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Sample records for area northwest coast

  1. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  2. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of the Napili-Honokowai area on the northwest coast of Maui generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains an image mosaic of the Napili-Honokowai area on the northwest coast of Maui. This image mosaic was generated using...

  3. Northwest Area Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  4. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  5. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  6. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  7. Labrets: Piercing and Stretching on the Northwest Coast and in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Reddish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of piercing and stretching the lip in order to accommodate a labret in two regions: the North American Northwest Coast (with historical examples from Tlingit and Haida groups and lowland South America (utilizing ethnographic writings on Suya and Kayapo communities. Drawing on the recent ‘sensorial turn’ within anthropology, I suggest an approach which goes beyond considerations of the symbolism of body ornaments and analyses how the infliction of pain they involve can be manipulated to serve social ends at a local level. Also discussed is the use of labrets within global ‘mediascapes’ (Appadurai 1996 by Kayapo and Northwest Coast groups in the context of self-representation and the politicization of ‘culture’ (Wright 1998.

  8. 33 CFR 166.500 - Areas along the Atlantic Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas along the Atlantic Coast. 166.500 Section 166.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Anchorages § 166.500 Areas along the Atlantic Coast. (a) Purpose. Fairways, as described in this section...

  9. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  10. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  11. Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, A; Gómez-Couso, H; Martínez-Cedeira, J A; Cacciò, S M; Ares-Mazás, E

    2014-05-28

    The ubiquitous protozoan parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium have been detected from many species of captive and free-living wildlife, representing most mammalian orders. Twenty species of marine mammals have been reported to inhabit Galician waters and the region has one of the highest rates of stranding in Europe. Evidence from stranding, reported by-catches and sightings, suggests that the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is the most abundant cetacean on the Galician coast (Northwest Spain). The objective of this study was to detect and molecularly characterize isolates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium obtained from common dolphins stranded in this area. Between 2005 and 2012, sections of large intestine from 133 common dolphins stranded along the Galician coast were collected by the personnel of the Galician Stranding Network (Coordinadora para o Estudo dos Mamíferos Mariños, CEMMA). Using direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU-rDNA, β-giardin genes and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 8 (6.0%) and 12 samples (9.0%), respectively. In two samples, co-infection by both parasites was observed. The molecular characterization revealed the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A (genotypes A1 and A2) and B and Cryptosporidium parvum in these samples. This constitutes the first study in which the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium has been investigated in common dolphins on the European Atlantic coast, and it is also the first report of C. parvum in this host. Our findings indicate that these animals could act as reservoir of these waterborne parasites or could be victims of the contamination originated by anthropogenic activities.

  12. Ancient DNA analysis of mid-holocene individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America reveals different evolutionary paths for mitogenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinqiu Cui

    Full Text Available To gain a better understanding of North American population history, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes were generated from four ancient and three living individuals of the northern Northwest Coast of North America, specifically the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, current home to the indigenous Tsimshian, Haida, and Nisga'a. The mitogenomes of all individuals were previously unknown and assigned to new sub-haplogroup designations D4h3a7, A2ag and A2ah. The analysis of mitogenomes allows for more detailed analyses of presumed ancestor-descendant relationships than sequencing only the HVSI region of the mitochondrial genome, a more traditional approach in local population studies. The results of this study provide contrasting examples of the evolution of Native American mitogenomes. Those belonging to sub-haplogroups A2ag and A2ah exhibit temporal continuity in this region for 5000 years up until the present day. Of possible associative significance is that archaeologically identified house structures in this region maintain similar characteristics for this same period of time, demonstrating cultural continuity in residence patterns. The individual dated to 6000 years before present (BP exhibited a mitogenome belonging to sub-haplogroup D4h3a. This sub-haplogroup was earlier identified in the same general area at 10300 years BP on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and may have gone extinct, as it has not been observed in any living individuals of the Northwest Coast. The presented case studies demonstrate the different evolutionary paths of mitogenomes over time on the Northwest Coast.

  13. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-12-12

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter-fisher-gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to 'collective' cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour.

  14. Detection of Seismic Anomalies Linked to Emanations of Hydrocarbons in the Cuban Northwest Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Miró Pagés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of hydrocarbons to international scale constitutes a very complex and expensive task. Traditionally in the coast areas like the ones in the present work, the location of the exploration wells has been based on derived structural and stratigraphic information of geophysical data, mainly seismic; however it is well-known that in several regions similar of the world, the detection of superficial seeps of hydrocarbons confirm the existence of oil systems, has contributed to achieve a bigger dependability of the carried out prospectings, what has great importance considering the millionaire character of the financial expenditures who demands. For that reason, the main objective was to try to identify seismic anomalies typically associate with existences of hydrocarbons in Cuban coastareas. The main conclusion of this article is that the identification of seismic anomalies similar to those observed in the course of the present work can constitute a valuable additional informative element for the prospecting of hydrocarbons in areas of the Cuban coast.

  15. Engineered feature used to enhance gardening at a 3800-year-old site on the Pacific Northwest Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Tanja; Lyons, Natasha; Miller, Debbie; Diaz, Alejandra; Homan, Amy; Huddlestan, Stephanie; Leon, Roma

    2016-12-01

    Humans use a variety of deliberate means to modify biologically rich environs in pursuit of resource stability and predictability. Empirical evidence suggests that ancient hunter-gatherer populations engineered ecological niches to enhance the productivity and availability of economically significant resources. An archaeological excavation of a 3800-year-old wetland garden in British Columbia, Canada, provides the first direct evidence of an engineered feature designed to facilitate wild plant food production among mid-to-late Holocene era complex fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Northwest Coast. This finding provides an example of environmental, economic, and sociopolitical coevolutionary relationships that are triggered when humans manipulate niche environs.

  16. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  17. Northwest Montana [Waterfowl Production Area] Narrative report: Fical year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by...

  18. Planning and accomplishment narrative: Northwest Montana Waterfowl Production Area [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planning and accomplishments narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year....

  19. Benefits of donkeys in rural and urban areas in northwest Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, M.R.; Steenstra, F.A.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the benefits of donkeys for rural and urban smallholder farmers in northwest Nigeria. We visited 112 smallholder donkey farmers located in rural and urban areas from four states in northwest Nigeriathrough four focus group meetings, interviews with individua

  20. Population structure of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Turner

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine bacterium and a leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of cold-water populations remains largely undescribed. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus originating largely from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR separated 167 isolates into 39 groups and subsequent multilocus sequence typing (MLST separated a subset of 77 isolates into 24 sequence types. The Pacific Northwest population exhibited a semi-clonal structure attributed to an environmental clade (ST3, N = 17 isolates clonally related to the pandemic O3:K6 complex and a clinical clade (ST36, N = 20 isolates genetically related to a regionally endemic O4:K12 complex. Further, the identification of at least five additional clinical sequence types (i.e., ST43, 50, 65, 135 and 417 demonstrates that V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in the Pacific Northwest is polyphyletic in nature. Recombination was evident as a significant source of genetic diversity and in particular, the recA and dtdS alleles showed strong support for frequent recombination. Although pandemic-related illnesses were not documented during the study, the environmental occurrence of the pandemic clone may present a significant threat to human health and warrants continued monitoring. It is evident that V. parahaemolyticus population structure in the Pacific Northwest is semi-clonal and it would appear that multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease in this region.

  1. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... Scoping Meetings MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND Sleep... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  2. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND. Sleep Inn--Inn... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  3. Salt tectonism in the Fort Norman area, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, B.C.; Cook, D.G. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    A description is included of the structures and an analysis made of them in terms of the timing of salt movement, and its relationship to orogenic and epeirogenic events, followed by a description of the regional structure, tectonic framework, and stratigraphy. A thick Lower/Middle Cambrian basin containing a little known evaporitic unit in strata equivalent to the Mount Cap formation is documented. As exploration goes forward in this area, and more data are gathered, the Mount Cap interval will have to be subdivided. Pre-Devonian salt movement is perhaps the most poorly documented event because it is based on interpreting the sub-Devonian unconformity which is not well calibrated. Pre-Turonian salt movement affected all of the structures across the northern part of the study area. This event is poorly constrained as post-Upper Devonian and pre-Turonian, a time span of about 260 million years. The pre-Turonian compression may instead represent foreland deformation related to Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous collisional orogenesis in the Canadian Cordillera. In light of the common occurrence of this age of deformation in the Fort Norman area, one should be aware of the possibility that there may be pre-Turonian structures elsewhere in the Franklin mountains. All examined structures have a post-Cretaceous phase, and it can be assumed that this phase is post-Paleocene and associated with the Laramide formation of the Franklin mountains. Mobile salt played an important Laramide tectonic role in most, if not all structures in the Fort Norman area. 33 refs., 21 figs.

  4. Fishery Resources in Arid Zone Mangroves in Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Northwest Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Saravanakumar; M. Rajkumar; J. Sesh Serebiah; G. A. Thivakaran

    2009-01-01

    The finfish and shellfish resources were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively in regard to their abundance in creek waters at three sites within a period of two years, from January 1999 to December 2000, in the western mangrove areas of Kachchh.The catch rate varied from 0.69 to 6.99 kg h-1. It was low during monsoon (July to October), which could be due to the freshwater-flow-induced salinity reduction in all the sites. Among 38 species recorded, 5 were shellfish and 33 were finfish. The spawning period of fishes was found to be during summer and early monsoon period (May to August). Surface water temperatures varied from 17 ℃ to 37 ℃. Salinity values varied from 34 to 44 and the pH ranged between 7 and 8.9. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 3.42 to 5.85 mLL-1. The high fishery densities in these semi arid mangrove creek areas were recorded during monsoon and early winter season.

  5. Heavy metal concentration in mangrove surface sediments from the north-west coast of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cadena, J C; Andrade, S; Silva-Coello, C L; De la Iglesia, R

    2014-05-15

    Mangrove ecosystems are coastal estuarine systems confined to the tropical and subtropical regions. The Estero Salado mangrove located in Guayaquil, Ecuador, has suffered constant disturbances during the past 20 years, due to industrial wastewater release. However, there are no published data for heavy metals present in its sediments and the relationship with anthropogenic disturbance. In the present study, metal concentrations were evaluated in surface sediment samples of the mangrove, showing that B, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, V, and Zn levels exceeded those declared in international environmental quality standards. Moreover, several metals (Pb, Sn, Cd, Ag, Mo, Zn and Ni) could be linked to the industrial wastewater present in the studied area. In addition, heavy metal levels detected in this mangrove are higher than previous reports on mangrove sediments worldwide, indicating that this mangrove ecosystem is one of the most disrupted on earth.

  6. nowCOAST's Map Service for Geo-Referenced Hyperlinks to Forecast Discussions for Geographic Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST geolinks map service provides maps depicting the geographic areas where NWS regional weather forecast discussions for inland areas,...

  7. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard.

  8. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio De Jesus Hernández-Díaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp, whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46, only three (6.52% belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT. In contrast, 81.1% (202/249 of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8 representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202. This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004-2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8% were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%. Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004-2010 to 22.93% (2011-2013 (p< 0.05. Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  9. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M; Martinez-Garcia, J Javier; Vidal, Jorge E; Canizalez-Roman, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp), whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46), only three (6.52%) belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT). In contrast, 81.1% (202/249) of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8) representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202). This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive) and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004 to 2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8%) were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%). Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004-2010) to 22.93% (2011-2013; p < 0.05). Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  10. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR STREAM-RIPARIAN AREAS: PERSPECTIVES FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST HEADWATER FORESTS, MICROCLIMATES, AND AMPHIBIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream-riparian areas represent a nexus of biodiversity, with disproportionate numbers of species tied to and interacting within this key habitat. New research in Pacific Northwest headwater forests, especially the characterization of microclimates and amphibian distributions, is...

  11. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2007-07-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  12. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2006-06-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  13. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NOS Northwest Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast System (NWGOFS) Forecast Guidance (Time Enabled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps of the latest nowcasts and forecast guidance of water temperature, salinity, water currents,...

  14. Impact of Global Warming on Water Resource in Arid Area of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Aigang; DING Yongjian; PANG Hongxi; YUAN Lingling; HE Yuanqing

    2005-01-01

    As the unprecedented global warming is under way, the glacier retreat is getting more and more serious. In the inland arid area of Northwest China, due to very scarce precipitation, where there is water, there are oases. And the glacier melt water amounts to 22 % of the total direct supply of the inland river water and is of crucial importance to the survival and development of the oases. In this paper,using both the observed data and the previous research achievements of the glaciers in the inland valley of Northwest China where the oasis depending on the glacier is the only location suitable for human living, the authors describe the glacier retreat trend over the past half century, focusing on discussing the possible impact of the glacier retreat on the melt water runoff that is almost the only water resource efficient to nourish the oases. The authors find that even with increasing amount of water from the glacier with global warming, the water shortage is getting more and more serious and the environment is under a degrading way due to the accelerating economical development. The water shortage is bound to be more serious if the glacier retreat keeps on, especially after the glacier melt water is over its top for the degraded glacier scale. So suggestions are stressed in the end that a new water-saving pattern should be adopted in the area for a sustainable development due to the warming-up induced continuous glacier retreat.

  15. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, S R; Stoetzel, G A

    1997-06-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993, 1994, and 1995 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 108 area TLDs were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1996. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  16. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)--(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years (CY) 1993--1996 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 93 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1997. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusions that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  17. Relationship Between Agriculture and Ecological Deterioration, Restoration and Reconstruction in Loess Plateau Areas of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis was conducted on the current situation as well as historic succession process of agriculture and ecological conditions in Northwest China, in particular in the Loess Plateau, by means of a inter-disciplinary approach of ecology, agro-geohistory, and agronomy. It was concluded that the fundamental causes responsible for the ecological deterioration, signed by the poor agro-productivity and serious soil erosion, had been the extensive cropping system by ever-increasing reclamation on semi-drought slope land, where initiated a natural vegetation of brushy grasses with sparse trees, thus suitable only for animal husbandry. Based on an identification of specific actual status of China, several countermeasures of correctly dealing with the relationship between agricultural development and the ecological restoration and reconstruction were proposed, including to get breakthrough first in the transection area by means of the rational use of resources and the raising of agro-system productivity, to promoting "water conservancy-type ecological agriculture" through the radical shift of traditional production pattern, and the adoption of a policy of proper degree of grain self-reliance, as well as to construct livestock industry base in Northwest China.

  18. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  19. Distribution of fluoride in groundwater of Maku area, northwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Moghaddam, Asghar; Fijani, Elham

    2008-11-01

    High fluoride groundwater occurs in Maku area, in the north of West Azarbaijan province, northwest of Iran. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the area residents. Groundwater samples were collected from 72 selected points including 40 basaltic and 32 nonbasaltic springs and wells, in two stages, during June and August 2006. The areas with high fluoride concentrations have been identified, and the possible causes for its variation have been investigated. Regional hydrogeochemical investigation indicates that water-rock interaction is probably the main reason for the high concentration of ions in groundwater. The concentration of F- in groundwater is positively correlated with that of HCO3 - and Na+, indicating that groundwater with high HCO3 - and Na+ concentrations help to dissolve some fluoride-rich minerals. All of the water samples, collected from the basaltic areas do not meet the water quality standards for fluoride concentration and some other parameters. Hence, it is not suitable for consumption without any prior treatment. Inhabitants of the area that obtain their drinking water supplies from basaltic springs and wells are suffering from dental fluorosis. The population of the study area is at a high risk due to excessive fluoride intake especially when they are unaware of the amount of fluoride being ingested due to lack of awareness.

  20. Structural Architecture of the Hydrothermal System from Geophysical Data in Hammam Bouhadjar Area (Northwest of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyahiaoui, Boualem; Abtout, Abdeslam; Hamai, Lamine; Boukerbout, Hassina; Djellit, Hamou; Bougchiche, Said Sofiane; Bendali, Mohamed; Bouabdallah, Hamza

    2017-03-01

    We determine the structural architecture of the hydrothermal system of Hammam Bouhadjar area (Northwest of Algeria) by the use of geophysical data. New gravity and electrical surveys covered an area of about 48 km2 in 2009. There were 350 gravity measurements made with a sampling of 500 m and 45 electrical soundings (Schlumberger type, AB = 1000 m). The Bouguer anomaly map shows a regression of gravity field towards the NW and SE. All of the observed anomalies are elongated in NE-SW direction. The results obtained from different processing methods (gradients, upward continuation, Euler deconvolution, wavelet transform and modelling) of gravity data were used to generate structural map of the studied area. The vertical and horizontal variations of resistivity confirm the presence of superficial and deeper faults system. Following the geophysical (gravity and electrical) analysis and modelling, we propose a model to explain the origin of the Hammam Bouhadjar thermal waters. We suggest that the hot spring water comes from an aquifer located in sandstones lenses in the Senono-Oligocene Tellian unit. Following the gravity modelling the aquifer is identified at about 800 m, the same depth where the geothermal gradient is insufficient to heat the water. In these circumstances, the aquifer is probably heated by volcanic processes connected with a hot compartment by faults and contacts affecting structures identified in depth. The presence of a conductor along of the horseshoe area suggests that the water percolates into this area and then is drained by the different accidents to invade the whole area.

  1. Estimation of the Threshold Friction Velocities over Various Dust Storm Source Areas in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hao; ZHANG Hongsheng

    2010-01-01

    The emission of dust particles into the atmosphere is governed by the aerodynamic and resistant factors, which are quantified by the friction velocity u. and the threshold friction velocity u*t, respectively. The threshold friction velocity u*t influences the vertical dust flux and dust transport. Based on the micro-meteorological data obtained in the springs of 2004 and 2006 over Hunshandake desert area, Loess Plateau, and Gobi desert area, the relationship between dust concentration and friction velocity for the dust events that occurred over Hunshandake desert area was investigated, and the threshold friction velocities over the three different dust source areas were estimated. The results show that the value of dust concentration is low during the pre-emission stage of a dust storm event, and the rapid increase of friction velocity provides favor-able dynamic conditions for dust emission. During the dust emission stage, the dust concentration increases sharply due to mechanical and thermal turbulent mixing. At the calm-down stage, the dust concentration drops nearly linearly with the decreasing friction velocity, on account of the gravitational deposition of larger dust particles. When the dust concentration is higher than 200 μgm-3, it is considered as a dust emission process. According to the criteria, the values of threshold friction velocity over Hunshandake desert area and Gobi region are 0.6 and 0.45 m s-1, respectively. The threshold friction velocity over Loess Plateau depends on the wind direction, due to the complex terrain and inhomogeneous surface. The northwest wind shows the effects of the Mu Us desert in the northwest. The corresponding u*t is 0.35 m s-1. The south wind exhibits the characteristics of the Loess hilly dunes in the south, and the u*t is 0.7 m s-1. The large roughness length of the Loess hilly dunes and the large inter-particle cohesion for the clay soil texture increases the local friction velocity. Different threshold friction

  2. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica: 1972-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, J.G.; Williams, R.S.; Foley, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite images from 1972 to 1997 have been used to prepare a map showing glaciological features of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica. Analysis of the imagery shows a trend toward ice-front retreat that may be a result of changing environmental conditions.

  3. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  4. Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukund C Thakur; C R K Reddy; Bhavanath Jha

    2008-06-01

    Port Okha coast,which is known for its luxuriant growth of a diverse assemblage of seaweeds on Saurashtra coast,is found to have abundant quantities of seaweeds being drifted and washed ashore every year.Studies conducted for quantifying the stranded seaweeds from May 2004 to April 2005 showed an average biomass value of 3.10 kg fresh wt/m2/month with maximum being 6.60 kg fresh wt/m2 in April.The stranded weeds constituted a total of 62 species during the entire study period.Of this,Rhodophyta ranked high with 26 species followed by Chlorophyta with 22 species and Phaeophyta with 14 species.The stranded seaweeds that were washed ashore provide valuable floristic information about the intertidal and near shore sub-tidal algae of the respective regions.Although natural senescence of seaweeds is one of the major factors,strong currents primarily forced by tides,also contribute to the uprooting and subsequent drifting of seaweeds on to the beach.This ultimately causes changes in floristic features of the existing algal beds.

  5. The spatial and seasonal variation of trace metals in coastal seawater and soft tissue of Chthamalus montagui around the northwest coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2017-02-01

    Metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were determined in seawaters and soft tissues of Chthamalus montagui from the northwest coast of Portugal during the four seasons of 2011. The main objectives of this work were to assess seasonal and spatial variations of metals in order to detect hot spots of contamination, to establish correlations between metals in coastal seawaters and C. montagui and to calculate metal bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in each season. Metal concentrations in coastal seawaters ranged within Cd: 1.2-35 ng L-1; Cr: 15-87 ng L-1; Mn: 77-1763 ng L-1; Cu: 126-1819 ng L-1; Fe: 430-4048 ng L-1 and Zn: 2889-16867 ng L-1 and in C. montagui ranged for Cd: 0.39-1.98 mg kg-1; Cr: 0.45-3.13 mg kg-1; Cu: 0.93-5.70 mg kg-1; Mn: 2.2-20.4 mg kg-1; Fe: 135-707 mg kg-1 and Zn: 119-782 mg kg-1. Significant spatial and seasonal variations were found between: (i) metal concentrations in seawaters and C. montagui tissues; (ii) the distribution of metal concentrations in C. montagui tissues were Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd and (iii) C. montagui showed higher bioaccumulation factors for Fe and Cd than for Cu, Mn and Zn in all seasons. Regarding the metal concentrations accumulated in C. montagui tissues during each season of 2011, the ecological quality classifications of the NW coast of Portugal varied from "Class I-Unpolluted" to "Class III-Remarkably Polluted".

  6. [Genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from common legumes in the Karst area. Northwest Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; He, Xun-yang; Xie, Qiang; Wang, Ke-lin

    2015-12-01

    Legumes, with a strong resistance to the adverse environmental conditions, are pioneer plants in degraded habitats, and play an important role in ecosystem restoration. In this study, the nodulation characteristics of 24 legumes were surveyed in the Karst area of Northwest Guangxi. A total of 39 nodule samples were collected from 15 legumes, the DNA was extracted and the 16S rDNA and nifH gene were amplified. A phylogenetic tree was then constructed to analyze the genetic diversity of rhizobia. The results showed that 15 legumes were nodulated, of which 14 belonged to the Papilionoideae, one to the Mimosaceae, and none to the Caesalpinoideae. No nodules were found on some legumes that were reported as nodulated, which might result from soil water stress in Karst. BLAST result and phylogenetic analyse indicated that most of the legumes were associated with rhizobia that belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium, with the exception of two samples from Callerya nitida that were associated with the genus Mesorhizobium. In the phylogenetic tree, the sequences obtained from the same plot or the sequences from the same host species clustered together in most cases. This finding suggested that host selection and the ecological environment are the major factors that influence the genotype of rhizobia.

  7. Depositional setting, structural style, and sandstone distribution in three geopressured geothermal areas, Texas Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winker, C.D.; Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Garcia, D.D.

    1981-10-01

    Three areas in the Texas Gulf Coast region with different depositional settings, structural styles, and sandstone distribution were studied with well log and seismic data to evaluate some of the controls on subsurface conditions in geopressured aquifers. Structural and stratigraphic interpretations were made primarily on the basis of well log correlations. Seismic data confirm the log interpretations but also are useful in structure mapping at depths below well control.

  8. Landslides in West Coast metropolitan areas: The role of extreme weather events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Biasutti

    2016-12-01

    That a news-based catalog of landslides is accurate enough to allow the identification of different landslide/rainfall relationships in the major urban areas along the US West Coast suggests that this technology can potentially be used for other English-language cities and could become an even more powerful tool if expanded to other languages and non-traditional news sources, such as social media.

  9. Protozoa in a stressed area of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast of Damietta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moussa Dorgham

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Damietta coast is part of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta and has recently been polluted as a result of intensive human activities.The environmental parameters and protozoan community in the area were studied biweekly from January to December 2007. The results of the environmentalparameters indicated low salinity, oxic and anoxic conditions, high nutrient levels and intensive phytoplankton growth. A total of 69 protozoan specieswere identified, belonging to Amoebozoa (8 species, Foraminifera (12 species, non-tintinnid ciliates (22 species and tintinnids (27 species. The numerical density of protozoans was high over the whole area, with annual averages between 8.2 × 103 cells m-3 and 51.4 × 103 cells m-3.Spring was the most productive season for protozoans, but several distinct peaks were observed during the year at the sampling sites. The protozoangroups showed clearly different spatial patterns in both composition and abundance: whereas amoebozoans and non-tintinnid ciliates were dominant in themore polluted areas (sites IV and V, tintinnids dominated in the less polluted areas (sites, I, II and III. Several pollution indicators wererecorded: amoebozoans - Centropyxis aculeata, Centropyxis sp., Cochliopodium sp.,Difflugia sp.; non-tintinnids - Bursaridium sp., Frontonia atra,Holophrya sp., Paramecium sp., Paramecium bursaria,Vasicola ciliata, Vorticella sp., Strombidium sp.; tintinnids- Favella ehrenbergii, Helicostomella subulata, Leprotintinnus nordgvisti,Tintinnopsis beroidea, Stenosemella ventricosa, Tintinnopsis campanula,T. cylindrica, T. lobiancoi, Eutintinnus lusus-undae.

  10. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Miami Slope, Florida Deep Coral Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of...

  11. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetric Rugosity, Florida Deep Coral Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2011), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the rugosity of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of Florida,...

  12. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Backscatter Mosaic, Florida Deep Coral Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the backscatter (intensity) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast...

  13. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetry, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Jacksonville) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of Florida,...

  14. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetry Slope, Florida Deep Coral Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of...

  15. Andes Altiplano, Northwest Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the Andes Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. The altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is an inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America and includes hundreds of volcanic edifices (peaks, cinder cones, lava flows, debris fields, lakes and dry lake beds (salars).

  16. Epidemiological study of canine Trypanosomosis in an urban area of Ivory coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keck N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following confirmed cases of trypanosomosis in military working dogs, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the source of infection and determine the prevalence of canine infection with Trypanosoma congolense in the urban focus of Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Blood from 123 dogs were collected and subjected to PCR using specific primers for Trypanosoma congolense “forest type”. In addition, an entomological study was conducted in an urban area near the forest surronding the military camp. The observed prevalence was 30.1% and PCR positivity to Trypanosoma congolense was not significantly associated with sex or age of animals. This study demonstrates the high contamination rate of dogs in enzootic zones, the potential risk of introduction of the disease in free animal populations and the ability of Glossina palpalis to adapt to urban areas and to transmit trypanosomosis in such areas. The factors leading to a possible emergence of canine trypanosomiasis in enzootic zones need further investigations.

  17. Conservation and restoration of degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In "West Development" of China, one of the most important activities is the Natural Forest Protection Program, designed to swiftly convert the focus of management and utilization of the natural forests from a timber orientation towards forest conservation, sustainable management and environmental protection. The project covered almost all the arid and semi-arid regions in Northwest region. Accompanying this great campaign this paper studied the conservation and restoration model of degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid lands in Northwest China. The past practices have resulted in considerably natural forest degradation and loss through land conversion (primarily for agriculture), over-harvesting, inadequate reforestation and lack of protection. The consequences have been the loss of soil and water resources, diminished timber production capacity on a sustainable basis, and environmental losses. This paper applied Aronson's restoration model and proposed the conservation, restoration, re-allocation and preservation program for the implementation of environmental improvement and natural forest conservation.

  18. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of carbonatites from South Nam Xe, Lai Chau area, northwest Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thi, Thuy; Wada, Hideki; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Shimano, Taketo

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the petrography, mineral chemistry, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-C-O isotope systematics of carbonatite dykes and associated rocks from the northeastern part of the Song Da intracontinental rift in South Nam Xe (northwest Vietnam) aimed at constraining the origin of the carbonatite magmas. The carbonatites are characterized by SiO2 material. Because of the lack of tectonic data and the limited number of samples studied, this conclusion is still ambiguous and requires further study.

  19. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper.

  20. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  1. Geophysical and geochemical studies to delineate seawater intrusion in Bagoush area, Northwestern coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mustafa A.; Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; El-Shiekh, Abdelfattah; Parker, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Coastal aquifers are the main source for sustainable freshwater in many arid and semi-arid regions around the earth. In such regions, groundwater extraction far exceeds the natural replenishment rates due to additional demands on groundwater resources especially in the last few decades. The characterization of the seawater intrusion in the Baghoush area along the northwestern coast of Egypt assesses the risk of seawater intrusion for the purpose of managing the groundwater resources in coastal areas. The (SI) in the oolitic Pleistocene aquifer is affected by several natural factors, including the drainage patterns, geological structures, distance from the sea and the manipulation of groundwater. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been implemented to identify the geometry of the brackish/saline water interface and to map the distribution of brackish water zone floating over the denser saline water. Seven 2-D resistivity imaging profiles were conducted using a Wenner array with different electrode distance spacings. The inverse resistivity models of these profiles indicate that these profiles are composed of three zones: the upper dry zone, the middle brackish water zone, and the lower saline water zone. The thickness of the brackish groundwater zone decreases toward the sea and the resistivity decreases with depth due to increase in water salinity. Water table along these profiles decreases from south to north, which indicates that groundwater flow is from south (inland) to north (sea). Groundwater chemistry and stable isotopes were used to determine the fresh groundwater recharge source(s), to identify mixing of different groundwaters, to evaluate seawater intrusion zone along the coast, and to investigate the upwelling of deep saline groundwater underneath the brackish zone. The recharge of fresh groundwater originates from the mountain watershed located upstream as well as the annual rainfall; however, seawater is the main source of groundwater

  2. Characteristics of Algal Succession Following Rock Scraping at Imwon Area in the East Coast of Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Dae Kim; Jung Kwan Ahn; Myung Mo Nam; Chu Lee; Hyun Il Yoo; Su Yeoung Yeon; Young Hwan Kim; Jang Kyun Kim; Jae Suk Choi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping using hoe or high-pressure water sprayer in the period from June 2010 to April 2011. We divided the research area off the eastern coast of Korean near Imwon into 3 categories depending upon the severity of the barren ground,i.e., the urchin barren-affected, urchin bar-ren-ongoing and urchin barren-free areas. In April 2011, in the urchin barren-affected area with 25 seaweed species, the cover per-centage and importance value (IV) of crustose coralline algae were higher than those of other species. In the urchin barren-ongoing area with 33 seaweed species, crustose coralline algae (mean IV=62%) as well asSargassumsp. (mean IV=28%), andGelidium amansii (mean IV=19%) were observed following rock scraping. In the urchin barren-free area where seaweed communities were relatively abundant with 42 species, a variety of algal species includingG. amansii (mean IV=32%) underwent algal succession. Overall, it was observed that, as an aspect of algal succession, the weaker the barren ground severity was, the more frequent and di-verse the seaweeds were, and the more complex the succession pattern was in the study. As an aspect of recovering algal community, rock scraping using hoe was shown to be superior to the method using high-pressure water spraying. Therefore, we conclude that rock scraping using hoe is a very effective strategy for recovering the algal community in urchin barren-ongoing area.

  3. Characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping at Imwon area in the east coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Dae; Ahn, Jung Kwan; Nam, Myung Mo; Lee, Chu; Yoo, Hyun Il; Yeon, Su Yeoung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Jang Kyun; Choi, Jae Suk

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the characteristics of algal succession following rock scraping using hoe or high-pressure water sprayer in the period from June 2010 to April 2011. We divided the research area off the eastern coast of Korean near Imwon into 3 categories depending upon the severity of the barren ground, i.e., the urchin barren-affected, urchin barren-ongoing and urchin barren-free areas. In April 2011, in the urchin barren-affected area with 25 seaweed species, the cover percentage and importance value (IV) of crustose coralline algae were higher than those of other species. In the urchin barren-ongoing area with 33 seaweed species, crustose coralline algae (mean IV = 62%) as well as Sargassum sp. (mean IV = 28%), and Gelidium amansii (mean IV = 19%) were observed following rock scraping. In the urchin barren-free area where seaweed communities were relatively abundant with 42 species, a variety of algal species including G. amansii (mean IV = 32%) underwent algal succession. Overall, it was observed that, as an aspect of algal succession, the weaker the barren ground severity was, the more frequent and diverse the seaweeds were, and the more complex the succession pattern was in the study. As an aspect of recovering algal community, rock scraping using hoe was shown to be superior to the method using high-pressure water spraying. Therefore, we conclude that rock scraping using hoe is a very effective strategy for recovering the algal community in urchin barren-ongoing area.

  4. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands along the German Baltic Sea coastline and the Bodden waters are characteristic elements of the landscape of this region. Their hydrological dynamic is characterized by a significant groundwater flow from the hinterland towards the landscapes areas close to the coast, a direct hydrological intertwining of groundwater and surface waters (creeks, ponds, lakes and fens) in those near-coast areas and a potential for exchange between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions, e.g. the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has undergone several transitions during the last centuries. We present the results of studies at a catchment "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" close to the city of Rostock, aimed at understanding and quantification the relevant hydrological process dynamics of such catchments. This area has formerly been used for pasture and has recently been restored as a nature reserve, which allows the investigation of past changes and the evaluation of possible and future developments. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the fen since 2009, as well as on measurements of the flow and of meteorological variables. We have conducted a general water budgeting, i.e. the balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighboring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's surface discharge. The analysis of the general hydrological characterization showed that the internal processes of those fens can only be understood if the groundwater flow from the hinterland is taken into consideration. The surface discharge out of the area is mainly generated within the catchment, whereby this area is also a transfer zone with considerable retention effects. It is surprising

  5. Sandstone consolidation analysis to delineate areas of high-quality reservoirs suitable for production of geopressured geothermal energy along the Texas Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loucks, R.G.; Dodge, M.M.; Galloway, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of reservoir quality of lower Tertiary sandstones along the Texas Gulf Coast delineates areas most favorable for geopressured geothermal exploration. Reservoir quality is determined by whole core, acoustic log, and petrographic analyses. The Wilcox Group has good reservoir potential for geopressured geothermal energy in the Middle Texas Gulf Coast and possibly in adjacent areas, but other Wilcox areas are marginal. The Vicksburg Formation in the Lower Texas Gulf Coast is not prospective. Reservoir quality in the Frio Formation increases from very poor in lowermost Texas, to marginal into the Middle Texas Gulf Coast and to good through the Upper Texas Gulf Coast. The Frio Formation in the Upper Texas Gulf Coast has the best deep-reservoir quality of any unit along the Texas Gulf Coast. (MHR)

  6. [Anopheles cruzii larvae found in bromelias in an urban area on the Brazilian coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela R A M; Forattini, Oswaldo Paulo

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii larvae is reported for the first time in bromelias on the ground located in an urban area within the municipality of Ilha Bela, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. From March 1998 to July 1999 312 immature forms of An. cruzii were captured, being that 8.6% of them were in bromelias in the urban environment, 40.1% in periurban bromelias and 51.3% in the forest. The average number of bromelias containing An. cruzii was 4.0% of the total investigated. The positive rate in the periurban and forested environments presented similar values. The presence of An. cruzii is probably due to their having been present previously in the forest, together with the frequent presence of these breeding places, food sources and appropriate shelter in the urban area. This set of factors makes it necessary to warn against the possibility of transferring infections from one environment to the other.

  7. Single-grain OSL chronologies for Middle Palaeolithic deposits at El Mnasra and El Harhoura 2, Morocco: implications for Late Pleistocene human-environment interactions along the Atlantic coast of northwest Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Zenobia; Roberts, Richard G; Nespoulet, Roland; El Hajraoui, Mohammed Abdeljalil; Debénath, André

    2012-03-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements were made on individual, sand-sized grains of quartz from Middle Palaeolithic deposits at two cave sites (El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra) on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. We were able to calculate OSL ages for 32 of the 33 samples collected from the Middle Palaeolithic deposits, including the earliest and latest Aterian levels at both sites. These ages reveal periods of occupation between about 110 and 95 ka (thousands of years ago), and at ~75 ka. A late Middle Palaeolithic occupation of El Harhoura 2 is also recorded at ~55 ka. Our single-grain OSL chronologies largely support previous age estimates from El Mnasra and other sites along the Atlantic coast of Morocco, but are generally more precise, reproducible and stratigraphically more coherent (i.e., fewer age reversals). We compare the single-grain ages for El Harhoura 2 and El Mnasra with those obtained from single- and multi-grain OSL dating of Middle Palaeolithic deposits in the nearby sites of Contrebandiers and Dar es-Soltan 1 and 2, and with records of past regional environments preserved in sediment cores collected from off the coast of northwest Africa. A conspicuous feature of the new chronologies is the close correspondence between the three identified episodes of human occupation and periods of wetter climate and expanded grassland habitat. Owing to the precision of the single-grain OSL ages, we are able to discern gaps in occupation during Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 4, which may represent drier periods with reduced vegetation cover. We propose that these climatic conditions can be correlated with events in the North Atlantic Ocean that exert a major control on abrupt, millennial-scale fluctuations between wet and dry periods in northwest and central North Africa.

  8. Global Warming: The Instability of Desert Climate is Enhancing in the Northwest Area in China: A Case Study in the Desert Area in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Feng Chang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To disclose the relation between the sandstorms change and the temperature changes, a case study in the desert area in northwestern china is investigated. The results showed that: the instability of climate in Minqin desert area is enhancing in the arid desert region in northwest China. Mainly as follows: Variation the annual extreme maximum temperature increasing. Variation of extreme minimum temperature also an increasing trend. Average visibility of sandstorms significantly reduced and the fluctuation trend increased significantly. In the past two years, there have been some unusual climate events in other regions in China. They reflect the fact that the deterioration of the stability of the climate change. The instability of the climate change impact on human life and production is increased more than global warming, more worthy of global concern.

  9. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204c - Survey footprint of area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2003, approximately 49 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  10. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204a - Survey footprint for area 110_0204a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2002, approximately 42 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  11. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204b - Survey footprint of area 110_0204b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2003, approximately 49 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  12. Danforth Hills coal resources calculation area, Northwest Colorado (dan*bndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO coverages that outline the areas within which coal resources are calculated and reported for the A/B through G coal zones, Danforth...

  13. Red Alder Basal Area, by Stream Reach, for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Red alder (Alnus rubra) are a common component of forests in Western Oregon and Washington. This file provides an estimate of red alder basal area in western Oregon...

  14. Bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie Rivers, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie rivers in the Yukon territory of Canada. The distribution and general ecology of 263...

  15. Geostatistical analysis of variations in soil salinity in atypical irrigation area in Xinjiang, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing spatial and temporal variability of soil salinity is tremendously important for a variety of agronomic andenvironmental concerns in arid irrigation areas. This paper reviews the characteristics and spatial and temporal variationsof soil salinization in the Ili River Irrigation Area by applying a geostatistical approach. Results showed that: (1) the soilsalinity varied widely, with maximum value of 28.10 g/kg and minimum value of 0.10 g/kg, and was distributed mainly atthe surface soil layer. Anions were mainly SO42- and Cl-, while cations were mainly Na+ and Ca2+; (2) the abundance ofsalinity of the root zone soil layer for different land use types was in the following order: grassland 〉 cropland 〉 forestland.The abundance of salinity of root zone soil layers for different periods was in the following order: March 〉 June 〉 September;(3) the spherical model was the most suitable variogram model to describe the salinity of the 0-3 cm and 3-20 cmsoil layers in March and June, and the 3-20 cm soil layer in September, while the exponential model was the most suitablevariogram model to describe the salinity of the 0-3 cm soil layer in September. Relatively strong spatial and temporalstructure existed for soil salinity due to lower nugget effects; and (4) the maps of kriged soil salinity showed that higher soilsalinity was distributed in the central parts of the study area and lower soil salinity was distributed in the marginal parts.Soil salinity tended to increase from the marginal parts to the central parts across the study area. Applying the krigingmethod is very helpful in detecting the problematic areas and is a good tool for soil resources management. Managingefforts on the appropriate use of soil and water resources in such areas is very important for sustainable agriculture, andmore attention should be paid to these areas to prevent future problems.

  16. Geostatistical analysis of variations in soil salinity in a typical irrigation area in Xinjiang, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamattursun Eziz; Mihrigul Anwar; XinGuo Li

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing spatial and temporal variability of soil salinity is tremendously important for a variety of agronomic and environmental concerns in arid irrigation areas. This paper reviews the characteristics and spatial and temporal variations of soil salinization in the Ili River Irrigation Area by applying a geostatistical approach. Results showed that: (1) the soil salinity varied widely, with maximum value of 28.10 g/kg and minimum value of 0.10 g/kg, and was distributed mainly at the surface soil layer. Anions were mainly SO42− and Cl−, while cations were mainly Na+and Ca2+; (2) the abundance of salinity of the root zone soil layer for different land use types was in the following order: grassland > cropland > forestland. The abundance of salinity of root zone soil layers for different periods was in the following order: March > June > Sep-tember; (3) the spherical model was the most suitable variogram model to describe the salinity of the 0–3 cm and 3–20 cm soil layers in March and June, and the 3–20 cm soil layer in September, while the exponential model was the most suitable variogram model to describe the salinity of the 0–3 cm soil layer in September. Relatively strong spatial and temporal structure existed for soil salinity due to lower nugget effects; and (4) the maps of kriged soil salinity showed that higher soil salinity was distributed in the central parts of the study area and lower soil salinity was distributed in the marginal parts. Soil salinity tended to increase from the marginal parts to the central parts across the study area. Applying the kriging method is very helpful in detecting the problematic areas and is a good tool for soil resources management. Managing efforts on the appropriate use of soil and water resources in such areas is very important for sustainable agriculture, and more attention should be paid to these areas to prevent future problems.

