Paleozoic foreland basin and an Eocambrian northwest-trending, rift-related basin. The Ouachita system interior zone gravity maximum varies along strike of this orogenic belt. This anomaly appears to be a good indicator of the position of the Eocambrian continental margin and associated rift zone. Gravity anomalies in the Gulf coastal plain appear to be a combined effect of variable crustal attenuation, basins and uplifts, and mafic intrusions. Gravity maxima in the southern Oklahoma aulacogen result from uplifts and deep-seated mafic intrusions; gravity minima result from deep sedimentary basins.

  4. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, SW

    2001-10-30

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9

  5. The Potential Economic Impact of Electricity Restructuring in the State of Oklahoma: Phase II Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the recent experiences of several states undergoing restructuring (e.g., higher prices, greater volatility, lower reliability), concerns have been raised in states currently considering restructuring as to whether their systems are equally vulnerable. Factors such as local generation costs, transmission constraints, market concentration, and market design can all play a role in the success or failure of the market. These factors along with the mix of generation capacity supplying the state will influence the relative prices paid by consumers. The purpose of this project is to provide a model and process to evaluate the potential price and economic impacts of restructuring the Oklahoma electric industry. The Phase I report concentrated on providing an analysis of the Oklahoma system in the near-term, using only present generation resources and customer demands. This Phase II study analyzed the Oklahoma power market in 2010, incorporating the potential of new generation resources and customer responses. Five key findings of this Phase II were made: (1) Projected expansion in generating capacity exceeds by over 3,000 MW the demands within the state plus the amount that could be exported with the current transmission system. (2) Even with reduced new plant construction, most new plants could lose money (although residential consumers would see lower rates) unless they have sufficient market power to raise their prices without losing significant market share (Figure S-1). (3) If new plants can raise prices to stay profitable, existing low-cost coal and hydro plants will have very high profits. Average prices to customers could be 5% to 25% higher than regulated rates (Figure S-1). If the coal and hydro plants are priced at cost-based rates (through long-term contracts or continued regulation) while all other plants use market-based rates then prices are lower. (4) Customer response to real-time prices can lower the peak capacity requirements by around 9

  6. Phytoplankton and nutrient distributions in a front-eddy area adjacent to the coastal upwelling zone off Concepcion (Chile): implications for ecosystem productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carmen; Anabalón, Valeria; Hormazábal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    The impact that sub-mesoscale (1-10 km) to mesocale (50-100 km) oceanographic variability has on plankton and nutrient distributions (horizontal and vertical) in the coastal upwelling and transition zones off Concepcion was the focus of this study. Satellite time-series data (wind, sea-surface temperature (SST), and altimetry) were used to understand the dynamic context of in situ data derived from a short-term front survey (3 d) during the upwelling period (3-6 February, 2014). The survey included two transects perpendicular to the coast, covering the shelf and shelf-break areas just north of Punta Lavapie, a main upwelling center (˜37° S). Wind and SST time-series data indicated that the survey was undertaken just after a moderate upwelling event (end of January) which lead to a relaxation phase during early February. A submesoscale thermal front was detected previous to and during the survey and results from an eddy tracking algorithm based on altimetry data indicated that this front (F1) was flanked on its oceanic side by an anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy (M1), which was ˜25 d old at the sampling time. M1 strengthened the thermal gradient of F1 by bringing warmer oceanic water nearer to the colder coastal upwelling zone. The distributions of hydrographic variables and nutrients in the water column (<300 m depth) also denoted these two features. Phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a) and diatom abundance were highest in the surface layer (<20 m depth) between the coast and F1, with primary maxima in the latter, whereas they were highest at the subsurface (20-40 m depth) towards M1 and associated with secondary maxima. The distribution of dominant diatoms in the top layer (<100 m depth) indicated that both coastal and oceanic species were aggregated at F1 and in M1. These results suggest that the front-eddy interaction creates a complex field of submesoscale processes in the top layer, including vertical nutrient injections and lateral stirring, which contributes to the

  7. Geochemistry of Barapani Arenites in Umphyrnai-Mawkynrew-Mawryngkneng Area, East Khasi Hills, Meghalaya: implications on provenance, palaeoweathering, K-metasomatism and uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical studies on Barapani arenites of Shillong Basin, Meghalaya Plateau, around Umphyrnai-Mawkynrew-Mawryngkneng area, East Khasi Hills, Meghalaya were carried out to understand provenance, palaeoweathering and uranium mineralisation along unconformity contact between Tyrsad and Barapani Formations of Shillong Group. The studies reveal higher concentration of SiO2 (Avg. 82.7%) in Barapani arenites. Antipathic relationship of SiO2 with Al2O3, K2O and CaO indicates that Barapani arenites are highly matured. Positive correlation between K2O and Al2O3, Ba and Rb indicates presence of clay minerals which is further substantiated by positive association of Al2O3 with K2O, Na2O, TiO2 and MgO. Higher ratios of SiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Na2O indicates felsic provenance with dominance of K-feldspar (K2O up to 2.2%). Higher amount of Cr (58 ppm), Ni (41 ppm), Cr/Ni (1.5 ppm) and Th/Cr (Avg. 0.98) and Cr/Th (Avg. 5.18) ratios further suggest the felsic nature of source rocks. The A-CN-K plot shows that Barapani arenites scatter above feldspar join along A-K line due to lowering of CIA values and related K-enrichment. The discriminate diagram between K2O/Al2O3 vs MgO/Al2O3 ratios reveals illitisation in these arenites. Lowering of chemical index of alteration values and presence of illite also indicate K-metasomatism in Barapani arenites. Barapani arenites along alteration zones have U (total) and U (leachable) values up to 8 ppm and 5 ppm respectively in comparison to average uranium content 0.5 ppm in quartzite. The K-metasomatism and highly oxidised nature of Barapani arenites suggest migration of uranium and probable uranium enrichment at unconformity surface. (author)

  8. Petrography, Geochemistry and Rb-Sr geochronology of the basement granitoids from Umthongkut area, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya, India: implications on petrogenesis and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basement granitoids from Umthongkut, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya is exposed in a very small area (1.5 km x 0.5 km) and unconformably overlain by Mahadek sandstone of upper Cretaceous age and successively followed by rocks of Tertiary age. Megascopically, granitoids are leucocratic, mesocratic to mild melanocratic and differ in texture and mineral abundance without any definite contact relation in field. The leucocratic granitoid is medium-grained, designated as granite (syenogranite and monzogranite) with appreciable content of biotite and garnet and has peraluminous to mild metaluminous character (mol. Al2O3/mol. CaO+Na2O+K2O = 0.9-1.17). However, mesocratic granitoid is relatively fine-grained, identified as quartz monzonite with abundant biotite, minor hornblende and opaque like magnetite, ilmenite, anatase, pyrite and chalcopyrite and metaluminous to mild peraluminous (mol. A/CNK = 0.76-1.02) in nature. The presence of characteristic minerals and textural replacement features point towards S-type signature for granite and I-type for quartz monzonite. On the other hand, mixed S and I-type characters are observed in geochemical plot of SiO2 vs. A/CNK. The coexistence of granite and quartz monzonite with former being more evolved, S-type signature and presence of garnet with biotite suggests that the granite appears to be generated from melting of lower crustal source of monzonitic composition. The Rb-Sr dating is also attempted and the errorchron age of 1130±53 with low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7063±0.001 Ma appears to be the emplacement age for these coexisting phases of granitoid. Considering the Meghalaya plateau being northeastern extension of Chhotanagpur granite-gneiss complex (CGGC), the calculated age for the studied samples corresponds to the 1200-1000 Ma. which is defined as fourth tectono-magmatic thermal event of CGGc. Interestingly, these granitoids are considered as the probable source for uranium in the sandstones of Mahadek

