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Sample records for area northwest coast

  1. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  2. Salmon, Science, and Reciprocity on the Northwest Coast

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bruce Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    Severe depletion of many genetically distinct Pacific salmon populations has spawned a contentious debate over causation and the efficacy of proposed solutions. No doubt the precipitating factor was overharvesting of the commons beginning along the Northwest Coast around 1860. Yet, for millenia before that, a relatively dense population of Indian tribes managed salmon stocks that have since been characterized as “superabundant.” This study investigates how they avoided a tragedy o...

  3. Salmon, Science, and Reciprocity on the Northwest Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bruce Johnsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe depletion of many genetically distinct Pacific salmon populations has spawned a contentious debate over causation and the efficacy of proposed solutions. No doubt the precipitating factor was overharvesting of the commons beginning along the Northwest Coast around 1860. Yet, for millenia before that, a relatively dense population of Indian tribes managed salmon stocks that have since been characterized as “superabundant.” This study investigates how they avoided a tragedy of the commons, where in recent history, commercial ocean fishers guided by scientifically informed regulators, have repeatedly failed. Unlike commercial fishers, the tribes enjoyed exclusive rights to terminal fisheries enforced through rigorous reciprocity relations. The available evidence is compelling that they actively husbanded their salmon stocks for sustained abundance.

  4. The Mamook Book: Activities for Learning About the Northwest Coast Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sharon; And Others

    A student activity book about the Northwest Coast provides "to-do" activities, such as reading, coloring, cutting out and putting together, while learning about the Northwest Coast tribes, their language, legends, clothing and ways of living. A map identifies the tribes and their location along the shores of Alaska, British Columbia, western…

  5. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  6. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  7. Labrets: Piercing and Stretching on the Northwest Coast and in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Reddish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of piercing and stretching the lip in order to accommodate a labret in two regions: the North American Northwest Coast (with historical examples from Tlingit and Haida groups and lowland South America (utilizing ethnographic writings on Suya and Kayapo communities. Drawing on the recent ‘sensorial turn’ within anthropology, I suggest an approach which goes beyond considerations of the symbolism of body ornaments and analyses how the infliction of pain they involve can be manipulated to serve social ends at a local level. Also discussed is the use of labrets within global ‘mediascapes’ (Appadurai 1996 by Kayapo and Northwest Coast groups in the context of self-representation and the politicization of ‘culture’ (Wright 1998.

  8. Food and feeding habits of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758) along the northwest coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswar, A.K.; GEORGE, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Megalaspis cordyla as one of the shoaling commercially important pelagic fish in the Northwest coast of India. The study on food and feeding habits of this fish revealed that it is predominantly a carnivorous species feeding primarily on sergestied shrimps like Acetes indicus and small fishes such as Stolephorus species. In addition it feeds on juveniles of Trichiurus, Apogon, Coilia, Sardinella, Nemipterus, Thryssa, and sciaenids. The food of M. cordyla also comprises the young ones of mollu...

  9. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ying-Ming

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction, this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area. The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense, and social management at meso-level. The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity. However, there are still many weak aspects. Firstly, social structure is not coordinated with econ...

  10. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  11. Ancient DNA analysis of mid-holocene individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America reveals different evolutionary paths for mitogenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinqiu Cui

    Full Text Available To gain a better understanding of North American population history, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes were generated from four ancient and three living individuals of the northern Northwest Coast of North America, specifically the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, current home to the indigenous Tsimshian, Haida, and Nisga'a. The mitogenomes of all individuals were previously unknown and assigned to new sub-haplogroup designations D4h3a7, A2ag and A2ah. The analysis of mitogenomes allows for more detailed analyses of presumed ancestor-descendant relationships than sequencing only the HVSI region of the mitochondrial genome, a more traditional approach in local population studies. The results of this study provide contrasting examples of the evolution of Native American mitogenomes. Those belonging to sub-haplogroups A2ag and A2ah exhibit temporal continuity in this region for 5000 years up until the present day. Of possible associative significance is that archaeologically identified house structures in this region maintain similar characteristics for this same period of time, demonstrating cultural continuity in residence patterns. The individual dated to 6000 years before present (BP exhibited a mitogenome belonging to sub-haplogroup D4h3a. This sub-haplogroup was earlier identified in the same general area at 10300 years BP on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and may have gone extinct, as it has not been observed in any living individuals of the Northwest Coast. The presented case studies demonstrate the different evolutionary paths of mitogenomes over time on the Northwest Coast.