  17. Coverage Polygons for DEMs of the North-Central California Coast (DEM_coverage_areas.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS polygon shapefile outlining the extent of the 14 individual DEM sections that crompise the seamless, 2-meter resolution DEM for the open-coast region of the...

  18. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  19. 中国西北地区与东部地区跨区域金融流实证研究%Empirical Research of inter-regional financial flaw between Northwest Inland and East Coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培安; 白永平; 纪发俊

    2012-01-01

    between the cointegration relationship,indicating the economic gap and the financial gap does exist the long-term equilibrium relationship,this relationship can be used in cointegration equation vector error correction model representation.This paper finds out the appropriate policy recommendations.These recommendations will help us think about the Northwest development,and reduce regional disparities adverse effects.Accelerating the development of economic construction is a difficult and responsible work.For the Northwest,the lack of funds is a serious problem;the less total deposits are of inhibition of total loans to market,thereby inhibiting the economy growth of the Northwest.For the east part of China,the problem is not much money to create greater abundance of economic and social benefits.The East-Northwest gap in economic development is the main reason leading to the flow of financial flow,while the financial flows in turn further widening the economic gap.In addition,the financial environment and investment opportunities are far behind the eastern coastal areas,the benefits reduce the financial elements,making the financial flows from the northwest region to the eastern region;the flow of financial flow of funds exacerbated the lack of the Northwest finance,further inhibiting the Northwest economic growth.The policy recommendations are as follows: central government's regional development policies continue to be properly tilted to the Northwest less developed areas and to develop appropriate financial and taxation incentives,reasonable financial flow forwards the Northwest.The Northwest should create a favorable institutional environment and vigorously promote the economic and financial system,improving the financial environment for investment.On the other hand,the Northwest should learn the economic development models from the East,and combining with the actual situation of the Northwest's own,the Northwest should explore the scientifically developing

  20. Historical tank content estimate for the northwest quadrant ofthe Hanford 200 west area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank-by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Labo1368ratory are also given in this report.

  1. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Pickett, W.W.

    1994-06-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report.

  2. Land Use Changes of an Aeolian-Loessial Soil Area in Northwest China: Implications for Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Fu; LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jing; YAN Jian-Ping; GUO Xu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    China has experienced dramatic land use changes over recent decades,with marked environmental and socio-economic consequences.Hcngshan County,located in the aeolian-loessial area of Northwest China,was investigated to illustrate land use changes and their implications for environmental and long-term rural economic development.The farmland in Hengshan County significantly decreased during 1990-2003,whereas forest land and grassland increased.The conversion rates of farmland,orchard land,forest land and construction land varied markedly among different periods:1990-1995,1995-2000 and 2000-2003.Conversion of orchard land,grassland and construction land was dominant in 1990-1995,whereas the conversion of farmland to forest land mainly occurred in 2000-2003.The results suggested a profound transition in institutional policy and political economy of land management,including implementation of integrated soil erosion control projects,adoption of a market-oriented economy and the 'Grain-for-Green' policy,during this period in China.To achieve long-term sustainable land use in Hengshan County,efforts should aim at increasing off-farm income of rural families as well as establishing land-economizing mechanisms to promote land productivity,in addition to conservation measures.

  3. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, K. [Environment Agency, Welsh Region, Northern Area Office, Ffordd Penlan, Parc Menai, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 4DE (United Kingdom); Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Watson, S. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); McDonald, P., E-mail: paul.mcdonald@westlakes.ac.uk [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, PO Box 12, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Watts, S.J. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd., The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 {mu}Gy h{sup -1}, below the ERICA screening level of 10 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} and within the IAEA 40 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  4. Hydropedological model of vertisol formation along the Gulf Coast Prairie land resource area of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Driese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertisols are clayey soils containing slickensides and wedge-shaped aggregates formed by shrink-swell processes in seasonally wet climates. The dynamic distribution of macro- and microvoids as a by-product of this unique pedoturbation process, accompanied by microtopographic lows and highs (gilgai, mitigate our ability to make accurate and precise interpretations of aquic and hydric conditions in these problem soils. We studied Vertisols across a subhumid to humid climosequence to assess the formation of redoximorphic features on shallow, linear (nondepressional landscape positions in response to varying levels of rainfall. Approximately 1000 mm of mean annual precipitation (MAP is required to form soft iron masses that then increase in abundance, and to shallower depths, with increasing rainfall. Soft iron masses with diffuse boundaries become more abundant with higher rainfall in microlows, whereas masses with nondiffuse boundaries become more common in microhighs. Most soft iron masses form in oxygenated ped interiors as water first saturates and then reduces void walls where iron depletions form. In contrast, at least 1276 mm of MAP is needed to form iron pore linings in both microlow and microhigh topographic positions. Iron depletions do not correlate with rainfall in terms of abundance or depth of occurrence. The quantity of crayfish burrows co-varies with rainfall and first appears coincidentally with soft iron masses in microlows near 1000 mm of MAP; they do not appear until nearly 1400 mm of MAP in microhighs. Dithionite-citrate extractable and ammonium-oxalate extractable iron oxides increase systematically with rainfall indicating more frequent episodes of iron reduction and precipitation into pedogenic segregations. The sum of our data suggests that Vertisols forming in the Coast Prairie of Texas with MAP greater than 1276 mm should be classified as aquerts because of the presence of aquic conditions. These same soils may also meet

  5. Vulnerable areas and adapation measures for sea level rise along the coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Jagtap, T.G.; Suneethi, J.; Furtado, R.

    to the global climatic changes, the available historical mean sea level data between 1920-1999 at 10 locations was evaluated. There is a large contrast in the deduced sea level changes. The sea level rise along the Gulf of Kachchh and the coast of West Bengal...

  6. Evaluation of Penman-Monteith model applied to a maize field in the arid area of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-Z. Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Penman-Monteith (P-M model has been applied to estimate evapotranspiration in terrestrial ecosystem widely in the world. As shown in many studies, bulk canopy resistance is an especially important factor in the application of P-M model. In this study, the authors used the Noilhan and Planton (N-P approach and Jacobs and De Bruin (J-D approach to express the bulk canopy resistance. The application of P-M mode to a maize field with two approaches in the arid area of Northwest China was evaluated by the measured half-hourly values from the eddy covariance system. The results indicate that the N-P approach underestimates slightly the bulk canopy resistance, while the J-D approach overestimates that. The estimation of bulk canopy resistance with N-P approach was then better and more consistent than that with J-D approach during the entire maize growing season. Correspondingly, the P-M model with J-D bulk canopy resistance slightly underestimated the latent heat flux throughout the maize growing season, but overestimated the latent heat flux during the dry period of the soil as compared to that with N-P approach. The good fitness of the simulated latent heat flux by the P-M model with N-P bulk canopy resistance approach to the measured one at a half-hour time step demonstrates the application of the approach is reasonable in the relative homogenous and not drought-stressed maize fields of the arid areas during the entire growing season. Further researches are discussed on enhancing the field observation, taking the correction for atmospheric stability into estimating aerodynamic resistance, to improve the performance of P-M model to simulate evapotranspiration in the cropped fields.

  7. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  8. Access to Maternal Health Care Services in the Cape Coast Metropolitan Area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Adei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality can be prevented if mothers had routine obstetric care and access to emergency obstetric services. However, in accessing healthcare most expecting mothers will have to struggle with distance and financial problems. The study sought to; assess the barriers that discourage women from accessing antenatal, delivery and postnatal services in the Cape coast Metropolis and give recommendations to inform policy. Questionnaire was administered to 150 pregnant women and nursing mothers with babies less than one year from ten communities in the Cape Coast Metropolis. An institutional questionnaire was administered at the University of Cape Coast Hospital which provides health care services to the communities. The study revealed that challenges such as money (16.7%, distance (15.4%, and the behaviour of health personnel (20% were the dominant barriers to accessing antenatal, delivery and post natal services in the Cape Cost Metropolis. These barriers lead to the inability of 14% of pregnant women and nursing mothers with babies less than one year to adhere to the minimum antenatal visitation number of 5 recommended by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Again 15.3% of these respondents were delivered by Traditional Birth Attendants and family members, whiles 5.8% were unable to adhere to the minimum postnatal visitation of two times. NGO’s and government organizations for women should organize training programmes aimed at improving the livelihood or employment for women in these communities.

  9. Middle Permian Seamount from Xiahe Area, Gansu Province, Northwest China: Zircon U-Pb Age, Biostratigraphy and Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kou Xiaohu; Zhang Kexin; Zhu Yunhai; Chen Zhongqiang; Lin Qixiang; Chen Fenning; Huang Jinyuan

    2009-01-01

    The well-preserved seamount buildups are documented from the northwestern Qinling (秦岭) orogenic belts, Northwest China. The study sections are located in the Ganjia (甘加) area of the Xiahe (夏河) County, Gansu (甘肃) Province. The dark basalt and overlying massive reef carbonate characterize the Xiahe seamount buildup. Basalts are dominated by the olivine type of rocks and bear distinct porphyritic textures, and fumarole and amygdaloidal structures. The basaits are dominated by SiO2(up to 48.49 wt.%-52.29 wt.%) followed by (Na2O+ K2O) (3.80 wt.%-4.96 wt.%) and TiO2 (2.04 wt.%-2.52 wt.%). They are featured by considerably high content of Ti. The tholeilteseries rocks dominate the basalts, while calc-alkali-series rocks are also present. The REE of the basalts shows the LREE-enrichment type with distinct positive Eu abnormal. The trace elements of the basalts are characterized by the lack of P and high content of Ti. These geochemical signals suggest that the Xiahe basalts were formed in an ocean-island setting. The LA ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of the basalts is 267.6±5 Ma, which is reinforced by the presnce of the fusuHnid Neoschwagerina Zone of the Wordian (Middle Permian) in the limestone interbeds of the basalts. Integration of petrological and geochemical studies of seamount basaits and lateral correlation of seamount buildups reveals that the Qinling-qilian-Kunlun orogenic belts were probably the archipelagtc oceans during the Permian.

  10. Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus as a Source of Ectoparasites in Urban-suburban Areas of Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Hajipour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals which become popular in the world and have important role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Thus, the present study aimed to survey ectoparasite infestation from April 2010 to December 2011 in urban and suburban parts of Urmia and Tabriz Cities, Northwest of Iran.Methods: A total number of 84 hedgehogs (40 females and 44 males were examined. They have been carefully inspected for ectoparasites and collected arthropods were stored in 70% ethanol solution. The identification of arthropods was carried out using morphological diagnostic keys.Results: The occurrence of ticks on hedgehogs was 23 (67.7% with Rhipicephalus turanicus in Urmia and 11 (22% as well as 1(2% with Rh. turanicus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Tabriz, respectively. One flea species, Archaeopsylla erinacei, was found with prevalence of 19 (55.9% and 27 (54% in Urmia and Tabriz Cities, respectively. Prevalence of infestation with Rh. turanicus and A. erinacei were not different (P> 0.05 between sexes of hedgehogs in two study areas. Highest prevalence of tick and flea infestation was in June in Urmia, whereas it was observed in August in Tabriz. Both tick and flea parasitizing hedgehogs showed seasonal difference in prevalence (P< 0.05 in Urmia, but it was not detected in Tabriz (P> 0.05.Conclusion: The result showed the high occurrence of ectoparasites in hedgehog population and according to the zoonotic potential of these animals as vector of some agents further studies are needed to investigate in different parts of Iran.

  11. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  12. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Miami Slope, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Miami) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of...

  13. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetry Mosaic, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Miami) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of Florida,...

  14. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetry Slope, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Jacksonville) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of...

  15. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshOR_breach: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents inundated area for the Coast Fork of the Willamette River, the Row River and Silk Creek (west of Cottage Grove, OR) for eight different...

  16. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetric Rugosity, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Jacksonville) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2011), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the rugosity of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of Florida,...

  17. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Backscatter Mosaic, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Miami) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the backscatter (intensity) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast...

  18. Arc Export File Of Permitted and Mined Out Coal Areas of the Gulf Coast Coal-Bearing (gulfmines.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains permitted coal mines and mined out areas in the Gulf Coast coal-bearing geology prior to 1998. The data included in the coverage are mine...

  19. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Backscatter Mosaic, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Jacksonville) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the backscatter (intensity) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast...

  20. Geomorphological & Geoarchaeological Indicators of the Holocene Sea-Level Changes on Ras El Hekma Area, NW Coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy

    2016-02-01

    Ras El Hekma area is a part of the NW coast of Egypt. It is located on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast, approximately 220 km West of Alexandria City. It is shaped as a triangle with its headland extending into the Mediterranean sea for about 15 km, and is occupied by sedimentary rocks belonging to the Tertiary and Quaternary Eras. Its western coastline consists of Pleistocene Oolitic limestone ridges with separated steep scarps, while the eastern coastline consists of sandy beaches, coastal spits, coastal bars, tombolos and bays. The objective of this paper is to define some geomorphological and geoarchaelological indicators of The Holocene sea-level changes in the study area, especially the geomorphic landforms such as: marine notches, cliffs, sea caves and benches. This is to add to some archaeological remains that have been discovered by the paper's author under the current sea level. These remains include: submerged ruins of Greek and Roman harbors, wells and fish tanks near the coastline (Leuke Akte, Hermaea, Phoinikous and Zygris), in addition to an ancient Roman harbor used during the World War II in Tell El Zaytun area (Site #6). Evaluations of the discovered archaeological remains help our understanding of the evolution of the sea level during the Holocene. This study is based on observation of the relative sea-level curves drawn of the Holocene, detailed geomorphological and Geoarchaelogical surveying, sampling, dating and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation and GIS techniques.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310 Section 165.1310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  2. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west Himalaya with epicentral distance and magnitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Ghosh; A K Mahajan

    2013-02-01

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation which relates the seismological data with parameters of engineering interest. In the absence of sufficient strong motion data for northwest Himalayan region, isoseismal maps of previous earthquakes were the only source of information for computing the attenuation characteristics of that region. The northwest Himalayan region had experienced major and moderate earthquakes in the past and isoseismal maps had been developed by various authors for each of these earthquakes representing intensity pattern and decay of intensity in different directions. With this information, attenuation relations of intensity with distance can be obtained. The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes ( ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the last 100 years. These are primarily Kangra (1905), Chamba-1 (1945), Chamba-2 (1995), Kinnaur (1975), Dharamsala (1986), Uttar Kashi (1991), Garhwal-1 (1996), Garhwal-2 (1996), Sundarnagar (1997) and Chamoli (1999) earthquakes. Miezoseismal zones in majority of the isoseismal maps show two major directions, i.e., either the longest axis of these isoseismal maps which are aligned in NW–SE direction following the major longitudinal features or north-northwest to south-southeast direction, following the tectonic features which are transverse to the Himalayan trend. Isoseismal maps of Kangra (1905), Chamba (1945) and Uttar Kashi (1991) earthquakes are more symmetrical and elongated in south-east direction, but compressed in north-east and north-west directions, thus indicating fast attenuation characteristics in north-east and north-west directions reflecting lithological variation. On the other hand, Sundernagar (1997) and Kinnuar (1975) earthquakes show circular pattern of intensity distribution. Combining decay patterns from different magnitude earthquakes in different directions, two attenuation relationships have been developed using regression relationship

  3. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  5. 50 CFR 660.399 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boundary of the Anacapa Island EFH Conservation Area is defined by the mean high water line and straight... Island. The boundary of the Catalina Island EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting... 37°57.62′ N. lat., 123°24.22′ W. long. (j) Farallon Islands/Fanny Shoal. The boundary of the...

  6. Soil Chemistry as a measure of the distinctiveness of American Viticultural Areas of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, K. R.; Pitcavage, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Columbia Basin of Washington State is the second largest wine grape growing region in the United States and presently contains 10 American Viticultural Areas (AVAs). Eight of the Columbia Basin's AVAs are smaller subdivisions (sub-AVAs) of the 46,100 km2 Columbia Valley AVA. Although legally distinct, the Columbia Basin AVAs are generally similar with regard to climate, landscape, and soils, the principle components of physical terroir. To test whether the AVAs of the Columbia Basin are distinguishable based on the chemical properties of their soils, 53 samples were collected from vineyards considered to be representative within their respective AVAs. Vineyard soils from the other major viticultural regions of the Pacific Northwest, the Willamette Valley and Snake River Valley, were also sampled for comparison. Soils were sampled from a depth of 50-75 cm and analyzed for bulk chemistry and plant-available nutrients. Based on the analyzed components, only the Columbia Gorge, Walla Walla Valley, and Lake Chelan AVAs were distinctive. The chemical differences that that account for the distinctiveness are attributed to variations in climate and parent material. Columbia Gorge AVA soils are the most distinctive, with significantly higher iron, manganese, and titanium, and significantly lower calcium, soluble salts, and pH. These characteristics can be attributed a greater influence of basaltic bedrock on soil composition, and an average annual precipitation of 76 cm, which is three times that received by most of the Columbia Basin. Another wetter-than-normal part of the Columbia Basin is the Walla Walla Valley where orographic lifting by the Blue Mountains increases the average annual precipitation in the eastern part of the AVA to near 50 cm. Vineyard soils of the Walla Walla Valley, like those of the Columbia Gorge, have higher iron, and lower calcium and soluble salts. The uniqueness of Lake Chelan AVA soils is reflected in decreased concentrations of iron

  7. Effects of Ultra-drying on Viability and Physiological Characteristics of Platycladus orientalis Seed from Arid and Semiarid Areas of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to supply quality seed for vegetation restoration in arid and semiarid areas of Northwest China, the effects of Platycladus orientalis seed storage under ultra-drying and accelerated aging were studied. The seeds were dried from 6.8% to 5.1%, 4.4%, 3.7% and 2.2% MC, respectively, in a desiccator with the silica gel. The germination energy, germination percentage, germination index and vigor index of the seed were investigated. After ultra-drying, groups of seeds were carried on the accelerated agin...

  8. Assessment area development of sustainable shrimp culture ponds (case ctudy the gulf coast Banten)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkan, M.; Setiyanto, D. D.; Widjaja, R. S.; Kholil; Widiatmaka

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp is a fishery commodity that has the economic value and important food provision, so that there is a need for increasing sustainability and continuity of the production. This research was conducted during March – December 2015 in Banten Bay, Indonesia. The objective of this research were: (1) to assess the land suitability for shrimp farming, (2) to analyze land carrying capacity for shrimp farming, (3) to establish the institutional model of shrimp farming management. The data used were primary data, collected from field survey and secondary data, collected from literature and research report which were done in the research area. The methods used to evaluate the land suitability were weighted spatial overlay. The carrying capacity were analyzed using two approaches: land suitability weight and water availability methods. The institutional model was established using Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM). The results of the study showed that from a total area analyzed of 5.028.3 ha, it can be classified into two suitability classes: highly suitable (S1) area which is 141.7 ha (2,8 %) and suitable (S2) area which is 4.886.6 ha (97.2 %). In term of management, the area can be grouped as traditional farming area of 4.173.5 ha (83 %), semi-intensive farming area of 698.93 ha (13,9) and intensive farming area of 155.87 ha (3,1%). The institutional modelling shows that the most decisive institutions are universities and research institutions. The model designed showed an inter-related relationship between land suitability, carrying capacity, institutional, and social in order to increase the sustainability of shrimp farming management.

  9. 华东沿海地震海啸模拟%Tsunami Simulation for the Coast Area of East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹振轩; 傅建武; 朱元清; 李俊

    2011-01-01

    利用数字地震资料及海洋地震地质基础数据,基于Matlab平台在Windows系统下重新编译Philip liu等人编写的海啸模拟源程序,将分层静态位移解结果与已建立的海啸传播初始场快速融合,用交错网格蛙跳差分方法求解笛卡尔坐标系下非线性浅水波方程,模拟华东沿海地区地震海啸传播过程,对华东沿海地区可能遭受海啸袭击的危险做出评估,结果显示华东沿海地区是发生地震海啸影响较弱地区.%Based on comprehensive consideration of topography, geological structure, seis-mological features and historical records, we simulated an earthquake tsunami with the rebuilt program from Prof. Philip Liu based on Matlab and Windows OS. We used crossed grid leap-frog difference scheme to solve linear or un-linear water wave functions in spherical coordinate and rectangular coordinate system, and simulated a scenario earthquake tsunami propagation in the coast area of East China, and evaluated the risk and hazards for the area. The results show that the coast of East China is lowly influenced by earthquake tsunami.

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Characterizing Forest Areas with High Societal Values: Experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A.; Deal, Robert L.; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions—Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  11. Flora and phytosociology of an area of Restinga along the northern Coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Marcelino Menezes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Areas of restinga are geologically recent environments. The species that inhabit this type of ecosystem are typical of adjacent areas, such as rain forest, tabuleiro forest and caatinga, and form a diverse community of trees, shrubs and erect and prostrate herbs. The goal of this work was to evaluate the vegetation in an area of restinga located along Praia do Forte, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Four 200m transects where made within five plots of 100m2 each, and 1,640 individuals within 68 species were collected. High species diversity was found in transects 1 and 2 (H´ = 3.882 and 3 and 4 (H´ = 3.835. The most representative families were Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae and Malpighiaceae. Based on the species composition, a significant difference (p < 0.001 was found between the sampled areas, and the findings show that there are two distinct plant communities in this region, Mata deRestinga and Restinga em Moitas.

  12. Changes in the fish community structure after the implementation of Marine Protected Areas in the south western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu J. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are increasingly being recommended as management tools for biodiversity conservation and fisheries. With the purpose of protecting the region’s biodiversity and prevent the over exploitation of marine resources, in February 2011 the MPAs of Ilha do Pessegueiro and Cabo Sardão were implemented in the “Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina “(PNSACV Natural Park, south western coast of Portugal. In these areas, commercial and recreational fishing became prohibited. In order to evaluate the effects of these MPAs, the structure of its fish communities and of adjacent control areas without fishing restrictions were studied in 2011/12 (immediately after implementation and 2013 (two years after implementation. A total of 4 sampling campaigns were conducted (summer 2011, winter 2012, summer 2013 and winter 2013 using bottom trawl and gillnets. Faunal communities from the MPAs (treatment were compared with adjacent areas (controls and changes evaluated with time. Results revealed significant changes on abundance, having this parameter a slight increase after the implementation of the MPAs. Also, significant differences were observed on the structure of the protected areas communities when compared with neighbouring areas where fishing was still allowed, even though the small amount of time elapsed. In addition, specimens of larger size occurred more frequently within Ilha do Pessegueiro MPA in the last year of the study. Despite the young age of these MPAs, changes on their fish communities’ structure are already visible after only 3 years of protection, showing that these management measures may promote sustainable exploitation of fishing resources as well as protect species with conservation interest, thus leading to a global biodiversity increase.

  13. Calcareous microfossil biostratigraphy of the uppermost cenozoic formations distributed in the coast of the Japan Sea (Part 1). Niigata area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tokiyuki; Takayama, Toshiaki; Kato, Michio; Kudo, Tetsuro

    1987-05-01

    Eleven calcareous nannofossil biohorizons were established in the Quaternary sequences at six sites drilled in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during DSDP-IPOD Leg 94. Correlation of these biohorizons with the magnetostratigraphy was established and ages of all datums were estimated. As the results, the applicability to the Japan Sea sedimentary basin was confirmed. The Nishiyama and Haizume formations distributed in the Oginome area, near the type locality of the Hashizume Formation in Niigata district were surveyed as the representative formation of the uppermost Cenozoic formation distributed in the coast of the Japan Sea; and five calcareous nannofossil biohorizons were recognized. Based on the above results of DSDP-IPOD, the middle Nishiyama through the Hashizume formations were Peistocene in age and could be correlated with interval between the Olduvai and Jaramillo events of the magnetostratigraphy. This age assignment agreed neither with magnetostratigraphic interpretations nor with fission track datings which were obtained in the Oguni area 25 km south of the present area. (23 refs, 11 figs)

  14. Application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for storage of solar electricity in stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the northwest areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Shounan; Zhou, Qingshen; Kong, Delong; Ma, Jianping

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations for solar electric power generation are being established rapidly in the northwest areas of China, and it is increasingly important for these power systems to have reliable and cost effective energy storage. The lead-acid battery is the more commonly used storage technology for PV systems due to its low cost and its wide availability. However, analysis shows that it is the weakest component of PV power systems. Because the batteries can be over discharged, or operated under partial state of charge (PSOC), their service life in PV systems is shorter than could be expected. The working conditions of batteries in remote area installations are worse than those in situations where technical support is readily available. Capacity-loss in lead-acid batteries operated in remote locations often occurs through sulfation of electrodes and stratification of electrolyte. In northwest China, Shandong Sacred Sun Power Sources Industry Co. Ltd. type GFMU valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are being used in PV power stations. These batteries have an advanced grid structure, superior leady paste, and are manufactured using improved plate formation methods. Their characteristics, and their performance in PV systems, are discussed in this paper. The testing results of GFMU VRLA batteries in the laboratory have shown that the batteries could satisfy the demands of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for PV systems.

  15. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-16

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006 resulting in major power outagesin the region. The storm is now moving off into southern Canada. A new weather disturbance nearing the Northwest coast may generate a few rain and snow showers across the Seattle and Portland areas today, but widespread active weather is not expected. There are roughly 950,000 customers in the region (including Canada) without power as a result of the Pacific Northweststorms, down from a peak of 1.8 million customers. This represents about 26 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. As of 12:30 PM EST, the Renton Control Center for the Olympic Pipeline (petroleum products) had power restored. The pipeline, serviced by Puget Sound Energy, was shut down after it lost power during the storm. According to a pipeline official, the pipeline is expected to restart in approximately 2-3 hours with some reduced throughput later today. SeaTac International Airport receives jet fuel from the pipeline; however, it’s been reported that the airport has approximately eight days of jet fuel inventories on hand. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel production. There are some temporary and minor distribution at retail gas stations due to lack of power. Fuel delivery is also slowed in some areas due to delays on some roads. ESF #12 has not been deployed

  16. Ground water hydrochemical characteristics:seawater intruded area in eastern and southern coast of Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Eastern and southern coastal zones of Laizhou Bay are the mostrepresentative seawater intruded areas in the world, with two intrusion sources of contemporary seawater and paleobrine. In order to reveal the complicated hydrochemical changing process and the mechanism of fresh groundwater being polluted by saltwater, we conducted long-term observation and hydroehemical analysis at four observing sections of typical salt-fresh water transitional zone. The study indicates that seawater and brine intrusion processes have different hydrochemical features, and that ion exchange and adsorption actions between water and aquifer produce great influence on the intrusion.

  17. Medium-term morphodynamics of the Mittelplate area, German North Sea coast

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Thuy Diem

    2015-01-01

    In view of climate change and sea level rise the prediction of the morphological evolution of coastal areas in medium-term and long-term has become a matter of increasing concern in the field of coastal management. Process-based modelling has recently emerged as an effective tool for studying coastal morphodynamics and for predictive estimation of the coastal development. The main focus of the thesis is to study, analyse and assess the medium-term morphodynamics of a complex network of tidal ...

  18. Regional scale hydrodynamic modelling of offshore wind farm development areas off the east coast of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara Murray, Rory; Gallego, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in Scotland, supported by the Scottish Government, in the expansion of renewable energy production. In particular, significant offshore wind energy developments are already planned in coastal waters to the east of the Forth and Tay estuaries. It is important to understand the local and cumulative environmental impact of such developments within this region, to aid licensing decisions but also to inform marine spatial planning in general. Substantial wind farm developments may affect physical processes within the region, such as tidal-, wind-, and wave-driven circulation, as well as coastal sediment transport and more complex estuarine dynamics. Such physical impacts could have ecological and, ultimately, socio-economic consequences. The Firth of Forth and Tay areas both exhibit complex estuarine characteristics due to fresh water input, complex bathymetry and coastline, and tidal mixing. Our goal is to construct an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model of the wider Firth of Forth and Tay region using the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), resolving the complex estuarine hydrography of the area and representing offshore wind developments. Hydrodynamic modelling will provide an accurate baseline of the hydrography in this region but also allow the assessment of the effect on the physical environment of multiple wind farm development scenarios.

  19. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity among cattle in the central savannah-forest area of Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, Moussa; Abatih, Emmanuel; Thys, Eric; Fretin, David; Berkvens, Dirk; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-11-01

    Serological results obtained from 907 serum samples collected from unvaccinated cattle of at least 6 months of age in the savannah-forest region of Ivory Coast were used to investigate risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Using a parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 10.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.4) of the cattle had antibodies against Brucella in our study area. The logistic regression analysis indicated that brucellosis seropositivity was associated with age and herd size. Cattle above 5 years of age were found to have a higher chance of being seropositive (odd ratio (OR)=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3, 6.4) compared to cattle under 3 years of age. Similarly, the odd of brucellosis seropositivity for herds with more than 100 cattle was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.9) times higher compared to those with less than 50 cattle.

  20. Study on the Transport of COD in the Sea Area Around Maidao off Qingdao Coast Using Data Assimilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A two-layer pollutant advection-diffusion model is built to investigate the pollutant transport in the sea area around Maidao off Qingdao coast. An adjoint data assimilation technique is applied to estimate the optimal values of the model parameters. The experimental results on the initial field of pollutant indicate that the distribution of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration is sensitive to the horizontal eddy diffusivity. An appropriate value of horizontal eddy diffusivity is necessary in order to depict the influence of the initial field precisely, and it is also essential to the simulation of the advection-diffusion process of the pollutant. By inversion of the model parameters and optimization of the initial COD concentrations, the simulation results are improved significantly. The cost function is reduced to 40% of its first step value. The average misfit between the model outputs and the observations in the upper layer decreases from 0.46 to 0.25 mgL-1, and that in the lower layer decreases from 0.22 to 0.14mgL-1.

  1. [Specific diversity and culicidian nuisance in the villages of N'gatty and Allaba in laguna area of Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, D; Konan, K L; Djohan, V; Konan, Y L; Koné, A B; Doannio, J M C; N'goran, K E

    2010-12-01

    Entomological surveys were undertaken between June and December 2006 in N'gatty and Allaba. These villages are located in southern Ivory Coast in a laguna area in Dabou department. In these villages, there are large swampy areas, which have caused the multiplication of anthropophilic Culicidae. Mosquitoes have been collected at preimaginal stage at the time of the larval prospecting and at adult stage through human landing catch. Larval collections have been made using the classic method of "dipping". Larvae have been identified to the genus level. Then, they have been bred in the laboratory to identify adults. Adults collection has been made once a month during three consecutive nights by human landing catch inside houses. Adults have been identified to the specific level. Eight genera of mosquitoes have been collected in these two villages: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Eretmapodites, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites and Uranotaenia. Twenty-four species have been listed during this stu y. The genus Mansonia is the most predominant with 86% (N = 15,811) and 80% (N = 1,385), respectively, in N'gatty and Allaba. The average biting rate per day varies between N'gatty and Allaba. It is estimated to 308 bites per human per night (b/h/n) in N'gatty and 72 b/h/n in Allaba. In these villages, mosquito nuisance is mainly due to Mansonia with 264 b/h/n and 58 b/h/n, respectively, in N'gatty and Allaba. However, Anopheles gambiae s.l. average rate was 12 b/h/n in N'gatty and 2 b/h/n in Allaba.

  2. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204c - Habitat polygons for survey area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  3. nowCOAST's Map Service for Geo-Referenced Hyperlinks to Forecasts for Geographic Areas or Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST geolinks map service provides maps depicting the locations of geographic zones and points where NWS forecasts are available along with...

  4. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204b - Habitat polygons for survey area 0204b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  5. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204a - Habitat polygons for area 110_0204a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  6. A checklist of the reptiles and amphibians found in protected areas along the South African Wild Coast, with notes on conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed six protected areas along the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, to determine general herpetofaunal diversity as well as the representation of species of special conservation concern. Visual encounter survey methods and standard Y-shape trap arrays were used to conduct surveys from 2011 to 2013. A total of 59 species (22 amphibians and 37 reptiles were recorded. A number of previously unknown populations of threatened species and one potential novel species were discovered in these protected areas, and the known ranges of several other species were extended. A total of 243 quarter-degree grid-cell unit records were documented, of which 90 (23% amphibians and 50% reptiles represented the first records for the area. Amphibian and reptile diversity increased along the coast and a number of species of conservation concern were well represented in current protected areas. Our study provides a comprehensive amphibian and reptile checklist for an under-sampled region and highlights the importance of baseline data for improving conservation management.Conservation implications: Small protected areas play an important role in conserving a number of threatened herpetofaunal species along the Wild Coast. The region is currently under significant and increasing pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental degradation, which affects biodiversity and subsequently the local inhabitants. The information presented here represents an important baseline for future conservation management.

  7. Study on Farmland Use Change and Driving Force in the High and Cold Areas in Northwest Yunnan——A Case Study of Ninglang Yi Autonomous County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of overview of the study area,by analyzing the dynamic change of farmland in Ninglang County,we can find that the farmland area in this county tended to decrease from 1996 to 2008.According to the investigation data concerning land change provided by Bureau of Land and Resources in Ninglang County and socio-economic data provided by Bureau of Statistics in Ninglang County,we select 11 indices,such as total population,GDP,total output value of county and so on,coupled with SPSS statistical method,we adopt principal component analysis method to analyze driving force factors of farmland use change in the high and cold areas in Northwest Yunnan.The results show that the two factors of economic development and population growth are the dominant driving factors impacting farmland use change,and the policy factors,such as "returning farmland to forests",are also the important driving factors impacting Ninglang County.

  8. Nose Structure Delineation of Bouguer Anomaly as the Interpretation Basis of Probable Hydrocarbon Traps: A Case Study on the Mainland Area of Northwest Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamtono Kamtono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i3.144Two important aspects in the exploration of oil and gas are technology and exploration concepts, but the use of technology is not always suitable for areas with geological conditions covered by young volcanic sediments or limestone. The land of the Northwest Java Basin is mostly covered by young volcanic products, so exploration using seismic methods will produce less clear image resolution. To identify and interpret the subsurface structure and the possibility of hydrocarbon trap, gravity measurements have been carried out. Delineation of nose structures of a Bouguer anomaly map was used to interpret the probability of hydrocarbon traps. The result of the study shows that the gravity anomalies could be categorized into three groups : low anomaly (< 34 mgal, middle anomaly (34 - 50 mgal, and high anomaly (> 50 mgal. The analysis of Bouguer anomaly indicates that the low anomaly is concentrated in Cibarusa area as a southern part of Ciputat Subbasin, and in Cikampek area. The result of delineation of the Bouguer anomaly map shows the nose structures existing on Cibinong-Cileungsi and Pangkalan-Bekasi Highs, while delineation of residual anomaly map shows the nose structures occurs on Cilamaya-Karawang high. Locally, the gas fields of Jatirangon and Cicauh areas exist on the flank of the nose structure of Pangkalan-Bekasi High, while the oil/gas field of Northern Cilamaya is situated on the flank of the nose structure of Cilamaya-Karawang High. The concept of fluid/gas migration concentrated on nose structures which are delineated from gravity data can be applied in the studied area. This concept needs to be tested in other oil and gas field areas.

  9. Using Remote Sensing Data to Delineate the Lineaments for Hydrothermal Mineral Prediction in Heqing Area, Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lineament extraction and analysis is one of the routine work in mapping medium and large areas using remote sensing data, most of which are satellite images. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) of 945×1 232 pixels subscene acquired on 21 March 2000 covering the northwestern part of Yunnan Province has been digitally processed using ER Mapper software. This article aims to produce lineament density map that predicts favorable zones for hydrothermal mineral occurrences and quantify spatial associations between the known hydrothermal mineral deposits. In the process of lineament extraction a number of image processing techniques were applied. The extracted lineaments were imported into MapGIS software and a suitable grid of 100 m×100 m was chosen. The Kriging method was used to create the lineament density map of the area. The results show that remote sensing data could be useful to extract the lineaments in the area. These lineaments are closely correlated with the faults obtained through other geological investigation methods. On comparing with field data the lineament-density map identifies two important high prospective zones, where large-scale deposits are already existing. In addition the map highlights unrecognized target areas that require follow up investigation.

  10. Quantitative assessment of gas washing of oils in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Gas washing has been known in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin,but its quantitative assessment has not yet been reported.Here the influence of gas washing fractionation in the area was discussed based on the gas chromatogram data of 68 oils and the results of the mixing experiments of a black oil and a condensate.The results show that the intensity of gas washing fractionation decreased generally from northern to southern part and vertically from deep reservoirs to shallow reservoirs.The gas washing fractionation was mainly controlled by fault systems in this area,with the increase of n-alkane mass depletion positively correlated to the number and scale of faults.Gas washing fractionation appears to have affected the hydrocarbon property,and as a result the diversity of the crude oils is markedly controlled by gas washing.In addition,the occurrence of waxy oil in this area may be resulted from multiple factors including gas washing,mixed filling and migration fractionation.

  11. Quantitative assessment of gas washing of oils in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ChuPeng; GENG AnSong; LIAO ZeWen; SUN YongGe; ZHANG LüHui

    2009-01-01

    Gas washing has been known in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin, but its quantitative assessment has not yet been reported. Here the influence of gas washing fractionation in the area was discussed based on the gas chromatogram data of 68 oils and the results of the mixing experiments of a black oil and a condensate. The results show that the intensity of gas washing fractionation decreased generally from northern to southern part and vertically from deep reservoirs to shallow reservoirs. The gas washing fractionation was mainly controlled by fault systems in this area, with the increase of n-alkane mass depletion positively correlated to the number and scale of faults. Gas washing fractionation ap-pears to have affected the hydrocarbon property, and as a result the diversity of the crude oils is markedly controlled by gas washing. In addition, the occurrence of waxy oil in this area may be re-sulted from multiple factors including gas washing, mixed filling and migration fractionation.

  12. Soil gas radon–thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gulshan Kumar; Arvind Kumar; Vivek Walia; Jitender Kumar; Vikash Gupta; Tsanyao Frank Yang; Surinder Singh; Bikramjit Singh Bajwa

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon–thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon–thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon–thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon–thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  13. Effective U.S. Aid and Assistance to Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Area and Northwest Frontier Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    May 2009, the NWFP government established the Emergency Response Unit ( ERU ) to act as the operational agency for relief response in the displacement...areas. Led by the NWFP Chief Secretary, the ERU adopted a decentralized approach, which enabled civilian authorities to provide relief aid to the...IDPs more rapidly. The creation of the ERU is a first for Pakistan. The Pakistan government recognized the importance of providing immediate reliefto

  14. Temporal variations of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in the mangrove creek area along the Karachi coast, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Naz; Naureen Aziz Qureshi; Noor Us Saher

    2014-01-01

    The temporal variations of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass (1-Volumetric method by settling volume and displacement volume and 2- Gravimetric method through wet weight, dry weight and ash-free dry weight) with relation to environmental parameters were studied in the mangrove creek area of Karachi coast, Pakistan. The data of mesozooplankton samples along with environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, etc.) were collected during January 1998 to December 1998 from two creek stations. The abun-dance of mesozooplankton also exhibited seasonal trends at both stations. At Sta. S2, the highest and low-est abundance values were observed during post-monsoon and southwest monsoon respectively whereas, at Sta. S1, a clear trend of high abundance in pre-monsoon to low abundance in southwest monsoon was observed. Mesozooplankton abundance was also positively correlated with settling volume, displacement volume, wet weight and dry weight. The highest biomass value was observed in the northeast monsoon and pre-monsoon periods. The results of the canonical analysis of the output from the discriminate function was tested. Out of fifteen variables, only one was significantly different in single character ratios dry weight/ash free-dry weight (F3,23=4.78,P<0.005). The mesozooplankton community was collectively composed of 28 taxa. Among these groups, copepoda (66.3%), gastropod larvae (9.94%), evadne (4.60%), zoea (3.60%), cypris nauplii (2.56%), lemellibranch larvae (1.87%), chaetognaths (1.81%), ostracods (1.73%), lucifer (1.15%) and barnacles nauplii (1.35%) contributed the most to the similarities within Sta. S1, while copepoda (74.68%), cypris nauplii (5.29%), gastropods (4.87%), barnacles nauplii (4.81%), evadne (1.72%), zoea (1.53%) and ca-ridean larvae (1.18%) at Sta. S2. The remaining mesozooplanktonic group were accounted for less than 5% and 6% at Sta. S1 and Sta. S2 respectively, of the total organisms. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed

  15. Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  16. Are we safe? A tool to improve the knowledge of the risk areas: high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960 -2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Perez-Morales, Alfredo; Lopez-Martinez, Francisco; Barriendos-Vallve, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula concentrates an important part of the population and economic activities in Spain. Intensive agriculture, industry in the major urban centers, trade and tourism make this region the main center of economic dynamism and one of the highest rates of population and economic growth of southern Europe. This process accelerated after Franco regime started to be more open to the outside in the early sixties of the last century. The main responsible factor for this process is the climate because of warmer temperatures and a large number of sunny days, which has become in the economic slogan of the area. However, this growth process has happened without proper planning to reduce the impact of other climatic feature of the area, floods. Floods are the natural hazard that generates greater impacts in the area.One of the factors that facilitate the lack of strategic planning is the absence of a correct chronology of flood episodes. In this situation, land use plans, are based on inadequate chronologies that do not report the real risk of the population of this area. To reduce this deficit and contribute to a more efficient zoning of the Mediterranean coast according to their floods risk, we have prepared a high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for all the municipalities of the Spanish Mediterranean coast since 1960 until 2013. The methodology consists on exploring the newspaper archives of all newspapers with a presence in the area. The searches have been made by typing the name of each of the 180 municipalities of the Spanish coast followed by 5 key terms. Each identified flood has been classified by dates and according to their level of intensity and type of damage. Additionally, we have consulted the specific bibliography to rule out any data gaps. The results are surprising and worrying. We have identified more than 3,600 cases where a municipality has been affected by floods. These cases are grouped into more than 700

  17. The Status and Evolution of the Marital Ethics in the Northwest Rural Areas——The 3rd Survey Report of the Ethical Issues in the Northwest Rural Areas%西北农村地区婚姻伦理的现状与嬗变——西北农村地区道德问题调查报告之三

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉

    2012-01-01

    The marital ethics changes landscape of the northwest rural society were deeply investigated and studied from the six areas in this article. The marital ethics trends and the reasons in the northwest rural areas being transformated from traditional to the modern were deeply analyzed. The authors thought that the marital ethics in the traditional culture is still strongly impact on the marriage and family of the northwest people in the northwest rural areas being transformated from traditional to the modern. At the same time,the diversification,secularization and individual tendency of the modern culture has been gradually entering the marriage building process of Northwest rural areas' people. The blending state makes the contemporary marriage ethics more rational and pragmatic in the people of northwest rural areas.%家庭作为所有社会组织中,反应社会生活变化最敏感、最迅速的单元,其结构以及相应的家庭伦理关系、道德规范对处于社会转型期的农村社会做出了相应的反应.本文从六个方面对西北农村社会的婚姻伦理变迁状貌进行深入的调查研究,并对处于传统向现代转型期的西北农村地区婚姻伦理的变迁趋势及原因进行了深入的分析,作者认为,在处于传统向现代转型期的西北农村地区,传统文化中的婚姻伦理仍然然强有力的影响着西北地区民众的婚姻家庭.与此同时,现代文化所表现出的多元化、世俗化、个体化倾向已经逐渐进入西北农村地区民众婚姻构建过程中,这二者交融的状态使得当代西北农村地区民众的婚姻伦理观显示出更加理智、务实的特点.