  9. Geochemistry and geochronology of Paleozoic intrusions in the Nalati (Narati) area in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China: Implications for Paleozoic tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xue-Yi; Wang, Hong-Liang; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun-Lu; Ma, Zhong-Ping; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Dong, Yun-Peng

    2013-08-01

    The Nalati (Narati) area in the Chinese western Tianshan is characterized by abundant Paleozoic intrusions, including granites, diorites and gabbros. They are not only indicators of the interaction between crust and mantle, but also useful clues for tracing the tectonic history of the Tianshan Orogen. Most Early Paleozoic granitoids (biotite monzonitic granites and muscovite granites) of this study are from the Yili Block. The biotite monzonitic granites (mixed-source-derived I-type granites) have a zircon U-Pb age of 497.0 ± 5.9 Ma, indicating the time of the subduction of the Terskey Oceanic crust in the Late Cambrian. The 427.2 ± 5.7 Ma Zircon U-Pb age of the S-type muscovite granites let us interpret that these granites may have been formed during the crust thickening process after the collision between the Yili Block and the Nalati Block. In western Tianshan the Late Paleozoic biotite granites, muscovite granites, quartz diorites, biotite monzonitic granites, granodiorites and alkali granites have respectively a LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb age of 371.8 ± 6 Ma, 357.2 ± 7.5 Ma, 313.9 ± 2.5 Ma and 296.9 ± 2.4 Ma. The biotite granites display I-type geochemical features and are considered to have been derived from a lower continental crust source. The muscovite granites have a pronounced S-type affinity and are considered to have been formed by the partial melting of thickened continental crust after the collision between the Central Tianshan Belt and the South Tianshan Belt. The quartz-diorites are adakite-like and have an I-type affinity, which are considered to have been formed by partial melting of a delaminated lower crust in a post-orogenic extension setting. The granodiorites also show some typical geochemical features of adakite. Their formation is considered to be related to the lower crustal delamination and the ascending of asthenosphere after the collision event. The alkali granites show an A-type granite affinity. They may have been formed in a within

  10. Magnetic forward models of Cement oil field, Oklahoma, based on rock magnetic, geochemical, and petrologic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.L.; Webring, M.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Tuttle, M.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic forward models of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, were generated to assess the possibility that ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite related to hydrocarbon seepage in the upper 1 km of Permian strata contributes to aeromagnetic anomalies at Cement. Six bodies having different magnetizations were constructed for the magnetic models. Total magnetizations of the bodies of highest pyrrhotite content range from about 3 ?? 10-3 to 56 ?? 10-3 A/m in the present field direction and yield magnetic anomalies (at 120 m altitude) having amplitudes of less than 1 nT to ~6 to 7 nT, respectively. Numerous assumptions were made in the generation of the models, but nevertheless, the results suggest that pyrrhotite, formed via hydrocarbon reactions and within a range of concentrations estimated at Cement, is capable of causing magnetic anomalies. -from Authors

  11. An Architecture for the Electronic Church: Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubiak, Margaret M

    2016-04-01

    More than a university, Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was also the headquarters for evangelist Oral Roberts's electronic church. The electronic church in America, dominated by Christian evangelicals, used technology to spread the Gospel over radio airways and television signals to a dispersed audience. Yet evangelicals like Roberts also constructed ambitious campuses in real space and time. The architecture of Oral Roberts University visualized a modern and "populuxe" image for the electronic church in the 1960s and 1970s. The university's Prayer Tower purposely alluded to the Seattle Space Needle, aligning religion and the Space Age, and the campus's white, gold, and black color palette on late modern buildings created an image of aspirational luxury, conveying Roberts's health and wealth gospel. Oral Roberts University served as a sound stage for Roberts's radio and television shows, a pilgrimage point for his audience, and a university dedicated to training evangelicals in the electronic church. PMID:27237069

  12. Source rock geochemistry and liquid and solid petroleum occurrences of the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, J. A.

    Crude oils, solid bitumens and potential oil source rocks of the frontal and central Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma are examined. The organic matter in each of these materials is characterized, and oils are correlated to potential source rocks in the Ouachita Mountains. Four Ouachita Mountain oils and seven solid bitumens (grahamite and impsonite) are analyzed. The oils are paraffinic and range from 31.8 to 43.1 API gravity. The oils are thermally mature and generally unaltered. All four oils are commonly sourced, by n-alkane, sterane and hopane distributions, stable isotope ratios, infrared spectra and vanadium/nickel ratios. A common source for the solid bitumens is also suggested by isotope ratios and pyrolyzate characteristics. An origin due to crude oil biodegradation is suggested for these solids, based on carbon isotope ratios, elemental analyses, and sterane distributions of the solid bitumen pyrolyzates.

  13. Timing and chemistry of igneous events associated with the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Gilbert, M.

    1983-05-01

    Igneous activity in the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen of North America was concentrated in the early rifting stages of aulacogen development. The time span over which liquids rose may not have exceeded 50 m.y. and certainly terminated before the Upper Cambrian. Igneous activity began with three basaltic liquids, stratigraphically identifiable but perhaps not all distinct genetically. This was followed by one large rhyolitic-granitic episode of A-type character. One final basaltic event ended the activity. All the basaltic types seem to be tholeiitic showing more kinship with either the older, Proterozoic North American Midcontinental Rift or the northern part of the Cenozoic Rio Grande Rift, than the Cenozoic East African Rift. Two major uplifts occurred: one between the earlier basalts and the rhyolite, and one much later, after all igneous activity was over, in the Pennsylvanian.

  14. Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oklahoma Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: An Oklahoma Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  15. Environmental assessment of Oklahoma abandoned drilling and production sites and associated public education outreach activities. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, M.

    1996-01-29

    Oklahoma oil producers and royalty owners are taking part in the nation`s first oil industry funded environmental cleanup and education program. The program is administered by the Oklahoma Energy Resources Board (OERB), a state agency which was created by the Oklahoma Independent Energy Education and Marketing Act. The purpose of this project will be accomplished through two primary objectives: (1) Conduct environmental assessment of abandoned oil and gas drilling and production sites where no responsible owner can be found and transfer environmental technology to oil and gas operators; and (2) Provide a comprehensive public education/outreach program to increase public awareness of the importance of the Oklahoma oil (and gas) industry. Technical progress is reported for these tasks.

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River from Freedom to Guthrie in northwestern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digital water-level elevation contours for the alluvial and terrace deposits along the Cimarron River in northwestern Oklahoma during...

  17. Uranium Resource Evaluation Project. Hydrochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ardmore, McAlester, Little Rock, and Helena Quadrangles, Oklahoma; Arkansas; Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are compiled for hydrochemical and stream sediment reconnaisance of the following quadrangles: Ardmore, McAlester, Little Rock and Helena. These quadrangles are in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Mississippi

  18. Geodatabase of the available top and bottom surface datasets that represent the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains the spatial datasets that represent the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Included are: (1)...

  19. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the High Plains aquifer, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the High Plains aquifer in the States of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota,...