  12. An Assessment on Economic Impact of Growth Over fishing of Commercially Important Marine Ariids Along Mumbai, Northwest Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar Sugumar; Jaiswar, A.K.; Ranjith Lakshmanan; Sushant K. Chakraborty; G. B. Purushottama; Vinay Deshmukh; Vinod Kavungal; Rani Mary George

    2016-01-01

    The economic assessment on juvenile landings of four dominant marine catfishes at New Ferry Wharf (NFW) landing centre, Mumbai, Northwest coast of India was carried out during January to December, 2013. The dominant catfishes viz. Nemapteryx caelata (19.7 %), Plicofollis dussumieri (21.5 %), P. tenuispinis (24.8 %) and Osteogeneiosus militaris (27.5 %) together contributing 93% of total marine catfish landings of the state. Among four species, the juvenile landings of N. caelata contribute ma...

  13. Detection of Seismic Anomalies Linked to Emanations of Hydrocarbons in the Cuban Northwest Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Miró Pagés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of hydrocarbons to international scale constitutes a very complex and expensive task. Traditionally in the coast areas like the ones in the present work, the location of the exploration wells has been based on derived structural and stratigraphic information of geophysical data, mainly seismic; however it is well-known that in several regions similar of the world, the detection of superficial seeps of hydrocarbons confirm the existence of oil systems, has contributed to achieve a bigger dependability of the carried out prospectings, what has great importance considering the millionaire character of the financial expenditures who demands. For that reason, the main objective was to try to identify seismic anomalies typically associate with existences of hydrocarbons in Cuban coastareas. The main conclusion of this article is that the identification of seismic anomalies similar to those observed in the course of the present work can constitute a valuable additional informative element for the prospecting of hydrocarbons in areas of the Cuban coast.

  14. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  15. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  16. Distribution of heavy metals in tissues of the shrimp Penaeus californiensis from the northwest coast of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Tron-Mayen, L. [National Autonomous Univ. of Mexico, Sinaloa (Mexico)

    1995-08-01

    The brown shrimp, Penaeus californiensis Holmes, is an Eastern Pacific species which is geographically distributed from San Francisco, California, USA, including the Gulf of California, to Callao, Peru. In Mexico and particularly in the Pacific Coast, this crustacean supports 75% of the commercial catch of shrimp. Knowledge of the distribution of metals in isolated tissues of marine organisms is useful in order to identify specific organs that may be particularly selective and sensitive to accumulation of heavy metals. This paper presents data on the levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn in five different tissues of the P. californiensis populations from the northwest coast of Mexico. Additionally, the accumulation of metals by males and females is examined. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Population structure of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Turner

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine bacterium and a leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of cold-water populations remains largely undescribed. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus originating largely from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR separated 167 isolates into 39 groups and subsequent multilocus sequence typing (MLST separated a subset of 77 isolates into 24 sequence types. The Pacific Northwest population exhibited a semi-clonal structure attributed to an environmental clade (ST3, N = 17 isolates clonally related to the pandemic O3:K6 complex and a clinical clade (ST36, N = 20 isolates genetically related to a regionally endemic O4:K12 complex. Further, the identification of at least five additional clinical sequence types (i.e., ST43, 50, 65, 135 and 417 demonstrates that V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in the Pacific Northwest is polyphyletic in nature. Recombination was evident as a significant source of genetic diversity and in particular, the recA and dtdS alleles showed strong support for frequent recombination. Although pandemic-related illnesses were not documented during the study, the environmental occurrence of the pandemic clone may present a significant threat to human health and warrants continued monitoring. It is evident that V. parahaemolyticus population structure in the Pacific Northwest is semi-clonal and it would appear that multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease in this region.