  18. [Variation of soil nitrogen during in situ mineralization process under different grasslands in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yue-Li; Zhao, Tong; Yan, Hao; Huang, Yi-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Variations in organic nitrogen, microbial biomass nitrogen, soluble organic nitrogen, NH4(+) -N, NO3(-) -N, NO2(-) -N and N mineralization were investigated under three different grasslands in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China (natural grassland, artificial turf and abandoned land) using the close-top tube incubation method. Microbial biomass nitrogen, soluble organic nitrogen, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, NO2(-)-N and N mineralization exhibited significant seasonal variations. The nitrogen levels remained essentially unchanged from April to June, significantly decreased in July-August, rebounded after August, and were lowest in August. The organic nitrogen content remained unchanged in the whole training process. The soil mineralization rates, nitrification and ammonification rate were lowest in June-August. The ratios of each N fraction to total N responded differently to seasonal changes. The ratios of organic N, NO2(-) -N to total N did not change, in contrast, the ratios of nitrate N, microbial biomass nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen, to total soil N decreased from April to August, and increased from August to December. The soil organic matter, pH, and bulk density were closely related to soil N. There was a significant positive correlation among the six N fractions. The soil nitrogen content of the different grassland types followed the order of natural grassland > abandoned land > artificial turf.

  19. Modeling daily reference ET in the karst area of northwest Guangxi (China) using gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fu, Zhi-yong; Chen, Hong-song; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear complexity is a characteristic of hydrologic processes. Using fewer model parameters is recommended to reduce error. This study investigates, and compares, the ability of gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in modeling ET0 by using fewer meteorological parameters in the karst area of northwest Guangxi province, China. Over a 5-year period (2008-2012), meteorological data consisting of maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration were collected from four weather stations: BaiSe, DuAn, HeChi, and RongAn. The ET0 calculated by the FAO-56 PM equation was used as a reference to evaluate results for GEP, ANN, and Hargreaves models. The coefficient of determination ( R 2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were used as statistical indicators. Evaluations revealed that GEP, and ANN, can be used to successfully model ET0. In most cases, when using the same input variables, ANN models were superior to GEP. We then established ET0 equations with fewer parameters under various conditions. GEP can produce simple explicit mathematical formulations which are easier to use than the ANN models.

  20. A model for simulating the response of runoff from the mountainous watersheds of inland river basins in the arid area of northwest China to climatic changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康尔泗; 程国栋; 蓝永超; 金会军

    1999-01-01

    A model for simulating the response of monthly runoff from the mountainous watersheds to climatic changes is developed.The model is based on the modifications to the HBV runoff model, and therefore represents the characteristics and runoff generation processes of inland river basins in the arid area of northwest China. Taking the mountainous watershed of an inland river, the Heihe River originating from the Qilian Mountains and running through the Hexi Corridor as an example, the monthly runoff changes under different climate scenarios are simulated. The simulation indicates that, during the years from 1994 to 2030, if the annual mean air temperature increases by 0.5℃, and precipitation keeps unchanged, then the runoff of May and October will increase because of the increase of the snow melt runoff, but the runoff of July and August will decrease to some extent because of the increase of evaporation, and as a result, the annual runoff will decrease by 4%. If the precipitation still keeps unchanged, an

  1. [Characteristics of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of agroecosystems in semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Lin; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Run-Yuan; Wang, Sheng; Yue, Ping; Wang, He-Ling; Zhao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of ground surface energy balance and water balance, and closely related to water cycle. By using eddy covariance technique, this paper studied the ET characteristics of agroecosystems in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau in growth season (from April to September), 2010, and analyzed the relationships between crop coefficient and environmental factors. During the observation period, the diurnal variation of latent heat flux (LE) in each month was similar to single-peak curve, and the peak value (151.4 W x m(-2)) occurred in August. The daytime energy partitioning manner showed a significant seasonal variation, with LE/R(n) heat flux) from April to June, and LE/R(n) > H/R(n) from July to September. The daily ET rate also showed a significant seasonal variation, with the maximum of 4.69 mm x d(-1). The wind speed (W(s)), relative humidity (RH), soil water content (theta), and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (D) were the major factors affecting the crop coefficient K(c) which was exponentially decreased with increasing W(s), exponentially increased with increasing RH and theta, and linearly decreased with increasing D.

  2. Ecological effect analysis of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping in arid area of northwest Hebei Province: I. moisture analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua ZHANG; Wei HUANG; Fenglu ZHANG; Lifeng ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 at the Zhangbei Agricultural Resource and Ecological Environment Key Field Research Station, Hebei Province, China to study water-efficient pumpkin planting patterns in this area. Four treatments of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping were used to study the problem of water resource scarcity and inefficient water use in the plateau of northern Hebei Province. The four treatments were: pumpkin sole cropping (Sp), oil-sunflower sole cropping (So), intercropp ing one row oil sunflower (IC1) or two rows (IC2) between pumpkin rows. The results showed that oil sunflower competed for soil water with pumpkin during late growth stage of pumpkin in IC2, but there was no water competition in IC1. Total rainfall during the growing season was 201.6mm and the soil water balance differed between treatments. In all cases the water percolation was low and soil moisture storage always negative. Nearly all water loss was through evapotranspiration, which varied by treatment. The seasonal evapotranspiration of IC1 was less than So, Sp and IC2, 46.57%, 41.22% and 46.73%, respectively. Economic yield of pumpkin decreased from 30.00% (IC1) to 71.42% (IC2). However, yield per plant of intercropping oil sunflower increased from 190.71% to 241.26%. as compared with So, because oil sunflower showed remarkably partial advantage. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.08-1.22, and the Water Equivalent Ratio (WER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.07-1.26. Economic value of sole pumpkin was greatest but did not differ from treatment IC1. Other treatments had significantly less economic value. In this region of rain-fed dry land farming, a sparse planting of sole pumpkin with high efficiency production could realize water resources most effectively in the Plateau of northern Hebei Province.

  3. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  4. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  5. RIGED-RA project - Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area - Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Greggio, Nicolas; Sistilli, Flavia; Fabbri, Stefano; Scarelli, Frederico; Candiago, Sebastian; Anfossi, Giulia; Lipparini, Carlo A.; Cantelli, Luigi; Antonellini, Marco; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Coastal dunes play an important role in protecting the coastline. Unfortunately, in the last decades dunes have been removed or damaged by human activities. In the Emilia- Romagna region significant residual dune systems are found only along Ravenna and Ferrara coasts. In this context, the RIGED-RA project “Restoration and management of coastal dunes along the Ravenna coast” (2013-2016) has been launched with the aims to identify dynamics, erosion and vulnerability of Northern Adriatic coast and associated residual dunes, and to define intervention strategies for dune protection and restoration. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the expertise of several researchers and investigates all aspects (biotic and abiotic), which drive the dune-beach system. All datasets were integrated to identify test sites for applying dune restoration. The intervention finished in April 2016; evolution and restoration efficiency will be assessed.

  6. Comparative biochemical changes in young Zebu cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave J; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2014-10-15

    Trypanosomosis is a vector-borne protozoan disease of animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia, particularly the northwest region is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects and compare differences in virulence of Trypanosoma vivax infection between tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas of northwest Ethiopia on the basis of serum biochemical values in Zebu cattle. Eighteen cattles purchased from trypanosome free area and aged between 9 and 12 months were assigned into three groups of six animals (Group TT=infected with T. vivax from tsetse infested area, Group NT=infected with T. vivax from non-tsetse infested area and Group C=non-infected control). For each experimental animal 3 ml of blood from naturally infected cattle was inoculated intravenously at 10(6) trypanosomes/ml except the control. Blood sample was collected once a week for 8 consecutive weeks for analyzing serum biochemical values (glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and enzymes including GOT, GPT and ALP) using a Humastar 80 clinical chemistry analyzer. Both T. vivax parasites caused an acute infection with parasites appearing in circulation on 6 and 12 days post-infection for NT and TT cattle, respectively. A significant reduction (P<0.001) in glucose levels was observed in infected groups compared with the control with mean values of 33.8 ± 3.6 mg/dl for TT, 34.3 ± 3.6 mg/dl for NT and 70.9 ± 3.0 mg/dl for control groups. A similar reduction was also seen in total cholesterol values (P=0.001) with 70.4 ± 10.6 mg/dl for TT and 78.0 ± 10.6 mg/dl for NT groups compared to 139.5 ± 8.7 mg/dl for the control group. No difference was observed for total serum protein between the three groups (P=0.260) whereas the mean albumin level was significantly (P<0.001) decreased (3.5 ± 0.1g/dl and 2.9 ± 0.1g/dl in TT and NT groups respectively) compared to that for control cattle (4.5 ± 0.1g

  7. Combinations of Quality and Frequency of Immunization Activities to Stop and Prevent Poliovirus Transmission in the High-Risk Area of Northwest Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens

    Full Text Available Frequent supplemental immunization activities (SIAs with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV represent the primary strategy to interrupt poliovirus transmission in the last endemic areas.Using a differential-equation based poliovirus transmission model tailored to high-risk areas in Nigeria, we perform one-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the impact of different assumptions about routine immunization (RI and the frequency and quality of SIAs on population immunity to transmission and persistence or emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs after OPV cessation.More trivalent OPV use remains critical to avoid serotype 2 cVDPVs. RI schedules with or without inactivated polio vaccine (IPV could significantly improve population immunity if coverage increases well above current levels in under-vaccinated subpopulations. Similarly, the impact of SIAs on overall population immunity and cVDPV risks depends on their ability to reach under-vaccinated groups (i.e., SIA quality. Lower SIA coverage in the under-vaccinated subpopulation results in a higher frequency of SIAs needed to maintain high enough population immunity to avoid cVDPVs after OPV cessation.National immunization program managers in northwest Nigeria should recognize the benefits of increasing RI and SIA quality. Sufficiently improving RI coverage and improving SIA quality will reduce the frequency of SIAs required to stop and prevent future poliovirus transmission. Better information about the incremental costs to identify and reach under-vaccinated children would help determine the optimal balance between spending to increase SIA and RI quality and spending to increase SIA frequency.

  8. Spatial and seasonal variations of pesticide contamination in agricultural soils and crops sample from an intensive horticulture area of Hohhot, North-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujin; He, Jiang; Yao, Yiping; Hou, Dekun; Jiang, Cai; Zhang, Xinxin; Di, Caixia; Otgonbayar, Khureldavaa

    2013-08-01

    The spatial variability and temporal trend in concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), in soils and agricultural corps were investigated on an intensive horticulture area in Hohhot, North-West China, from 2008 to 2011. The most frequently found and abundant pesticides were the metabolites of DDT (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD). Total DDT concentrations ranged from ND (not detectable) to 507.41 ng/g and were higher than the concentration of total HCHs measured for the range of 4.84-281.44 ng/g. There were significantly positive correlations between the ∑DDT and ∑HCH concentrations (r (2)>0.74) in soils, but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of OCPs in soils and clay content while a relatively strong correlation was found between total OCP concentrations and total organic carbon (TOC). β-HCH was the main isomer of HCHs, and was detected in all samples; the maximum proportion of β-HCH compared to ∑HCHs (mean value 54%) was found, suggesting its persistence. The α/γ-HCH ratio was between 0.89 and 5.39, which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in N1, N3 and N9 were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs, while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) in soils do not indicate recent inputs of DDT into Hohhot farmland soil environment. Seasonal variations of OCPs featured higher concentrations in autumn and lower concentrations in spring. This was likely associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization and application of dicofol in late spring.

  9. Analysis of the Ore-Controlling Structure of Ductile Shear Zone Type Gold Deposit in Southern Beishan Area, Gansu, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bailin; Wu Ganguo; Ye Dejin; Liu Xiaochun; Shu Bin; Yang Nong

    2007-01-01

    The ductile shear zone-type gold deposit is a kind that both the ore-forming mechanism and ore-controlling factors are closely related to the ductile shear zone and its evolution. Ductile shear zone develops in Beishan area, Gansu of Northwest China, and develops especially well in the south belt.The controls of the ductile shear zone on gold deposits are as follows. (1) The regional distribution of gold deposits (and gold spots) is controlled by the ductile shear zone. (2) The ductile-brittle shear zone is formed in the evolution process of ductile shear zone and both are only ore-bearing structures and control the shape, attitude, scale, and distribution of mineralization zones and ore-bodies. (3) Compresso-shear ductile deformation results in that the main kind of gold mineralization is altered mylonite type and the main alteralization is metasomatic. (4) Ore-bearing fracture systems are mainly P-type ones, some D-type and R-type ones, but only individual R'-type and T-type ones. (5) Dynamic differentiation and dynamic metamorphic hydrothermal solution resulting from ductile deformation is one of the sources of ore-forming fluid of gold mineralization, and this is identical with that ore-forming materials are mainly from metamorphic rocks, and ore-forming fluid is mainly composed of metamorphic water, and with the fluid inclusion and geo-chemical characteristics of the deposit. (6) There is a negative correlation between the gold abundance and susceptibility anisotropy (P) of the altered mylonlte samples from the deposit, which shows that the gold mineralization is slightly later than the structural deformation. All above further expound the ore-forming model of the ductile shear zone type of gold deposits.

  10. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chamhuri Siwar; Nor Diana Mohd Idris; Muhammad Yasar; Golam Morshed

    2014-01-01

    This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in ...

  11. Physico-chemical quality of drinking water in the northwest area of Madrid (Spain); Calidad fisico-quimica de las aguas de abastecimiento de la zona noroeste de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Mata, M.; Orzaez Villanueva, M. T.; Tenorio Sanz, M. D.; Garcia Puertas, P. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Montes Boltella, C. [Universidad Carlos III. Leganes Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A physico-chemical analytical study of the edible waters of the northwest area of Madrid has been made. The object was to evaluate the quality characters of this water thought the water analysis of 40 representative buildings. The parameters analyzed were odour, taste, turbidity, pH, conductivity, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, oxid ability and chlorine. The results show the analyzed waters agree with the current public consume waters legislation through with some punctual exceptions. (Author) 13 refs.

  12. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  13. 27 CFR 9.75 - Central Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Coast. 9.75... Central Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Central Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Central Coast...

  14. [New data on parasitization of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae) by Hexamermis glossinae (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in a forested area of Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnogo, M; Gouteux, J P

    2003-09-01

    Observations on the parasitism of Glossina palpalis palpalis by Hexamermis glossinae were carried out over a period of one year by catching flies at Abengourou, Aboisso and Daloa (forested area of Ivory Coast). No parasite is observed out of 2,168 Glossina palpalis palpalis caught in Abengourou and 9,732 in Aboisso. At Daloa, dissections of 7,341 Glossina reveal 1.75% parasited flies. All the worms were located in the abdominal cavity, loosely intertwined with the internal organ. Males were more infested than females (2.68% versus 1.26%). The parasites were more abundant among the nulliparous (2.30%) than the young parous (1.19%) and than the old parous (0.52%). The majority of infected flies were caught at the beginning of the rainy season (5.17%) and few in the dry season (0.23%). The low parasitic infection rate observed here indicates a minimal effect on the population dynamics of the vector of sleeping sickness in Ivory Coast.

  15. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  16. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for aquaculture sites, Designated Critical Habitats, management areas, Nature Conservancy properties, parks, and...

  18. Heavy metals and TPH effects on microbial abundance and diversity in two estuarine areas of the southern-central coast of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Pinheiro, Marcelo Antonio Amaro; Fontes, Roberto Fioravanti Carelli; de Oliveira, Ana Júlia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-07-15

    Coastal areas may be impacted by human and industrial activities, including contamination by wastewater, heavy metals and hydrocarbons. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals on the microbiota composition and abundance in two estuarine systems in the coast of São Paulo: the Santos (SE) and Itanhaém (IE) estuaries. The SE was found to be chronically contaminated by heavy metals and highly contaminated by hydrocarbons. This finding was correlated with the increased density of cyanobacteria in sediments and suggests the possible use of cyanobacteria for bioremediation. These contaminants influence the density and composition of estuarine microbiota that respond to stress caused by human activity. The results are troubling because quantitative and qualitative changes in the microbiota of estuarine sediments may alter microbiological processes such as decomposition of organic matter. Moreover, this pollution can result in damage to the environment, biota and human health.

  19. Utilizing Resistivity Soundings and Forensic Geochemistry to Better Understand the Groundwater Contributions and the Interaction with Surface Water in a Streambed in the Texas Gulf Coast Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighash, P.

    2012-12-01

    Water quality and quantity in a reservoir can be significantly affected by interactions between surface waters and adjacent aquifers. Environments that exhibit transient hydraulic conditions, such as changes in recharge and groundwater flow rates, are not well understood. The associated impacts to coastal water resources during elevated drought conditions can be better managed with a better understanding of the groundwater-surface water interaction and the transition zone. Proper characterization of the spatial and temporal extent of groundwater discharge is important for water resource management and contaminant migration pathways. The Texas coastal area has been experiencing exceptional drought conditions over the past few years which are expected to persist or intensify in the coming years. An investigation of how the hydrologic system is impacted by these conditions can be a valuable tool regarding water resource management, sustainability and conservation of the Gulf Coast region of South Texas. This study will be using resistivity soundings to vertically and laterally characterize groundwater-surface water interaction and provide a stratigraphic characterization of the transition zone in this area. Chemical and isotope tracers will be used to compliment the resistivity data in order to trace water sources in the surface water and transition zone. This information can aid in evaluating the extent of interaction and degree of mixing between the surface water and groundwater. The ultimate goal of this research is to provide new valuable information that could help professionals and researchers understand complex processes such as groundwater-surface water interaction using new methods that would improve the speed and accuracy of existing systems or techniques. This multidisciplinary approach can be useful in investigating land use impacts on groundwater inflow and in forecasting the availability of water resources in environmentally sensitive ecosystems such as

  20. Trends in population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in a rural area of Northwest China from 1982 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in average blood pressure levels and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults in a rural area of Northwest China, and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS: Four cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted between 1982 and 2010 among randomly selected adults in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Data on blood pressure, body mass index, family history of hypertension, and socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected in similar way by trained investigators in four surveys. Data of 8575 participants aged 35-64 years was analyzed. Averages and proportions were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Average blood pressure in the population has increased since 1982 from 76.9 mm Hg to 79.6 mm Hg in 2010 (diastolic and from 120.9 to 129.7 mm Hg (systolic. Prevalence of hypertension increased from 18.4% in 1982 to 30.5% in 2010, and awareness of hypertension increased from 16.8% to 38.4% in 2010. Treatment of hypertension increased from 1.0% in 1982 to 17.4% in 2010, and control of hypertension increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 3.5% in 2010. All these gradients were statistically significant (P<0.01 for trend. Population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension were positively associated with increasing age, body mass index and having family history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Average blood pressure levels and the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in rural areas of Hanzhong have increased since 1982. However, awareness, treatment and control rates remain low. Public health programs and practical strategies are required to improve prevention and control of hypertension in rural Northwest China. In particular, attention should be given to the elderly and obese, and to those with a family history of hypertension, while raising awareness and treatment among younger adults.

  1. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  2. [Seasonal variations of community structures phytoplankton in groundwater discharge areas along the Northern Yucatán Peninsula coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia Catalina; Liceaga-Correa, Maria de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    The highly touristic Yucatán Peninsula is principally constituted with coastal marine environments. Like other coastal areas, this has been affected by the increase of waste water discharge, hydrological modifications and land use changes in the area. The phytoplankton community structure is one of the main components of coastal ecosystems and the most affected in hydrological processes. In order to follow the seasonal variations, the phytoplankton was characterized to follow the hydrological variability in two sites (Dzilam and Progreso) of the Northern Yucatán Peninsula. For this, cruises were carried out monthly during one year, from April 2004 to March 2005, with two samplings per season (dry, rainy and "nortes"). Hydrological variability was associated with seasonality and directly linked to groundwater discharges in the Dzilam area, and waste water discharges in the Progreso area. The highest nutrient concentrations occurred mainly during the rainy season. The phytoplankton community changes observed throughout the year suggested that the hydrological and chemical variability associated with seasonality and anthropogenic impacts have a strong influence. The substitution of diatoms by dinoflagellates as the dominant group in Progreso was the result of seasonal variability itself, but also could have been caused by eutrophic processes; while in Dzilam, the major presence of diatoms could have been favored by groundwater discharges. The results of this study can be used to understand the linkages between stressors from the anthropogenic activities and coastal water quality and changes.

  3. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  4. Landscape Changes and a Salt Production Sustainable Approach in the State of Salt Pan Area Decreasing on the Coast of Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Landsat images from 1979, 1988, 1999, 2008, and 2013 were used to analyze the landscape area change of salt pans lying on the coast of Tianjin. While initially (1979–1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan increased, later (1988–2013 it declined dramatically. In the first phase (1979–1988 of the studied period the primary roll-in landscape of the salt pan wasbarren land with an area of 60.0 km2. By 1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan rose to 457.8 km2. The main roll-out landscape of the salt pan during 1988–2013 was urban, barren land, village/town, harbor, and road whose area amounted to 69.8, 35.9, 27.3, 25.5 and 18.4 km2 respectively. The roll-out barren land will be transformed to construction land ultimately. By 2013, the total loss reached 167.3 km2, which was 36.5% of the salt pan area of Tianjin in 1988. With the development of coastal economy, the salterns with a lower economic value were transformed to and replaced by land use types with a higher economic value. This trend would influence the production of sea salt and the development of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate industries. Seawater desalination provides an opportunity for the restoration and compensation of salt production capacity. Based on the theory of circular economy and industrial symbiosis, in this article an industrial symbiosis model for sea salt production and sea water desalination is explored: “mariculture–power plant cooling–seawater desalination–Artemia culture–bromide extraction–sea salt production–salt chemical industry”. Through the application of this process sustainable development of the sea salt production in Tianjin could be achieved.

  5. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamhuri Siwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in the last five years. However, the current country’s self-sufficiency level for rice production is about 71.4% and the balance imported from countries abroad. Efforts are being undertaken by government to increase the productivity, cropping intensity prediction and crop acreage to cope with the growing demand for the produce. This study examines the various issues of rice production for food security and analyses the challenging of rice production in Malaysia. Various policies, strategies and programmes for rice production will be thoroughly analysed for attaining the study objectives. In the ECER, Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority (KADA, Kemasin Semerak and North Terengganu (KETARA Integrated Agriculture Development Area (IADA is among the granary areas, which emphasised on paddy cultivation to the country. The role of the area is important to enhance the self-sufficiency level of rice in Malaysia. Issues and challenges related to rice production, food security and self-sufficiency are discussed. Various efforts and government intervention have been implemented to ensure that these areas will remain as the important granary area. Several approaches to improve the productivity and stability of food production as well as outlining the agenda to ensure the country food supply are discussed.

  6. Fish assemblages in a small temperate estuary on the Argentinian coast: spatial variation, environmental influence and relevance as nursery area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Solari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effects of different environmental variables on the fish community structure were evaluated in a small temperate estuary. The biological and environmental data were collected bimonthly between 2007 and 2009 along the main estuarine axis. Multivariate analyses were applied (CLUSTER, SIMPER, CCA to determine the spatial structure of fish community and to estimate the environmental influence on it. A total of 48 species of "teleost" fishes were observed, with the families Characidae and Sciaenidae presenting the largest number of species, 90% of the catches being juveniles. The fish community was overwhelmingly dominated by one species (Micropogonias furnieri, 88.9%, and only four species contributed more than 1% of total catch (Odontesthes argentinensis5.4%, Brevoortia aurea 1.1%, Paralonchurus brasiliensis 1.1%, and Mugil platanus 1.0%. Estuarine and freshwater stragglers dominated in number of species, followed by freshwater migrants and marine migrants. Three areas with different fish assemblages, with distinctive species and functional guilds, were defined along the main axis. The occurrence and spatial spread of these areas were linked to spatial variation in salinity, which was consistently influenced by discharge from the Río de la Plata and local precipitation. The results highlight the importance of shallow environments as nursery areas and permit emphasis on their susceptibility to environmental changes.

  7. Bio-physical model provides insight into dispersal of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) from putative spawning grounds to nursery areas on the west coast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zölck, Melanie; Brophy, Deirdre; Mohn, Christian; Minto, Cóilín; McGrath, David

    2015-05-01

    In this study we use an individual-based coupled physical biological model (ICPBM) to reconstruct the dispersal pathways of 0-group juveniles (young of the year) collected from nursery grounds in Galway Bay and to identify probable spawning ground locations for plaice on the west coast of Ireland. The relative importance of passive transport, behaviour and individual growth rates on successful larval delivery, from three putative spawning grounds to suitable nursery areas, was also investigated. Using a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), combined with a particle tracking model, three model scenarios were tested: a passive tracer scenario (PTS), a linear growth scenario (LGS) and a temperature-dependent growth scenario (TDS). Hydrodynamic conditions were modelled and biological information (pelagic larval durations and size at settlement) incorporated. The LGS and TDS included vertical migration and tidally synchronised behaviour. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) comparisons showed that incorporation of behaviour and temperature-dependent growth, resulted in approximately two to three times more particles being delivered to sites of suitable depth for settlement (≤ 10 m), compared to passive transport alone (p LGS 19-78%; TDS 40-81%). The probability of successful delivery also varied significantly depending on the location, year and week of release (p < 0.05). A comparison of temperature histories between particles that were delivered to shallow inshore areas and those that failed to reach depths suitable for settlement indicated that dispersal to coastal nursery areas is facilitated by entrainment into a cool coastal current system. This study identifies a probable plaice spawning area in western Ireland and reconfirms the importance of including behaviour and growth in dispersal simulations. The model results suggest that differences in growth can influence larval delivery to potentially suitable nursery areas.

  8. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  9. Quaternary Tectonism in a Collision Zone, Northwest Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, P. A.; Wolf, S. C.; Intelmann, S. S.; Danforth, W. W.; Weldon, R. J.; Blair, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Kinematic, geodetic, and geologic observations define a region with 6-8 mm/y of north-south contraction between the Columbia River and Vancouver Island. We attribute this contraction to differential forearc-block motion within the Cascadia subduction system where the Oregon Coast Range block is moving northward relative to Vancouver Island. The contraction is accommodated by a combination of distributed uplift in the Olympic Mountains, and faulting along the margins of the Coast Range and Vancouver Island blocks. The tide gauge at Neah Bay, which records one of the highest rates of uplift anywhere along the Cascadia subduction margin, suggests that a significant portion of this north-south contraction occurs between the northern Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island. The northwest-trending Calawah fault, extending from Makah Bay eastward to near Lake Crescent, appears to mark the modern boundary between the Olympic Mountains block and the Vancouver Island block in northwestern Washington. Onshore, the 80+ km-long Calawah fault displaces late Quaternary glacial sediments and geodetic uplift rates increase abruptly across the fault zone. Offshore in Makah Bay, new multibeam, sidescan-sonar, and high-resolution seismic reflection data image a complex, multi-strand fault zone that offsets the seafloor and moves Cape Flattery rocks seaward. Two parallel, northwest-trending fault strands bound a down-dropped block that in turn terminates along a northward-trending anticlinal fold and thrust fault. These data suggest that the Calawah fault zone currently accommodates contraction both by uplift and by seaward translation of rocks north of the forearc-block boundary. Our geologic mapping in the Cape Flattery area indicates that differential block motion is accommodated by a combination of crustal uplift, folding, and left-lateral, strike-slip faulting.

  10. Geochemical evolution of waters within the north coast limestone aquifers of Puerto Rico; a conceptualization based on a flow path in the Barceloneta area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Mas, A. J.; Lee, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water samples along a groundwater flow path in the Barceloneta area, Puerto Rico, were collected from wells screened in the Montebello Limestone Member of the Cibao Formation (artesian aquifer) and in the overlying Aguada and Aymamon Limestones (water table aquifer). The groundwater chemistry changes as water migrates from recharge areas to downgradient zones in the aquifers. Dissolved magnesium, dissolved sulfate, pH, and carbon-13 isotope generally increase down-gradient. Total inorganic carbon and calcium decrease within the freshwater parts of the aquifer. Mass transfer calculations show that the likely reaction model is carbon dioxide incorporation as water infiltrates through the soil zone, followed by calcite dissolution as water recharges the aquifer. As water moves downgradient within the artesian aquifer, carbon dioxide may degas as a result of calcite precipitation while gypsum and dolomite are dissolved. Within the water table aquifer, continuous recharge of waters rich in carbonic acid maintains the dissolution of the carbonate minerals. Near the coast the mixing of fresh groundwater with saltwater is the primary process affecting water chemistry within the water table aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Environmental and radio-ecological studies on shallow marine sediments from harbour areas along the Red Sea coast of Egypt for identification of anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, Atef; Madkour, Hashem A

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of marine sediments of the studied localities provides investigators with data to characterise the composition of these sediments allowing for the identification of particular pollution sources. A study of texture, geochemistry, X-ray diffraction and natural radionuclide content of shallow marine sediments from Quseir harbour, Safaga harbour and El-Esh area in the Red Sea coast of Egypt was conducted for the purpose of assessing the possible influence of human activities on the composition of the sediments. The activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were measured by using γ-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in all areas studied were found to be 71±6, 66±5 and 92±7 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 83±5, 71±7 and 162±23 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 513±10, 493±20 and 681±28 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. The results of the study presented were compared with corresponding results obtained in other coastal and aquatic environments in the Red Sea.

  12. Sequence Stratigraphic Characterization of Upper Miocene through Pleistocene Siliciclastic Aquifer Sediments, Baton Rouge Area, Southeastern Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, E. L.; Hanor, J. S.; Tsai, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    Saltwater encroachment northward into freshwater sands of the Baton Rouge aquifer system, southeastern Louisiana, poses a serious environmental threat to this metropolitan municipal and industrial water source. The aquifer system consists of an 850-m thick succession of interbedded, unconsolidated south-dipping siliciclastic sandy units and mudstones of Upper Miocene through Pleistocene age. A geology-based understanding of the connectivity, geometry and depositional setting of this aquifer system is necessary for developing strategies to halt or control saltwater intrusion. Seventy five digitized spontaneous potential - resistivity logs for boreholes in the area provided data for interpreting environments of deposition, for correlating sand-rich and mudstone-rich zones, and for identifying periods of low and high rates of sediment aggradation. The sands have complex geometries representing braided stream, meandering channel fill, floodplain, levee, and crevasse splay facies. A high degree of lateral discontinuity of the sands makes visual correlation of units difficult. Therefore an assessment of lithology-depth relations was made by determining the frequency of occurrence of mudstone at discrete 0.15 m depth intervals in borehole logs along five 40-km long transects parallel to the strike of the aquifer units. Percent occurrence of mudstone was graphed as a function of depth using a 41-point centered moving average for smoothing, and mudstone-poor, sand-rich trends were correlated between transects. Ten major sand cycles were identified. Individual aquifer units are interpreted to be complex zones of amalgamated sand bodies deposited during times of low aggradation associated with sea-level falling-stages and lowstand system tracts. The amalgamation created a high degree of connectivity which results in these zones behaving as single hydrologic units. Mudstone-rich aquitard sequences are interpreted to be flood-plain sediments deposited during times of high

  13. Plutonium isotopes concentration in seawater and bottom sediment off the Pacific coast of Aomori sea area during 1991-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Inatomi, Naohiko; Isoyama, Naohiko; Misonoo, Jun; Suzuki, Chiyoshi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Morizono, Shigemitsu; Fujii, Seiji; Hara, Takeya; Kido, Katsutoshi

    2011-03-01

    A radioactivity survey was launched in 1991 to determine the background levels of ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu in the marine environment off a commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant before full operation of the facility. Particular attention was focused on the ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio in seawater and bottom sediment to identify the origins of Pu isotopes. The concentration of ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu was almost uniform in surface water, decreasing slowly over time. Conversely, the ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu concentration varied markedly in the bottom water and was dependent upon the sampling point, with higher concentrations of ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu observed in the bottom water sample at sampling points having greater depth. The ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio in the seawater and sediment samples was higher than that of global fallout Pu, and comparable with the data in the other sea area around Japan which has likely been affected by close-in fallout Pu originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds. The ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio in bottom sediment samples decreased with sea depth. The land-originated Pu is not considered as the reason of the increasing ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu concentration and also decreasing the ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio with sea depth, and further study is required to clarify it.

  14. Influence of Northwest Cloudbands on Southwest Australian Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Telcik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest cloudbands are tropical-extratropical feature that crosses the Australian continent originating from Australia’s northwest coast and develops in a NW-SE orientation. In paper, atmospheric and oceanic reanalysis data (NCEP and Reynolds reconstructed sea surface temperature data were used to examine northwest cloudband activity across the Australian mainland. An index that reflected the monthly, seasonal, and interannual activity of northwest cloudbands between 1950 and 1999 was then created. Outgoing longwave radiation, total cloud cover, and latent heat flux data were used to determine the number of days when a mature northwest cloudband covered part of the Australian continent between April and October. Regional indices were created for site-specific investigations, especially of cloudband-related rainfall. High and low cloudband activity can affect the distribution of cloudbands and their related rainfall. In low cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands were mostly limited to the south and west Australian coasts. In high cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands penetrated farther inland, which increased the inland rainfall. A case study of the southwest Australian region demonstrated that, in a below average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall was limited to the coast. In an above average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall occurred further inland.

  15. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  16. Referral of epileptic patients in North East Coast of West Malaysia an area with poor MRI coverage: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Y; Alias, N N; Shuaib, I L; Tharakan, J; Abdullah, J; Munawir, A H; Naing, N N

    2006-11-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), have proved invaluable in detecting structural brain lesions in patients with epilepsy in developed countries. In Malaysia, a few electroencephalography facilities available in rural district hospitals run by trained physician assistants have Internet connections to a government neurological center in Kuala Lumpur. These facilities are more commonly available than MRI machines, which require radiological expertise and helium replacement, which may problematic in Southeast Asian countries where radiologists are found in mainly big cities or towns. We conducted a cross-sectional study over a two year period begining January 2001 on rural patients, correlating EEG reports and MRI images with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy to set guidelines for which rural patients need to be referred to a hospital with MRI facilities. The patients referred by different hospitals without neurological services were classified as having generalized, partial or unclassified seizures based on the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The clinical parameters studied were seizure type, seizure frequency, status epilepticus and duration of seizure. EEG reports were reviewed for localized and generalized abnormalities and epileptiform changes. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and area under the curve. The association between clinical and radiological abnormalities was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-six males and 18 females were evaluated. The mean age was 20.7 +/- 13.3 years. Nineteen (43.2%) had generalized seizures, 22 (50.0%) had partial seizures and 3 (6.8%) presented with unclassified seizures. The EEG was abnormal in 30 patients (20 with generalized abnormalities and 10 localized abnormalities). The MRI was abnormal in 17 patients (38.6%); the abnormalities observed were cerebral

  17. Health cooperation in an hospital of a rural area of Ivory Coast: analysis of the priorities and of the different levels at which cooperation can take place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusamolino, Ercole; Maffi, Guido

    2004-01-01

    This paper critically reviews an experience of health cooperation in an hospital of a rural area of Ivory Coast. This particular situation is analysed in the more general frame of health problems in low-income countries and may suggest priorities for international health cooperation. The analysis of the main causes of avoidable death in poor countries does indicate targets and tools of intervention. In this case, the target was the reduction of infant mortality from anaemia of different origin and from HIV-1 mother-to-infant transmission. The major tool for intervention was the partnership between an Italian teaching and research hospital and the African hospital, with the catalyst of a non-governmental organisation. This paper analyses the different levels at which cooperation developed in this project, from sheer economic support to the implementation of disease-oriented twinning programs that can improve health care and strengthen research capacity on both sides. Besides, medical, ethical and social implications of the ongoing cooperation program are discussed, with particular reference to the problems of preventing mortality from severe anaemia (diet fortification in children and pregnancy and transfusional guidelines in severe malaria) and of preventing mother-to-child neonatal transmission of HIV-1 infection (counselling and testing pregnant women for HIV-1, nevirapine administering to the mother and the baby and breast-feeding).

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest)--ghost and blue mud shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic range: The ghost shrimp is found in intertidal areas along the west coast of North America from Mutiny Bay, Alaska, to the mouth of the Tijuana River, San Diego County, California; MacGinitie (1934) and Ricketts and Calvin (1968) reported finding specimens as far south as El Estuario de Punto Banda, Baja California Norte, Mexico. The blue mud shrimp is found from southeastern Alaska to San Quentin Bay (Bahia de San Quentin) in Baja California Norte. The general distribution of the two species in the Pacific Northwest is identical (Figure 3).

  19. An effort in increasing the use of natural resources around southern coast of Yogyakarta, A case-study of coastal area of Baron, Kukup, and Krakal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJALAL S. TANDJUNG

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of Baron, Kukup, and Krakal in the southern coast of Yogyakarta is an arid and dried area, and marginal agriculture land. The potential vegetation resources only live on the lands that produce cassava, corn, peanut, and soybean. The increasing benefits of sea products such as fishes still need to be invented. The aims of this research are to inventories and to increase the use of disadvantage resources. This research was conducted from October 1995 to March 1996. The result invents 70 species of useful plants and 21 species of weed that can be used by the people for the needs of their own households. The remainder products of Anona squamosa L., which might easily rot and until now unprofitable, could be used to make some jam. Phylantus emblica L. can be put into a useful product by making them to become candies. Another natural resources that are neglected are the cattle excrement and sharkskin. All kind of sharkskin’s can be manufactured into leather products. While cattle excrement can be produced methane for cooking and lighting. There are 163 species of ornamental fishes in Kukup, and 20 species of consumed fishes in Baron. In search of ornamental fishes, the fishermen have a bad-habit of using hazardous materials such as potassium cyanide. Besides endangers the reef communities, algae and fish-larvae, it makes the ornamental fishes they caught unhealthy and cannot be exported since their lifespan is very short. Due to this factor, ornamental fishes are only available in the local market of Kukup.

  20. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate changes and to anthropogenic interventions, saltwater intrusion is affecting the aquifers and the surface water of the Po plain along the Adriatic coast. During the last decade, we recognized in this area a pattern of climate change: precipitations are less frequent and the yearly amount of rain is concentrated in a few strong storm events. This pattern results in an increase of gales strength during the winter, which causes shoreline retreat and an erosion of the coastal dunes. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The wide sandy beaches are now retreating and the dune system (only a few meters in height) is almoust destroyed, because of tourism development and of disaggregated rivers and shorelines management. A still active dune system is preserved in our study area, a coastal plain included between the Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers near the city of Ravenna. As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters have been contaminated by seawater. Despite its value for the natural ecosystem and the agricultural soil, the phreatic aquifer is not considered of interest by the regional authorities responsible for water management. A detailed hydrogeological survey was performed by our research group during the Summer 2008 within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. In this survey 29 auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we measured the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore

  1. Gestational weight gain and its related social and demographic factors in health care settings of rural and urban areas in northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh

    2016-01-01

    The current study was aimed to evaluate gestational weight gain and its socio-demographic determinants among pregnant women in north-west of Iran. In the current cross-sectional study, four hundred eighty one pregnant women aged 26.12 ± 7.45 years were enrolled. Data on pre-pregnancy weight, height, age, educational attainment, parity, household size, hemoglobin status and total pregnancy weight gain were extracted from routine health center records. The pregnant women were categorized based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) as underweight, normal weight and overweight or obese according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Participants were also classified according to their educational level into three 'some school', 'high school' and 'college' groups. Gestational weight gain in 27.6% of pregnant women was in normal IOM recommended range; while, weight gain in 49% and 23.2% of pregnant women was below and above recommended range respectively. Women with high educational attainment (≥12 years) have significantly higher weight gain compared with low-educated women (nutritional status and health care programs in current health care services in Iran.