  20. Right-to-Work Laws and State-Level Economic Outcomes: Evidence from the Case Studies of Idaho and Oklahoma Using Synthetic Control Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan Eren; I. Serkan Ozbeklik

    2011-01-01

    The role of right-to-work laws on state economies, labor organizations and employees are controversial and important policy questions. Empirical evidence is far from being conclusive predominantly due to identification issues. Using a recently developed econometric technique and exploiting the two most recent cases, -Idaho and Oklahoma- we examine the effectiveness of right-to-work laws on state-level outcomes. Our results indicate that the passage of right-to-work laws in Oklahoma affected u...

  1. A Compilation of Spatial Datasets and Surface-Water and Ground-Water Data from the U.S. Geological Survey and Other Federal and Oklahoma State Agencies for the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Shana Lichelle

    2010-01-01

    This report contains spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic features and spatial datasets detailing surface-water, ground-water, and other types of environmental information collected in and surrounding Kickapoo Tribal Lands. Spatial datasets were compiled from Federal and Oklahoma State agencies. Surface-water, ground-water, and other types of environmental information of natural and anthropogenic features were compiled from USGS National Water Information System database, Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality online Geographic Information System data viewer, Oklahoma Water Resources Board online Water Information Mapping System, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency online Modernized STORET database. These spatial datasets were compiled from many different sources with varying quality. Because of the different sources, features common to multiple layers may not overlay exactly. Users should check the metadata to determine proper use of these data. These data were not checked for accuracy or completeness. Should a question of accuracy or completeness arise, the user should contact the originator cited in the metadata.

  2. Estimated predevelopment discharge to streams from the High Plains Aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma, southwestern Kansas, and northwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, R.R.; Becker, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the High Plains aquifer in Okla homa was initiated in 1996 to: (1) provide the information needed by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board to manage the quantity of water produced from the aquifer; and (2) provide base line water-chemistry data. The approach used to meet the first objective is to develop a digital ground-water flow model. The model will be cali brated, in part, by comparing simulated and esti mated predevelopment discharge from the aquifer to streams and cross-boundary flow. This report presents the estimated predevelopment discharge to streams from the High Plains aquifer. Streamflow data were the primary source of information used to estimate predevelopment dis charge from the High Plains aquifer. Data from 30 streamflow stations between the Arkansas and Canadian Rivers were considered in the analysis, and winter low-flow frequencies for 7-, 14-, and 30-day periods were determined for 25 stations. The 14-day low flow with a recurrence interval of 2 years was the primary value used to estimate pre development discharge from the aquifer. The streams that drain the eastern part of the High Plains aquifer in Kansas (generally east of 99.5 longitude) are estimated to have had large predevelopment discharge from the aquifer, and most of them received discharge from near their headwaters. For streams with more than one streamflow gage, the upper perennial reaches appeared to have gained more discharge from the aquifer than the lower reaches. The total predevel opment discharge from the aquifer in this area to several streams is estimated to have been about 312 cubic feet per second, not including discharge that probably went directly to the Arkansas River. The Cimarron River and its tributaries are estimated to have gained about 78 cubic feet per second, but nearly one-half that amount was lost in the lower reaches of the river. The cause of the loss in the lower reaches is unknown. The Beaver River and its tributaries are estimated to have

  3. Gravity and Magnetic Survey of Southern Oklahoma Alcugen in Texas Panhandle, Near the 2000 earthquake swarm North of Amarillo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, S.; Gurrola, H.; Robinson, R.; Horton, M.; Herrmann, M.; Seshhadri, S.; Anderson, H.; Bribiesca, E.; Lindsey, C.; Montalvo, R.; Cyrek, C.; Allen, T.; Hoemberg, J.; Hassan, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Texas panhandle is not a region normally thought of as being prone to seismic activity. Earthquakes with magnitudes of 3 to 4 do however occur in this region every year or so and are felt by residents in the area. There are historical reports of earthquakes of magnitude 5 during the early twentieth century. The earthquakes in this region are most likely associated with displacement on old faults related to the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (SOA, 600 Ma) which was deformed during the Ouachita orogeny to form the Wichita Mts. During the summer of 2000 there were an unusually large number of earthquakes for this region, five, all from the same location a few kilometers north of Amarillo Texas, 35.39 degrees north latitude and 101.81 degrees west longitude according to the NEIC catalogue. The non-seismic exploration class at Texas Tech University collected and interpreted gravity and magnetic data along a dirt road crossing the location of this earthquake "swarm" (yes in Texas 5 is a swarm) to determine if the old faults of the SOA coincide with the location of these earthquakes. The survey was conducted along a service road of the Santa Fe Railroad that crosses US 87 approximately 20 miles north of Amarillo, Texas trending in a south-southwest direction. Gravity data were collected every 100m along a 5 km profile using Warden and Lacoste gravity meters with elevation control provided by leveling survey tied to elevation markers on the map. Gravity data were colleted, using GPS elevation location and elevation, on roads over more than 20 km surrounding the local survey to provide regional control. Magnetic data were collected along the 5 km profile. Models derived from these data indicate a 200 m thick layer of poorly consolidated sediments with densities of 2.0 g/cc that can be interpreted as the Ogallala aquifer overlaying a layer with density of 2.6 g/cc. The interface between these layers is very structured and has at least three sharp ridges that we interpret as

  4. Sooner rather than later. Oklahoma County hospitals and health agencies take immediate action on the uninsured problem by collaborating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmond, Jessica

    2007-04-23

    In reality TV, contestants are constantly forming an alliance--with mixed results. In Oklahoma County, it seemed like a good idea for physicians, hospitals and other leaders to come together to provide care for the uninsured. And it has been. Evan Collins, left, whose organization is part of that alliance, says: "We hope if this model works well, we can export it to other communities to replicate the same thing. PMID:17477189

  5. Metamorphic evolution of the high-pressure metamorphic rocks from the Kemer area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey): Implications for the accretionary continental growth and closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygül, M.; Topuz, G.; Satır, M.

    2009-04-01

    The northwestern part of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey, corresponds to the so-called Intra-Pontide suture, separating the Rhodope-Strandja zone to the north and Sakarya zone to the south. This suture zone is marked by the exposures of high-pressure metamorphics, oceanic accretionary complexes and ophiolites, which are widely covered by Eocene to Miocene volcanics and volcano-clastics, and crosscut by Eocene to Miocene granites. The Kemer area is one of the key-areas where high-pressure metamorphics and an ophiolitic mélange were widely exposed. This contribution deals with the metamorphic evolution of the Kemer high-pressure rocks, and their implications for the geodynamic evolution. The Kemer high-pressure rocks comprise predominantly micaschist, calcschist, marble and minor metabasite and serpentinite. The micaschists contain mineral assemblages involving garnet, phengite (3,30-3,44 c.p.f.u.), paragonite, epidote, chlorite, albite and titanite, and the metabasites consists of garnet, barrosite, albite, chlorite, epidote, albite and titanite. The equilibrium conditions are poorly constrained as 550 ± 50 °C temperature and >8-10 kbar pressure by Fe-Mg partitioning between garnet and phengite, and phengite-barometry, respectively. Timing of the high-pressure metamorphism is constrained as 84-64 Ma by Rb-Sr phengite-whole rock dating on four samples. Although the obtained age values display a wide scatter, they are consistent with geochronological data from the neighboring high-pressure areas: 86 ± 2 Ma from the Şarköy blueschists (Topuz et al. 2008) and 65-69 Ma from the Çamlıca garnet-micaschists (Okay and Satır, 2000). These data in conjunction with those from the literature suggest that Late Cretaceous represent a time of substantional accretionary continental growth related to the northward subduction of the Intra-Pontide Ocean. The closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean is constrained between Late Cretaceous and Eocene, because Eocene volcanics and volcano