  18. Environmental assessment of rosetta area,mediterranean sea coast - egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is titled (Environmental Assessment of Rosetta Area,Mediterranean Sea Coast, Egypt). The environmental assessment can be defined here as the process of assessing the potential impacts (positive or negative) of the presence of certain influential on a particular ecosystem. Samples were collected from Abu Khashaba beach area, Rosetta on the Mediterranean Sea coast. Samples of the beach sediments, sea-water and the scattered shells in this coastal region were collected. Sediments in this region are characterized by its large content of heavy metals, which added to these sediments its black color. It is known that these black sands occurred along the Mediterranean Sea coast from Alexandria to Rafah. The advantage of these black sand deposits is their contents from multiple economic metals which have important industrial uses, such as magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, monazite, zircon, garnet and other important minerals. Ten sampling profiles spaced in-between by about 600 m distance, and extending into the land from the shoreline for about 50 m or less. Along each profile, three sediment samples were collected; the first sample from the surface at the beach line, the second sample from the end of the foreshore area at a depth of about 50 cm and the third sample was taken from the backshore area at a depth of about 1 m. Extending from each profile into the sea, marine-water samples were taken at a distance of about 3 m from the beach line, and from a depth of about 1 m below the sea surface. The shells samples were collected from the scattered shells on the beach. By examination of these samples a 15 different shells types were defined.

  19. Relationship of scarlet prawns (Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus) to a benthic oil deposit off the north-west coast of Aruba, Dutch West Indies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Farragut, R.N.; Thompson, M.H.

    1977-08-01

    Catch data resulting from sampling efforts off the north-west coast of Aruba, Dutch West Indies, demonstrated a greater catch rate of crustacea in areas where benthic oily material was collected as compared to adjacent areas where there was no oil. Scarlet prawns (Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus) were three times more abundant in the areas where benthic oil was found. They contained no isoprenoid hydrocarbons of the type common to most biological material or the type common to petroleum. However, they did contain an unusual n-paraffin hydrocarbon series (n-C/sub 22/, n-C/sub 25/, n-C/sub 28/, n-C/sub 31/, n-C/sub 34/), and in the areas where the benthic oily material was collected the prawns contained much greater quantities of the five n-paraffins given in the above sequence. A probable explanation for the greater abundance of crustacea in the area affected by the oily material is discussed. The accumulation and metabolism of hydrocarbons by marine organisms and how these processes relate to scarlet prawns are also discussed.

  20. Areas with access to municipal sewer service in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent areas that had access to municipal sewer service in the Pacific Northwest region...

  1. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaling Zhao; Hong Yan; Ruihai Yang; Qiang Li; Shaonong Dang; Yuying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Edu...

  2. An Assessment on Economic Impact of Growth Over fishing of Commercially Important Marine Ariids Along Mumbai, Northwest Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Sugumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic assessment on juvenile landings of four dominant marine catfishes at New Ferry Wharf (NFW landing centre, Mumbai, Northwest coast of India was carried out during January to December, 2013. The dominant catfishes viz. Nemapteryx caelata (19.7 %, Plicofollis dussumieri (21.5 %, P. tenuispinis (24.8 % and Osteogeneiosus militaris (27.5 % together contributing 93% of total marine catfish landings of the state. Among four species, the juvenile landings of N. caelata contribute maximum(93.17 % followed by P. dussumieri (57.14 %, O. militaris (36.11 % and P. tenuispinis (21.43 % with the maximum landing during November to March . The bioeconomic model reveals that if juveniles are allowed to grow up to length at first maturity (Lm; an estimated total annual economic gain will be Rs. 13.15 crores with an estimated biomass gain of 1222 t per annum. The estimated total annual biomass is increased by 2.07 times with an increase in additional revenue by 3.7 times would have been realised. The results of present study suggest that sustainable harvest of these resources would have been yielded maximum economic return to the fishers. With the help of stakeholders participatory approach, management measures such as strict mesh size regulation, effort restriction on bottom trawl up to 50 m depth and awareness campign on catching juveniles and adult in particulat to the oral incubated male ariids, would have been implemented during November to March to avoid growth over fishing.

  3. Fishery Resources in Arid Zone Mangroves in Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Northwest Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Saravanakumar; M. Rajkumar; J. Sesh Serebiah; G. A. Thivakaran

    2009-01-01

    The finfish and shellfish resources were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively in regard to their abundance in creek waters at three sites within a period of two years, from January 1999 to December 2000, in the western mangrove areas of Kachchh.The catch rate varied from 0.69 to 6.99 kg h-1. It was low during monsoon (July to October), which could be due to the freshwater-flow-induced salinity reduction in all the sites. Among 38 species recorded, 5 were shellfish and 33 were finfish. The spawning period of fishes was found to be during summer and early monsoon period (May to August). Surface water temperatures varied from 17 ℃ to 37 ℃. Salinity values varied from 34 to 44 and the pH ranged between 7 and 8.9. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 3.42 to 5.85 mLL-1. The high fishery densities in these semi arid mangrove creek areas were recorded during monsoon and early winter season.