  2. hab115_0403 - Habitat polygons for Cape Flattery and Makah Bay area. Results from HMPR-115-2004-03 acoustic survey in Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary (OCNMS). ROV, towed camera sled, bathymetry data, sedimentary...

  3. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NWS Watches for Short-Duration Hazards for Inland, Coastal, and Maritime Areas (Time Enabled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps depicting the geographic coverage of the latest NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) Watches for...

  4. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NWS Weather Warnings for Short-Duration Hazards in Inland, Coastal, and Maritime Areas (Time Enabled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps depicting the geographic coverage of the latest NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) Warnings...

  5. Fur Trade in Northwest China and Economy Changes of Rear Area during the War of Resistance against Japan%抗战时期西北皮毛贸易与大后方经济变动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭刚

    2012-01-01

    Soviet Union,substituted for American,become the largest fur import country for China,which directly contributed to the development of Sino-Soviet Union barter trade in wartime.Secondly,due to the harder and tougher transport road in wartime than that of pre-war,coupled with the wartime export market atrophy and other reasons,the amount of Northwest fur exports reduced sharply than that of pre-war.The substantial decreasing of exporting fur facilitated the development of domestic fur trade market,and the northwest fur industry turned from the pre-war's export-oriented development into domestically-oriented development during the war time.The increasing of domestic fur trade also promoted the wool textile industry in Rear Area.Therefore,to a certain extent,domestically-oriented fur industry in Northwest China has become a new force for the economic development in the Rear Area during the wartime.

  6. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  7. 2007 Oregon Department of Forestry (ODF) Northwest Oregon Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar dataset encompasses two areas in northwest Oregon. The northern area is located in Clatsop County, encompassing Clatsop State Forest ownership; the...

  8. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems.

  9. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt's Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Hereher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Mediterranean coast was examined for the vulnerability to sea-level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (CVI, which was derived from the geologic and physical characteristics of the coast. This paper is the first to apply the CVI along the Egyptian coasts. The coast has different geomorphologic aspects ranging from steep-slope-rocky cliffs to gentle sloping deltaic sediments. Although the coast is under low tidal effect and low height waves, results showed that more than one-third of the 1000 km long coast is severely vulnerable to sea-level rise. Unfortunately, the area under high vulnerability to sea-level rise comprises the densely populated Nile Delta coast. National actions should be implemented to safeguard the entire coast at the threatened locations.

  10. Long-term effects of climate change on the hydrological system of a lowland area at the German North Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Baroni, Gabriele; Krause, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In particular for the winter season, global sea level rise is expected to be combined with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency. During summer, due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration with an increase of groundwater intrusion has been observed. It is expected that the salinization of the surface will rise under drier conditions by upward seeping groundwater. Coastal water resource management requires a better understanding and predictions of these dynamic systems. Therefore, a long-term monitoring programme has been established at the German North Sea coast, located at the estuary of the River Ems. The research area is dominated by a dense canal system that is regulated by pumping stations and tidal gates. Landuse of the area is mainly dairy farming with 30 % of the area below sea level. The underlying aquifer is confined and brackish, and it is connected to the surface water by geological faults of old paleo-channels. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. This study investigates the effects of climate change on water balance and salt transport by applying regional climate models (RCMs) based on the IPCC emission scenarios for the period until 2100 as drivers for a hydrological and solute transport model. To investigate the impact of different meteorological scenarios, the RCM results for the climate scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 are used to cover an increase of future temperature between 1 and 3.5 K. As changes in water level and salinity are expected to influence vegetation patterns (and water management aims to guaranty agricultural use) two alternative landuse scenarios are considered. The first scenario assumes that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration

  11. A bio-socioeconomic model for the management of the small pelagic fishery in northwest Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The article was extracted from the author's dissertation entitled "Management of small pelagic fisheries on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia: a bio-socioeconomic simulation analysis". The basic structure and uses of this simulation model are presented here.

  12. Activities of radionuclides in the Pacific coastal area of Fukushima since the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident - Activities of radionuclides in the coast area off Fukushima after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Miho; Yoshida, Satoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan); Sohtome, Tadahiro; Mizuno, Takuji [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Igarashi, Satoshi [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima Prefecture Sea-Farming Association, 970-8044, Fukushima (Japan); Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 108-0075, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) has caused the release of the huge quantities of radionuclide by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and then the serious problems gave rise to pollution in marine environment widely in the coast area off Fukushima. Monitoring of radioactivity in seawater and biota are important for understanding the dispersion of radionuclides and the effects of radioecology in the marine environment around the coast of Fukushima and the Pacific. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in seawater decreased exponentially and then were almost same levels before the accident around off Fukushima after about three years from the accident. However, the high activities of radio caesium (Cs) have been monitored in marine biota off Fukushima. The aims of the present study were to examine the temporal changes in radioactivity and to clarify the variation factor and the effect of radioecology in marine biota. Cs-134 and Cs-137, and Ag-110m, were released by this accident, determined in biota sample such as the plankton, fish and benthos, although it is well-known that molluscs and crustaceans concentrate silver in visceral parts. However, Sr-90 was not detected and the activities of plutonium were almost same level before this accident in the marine biota around off Fukushima. Concentration ratios of Cs (CR-Cs) in marine organism were from 2.6 E+1 in the muscle part of squid to 1.0 E+4 in the viscera of clam. The large differences in CR-Cs by the parts of marine organism were not observed. It is suggested that rapid change in the activities of radio Cs and silver in seawater, resuspension of particles from sediments and food chain effects led to high radionuclide activities in marine biota after this accident. CR-Cs in plankton was also calculated with the activities in seawater, which were collected around sampling area during this monitoring period. These resulting values ranged from 5.8 E+1 to 7.8 E+2

  13. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge. These shoreline...

  14. Extent Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two layers that depict the extent of the 2003 digital orthophoto mosaic for the coastal and nearshore areas of Bering Land Bridge...

  15. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Cape Krusenstern. These shoreline...

  16. Index Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from Approximately 1980 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two index map layers for 57 frames of orthorectified aerial photography from approximately 1980 for the coastal and nearshore areas...

  17. Origin of Amazon mudbanks along the northeastern coast of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.A.; Lee, M.T.; Ogston, A.S.; Aller, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic profiles, sediment cores, and water column measurements were collected along the northeastern coast of Brazil to examine the origin of mudbanks in the Amazon coastal mud belt. These 10-60-km-long, shore-attached features previously had been observed to migrate along the 1200 km coast of the Guianas in response to wave forcing. CHIRP (3.5 kHz) seismic profiles of the shoreface and inner shelf located two mudbanks updrift of the previous eastern limit in French Guiana. 210Pb geochronology shows that these two banks are migrating to the northwest over a relict mud surface in 5-20 m water depth. The mudbanks are 3-4 m thick and are translating over a modern shoreface mud wedge deposited by previous mudbank passage in < 5 m water depth. Initial mudbank development is taking place on the intertidal and shallow subtidal mudflats at Cabo Cassipore, associated with an alongshore-accreting clinoform feature. Sediment trapping in this area is controlled by the nearshore presence of strong water column stratification produced by the enormous Amazon freshwater discharge on the shelf and by proximity to the Cassipore River estuary. Seasonal and decadal periods of sediment supply and starvation in this area likely are controlled by variations in northwest trade wind intensity. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Maritime archaeology of Gujarat: Northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    . There are three main types of glazed ware (i.e. green, blue and brown). These are very similar to the Islamic glazed ware found from various parts of the country (Mohammad 1985:105). The medieval period glazed ware at Hastinapur (Lal 1954-55:5-151) was found...

  19. Necrobiont Coleoptera North-West Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Viktorovich Pushkin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex necrobionts of the alpine girdle of Northwest Caucasus is described ecologically. The specific composition of groups is circumscribed. The legitimacies of creation necrobionts of the complex from a type of a landscape and taxonomic of an accessory of a corpse are detected. Studying of regional features ¬of formation necrobionts complexes has, both scientific, and practical -interest. Throughout 20 years we studied fauna and ecological features necrobiont Coleoptera mountain landscapes of Northwest Caucasus and -adjoining areas of Ciscaucasia.

  20. Comparative Hydrological and Geoelectrical Study on the Quaternary Aquifer in the Deltas of Wadi Badaa and Ghweiba, El Ain El Sukhna Area, Northwest Suez Gulf, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. El Osta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Ain El Sukhna area was selected in the last ten years to initiate many governmental and investmental programs. The different activities in that area depend mainly on the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer, which forms the main water bearing strata. In the present work, twenty one geoelctrical soundings using the Schlumberger configuration are carried out at selected sites especially in missing parts from wells to delineate the groundwater setting in such sites. Eight of them are conducted in the close vicinity of water wells, where lithologs and pumping test data of these wells are available to relate hydrologic and geoelctric measurements. The pumping tests data are analyzed by using AQTESOLV program and the geolectrical sounding data were interpreted by partial curve matching technique to obtain the initial parameters. The results indicated that, the transmissivity is found to be closely related with transverse resistance and the hydraulic conductivity with average transverse resistivity, while the salinity is inversely related with resistivity. Finally, priority map for drilling water wells is constructed to make the results more illustrative and useful for decision maker. The promising area for drilling is located at the western portion of the study region.

  1. 40 CFR 81.140 - Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.140 Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northwest Arkansas Intrastate...

  2. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  3. [Differentiation of vegetation characteristics on slope micro-topography of fenced watershed in loess area of north Shaanxi Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Qing-Ke; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Yun, Lei; Xie, Jing; Kuang, Gao-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Based on the investigation data of the vegetations in Hegou valley in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, this paper studied the vegetation characteristics on the five typical micro-topography categories including shallow gully, gully, collapse, platform, and scarp in the loess area of north Shaanxi, with the undisturbed slope as the control. There existed distinct differences in the species composition, quantitative characteristics, and species diversity of plant communities on the five typical micro-topography categories and the undisturbed slope. After twelve years of enclosure recovery, the study area formed herbaceous plant community, with Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii as the dominant species. Among the main companion species, shrubs such as Prinsepia uniflora and Caragana korshinskii were found in scarp and gully, and hygrophyte Phragmites australis appeared in platform. The coverage, height, and biomass of the plant communities on most of the micro-topography categories, especially on the gully and collapse, were larger than those on the undisturbed slope. The Shannon index on the micro-topography categories and undisturbed slope was in the order of scarp > gully > shallow gully > undisturbed slope > platform > collapse.

  4. Pathological Studies on the Small Intestine of Wild Rabbit Fish (Siganus Rivulatus) Infected by Helminthes Parasite (Procamallanus Sp) in Red Sea Coast Area, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Eldeen Y.M.H; Omer F. Idris; Murwan K. Sabahelkhier

    2012-01-01

    Wild rabbit fish (Siganus rivulatus) Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae) herbivores fish were collected from two sites (Dongnab and Swakin) on Sudanese Red Sea Coast during February 2010 - January 2011 and then examine for helminthes parasites. Microscopic anatomy of intestine with worms and without worms compared to each other. Helminth parasites belong to Procamallanus sp. The abundance of lymphocytes cell, eosinphils, red blood cells and goblet cells in parasitized intestine was significantly ...

  5. Non-Traditional Threats and Maritime Domain Awareness in the Tri-Border Area of Southeast Asia: The Coast Watch System of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    traveling between Australia and southern China; and one east of Mindoro and then across the San Bernardino Strait to the Pacific Ocean. The Philippines...Upcoming Regional Command Center/ Coast Watch Center (CWC) Zambales Cabra Lalutaya Ayungin CWC-West (Palawan) CWC-Eastern Mindanao CWC-Western Mindanao San ... Agustin Balut Melville Taganak Bongao Mangsee Mapun Pangutaran Pandami MRIC Capul Tinaca Zampboanga Maasim Maitum Kalamansig Pilas Tongku 24 Non

  6. [Development mechanism of concentrated poverty areas under the sustainable livelihood: The example of the development-restricted ecological district of Ningxia, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun-tao; Mi, Wen-bao; Fan, Xin-gang; Yang, Mei-ling

    2015-09-01

    Livelihood capital has a close relationship with the income and expenditure of farmers' households. For example, the survival strategies of farmers' households are determined by it and it also influences regional development mechanisms and models. Under the analysis framework of sustainable livelihoods, this study evaluated farmers' livelihood capital, income, and expenditure, based on a participatory rural appraisal and a statistical method, in the development-restricted ecological district of Ningxia, decomposed into the nationality, terrain, and type of farmers' household. Further, by using an index of non-farm business households, the correlations between the livelihood capital and income with the expenditure of farmers' households and the index of non-farm business households were quantified to understand the mechanism of regional development. The results showed that livelihood capital was generally low in the study area. In particular, the livelihood capital of Hui nationality households was slightly higher than that of Han nationality households, that of river valley households was higher than that of mountain households, and that of combined occupation households and non-farm business households was significantly higher than that of agricultural households. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the net annual income of farmers' households and the non-agricultural index, human capital, physical capital, and financial capital, while a significant negative correlation existed between net annual income and natural capital. These findings suggested that efforts were required to enhance the capacity of the non-agricultural index and the human, material, and other capital in the study area. They also served as a guideline for the circulation of peasants' means of production in order to accelerate the polarization of natural capital.

  7. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation...... Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare...... with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest sector, while the GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice...

  8. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Wahr, John M;

    (Geophysical Research Abstracts (ISSN: 1607-7962), vol: 14, pages: EGU2012-1852, 2012) Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest...... Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate...... catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest...

  9. 西北边远艰苦连队官兵健康状况及其影响因素%Survey on physical condition among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓全; 李英秋; 庄开颜; 张高明; 郝建华; 程鹏; 杨玲

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the physical condition among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas and its influencing factors,provide a basis for improving the medical level in grassroots units.[Methods] By using physical examination and unified questionnaire survey,the status of food security,lifestyle,dietary habit and physical condition among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas were investigated.[Results] The total prevalence rate among servicemen in northwest remote areas was 29.65%.The prevalence rate and awareness rate of chronic diseases were as follow:overweight and obesity was 37.71% and 7.16%,hypertension was 9.28% and 4.08%,fatty liver was 15.2% and 11.44%,as well as hyperuricemia was 13.96% and 0.Other common diseases included sleep disorder,angioneurotic headache,chronic gastritis,calculus,trachoma,chronic conjunctivitis,piles and skin illness.The main problems on dietary habits and unhealthy lifestyle? in sequence were:inadequate intake of fruit (79.1%),inadequate intake of fish (73.23%),smoking (72.64%),inadequate intake of milk (71.74%),high intake of salt (59.01%),drinking (58.71%),inadequate intake of bean products (49.25%),low fluid intake (48.36%),frequently midnight snack (46.76%),high intake of sugared beverages (45.97%),excess intake of staple food(30.50%),and heavy greasy food (22.99%).[Conclusion] It is necessary to strengthen life and medical guarantee among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas,and improve the health education and management,to enhance the combat effectiveness.%目的 了解边远地区基层官兵身体健康状况及其影响因素,为提高基层部队医疗保障水平提供依据.方法 采取健康体检及问卷调查的方法,了解西北边远艰苦地区基层连队食品保障、官兵生活饮食习惯和健康状况.结果 西北边远艰苦地区官兵总患病率为29.65%,慢性病患病率和知晓率分别为:超重与肥胖37.71%和7

  10. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  11. 杭州湾淤泥质海岸岸线变化及其动态模拟%Shoreline Change and Its Dynamic Simulation in the Muddy Coast Area of the Hangzhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施伟勇; 戴志军; 谢华亮; 张小玲

    2012-01-01

    The measured data from a muddy coast segment located from the Nanzhu Harbor to Longquan in the northern coast area of the Hangzhou bay were analyzed statistically. The shoreline change and its influencing factors as well as associated dynamic simulation in the muddy coast segment were discussed. The results show that the beach of the muddy coast segment has been being in an erosion state in recent 10 years due to the decreasing in the incoming sediments from the Yangtze River and the moving of erosion/ accretion waves from east to west. This will cause the whole shoreline in the area studied to retreat. Moreover, due to the action of seasonal wave climate, the beach of the muddy coast segment is in a silting state in winter half year and an eroding state in summer half year. As a result, the shoreline is pushed seaward in winter half year and retreated landward in summer half year. However, some parts of the shoreline may be retreated landward in winter half year and advanced seaward in summer half year because of the impacts of local engineering actions. As to the prediction of shoreline changes, it is possible to use the BF neural network mode with input vectors of - 3 m and -8m isobaths.%通过对杭州湾北岸南竹港 龙泉岸段实测岸滩断面资料的统计分析,进而对淤泥质海岸岸线变化、影响因素及其动态模拟预报进行探讨.结果表明:因长江来沙减少以及侵蚀/淤积波自东向西移动,导致近10 a来该岸段岸滩处于侵蚀状态,其中岸线整体后退;因季节性的波侯作用,岸滩具有冬淤夏冲的特征,岸线则表现为冬涨夏退,因局部工程作用影响的岸线则具有冬退夏涨的特征.此外,基于-3m和-8m等深线构建的径向基函数神经网络模型预报岸线的变化是可行的.

  12. A Probabilistic Tsunami Assessment for Western Australia and the South coast of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D. R.; Cummins, P. R.; Thio, H. K.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to July 2006, the only known, large megathrust earthquake known to have occurred (Mw=7.6, on 2 June, 1994) south of Java could be argued to be an anomaly in what is essentially aseismic subduction in this part of the Sunda Arc. The occurrence of a second such event (Mw=7.8) on 17 July, however, has demonstrated that they can occur anywhere along the Sunda Arc. These events produced large tsunamis along the coast of Java that killed hundreds (222 and 663, respectively). On the one hand, these earthquakes are much smaller than the Mw=9+ earthquakes known to occur off Sumatra, and the mortality associated with them is much smaller than the staggering human toll of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), which killed 167,000 on the Sumatran coast. On the other hand, the density of population along the south Java coast is much higher than that along the Sumatran coast, and we do not know how large or how frequent tsunamigenic earthquakes off Java may be. The possibility exists that tsunami risk, as measured in human lives, may be higher for Java than for Sumatra. Furthermore, future events off Sumatra can be expected off its central and perhaps its southern coast, where most of the teletsunami energy will be directed into the open Indian Ocean. Events off Java, however, will direct much more teletsunami energy towards the northwest coast of Australia. Both the 1994 and the 2006 tsunamis originating off south Java caused significant tsunamis at specific locations along the West Australian coast. Here we present a new probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the offshore wave height expected along the south coast of Java and the West Australian coast from earthquakes along the Sunda Arc subduction zone. This assessment is based on a new estimate of the rate of megathrust earthquake occurrence along the Sunda Arc subduction zone based on the global rate of occurrence of giant subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the subduction zone and its rate of convergence

  13. Study and thermodynamic characterization of the northwest area of Los Humeros, Puebla, geothermal field, Mexico; Estudio y caracterizacion termodinamica del sector noreste del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machorro Jimenez, Manuel; Pizano Herrera, Arturo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    According to the project for the study and characterization of the geothermal field Los Humeros, Puebla, drilling and production information of wells of the Northwest sector was analyzed, in order to evaluate the potential of this area. Data analysis of wells H-3, H-9, H-22, H-35 and H-37 let us determine the characteristics of this zone. We conclude that there is a producer interval with an average elevation between 1000 and 1500 most in the Andesitas of Augita, with an average temperature of 279 Celsius degree.The mechanics of productions are related to the presence of the Melpais and Antigua Faults. Wells H-3, H-37 had mechanic drilling problems, this could be the cause of low production in well H-3 as these drilling problems occurred at the producer interval. In this zone was carried out a calculation of the electric potential by means of volumetric analysis which gave a favorable estimated potential of 33 Mw for this zone during a period of time of 20 years, which indicates that it is possible to continue exploiting this area. So the future wells to drill will search objectives and be terminated to total depth of 1800 m in the zone of the wells H-35, H-37 and a depth of 2500 m in the zone of H-9. [Spanish] Como parte del proyecto para el estudio y caracterizacion del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, se analizo la informacion de la perforacion de los pozos del sector Noreste, con el proposito de evaluar el potencial de esta area. Los pozos analizados para determinar las caracteristicas de esta zona son: H-3, H-9, H-22, H-35 y H-37 de los cuales se obtuvo un intervalo productor promedio entre 1000 y 1500 msnm en las Andesitas de Augita con una temperatura promedio de 279 grados Celsius. Los mecanismos de produccion se relacionan con la presencia de las fallas Malpais y Antigua. En los pozos H-3 y H-37 se tuvieron problemas mecanicos durante la perforacion, esto puede ser la causa de que el pozo H-3 no tenga una buena produccion, ya que los problemas se

  14. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. A.; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.; Bevis, M.; Korsgaard, N.; Bjørk, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Timm, L. H.; Dam, T. v.

    2012-04-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest sector, while the GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice mass loss close to the sites. GPS data from a long term site at Thule Airbase show accelerated uplift starting in 2005 and a minor deceleration in 2009-2010. The deceleration is more dominant at GPS stations deployed in 2007 in northwest Greenland as part of the Greenland GPS Network (GNET). Independently, all three methods suggest increased ice loss in northwest Greenland starting in 2005 and a slowdown in 2009-2010.

  15. Deep feelings around a shallow coast. A spatial analysis of tourism jobs and the attractivity of nature in the Dutch Wadden area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Frans J.; Daams, Michiel N.; Farjon, Hans; Buijs, Arjen E.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Wadden area is an internationally renowned natural area with World Heritage status. Its ecological uniqueness can be attributed to its shallow coastal waters. However, the Wadden area is also a rural area in search of competitive economic activity so as to provide employment to its populat

  16. Northwest Ohio Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin

    2015-03-04

    Improvement Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily

  17. 西北地区名特水产动物养殖学实践课程的改革探索%Reform Practice Courses of Aquatic Special Animals Culture in Northwest Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊冬梅; 李杨; 凌飞

    2014-01-01

    名特水产动物养殖学是水产养殖专业教育中一门重要的专业课,而实践课程是对学生专业技能和动手能力培养的关键环节。为了提高教学质量,让学生更好地掌握名特经济鱼类的人工繁育、苗种培育和人工养殖技术,本文结合秦岭地域特色对该课程实践部分的项目设置和教学方式方法进行了一些改革和探索,使地处西北的水产专业本科生学到过硬的名优鱼类的增养殖技术。%The course of Aquatic Special Animals Culture in aquaculture is an important professional course ,and the practice part is the key to train professional skills and manipulative ability for students .In order to improve the quality of teaching effect and make the students better grasp the ar‐tificial breeding ,larval rearing and artificial breeding technology of special economic fishes ,the aim of this paper is to discuss how to reform the teaching methods of practical part of the course ,adapting to geographical features of Qinling area .The undergraduate students located in the northwest will learn excellent aquaculture technology by means of the reform .

  18. [Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in area of transmission of american tegumentar leishmaniasis in the north coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Marylene; Casanova, Cláudio; Mascarini, Luciene Maura; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Corrêa, Fernando Motta de Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen, 30 and 104 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis were recorded respectively, in 1993, 1994 and 1995, in the coast region of São Paulo State. Aiming to characterize the fauna and seasonal and hourly distributions of the phlebotominic species, adult specimens were captured fortnightly between November/95 and December/96. CDC light traps were used as of dusk intradomiciliarly, peridomiciliarly and in the forest for 12 hours. From the same moment on but only during 6 hours Shannon traps were set in the peridomicile 100 meters from the house. Quarterly this trap was used for 12 hours. The population density fluctuation as well as the occurrence of intra and extradomiciliarly predominant species were observed. In the different traps used and environments investigated Lutzomyia intermedia was the most abundant species.

  19. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  20. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-18

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 237,030 customers remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 8 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington.

  1. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-19

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 186,627 customers remain without power. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 6 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below.

  2. Ecology and trophic preference of picoplankton and nanoplankton in the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Bay, southeast coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Mohan, A.P.; Jagadeesan, L.; Anjusha, A.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; KrishnaKiran, L.; Ullas, N.

    ., 2002). Various smaller plankton components function as primary producers, grazers as well as mineralizers thereby, they act as an integral part of the microbial plankton food web and biogeochemical processes (Veldhuis et al., 1993; Landry et al., 1996... of plankton in the GoM and the PB. 2. Sampling and Methods 2.1. The study area The GoM is located between the southern tip of India and the north-west coast of Srilanka (Figure 1a). It is a large and relatively deep gulf of the AS. On the other hand...

  3. 西北地区农村小学生贫血现状及影响因素研究%Anemia in Rural China' s Elementary Schools:Prevalence and Correlates in Northwest Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡颖萍

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to measure anemia prevalence and identify factors that correlate with anemia among school-aged children in rural areas,provide a scientific basis for effective prevention and treatment.[Method] The data set covered three provinces in northwest area.We detected hemoglobin of the sample pupils randomly chosen from the 3~-6~ grade of 305 rural elementary schools in 26 poor counties,and carried out questionnaires among them.[Result]25.24% of the pupils had anemia,most of them were girl and the lower grade students.The multiple-regression revealed that the eating habits and family condition had certain impact on their anemia.[Conclusion] Anemia is still a serious problem of rural pupils.Improving diet conditions,providing balanced meals,enhancing the knowledge of the principals,teachers and parents about anemia and the importance of students' nutritional status and health contribute to the prevention and treatment of anemia of rural pupils.%[目的]了解西北地区农村小学生贫血患病率及其影响因素,为制定有效的防治策略提供科学依据.[方法]选取西北地区3个省26个贫困县的305所农村小学的三至六年级学生作为研究对象,通过随机抽样的方法对学生进行血红蛋白测定以及问卷调查.[结果]西北地区农村小学生贫血患病率高达25.24%,女生与低年级学生是患病率较高的人群.通过多元回归结果显示,学生饮食习惯与家庭情况对学生贫血状况有一定程度的影响.[结论]西北地区农村小学生贫血问题仍很严重,改善饮食条件、平衡膳食,提高校长、班主任及家长对学生贫血的认识以及对学生营养状况与身体健康的重视有助于农村小学生贫血的防治.

  4. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  5. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  6. Holocene paleogeographies of the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) and their geoarchaeological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vött, A.; Brückner, H.; Schriever, A.; Luther, J.; Handl, M.; van der Borg, K.

    2006-01-01

    Sediments from the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) were studied to establish paleogeographical scenarios of Holocene landscape evolution. Near coast vibracore profiles revealed regressive sedimentary sequences, the base of which is dominated by marine sand and/or lagoonal mud. T

  7. Heat flow in northwest Pacific marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lili; LI Guanbao; LI Naisheng

    2004-01-01

    Heat flow studies in Northwest Pacific marginal seas has a more than 40 years history with more than 4000 heat flow values obtained. The regional average value is 80.4 mW/m2, which is lower than the world's 87 mW/m2, but higher than those of the Eurasia continent and the Pacific Ocean. This reflects the regional crust property in the area. The studies on distribution of the heat flow and contour pattern of heat flow in 1°×1°and 2°×2°scales in Northwest Pacific marginal seas revealed that the most high heat flow anomalies in the area were found along back-arc basins and island arc in an obviously northeasterly track. Exceptions are the Komandoskaya Basin (KMB), the Izu-Bonin Trough (IBT) and the Mariana Trough (MT), which extend in northwest. The contours of low heat flow marked the boundaries of the continent and the ocean. The present heat flow values reflect the imprint of the last thermal event and relate closely to tectonic activity. The high heat flow gradient areas have high frequency of earthquake. Therefore, the area of faulting controlled the pattern of the heat flow anomalies. Heat flow gradient in 135°direction indicated a major lithosphere transformation oceanward resulting from movement of the earth's material. In this paper, we described patterns of heat flow distribution in the Northwest Pacific, heat flow value changes in horizontal and vertical directions, combining the studies of Shi (1997) on the landforms of the island arcs in east Asia and plate movement, and the results of Shi and Zhang (1998) on heat simulation of subduction of active ocean mountain and the activity of islands arc. A preliminary model of geodynamics in the Northwest Pacific and its adjacent area was put forward. There is a great lateral heat flow gradient on the surface of the mantle between ocean and continent, which indicates that the materials in asthenosphere move from continent to ocean causing movement of the crust.

  8. Lithology and late postglacial stratigraphy of bottom sediments in isolated basins of the White Sea coast exemplified by a small lake in the Chupa settlement area (Northern Karelia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakova, O. P.; Kolka, V. V.; Tolstobrova, A. N.; Lavrova, N. B.; Tolstobrov, D. S.; Shelekhova, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The complex lithological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological (diatoms, spores, pollen) investigations of stratified bottom sediments that constitute facies-variable sedimentary sequences in a small isolated lake located near the upper limit of the sea on the White Sea coast made it possible to define lithostratigraphic units (LSU) forming the complete sedimentary succession in deep parts of isolated basins. It is shown that stratigraphy of heterogeneous sequences is determined by two regional transgressive-regressive cycles in relative sea level fluctuations: alternating late Glacial and Holocene transgressions and regressions. The lower part of a clastogenic clayey-sandy-silty sequence successively composed of freshwater (LSU 1) and brackish-water (LSU 2) sediments of the ice-marginal basins and marine postglacial facies (LSU 3) was formed during the late Glacial glacioeustatic marine transgression. Its upper part formed in different isolated basins at different stages of the Holocene is represented depending on its altimetric position on the coastal slope by costal marine sediments (LSU 4) and facies of the partly isolated inlet (LSU 5). The organogenic sapropelic sequence, which overlies sediments of the marine basin and partly isolated bay, corresponds to lithostratigraphic units represented by Holocene sediments accumulated in the meromictic lake (LSU 6), onshore freshwater basin (LSU 7), and freshwater basin with elevated water mineralization (LSU 8) deposited during maximum development of Holocene transgression and lacustrine sediments (LSU 9) formed in coastal environments during terminal phases of the Holocene. The defined lithostratigraphic units differ from each other in lithological, micropaleontological, and geochemical features reflected in structural and textural properties of their sediments, their composition, inclusions, and composition of paleophytocoenoses and diatom assemblages.

  9. Desertification Process and Its Spatial Differentiation in Arid Areas of Northwest China%我国西北干旱区的荒漠化过程及其空间分异规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵哈林; 赵学勇; 张铜会; 张小由; 李玉霖; 刘立超

    2011-01-01

    我国西北干旱区的荒漠化可以归结为荒漠的荒漠化和绿洲的荒漠化两种类型.其中,荒漠的荒漠化主要表现为沙漠化,主要发生于土质荒漠和沙质荒漠.土质荒漠沙漠化的最终结果将由土质荒漠演变为沙质荒漠或砾质荒漠或风蚀劣地,沙质荒漠的沙漠化是由固定、半固定沙质荒漠演变为流动、半流动沙质荒漠的过程,其最终结果是形成流动沙质荒漠.绿洲的荒漠化主要包括绿洲的干旱化、沙漠化和盐渍化3种类型.其中,干旱化常导致绿洲植被的衰退和死亡,致使绿洲萎缩,其边缘地带常和沙漠化叠加,导致流沙对绿洲的入侵.如果绿洲水源完全断绝,其绿洲将会消失,最终演变为沙质荒漠或风蚀劣地.绿洲盐渍化主要源于过度灌溉导致地下水位抬升,下层土壤盐分聚集地表所致.其结果是形成盐渍化绿洲.我国西北地区土质荒漠的荒漠化主要发生于内蒙古阿拉善地区的东部、天山南麓冲积扇上的土质荒漠带,以及准噶尔盆地北侧的荒漠草原带;沙质荒漠的荒漠化主要发生于准噶尔盆地的古尔班通古特沙漠.绿洲干旱化和沙漠化以甘肃民勤最为典型,而绿洲的盐渍化主要发生于新疆阿克苏、喀什地区一带.%Land desertification in arid areas of northwest China could be classified as two types: desert desertification and oasis desertification. Desert desertification presents mostly aeolian desertification, which occurs mainly in terrene desert and sandy desert. As final result of desertification, terrene desert turns into sandy desert, gravel desert or aeolian land. Desertification of sandy desert is a process that fixed and semifixed desert turn into mobile or semi-mobile desert, which results finally in formation of mobile desert. Oasis desertification includes main three types: aridilization, aeolian desertification and salinization. Oasis aridilization results normally in degeneration and

  10. EFH Conservation Areas off Washington, Oregon, and California for NMFS' Final Rule Implementing Amendment 19 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data depict Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) conservation areas off Washington, Oregon, and California. The coordinate locations are from NMFS' Final Rule to...

  11. Cumulative impacts of aggregate extraction on seabed macro-invertebrate communities in an area off the east coast of the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Keith; Boyd, Siân; Aldridge, John; Rees, Hubert

    2007-05-01

    This study investigates whether there is any evidence of a large-scale cumulative impact on benthic macro-invertebrate communities as a result of the multiple sites of aggregate extraction located off Great Yarmouth in the southern North Sea. Forty 0.1 m 2 Hamon grab samples were collected from across the region, both within and beyond the extraction area, and analysed for macrofauna and sediment particle size distribution in order to produce a regional description of the status of the seabed environment. In addition, the data were analysed in relation to the area of seabed impacted by dredging over the period 1993-1998. Areas subject to 'direct' impacts were determined through reference to annual electronic records of dredging activity and this information was then used to model the likely extent of areas potentially subject to 'indirect' ecological and geophysical impact. Results showed the study area to be characterised by sands in the northern half of the survey area, and sandy gravels in the south. The low diversity communities found across much of the survey area were typical of mobile sandy sediments. However, stations located in the southern half and northern extreme of the survey area tended to support higher numbers of species and individuals. This may be due to marginally enhanced stability arising from the higher proportion of gravel found in samples to the south of the extraction licenses and to the presence of Sabellaria spinulosa reef in the north. Analysis of data in relation to areas of predicted dredging impact revealed proportionally less gravel and more sand within the 'direct' impact zone, compared to the 'indirect' impact zone. Whilst multivariate analyses of macrofaunal data did not clearly discriminate between dredging impact zones, a comparison of univariate measures revealed significantly lower numbers of species and individuals in areas which have been subject to 'direct' dredging impacts in comparison with 'reference' areas. This

  12. Sediment Quality and Potential Toxicity Assessment in Two Open/Semiclosed Mediterranean Sea Areas: A Case Study of Sfax Coast (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Dorra; Moez, Bahloul; Azri, Chafai

    2015-05-01

    The Gulf of Gabès (southeastern Tunisia), characterized by the abundance of halieutic resources, is nowadays facing strong anthropogenic pressures. This paper aims to assess and compare metallic pollution in two open/semiclosed areas bordering the coastline of Sfax (a part of the Gulf). The first area covers the outlet zone of many anthropogenic effluents of urban Sfax, whereas the second area, located at a distance of 15 km from the first one, was selected as being representative of numerous semiclosed areas bordering the Gulf that have served for harvesting clams. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe) coupled with chemometric approaches (enrichment factor, contamination degree, mean-ERM-quotients, and cluster analysis) were used as tools for the assessment of metallic pollution. The obtained results showed that metallic pollution is higher in the semiclosed area despite the absence of neighboring anthropogenic sources, probably because of the relative importance of both autochthonous organic matter and biota. The computed potential ecotoxicity demonstrated moderately high values in this area, testifying to a menaced biota that is prone to more affecting hazards if significant active measures are not taken.

  13. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team 5 during operations along the northeast US coast, March 2005 - March 2006 (NODC Accession 0002674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and the Northeast US Coast from the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 5 from 03 March...

  15. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team 5 during operations along the northeast US coast, May 2005 - March 2006 (NODC Accession 0002673)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and the Northeast US coast from the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 5 from 03 May...

  16. Sea ice, erosion, and vulnerability of Arctic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Katherine; Overeem, Irina; Kay, Jennifer; Anderson, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Coasts form the dynamic interface between the terrestrial and oceanic systems. In the Arctic, and in much of the world, the coast is a zone of relatively high population, infrastructure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. A significant difference between Arctic and temperate coasts is the presence of sea ice. Sea ice influences Arctic coasts in two main ways: (1) the length of the sea ice-free season controls the length of time over which nearshore water can interact with the land, and (2) the location of the sea ice edge controls the fetch over which storm winds can blow over open water, resulting in changes in nearshore water level and wave field. The resulting nearshore hydrodynamic environment impacts all aspects of the coastal system. We first combine satellite records of sea ice with a simple model for wind-driven storm surge and waves to estimate how changes in the length and character of the sea ice-free season have impacted the nearshore hydrodynamic environment along Alaska's Beaufort Sea Coast for the period 1979-2012. This region has experienced some of the greatest changes in both sea ice cover and coastal erosion rates in the Arctic and is anticipated to experience significant change in the future. The median length of the 2012 open-water season along this stretch of coast, in comparison to 1979, expanded by 1.9 x. At the same time, coastal erosion rates increased from 8.7 m yr-1 to 19 m yr-1. At Drew Point, winds from the northwest result in increased water levels at the coast and control the process of submarine notch incision, the rate-limiting step of coastal retreat. When open-water conditions exist, the distance to the sea ice edge exerts control on the water level and wave field through its control on fetch. We find that the extreme values of water-level setup at Drew Point have increased consistently with increasing fetch. We then extend our analysis of the length of the open water season to the entire Arctic using both satellite

  17. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  18. 储层预测技术在厄瓜多尔西海岸地区的应用%The application of reservoir prediction technique in West Coast area of Ecuador

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡文; 邓国振; 韩福民; 姜军伟; 张锋军; 王献杰

    2013-01-01

    储层预测技术已成为岩性油气藏勘探中的一项常规技术.厄瓜多尔西海岸地区蕴含着丰富的石油和天然气资源,但整个地区勘探程度相对较低,使用宽带约束地震反演技术进行储层预测是非常必要的.选择瓜亚基尔工区,使用地震纯波数据进行储层预测研究.首先进行测井曲线标准化处理,利用阻抗-伽玛交汇图分析确定储层岩石地球物理特征,然后针对目的层进行稀疏脉冲反演和储层厚度的计算,最后对反演结果和储层平面分布特征进行分析,确定有利勘探目标.预测的砂岩厚度和已钻井实测的砂岩厚度之间的误差很小,吻合较好,从而证明了该技术的有效性.%Reservoir prediction technique has become a conventional technology in lithologic exploration of oil and gas reservoir.Commonly used methods of reservoir prediction mainly include seismic multi-attribute analysis and seismic inversion.Seismic attributes analysis is a qualitative method to predict reservoir,while seismic inversion is a quantitative prediction of reservoir.The latter is used in this paper for the study.The West Coast of Ecuador is located in western Ecuador on the Pacific Coast,at least there are three distinct strike-slip transform forearc basins along the West Coast of Ecuador based on facies,stratigraphy,structural styles and tectonic evolution in western Ecuador,from south to north they are respectively:Progreso Basin,Manabí Basin and Borbón Basin,which are forearc basins along the coastline formed under the action of the plate.The history of oil and gas exploration of the West Coast of Ecuador was nearly a hundred years and a number of oil and gas fields were found since oil and gas exploration in the early stage of last century.There are abundant oil and gas resources in this area,but the exploration of the entire region was relatively low,and it' s very necessary to use broadband constrained seismic inversion technology for

  19. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    districts leading to the loss of life and property. This paper illustrates the variation of tsunami intensity along the coasts of these districts and the consequent morphological changes occurred in the coastal area during tsunami. Topographic survey data...

  20. Level of heavy metals in some edible marine fishes of mangrove dominated tropical estuarine areas of Hooghly River, north east coast of Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, T K; De, M; Das, S; Ray, R; Ghosh, P B

    2010-10-01

    The muscles of some important marine fishes collected in and around Hooghly estuarine coastal areas were analyzed for the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb. The concentration range of Cu (16.22-47.97 ppm), Pb (12.40-19.96 ppm) and Zn (12.13-44.74 ppm) were recorded comparatively higher and were similar to that found in contaminated areas. On the other hand the ranges of Ni (2.20-3.69 ppm), Cr (0-3.89 ppm) and Cd (0.62-1.20 ppm) were almost equal to those carried out over a wide range of geographical areas. The degree of bioaccumulations was metal-specific as well as species-specific in nature. The toxic groups of metals (Pb and Cd) showed higher variability than the essential metals (Cu, Zn and Ni). The calculated intake value of metals (week⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body wt) varied from 14.88 to 27.60 of Pb, 0.87 to 1.68 of Cd, 0.0 to 5.45 of Cr, 22.70 to 137.16 of Cu, 3.08 to 5.17 of Ni and 16.98 to 62.60 of Zn through human consumption of these fishes and were compared with those of standard Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake value (PTWI) per kg body weight as stipulated by WHO. The PTWI(Cal) values of Pb in some of the fishes recorded marginally excess values and may indicate a health risk through consumption of successive 7 days in a week.

  1. 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs ratios in intertidal sediments from the Cumbria and Lancashire coasts England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanners, D. A.; Aston, S. R.

    1981-10-01

    The distributions of 134Cs, 137Cs and 106Ru in intertidal surface sediments from the coasts of Cumbria and Lancashire, north-west England, are reported. The ratios of 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs activities have been used together with the isotopic composition of the Windscale radioactive effluents to examine the contamination history of sediments. Distinct differences between the activities and time of contamination of muds, silts and sands are found, and the apparent lag times of transport of radioactive wastes to different sediment localities are estimated. The relatively high activities in fine sediments reflect recent discharges indicating a rapid response to discharge, while the sands contain low levels of older contamination. Apparent lag times of up to 6 years are estimated for the study area; the transport to the south is generally more rapid than to the north. These results have consequences for the operation and interpretation of radiological monitoring in coastal areas.