  6. Regional contemporaneity of eustatic, subsidence, and tectonic events in the Middle-Upper Ordovician of the Appalachians and Ouachita orogens and the southern Oklahoma aulacogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, S.C.; Bergstroem, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    On-going graptolite and conodont studies in the Southern Appalachians, the Ouachitas, and the Arbuckle Mountains have revealed contemporaneity of important geological events of regional significance. Reassessment of previous graptolite biostratigraphy has resulted in a revised zonation that has solved some correlation problems and is tied to the Midcontinent and North Atlantic conodont zonations. These zonations are used to date significant geological events in geographically separate regions during two time intervals in the Middle-Upper Ordovician. The base of the graptolite shale succession (Athens) in the Southern Appalachians (Alabama-Tennessee) belongs to the G. teretiusculus Zone, or locally (Georgia) possibly a slightly older unit, and marks the initial shelf-basin development and uplift of source areas to the east reflecting a phase of the Taconic Orogeny. The bases of the Womble and Woods Hollow shales in the Ouachita Orogen represent about the same level. Slightly younger N. gracilis Zone strata tend to be transgressive throughout the world and appear to represent a global eustatic event. In the Arbuckle Mountains this event is reflected by the Tulip Creek Shale. A major subsidence event in the Oklahoma aulacogen, contemporaneous with the regression, produced a transgressive lithofacies sequence represented by the lower Viola Springs Formation in the Arbuckle Mountains. The regressive and subsidence events appear to have been coeval with the emplacement of the Taconic allochthon and Hamburg Klippe in the Northern Appalachians.

  7. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    Social systems in nature are characterised by heterogeneous social structures. The pattern of social interactions or associations between individuals within populations (i.e. their social network) is typically non-random. Such structuring may have important implications for the expression and...... four separate studies. In the first study, we propose a simple framework that may be used as a base when studying the link between social structure and fitness. We furthermore review current evidence for fitness effects of social structure, and find good support for such effects. In the second study...... evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated in...

  8. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Felsic Igneous Rocks, Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K.; Gilbert, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Recently determined Rb-Sr isotopic characteristics of twelve of the recognized felsic units of the Cambrian Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, which crop out in the Wichita Mountains of the southwestern Oklahoma, give some clues to the petrogenesis of these felsic units. 1) Plots of 87Rb/86Sr vs. 87Sr/86Sr form subsets yielding dates of 516 Ma and 522 Ma, discrepancies of about 10 to 20 Ma from the U-Pb zircon age for the Mount Scott Granite of 534 Ma, probably attributable to a systematic loss of radiogenic 87Sr for these units. 2) The Mount Scott Granite and related units (n=7) including Medicine Park Granite and Saddle Mountain Granite give a probable pseudoisochron of 516\\pm4{}Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7045\\pm4{}, indicating derivation from a primitive mantle source with little crustal contamination. 3) A well-regressed line of 522\\pm2{} Ma with an initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7059\\pm7{} is shown by the Long Mountain Granite (n=3), one of the finer-grained western granites, and the Fort Sill Section of the Carlton Rhyolite (n=2) in the eastern Wichitas, which indicates that both were possibly derived contemporaneously from a mixed crustal-mantle source. 4) The Lugert Granite of the western Wichitas has variable and relatively high 87Sr/86Sr initials at 516 Ma probably indicating heterogeneous crustal sources. Interpretation of these data can be made with the following scenario: The earliest known felsic unit is the Carlton Rhyolite, Fort Sill Section. This must have been generated mostly from crustal melting around large mafic plutons in the mid- to lower crust. Crustal melting around the mafic plutons continued to generate liquids rising to the emplacement position, e.g., Long Mountain Granite. Following this, the host magma for the Mount Scott set of units originated dominantly by fractional crystallization from the mafic plutons. Subsequently, additional mafic magma must have moved into the lower- to mid-crust, at some other stratigraphic level, melting a

  9. Accounting Implications of Corporate Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Amit; Joshua Livnat; Paul Zarowin

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the direct effects of corporate diversification on accounting reports, and the implications of these effects for accounting research. The study shows that firms which diversify into unrelated areas of business devote a larger proportion of their capital investments to acquisitions and are, therefore, characterized by smaller differences between replacement-cost and historical-cost values of assets than undiversified firms. The implications of these findings, as well as...

  10. A contribution to the geology of northeastern Texas and southern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Lloyd William

    1919-01-01

    The region in central and northeastern Texas and southern Oklahoma known as the Black and Grand prairies abounds in features of interest to physiographers, geologists, and paleontologists, and the pioneer investigators of this region must have experienced renewed satisfaction in each day's exploration. The reports of Joseph A. Taff, Robert T. Hill, and others, published chiefly under the auspices of State and Federal surveys, represent with approximate accuracy at most places the general distribution of the outcrops of the formations in this region, and contain detailed descriptions of many sections that constitute a mine of useful information. The reader of the present paper is urged, therefore, to hold as most important the general excellence of the earlier reports of these authors and to relegate the inaccuracies and mistakes to which his attention will be called to the relatively unimportant place in which they belong, remembering at the same time that a future generation of investigators may find our own shortcomings as great as those we now criticize.

  11. Social and Cultural Barriers to Diabetes Prevention in Oklahoma American Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prevalence of diabetes is disproportionately higher among minority populations, especially American Indians. Prevention or delay of diabetes in this population would improve quality of life and reduce health care costs. Identifying cultural definitions of health and diabetes is critically important to developing effective diabetes prevention programs. Methods In-home qualitative interviews were conducted with 79 American Indian women from 3 tribal clinics in northeast Oklahoma to identify a cultural definition of health and diabetes. Grounded theory was used to analyze verbatim transcripts. Results The women interviewed defined health in terms of physical functionality and absence of disease, with family members and friends serving as treatment promoters. Conversely, the women considered their overall health to be a personal issue addressed individually without burdening others. The women presented a fatalistic view of diabetes, regarding the disease as an inevitable event that destroys health and ultimately results in death. Conclusions Further understanding of the perceptions of health in at-risk populations will aid in developing diabetes prevention programs.

  12. Value of Protein Supplementation for Lambs and Meat Goat Kids Grazing Bermudagrass in Central Oklahoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon is a high quality, abundant warm-season grass grown in temperate regions of the United States. While research data exists to support protein supplementation of steers grazing bermudagrass pastures, no such data exists for management of lambs and meat goat kids. The objective was to evaluate growth response of lambs and meat goat kids grazing bermudagrass with or without access to a commercial 21% CP protein tub (PT vs. NPT. Two trials were conducted in El Reno, Oklahoma, starting in June and ending in August in 2007 and 2008. In 2007 and 2008, respectively 29 and 54 meat goat kids (90±5 days of age and 68 and 62 lambs of wool and hair breeds (and reciprocal crosses; 100±5 days of age were utilized. Animals were stratified by weight, breed and gender and randomly assigned to 1.2 ha of common bermudagrass pasture with (n = 2 or without (n = 2 access to a commercial 21% CP protein tub. Growth of animals was assessed by change in body weights and serum concentrations of leptin every 2 weeks during grazing periods of 71 days for 2007 and 56 days for 2008. Sheep had greater ADG than goats (pAd libitum protein supplementation tubs had no effect on ADG or serum leptin of either lambs or kids grazing bermudagrass. These data do not support the need for protein supplementation of lambs and meat goat kids grazing bermudagrass.