  2. Occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water and sediment of a tropical coastal area (Bay of Bengal coast, Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Md Saiful; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Sekine, Makoto; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-15

    This study reports the first evidence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface waters and sediments collected from the coastal area of Bangladesh. Fifteen target PFAAs, including C4-14-PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylates) and C4, C6, C8, and C10-PFSAs (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates), were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The ΣPFAAs in surface water and sediment samples were in the range of 10.6 to 46.8ng/L and 1.07 to 8.15ng/gdw, respectively. PFOA in water (3.17-27.8ng/L) and PFOS in sediment samples (0.60-1.14ng/gdw) were found to be the most abundant PFAAs, and these concentrations were comparable to or less than most other reported values, particularly those recorded from the coastal areas of China, Japan, Korea and Spain. The majority of the monitored PFAAs did not show clear seasonal variation. The southeastern part (Cox's Bazar and Chittagong) of the Bangladeshi coastal area was more contaminated with PFAAs than the southern (Meghna Estuary) and southwestern parts (Sundarbans). Industrial and municipal wastewater effluents, ship breaking and port activities were identified as potential sources of the PFAA contamination in this region. Field-based sediment water distribution coefficients (KD) were calculated and corrected for organic carbon content (KOC), which reduced the variability between samples. The values of log KD (1.63-2.88) and log KOC (4.02-5.16) were higher than previously reported values, which may indicate that the partitioning of PFAAs in a tropical coastal ecosystem is different from other ecosystems, such as temperate and sub-tropical regions. Although a preliminary environmental hazard assessment indicated that PFOA or PFOS levels do not currently exceed the acute safety thresholds, we should keep in mind that they are bioavailable and can accumulate in the food chain. Therefore, the ubiquity of PFAAs in the coastal area of Bangladesh warrants further studies characterizing their specific sources and the potential long-term risks they present to both

  3. Review of evidence for late Tertiary shorelines occurring on South Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.

    1984-06-01

    Recognition of (late) Tertiary shorelines on continental coasts is becoming increasingly common. It is argued that the elevations of such features are central to their approximate dating and the demonstration of contemporaneity with similar features elsewhere. South Atlantic coasts have not had a long history of investigation, yet there exist many diffuse observations, in both time and space, which are here drawn together into a preliminary synthesis and the case for widespread occurrences of late Tertiary shorelines in the region reviewed. This allows comparison with other areas from which Tertiary shorelines are known, the Atlantic seaboards of the Southeastern United States and Northwest Europe, for example. The coasts of oceanic islands are probably the best places to examine the legacy of late Cenozoic sea-level changes. It is suggested that, since many of the cliffed shores of these islands appear to be the result of a rapid emergence, coastal features predating this event might be preserved on the cliff-tops. Possible late Tertiary shorelines from South Atlantic islands are described, as are those which have been positively dated to this period, in the Eastern Canary Islands, for instance. Sedimentary and morphological indicators of Tertiary high sea-levels are described from Antarctic coasts. South American and African Atlantic continental margins. Evidence from the latter two areas is most suspect, owing to their generally more complex Quaternary tectonic histories. A summary of the evidence for Tertiary shorelines on South Atlantic coasts is tabulated. Methods which have been or could be used to date late Tertiary shorelines are described. Minimum age can be deduced from that of deposits resting on an erosional surface, maximum age from that of the youngest formation across which a surface is cut. More precise age can be estimated where a marine surface is sandwiched between datable non-marine formations or where periods of tectonic activity (responsible

  4. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-21

    Despite a small storm that came through the area last night with wind gusts peaking at 45 MPH, progress continues to be made in restoring power to customers who lost power during the December 14-15 storms which hit the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 95,971 customers remain without power, down from 1.8 million customers. The wind storm which affected the area yesterday was not as bad as previously expected, with the majority of the customer outages in the BC Hydro region, and 3,000 additional customer outages in the Puget Sound Energy service area. The customers without power represent 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy, BC Hydro, and Seattle City Light.

  5. How building an underwater pipeline connecting Libya to Sicilian coast is affecting environment: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments; monitoring the evolution of the shore approach area of the Gulf of Gela (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino; Cannata, Salvatore; Culotta, Loredana

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the variation of concentrations and distribution of PAHs in the sediments of the Gela coastal area (Italy) caused by the construction of an underwater pipeline connecting Libya to Sicilian coast. The receiving terminal of offshore pipeline, crossing the Mediterranean Sea, 516 Km long, up to 1127 meters deep, is located in Gela (Sicily, Italy). No bibliographic data regarding hydrocarbons are available for this area. In this paper we report the results of analysis on the water and organic along PAHs.The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in the sediments, analyzed during five surveys, ranged from 2.4 to 434 microg/kg of dry weight. The highest concentrations of total PAHs were found in sediments during the monitoring campaign immediately following the laying of the pipeline. A progressive decrease during the subsequent surveys was observed: The found concentrations was in the direction of restoring the initial situation. Highest levels of PAHs concentration have been often observed in sample stations endowed with highest organic matter content.

  6. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-20

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 134,868 customers remain without power. The number of outages is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent less than 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy and Seattle City Light.

  7. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-17

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 468,200 customers, including Canada, remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 16 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below. The Olympic pipeline reports that the pipeline is operational; however, pipeline throughput remains reduced since one substation along the line remains without power. Complete power restoration is expected later today. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel distribution and production.

  8. Malaria in pregnant women living in areas of low transmission on the southeast Brazilian Coast: molecular diagnosis and humoural immunity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Domingues Hristov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on autochthonous malaria in low-transmission areas in Brazil have acquired epidemiological relevance because they suggest continued transmission in what remains of the Atlantic Forest. In the southeastern portion of the state of São Paulo, outbreaks in the municipality of Juquitiba have been the focus of studies on the prevalence of Plasmodium, including asymptomatic cases. Data on the occurrence of the disease or the presence of antiplasmodial antibodies in pregnant women from this region have not previously been described. Although Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women has been widely addressed in the literature, the interaction of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae with this cohort has been poorly explored to date. We monitored the circulation of Plasmodium in pregnant women in health facilities located in Juquitiba using thick blood film and molecular protocols, as well as immunological assays, to evaluate humoural immune parameters. Through real-time and nested polymerase chain reaction, P. vivax and P. malariae were detected for the first time in pregnant women, with a positivity of 5.6%. Immunoassays revealed the presence of IgG antibodies: 44% for ELISA-Pv, 38.4% for SD-Bioline-Pv and 18.4% for indirect immunofluorescence assay-Pm. The high prevalence of antibodies showed significant exposure of this population to Plasmodium. In regions with similar profiles, testing for a malaria diagnosis might be indicated in prenatal care.

  9. 40 CFR 81.115 - Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.115 Section 81.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.115 Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Nevada Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  10. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  11. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  12. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  13. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  14. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  15. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  16. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  17. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  18. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  19. Correlation Between Coastal Geomorphology and Tsunami Inundation Along the Coast of Kanyakumari, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Chandrasekar; S. Saravanan; M. Rajamanickam; C. Hentry; G. V. Rajamanickam

    2012-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out in the vicinity of the coastal villages of Kanyakumari District,India to decode the influence of coastal geomorphology on inundation degree and run-up level.Even though the tsunami waves approach the study area in different patterns,the consequences are found to be mainly dependent upon the coastal configuration and local geographic setting,the study area are considered to be of three types based upon the geomorphic arrangement,namely shallow coast,elevated coast and estuarine coast.The inundation and run-up level vary from coast to coast even though there is no remarkable variation in the intensity of the approaching tsunami surge.The inundation extent ranges from to 54 m to 4 1 3 m with maximum along estuarine coast and minimum along elevated coast.Estuarine coast recorded the maximum run-up level of about 6 m and the minimum of about 1 m along the elevated coast.The percentage of inundated area in the total coastal area varies between 19% to 10% along estuarine coast and elevated coast respectively.Inundation and run-up level cannot be appreciable in the inland along the elevated coast.The beaches of elevated coast are less affected whereas those of estuarine coast are highly affected.Inundation is limited in the elevated beaches along the study area.

  20. Morphometric interpretation of the northwest and southeast slopes of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Both the northwest and southeast slopes of Tenerife, Canary Islands, owe their morphology to catastrophic sediment failures. An area of 4100 km2 and a volume of about 2362 km3 were involved in the failure. A 100- to 600-m-high scarp on the upper slope separates the sediment failures in the Orotova and Icod de los Vinos Valleys on the northwest coast from those on the slope. A similar (700 m high) scarp also separates the failures on the southeast slope from the failure in Güimar Valley on land. The sediment failure off Las Bandas Del Sur volcanic fan does not have any land counterparts and was the result of the failure of the front (1700 m high) of this depocenter; two generations of debris flows are mappable off this depocenter. We infer that the slopes off Orotova, Icod, and Güimar represent the front of the debris avalanche and/or creep deposits that were created during the formation of the valleys. Downslope from the debris avalanche fronts are irregular surfaced masses extending to the base of the slope. The front may define the contact between the more dense deposits onshore and upper slope and the more fluid deposits on the lower slope. Incised on the debris avalanche on the northwest lower slope are three channeled debris flows grading seaward into turbidites. Only one of these channels occurs on the southeast slope. The breakaway surface of these sediment failures was the front of the debris avalanches and/or creep. We ascribe the failure of this front mainly to its rapid buildup, although groundwater sapping also may have contributed to its failure. On the southeast slope, movement along the northeast trending fault between Gran Canaria and Tenerife also may have been a contributing factor to the failure of the front. The debris flow deposits triggered by the failure of the sediment front on the northwest slope are characterized by ridges formed either by pressure between flows moving at different velocities or by scouring; at least one volcanic edifice

  1. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  2. Monitoring of heavy metals in wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Spanish North-Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Manuel Andrade, José; Schultze, Fernando; José González, Juan

    2011-04-01

    Concentrations of five heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) were determined in tissues of wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at 41 stations located on the Spanish Atlantic and Northern coasts to assess the levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment. This study, performed in 2005, constituted a contribution to the last international OSPAR pollution monitoring survey. A pool of mussel soft tissue was prepared using 50 or more individuals, representing the size range present at the sampling points. Quantification was carried out after a nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS (Cd and Pb by electrothermal AAS; Cu and Zn by flame AAS; and total mercury by the cold vapour technique). The quality of the chemical analyses was assessed by interlaboratory exercises carried out on a regular basis. In general, the levels of the metals were higher for the Northern region than for the Atlantic one (except for a sampling site close to Vigo, one of the main Galician industrial areas). Some Galician sampling points (Atlantic coast, NW of Spain) located far from human inputs showed high Cd concentrations, which were attributed to the annual upwelling processes in this region. The levels of Cu increased from Northwest to East, whereas Zn concentrations were very homogeneous throughout the two studied geographical regions. These results were confirmed using multivariate studies (PCA and cluster analysis), as well as international 'background assessment concentrations' criteria.

  3. Sea breeze-induced wind sea growth in the central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Seemanth, M.; Samiksha, S.V.; Sudheesh, K.; Kerkar, J.; Vethamony, P.

    in the northwest direction, and grow progressively while propagating towards the coast. Relationships between wind speed and wind sea height have been derived, and they fairly explain the generation of wind seas by the sea breeze system. Since, the land breeze...

  4. A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Mackenzie River delta, Northwest Territories, Canada (Notes on Cetacea, Delphinoidea VIII)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Sergeant, D.E.; Hoek, W.

    1977-01-01

    A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, taken from near Shallow Bay, Mackenzie River Delta, Northwest Territories (68°48’ N 136°35’ W) in July 1973 represents a range extension 800 km eastwards from the previous extreme northeastern record on the north Alaskan coast. All 12 Harbour Porpoises so far e

  5. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  6. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  7. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  8. Solar 78 Northwest conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are included. One was abstracted previously. Separate entries were prepared for thirty-seven. Also included are the conference evaluation summary, Pacific Northwest Solar Energy Association organization information, lists of commercial and non-commercial exhibitors, speakers and stearing committee members, and attendees. (MHR)

  9. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Training areas included Total Productive Maintenance, First Aide and Safety, Lean Training, Inventory Management, Purchasing Supply Chain, ISO 13485 ...improve their business through quality certifications and initiatives such as AS9100, ISO 9001-2000, and implementing Lean Manufacturing. All of these...not show up on a visible profile. 13 Certifications: Quality Certifications such as AS9100, ISO etc. a. List Certifying Agency and number

  10. Coastal Lake Record of Holocene Paleo-Storms from Northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Coor, J. L.; Wang, Y.; Das, O.; Kish, S.; Elsner, J.; Hu, X. B.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Ye, M.

    2009-12-01

    The northwest Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico has an unusually active storm history. Climate records for a study area in the mid-region of the Florida panhandle coast show that 29 hurricanes have made landfall within a 100-km radius during historic time. These events included 9 major storms (category 3 or higher). A longer-term geologic record of major storm impacts is essential for better understanding storm climatology and refining morphodynamic models. The Florida panhandle region contains a series of unique coastal lakes which are long-lived and whose bottom sediments hold a long-term record of coastal storm occurrence. The lakes are normally isolated from the open Gulf, protected behind a near-continuous dune barrier. Lake water is normally fresh to brackish. Lake bottom sediments consist of organic-rich muds. During major storms the dunes are breached and the lakes are temporarily open to marine water and the possibility of sandy overwash. Both a sedimentologic and geochemical signature is imparted to the lake sediments by storm events. Bottom sediment cores have been collected from the lakes. The cores have been subsampled and subjected to sedimentologic, stable isotopic and geochronologic analyses. The result is a sediment history of the lakes, and a record of storm occurrence during the past few millennia. The outcome is a better understanding of the long-term risk of major storms. The findings are being incorporated into a larger model designed to make reliable predictions of the effects of near-future climate change on natural coastal systems and on coastal infrastructure, and to enable cost-effective mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  11. Natural Radioactivity of Beach Sand Samples in the Tripoli Region, Northwest Libya

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to determine the radioactivity concentrations of beach sand samples from different sites along the coast of Tripoli, northwest Libya, using high resolution g-ray spectroscopy. Collection of samples was carried out during low tide, where it was possible to collect sediments from the wet region that was covered by sea water during high tide. From the measured g-ray spectra, elemental concentrations were determined for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 210Pb at...

  12. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A

    2008-09-01

    Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México.

  13. Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.

    We discuss a method to obtain the spatial estimates of rainfall on the Indian west coast for calculating the surface water budget. The region includes the basin of the Mandovi River, a typical west-coast river whose catchment area includes...

  14. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  15. Sea Level Changes and Active Tectonics of the Guerrero Coast, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Cundy, A. B.; Sedor, M.; Kostoglodov, V.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the interaction between sea-level changes and tectonic activity during the Holocene is essential in determining long-term tectonic deformation rates and in identifying prehistorical earthquake events along active margins. The Guerrero coast extends along the active Pacific margin of southwest Mexico and parallels the trench where the Cocos Plate subducts beneath the North American Plate. The last major earthquakes occurred in Guerrero in 1899, 1907, 1909, 1911, and 1957, but none have occurred since the major 1911 (Ms=7.6) earthquake in the northwest segment of the Guerrero seismic gap. The Guerrero gap is currently considered to be matured for a severe earthquake of estimated Mw= 8.1 to 8.4. We present preliminary results of geomorphic field surveying, sediment coring, and geochemical and microfaunal analyses of cored sediments on the Guerrero coast. The Coyuca lagoon strip of the Guerrero coast consists of long barrier beaches, behind which extends a lagoon, beach ridges, extensive swamps, mangrove swamps, salt pans, floodplains, alluvial plains, fluvial terraces, and abandoned meanders. Abandoned meanders and fluvial terraces indicate that the Coyuca River has migrated to the southeast. This migration, and changes in hill elevations near the coast, suggest a southeast tilting of this coastal segment. The morphology of the Guerrero coast has no evidence of long-term coastal uplift. This is consistent with short- term tide gauge measurements (1953-1999) and GPS data (1992-2000) indicative of subsidence rates of ~3 mm/yr (Kostoglodov et al., 2001) in this area. Five cores up to 5.5 m depth were taken nearby the Mitla, Coyuca, Tres Palos and Tecomate lagoons. Core stratigraphies show clear sequences of interbedded peats and clays, interspersed with sand units. The peat-clay sequences are similar to those observed along active margins elsewhere, and indicate fluctuations between marine and brackish/freshwater conditions. Two cores included sediments

  16. Petrography, geochemistry and geodynamic environment of potassic alkaline rocks in Eslamy peninsula, northwest of Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Hajalilou; M Moayyed; Gh Hosseinzadeh

    2009-12-01

    Eslamy peninsula, 360 km2 in area, is located in the eastern coast of Urmieh lake in the northwest of Iran. This peninsula is a complex stratovolcano with a collapsed center, which is elevated due to later intrusions of sub-volcanic masses with trachytic to microsyenitic composition. The composite cone consists of a sequence of leucite tephrite, tephrite, leucite basanite, basanite and related pyroclastic rocks. Magmatic activities in the Eslamy peninsula begin with potassic alkaline to ultrapotassic and basic, silica-undersaturated shoshonitic rocks and they are followed by intrusions of lamprophyric dykes and end with acidic magmatism including trachytic, microsyenitic, syenitic and phonolitic domes. The original magma of the Eslamy peninsula rocks has a potassic alkaline nature (Roman type) rich in LREE and LILE and depleted of HREE. These characteristics suggest that the origin of magma can be from deep mantle with a garnet lherzolite composition, a low partial melting rate which has been contaminated by crustal materials in its way up. Fractional crystallization of olivine, diopsidic clinopyroxene and leucite played an important role in the evolution of magmas. Scrutinizing the geodynamic environment of Eslamy peninsula rocks in discrimination diagrams indicates that these rocks must have been formed in a post-collision magmatic arc setting.

  17. Manado: A Developing Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenthof van Noorden, C.; Vermeij, D.; Van Zuijlen, J.; Zeelenberg, W.

    2013-01-01

    Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi in Indonesia, is rapidly developing. The last years Manado has been extending into the sea, which changed the hydraulics and morphology of Manado Bay. This had negative effects on the currents, inducing erosion along the coast. Also Manado has problems with

  18. Insights on stock structure of round sardinella Sardinella aurita off north-west Africa based on otolith shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, M; Jeyid, A M; Jaafour, S; Yahyaoui, A; Diop, M; Amara, R

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the geographic variability in otolith shape of round sardinella Sardinella aurita as a tool for stock discrimination. Fish were analysed from six sampling locations from Senegal to the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 78%. Group A: Nador (Alboran Sea), group B: Casablanca (northern Morocco) and group C: Senegalese-Mauritanian. The results of this study confirm the absence of an Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea transition for this species, the Gibraltar Strait acting as an efficient barrier for S. aurita population separation. Off north-west Africa, fish from northern Morocco form a single group which is clearly isolated from Senegalese-Mauritanian waters, confirming the existence of a distinct stock in this area. Among group C, some discontinuity exists and suggests the existence of a sedentary fraction of S. aurita in northern Mauritania (Arguin Bank). The results are discussed in relation to oceanographic features and physical barriers to dispersal and fish management strategy in the study area.

  19. Pacific Northwest Regional and Ecozone-scale Carbon Cycle Responses to 25 Years of Variation in Climate and Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Kennedy, R. E.; Gray, A. N.; Yang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variation in climate, soils, disturbance regime, and forest management - as well as temporal variation in weather - all influence terrestrial carbon sources and sinks. Spatially-distributed, process-based, carbon cycle simulation models provide a means to integrate information from these various influences to estimate carbon pools and flux over large domains. Here we apply the Biome-BGC model over the 4 state (OR, WA, ID, Western MT) Northwest U.S. region for the interval from 1986-2010. Landsat data was used to characterize disturbances and revealed that the overall disturbance rate on forest land across the region was 0.8 % yr-1, with 49 % as harvests, 28 % as fire, and 23 % as pest/pathogen. A large proportion of the harvested area was on private forestland (62 %) and a large proportion of total burned area was on public forestland (89 %). Net ecosystem production (NEP) for the 2006-2010 interval on forestland was predominantly positive (a carbon sink) throughout the region, with maximum values in the Coast Range, intermediate values in the Cascade Mountains, and relatively low values in the Inland Rocky Mountain ecoregions. Croplands throughout the region had consistently high NEP. Localized negative NEPs were mostly associated with recent disturbances. There was large interannual variation in regional NEP, with notably low values across the region in 2003. In all ecoregions there was a downward trend in NEP over the 25 year study period. The net ecosystem carbon balance was positive in OR, near neutral in ID and WA, and negative (a carbon source) MT. The Northwest region as a whole was a carbon sink in the 2006-2010 period.

  20. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air...

  1. China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute,founded by the state on June 1, 1952 is the first and largest architectural design institute in northwest China. For over 50 years, Northwest Institute has gradually established itself as a renowned and comprehensive design institute. It is staffed by a team of outstanding engineering design specialists able to undertake various architectural design projects from home and abroad.

  2. Coast Guard SOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    fire as they approached the coast of Vietnam.” 45 The first elements of Task Force 115, Operation Market Time, had arrived for combat duty. Task...inter- diction missions of Operation Market Time—and were generally the only maritime interdiction forces underway offshore in monsoon sea- son—these...Embassy. ITD members serve as advisers to the Panamanian Servicio Maritima Nacional (National Maritime Service), an agency modeled after the US

  3. Circulation patterns and wave climate along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasilla Álvarez, D.; García Codrán, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    and Balearic Islands suffer stormier episodes than Mar de Alborán. Moderate wave power conditions occurred frequently by circulation patterns predominately stable and characterized by weak (mostly sea breezes) winds. Synoptic situations dominated by extra-tropical cyclones produced the highest, but least frequent wave power conditions. Depending on the location of the shorelines, three types of storm events are defined: 1. Long winds fetch and locally strong westerly and northwesterly winds expose the northern coast of Iberia to episodes of intense storminess. Extratropical disturbances tracking between the 50-60°N parallels are the main forcing mechanism of those episodes, many of them result of a cyclogenesis processes along the eastern coast of North America. In some cases, the systems evolves as a secondary cyclon, crossing the area southward of the 50°N parallel; significant wave heights can be as high as the northernmost cyclones, but the wave period is slightly lower. 2.Cyclones tracking along the 40°N parallel bring stormy conditions to the western coast and the Gulf of Cádiz area, associated to southwesterly winds. 3. Finally, the Mediterranean shoreline suffer the worst conditions during easterly and northeasterly wind events, usually dominanted by local disturbances formed along the Western Mediterranean basin. Trends observed on the different circulation patterns can explain the temporal evolution of the wave climate along the Spanish coast, characterized by calmer conditions on the south and an increase of the wave period on the north, without discernible wave height trend. The overall results indicated that this synoptic climatological approach provides a viable framework to establish and examine links between weather systems and wave conditions.

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  5. Interaction of marine and fluvial clastic sedimentation, central Italy, Tyrrhenian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, S.; Full, W.E.; Tortora, P.

    1989-03-01

    An integrated approach was used to study the interaction of fluvial, beach, and marine processes on sedimentation at the west-central coast of Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea. The study area, 120 km northwest of Rome, is bounded on the north by Mt. Argentario, on the east by Pleistocene volcanics, on the south by the St. Augustine River, and on the west by the 50-mn bathymetric isopleth. The primary tools used included field work, textural analysis, high-resolution marine seismic, SEM, and Fourier shape analysis. Field work revealed incised streams, potentially relict beach ridges and lagoons, and relatively steep nearshore marine slopes in the northern portions of the study area. The result of the shape analysis performed on 56 samples was the definition of four end members. Each end member reflects a sedimentation process. Three end members were directly associated with fluvial sedimentation, and the fourth reflected marine processes. The seismic data along with the SEM analysis strongly supported the interpretation of four processes that dominate the recent sedimentation history. The sand interpreted to be associated with marine processes was found to represent the smoothest end member. SEM analysis suggests that the smoothing is not due to abrasion but to plastering associated with biologic processes (digestion.) and/or with silica precipitation associated with clay alteration at the freshwater/saltwater interface.

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sackschewsky, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tilden, Harold T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su-Coker, Jennifer [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ballinger, Marcel Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoetzel, Gregory A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lowry, Kami L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moon, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendez, Keith M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Raney, Elizabeth A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamness, Michele A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  7. A comprehensive evaluation of nutritional value of nine shrubs in the karst area of northwest Guizhou%黔西北岩溶区九种灌木综合营养价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红; 于应文; 马向丽; 牟晓明; 廖加法

    2014-01-01

    灌木作为山羊日粮主要成分,能为家畜补充能量、蛋白质、矿质和多种维生素等,明晰灌木营养价值对野生灌木资源开发具重要意义。本研究定量分析了黔西北9种野生饲用灌木的矿质成分和营养价值,用隶属函数法和灰色关联法与聚类分析对其营养价值进行评价和分类。结果表明,9种灌木矿质含量为,Ca:0.56%~1.10%;P:0.08%~0.21%;Na:0.26%~0.36%;K:0.7%~1.8%;Mg:0.25%~1.00%;Fe:0.03%~0.06%;Cu:15.2~24.1 mg/kg;Mn:76.5~114.0 mg/kg;Zn:33.2~113.1 mg/kg。营养价值为,CP:7.5%~17.1%;WSC(除羊奶子):7.8%~13.6%;ADF:11.2%~26.5%;NDF:16.2%~45.1%;ME:5.9~7.9 MJ/kg;OMD:37.1%~49.4%。隶属函数法和灰色关联法与聚类分析对9种灌木矿质成分、营养价值和综合营养价值评价结果类似;矿质成分为,悬钩子和平枝子>老母七和中华柳>羊奶子和红果蔷薇>黄花香、醉鱼草和救军粮;营养价值为,救军粮>羊奶子>老母七>黄花香、醉鱼草、中华柳、红果蔷薇、悬钩子和平枝子。综合营养价值评价和聚类结果为,悬钩子和平枝子属优等饲料,老母七、中华柳、羊奶子、红果蔷薇和救军粮属良等饲料,黄花香和醉鱼草属中等价值饲料。营养价值评价应考虑植物矿质成分、营养价值和生物活性物质及家畜采食特性。%Shrubs are one kind of diet for goats and can provide energy,protein,minerals and multivitamins for grazing animals.Information about the feeding value off wild shrubs is useful to graziers.The mineral element content and nutritional value of nine shrubs in the karst region of northwest Guizhou were quantitatively ana-lyzed and further evaluated using fuzzy membership function,grey correlation degree and

  8. Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Erosion in Northwest Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhovich, Y.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Alaska is experiencing significant climate change and human impacts. The study area includes the coastal zone of Kotzebue Sound and the Chukchi Sea and provides the local population (predominantly Inupiaq Eskimo) with critical subsistence resources of meat, fish, berries, herbs, and wood. The geomorphology of the coast includes barrier islands, inlets, estuaries, deltas, cliffs, bluffs, and beaches that host modern settlements and infrastructure. Coastal dynamics and sea-level rise are contributing to erosion, intermittent erosion/accretion patterns, landslides, slumps and coastal retreat. These factors are causing the sedimentation of deltas and lagoons, and changing local bathymetry, morphological parameters of beaches and underwater slopes, rates of coastal dynamics, and turbidity and nutrient cycling in coastal waters. This study is constructing vulnerability maps to help local people and federal officials understand the potential consequences of sea-level rise and coastal erosion on local infrastructure, subsistence resources, and culturally important sites. A lack of complete and uniform data (in terms of methods of collection, geographic scale and spatial resolution) creates an additional level of uncertainty that complicates geographic analysis. These difficulties were overcome by spatial modeling with selected spatial resolution using extrapolation methods. Data include subsistence resource maps obtained using Participatory GIS with local hunters and elders, geological and geographic data on coastal dynamics from satellite imagery, aerial photos, bathymetry and topographic maps, and digital elevation models. These data were classified and ranked according to the level of coastal vulnerability (Figure 1). The resulting qualitative multicriteria model helps to identify the coastal areas with the greatest vulnerability to coastal erosion and of the potential loss of subsistence resources. Acknowldgements: Dr. Ron Abileah (private consultant, j

  9. Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yunwei; LING Zheng; CHEN Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated by using satellite data, climatological temperature and salinity fields and reanalysis data. The upwelling forms in Decem-ber, matures in January, starts to decay in February and almost disappears in March. Both Ekman trans-port induced by the alongshore winter monsoon and Ekman pumping due to orographic wind stress curl are favorable for the upwelling. Transport estimates demonstrate that the month-to-month variability of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping are both consistent with that of winter coastal upwelling, but Ek-man transport is two times larger than Ekman pumping in January and February. Under the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the upwelling shows remarkable interannual variability: during winter of El Niño (La Niña) years, an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) wind anomaly is established in the SCS, which behaves a northeasterly (southwesterly) anomaly and a positive (negative) wind stress curl anomaly off the north-west Borneo coast, enhancing (reducing) the upwelling and causing anomalous surface cooling (warming) and higher (lower) chlorophyll concentration. The sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) associated with ENSO off the northwest Borneo coast has an opposite phase to that off southeast Vietnam, resulting in a SSTA seesaw pattern in the southern SCS in winter.

  10. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) (www.usarray.org). USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  11. Oil pollution dangers on the German coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauk, G.

    1984-03-01

    Helgoland waters in the German Bight are a vital wintering area for seabirds. As long as the discharge of waste oil and oily water is not completely avoided, large amounts of oil will continuously get into the sea. Therefore, the danger to the marine life, especially seabirds, increases. Helgoland presents the possibility of determining the extent and the effect of the oil pollution of the North Sea, since it is placed in the point of intersection of important steamship routes and also oil slicks drifted by the north-west winds along the German Bight. Seabirds are indicators for the quantity, the type and the temporal distribution of oil.

  12. THERMAL DESIGN OF ENERGY SAVING BUILDINGS IN RURAL AREAS OF NORTHWEST UNDER THE INDOOR UNIFORM RADIATION FILED%基于室内均匀辐射场的西北农村节能建筑热工设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱轶韵; 刘艳峰; 刘加平

    2011-01-01

    With the climate conditions in northwestern areas and the characteristics of local buildings, and by using outdoor sol-air temperature as the boundary conditions for thermal analysis of envelope, the paper suggests the thermal design method of envelope for energy saving buildings in rural areas under the indoor uniform radiation field, also, the interior surface temperatures in envelope to be designed with normal method and new method were compared and analyzed. The results shown that the new method can effectively reduce the differences of indoor asymmetry radiation temperature. Also, the new method can be used as the theoretical reference for envelope design of rural buildings in the same areas.%针对西北气候条件和当地农村建筑特点,利用室外综合温度作为围护结构热工分析的边界条件,提出了基于室内均匀辐射场的农村节能建筑围护结构热工设计方法,并对利用该方法与常规方法设计的围护结构内表面温度进行了对比分析.结果表明,该方法能有效降低室内不对称辐射温度差异,并能作为同类地区农村建筑围护结构设计的理论参考.

  13. Appropriate Strategies for Rural Houses In Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Quan; LIU Jia-ping; LU Xiao-hui; YANG Liu

    2009-01-01

    To avoid the old road of urban development with high consumption and high pollution,this paper took the houses in a village near Yinchuan(a typical city of Northwest China)as an exemplary proiect to explore the appropriate strategies in the arid cold climate for the sustainable devdopment in rural undeveloped areas Northwest China.Firstly,all houses were designed according to the principles of passive solar heating.Second-ly,optimized biomass energy technologies such as biogas pit and straw gasification stove were utilized for cooking or heating.Last but not the least important,the ecological building materials such as earth,straw bale,fly ash were used to construct houses,which improves the indoor thermal comfort and meanwhile lowers the negative impact on the environment.Low costs,easy accessibility and habitants'inclination were taken into account in the process of design.

  14. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration over Northwest China using remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is a very complicated problem to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a large area of land surface. In this paper, the evapotranspiration estimation models for dense vegetation and bare soil are presented, based on the information of parameters like vegetation cover-degree and surface albedo. Combined with vegetation cover-degree data, a model for regional evapotranspiration estimation over the heterogeneous landscape is derived. Through a case study using remote sensing data over Northwest China, the accuracy of the model for regional evapotranspiration estimation is checked. The result shows that the accuracy of the model is satisfactory. The features of evapotranspiration over Northwest China are also discussed with the application of the model.

  15. On the summer coast parallel winds off the west coast of Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijo, Nádia; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-04-01

    During summer the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula is under the effect of persistent coast parallel northerly winds, called Nortada (northerly wind in Portuguese). The synoptic forcing behind the Nortada is caused by the semi-permanent Azores High and the thermal low pressure system in-land central Iberia. The associated pressure gradient gives rise to coastal parallel winds as the result of the geostrophically adjusted response to this synoptic pattern. In turn the persistence of the Nortada induces the development of upwelling systems from the Galicia to Algarve, off the west coast of Iberia, bringing deep cold nutrient-rich water to the shelf and to the surface. This cold water sharpens the temperature and pressure gradients at the coast, leading to a further increase of the wind speed at the coast. The summer regional climate of the coastal western Iberian area is modulated by the Nortada. The structure and climatology characterization of the summer Nortada is investigated through analyses of close to surface wind data produced by a regional 9km horizontal resolution atmospheric hindcast. This regional data was produced using the WRF model, forced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis, and covers the period 1989-2007. The link between the Nortada and the Iberian coastal low level jet is also studied.

  16. TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Abdul Rasheed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on the post tsunami survey conducted in January 2005 along the southwest coast of India. Although tsunami affected the whole coastline of Kerala, it devastated the low- lying coastal areas of Kollam, Alleppey and Ernakulam districts leading to the loss of life and property. This paper illustrates the variation of tsunami intensity along the coasts of these districts and the consequent morphological changes occurred in the coastal area during tsunami. Topographic survey data showed that the coastal inundation was rampant along the worst affected regions where the coastal areas are like a narrow strip of land of width 100-400m, lying between the Arabian Sea and the backwaters and the down slope of the coastal area increases towards the backwater side. The data on run-up height showed a variation of 1.9 – 5 m along the study area. Post tsunami beach profiles showed erosion of the foreshore and backshore and landward transport of beach material during the run-up of waves at Puthu- Vypeen. The erosion of the backshore (berm in several places along the coast was quite evident in the study. This has caused reduction in the elevation which may make these areas more vulnerable to breaching by the high waves, particularly during the monsoon and also during certain spring tides which is a matter of serious concern.

  17. A STUDY ON LANDSCAPE MOSAIC STRUCTURE IN URBAN-RURAL AREA IN NORTHWEST OF CHINA WITH RS AND GIS-A Case Study of Xigu District in Lanzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    At the study area of Xigu District in Lanzhou City, using RS & GIS as tools we apply Diversity, Domi nance, Fragmentation, Isolation and so on to study the quantitative, fractal and spatial characters of landscapes' struc tures in the four sub-regions divided by the morphological features. Using the Fractal Theory to establish the fractal struc ture models, we analyze the complexity and stability of various landscapes' distribution with fractal dimension value.The spatial distribution characteristics of landscape mosaic structure are also expounded. At the end of the paper we dis cuss the relevant problems on the main factors which control and effect on the spatial pattern of landscapes as well as on landscape optimization and management.

  18. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  19. Arid land irrigation in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2001 summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the area of arid land irrigation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United...

  20. Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rodney B.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Boetsch, John R.; Schaberl, James P.; Happe, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This protocol narrative outlines the rationale, sampling design and methods for monitoring landbirds in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) during the breeding season. The NCCN, one of 32 networks of parks in the National Park System, comprises seven national park units in the Pacific Northwest, including three large, mountainous, natural area parks (Mount Rainier [MORA] and Olympic [OLYM] National Parks, North Cascades National Park Service Complex [NOCA]), and four small historic cultural parks (Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve [EBLA], Lewis and Clark National Historical Park [LEWI], Fort Vancouver National Historical Park [FOVA], and San Juan Island National Historical Park [SAJH]). The protocol reflects decisions made by the NCCN avian monitoring group, which includes NPS representatives from each of the large parks in the Network as well as personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS-FRESC) Olympic Field Station, and The Institute for Bird Populations, at meetings held between 2000 (Siegel and Kuntz, 2000) and 2005. The protocol narrative describes the monitoring program in relatively broad terms, and its structure and content adhere to the outline and recommendations developed by Oakley and others (2003) and adopted by NPS. Finer details of the methodology are addressed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that accompany the protocol narrative. We also provide appendixes containing additional supporting materials that do not clearly belong in either the protocol narrative or the standard operating procedures.

  1. Bioenergy possibilities in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, O. (The National Bioenergy Union, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mutanen, K. (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, Joensuu (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  2. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. 78 FR 43005 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of Critical Habitat for the Northwest Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Working Group (TEWG 2009)). Studies conducted in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea... areas in conjunction with satellite telemetry data. This study identified three neritic foraging areas... habitat if s/ he determines ``the benefits of such ] exclusion outweigh the benefits of specifying...

  4. Effects of Land Use/Cover Change on Soil Erosion in Karst Area of Northwest Guizhou Province%黔西北喀斯特区域土地利用/覆盖变化对土壤侵蚀的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红; 马友鑫; 吴家福; 刘文俊; 李红梅; 吴建普

    2012-01-01

    利用黔西北地区1974,1992和2008年共3期遥感影像解译的土地利用图,结合修正的通用土壤流失方程,分析和模拟了该区土地利用/覆盖变化前后的土壤侵蚀状况,以及主要地类转化类型的土壤侵蚀效应。结果表明,黔西北地区土地利用结构变化显著,1974—2008年灌木林和旱地面积变化剧烈,且呈现相反的变化趋势。1974—1992年,随旱地面积的显著增加,灌木林的显著减少,黔西北土壤侵蚀模数由29.55t/(hm2.a)上升到37.76t/(hm2.a),随旱地面积的显著减少,灌木林、有林地的显著增多,2008年下降到30.39t/(hm2.a);旱地和其他地类发生土壤侵蚀最为剧烈,大面积的灌木林转为旱地是1992年土壤侵蚀加剧的主要原因,而大面积的旱地转为灌木林和有林地使2008年土壤侵蚀状况显著改善,灌木林转为旱地仍是近期土壤侵蚀加剧的主要原因,应加强对灌木林的使用管理。%Based on the land use maps of Northwest Guizhou Province, which were interpreted from Landsat images of 1974, 1992 and 2008, we analyzed and simulated the status of soil erosion before and after the land use/cover change(LUCC) and the soil erosion effect of main types of LUCC with incorporation of the revised universal soil loss equation(RUSLE). The results show that the structure of LUCC had changed significantly in Northwest Guizhou Province. The areas of shrub and cultivated land varied dramatically, showing oppo- site change trends from 1974 to 2008. With great increment of cultivated land and decrement of shrub, the soil erosion modulus increased from 29.55 t/(hm2 ~ a) to 37.76 t/(hm2 ~ a) in the area from 1974 to 1992. The area of cultivated land decreased and the area of shrub and forest increased from 1992 to 2008, resulting a significant reduction in soil erosion(30.39 t/(hma ~ a) in 2008]. As cultivated land contributes most to soil erosion, the massive conversion from shrub to

  5. Constraining Landscape History and Glacial Erosivity Using Paired Cosmogenic Nuclides in Upernavik, Northwest Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Graly, Joseph A.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude landscape evolution processes have the potential to preserve old, relict surfaces through burial by cold-based, nonerosive glacial ice. To investigate landscape history and age in the high Arctic, we analyzed in situ cosmogenic Be(sup 10) and Al (sup 26) in 33 rocks from Upernavik, northwest Greenland. We sampled adjacent bedrock-boulder pairs along a 100 km transect at elevations up to 1000 m above sea level. Bedrock samples gave significantly older apparent exposure ages than corresponding boulder samples, and minimum limiting ages increased with elevation. Two-isotope calculations Al(sup26)/B(sup 10) on 20 of the 33 samples yielded minimum limiting exposure durations up to 112 k.y., minimum limiting burial durations up to 900 k.y., and minimum limiting total histories up to 990 k.y. The prevalence of BE(sup 10) and Al(sup 26) inherited from previous periods of exposure, especially in bedrock samples at high elevation, indicates that these areas record long and complex surface exposure histories, including significant periods of burial with little subglacial erosion. The long total histories suggest that these high elevation surfaces were largely preserved beneath cold-based, nonerosive ice or snowfields for at least the latter half of the Quaternary. Because of high concentrations of inherited nuclides, only the six youngest boulder samples appear to record the timing of ice retreat. These six samples suggest deglaciation of the Upernavik coast at 11.3 +/- 0.5 ka (average +/- 1 standard deviation). There is no difference in deglaciation age along the 100 km sample transect, indicating that the ice-marginal position retreated rapidly at rates of approx.120 m yr(sup-1).