  13. Estimated Pollution Reduction from Wind Farms in Oklahoma and Associated Economic and Human Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Greene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been a recognition of the growing need for different forms of energy outside of fossil fuels. Since the latter half of the twentieth century individuals, corporations, and governments have become increasingly aware of the effects of the emissions of carbon and other harmful pollutants on the environment. With this greater concern has come increasing activity to combat these harmful emissions by using alternative fuel sources to power homes, businesses, and cities. As can be seen from recent trends in their installed capacity, it is clear that renewable energy resources will continue to be more commonly used in the future. As renewable energy increases, a decrease in a range of harmful pollutants from the energy sector will also occur. This paper provides a case study to estimate the potential environmental and health benefits of an increased shift from fossil fuels to renewable fuels for electrical production in Oklahoma. Results illustrate and quantify the specific reduction that wind energy can and will have on air quality, as well as provide a quantification of the associated potential health benefits.

  14. Personality and Major Depression among Directly Exposed Survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. North

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality and resilience in association with disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and major depression. Methods. 151 directly-exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing randomly selected from a bombing survivor registry completed PTSD, major depression, and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Results. The most prevalent postdisaster psychiatric disorder was bombing-related PTSD (32%; major depression was second in prevalence (21%. Bombing-related PTSD was associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness and also with high self-transcendence and high harm avoidance in most configurations. Postdisaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among those with (56% than without (5% bombing-related PTSD (P<.001 and those with (72% than without (14% predisaster major depression (P<.001. Incident major depression was not associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Conclusions. Personality features can distinguish resilience to a specific life-threatening stressor from general indicators of well-being. Unlike bombing-related PTSD, major depression was not a robust marker of low resilience. Development and validation of measures of resilience should utilize well-defined diagnoses whenever possible, rather than relying on nonspecific measures of psychological distress.

  15. Synoptic conditions related to soil moisture-atmosphere interactions and unorganized convection in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Trent W.; Quiring, Steven M.; Frauenfeld, Oliver W.; Rapp, Anita D.

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric modification by anomalously dry or wet soils can both enhance and suppress convective activity. However, the local-scale and mesoscale feedback governing soil moisture-precipitation coupling are embedded within the larger synoptic-scale environment. Despite their importance, synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions are rarely considered in studies examining soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. We combine self-organizing maps of 500 hPa geopotential height, spatial synoptic classification, and Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model air mass trajectories to determine if the synoptic-scale environment affects the ability of the land surface to force unorganized convection in Oklahoma. We identify several synoptic patterns that significantly impact the frequency of unorganized convection. Synoptic patterns characterized by midlevel troughs over the Southern Great Plains are less frequently associated with unorganized convective events. These patterns exhibit cool air advection in the midlevel and lower level of the atmosphere and are linked to suppression of convective activity. The synoptic patterns characterized by 500 hPa ridging over the study region are more frequently associated with unorganized convective events. These patterns likely result in increased net radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and more homogenously dry soils. Unorganized convective events that occur during these synoptic conditions initiate preferentially over dry soils. We present evidence that the synoptic-scale environment can influence whether and how the land surface has an impact on convection.

  16. Seismic Vp & Vs tomography of Texas & Oklahoma with a focus on the Gulf Coast margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanzia, Dominic; Pulliam, Jay; Ainsworth, Ryan; Gurrola, Harold; Pratt, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    The northwestern Gulf of Mexico passive margin contains an extensive record of continental collision and rifting, as well as deformation associated with orogenic events and heavy sedimentation. Seismic traveltime tomography that incorporates new data from 328 broadband seismic stations deployed throughout the region reveals features that correlate well with expected mantle structures, as well as features that have no obvious expression at the surface. Among the former are a large fast anomaly that corresponds to the southern extent of the Laurentia craton and a large slow anomaly associated with the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen. Among the latter are a slow layer that we interpret to be a shear zone at the base of the cratonic and transitional continental lithosphere, a zone that is bounded at its top and bottom by discontinuities and high levels of seismic anisotropy identified in companion receiver function and shear wave splitting studies, respectively. A high velocity body underlying the Gulf Coastal Plain may mark delaminating lower crust. If this is true it could provide indirect evidence for an elevated geotherm during the rifting process that created the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Backward air mass trajectory analysis for the first cloud and radiation testbed site at Lamont, Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size distribution and composition of aerosols measured at a specific location depend on the origin and the trajectory of the air mass passing over it. Backward air mass trajectory analysis can be used to (1) identify the characteristics of an air mass and (2) help to determine which aerosol model should be used in LOWTRAN 7 for radiation calculations. Examining the trajectory is not sufficient to characterize the aerosol composition of the air mass at the site. Additional analyses must be performed along the trajectory to understand how the original air mass has or has not been modified. Height analyses, precipitation events, the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere, and the relative humidity field, as well as other physical parameters, are important for classifying an air mass after it has traveled for a few days. The primary objective of this research is to characterize a climatology of air masses that pass over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site at Lamont, Oklahoma. A three-dimensional air mass trajectory model and a method of analysis were developed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML). The classification of the air mass types (rural, marine, urban or desert) is used to decide which aerosol model is appropriate for calculations in a radiation model, such as LOWTRAN 7

  18. Implications of stratospheric ozone depletion upon plant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is identified as the major factor of concern to result from stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation is believed to have wide ranging effects on plant physiology and biochemistry. In screening studies of > 300 species and cultivars, > 50% have shown sensitivity to UV radiation. The most sensitive plant families appear to be Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae and Cruciferae. The need for a better understanding of the effects of UV radiation on crop plant physiology and particularly of the repair and protective mechanisms developed by some species is stressed. This paper was presented at a colloquium on Implications of global climate changes on horticultural cropping practices and production in developing countries held at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science at Tulsa, Oklahoma, on 2 Aug. 1989

  19. The impact of single- and multi-moment microphysics on numerical simulations of supercells and tornadoes of the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma Tornado outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Daniel Thomas, II

    , Oklahoma F5 tornado produced by one of the supercells. The performance of the multi-moment microphysics scheme is tested and several issues are discussed in relation to the thermodynamic properties of the rear-flank downdrafts of the storms, which includes the tendency for the single-moment schemes to produce large temperature and moisture deficits in the rear-flank downdraft/hook echo region of the storm, as opposed to much smaller temperature and moisture deficits (and in some cases temperature excesses) seen in the multi-moment runs, which are much more consistent with mobile mesonet observations. The multi-moment simulations also in general produce a better prediction of the tornado track and intensity than the single-moment simulations; reasons for these differences are uncovered through analyses of the thermodynamic fields, terms in the vertical momentum equation and differences in the PSDs of rain and hail in the RFD/hook echo region of the simulated storms. The multi-moment simulations produce overall larger particle diameters for both rain and hail in the hook echo region, and have significantly less negative buoyancy in the near-tornado surface air, which is found to enhance tornadogenesis, whereas the strong negative buoyancy in the single-moment runs tends to suppress tornadogenesis. Finally, broader implications for numerical supercell tornado simulation and prediction are also discussed.

  20. Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Richard C.; Fox, S. F.; David, M.L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  1. Seasonal Abundance and Natural Inoculativity of Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in Oklahoma Tree Nurseries and Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Lisa M; Rebek, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causative agent of diseases of perennial plants including peach, plum, elm, oak, pecan, and grape. This bacterial pathogen is transmitted by xylem-feeding insects. In recent years, Pierce's disease of grape has been detected in 10 counties in central and northeastern Oklahoma, prompting further investigation of the disease epidemiology in this state. We surveyed vineyards and tree nurseries in Oklahoma for potential insect vectors to determine species composition, infectivity, and natural inoculativity of commonly captured insect vectors. Yellow sticky cards were used to sample insect fauna at each location. Insects were removed from sticky cards and screened for X. fastidiosa using immunocapture-PCR to determine their infectivity. A second objective was to test the natural inoculativity of insect vectors that are found in vineyards. Graphocephala versuta (Say), Graphocephala coccinea (Forster), Paraulacizes irrorata (F.), Oncometopia orbona (F.), Cuerna costalis (F.), and Entylia carinata Germar were collected from vineyards and taken back to the lab to determine their natural inoculativity. Immunocapture-PCR was used to test plant and insect samples for presence of X. fastidiosa. The three most frequently captured species from vineyards and tree nurseries were G. versuta, Clastoptera xanthocephala Germar, and O. orbona. Of those insects screened for X. fastidiosa, 2.4% tested positive for the bacterium. Field-collected G. versuta were inoculative to both ragweed and alfalfa. Following a 7-d inoculation access period, a higher percentage of alfalfa became infected than ragweed. Results from this study provide insight into the epidemiology of X. fastidiosa in Oklahoma. PMID:26331482

  2. Phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of Planctomycetes from anaerobic, sulfide- and sulfur-rich Zodletone Spring, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahed, Mostafa S; Youssef, Noha H; Luo, Qingwei; Najar, Fares Z; Roe, Bruce A; Sisk, Tracy M; Bühring, Solveig I; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Krumholz, Lee R

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic capabilities of members of the phylum Planctomycetes in the anaerobic, sulfide-saturated sediments of a mesophilic spring (Zodletone Spring) in southwestern Oklahoma. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences generated using Planctomycetes-biased primer pairs suggested that an extremely diverse community of Planctomycetes is present at the spring. Although sequences that are phylogenetically affiliated with cultured heterotrophic Planctomycetes were identified, the majority of the sequences belonged to several globally distributed, as-yet-uncultured Planctomycetes lineages. Using complex organic media (aqueous extracts of the spring sediments and rumen fluid), we isolated two novel strains that belonged to the Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula clade within the Planctomycetes. The two strains had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, and their closest relatives were isolates from Kiel Fjord (Germany), Keauhou Beach (HI), a marine aquarium, and tissues of marine organisms (Aplysina sp. sponges and postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon). The closest recognized cultured relative of strain Zi62 was Blastopirellula marina (93.9% sequence similarity). Detailed characterization of strain Zi62 revealed its ability to reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide under anaerobic conditions, as well as its ability to produce acids from sugars; both characteristics may potentially allow strain Zi62 to survive and grow in the anaerobic, sulfide- and sulfur-rich environment at the spring source. Overall, this work indicates that anaerobic metabolic abilities are widely distributed among all major Planctomycetes lineages and suggests carbohydrate fermentation and sulfur reduction as possible mechanisms employed by heterotrophic Planctomycetes for growth and survival under anaerobic conditions. PMID:17545322

  3. Assessment of food, nutrition, and physical activity practices in Oklahoma child-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Campbell, Janis E; May, Kellie B; Brittain, Danielle R; Monroe, Lisa A; Guss, Shannon H; Ladner, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the obesogenic practices in all-day child-care centers caring for preschool-aged children. This study used a cross-sectional, self-reported survey mailed to centers across Oklahoma (n=314). Frequency of responses and χ(2) were calculated comparing region and star rating. Items where the majority of centers frequently report best practices include: daily fruits served (76%), daily nonfried vegetables served (71%), rarely/never served sugary drinks (92%), rarely/never used food to encourage good behaviors (88%), staff join children at table most of the time (81%), staff rarely eat different foods in view of children (69%), visible self-serve or request availability of water (93%), regular informal communication about healthy eating (86%), opportunities for outdoor play (95%), not withholding activity for punishment (91%), accessible play equipment (59% to 80% for different types of equipment), and minimization of extended sitting time (78%). Practices where centers can improve include increasing variety of vegetables (18%), reducing frequency of high-fat meats served (74% serve more than once per week), increasing high-fiber and whole-grain foods (35% offer daily), serving style of "seconds" (28% help kids determine whether they are still hungry), nonfood holiday celebrations (44% use nonfood treats), having toys and books that encourage healthy eating (27%) and physical activity (25%) in all rooms in the center, a standard nutrition (21%) and physical education (50%) curriculum, and following a written physical activity policy (43%). Practitioners can use these data to develop benchmarks and interventions, as this was the first study to assess statewide obesogenic practices in child care. PMID:22818731

  4. Risk across disciplines: An interdisciplinary examination of water and drought risk in South-Central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.; Towler, E.; McPherson, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a challenge faced by communities across the United States, exacerbated by growing demands on water resources and climate variability and change. The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA) in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only free-flowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To examine this question, we are conducting an investigation of drought risk from multiple disciplines. Anthropological data comes from stakeholder interviews that were designed to investigate conflict over water management by understanding how people perceive risk differently based on different opinions about the structure of the resource, varying levels of trust in authorities, and unequal access to resources. . The Cultural Theory of Risk is used to explain how people view risks as part of their worldviews and why people who hold different worldviews disagree about risks associated with water availability. Meteorological analyses of longitudinal data indicate periods of drought that are noted in stakeholder interviews. Analysis of stream gauge data investigates the influence of climate variability on local hydrologic impacts, such as changing groundwater levels and streamflows, that are relevant to planning and management decisions in the ASA. Quantitative assessment of future drought risk and associated uncertainty and their effect on type and scale of future economic and social impacts are achieved by combining elements of statistical and dynamical downscaling to improve predictions of

  5. A qualitative inquiry of educational requirements of selected professions in the Oklahoma aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Casey Jerry Kennon

    Interview of incumbents of intellectual capital positions at Boeing. The aerospace industry is a dynamic industry that requires continual skill updates to keep up with advancements in technology and operational trends within the industry. The purpose of this study was to examine intellectual capital requirements of selected professional positions within the Boeing Company in Oklahoma. Data obtained through interviews was used to determine if educational skills gaps existed. The findings of the study can be used to develop an aerospace educational pipeline based on collaborative relationships between industry and higher education to facilitate educational and training programs. Three broad research questions were used to address and support the findings of this study related to educational background, career progression, and gaps. A purposive sample of 10 professional positions was selected for interview using an interview guide containing 18 questions. Data was analyzed using manual coding techniques. Findings and conclusions. The study found that minimum education requirements for selected professional positions consisted of a bachelor's degree. Although the majority of participants identified a business degree as optimal, several participants indicated that an education background from multiple disciplines would provide the greatest benefit. Data from interviews showed educational degrees were not specialized enough and skills required to perform job functions were obtained through direct on the job experience or through corporate training. Indications from participant responses showed employees with a thorough knowledge of government acronyms had a decided advantage over those that did not. Recommendations included: expanding the study to multiple organizations by conducting a survey; expanding industry and academic partnerships; establishing a structured educational pipeline to fill critical positions; creating broad aerospace curricula degree programs tailored

  6. Deep-to-shallow carbonate ramp transition in Viola Limestone (Ordovician), southwest Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glavin, P.K.