  6. Tectonic evolution of the Tualatin basin, northwest Oregon, as revealed by inversion of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Wells, Ray; Blakely, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The Tualatin basin, west of Portland (Oregon, USA), coincides with a 110 mGal gravity low along the Puget-Willamette lowland. New gravity measurements (n = 3000) reveal a three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface geometry suggesting early development as a fault-bounded pull-apart basin. A strong northwest-trending gravity gradient coincides with the Gales Creek fault, which forms the southwestern boundary of the Tualatin basin. Faults along the northeastern margin in the Portland Hills and the northeast-trending Sherwood fault along the southeastern basin margin are also associated with gravity gradients, but of smaller magnitude. The gravity low reflects the large density contrast between basin fill and the mafic crust of the Siletz terrane composing basement. Inversions of gravity data indicate that the Tualatin basin is ∼6 km deep, therefore 6 times deeper than the 1 km maximum depth of the Miocene Columba River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the basin, implying that the basin contains several kilometers of low-density pre-CRBG sediments and so formed primarily before the 15 Ma emplacement of the CRBG. The shape of the basin and the location of parallel, linear basin-bounding faults along the southwest and northeast margins suggest that the Tualatin basin originated as a pull-apart rhombochasm. Pre-CRBG extension in the Tualatin basin is consistent with an episode of late Eocene extension documented elsewhere in the Coast Ranges. The present fold and thrust geometry of the Tualatin basin, the result of Neogene compression, is superimposed on the ancestral pull-apart basin. The present 3-D basin geometry may imply stronger ground shaking along basin edges, particularly along the concealed northeast edge of the Tualatin basin beneath the greater Portland area.

  7. Gas-charged sediments in shallow waters off Redi along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B.G.

    This study reports the occurrence of gas-charged sediments in the nearshore areas of the west coast of India. High resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles on the nearshore area along central west coast of India, at water depths of 11-18 m...

  8. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  9. Priority plant communities for conservation in Northwest Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of limited resources, it is very important for biodiversity conservation to make accurate assessments of biodiversity prior to setting out measures for protecting regions and communities. To moreeffectively manage and protect forest resources in Northwest Yunnan, we evaluated the priority plant community types for conservation by mainly considering the function of plant communities in maintaining habitat and biodiversity. Recognizing the principles of good science, hierarchy and practicability, we established an evaluation indicator system consisting of six indicators: species diversity, number of rare and endangered plant species, protection level of plant species, number of endemic plant species, and rarity and endemism of community type. We selected 61 formations belonging to 13 vegetation subtypes in Northwest Yunnan for analysis. Assessment criteria followed a general ranking assignment methodology, and weights assigned to individual indicators were determined using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and expert consultation. GIS technology was used as an aid to integrate evaluation. The results yielded conservation values of communities as follows: (1 at the association level: 4 associations were at first category, 31 second category, 23 third category, and three general category; (2 at the vegetation subtype level: one was at first category, six second category, six third category. The distribution of priority vegetation subtypes for conservation were: (1 first category: a small area distributed in Gaoligong Mountains; (2 second category: mainly distributed in high altitude mountains in the northwest, and also in some alpine areas in the southeast of the study area; (3 third category: distributed at low altitude in the southeast of the study area and in valleys of the Dulong River, Nu River, Lancang River and Jinsha River.

  10. Spring northward juvenile migration of the Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus from the Northwest Patagonian waters of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Cubillos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Important nursery grounds for Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus are located mainly in the Northwest Patagonian Inner Sea (42ºS-44ºS, from which juvenile must to disperse or migrate offshore, then along the Chilean coast either northward or southward. The objective of this paper was to estimate northward spring juvenile migration of the Patagonian grenadier from nursery to feeding areas, which are located near Talcahuano (35º00’S-37º10’S. Length-frequency data (LFD were obtained from an acoustic survey carried out in November 1999, which covered from 35ºS to 47ºS. Generalized linear model was used to describe the presence of juvenile per latitude and depth, and to infer the origin and displacement of juveniles. Subsequently, LFD data were grouped according to latitudinal strata. Grouped LFD were decomposed into normal component groups, from which mean, standard deviation and proportion were estimated from the mixed LFD. The average length of the identified groups were sorted from south to north, and linked to compute significant increment in fish length and age per kilometers. The length increment per time was not due to growth, rather they was due to spatial displacement of juvenile from southern nursery grounds to northern feeding areas. Although homing to feeding areas and/or high residency (partial migration have been postulated, it seems that recruitment of juveniles to northern feeding areas are origintaed from NPIS nurseries. The West Wind Drift Current seems to be the main drive for dispersion of Patagonian grenadier to recruit northward in open waters along the continental shelf.

  11. Aeromagnetic and gravity investigations of the Coastal Area and Continental Shelf of Liberia, West Africa, and their relation to continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1970-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey has shown the existence of several basins in which magnetic basement depths are greater than 5 km on the continental shelf off Liberia. Magnetic diabase of 176 to 192 m.y. (Jurassic) in age intruding the Paleozoic (?) rocks and overlain by younger rocks onshore requires the distinction between “magnetic basement” and “basement.” Several lines of evidence suggest that the Paleozoic(?) rocks are less than 1 km thick; this implies that the diabase does not introduce a large error in depth-to-basement estimates. The dikes or their extrusive equivalents are traceable, on the basis of the magnetic data, beneath the younger sedimentary rock in the basins to the edge of the continental slope. The magnetic data also delineate a second zone of diabase dikes 90 km inland, parallel to the coast, which cross the entire country. The intrusion of the younger dikes probably coincides with rifting at the beginning of the separation of Africa and South America, and the associated magnetic anomaly zones appear to be parallel with and continuous into the anomaly bands in the Atlantic. A major northeast-trending break in the magnetic fabric intersects the coast near 9° W. and is associated with Eburnean age rocks (about 2000 m.y.) to the southeast as contrasted with Liberian-age rocks (about 2700 m.y.) to the northwest. Change in magnetic fabric direction inland from northeast to northwest in the coastal area allows recognition of a boundary between the Liberian-age rocks inland and Pan-African-age (about 550 m.y.) rocks in the coastal area northwest of about 9° 20'W. Sets of north-northwest-and west-northwest—trending faults of 1 to 2 km vertical displacement cut the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks onshore and can be traced into the offshore basins. Vertical displacements of several kilometers in the magnetic basement underlying the continental shelf suggest a pattern of block faulting all along the coast and continental shelf. Negative Bouguer

  12. Geospatial Habitat Analysis in Pacific Northwest Coastal Estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thom, Ronald M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Rumrill, Steven (South Slough Estuarine Research Reserve); Miller, L M.(GEORGE A GRANT INC)

    2003-08-01

    We assessed historical changes in the location and amount of estuarine habitat in three of the four largest coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest (Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Coos Bay) as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS). To accomplish this, navigation charts, hydrographic survey data, maps, and published descriptions were used to gain information on the location of the shoreline, bathymetry, and vegetated habitats, which was then digitized and subjected to geospatial analysis using a geographic information system. In addition, we used present-day elevational boundaries for marshes, flats, and eelgrass meadows to help define habitat areas where they were not indicated on historical maps. The analysis showed that tidal flats have decreased in all study areas; potential eelgrass habitat has increased in Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay and decreased slightly in Coos Bay; tidal wetland area has declined in all three coastal estuaries, with increases in localized areas due to filling and sedimentation; and dramatic changes have occurred at the mouths of Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay. As has been shown before, these data illustrate that direct physical alteration (filling and diking) has resulted in large changes to habitats. However, indirect impacts from forest practices in the watershed, as well as variation in climatic factors and oceanographic processes, may also have contributed to changes. The information provides more evidence for managing estuarine habitats in the region and a employing a historical template to plan habitat restoration in the future.

  13. DYNAMICS ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though over the years has enjoyed wide media coverage, with highlighted aspects, discrepancies and inequalities of economic potential between different regions of the world, or even parts of the same countries always remained topical. Difficulties arising from these differences were always felt, extremely painful by humans. Analyzing distinctly, participation of each county to the GDP of the Northwest Region and the composition of all indicators, we can identify significant discrepancies between counties, regions and municipalities. This is one of the reasons that led us trying to identify the causes that generated the current situation. From the perspective of the contribution of each county in the Northwest Region to Region's domestic product composition, the first place is taken by Cluj county 32.3%, followed by Bihor with 24.3%, Maramures, with 14.9% Satu-Mare, 12.1%, Bistrita-Nasaud, 9.1% and 7.2% Salaj. Consulting of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 indicates that the poorest areas in the Northwest Region are in Maramures and Bistrita-Nasaud. An important part of the active population of North-West Region was employed in public enterprises and an increase of unemployment in the counties of Salaj, Satu Mare and Maramures became predictable, imminent amid restructuring of public enterprises with losses. Studies of employed population by sectors of the economy, shows a high rate of population employed in services in the counties of Cluj and Bihor and high employment in agriculture on other four counties. In a modern market economy, services are most concentrated labors, and how the workforce is distributed in the Northwest region also shows an imbalance. How Northwest Region is participating in international economic cycle has major effects on the population's living standards. Relevant for the inter-district disparities analysis is the human and agents behavior analysis and the savings and loan relationships. How people

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  15. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  16. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  17. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  18. Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Møller, Eva Friis; Johansen, Kasper Lambert;

    Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland Anders Mosbech, Kasper Johansen, Eva Friis Møller & Peter Lyngs Department of Biology and Arctic Center, Aarhus University, Denmark An estimated 80 % of the global little auk population breeds in the coastal landscape...... bordering the north water polynya in high Arctic northwest Greenland, and from this main breeding area very little is known on foraging behavior. Little auks are feeding on lipid-rich copepods associated with cold artic waters, and are potentially important for monitoring and assessing the impact...... of the ongoing warming of the Arctic. Here we present the first results from GPS tracking of breeding little auks in northwest Greenland, involving data from four different breeding colonies. We examine time budgets, foraging trip patterns and habitat preferences at foraging areas, including comparison...

  19. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  20. Potential incursion of marine sediment inland in Northwest England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, D.A.; Dyer, K.R.; Cavrot, D. [Plymouth Univ (United Kingdom). Inst. of Marine Studies; Tooley, M.J.; Zong, Y. [Durham Univ (United Kingdom). Environmental Research Centre; Haslam, I.K.; Green, N.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1996-07-01

    An area of fine sediment off the Cumbrian coast acts as a reservoir for many of the radionuclides discharged into the Irish Sea from Sellafield. A collaborative project has been carried out to evaluate the origin of any marine sediment that could come ashore during a single storm event, to identify areas of the coast between Morecambe Bay and the Solway that could be at risk from flooding and to make an assessment of the doses that might be received as a result of such flooding. The assessment was based on realistic information whenever possible; in other cases, cautious assumptions were made. Any sediment transported inland would have come from the nearshore zone rather than directly from the offshore area. Although parts of the coast are currently at risk of flooding during severe storms, the doses that would be received by those engaged in clean-up operations and by residents would be a fraction of the limit recommended by ICRP for members of the public. (author).

  1. Arsenic and radionuclide occurrence and relation to geochemistry in groundwater of the Gulf Coast Aquifer System in Houston, Texas, 2007–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2016-03-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, began a study in 2007 to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring trace elements and radionuclides in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Houston, Texas. Water samples were collected from 91 municipal supply wells completed in the Evangeline and Chicot aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern Houston; hereinafter referred to as northeast, northwest and southwest Houston areas. Wells were sampled in three phases: (1) 28 municipal supply wells were sampled during 2007–8, (2) 60 municipal supply wells during 2010, and (3) 3 municipal supply wells during December 2011. During each phase of sampling, samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, and radionuclides. At a subset of wells, concentrations of arsenic species and other radionuclides (carbon-14, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, and tritium) also were analyzed. Selected physicochemical properties were measured in the field at the time each sample was collected, and oxidation-reduction potential and unfiltered sulfides also were measured at selected wells. The source-water (the raw, ambient water withdrawn from municipal supply wells prior to water treatment) samples were collected for assessment of aquifer conditions in order to provide community water-system operators information that could be important when they make decisions about which treatment processes to apply before distributing finished drinking water.

  2. Northwest Europe`s operators show creativity in new developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, D.

    1997-08-25

    Northwest Europe`s offshore operators have boosted their oil and gas production dramatically in recent years, and while the area is now mature, a steady stream of developments continues. In the boom days of the late 1970s and 1980s, a typical North Sea installation was a large platform, which occasionally a new pipeline or, more commonly, a tie-in to the area`s massive export grids. These days, now that technical developments have enabled operators to justify developments of smaller, once uneconomic, discoveries, it is pointless to talk of a typical offshore development. Northwest Europe`s offshore operators have learned that it is worthwhile to rack their brains for the most economic development concepts. This creativity is reflected in recent development plans. While operators are now snatching up the small accumulations in and around the mature North Sea producing fields, they are also seeking develop frontier regions. The paper discusses development activities in UK, Ireland, Denmark and Greenland, and Norway in gas, oil, and gas condensate deposits.

  3. Hydrographic & Topographic LIDAR Acquisition, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Bathymetric Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  4. Occurrence of Hydroclathrus tenuis Tseng and Baoren, (Phaeophyta) from Gulf of Kutch, northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Hydroclathrus tenuis (C. Agardh), a marine brown alga was considered to be a monotypic, till H. tenuis Tseng and Baoren was reported during 1983 from south China Sea. Recently the same alga was noticed to be abundant from Kalubhar Island in the Gulf...

  5. Neah Bay to Cape Alava, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Topographic Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  6. Determination of phenols in seawater along north-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Bhangale, V.P.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Environ_Prot_13_15.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Environ_Prot_13_15.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. H09588: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest Coast of Florida, Florida, 1976-08-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H09704: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest Coast of Florida, Florida, 1977-09-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. H09583: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest Coast of Florida, Florida, 1976-02-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. Four new species of the genus Rhopalophthalmus (Mysidacea: Crustacea) from the northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.; Biju, A.

    -27) Material Holotype, adult male (IOBC-0503-10-50-1999). Allotype, adult female (IOBC-0503 A-10-50-1999). Paratypes, five adult males and five adult females (IOBC-0503 B-10- 50-1999). Dharamtar: (18?42?00? N, 73?01?80? E); October ? November 1984, 34... adult males, 46 adult females, 12 immature males, 24 immature females and 8 juveniles. Thane: (19?11?20? N, 72?59?20? E); March 1990, 4 adult males, 1 adult female and 2 immature females. Bassein: (19?18?80?-19?19?20? N; 72...

  11. H09509: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest Coast of Florida, Florida, 1975-08-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. 新疆高血压病中医症状、证型分析及其与西北燥证的关联研究%Analysis of TCM symptoms and types of hypertension in Xinjiang area and association study with northwest dryness syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 赵明芬; 荆晶; 张慧田; 毛丽旦·阿扎提

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the TCM symptoms and types of hypertension in Xinjiang area and correlation with northwest dryness syndrome (NDS). Methods: This study used methods of case-control, totally 249 hypertension cases group and 245 normal blood pressure cases control group. The hypertension cases group was analyzed with diagnostic assessment of hypertension patients, the questionnaire on TCM syndrome score and northwest dryness syndrome sore. The normal blood pressure control group was only analyzed with northwest dryness syndrome sore. The hypertension cases group was analyzed on the main symptoms and prevalence rate of NDS, and disease state scores and TCM syndrome indices were analyzed between dryness group and no-dryness group. Results: ①The main symptoms of the hypertension patients in Xinjiang area were vertigo, cephalalgia, palpitation, insomnia, soreness and weakness of waist and knee, etc. ②The incidence of NDS in the hypertension case group was 61.85%, higher than 14.69% in the normal blood pressure control group (P<0.01).③The score of pathological conditions of hypertension combining with NDS group was higher than no NDS group (P<0.01). ④Compared the indices of the TCM symptoms in two groups, the scores of TCM syndrome of excessive liver-fire and yin deficiency and yang hyperactivity in the hypertension with NDS group were higher than that of hypertension with no NDS group (P<0.01), while the difference was not significant in the excessive accumulation of phlegm-dampness syndrome and the deficiency syndrome of both yin and yang. Conclusion: There was a closed correlation between NDS and hypertension in Xinjiang area.%目的:探讨新疆高血压病中医症状证侯特点及其与西北燥证的相关关系.方法:采用问卷量表形式进行病例对照研究,共调查高血压病例组249例,正常血压对照组245例,对高血压病例组进行高血压诊断性评估、高血压中医证候类型调查及西北燥证计量评分,而对正

  13. Analysis on the monitoring results of 4 types of drinking water from northwest urban area of Beijing in 2009-2011%2009-2011年北京市西北部城区4类饮用水监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玮; 李丽; 简友平; 高平

    2012-01-01

    目的 对北京市西北部城区近3年瓶(桶)装饮用纯净水、饮用天然矿泉水等4类饮用水的监测结果进行统计分析,发现该地区饮用水的安全问题,以便及时消除隐患.方法 于2009-2011年对北京市西北部城区的20家单位生产、销售或饮用的瓶(桶)装饮用纯净水、饮用天然矿泉水、饮用净水及生活饮用水,依据相应的卫生或质量标准进行监测检验.结果 共检验50件饮用水样品,总体合格率为50.00%,其中饮用天然矿泉水及生活饮用水样品均为合格,瓶(桶)装饮用纯净水样品合格率为36.67%,饮用净水样品均不合格.瓶(桶)装饮用纯净水不合格指标为pH值、电导率、高锰酸钾消耗量、氯化物、菌落总数及霉菌和酵母菌,饮用净水不合格指标为色度、pH值、总硬度、铁、硫酸盐、耗氧量、铅及细菌总数.瓶(桶)装饮用纯净水的pH值超标率为66.67%,且pH测定值最高达到8.48,为国家标准上限值的1.2倍.结论 北京市西北部城区近3年瓶(桶)装饮用纯净水及饮用净水检验合格率很低,二者共同的问题为pH值、耗氧量及菌落总数超标.瓶(桶)装饮用纯净水普遍存在pH值超标情况,亟待引起重视.建议加强瓶(桶)装饮用纯净水及饮用净水的主动监测与监督管理.%Objective To analysis the monitoring results of 4 types of drinking water from northwest urban area of Beijing in recent 3 years, to find out the problems and to eliminate the potential dangers in time. Methods Water samples were gathered from 20 units in northwest urban area of Beijing from 2009 to 2011 for periodical inspection according to relevant standard methods. Results The total qualified rate of 50 drinking water samples was 50. 00% . All bottled natural mineral water and general drinking water samples were qualified. The qualified rate of bottled purified water for drinking was only 36. 67% . None of the fine drinking water sample was qualified

  14. Preverbal Position in Coast Tsimshian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Revised version of a paper presented at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Northwest Anthropological Association, Portland, Oregon, April 1972; research supported by the National Museum of Canada, the Philips Fund of the American Philosophical Society, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. (DD)

  15. Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Spielman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a major Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. Previous research has documented the residents, employees, tourists at public venues, customers at local businesses, and vulnerable populations at dependent-care facilities that are in CSZ-related tsunami-prone areas of northern California, Oregon, and the open-ocean coast of Washington. Community inventories of demographic attributes and other characteristics of the at-risk population have helped emergency managers to develop preparedness and outreach efforts. Although useful for distinct risk-reduction issues, these data can be difficult to fully appreciate holistically given the large number of community attributes. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community exposure to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, fall into several categories, including demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. As we were unsure of the number of different types of communities, we used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. Ultimately we selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the exposure classification is to provide emergency managers with

  16. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  17. The 2010-2011 excavation season at Al Zubarah, north-west Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Tobias; al-Naimi, Faisal; Yeomans, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the results of the 2010–2011 archaeological fieldwork at the late eighteenth–twentieth-century abandoned city of al-Zubarah in north-west Qatar. The excavations in five areas inside the town, covering courtyard houses, a suq, a palatial compound, and a midden are dis...

  18. THE BAFFIN BAY REGION DURING THE LAST INTERGLACIATION: EVIDENCE FROM NORTHWEST GREENLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1989-01-01

    Coastal sections in the Thule area, northwest Greenland, provide a recordof last interglacial glacial and oceanographic events on the northern perimeter of Baffin Bay. The record is dated by a combination of thermoluminescence and 14C dating; local and regional correlation is provided by amino ac...... that in this large region there was a causal relationship between oceanographic change and glaciation....

  19. The Efiect of Northwest the Muslim population in China's Residences by Various Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yiyong

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing geographical conditions,geographical features of the northwest inhabited areas, religious factors simpact on the Muslim population in China Vernacular Architecture as well as Han culture's impact on it,the thesis expounded the unique artistic style of Musl im population in China residential construction.

  20. 76 FR 18578 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... area in Shasta County, off-highway vehicle management grants, and land tenure topics in the BLM Arcata... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting: Northwest California Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  1. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  2. [The migration policy of the Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brou, K; Charbit, Y

    1994-01-01

    Migration policies adopted by the Ivory Coast at independence were essentially a continuation of colonial policies aimed at providing manpower for the coffee and cacao plantations of the south, whose exports were to form the basis of the national development strategy. Instead of forced labor, the government facilitated installation of migrants in agricultural areas by means of laws assuring their access to lands not currently in use. Massive immigration of workers resulted in an age and sex distribution favorable to the needs of the plantation economy. The concentration of development efforts in the forest zone of the south, including Abidjan, encouraged thousands of workers from the savannah to migrate south in search of higher incomes and better living conditions. Bilateral accords with the former Upper Volta and with France and multilateral accords with the Economic Community of the West African states regulated the migratory movement. The Ivory Coast's migration policy succeeded in populating the forest zone and permitted the Ivory Coast to construct a powerful economy. But the policy produced sometimes violent opposition among natives overwhelmed by foreigners in search of lands. The loss of labor force in the savannah threatened the nation's food supply and demographic balance. In the forest zone itself, many of the immigrant workers left the plantations to seek greater success in the cities, swelling the ranks of the urban unemployed and leaving much of the rural area short of labor. In prosperous times, when prices for southern goods were high, the system worked reasonably well. When economic conditions worsened, the inefficiency of the policy became clear. At those times the international conventions failed to control the influx because of the conflicting interests of the countries. Ethnic and regional tensions mounted, the rural exodus continued despite attempts to encourage regional development, and conflicts over land tenure intensified.

  3. Climate variability and predictability in Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, O.; Djellouli, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Northwest Africa defined here as the area including Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, occupies a large territory in North Africa with an area exceeding 3.5 million km2. The geographical contrast is very important: while most of the southern part is desert, the northern and northwestern parts exhibit a contrasting geography including large flat areas in the western part of Morocco, northern Algeria and eastern part of Tunisia and the formidable Atlas mountains barrier extends from south west of Morocco toward north west of Tunisia crossing central Morocco and north Algeria. Agriculture is one of major socio-economic activities in the region with an extensive cash-crop for exporting to Europe especially from Morocco and Tunisia. The influence of the recurring droughts during the 80s and 90s was very crucial for the economic and societal aspects of the region. In Morocco, severe droughts have caused GDP fluctuation within past 20 years from 10% increase down to negative values in some particular years. Recent studies have investigated seasonal rainfall variability and prediction over MOROCCO in the framework of regional and international collaboration. Results from this work has shown that the main general circulation feature associated with the rainfall variability within Morocco is the North Atlantic Oscillation. The relationship is in fact due to the major role played by the AZORES high pressure with its role in modulating the main position of the active synoptic systems in the north Atlantic area and therefore in modulating the frequency and the intensity of the weather systems that impact the western part of the region. Mediterranean sea plays also major role in the mid of the region. In this paper we applied EOF technique on 500 hPa. The data used are monthly reanalysis NCEP/NCAR analyses for November from 1960 to 1990 climatological time series. Correlation analysis is then performed between EOF time series and global 4x4 degre SST anomalies. The results we

  4. Subsidence Detection Using InSAR and Geodetic Measurements in the North-West of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Morteza

    2010-05-01

    The subsidence of the Earth surface is a phenomenon that occurs in some places in the world which overuse underground sources of water. As Iran has semi-arid and arid climate and the rate of rainfall is lower than the mean rate in the world then nowadays we are encountered by over-exploitation of groundwater in agricultural areas and also for extending the cities and industrial areas. Geodetic measurements i.e., repeated leveling measurements of first order leveling network of Iran and continuous GPS measurements of Iranian Permanent GPS Network of Iran (IPGN), showed that there are subsidence areas in the north-west of Iran. In this paper we try to find the area and rate of subsidence in the north-west of Iran using InSAR and geodetic techniques. The result of InSAR technique shows a better understanding on this phenomenon in these areas and has a good consistency with accurate geodetic measurements.

  5. Impact of Climate Change on Rain-fed Farming and Response Solutions in Semiarid Area of Northwest China%气候变化对西北半干旱区旱作农业的影响及解决途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红丽; 张绪成; 魏胜文

    2015-01-01

    通过分析气候变化对西北半干旱区旱作农业生产的影响、当前生产中应用的主要抗旱技术、提高粮食生产能力的机理等,以探索应对未来气候变化下西北旱作农业发展的技术途径,为推动未来旱作农业发展、保障粮食安全提供参考。结果表明,未来气候变化对西北半干旱区作物生长的影响主要有3方面:一是气温升高导致作物产量降低,品质下降;二是降水量和降水格局变化引发的作物干旱/洪涝问题;三是极端气候引发的气象灾害导致粮食生产波动。为适应或缓解上述不利影响,提高有限降水利用效率、优化土壤结构、提升土壤肥力、增强作物-土壤体系抵御环境变化的能力,缓解未来气候变化对西北半干旱区粮食生产的影响,应主要从3方面入手:(1)覆盖聚集降水,提高土壤蓄水保墒能力,改变土壤水分分配,调控土壤水分运移并提高降水入渗效率,从而“调水”以适应降水变化;(2)土壤培肥优化土壤结构、改良土壤理化性质,从而“改土”提高作物-土壤体系对环境变化的适应能力以应对未来气候变化,稳定旱作农业生产力;(3)通过“调水”和“改土”技术集成,形成“水土协调”技术体系以综合应对未来气候变化,减缓未来气候变化对西北半干旱区粮食生产的不利影响。%The impact of climate change on the agriculture production in semi-arid areas of Northwest, the major drought-resistant technolo-gy, the mechanism of increasing grain production were analyzed to explore technical solutions to retort the future climate change, future de-velopment of rainfed agriculture, and provide reference for food security. The results showed that the impact of future climate change on crop growth had main three aspects:Firstly, higher temperatures resulted in lower crop yield and quality decline;Secondly, changes in

  6. Behavioral patterns and movement intensity of Sotalia guianensis (P. J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae in two different areas on the Brazilian coast Padrões comportamentais e intensidade de movimentos de Sotalia guianensis (P. J. van Bénéden (Cetacea, Delphinidae em duas diferentes áreas da costa brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio G. Daura-Jorge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral patterns of the estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (P. J. van Bénéden, 1864, were compared between two populations along the Brazilian coast: Caravelas (Bahia, along the eastern coast, and Norte Bay (Santa Catarina, along the southern coast. Applying the focal-group sampling in both areas, information such as the geographic position (UTM of groups and predominant behavioral patterns were obtained. Geographic positions were used to calculate the total distance traveled by estuarine dolphin groups on each observation day. Since the distance traveled varies with time, the daily mean speed of the dolphin’s group was used as an index of movement intensity. Two comparable and easily recognizable behavioral patterns were considered: travelling and foraging. Overall movement intensity and behavioral pattern frequency were similar between both areas. However, a seasonal variation was observed in both parameters in Norte Bay, while in Caravelas these parameters were homogeneous throughout the year. Variation in the behavior of the estuarine dolphin was consistent with variations in environmental factors, such as water temperature.Os padrões comportamentais do botocinza, Sotalia guianensis (P. J. van Bénéden, 1864, foram comparados entre duas populações da costa brasileira: Caravelas (Bahia, na costa leste, e Baía Norte (Santa Catarina, na costa sul. Utilizando o método de grupo-focal em ambas as áreas, informações como posições geográficas (UTM do grupo e padrão comportamental predominante foram coletadas. A posição geográfica foi utilizada para o cálculo da distância total percorrida por um grupo de botos-cinza em cada área de observação. Como a distância é uma medida que varia com o tempo, a velocidade média diária do grupo de botos foi usada como um índice de intensidade de movimento. Dois padrões comportamentais comparáveis e facilmente reconhecíveis foram considerados: deslocamento e forrageamento

  7. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  8. Seasonal patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in digestive gland and arm of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Northwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Miguel; Oliveira, Marta; Gomes, Filipa; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone; Ferreira, Marta

    2014-05-15

    Among organic pollutants existing in coastal areas, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their ubiquity and carcinogenic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal patterns of PAHs in the digestive gland and arm of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Northwest Atlantic Portuguese coast. In the different seasons, 18 PAHs were determined and the detoxification capacity of the species was evaluated. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities were measured to assess phase I biotransformation capacity. Individual PAH ratios were used for major source (pyrolytic/petrogenic) analysis. Risks for human consumption were determined by the total toxicity equivalence approach. Generally, low levels of PAHs were detected in the digestive gland and in the arm of octopus, with a predominance of low molecular over high molecular weight compounds. PAHs exhibited seasonality in the concentrations detected and in their main emission sources. In the digestive gland, the highest total PAH levels were observed in autumn possibly related to fat availability in the ecosystem and food intake. The lack of PAH elimination observed in the digestive gland after captivity could be possibly associated to a low biotransformation capacity, consistent with the negligible/undetected levels of EROD and ECOD activity in the different seasons. The emission sources of PAHs found in the digestive gland varied from a petrogenic profile observed in winter to a pyrolytic pattern in spring. In the arm, the highest PAH contents were observed in June; nevertheless, levels were always below the regulatory limits established for food consumption. The carcinogenic potential calculated for all the sampling periods in the arm were markedly lower than the ones found in various aquatic species from different marine environments. The results presented in this study give relevant baseline data for environmental

  9. Monitoring temporal changes of the surface water area of the Burullus and Manzala lagoons using automatic techniques applied to a Landsat satellite data series of the Nile Delta coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.M. DEWIDAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the automated shoreline techniques used to monitor the temporal change of surface water area of the Burullus and Manzala lagoons. In this study, a series of Landsat image data are acquired at intermittent intervals between 1972 and 2006 for the Burullus lagoon and between 1972 and 2007 for the Manzala lagoon. All Landsat images were radiometrically calibrated and converted to reflectance values. The reflectance values of each date were atmospherically corrected using the 6S model. The automated shoreline technique was checked against field observations by using GPS over the four seasons for each lagoon during reconnaissance for the shoreline boundary. The accuracy of the extracted shoreline boundary for each lagoon was validated by calculating the area of a big aquaculture farm in the study area from satellite imagery and the available topographic maps. The resulting accuracy of this technique used was approximately 97.5%. From the spatial temporal analysis of the satellite data, the results indicate that the rate change of aquatic surface area of the Manzala lagoon is –7.3 km2/yr and for the Burullus lagoon -2.7 km2/yr during the approximately 35 year period of study. The changes which were detected in this study indicate that the surface water area of Manzala lagoon and Burullus lagoon have decreased to 62.6% and 61.9 respectively of their original size during this time.

  10. 77 FR 1895 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... action, we are proposing to approve South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317.... South Coast Air Quality Management District There are two 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas within the... Quality Management Plan, as revised in 1999.\\9\\ The approved 1-hour ozone SIP in the Southeast...

  11. Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Assessment Along the Coast of Visakhapatnam, North-East Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, G.; Grinivasa Kumar, T.

    2016-08-01

    The current study area is coastal zone of Visakhapatnam, district of Andhra Pradesh along the coast of India. This area is mostly vulnerable to many disasters such as storms, cyclone, flood, tsunami and erosion. This area is considered as cyclone prone area because of frequently occurrence of the cyclones in this area. Recently the two tropical cyclones that formed in the Bay of Bengal are Hudhud (October 13, 2014) and Phylin (October 11, 2013), has caused devastating impacts on the eastern coast and shows that the country has lack of preparedness to cyclone, storm surge and related natural hazards. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared here are a blended and combined overlay of multiple hazards those affecting the coastal zone. The present study aims to develop a methodology for coastal multi-hazard vulnerability assessment. This study carried out using parameters like probability of coastal slope, tsunami arrival height, future sea level rise, coastal erosion and tidal range. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared by overlaying of multi hazards those affecting the coastal zone. Multi-hazard vulnerability maps further reproduced as risk maps with the land use information. The decision making tools presented here can provide a useful information during the disaster for the evacuation process and to evolve a management strategy.

  12. Prevalence of smoking in northwest Iran: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco addiction is a major cause of preventable death worldwide. Thus, efforts to eliminate its use have the potential of producing significant health benefits. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among people in the age range of 15 to 64. The specific objective of this meta-analysis was to provide valid data that policy makers can use to make evidence-based decisions. Methods: To determine the prevalence of smoking among the adult population in northwest Iran, we used reports published by the surveillance system used to assess the risk factors for non-communicable diseases in different provinces in northwest Iran for the years 2004 and 2006-2009. Several variables were extracted, including the years of study, gender, ages, and smoking prevalence. Based on the heterogeneity of the results, we used fixed or random effects models to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. The analyses were performed using Stata 11 software. Results: A total of 28,436 subjects (14,248 males and 14,188 females in five age groups, i.e., 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64, were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men showed that, across the age groups, the lowest prevalence was 22.9%, the highest prevalence was 26.5%, and the average prevalence was 24.7%. Among women, the lowest prevalence was 0.3%, the highest prevalence was 0.8%, and the average prevalence was 0.5%. Conclusion: We found that approximately one-fourth of males in the age range of 15-64 in northwest Iran smoked cigarettes daily. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of addiction to tobacco in this area.

  13. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  14. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  15. Northwest Introduces Its New World Business Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Northwest Airlines today unveiled several major enhancements to its international World Business Class product, providing its premium customers in the Asia Pacific region with a new lie-flat bed seat and state-of-the-art inflight entertainment system.In addition the carrier announced chanaes to its world

  16. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  17. Pulse crop diseases in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations declared that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses (IYP). This UN declaration of IYP will certainly increase awareness of pulses and likely position pulses as a primary source of protein and other essential nutrients for human diets. The US Pacific Northwest region (Idaho, Or...

  18. Effect of the coastal conservation due to beach nourishment of Totori sand dune coast

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Shibutani; Matsubara, Y.; Kuroiwa, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tottori Sand Dune Coast located at western part of Japan is a sandy beach with a length about 8km facing Sea of Japan. The coast has been eroded starting around 1940s and the beach nourishment project has been carried out to restore the shoreline since 2005 at Tottori Sand Dune Coast. In the project, the deposition sands at port and river mouth were transported to the erosional area and injected in the region of the offshore erosional area and the backshore area and the total volumes of the s...

  19. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...

  20. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs in the Seattle, WA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Alberti, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen loading has been identified as a potential stressor to marine ecosystems of the Puget Sound in the Pacific Northwest, and the Washington State Department of Ecology has estimated that anthropogenic sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the Sound are 2.7 times higher than natural loads (Mohamedali et al. 2011). The Seattle urban area, situated in the southeast of the Sound, has the largest population in the northwestern US. Heavily urbanized along the coast, the 4 counties comprising the region (Snohomish, King, Pierce, and Kitsap) also include forests and agriculture. Urban and agricultural areas tend to have substantial anthropogenic N loading due to fertilizer application, presence of N-fixing vegetation, N atmospheric deposition, and human and other animal waste. To determine the relative contribution of urban vs. rural agricultural activities to N loads from the Seattle region to the Puget Sound, we used the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) calculator developed by Hong et al. (2011) for the watersheds of this region. The NANI calculator uses nationally available datasets to calculate NANI as the sum of oxidized N deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural N fixation, net food and feed inputs, and net animal and human N consumption. We found that NANI ranged from approximately 100 to 1500 kg m-2 y-1, with some of the highest rates in watersheds with high impervious surface or agricultural areas with N-fixing crops or large fertilizer additions. Many of the agricultural watersheds have intervening low-NANI watershed between themselves and the coast, thus it is likely that agricultural NANI is attenuated before entering the Puget Sound. The urban areas in the region do not have these attenuating watersheds, and so are likely to be the main contributor to the observed total aquatic N yield. This information is helpful for developing policies to reduce N loading to the Sound.

  1. Estimation of the Change in Freshwater Volume in the North Coast Limestone Upper Aquifer of Puerto Rico in the Rio Grande de Manati-Rio de la Plata Area between 1960 and 1990 and Implications on Public-Supply Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the upper aquifer of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system historically has been the principal source of public-supply and self-supplied industrial water use in north-central Puerto Rico. Development of the aquifer for these two major water-use categories began in about 1930; however, withdrawals did not become an important water-supply source for sustaining local development until the 1960s. Ground-water withdrawals averaged about 6 million gallons per day from 1948 to the mid-1960s and peaked at about 33 million gallons per day in the 1980s. Withdrawals have since declined, averaging about 11.5 million gallons per day in 2002. Aquifer contamination by industrial chemical spills and by nitrates from agricultural and domestic sources initially reduced pumpage for public-supply use within localized areas, leading eventually to increased withdrawals at unaffected well fields. The long-term effect of unconstrained ground-water withdrawals has been a regional thinning of the freshwater lens in an area encompassing 50,600 acres between the Rio Grande de Manati and Rio de la Plata, generally north of latitude 18?25?. The effects of aquifer overdraft have been documented in the regional thinning of the freshwater lens, with an increase in dissolved-solids concentration in ground-water wells. Dissolved-solids concentration in public-supply wells were generally between 250 and 350 milligrams per liter during the 1960s, but increased to greater than 500 milligrams per liter in virtually all of the wells by 2000. Depletion of fresh ground water was estimated at 282,000 acre-feet: 103,000 acre-feet in the Rio Grande de Manati to Rio Cibuco area between 1960 and 1995, and 179,000 acre-feet in the Rio Cibuco to Rio de la Plata area between 1960 and 1992. Thus, aquifer freshwater volume depletion below mean sea level datum may have contributed as much as 38 percent (7.5 million gallons per day) of the 20-million gallons per day average withdrawal rate during

  2. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  3. ANALYSIS MACROSCOPIC HEADENDS DRAINAGE IN THE URBAN AREA OF UMUARAMA, NORTHWEST REGION - PARANÁ / BRAZIL Análise macroscópica nas cabeceiras de drenagem da área urbana de Umuarama, região noroeste - Paraná/Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro França Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated process of urbanization, coupled with the use and occupancy can trigger serious changes in the hydrological cycle in river basins, especially in areas near the headwaters of drainage. The municipality of Umuarama, like other municipalities in the Northwest of Paraná, has, since its occupation in the mid-twentieth century experiencing rapid and disorganized urban growth, which has promoted issues in relation to vegetation cover in urban areas as in agricultural use. Front these findings, this study aimed to identify and assess the level of degradation in headwater drainage in urban areas of Umuarama, particularly in the tributaries of the upper basin, located in the stream Pinhalzinho II. We evaluated various parameters such as: water color, odor, litter around, floating materials, foams, oils, sewage, vegetation preservation, occupancy by domestic animals, by humans and proximity to buildings. The classification was based on the ranking of Degree of Impacts Springs (2004 and the Guide for Assessment of Water Quality (2004. According to the analysis, the sources present themselves degraded mainly by the presence of solid wastes, domestic sewage and industrial effluent. The results represent a warning sign of concern about the water quality and thus point to the need for monitoring of water resources, establishing limits to the legal protection of ownership and uses, and environmental awareness of the population regarding the production and proper disposal of waste generated.O acelerado processo de urbanização, aliado ao uso e ocupação podem desencadear graves alterações no ciclo hidrológico em bacias hidrográficas, principalmente nas áreas próximas às cabeceiras de drenagem. O município de Umuarama, a exemplo de outros municípios do Noroeste paranaense, vem, desde sua ocupação em meados do século XX, experimentando um rápido e desorganizado crescimento urbano, que tem promovido problemas em relação à cobertura

  4. 1D and 3D inversion of VES data to outline a fresh water zone floating over saline water body at the northwestern coast of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Massoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seawater intrusion is a widespread environmental problem in the Egyptian coastal aquifers. It affects the groundwater used in domestic and agricultural activities along these coasts. In this study, resistivity survey in the form of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES was conducted at ZAWYET EL HAWALA cultivated site, northwest coast of Egypt to outline a freshwater zone overlies the main saltwater body, and to determine the most suitable location for drilling water well for irrigation purposes. The VES data were measured at 11 stations in the studied site. After processing, the data were inverted in 1-D and 3-D schemes and the final model was presented as resistivity slices with depth. The results indicate that the effect of saltwater intrusion was observed, as low resistivity values, at 7.5 m below ground surface (bgs at the northern part of the study area (toward the Mediterranean Sea, and extends southward with increasing depth covering the whole area at about 30 m bgs. The fresh water zone shows a minimum thickness of less than 7.5 m at the northern side and a maximum thickness of about 20 m at the southern side of the area. The proper site for drilling water well tap and the freshwater zone is the location of VES6 or VES9 with a maximum well depth of about 20 m bgs. The water withdrawal from the proposed well should be controlled not to raise the main saline water table in the well site. The main sources of the freshwater zone are the rainfall and surface runoff descending from the southern tableland. Excess rainfall and surface runoff can be avoided from direct discharge to the sea by collecting them in man-made outlined trenches and re-using the stored water in irrigation during the dry seasons.

  5. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  6. French in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  7. Challenges in determining b value in the Northwest Geysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltiel, S.; Boyle, K.; Majer, E.

    2011-02-01

    Past analyses of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value in the Geysers and other geothermal settings have revealed a deviation from the assumed linear relationship in log space between magnitude and the number of earthquakes. In this study of the Northwest Geysers, we found a gently-sloping discontinuity in the b-value curve. This is especially apparent when comparing the least-squares fit (LSQ) of the curve to the fit obtained by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), a widely-respected method of analyzing magnitude-frequency relationships. This study will describe the assumptions made when using each of these two methods and will also explore how they can be used in conjunction to investigate the characteristics of the observed b-value curve. To understand whether slope-fit differences in the LSQR and MLE methods is due to physical properties of the system or due to artifacts from errors in sampling, it is extremely important to consider the catalog completeness, magnitude bin size, number of events, and differences in source mechanisms for the events comprising the study volume. This work will hopefully lead to informative interpretations of frequency-magnitude curves for the Northwest Geysers, a geothermal area of ongoing high-volume coldwater injection and steam production. Through this statistical investigation of the catalog contents, we hope to better understand the dominant source mechanisms and the role of injected fluids in the creation of seismic clustering around nearly 60 wells of varying depths and injection volumes.