    1983-03-01

    The Viola Limestone (Middle and Upper Ordovician) of the southwest Arbuckle Mountains was deposited on a carbonate ramp within the southern Oklahoma Aulacogen. Depositional environments include (1) anaerobic, deep-ramp setting represented by microfacies RL, CH, CGL, and A, (2) dysaerobic, mid-ramp setting represented by microfacies B, and (3) aerobic, shallow-ramp setting represented by microfacies C and D. Deposition in the deep- and mid-ramp environments was dominated by bottom-hugging currents produced by off-platform flow of denser waters. Primary sedimentary structures include millimeter-size laminations, starved ripples, and concave-up and inclined erosional surfaces. Shelly benthic fauna are rare in A and B; trace fossils are common only in B. Deposits associated with the line-source gully, microfacies RL, CH, and CGL, are laterally confined; they have been observed only in the southwest Arbuckle Mountains. Primary sedimentary structures present in RL include wavy and ripple-cross laminae. Microfacies CH, contained within RL and interpreted as a submarine channel deposit, is present only at one locality. Primary sedimentary structures present in CH include an erosional base and several internal erosional surfaces, lateral accretionary sets, and imbricated, locally derived intraclasts. High total organic carbon (TOC) values have been reported for the lower Viola. TOC values of 1% have been reported from microfacies A, and TOC values of 5% have been reported from microfacies RL. These high values suggest that A and RL may act as hydrocarbon source rocks. Recognition of these microfacies in the subsurface will contribute to our knowledge of the Viola Limestone as an exploration target.

  7. `Thus I salute the Kentucky Daisey's claim': gender, social memory, and the mythic West at a proposed Oklahoma monument

    OpenAIRE

    DeLyser, Dydia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract On 22 April 1889, at the beginning of the first Oklahoma land run when the US federal government allowed non-Indian settlers to claim what had been Native American lands, Nannita R.H. Daisey entered the newly opened territory by train to become one of the very first women to stake a quarter-section land claim, on land today part of Edmond. According to local lore, Daisy leapt from the cowcatcher of the train to stake her claim, removing her petticoat to mark the spot. Over...

  8. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Mississippi and Florida airborne survey, Fort Smith quadrangle, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fort Smith quadrangle in western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma overlies thick Paleozoic sediments of the Arkoma Basin. These Paleozoics dominate surface exposure except where covered by Quaternary Alluvial materials. Examination of available literature shows no known uranium deposits (or occurrences) within the quadrangle. Seventy-five groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly. None were considered significant, and most appeared to be of cultural origin. Magnetic data show character that suggest structural and/or lithologic complexity, but imply relatively deep-seated sources

  9. Sadness, tragedy and mass disaster in Oklahoma City: providing critical incident stress debriefings to a community in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J A

    1996-04-01

    Shortly after 09:00 h on 19 April 1995, the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, located in downtown Oklahoma City, was devastated with a bomb blast of such gigantic proportions that it was heard 60 miles away in neighbouring Norman, Oklahoma. Oklahomans routinely commuting to work on that sunny Wednesday morning went about their business as usual. A crude bomb chemically comprised of various organic compounds, chemical fertilizer, ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel, weighing an estimated 4800 pounds or more, was transported in a vehicle the size of a truck. It blew open a crater 6-8 ft deep in the street floor. The Murrah Federal Building was impacted immediately; floors, windows, communication equipment and almost all the innocent victims inside were razed to the ground. Outside the building, as far as 10 blocks away or more, hundreds of victims lay hurt, seriously injured or dead from shards of glass that flew from office windows hundreds of feet above the street floor. Without warning, the initial impact of the bomb immediately devastated the entire city. People were in a state of shock, disbelief and denial; acute symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were commonplace. Oklahomans, 'numb' from the impact of the critical incident and ill-equipped to handle the chaos of such catastrophic proportions, struggled to regain control of their lives as friends, family and loved ones went unaccounted for or were found critically injured, dying or already dead. The critical incident on 19 April demanded the immediate attention of the nation, to come to the aid of the Oklahomans who were in desperate need. By 1 June, the exhaustive investigations revealed that 30 office buildings in downtown Oklahoma City had to be condemned, and as many as 300 others were damaged. In addition, 168 people had been found dead including 19 children and one nurse working as an emergency services rescue worker. Approximately 490 other victims had been reported injured from the blast

  10. Hydrologic and landscape database for the Cache and White River National Wildlife Refuges and contributing watersheds in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Gary R.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrologic and landscape database was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for the Cache River and White River National Wildlife Refuges and their contributing watersheds in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. The database is composed of a set of ASCII files, Microsoft Access® files, Microsoft Excel® files, an Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS® geodatabase, ESRI ArcGRID® raster datasets, and an ESRI ArcReader® published map. The database was developed as an assessment and evaluation tool to use in examining refuge-specific hydrologic patterns and trends as related to water availability for refuge ecosystems, habitats, and target species; and includes hydrologic time-series data, statistics, and hydroecological metrics that can be used to assess refuge hydrologic conditions and the availability of aquatic and riparian habitat. Landscape data that describe the refuge physiographic setting and the locations of hydrologic-data collection stations are also included in the database. Categories of landscape data include land cover, soil hydrologic characteristics, physiographic features, geographic and hydrographic boundaries, hydrographic features, regional runoff estimates, and gaging-station locations. The database geographic extent covers three hydrologic subregions—the Lower Mississippi–St Francis (0802), the Upper White (1101), and the Lower Arkansas (1111)—within which human activities, climatic variation, and hydrologic processes can potentially affect the hydrologic regime of the refuges and adjacent areas. Database construction has been automated to facilitate periodic updates with new data. The database report (1) serves as a user guide for the database, (2) describes the data-collection, data-reduction, and data-analysis methods used to construct the database, (3) provides a statistical and graphical description of the database, and (4) provides detailed information on

  11. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Data report: Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. The following samples were collected: Arkansas-3292 stream sediments, 5121 ground waters, 1711 stream waters; Louisiana-1017 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Misissippi-0 stream sediments, 814 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Missouri-2162 stream sediments, 3423 ground waters 1340 stream waters; Oklahoma-2493 stream sediments, 2751 ground waters, 375 stream waters; and Texas-279 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis for He are given for 563 ground water sites in Mississippi. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  12. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef. PMID

  13. Folding at two different scales of the Paradox anticline in the Ordovician Cool Creek Formation, Arbuckle Group, Slick Hills, southwestern Oklahoma: A paleomagnetic fold test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannalal, S. J.; Zechmeister, M. S.; Elmore, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    The carbonates in the Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, part of the southern Oklahoma aulacogen, has been the subject of previous paleomagnetic studies with a focus primarily on their origin of the magnetizations. Most previous studies indicate late Paleozoic magnetizations that reside in hematite. However, Elmore et al. (1988) conducted a paleomagnetic study of the Arbuckle Group carbonates from the Slick Hills area utilizing six sites from a north-plunging tightly folded Paradox anticline. Alternating field and thermal demagnetization results from their study indicated a post-tilting remanence that resides primarily in magnetite. Also, based on the difference between the observed and expected remanence directions, they suggested a possible 30° block rotation. As a continuation of their work, this paleomagnetic study was conducted to corroborate the observed 30° rotations utilizing more sites from the Paradox anticline and the use of a more sensitive 2G Cryogenic magnetometer. In addition, the major focus of this paleomagnetic study is to examine the relationship between the timing of remanence acquisition with respect to the primary (F1) and the secondary (F2) folds of the Paradox anticline. To this extent, oriented samples of carbonates have been collected from the Ordovician Cool Creek Formation of the Paradox anticline from the Slick Hills area from both the F1 and the F2 folds. Low temperature demagnetization protocols have been carried out on these samples to remove the effects of multidomain magnetite grains thereby isolating better the characteristic remanence components. Post-low temperature cleaning, the thermal step-demagnetization procedure isolates primarily two components: 1.) a low-temperature steep downward viscous remanent magnetization; and, 2.) a high-temperature characteristic remanent magnetization component, residing primarily in magnetite, with shallow remanence directions scattered towards the east-south-east to south-east. Fold test

  14. National uranium resource evaluation program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Oklahoma City NTMS Quadrangle, Oklahoma. Uranium resource evaluation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 812 groundwater samples and 847 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and other possibly uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Based on the results from groundwater sampling, the most promising formations for potential uranium mineralization in the quadrangle are the Permian Bison, Purcell-Salt Plains-Kingman, Fairmont, Dog Creek, Chickasha, Duncan, and Cedar Hills Formations. These units are characterized by relatively high average concentrations of uranium, conductivity, arsenic, calcium, lithium, molybdenum, and sulfate. In addition, groundwaters from the Pennsylvanian Oscar Formation are characterized by values above the 85th percentile for uranium, conductivity, the uranium/sulfate ratio, arsenic, and vanadium. Results of stream sediment sampling indicate that the most promising formations for potential uranium mineralization include the same Permian Formation as indicated by groundwater sampling (Bison, Purcell-Salt Plains-Kingman, Fairmont, Dog-Creek, Chickasha, Duncan, and Cedar Hill Formations) in an area where these formations crop out north of the North Canadian River. Stream sediment samples from this area are characterized by concentrations above the 85th percentile for uranium, thorium, arsenic, lithium, manganese, and vanadium

  15. Development of visible/infrared/microwave agriculture classification and biomass estimation algorithms, volume 2. [Oklahoma and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, W. D.; Mcfarland, M. J.; Theis, S. W.; Jones, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Agricultural crop classification models using two or more spectral regions (visible through microwave) were developed and tested and biomass was estimated by including microwave with visible and infrared data. The study was conducted at Guymon, Oklahoma and Dalhart, Texas utilizing aircraft multispectral data and ground truth soil moisture and biomass information. Results indicate that inclusion of C, L, and P band active microwave data from look angles greater than 35 deg from nadir with visible and infrared data improved crop discrimination and biomass estimates compared to results using only visible and infrared data. The active microwave frequencies were sensitive to different biomass levels. In addition, two indices, one using only active microwave data and the other using data from the middle and near infrared bands, were well correlated to total biomass.

  16. Development of visible/infrared/microwave agriculture classification and biomass estimation algorithms. [Guyton, Oklahoma and Dalhart, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, W. D.; Mcfarland, M. J.; Theis, S. W.; Jones, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Agricultural crop classification models using two or more spectral regions (visible through microwave) are considered in an effort to estimate biomass at Guymon, Oklahoma Dalhart, Texas. Both grounds truth and aerial data were used. Results indicate that inclusion of C, L, and P band active microwave data, from look angles greater than 35 deg from nadir, with visible and infrared data improve crop discrimination and biomass estimates compared to results using only visible and infrared data. The microwave frequencies were sensitive to different biomass levels. The K and C band were sensitive to differences at low biomass levels, while P band was sensitive to differences at high biomass levels. Two indices, one using only active microwave data and the other using data from the middle and near infrared bands, were well correlated to total biomass. It is implied that inclusion of active microwave sensors with visible and infrared sensors on future satellites could aid in crop discrimination and biomass estimation.

  17. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Tulsa, Oklahoma, Roundtable Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-14

    TULSA EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Tulsa, Oklahoma DOE Tribal Roundtable convened on April 14th, at the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino. The meeting was hosted by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Policy and Programs and facilitated by Debra Drecksel, Senior Program Manager, Senior Facilitator, Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute) and Brian Manwaring, Program Manager, U.S. Institute. They were assisted by Lindsey Sexton, Program Associate, U.S. Institute.  Tribal leaders and representatives from multiple tribal communities attended the roundtable. David Conrad, Director of Tribal and Intergovernmental Affairs, DOE Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs represented DOE at the meeting.  

  18. Accidental release of UF6 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility at Gore, Oklahoma, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 4, 1986, a 14-ton UF6 cylinder ruptured at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (SFC) site at Gore, Oklahoma, U.S.A., resulting in a massive release of uranium hexafluoride. One SFC worker was killed and some workers were hospitalized. About 100 offsite individuals were admitted for medical screening in a local hospital. Shortly after the accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) gathered a group of experts (the Ad Hoc Interagency Task Force) to assess the potential health impact to the general public from this accident. In addition, the NRC formed a group to review and improve the protection of the general public from future accidents. A description of the accident, the public health impact, development of procedures for hospital screening, suggestions for future improvements, and the requirement for emergency planning for this type of facility is discussed in the following sections

  19. A new captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma showing remarkable dental and mandibular convergence with microsaurian tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, R. R.; LeBlanc, Aaron R. H.; Sidor, Christian A.; Scott, Diane; May, William

    2015-10-01

    The Lower Permian fossiliferous infills of the Dolese Brothers Limestone Quarry, near Richards Spur, Oklahoma, have preserved the most diverse assemblage of Paleozoic terrestrial vertebrates, including small-bodied reptiles and lepospondyl anamniotes. Many of these taxa were previously known only from fragmentary remains, predominantly dentigerous jaw elements and numerous isolated skeletal elements. The recent discovery of articulated skulls and skeletons of small reptiles permits the recognition that dentigerous elements, previously assigned at this locality to the anamniote lepospondyl Euryodus primus, belong to a new captorhinid eureptile, Opisthodontosaurus carrolli gen. et sp. nov. This mistaken identity points to a dramatic level of convergence in mandibular and dental anatomy in two distantly related and disparate clades of terrestrial tetrapods and sheds light on the earliest instance of durophagy in eureptiles.

  20. Paleomagnetism of the Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group and associated deposits in the southern Oklahoma Aulacogen: Evidence for block rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, R. Douglas; Nick, Kevin E.; Cochran, Karen A.; Crawford, Lisa D.

    1988-04-01

    The magnetization in hydrocarbon-impregnated Arbuckle Group limestones from the southern margin of the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (Limestone Hills) is secondary and resides in magnetite. The magnetization (Declination/Inclination=128°/2°, α95=7.6°, k=79) fails a fold test and is post Pennsylvanian. The corresponding pole position (146°E, 30°N), however, does not coincide with the post-Pennsylvanian Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP). Some Permian speleothems that fill caves in these rocks contain magnetizations that are also anomalous. Shallow remanent inclinations from the folded limestones and speleothems suggest that the most likely time of remanence acquisition was the Permian. The directions are at least 30° in declination from the expected directions based on the inferred ages of the magnetizations. This discrepancy can be explained by a horizontal counterclockwise rotation, consistent with left-lateral wrench faulting, during deformation of the aulacogen.