  8. Numerical evaluation of the wave energy resource along the Atlantic European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes Soares, C.; Bento, A. Rute; Gonçalves, Marta; Silva, Dina; Martinho, Paulo

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper a hindcast system is applied to the analysis of the Atlantic European coast as a whole with specific nestings for sites of interest in each country. The areas included in this study were: Ireland west coast, UK South Western coast, France west coast, northern Spain and Canary Islands and Portugal's continental coast. Two contemporary spectral models were used: WaveWatch III for wave generation, covering almost the entire North Atlantic basin, which outputs are then used as boundary conditions for SWAN which simulates wave transformation in coastal areas. Wind fields were taken from the ERA Interim data base. Results are validated against buoy data. These validations allowed a reformulation, when needed, of the model's configurations in order to better tune its outcomes to the real data. Using the energy transport vectors given by SWAN, the wave power is afterwards calculated and an energy resource assessment is done for a period of several years.

  9. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  10. 78 FR 28170 - Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Vessel Evacuation; Honolulu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Evacuation; Honolulu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... waters contained within an area composing of an area on the southern side of Oahu, HI. The RNA...

  11. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Navigation Areas: Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA (a) Location. The following areas are...

  12. Surfzone dynamics of the Konkan coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.

    The Konkan Coast has the distinct morphological features than the rest of the Indian Coast. Field studies on beach variation, littoral environmental observation and longshore sediment transport were carried out for a period of one year, between...

  13. Seasonal and nocturnal domiciliary human landing/biting behaviour of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis (Diptera; Psychodidae) in a periurban area of a city on the Caribbean coast of eastern Venezuela (Barcelona; Anzoátegui State).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; De Sousa, L; Devera, R; Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, in addition to American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), a significant number of cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been reported in periurban areas of Barcelona city (Anzoátegui State, Venezuela). We studied the bionomics of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis, possible vectors of AVL and ACL, respectively, in El Rincón, a periurban village of that city. To evaluate the seasonal domiciliary landing/biting activity of sandflies on human bait, a house was chosen in El Rincón. Landing catches were carried out between 18:00 and 06:00, once a month for a year. The results show the presence of 2 species, Lu. (Lu.) evansi (89.9%) and Lu. (Psy.) panamensis (10.1%). Lu. evansi was most abundant in the months of October and July, associated with the bimodal cycle of annual rainfall in the area. Maximum landing/biting activity of Lu. evansi was observed at 24:00 and 03:00. These findings suggest that at this time of the year and at these hours there is heightened risk of the transmission of AVL. Lu. panamensis monthly abundance also shows a direct association with rainfall and maximum landing/biting activity was observed between 02:00 and 03:00. The lower domiciliary abundance of Lu. panamensis suggests its greater importance in the extradomiciliary transmission of ACL.

  14. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi Valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 yr−1 was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 yr−1 due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3 particles (0.1 μg m−3 yr−1 was attributed to the spatial variability of NH3 in Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with wildland fires in southeast and northwest US that are sensitive to climate changes. The four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its sources originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries along the coast. This approach allowed for quantitatively assessing the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of

  15. Marine archaeological investigations in Okhamandal region of Saurashtra, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Bandodkar, S.N

    The history of Okhamandal region, west coast of India has been often viewed from point of religion and very little interest has been shown on the social and commercial history of this area. Marine archaeological investigations during last two...

  16. Heavy metals in fishes from coastal waters of Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Joseph, T.

    The concentration levels of copper, zinc, manganese and iron have been determined in marine fishes from Cochin area which is one of the major fishing zones along the west coast of India. The concentration of heavy metals varied from species...

  17. Studies on Effective Ways to Improve the Quality of Farmers in Northwest Poverty-stricken Areas:Taking Water-saving Technologies Farmer Field Schools in Wuwei City, Gansu Province as an Example%提高西北贫困地区农民科技素质的有效途径初探--以甘肃省武威市节水技术农民田间学校为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超男; 刘林; 李凡; 梁植睿; 吴迪; 董平国; 韩万海

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the low technical quality of farmers and thus restricting the sustainable economic and social development of the poverty-stricken areas of northwest China, the article, based upon intensive policy and documentary analysis, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, survey and other methods, with emphasis on analysis of the practice of four farmers' field schools (FFSs) of Wuwei City, Gansu. By summing up the successful experience of four FFSs in Wuwei City, Gansu Province, the article points out that FFSs’unique operating mode, including the effective conversion of peasants roles, enhancing the learning atmosphere of the community, the improvement of the organization of farmers, has enhanced the difficulties faced by improving technical quality of farmers in poverty-stricken areas of northwest China. FFS is an effective extension and supplement Peasant education promotion system. In the end, the article pointed out that the sustainable developmental management and operation FFS mode is an effective way to improve quality of the farmers in poverty-stricken areas.%  为了解决西北贫困地区农民科技素质较低进而制约西北地区经济社会可持续发展的问题,采用文献研究、实地踏查、深入访谈、调查问卷等方法,重点对甘肃武威4所农民田间学校的实践进行了深入的分析。通过总结甘肃武威市4所农民田间学校的成功经验,认为农民田间学校通过其特有的运行模式实现了农民角色的有效转换、社区整体学习气氛的增强、农民组织化程度的提高,有效的解决了西北贫困地区提升农民科技素质面临的困难,是现阶段农民教育推广体系的一种有效延伸和补充。最后提出,可持续发展的农民田间学校管理运行模式是确保提升贫困地区农民科技素质的有效途径。

  18. Potential Incursion of Marine Sediment Inland in North-West England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, D.A.; Dyer, K.R.; Cavrot, D.; Tooley, M.J.; Zong, Y.; Haslam, I.K.; Green, N.; Wilkins, B.T

    1998-07-01

    An area of fine sediment off the Cumbrian coast acts as a reservoir for many of the radionuclides discharged into the Irish Sea from Sellafield. The origin of any sediment that could come ashore in a single storm event has been evaluated, the areas of coast that could be at risk from flooding have been identified and an assessment made of the doses that might be received as a result of such flooding. Any sediment transported inland would have come from the nearshore zone rather than directly from the offshore area. Moreover, although parts of the coast between Morecambe Bay and the Solway are currently at risk from flooding during severe storms, the doses that would be received by those engaged in the clean-up operations and by residents would be a small fraction of the limit recommended by ICRP for members of the public. (author)

  19. Developing and Sustaining the Northwest Digital Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish, Alan Kevin; Bond, Trevor James

    2008-01-01

    The Northwest Digital Archives is a union database of Encoded Archival Description (EAD) finding aids from institutions in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Alaska, and Montana. The purpose of the NWDA is to make information about collections of primary sources widely accessible to researchers over the internet. This article will explore the selection and development of the NWDA database, the creation of tools to associate digital objects with EAD/XML documents, and the methods employed by the techn...

  20. Sustaining the Northwest Way of Life.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Customer Services.

    1991-08-01

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms Most Competitive'' and Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues.

  1. A brief account of coast vegetation near Port Elizabeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment and vegetation of an area of coast north-east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, are briefly described. Five major vegetation categories are recognized. These are: 1.  Scaevola thunbergii Pioneer Vegetation of  littoral dunes and  Ficinia lateralis Sedgeland of calcrete gravel; 2.  Olea exasperata Bush,  Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus Bushclumps and Dune Woodland; 3. Sundays River Scrub; 4. Fynbos of calcrete areas; and 5.  Themeda triandra Grassland. Invasion of the area by Acacia cyclops (Australian W'attle is described. A recommendation for the conservation of the area as a nature reserve is made.

  2. Multi-element Composition of Terricolous Lichens in the Northwest European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zamber, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    are enriched by Fe. In all lichens collected at the White Sea coast (Onezhsky Peninsula and Kumbysh Island), high Na content and EF values were revealed. In general, elemental composition of terricolous lichens in the Northwest European Russia reflects complex influence of atmospheric deposition of aerosols from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Our studies were supported by the grants of RFBR No. 07-05-00691 and 05-05-65159, project "Nanoparticles". The authors are indebted to Academician A.P. Lisitzin for valuable recommendations.

  3. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  4. A longshore sediment transport estimation for the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.

    in Tamilnadu, and the Maharashtra Coast experience negligible annual net transport. The direction of annual net transport along the east coast is towards north and along the west coast towards south except at south Gujarat Coast...

  5. Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project, Northwest Geysers, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Mark A.

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of the Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project was to drill, test, and confirm the present economic viability of the undeveloped geothermal reservoir in the 870 acre Caldwell Ranch area of the Northwest Geysers that included the CCPA No.1 steam field. All of the drilling, logging, and sampling challenges were met. Three abandoned wells, Prati 5, Prati 14 and Prati 38 were re-opened and recompleted to nominal depths of 10,000 feet in 2010. Two of the wells required sidetracking. The flow tests indicated Prati 5 Sidetrack 1 (P-5 St1), Prati 14 (P-14) and Prati 38 Sidetrack 2 (P-38 St2) were collectively capable of initially producing an equivalent of 12 megawatts (MWe) of steam using a conversion rate of 19,000 pounds of steam/hour

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  7. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  8. Traditional West Coast Native Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Deagle, George

    1988-01-01

    An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” pla...

  9. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  10. Shoreline change analysis of Vedaranyam coast, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Usha; Thulasiraman, N; Deepthi, K; Kathiravan, K

    2013-06-01

    The coastal zone is one of the nation's greatest environmental and economic assets. The present research aims at studying the shoreline changes along Vedaranyam coast using conventional and modern techniques including field sampling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS). The study area was divided into three zones. Dynamic Land/Sea polygon analysis was performed to obtain the shore line changes at different time periods between 1930 and 2005. From the multidate shoreline maps, the rate of shoreline change was computed using linear regression rate and end point rate. Further, the shoreline was classified into eroding, accreting, and stable regions through GIS analysis. The eroding, accreting, and stable coastal stretch along Vedaranyam is observed as 18 %, 80.5 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Net shoreline movement is seaward, i.e., the coast is progressive with an average rate of 5 m/year. A maximum shoreline displacement of 1.3 km towards the sea is observed near Point Calimere. During the Asian Tsunami 2004, the eastern part of the study area showed high erosion. Sediment transport paths derived from the grain size analysis of beach sediments collected during different seasons help to identify the major sediment source and sinks. Point Calimere acts as the major sink for sediments whereas Agastiyampalli and Kodiakkarai are found to be the major sources for the sediment supply along the Vedaranyam coast. Shoreline change study from field and satellite data using GIS analysis confirms that Vedaranyam coast is accreting in nature.

  11. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  12. {sup 129}I dispersion and sources in Northwest Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herod, Matthew N., E-mail: mattherod@gmail.com [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Clark, Ian D. [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Kieser, W.E. [University of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Agosta, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Zhao Xiaolei [University of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Radioiodine, {sup 129}I is a biophilic and mobile radionuclide, and a major contaminant of concern for long term radioactive waste disposal. Nuclear fuel reprocessing has released large amounts of anthropogenic {sup 129}I in a number of locations globally; this has led to an increase in the concentration of {sup 129}I and the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the environment. Therefore, a detailed understanding of its movement and concentration in the environment is essential. While {sup 129}I dispersion has been examined in the vicinity of nuclear activities, little is known about its accumulation in remote regions. Accordingly, we have undertaken reconnaissance sampling in the Arctic as a location that may be affected by {sup 129}I fallout. Samples from large watersheds were collected in northern Canada on a trajectory starting in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory (60 Degree-Sign 43 Prime 00 Double-Prime N) and moving north to Tsiigehtchic, Northwest Territory (67 Degree-Sign 26 Prime 26 Double-Prime N). Results show concentrations of {sup 129}I up to 27 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} atoms/L are present in Northwest Canada and {sup 129}I/I ratios up to 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. Annual {sup 129}I fallout ranges from 2.78 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 7.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} atoms/m{sup 2}/yr, calculated by normalizing the measured values to watershed area and discharge. These quantities substantially exceed literature values for waters containing only geogenic or cosmogenic production and are similar for all watersheds regardless of watershed area or discharge. Anthropogenic releases of {sup 129}I into the atmosphere or oceans are the major potential sources of {sup 129}I in the Arctic.

  13. Metamorphism history and dynamics of high-pressure granulites in the Dulan area of the North Qaidam Mountains, northwest China%柴北缘都兰高压麻粒岩的变质演化及形成的动力学背景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于胜尧; 张建新; 李金平

    2009-01-01

    A high-pressure granulite unit was recognized in the Dulan area, the eastern end of the North Qaidam-South Altyn HP-UHP metamorphism belt, Northwest China. High-pressure granulites are mainly mafic in composition although small amounts of acid-intermediate varieties also exist. Mineral assemblages in equilibrium in mafic granulites contain mainly garnet, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, with different amounts of kyanite, amphibole, rutile, quartz, zoisite/clinozoisite, scapolite and ilmenite, whereas acid-intermediate granulites contain garnet, kyanite, K-feldspar, plagioclase and quartz, with small amounts of clinopyroxene and amphibole. Petrologic and mineralogical data indicate these HP rocks experienced multistage metamorphism history. Thermobarometry of the peak mineral assemblages yields P-T conditions of 1.40 ~ 1. 85GPa and 800 ~ 925℃ . Retrogression began under high amphibolite-facies conditions estimated at 0. 8 ~ 1. 05GPa and 580 ~ 695℃ , and is followed by subsequent retrogression under low amphibolite-facies/greenschist-facies conditions ( <0. 8GPa and < 550℃ ). This study suggests that the Dulan high-pressure granulites experienced a single metamorphic history, and not associated with the effects of thermal relaxation after eclogite-facies metamorphism recorded in adjacent eclogites. The high-pressure granulites probably formed at the bottom of thickening continental crust related to continental subduction corresponding to the depth of about 50 ~ 70 km.%在柴北缘-阿尔金HP/UHP变质带东端,新识别出一个高压麻粒岩单元.高压基性麻粒岩是高压麻粒岩单元的主体,还包括少量高压中酸性麻粒岩.高压基性麻粒岩主要由平衡共生的石榴子石、单斜辉石、斜长石组成,还含有不等量的蓝晶石、角闪石、石英、金红石、黝帘石/斜黝帘石、钛铁矿、方柱石等矿物.高压长英质麻粒岩主要包括石榴子石、蓝晶石、钾长石、斜长石

  14. Descending lithosphere slab beneath the Northwest Dinarides from teleseismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šumanovac, Franjo; Dudjak, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The area of study covers the marginal zone between the Adriatic microplate (African plate) and the Pannonian segment (Eurasian plate). We present a tomography model for this area, with special emphasis on the northwest Dinarides. A dense distribution of temporary seismic stations in the area of the Northern Dinarides along with permanent seismic stations located in the area, allowed us to construct this P-wave tomographic model. We assembled our travel-time dataset based on 26 seismic stations were used to collect the dataset. Teleseismic events were recorded for a period of 18 months and a set of 76 distant earthquakes were used to calculate the P-wave travel-time residuals. We calculated relative rather than absolute arrival-time residuals in the inversion to obtain depths of 0-400 km. We imaged a pronounced fast velocity anomaly below the NW Dinarides which directly indicates a lithosphere slab downgoing beneath the Dinarides. This fast anomaly extends towards the NW direction to at least 250 km depth, and we interpreted it as a descending lithosphere slab. The thrusting of the Adriatic microplate may be brought about by sub-lithosphere rising movement beneath the Pannonian region, along with a push from African plate. In our interpretation, the Adriatic lower lithosphere has been detached from the crust, and steeply sinks beneath the Dinarides. A lithosphere model of the contact between the Adriatic microplate and Pannonian tectonic segment was constructed based on the tomographic velocity model and results of previous crustal studies.

  15. Conversion or conservation? Understanding wetland change in northwest Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Amy E; Cumming, Graeme S

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are more threatened than any other ecosystem type, with losses exceeding 50% of their original extent worldwide. Despite the small portion of the Earth's surface that they comprise, wetlands contribute significantly to global ecosystem services. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the location and rate of change in wetland amount in the Tempisque Basin of northwest Costa Rica is predictable from landscape setting. Our results demonstrate that a strong potential exists for developing predictive models of wetland conversion based on an understanding of wetland location and surrounding trends of land use. We found that topography was the single most important predictor of wetland conversion in this area, entraining other conversion processes, and that spatial patterns of wetland loss could consistently be predicted from landscape-level variables. Areas with highest probabilities of conversion were found in the most accessible, non-protected regions of the landscape. While Palo Verde National Park made a substantial contribution to wetland conservation, our results highlight the dependence of lower-lying protected areas on upland processes, adding a little-addressed dimension of complexity to the dialogue about protected area management. Conservation strategies aimed at reducing wetland loss in tropical habitats will benefit from careful analysis of the dominant land use system(s) at a relatively broad scale, and the subsequent development of management and policy responses that take into account dynamic opportunities and constraints in the landscape.

  16. Lichens as biomonitor of atmospheric aerosol composition in the Northwest European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Zamber, Natalia S.; Konov, Konstantin G.; Starodymova, Dina P.

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aerosols are of importance for atmospheric chemistry and climate of the Arctic. At the coasts of Arctic seas and in their catchment areas delivery of chemical elements and compounds are registered in natural archives, for example in lichens. Lichens absorb substances, including trace elements, through dry and wet deposition, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) and fruticose epiphytic (mostly of genera Alectoria, Usnea and Bryoria) lichens collected in 2004-2009 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Arkhangelsk Region and Komi Republic of NW Russia, mostly in the frame of International Polar Year activity. About 110 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack) and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parts of dry samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. These elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens

  17. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Northwest cereal production systems to adapt to and mitigate climate change. The AEZ concept is central to project-wide integration that will enable researchers, stakeholders, students, the public, and policymakers to acquire a more holistic understanding of the interrelationships of agriculture, climate change and the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. Therefore AEZ's are part of a prescription for land management, given climate change that will enable the incorporation of information from climate models, economic models, crop models, pest disease and weed vulnerabilities, and other data sources. Specific to this presentation, we address the AEZ-related objective of developing methodology for defining major AEZ's within the Inland Pacific Northwest REACCH study area based on annual NASS cropland data.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  19. 76 FR 5796 - Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ..., 2011. Take notice that on January 14, 2011, Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation (GTN), 717 Texas... capacity and GTN's related obligation to provide transportation service related to maximum...

  20. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  1. Qingdao - Pearl onthe Shandong coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUCE CONNOLLY

    2004-01-01

    <正> Qingdao, its name is synonymous with beer. Tsingtao Beer, one of the country’s finest, has put the city firmly onto the international scene. However, there is so much more to this pearl on the coast of Shandong Province. As China goes forward to the 2008 Olympics the city will become even better known for it has been chosen as the venue for the ocean sailing events.Qingdao occupies a peninsula jutting into the Yellow Sea. It is hilly, with a coastline of rocky headlands connected by fine curving sandy beaches. Its natural

  2. Language and Identity in Transforming Borderlands (Case of North-West Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai Biaspamiatnykh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The North-West region of Belarus as an ethno-cultural bordering area demonstrates the tendency towards linguistic homogeneity with the sustainability of the identities of its communities. On the basis of a constructivistic approach the models of the identification process in the region are grounded. In the framework of these models the opportunities of interpretation of the present-day linguistic structure and specificity of linguistic processes are revealed. 

  3. Snake envenomations in northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Tinoco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of envenoming in Northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000 was evaluated. Reports from the Municipal Secretariat of Health of these counties were used. The results demonstrated that, from 1997 to 1999, there was a shortage of notification, and 40 cases of envenomations caused by Bothrops snakes were registered. These cases were more common from February to October, and the lower limbs of male peasants were the mainly affected areas.

  4. Incidence of Leukemia in the Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Asvadi Kermani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukemia is cancer of the blood or bone marrow, characterized by an unusualincrease in white blood cells. It is the sixth most common malignancy in the country in bothmales and females. The aim of this study was to document some epidemiological features ofleukemia in the Northwest of Iran.Methods: The study subjects (n=669, including 377 males and 292 females comprised allleukemia cases registered/notified to the clinical and pathology centers of Tabriz and Ardebilcities, from 2003 to 2006. All patients were classified using the ICD-10 based coding system(C91-C95, C77 and C42. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated to assessthe statistical significance of the data.Results: Annual incidence of leukemia was 3.7 [95% CI: 3.3–4.0] and 4.9 [95% CI: 4.2–5.6]per 100 000 population in Tabriz and Ardebil, respectively, with an overall case fatality rateof 13.5 percent [95% CI: 10.8–16.0]. The sex ratio (male/female was 1.23. Myeloid leukemia(C92 and Hematopoetic and Reticuloendothelial system (C42 accounted proportionally formore than 47 percent of cases in the region. Over the study period, the annual occurrence ofleukemia in the region increased from 3.9 [95% CI: 3.4–4.5] to 4.1 [95% CI: 3.5–4.6] per 100000 population (P>0.1.Conclusions- The data from this cross-sectional study of leukemia in the North-West of Iranmay be used as the baseline information to establish a population-based registry of hematologicdisorders in the area for health care and research purposes. However, more investigationsare needed to develop effective strategies to control the relevant disorders in high-riskgroups.

  5. An Economic Analysis of food Policy in the Ivory Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Yao Prao

    1984-01-01

    Ivory Coast covers an area of 124,000 square miles with reasonable rainfall for food crops production. But besides what has been called the economic "miracle," the country relies on increasing food imports (rice, wheat, meat, and milk products). At the same time, the country's earnings from the major export commodities are shrinking. So the primary objective was to identify the main causes and circumstances that have resulted in reductions in food production. The major hypothesis was that the...

  6. The earliest shellmounds of the central-south Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T.A.; Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Coimbra, M.M.; Elmore, D

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents a new date for one of the oldest shellmounds of the central-south Brazilian coast. This date seems to confirm three previous results obtained from two other shellmounds in the same region and formerly seen as unreliable by the archaeological community. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Sambaqui do Algodao, was dated by {sup 14}C-AMS to 7860 {+-} 80 years BP. Besides confirming the previous ones, this new date is pulling back by some two thousand years the consensually accepted antiquity for the initial settlement of the central-south Brazilian coast - around 6000 years BP. The geographical and chronological proximity of those archaeological sites suggest that the initial settlement of the coast would have begun in this region rather than in the nuclear area with denser concentrations of shellmounds further to the South. It also strengthens the evidence of the possible route used by inland hunter-gatherers to reach this part of the coast.

  7. STUDY ON CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND ENERGY RESOURCES IN TWO TIPICAL AREAS IN CHINA%中国典型地区风能资源特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 宋丽莉; 黄浩辉; 刘爱君; 范绍佳

    2011-01-01

    利用西北地区和东南沿海地区具有代表性的测风塔资料,对比分析其风能资源特性差异,结果发现:①即使西北和东南沿海地区的年平均风速相同,西北地区的年平均风功率密度和年风能密度均显著大于东南沿海地区,其风功率密度可大1~2个等级,造成这种显著差异的关键因子是西北地区"大风速"的出现频率较东南沿海地区多;②西北地区和东南沿海地区的风向变化主要以小角度变化为主,但两地区的风向变化特征明显不同:西北地区的小风向变差角出现频率略少于东南沿海地区,而较大的风向变差角出现频率明显多于东南沿海地区.两类地区不同的风资源特性将影响风电场选址和设计、风电机组选型以及建成后的运行管理模式,具有重要的现实意义和使用价值.%Northwest China and southeast coast of China are the two typical areas which are affluent in wind-energy resources in our country. A comparative study was carried out on characteristics of wind-energy resources by analyzing the observational data obtained from towers which are representative in the two areas. The results showed that even if the annual mean wind speed in the northwest China is the same as that in the southeast coast of China, the annual mean wind power density and the annual wind energy density in the northwest China are significantly Larger than those in the southeast coastal area of China, with the scale of one to two order larger for the wind power density. Such significant differences may be attributed to the key factor that the frequency of gale force winds in the northwest China is higher than that in the southeast coastal area of China, and changes of wind directions are dominated by small variations of directional angles of winds in both areas, with differences in frequency of wind direction changes that may be revealed by that frequency of wind direction changes is less evident for small angle

  8. Complex Drainage Response To Migrating Tectonic Uplift: Example From The Northern California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, J.; Furlong, K. P.

    Migration of the Mendocino triple junction in northern California produces rapid and dramatic changes in the processes and patterns of crustal deformation. In response to this tectonism, the river systems of the northern California Coast Ranges have devel- oped a complex drainage history and pattern. The tectonic response to this migrating triple junction is described by the Mendocino Crustal Conveyor model (MCC), which predicts a spatially and temporally varying pattern of crustal deformation and up- lift. We use a combination of geomorphic and geophysical observations, coupled with landscape evolution modeling to develop the links between the geomorphic observa- tions in the Coast Ranges and the uplift/subsidence pattern predicted by the MCC. In contrast to many previous landscape evolution studies that find that streams typically cut through or are diverted around growing structures, in the northern California Coast Ranges drainage reversal and stream capture appear to be the response to tectonism. Our landscape evolution modeling shows that the uplift predicted by the MCC pro- duces: (1) a topographic gradient that switches from trending northwest to southeast, causing streams that at first flow to the northwest to reverse and drain to the south- east, (2) drainage divides that migrate in concert with the triple junction, and (3) river evolution that will result in fish hooked drainage patterns, all characteristics similar to those observed in the Northern California Coast Ranges. The uplift/subsidence pat- tern in the northern Coast Ranges is further complicated by the interaction of a second tectonic driver - the Pioneer fragment. The Pioneer fragment migrates with the Pacific (south of the triple junction) and creates a mini-slab window, adjacent to the coast, to produce a superimposed secondary uplift/subsidence pattern. The effects of this Pioneer related uplift are recorded by the Eel River. Key to the complex evolution of river systems in northern

  9. Estimation of the radionuclide distribution in sediment in coast area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The study of radionuclide distribution in sediment is a very important aspect in environmental impact of the low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) from coastal nuclear facilities or nuclear power plant. Even now we do not know much about it. In this paper, a simple and useful method is put forward and it is used to estimate the nuclide distribution in sediment. The result showed that the LLW from nuclear facility or nuclear power plant will do little harm to the sediment nearby. But the harm is not veryserious. Much works have to be done before full understanding of the situation.

  10. US Coast Guard Corrosion Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Coast Guard Corrosion Program Office 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Coast Guard ,North Carolina Sector...have two purposes. Coatings on Coast Guard Aircraft Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. U S

  11. Proceedings of the Northwest regional energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A S; Comstock, D R [eds.

    1978-12-01

    The conference was directed toward two main objectives. First, a major portion of the proceedings were to focus on the policies, programs, and priorities of the new US DOE, and their relationships to the Pacific Northwest region. Second, the conference was to explore specific energy issues of regional significance and provide an opportunity for regional feedback on energy policies. The 10 sessions of the conference are Keynote Session: Congress, and the National Energy Plan Sen. Henry Jackson; National Perspectives on Energy Issues (I): An Overview of the NEP, Programs and Priorities of DOE (Alvin Alm and NEP - Conservation and Solar Applications (Don Beattie); and Luncheon address - Alaska Energy Issues (Robert LeResche); National Perspectives on Energy Issues (II): Utility Rate Reform - National Provisions and Relationships to the Pacific Northwest (David Bardin) and Technology for Energy and Long Term Short Alternatives (Robert Thorne); Concurrent Interest Group Sessions: State and Local Roles in Energy Planning and Decision-Making and Industry and University Roles in DOE Research and Programs; Banquet address. The US Energy Future (James Schlesinger); Regional Perspectives on Energy Issues: DOE-X - Organization and Response to Regional Needs (Randall Hardy). What Comes After Number 13 (Sterling Munro), Hanford 1978 (Alex Fremling), and Low Head Hydro and Geothermal (Richard Wood); Lucheon address - The Washington Perspective on Energy (Dixie Lee Ray); Regional Power Planning (Panel); and Conference Wrap Up Session. (MCW)

  12. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  13. Utilization of statistical table for waves in North-west Pacific Ocean and a long-term estimation on hull responses; Seihoku Taiheiyo haro tokeihyo no riyo to sentai oto choki yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Designing a vessel to sail oceans for an extended period of time requires statistical estimation on different hull responses to waves. To meet the requirement, it is necessary to accurately identify hydrographic conditions (particularly waves) which are considered to be encountered by the vessel. This paper makes clear the statistical characteristics of the wave statistics table presented by Fang et al, and compares them with other processes for discussion. This statistics collection is based on data collected in China, Hong Kong and Japan, including those collected in the Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea, the North Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea. It was found that these data provide results slightly lower than the long-term estimation values derived from data of the global wave statistics (GWS) prepared by Hogben et al. The cause for this was found attributable to the format of the statistical data, especially setting of wave height classes. However, since the data provided by Fang et al include items of detailed information on small sea areas near the Chinese coast lines, the data are thought to provide useful information source in investigating long-term hull response characteristics relative to spatial spread of the sea areas in the North-west Pacific Ocean. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  15. Interannual and seasonal variations in nearshore wave characteristics off Honnavar, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanjiv, P.C.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Vinayaraj, P.

    coast of India. Hence a study was carried out to find out the varia- tions in nearshore wave parameters off Honnavar, Karna- taka along the central west coast of India over a period of three years during March 2008–March 2011 based on the measured.... Waterway Port Coast. Ocean Div., Am. Soc. Eng., 1981, 107, 93–109. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We thank Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management Project Directorate (ICMAM PD), Ministry of Earth Sciences, New Delhi for funding the measurement programme...

  16. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action proposes to implement trailing actions for the program... time, the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) and NMFS have been addressing...

  17. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  18. Work-Related Well-Being of Educators in a District of the North-West Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the relationship between burnout, health, job demands and job resources in a sample of educators. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Stratified random samples (N = 266) were taken of educators in an area of the North-West Province. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Health…

  19. Survey of Libraries in Northwest Ohio and Related Workshops. Volume 3, Holdings of Ohio Titles by Subject Heading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Louise F.

    A cooperative effort by public libraries in the five northwest counties of Ohio has resulted in this union list of materials about Ohio, arranged by subject. The 99 subject terms cover information about the state in such areas as science, agriculture, literature, biography, history, geography, education, economics, politics, government,…

  20. Genetic variation in yield and chemical composition of wide range of sorghum accessions grown in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.S.; Wang, M.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Liu, Z.; Han, L.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum can be grown on marginal and waste lands as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production in the vast areas of north-west China. Fifty-six sorghum accessions were grown in 2009 at the experimental station of Xinjiang Agricultural University, located at Urumchi, Xinjiang, China. A total of 31

  1. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. 334.961 Section 334.961 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone...

  2. The oldest rock of Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamelan, Alain Nicaise; Djro, Sagbrou Chérubin; Allialy, Marc Ephrem; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Peucat, Jean-Jacques

    2015-03-01

    The tonalitic gneiss of Balmer (TGB), in the SASCA area of south-western Ivory Coast, previously dated at 3141 ± 2 Ma using the single zircon evaporation method, is regarded as a relic of Archean rock within the Paleoproterozoic (Birimian) formation of the West African Craton (WAC). We present new geochronological data for the TGB using the laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method. We obtain a U-Pb age of 3207 ± 7 Ma for abundant zircons extracted from the tonalitic gneiss, and interpret this age as that of the magmatic protolith because of the igneous-type homogeneous zircon population. Certain magmatic zircon edges and some round zircons define an upper intercept age of 3155 ± 17 Ma which could represent overgrowths during gneissification. It appears that the TGB was not affected by the events posterior to its genesis, i.e. the Liberian (2.9-2.7 Ga) and Eburnean (2.4-2.0 Ga) events. Additionally, the TGB proves to be a juvenile Leonian rock, as indicated by the Nd model age of 3456 Ma, and could also constitute the protolith of the granulitic grey gneisses and charnockites of the Man area, which are 150-400 Ma younger.

  3. THE GROWTH OF THE SOUTH MARGIN FAULT OF THE YUXIAN-GUANGLING BASIN IN NORTHWEST BEIJING AREA%京西北蔚县-广灵半地堑盆地南缘断裂带的断层生长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 田勤俭; 李德文; 张效亮

    2011-01-01

    通过高分辨率遥感影像解译、高分辨率DEM三维分析、野外地质地貌调查以及探槽开挖等方法,对蔚县-广灵盆地南缘断裂带上多处断层生长发育的现象进行了分析和研究.结果发现,断层的生长发育主要发生在几何结构不规则的区段,亦即断层的生长是由其几何结构不规则性决定的.这种不规则性主要包括几何形态的不平滑性或不连续性.断层的生长发育具有一种“截弯取直”的趋势和效应,消除几何结构的不规则性,使断层变得更加平滑和连续,结果是降低了滑动面的粗糙程度,更加有利于盆地内半地堑地块沿滑动面进行下滑运动.此外,断层的生长发育受不规则形态的空间尺度的影响,“截弯取直”的程度随着不规则形态空间尺度增大而降低.%Yuxian-Guangling Basin is a half-graben basin unit belonging to the basin-ridge structure zone in northwest Beijing area. The southern boundary of this basin is controlled by a normal fault belt called the Yuguang Basin South Margin Fault ( YBSMF). The YBSMF is about 120km long, with a general strike of N70°E,and is an active fault zone.The YBSMF was evolved from the propagation, interaction or linkage of existing isolated segments and the forming of new fault segments, and there are actually many segments and places along the YBSMF where the faults propagate and grow. However, except the study on the fault growth at the Jiugongkou segment by Cheng Shaoping in 1998,which indicated that the fault has propagated several kilometers westwardly in the late Late Pleistocene alluvial fans, the research about the propagation and growth of the faults at other places and segments is quite limited. At these segments and places, in what ways or patterns does the fault propagate, grow, link and evolve? What on earth controls and affects the propagation and growth of the faults? All these questions still remain unanswered yet and deserve further analysis

  4. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the.... longitude to the North American land mass; thence along the west coast of the North, Central, and...

  5. Tree Trunks from MIS3 Revealed in Pacific Northwest Landslide Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, P. K.; Leavitt, S. W.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Jull, A. T.; Testa, N. R.; Squire, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple large tree trunks have been discovered in landslide deposits dating to before the last full-glacial provide a new source for paleo-climatic reconstructions from the northwest coast of North America. Excavation during US Highway 20 realignment through the Oregon Coast Range uncovered organic deposits at depth that included the boles of twelve large trees. Radiocarbon dates on subsurface organic material from multiple landslide deposits range from 17,850 ± 100 to >46,400 (radiocarbon dates B.P.). A single cohort of twelve tree trunks, found emplaced nearly upright, date to >53,000 radiocarbon years B.P. The sedimentary deposits are interpreted as paleo-translational landslides involving the Tyee Formation. The trees are tentatively identified as Thuja plicata, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Abies spp. Preservation of the wood material and associated macrofossils is excellent because of clay sediments that encased the material, halting decomposition. Preliminary analysis shows excellent preservation of late-wood rings but the early wood is composed primarily of ghost tracheids. Ring counts from a portion of the Thuja plicata bole, a four inch block of outer rings, contained between 120 to 130 rings of annual growth with good sensitivity for climate reconstruction. This makes the find particularly important for inferring high-resolution environmental variability, because it is one of only very few deposits of wood of this age worldwide. In addition to paleobotanical and paleoclimatic information, the large amount of wood will be used for radioisotope and stable isotope studies.

  6. Changing Sea Ice Conditions in the Northwest Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivy, A. C.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Derksen, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Northwest Passage lies in the middle of Canadian Arctic Archipelago providing a potential deepwater route that links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Discovered by Sir Robert M’Clure in the 1850s, ever-present multi-year ice (MYI) has always prevented its practical navigation. 2007 marked extreme low MYI conditions in the Arctic and temporarily cleared the Northwest Passage. However, is one single clearing event within the Northwest Passage over the past 40 years indicative of future clearings? This analysis addressed two inter-related questions: i) why has the Northwest Passage contained historically heavy amounts of MYI? and ii) will decreases in MYI within the Northwest Passage continue into the future? Results indicate that for nearly 4 decades, the southern regions of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have continuously operated as a drain-trap for MYI and this mechanism is responsible for maintaining the heavy MYI conditions within the Northwest Passage. The oldest and thickest MYI in the world resides along the northern flank of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago therefore, as the transition to a sea ice-free Arctic continues, MYI from this region will continue to migrate southward to the channels of the Northwest Passage. Results also find that 2007 was indeed an anomalously light sea ice year in the Northwest Passage but record low ice conditions have since been observed as of mid-August 2010.

  7. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2˜50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2˜55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km˜26 °C/km and 12 °C/km˜30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  8. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured fluid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic properties of the genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf Coast region were systematically investigated classified, and differentiated. The following topics are coverd: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs, characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast sandstones; fault-compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer fluid volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, Wells of Opportunity; internal properties of sandstones; and implications for geopressured fluid production. (MHR)

  9. 78 FR 68764 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... fixed gear sectors managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action... catcher/processor trawl fleets (whiting only). Since that time, the Pacific Fishery Management...

  10. The Holocene palaeogeography and relative sea level for two tidal basins of the German North Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungenstock, Friederike; Wartenberg, Wolfram; Mauz, Barbara; Freund, Holger; Frechen, Manfred; Weerts, Henk J. T.; Berner, Heinrich

    2014-05-01

    autonomous from isochronic relative sea-level. This all shows the importance to understand the differences of local landscape and depositional developments for a reliable interpretation of sea-level data. References Bungenstock, F. & Schäfer, A. (2009): The Holocene relative sea-level curve for the tidal basin of the barrier island Langeoog, German Bight, Southern North Sea. - Global and Planetary Change 66: 34-51. Bungenstock, F. & Weerts, H.J.T. (2011): The high-resolution Holocene sea-level curve for Nothwest Germany: global signals, local effects or data-artefacts? - International Journal of Earth Sciences 99: 1687-1706. Bungenstock, F. & Weerts, H.J.T. (2012): Holocene relative sea-level curves for the German North Sea coast. International Journal of Earth Sciences. ? - International Journal of Earth Sciences 101:1083-1099. Mauz, B. & Bungenstock, F. (2007):. How to reconstruct trends of late Holocene relative sea level: A new approach using tidal flat clastic sediments and optical dating. Marine Geology 237: 225-237. Wartenberg, W. & Freund, H. (2011): Late Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary record within the Jade Bay, Lower Saxony, Northwest Germany - New aspects for the palaeoecological record. - Quaternary International:1-11. Wartenberg, W., Vött, A., Freund, H. Hadler, H., Frechen, M., Willershäuser, T., Schnaidt, S., Fischer, P. & Obrocki, L. (2013): Evidence of isochronic transgressive surfaces within the Jade Bay tidal flfl at area, southern German North Sea coast - Holocene event horizons of regional interest. - Zeitschrift für Geomorphologi, Supplementary Issue. DOI: 10.1127/0372-8854/2013/S-00150

  11. USGS science for the Nation's changing coasts; shoreline change assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2011-01-01

    The coastline of the United States features some of the most popular tourist and recreational destinations in the world and is the site of intense residential, commercial, and industrial development. The coastal zone also has extensive and pristine natural areas, with diverse ecosystems providing essential habitat and resources that support wildlife, fish, and human use. Coastal erosion is a widespread process along most open-ocean shores of the United States that affects both developed and natural coastlines. As the coast changes, there are a wide range of ways that change can affect coastal communities, habitats, and the physical characteristics of the coast?including beach erosion, shoreline retreat, land loss, and damage to infrastructure. Global climate change will likely increase the rate of coastal change. A recent study of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic coast, for example, found that it is virtually certain that sandy beaches will erode faster in the future as sea level rises because of climate change. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for conducting research on coastal change hazards, understanding the processes that cause coastal change, and developing models to predict future change. To understand and adapt to shoreline change, accurate information regarding the past and present configurations of the shoreline is essential. A comprehensive, nationally consistent analysis of shoreline movement is needed. To meet this national need, the USGS is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean coasts of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii, as well as the coasts of the Great Lakes.

  12. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 per year was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 per year due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3− particles (0.1 μg m−3 per year was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential

  13. A Comment and an Analysis of the Management System of the Irrigating--water in the Arid Northwest Inland--river Area of the Early Modern Times: A Case Study of Hexi Gansu%近代西北干旱内陆河区灌溉水管理制度评析——以甘肃省河西地区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓军

    2012-01-01

    In the early modern times, the social communities were founded along the river valleys and irrigating dykes in the arid northwest inland--river area. In order to solve the conflicts caused by the using water, and to manage efficiently the allocation of the water resources, the regulations of allocating water were established by the counties between the upper and the lower reaches, the management institution of the irrigating--water was set up by each county, the irrigating regulations were universally made to stipu- late the usage of the irrigating--water, and to make clear the users' rights and responsibilities. The fact not only reflects the general vicissitudes of the rural villages in the arid northwest inland--river area, but also show us that the management of the irrigating water exerts tremendous influence on the rural commu- nities in the area of fragile environment. Examining the problem from a historical perspective, the signifi- cances of it are: the key spirit of the management of the irrigating--water is fairness and impartiality, and the basic responsibility of the local government is to defend the masses' rights and interests of using wa- ter; the only way out of the conflicts caused by water supply is to provide more water and develop water resources; the development and management of irrigating--water can expand the living space of human-- being, and become the fundamental social bonds; the right to manage the irrigating-- water was monopo- lized by the gentry class combined with religious authority show clearly the limitation of the times.%近代西北干旱内陆河区形成了以流域和灌溉渠系为纽带的社会群落,为了解决用水纠纷,做好水资源的管理分配,河流上下游各县之间制定了分水制度,各县建立灌溉用水的管理机构,灌区内普遍制定了水规,规定灌溉水的使用方法,明确用户的权利与责任。其不但反映了西北干旱内陆河区农村村社变迁的

  14. 75 FR 79956 - Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 53 RIN 1625-AB33 Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: By this direct final rule, the Coast Guard is amending its ``Coast Guard Whistleblower Protection'' regulations to conform...

  15. 76 FR 17782 - Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 53 RIN 1625-AB33 Protection for Whistleblowers in the Coast Guard AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Direct final rule; confirmation of effective date. SUMMARY: On December 21, 2010, the Coast Guard published a direct final rule that notified the public of the Coast...

  16. Probabilistic estimation of dune retreat on the Gold Coast, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2014-01-01

    Sand dunes are an important natural buffer between storm impacts and development backing the beach on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. The ability to forecast dune erosion at a prediction horizon of days to a week would allow efficient and timely response to dune erosion in this highly populated area. Towards this goal, we modified an existing probabilistic dune erosion model for use on the Gold Coast. The original model was trained using observations of dune response from Hurricane Ivan on Santa Rosa Island, Florida, USA (Plant and Stockdon 2012. Probabilistic prediction of barrier-island response to hurricanes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(F3), F03015). The model relates dune position change to pre-storm dune elevations, dune widths, and beach widths, along with storm surge and run-up using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian approach captures the uncertainty of inputs and predictions through the conditional probabilities between variables. Three versions of the barrier island response Bayesian network were tested for use on the Gold Coast. One network has the same structure as the original and was trained with the Santa Rosa Island data. The second network has a modified design and was trained using only pre- and post-storm data from 1988-2009 for the Gold Coast. The third version of the network has the same design as the second version of the network and was trained with the combined data from the Gold Coast and Santa Rosa Island. The two networks modified for use on the Gold Coast hindcast dune retreat with equal accuracy. Both networks explained 60% of the observed dune retreat variance, which is comparable to the skill observed by Plant and Stockdon (2012) in the initial Bayesian network application at Santa Rosa Island. The new networks improved predictions relative to application of the original network on the Gold Coast. Dune width was the most important morphologic variable in hindcasting dune retreat, while hydrodynamic variables, surge and

  17. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region.

  18. Indoor air quality measurements in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, B.H.; Brown, J.T.; Geisling-Sobotka, K.; Froehlich, D.A.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Harrison, J.; Revzan, K.L.

    1986-06-01

    A Bonneville Power Administration-funded study monitored ventilation rates and a variety of indoor air pollutants in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings. The buildings ranged in age from 6 months to 90 years, in size from 864 to 34,280 m/sup 2/, and occupancy from 25 to 2500 people. Building average formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were below the 20 ppB detection limit in 48% of the buildings. Nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) concentration averages ranged from 5 ppB to 43 ppB and were lower than outdoor concentrations in 8 of 13 buildings. At only one site, an elementary school classroom, did carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) exceed 1000 ppM. Radon (Rn) levels were elevated in one building with an average concentration of 7.4 pCiL/sup -1/. Respirable particles (RSP) concentrations in smoking areas in 32 buildings had a geometric mean of 44 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ and ranged up to 308 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ at one site. In non-smoking areas the geometric mean RSP was 15 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. Outside air ventilation rates did not appear to be the single dominant parameter in determining indoor pollutant concentrations. Measured pollutant concentrations in 2 ''complaint'' buildings were below accepted guidelines. The cause of the complaints was not identified.

  19. Observation of Directional Ocean Wave Spectra in China Seas and Northwest Pacific Ocean Using SAR Retrieval Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Kan; He, Mingxia

    2014-11-01

    A software to retrieve directional ocean wave spectra from SAR images has been developed for China seas and northwest Pacific. The software, written with C programming language, is based on the MPI method proposed by Hasselmann. It is designed to support the wave mode SAR data of ERS, Envisat, Sentinel and so on. The directional ocean wave spectra produced by this software are validated with buoy data in global ocean area, northwest Pacific and China seas and the retrieved significant wave height (SWH) errors are 5.2%, 4.9% and 9.3% respectively. About 15,000 directional ocean wave spectra are obtained with the software from the wave mode data of Envisat/ASAR over the China seas and northwest Pacific during the period between Jan 2003 and Jan 2012. The preliminary analysis is presented.

  20. The effect of changing sea ice on the physical vulnerability of Arctic coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Barnhart

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice limits the interaction of the land and ocean water in the Arctic winter and influences this interaction in the summer by governing the fetch. In many parts of the Arctic, the open-water season is increasing in duration and summertime sea-ice extents are decreasing. Sea ice provides a first-order control on the physical vulnerability of Arctic coasts to erosion, inundation, and damage to settlements and infrastructures by ocean water. We ask how the changing sea-ice cover has influenced coastal erosion over the satellite record. First, we present a pan-Arctic analysis of satellite-based sea-ice concentration specifically along the Arctic coasts. The median length of the 2012 open-water season, in comparison to 1979, expanded by between 1.5 and 3-fold by Arctic Sea sector, which allows for open water during the stormy Arctic fall. Second, we present a case study of Drew Point, Alaska, a site on the Beaufort Sea, characterized by ice-rich permafrost and rapid coastal-erosion rates, where both the duration of the open-water season and distance to the sea-ice edge, particularly towards the northwest, have increased. At Drew Point, winds from the northwest result in increased water levels at the coast and control the process of submarine notch incision, the rate-limiting step of coastal retreat. When open-water conditions exist, the distance to the sea ice edge exerts control on the water level and wave field through its control on fetch. We find that the extreme values of water-level setup have increased consistently with increasing fetch.

  1. Systems Engineering of Coast Guard Aviator Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eugene R.; Caro, Paul W.

    This paper describes a total-program application of the systems engineering concept of the U.S. Coast Guard aviation training programs. The systems approach used treats all aspects of the training to produce the most cost-effective integration of academic, synthetic, and flight training for the production of graduate Coast Guard aviators. The…

  2. A high-resolution numerical study at the Canary Islands off Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Evan; Colas, Francois; Molemaker, Jeroen; Sangrà, Pablo; Pascual, Ananda; McWilliams, James

    2015-04-01

    The Canary Island archipelago lies partially within the upwelling region off the northwest coast of Africa where it perturbs the southwestward flowing Canary Current. The circulation around the islands is complex, as has been revealed in studies based on satellite imagery and from in situ data. Cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies are shed by the islands. Filaments of cold upwelling water extend from the African coast and interact with the island eddies. However, our understanding of these mesoscale features and their interactions is still limited by the sparsity of data available. Few modelling studies have been done for the Canary Island region, and none has yet specifically addressed the dynamics of the island and coastal circulation. A high-resolution regional ocean model (ROMS) configuration has been developed to study the dynamics in this region. We take an offline-nesting approach: A large domain that covers the Canary Basin at 7.5-km resolution feeds two successively finer domains of 3 and 1 km. The 1 km grid is focused on the Canary Islands and nearby African coast. The surface and boundary forcings are climatological. Results at the basin scale have shown a good agreement with the observed regional seasonal cycle. Here, we present preliminary results from the nested solutions where eddies, fronts and filaments are found in abundance. Model eddy conversion terms confirm the observed seasonal cycle of eddy generation, and point to both baroclinic and barotropic processes as sources of instability. Submesocale activity exhibits a pronounced seasonal cycle which is consistent with previous studies in other regions. Time series of drag and lift forces at the island of Gran Canaria are discussed that show the high variability of the incident Canary Current and the associated eddy generation process.

  3. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  4. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  5. Trends in monthly precipitation over the northwest of Iran (NWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakereh, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Increasing global temperatures during the last century have had their own effects on other climatic conditions, particularly on precipitation characteristics. This study was meant to investigate the spatial and temporal monthly trends of precipitation using the least square error (LSE) approach for the northwest of Iran (NWI). To this end, a database was obtained from 250 measuring stations uniformly scattered all over NWI from 1961 to 2010. The spatial average of annual precipitation in NWI during the period of study was approximately 220.9-726.7 mm. The annual precipitation decreased from southwest to northeast, while the large amount of precipitation was concentrated in the south-west and in the mountainous areas. All over NWI, the maximum and minimum precipitation records occurred from March to May and July to September, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) is greater than 44 % in all of NWI and may reach over 76 % in many places. The greatest range of CV, for instance, occurred during July. The spatial variability of precipitation was consistent with a tempo-spatial pattern of precipitation trends. There was a considerable difference between the amounts of change during the months, and the negative trends were mainly attributed to areas concentrated in eastern and southern parts of NWI far from the western mountain ranges. Moreover, limited areas with positive precipitation trends can be found in very small and isolated regions. This is observable particularly in the eastern half of NWI, which is mostly located far from Westerlies. On the other hand, seasonal precipitation trends indicated a slight decrease during winter and spring and a slight increase during summer and autumn. Consequently, there were major changes in average precipitation that occurred negatively in the area under study during the observation period. This finding is in agreement with those findings by recent studies which revealed a decreasing trend of around 2 mm/year over NWI

  6. Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROOROCU M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Among these, a goodexample is the hexachlorocyclohexane soil pollution from Turda Area. The soil quality from this region is also affected by otheractivities like: waste disposal, oil and natural gases extraction.

  7. SEAWATER INTRUSION TYPES AND REGIONAL DIVISIONS IN THE SOUTHERN COAST OF LAIZHOU BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广兰; 韩有松; 王少青; 王珍岩

    2002-01-01

    The southern coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, is one of the areas in China most seriously impacted by seawater intrusion. Based on the sources of intruding wate rbodies, seawater intrusion can be divided into two types: intrusion of saline water derived from modern seawater, and intrusion of subsurface brine and saline water derived from paleo-seawater in shallow Quaternary sediments. There are so me distinct differences in their formation, mechanism and damage. The subsurface brine intrusion is a special typ e, which can cause very serious disaster.The coastal landform and the Quaternary hydrogeological environment are pr edominant factors in the classification of seawater intrusion types. Various coastal environments in diff erent coastal sections result in three types of intrusion: seawater intrusion, saline groundwater intrusion, and mixed seawater and saline water intrusion, in the southern coast of Laizhou Bay, which can be divided into four areas: the seawater intrusion area in the northern Laizhou City coast, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater in trusion area in the Baisha River-Jiaolai River mouth plain area, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrus ion area in the Weihe River mouth plain area northern Changyi county coast, and the saline groundwater intrusion area in the northern Shouguang plains.

  8. SEAWATER INTRUSION TYPES AND REGIONAL DIVISIONS IN THE SOUTHERN COAST OF LAIZHOU BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广兰; 韩有松; 王少青; 王珍岩

    2002-01-01

    The southern coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, is one of the areas in China most seriously impacted by seawater intrusion. Based on the sources of intruding waterbedies, seawater intrusion can be divided into two types: intrusion of saline water derived from modern seawater, and intrusion of subsurface brine and saline water derived from paleo-seawater in shallow Quaternary sediments. There are some distinct differences in their formation, mechanism and damage. The subsurface brine intrusion is a special type, which can cause very serious disaster. The coastal landform and the Quaternary hydrogeological environment are predominant factors in the classification of seawater intrusion types. Various coastal environments in different coastal sections result in three types of intrusion: seawater intrusion, saline groundwater intrusion, and mixed seawater and saline water intrusion, in the southern coast of Laizhou Bay, which can be divided into four areas: the sea-water intrusion area in the northern Laizhou City coast, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrusion area in the Baisha River-Jiaolai River mouth plain area, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrusion area in the Weihe River mouth plain area northern Changyi county coast, and the saline ground-water intrusion area in the northern Shouguang plains.

  9. Evolution of Modern Yellow River Delta Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹延鸿; 周永青; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and evolution of modem Yellow River delta and the erosion or deposition rates of its different sections. In June, 1996,Yellow Rivers terminal course was artificially turned eastwards to empty into the sea and then the 11th lobe of the modern Yellow River delta began to form. This course change may mark the beginning of the 3rd subdelta formation. As a result of that, the Yellow River delta advances towards east by north with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd subdeltas arranged in succession. Coast zone in the deltaic area is divided into 7 different sections according to their different erosion or deposition rates: the relatively stable section from Dakou River to Shunjiang Stream, the weakly retreating section from Shun jiang Stream to the Tiaohe River mouth, the strongly retreating section from the Tiaohe River mouth to the station 106, the artificially stable section due to stone dam protection from the station 106 to Gudong Oilfield, the strong deposition section from Gudong Oilfield to Dawenliu Haipu, the weakly deposition section from Dawenliu Haipu to the Zimai Stream mouth, and the stable section from the Zimai Stream mouth to the Jiaolai River mouth. It is predicted that the erosion and deposition situations of the sections will nearly remain the same in 10 years, but the retreating and silting-up rates will tend to become slower gradually. Human activities have an evident influence on the changes of the coastline.

  10. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  11. Implications for Fault and Basin Geometry in the Central California Coast Ranges from Preliminary Gravity and Magnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Jachens, R. C.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Preliminary aeromagnetic and newly processed gravity data help define block-bounding faults and deep sedimentary basins in the central California Coast Ranges, ranging from the Hosgri fault east to the San Andreas fault and from Monterey Bay south to Pt. Conception. Interpretation of these data results in an improved framework for seismic hazard and groundwater studies. Aeromagnetic data include a new survey with a flight-line spacing of 800 m at a nominal 300 m above ground and covering 15,000 km2. More than 11,500 gravity measurements, reprocessed with terrain corrections calculated from 30-m DEMs, form a roughly 2-km grid over most of the study area. Combined potential-field data and existing geologic mapping, delineate major fault-bounded blocks in the central California Coast Ranges. Main block-bounding faults from west to east include the San Gregorio- Hosgri, San Luis-Willmar-Santa Maria River-Little Pine, Oceanic-West Huasna, Nacimiento, Rinconada-South Cuyama, San Juan-Chimineas-Morales, and San Andreas faults. Most of these faults have evidence of Quaternary activity. Gravity gradients indicate that the reach of the San Andreas fault bounding the Gabilan Range and the northern extension of the Rinconada fault bounding the Santa Lucia Range dip steeply southwestward and have a reverse component of slip. Magnetic and microseismicity data suggest that the northern reach of the Hosgri fault dips eastward. The potential-field data also delineate several deep sedimentary basins, such as the 3-4 km deep Cuyama basin, the Santa Maria basin, and several basins along and possibly offset by the Rinconada fault. Gravity data show that the main west-northwest-striking faults bounding the Cuyama basin dip away from the basin, indicating compression adjacent to the big bend in the San Andreas fault. Prominent gravity and magnetic highs northeast of the San Andreas fault immediately east of Cuyama Valley suggest that there the San Andreas fault dips southwest. Such dip

  12. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  13. Distribution and abundance of macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musale, Amar S; Desai, Dattesh V

    2011-07-01

    Macrobenthic polychaetes play a significant role in marine benthic food chain. A study was carried out to observe the abundance and diversity of soft bottom macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast, along with observations on sediment characteristics. The present study indicated an increase in the polychaete diversity as compared to earlier reports. Sixty-three different forms of polychaetes were identified along the coast, which constitute the bulk of the macrobenthic fauna. Thirty-eight species of polychaetes showed higher abundance along the west coast, whereas 25 species showed higher abundance along the east coast. Seabed composition showed a spatial variation in its composition along the coast. Occurrence of Prionospio pinnata and Capitella capitata the deposit feeders and indicators of organic pollution suggesting the sampled area is organically rich. Polychaete abundance was found to be higher along the west coast and was attributed to loose texture of sediment due to high sand and sandy-silt resulting in higher interstitial space for organisms to harbor. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that majority of polychaete species preferred low organic carbon, sandy silt, or sandy-clay substratum. The lower polychaete abundance at high organic carbon and high silt and clay areas can be attributed to avoidance of organisms to rich organic matter and suboxic levels, being a possible indication that these characteristics adversely affects the polychaete abundance and distribution.

  14. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

  15. Muddy Coast Dynamics and Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerfve, Björn

    Muddy coasts are land-sea transitional environments common along low-energy shorelines around the world. They exist in climatic settings and tidal regimes ranging from microtidal to macro-tidal. Climatic warming and relative sea level rise are likely to have a greater impact on low-lying muddy coasts and deltas than most other coastal environments. This was the working hypothesis of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group 106, “Relative Sea Level and Muddy Coasts of the World,” which concluded its deliberations in the late 1990s.

  16. Palaeoglaciation of Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, northwest Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowton, T.; Hughes, P. D.; Gibbard, P. L.

    2009-07-01

    Detailed geomorphological mapping provides evidence for at least three phases of glaciation in the Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, in northwest Spain. The most extensive glaciation was characterised by a large plateau ice cap. A combination of geomorphological evidence and glacier modelling indicates that this ice cap covered an area of more than 440 km 2, with a maximum ice thickness of c. 300 m and outlet glaciers reaching as low as 1000 m. This represents the largest ice mass in Iberia outside the Pyrenees and one of the largest in the mountains of southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Radiocarbon dates from the base of lacustrine sequences appear to suggest that the most extensive phase of ice-cap glaciation occurred during the last cold stage (Weichselian) with deglaciation occurring before 14-15 ka 14C BP. A second phase of glaciation is recorded by the moraines of valley glaciers, which may have drained small plateau ice caps; whilst a final phase of glaciation is recorded by moraines in the highest cirques.

  17. New chromosome reports in Lamiaceae of Kashmir (Northwest Himalaya), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Reyaz Ahmad; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Singh, Vijay; Bala, Santosh; Kumari, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Meiotic studies and chromosome data are imperative in order to have an overall germplasm evaluation of a taxon. In the present effort, the meiotic study is carried out in 48 populations belonging to 26 species of Lamiaceae collected from their natural habitats in Kashmir Himalaya, which forms an important part of Northwest Himalaya. Chromosome counts in the five species viz. Dracocephalum nutans (2n = 10), Lycopus europaeus (2n = 22), Marrubium vulgare (2n = 54), Nepeta nervosa (2n = 18) and Salvia sclarea (2n = 22) are first time reported from India. Besides, 17 species are cytologically evaluated for the first time from the study area-Kashmir Himalaya. In Marrubium vulgare, hexaploid cytotype (2n = 6 × =54) is reported for the first time. Also, diploid and tetraploid cytomorphovariants are observed in Calamintha vulgaris (2n = 20, 40), Elsholtzia ciliata (2n = 16, 32) and Mentha longifolia (2n = 20, 40). Various meiotic abnormalities like chromatin stickiness, cytomixis, nonsynchronous disjunction, laggards, chromatin bridges, etc. leading to pollen abnormalities have been documented for the first time in some species. The worldwide status of chromosome number data in each genus is presented.

  18. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  19. Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature and local topography effects on coastal fog: Case study of 21-22 January 2008 event on the west coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Driss; Bergot, Thierry; El Khlifi, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    The life cycle of fog over coastal regions is very sensitive to the heterogeneity of the landform and to the vicinity to the Ocean. Thus, the influence of the sea surface temperature (SST) and local topography on the evolution of a coastal fog is assessed in this study by performing sensitivity experiments. To achieve this, the numerical simulations are performed with the three-dimensional research model Meso-NH. This fog event occurred at the Grand Casablanca region, in the northwest coast of Morocco, during the night of 21-22 January 2008 and last more than 12 hours. It was analyzed using standard meteorological observations from the two synoptic stations of the region, the observed radio-sounding at the coastal station, the MSG satellite imagery and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. The numerical simulation reproduced well the main features of this fog event since its formation to its dissipation. The numerical results demonstrated that this fog event was of a radiation type over land, due to the nocturnal radiative cooling and the turbulence. And one hour later near the coast, the fog was resulting from base lowering of Stratus low cloud, due to the cloud top cooling and the vertical turbulent mixing. The sensitivity experiments to SST demonstrate that varying SST in space and time affects the spatial distribution of the fog layer over an area of about 20km around the coast. Besides, the SST governs the thermodynamic fluxes at the air-sea interface, and then affects the life cycle of this fog event, in particular in the mature and dissipation phases. On the other hand, the sensitivity experiments to local coastal topography demonstrated its impact on the speed and direction of wind in the boundary layer during the different phases of the life cycle of this fog event. Then, it was found that the heterogeneities of terrain over the coastal regions affect the horizontal extension of this fog event during the mature phase and its evolution during the dissipation

  20. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Dudley, Junqiao

    2010-03-17

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) demonstrated and evaluated open automated demand response (OpenADR) communication infrastructure to reduce winter morning and summer afternoon peak electricity demand in commercial buildings the Seattle area. LBNL performed this demonstration for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the Seattle City Light (SCL) service territory at five sites: Seattle Municipal Tower, Seattle University, McKinstry, and two Target stores. This report describes the process and results of the demonstration. OpenADR is an information exchange model that uses a client-server architecture to automate demand-response (DR) programs. These field tests evaluated the feasibility of deploying fully automated DR during both winter and summer peak periods. DR savings were evaluated for several building systems and control strategies. This project studied DR during hot summer afternoons and cold winter mornings, both periods when electricity demand is typically high. This is the DRRC project team's first experience using automation for year-round DR resources and evaluating the flexibility of commercial buildings end-use loads to participate in DR in dual-peaking climates. The lessons learned contribute to understanding end-use loads that are suitable for dispatch at different times of the year. The project was funded by BPA and SCL. BPA is a U.S. Department of Energy agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon and serving the Pacific Northwest. BPA operates an electricity transmission system and markets wholesale electrical power at cost from federal dams, one non-federal nuclear plant, and other non-federal hydroelectric and wind energy generation facilities. Created by the citizens of Seattle in 1902, SCL is the second-largest municipal utility in America. SCL purchases approximately 40% of its electricity and the majority of its transmission from BPA through a preference contract. SCL also

  1. Whole genome sequence analysis of Cryptococcus gattii from the Pacific Northwest reveals unexpected diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Gillece

    Full Text Available A recent emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in the Pacific Northwest involves strains that fall into three primarily clonal molecular subtypes: VGIIa, VGIIb and VGIIc. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST and variable number tandem repeat analysis appear to identify little diversity within these molecular subtypes. Given the apparent expansion of these subtypes into new geographic areas and their ability to cause disease in immunocompetent individuals, differentiation of isolates belonging to these subtypes could be very important from a public health perspective. We used whole genome sequence typing (WGST to perform fine-scale phylogenetic analysis on 20 C. gattii isolates, 18 of which are from the VGII molecular type largely responsible for the Pacific Northwest emergence. Analysis both including and excluding (289,586 SNPs and 56,845 SNPs, respectively molecular types VGI and VGIII isolates resulted in phylogenetic reconstructions consistent, for the most part, with MLST analysis but with far greater resolution among isolates. The WGST analysis presented here resulted in identification of over 100 SNPs among eight VGIIc isolates as well as unique genotypes for each of the VGIIa, VGIIb and VGIIc isolates. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found within each of the molecular subtype isolates, despite the fact that the VGIIb clade is thought to have emerged much earlier. The analysis presented here is the first multi-genome WGST study to focus on the C. gattii molecular subtypes involved in the Pacific Northwest emergence and describes the tools that will further our understanding of this emerging pathogen.

  2. Thresholds for protecting Pacific Northwest ecosystems from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: state of knowledge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Tonnie; Blett, Tamara; Porter, Ellen; Geiser, Linda; Graw, Rick; McMurray, Jill; Perakis, Steven S.; Rochefort, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service manage areas in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington – collectively referred to in this report as the Pacific Northwest - that contain significant natural resources and provide many recreational opportunities. The agencies are mandated to protect the air quality and air pollution-sensitive resources on these federal lands. Human activity has greatly increased the amount of nitrogen emitted to the atmosphere, resulting in elevated amounts of nitrogen being deposited in park and forest ecosystems. There is limited information in the Pacific Northwest about the levels of nitrogen that negatively affect natural systems, i.e., the critical loads. The National Park Service and U.S. Forest Service, with scientific input from the U.S. Geological Survey, have developed an approach for accumulating additional nitrogen critical loads information in the Pacific Northwest and using the data in planning and regulatory arenas. As a first step in that process, this report summarizes the current state of knowledge about nitrogen deposition, effects, and critical loads in the region. It also describes ongoing research efforts and identifies and prioritizes additional data needs.

  3. The Influence of Land Surface Changes on Regional Climate in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xingkui; ZHANG Feng; Jason K.LEVY

    2007-01-01

    Land surface changes effect the regional climate due to the complex coupling of land-atmosphere interactions. From 1995 to 2000, a decrease in the vegetation density and an increase in ground-level thermodynamic activity has been documented by multiple data sources in Northwest China, including meteorological, reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) satellite remote sensing data. As the ground-level thermodynamic activity increases, humid air from the surrounding regions converge toward desert (and semi-desert) regions, causing areas with high vegetation cover to become gradually more arid. Furthermore, land surface changes in Northwest China are responsible for a decrease in total cloud cover, a decline in the fraction of low and middle clouds, an increase in high cloud cover (due to thermodynamic activity) and other regional climatic adaptations. It is proposed that, beginning in 1995, these cloud cover changes contributed to a "greenhouse" effect, leading to the rapid air temperature increases and other regional climate impacts that have been observed over Northwest China.

  4. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  5. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  6. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  7. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  8. Arctic wildlife sketches: Bison of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the bison of the northwest territories. Historical range, physical description, reproduction, mortality, distribution, and the future of bison in...

  9. Arctic wildlife sketches: Muskox of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers muskox of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  10. Arctic wildlife sketches: Moose of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers moose of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  11. Black Beauty's Rainbow: Hyperspectral Imaging of Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, K. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Agee, C. B.; Wilson, J. H.; Greenberger, R. N.

    2014-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is used to characterize the first basaltic breccia from Mars, Northwest Africa 7034. Initial results show the spectral character of NWA 7034 is unlike other SNC meteorites and may be more representative of average martian crust.

  12. Northwest China covered by 750-kV power grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Being abundant in hydropower, coal, wind energy and solar energy etc., Northwest China is an important energy base with great potential. In recent years, along with the vigorous development of the energy base, the

  13. Arctic wildlife sketches: Whales of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers whales of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  14. Arctic wildlife sketches: Polar bear of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the biology of the polar bear, specific to the Northwest Territories, Canada. Physical description, habitat and distribution, behavior, food,...

  15. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Holmes County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007/2008 Northwest Florida Water...

  16. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program 1975 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. Such scenarios may themselves result from Federal development policies and programs, from regionally specific actions by the states and energy industries, or from actions taken by international factors currently importing energy resources into the region. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels.

  17. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  18. A survey of bees (hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Indiana dunes and Northwest Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, R.; Jean, R.P.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Gibbs, J.; Glowacki, G.A.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Indiana Dunes, and nearby natural areas in northwest Indiana, are floristically rich Midwest U.S. locales with many habitat types. We surveyed bees along a habitat gradient ranging from grasslands to forests in these locales, collecting at least 175 bee species along this gradient plus 29 additional species in other nearby habitats. About 25% of all species were from the genus Lasioglossum and 12% of the species were associated with sandy soils. Several bumblebee (Bombus) species of conservation concern that should occur in this region were not collected during our surveys. Similarity of the northwest Indiana bee fauna to other published U.S. faunas decreased about 1.3% per 100 km distance from northwest Indiana. Thirty percent of bees netted from flowers were males. Males and females differed significantly in their frequency of occurrence on different plant species. For bees collected in bowl traps, the percentage captured in fluorescent yellow traps declined and in fluorescent blue traps increased from spring to late summer. Capture rates for different bee genera varied temporally, with about a quarter of the genera being captured most frequently in late spring and a quarter in late summer. Capture rates for most genera were higher in more open than in more closed canopy habitats. The maximum number of plant species on which a single bee species was captured plateaued at 24, on average. Forty-nine percent of bee species known to occur in Indiana were found at these northwest Indiana sites. Having this relatively high proportion of the total Indiana bee fauna is consistent with Indiana Dunes existing at a biogeographic crossroads where grassland and forest biomes meet in a landscape whose climate and soils are affected by proximity to Lake Michigan. The resulting habitat, plant, edaphic, and climatic diversity likely produces the diverse bee community documented.

  19. A dynamic model for intertemporal allocation of old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Andrew D; Lee, John G; LeMaster, Dennis C

    2002-12-01

    Across the globe, continued policy debates regarding the management of old-growth forests center around the difficult task of balancing economic and ecological considerations. Though the forests of the Pacific Northwest United States are among the most studied old-growth ecosystems, ecological and economic analyses have yielded public land management directives that remain controversial. Specifically, the recently adopted Northwest Forest Plan lacks explicit goals for maintaining intergenerational equity for the use of forest resources and the diversity of old-growth ecosystems. Unlike previous studies which rely on monetary quantification of costs and benefits, this study develops and applies a conceptual framework for evaluating socially optimal Pacific Northwest old-growth forest utilization strategies. Conditions for the optimal management of old-growth forests are derived using dynamic programming. The objective function synthesizes relevant biological and economic attributes of the old-growth allocation problem. Results in the form of extraction paths are compared given social pressure for consumptive and non-consumptive benefits, as well as different planning horizons, rates of social time preference, and environmental variance. Lengthening the planning horizon results in a vast divergence of optimal policies in the absence of discounting. Extraction rates appear to approach zero as the planning horizon approaches infinity. While higher rates of social time preference increase the rate of extraction, forest stocks remaining at the terminal time period equal levels remaining with a lower discount rate. Increasing environmental variance results in a higher level of stock remaining at the terminal time period. This analysis, while specific to the old-growth controversy of the Pacific Northwest, does provide general guidelines for addressing similar problems of multiple uses of natural areas, particularly where such uses are mutually incompatible, or where one

  20. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  1. Distribution of seagrasses along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    . Halophila beccarii Aschers. was restricted to the intertidal mudflats in association with mangroves. The rich growth of seagrasses along the Tamil Nadu Coast and Lakshadweep can be attributed mainly to high salinity, clarity of the water and sandy substratum...

  2. Pacific Coast Groundfish Individual Fishing Quota Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On January 11, 2011, NOAA Fisheries implemented a new fishery management system for the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Catch Share Program as specified in the...

  3. Education by Television in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerien, Jean

    1981-01-01

    The management, administration, production, and broadcasting of educational television are discussed and evaluated with respect to its use in elementary education, training of teachers, and out-of-school education in the Ivory Coast during the 1970s. (CHC)

  4. Beryllium-10 in Ivory Coast Tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefiddin, F.; Herzog, G. F.; Koeberl, C.

    2005-03-01

    10Be concentrations in Ivory Coast tektites are consistent with formation from near surface terrestrial soils. Concentrations 77% lower than in Australasian tektites reflect differences in source materials, longer decay and environmental factors.

  5. Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment and Conservation Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed partnership to support a Gulf Coast Landscape Conservation Liaison will provide much needed coordination across multiple programs and partnerships to...

  6. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  7. CoastWatch Regions in HDF Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest. Each file contains multiple data variables stored using the HDF-4...

  8. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  9. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  10. Characterization of upwelling phenomenon along the Italian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasi, Arianna; Morucci, Sara; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Bignami, Francesco; Inghilesi, Roberto; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2013-04-01

    In order to investigate wind-driven upwelling along the Italian coasts, preliminary wind data provided by the ISPRA Italian Tide Gauge Measurement Network (RMN) have been analyzed. In a further step, MyOcean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data have been analyzed in order to define an SST index for wind-driven coastal upwelling assessment. At first, hourly wind data for the period 2009 - 2011 have been used in order to provide the statistical distribution and the wind rose plots at each RMN station. In particular, wind direction and speed have been selected in order to find upwelling-favorable areas and periods of time. E.g. wind directions in the sector between North and West in the Tyrrhenian Sea and between South and East in the Adriatic Sea have been defined as upwelling favorable, the wind sector being defined as the ± 30° arc around the direction parallel to the coast. Moreover only wind speeds greater than 3.0 m/s have been considered as significant for upwelling. For each location, the number of selected data has been divided by the total number of recorded wind data, thus obtaining a sort of upwelling frequency, which allows to define areas mostly exposed to upwelling. Once these areas were defined, satellite SST data have been used as a proxy to study the changes in upwelling intensity, since upwelling waters are colder than surrounding waters. So, in a given satellite SST image the upwelling event is identifiable through SST minima along the coasts. Finally, the SST upwelling index has been defined; also, this index has been "weighted" with wind intensity and direction indicating upwelling conditions obtained from the RMN wind dataset, to better distinguish between upwelling-favorable and downwelling-favorable conditions at each RMN site.

  11. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever in Children in the North-west of Iran, Qazvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Nooroozi, Sadralnesa

    2015-01-01

    Relapsing fever is caused by the Borrelia species of spirochetes. Louse-borne epidemics of the disease may happen but the endemic disease is generally transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick (Ornithodorus). Clinical and laboratory findings of tick-borne relapsing fever in children in the north-west of Iran, Qazvin, were evaluated. This study was conducted from September 1992 to September 2012. Records from 53 cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were reviewed. In positive cases, febrile illness, and spirochetes were recognized in peripheral blood preparations. Of the 53 children younger than 12 years, fifty two percent were male and about one third (34%) of the patients were in the age range of 7-12 years. The disease is recorded through the whole year but its peak occurs during summer (52.8%) and autumn (32.1%). Sixty eight percent of patients were living in urban areas but had frequent travel to rural area. Thirty two percent of the cases were living in rural areas where their dwellings were close to animal shelters. All (100%) of the 53 subjects were febrile. Travellers to the rural areas with high prevalence of the disease should be attentive of the risk of tick-borne relapsing fever and use suitable control measures. Consequently relapsing fever should be considered when patients who live in or have vacationed in north-west of Iran show a recurring febrile illness.

  12. Gulf Coast Geology (GCG) Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A large percentage of the present and future energy resources of the United States reside in the Gulf of Mexico Basin, one of the major hydrocarbon producing areas...

  13. Five centuries of U.S. West Coast drought: Occurrence, spatial distribution, and associated atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. West Coast drought commencing in 2012 developed in association with a large, persistent high-pressure ridge linked to internal atmospheric variability. This study places the occurrence, spatial patterns, and associated circulation features of West Coast drought into a paleoclimate context through a synoptic dendroclimatology approach linking atmospheric circulation to surface hydroclimate patterns. Spatial reconstructions of upper atmosphere pressure patterns and cool-season drought show that West Coast-wide drought, although relatively rare compared to north-south dipole drought, has occurred periodically since 1500 Common Era and is consistently associated with a strong ridge centered along the Pacific Northwest coast. Atmospheric blocking is also linked to north-dry dipole droughts, while south-dry and wider Western droughts indicate La Niña-type patterns. The transition latitude between the northern and southern sides of the western precipitation dipole, important for California hydroclimate patterns, has had frequent year-to-year fluctuations but remained centered on 40°N over the past five centuries.

  14. Modern temperate coral growth analysis in North-west Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Sakamoto, T.

    2011-12-01

    Massive coral skeletal growth parameters (skeletal density, extension and calcification rate) are one of the indexes of coral health and ecological response to the ambient environmental changes such as ocean acidification (OA) and global warming. To predict and evaluate the influence of the environment changes to the coral skeletal growth, the coral skeletal growth model (CGM) is one of the useful tools. The CGM is one of the equations consisted of the coral skeletal parameters as response variables and physical or chemical environmental factor such as sea surface temperature (SST), pH, insolation and so on as explanatory variables. The constructing of CGM is equal to the forming the equation and deciding its coefficients. However, there are no universal coral growth models. The aim of our study is to construct the GCM. It is important to analyze coral growth parameters in the past natural condition by using core of massive coral skeleton for our study. In the natural condition, high-latitude area is the best place to evaluate the influence of OA to coral skeletal growth because OA influence ocean organisms from high-latitude area where predicted to affected due to low SST and low carbonate saturation levels induced by dissolved atmospheric CO2 to the sea compared to tropical-subtropical area.This study shows recent temperate coral growth parameters collected from Kagoshima (c.a. 60years), Kochi (c.a. 25 years) and Wakayama (c.a. 30 years) in North-west Pacific, Japan and discusses the universal coral growth model. We quantified the coral growth parameters with uncertainty for the first time. The chronology was developed by δ 18O variant of coral skeletons making sure the forming time of high-low skeletal density area. To evaluate influence of annual SST, precipitation and insolation to coral calcification rate in the natural condition, we performed the regression tree and multiple regression models analysis. As the results, there were non-significances between

  15. The 365 AD tsunami imprint on the coasts of southwestern Crete - Sougia and Palaiochora case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Vera; Baika, Kalliopi; Tzigounaki, Anastasia; Tsigkou, Aggeliki; Fischer, Peter; Reicherter, Klaus; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Vött, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The southwestern coast of Crete, one of the most seismically active regions in Europe, is supposed to have been uplifted by up to 9 m during the mega-earthquake that struck the eastern Mediterranean world on July 21, 365 AD. An associated tsunami event is known to have caused thousands of fatalities and destroyed many coastal settlements and infrastructure between the Levante in the east and the Adriatic Sea in the northwest. Since this event, the entire southwestern coast of Crete has experienced strong erosion so that near-coast geological archives showing relevant Holocene sedimentary records are rare. So far, distinct palaeotsunami fingerprints from coastal archives in this region were unknown. A multi-proxy study including sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological and microfaunal methods was conducted at Sougia, within an ancient harbour basin, and around the promontory of Palaiochora. Detailed multi-electrode geoelectrical studies and several near-coast vibracores helped to detect promising local sedimentary archives. In addition, prominent elevated shorelines, evidenced by notches and algal rims, were measured with DGPS. Sedimentary archives found at Sougia and Palaiochora revealed distinct sedimentological, geochemical and geomorphological traces of high-energy inundation from the marine side. At Sougia, we found a sheet of allochthonous marine sand, partly cemented, intersecting silt-dominated harbour deposits. At Palaiochora, we found high-energy channels eroded in the local bedrock and filled with marine-borne sand and gravel on top of the Palaiochora isthmus, today some 400 m inland. Based on geochemical and microfaunal fingerprints and on sedimentary features, high-energy deposits are interpreted as tsunamites. 14C-AMS- and OSL dating approaches revealed that the tsunami sequences from both Sougia and Palaiochora were deposited during the 365 AD tsunami event. We also present and discuss conceptual tsunami landfall scenarios for both study sites.

  16. 33 CFR 52.42 - Views of the Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Views of the Coast Guard. 52.42 Section 52.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL BOARD FOR CORRECTION OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Submissions by the Coast Guard and Other...

  17. The Principle and Method for Delineation of Potential Seismic Sources in Northwest Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qing; Guo Shunmin; Xiang Hongfa

    2005-01-01

    Based on the collection and analysis of achievements of other scholars, and by consulting the results of seismic safety evaluation of engineering sites and field surveys of recent years, the seismotectonic indicators are determined for northwest Yunnan and its vicinity, and then potential seismic sources are further delineated. In practice, the following principles are applied: for areas with strong historical earthquakes, the recurrence principle is used to determine the upper bound magnitude; for areas with distinct seismogenic structure but no historical strong earthquake records, the tectonic analogy principle is used in the light of the size and activity behavior of the structure; for areas where the segmentation of the active fault is well studied, the potential sources will be demarcated more precisely; and for areas with buried fault, the seismicity pattern and geophysical abnormity are used to determine the direction of the major axis of the potential seismic source.

  18. Active Subduction on Both Coasts of Costa Rica Does not Represent an Important Tsunami Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.

    2007-05-01

    Costa Rica, on the southern terminus of the Middle American Trench is being affected by active subduction on both, along the Pacific coast as well as on its Caribbean coast. Three main subduction segments can be recognized along the Pacific coast: 1) under northwestern Costa Rica, off Papagayo Gulf and Nicoya peninsula, the Cocos plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate; 2) under southern Costa Rica (Osa and Burica peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under the Panama Block and 3) in the central Pacific coast (between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under a shear zone that marks the transition between the Caribbean and the Cocos plate. Along the Caribbean coast, south of Puerto Limon, the Caribbean plate subducts under the Panama block. Large subduction earthquakes occur under the Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limon. Most of the rupture area of these large events lies below land so the deformation of the ocean floor is minimal and therefore the tsunamis they generate are small. No large subduction earthquakes occur under the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica due to the subduction of small sea mounts that act as small asperities without potential to accumulate large amounts of slip. For this reason the region between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas is not an important tsunamigenic zone.

  19. Upwelling variability along the southern coast of Bali and in Nusa Tenggara waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, Nining Sari; Rakhmaputeri, Noviani; Harto, Agung B.

    2013-03-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of upwelling along the southern coast of Bali and in the Nusa Tenggara waters — Indonesia was studied by using satellite image data of sea surface temperatures and chlorophyll-a from September 1997 to December 2008. This study clearly reveals annual upwelling in the regions from June to October, associated with the southeast monsoon cycle, with the sea surface temperature (chlorophyll-a concentration) being colder (higher) than that during the northwest monsoon. In addition, this study also shows that the upwelling strength is controlled remotely by ENSO and IOD climate phenomena. During El Niño/positive IOD (La Niña/negative IOD) periods, the Bali — Nusa Tenggara upwelling strength increases (decreases).

  20. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story