  4. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mould

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  5. nowCOAST's Map Service for Geo-Referenced Hyperlinks to Forecast Discussions for Geographic Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST geolinks map service provides maps depicting the geographic areas where NWS regional weather forecast discussions for inland areas,...

  6. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... Scoping Meetings MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND Sleep... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  7. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND. Sleep Inn--Inn... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  8. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard. PMID:27456143

  9. Wind speed variability and adaptation strategies in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Bradford

    2010-01-01

    Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present conflicting results for wind speed trends (both increasing and decreasing) in relation to climate drivers. This study fills a gap in the understanding of PNW wind behaviour by: determining if relationships exist between wind speed distributions, ocean/atmospheric climate indices, and monitoring station-specific attributes; assessing the robustness of relationships for forecasting wind speeds within the study area; and...

  10. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR STREAM-RIPARIAN AREAS: PERSPECTIVES FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST HEADWATER FORESTS, MICROCLIMATES, AND AMPHIBIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream-riparian areas represent a nexus of biodiversity, with disproportionate numbers of species tied to and interacting within this key habitat. New research in Pacific Northwest headwater forests, especially the characterization of microclimates and amphibian distributions, is...

  11. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2007-07-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  12. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2006-06-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  13. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex.The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively, whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83. The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS.MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS.

  14. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  15. Impact of Global Warming on Water Resource in Arid Area of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Aigang; DING Yongjian; PANG Hongxi; YUAN Lingling; HE Yuanqing

    2005-01-01

    As the unprecedented global warming is under way, the glacier retreat is getting more and more serious. In the inland arid area of Northwest China, due to very scarce precipitation, where there is water, there are oases. And the glacier melt water amounts to 22 % of the total direct supply of the inland river water and is of crucial importance to the survival and development of the oases. In this paper,using both the observed data and the previous research achievements of the glaciers in the inland valley of Northwest China where the oasis depending on the glacier is the only location suitable for human living, the authors describe the glacier retreat trend over the past half century, focusing on discussing the possible impact of the glacier retreat on the melt water runoff that is almost the only water resource efficient to nourish the oases. The authors find that even with increasing amount of water from the glacier with global warming, the water shortage is getting more and more serious and the environment is under a degrading way due to the accelerating economical development. The water shortage is bound to be more serious if the glacier retreat keeps on, especially after the glacier melt water is over its top for the degraded glacier scale. So suggestions are stressed in the end that a new water-saving pattern should be adopted in the area for a sustainable development due to the warming-up induced continuous glacier retreat.

  16. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, S R; Stoetzel, G A

    1997-06-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993, 1994, and 1995 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 108 area TLDs were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1996. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  17. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)--(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years (CY) 1993--1996 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 93 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1997. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusions that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  18. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica: 1972-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, J.G.; Williams, R.S.; Foley, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite images from 1972 to 1997 have been used to prepare a map showing glaciological features of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica. Analysis of the imagery shows a trend toward ice-front retreat that may be a result of changing environmental conditions.

  19. Relationship Between Agriculture and Ecological Deterioration, Restoration and Reconstruction in Loess Plateau Areas of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xu

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis was conducted on the current situation as well as historic succession process of agriculture and ecological conditions in Northwest China, in particular in the Loess Plateau, by means of a inter-disciplinary approach of ecology, agro-geohistory, and agronomy. It was concluded that the fundamental causes responsible for the ecological deterioration, signed by the poor agro-productivity and serious soil erosion, had been the extensive cropping system by ever-increasing reclamation on semi-drought slope land, where initiated a natural vegetation of brushy grasses with sparse trees, thus suitable only for animal husbandry. Based on an identification of specific actual status of China, several countermeasures of correctly dealing with the relationship between agricultural development and the ecological restoration and reconstruction were proposed, including to get breakthrough first in the transection area by means of the rational use of resources and the raising of agro-system productivity, to promoting "water conservancy-type ecological agriculture" through the radical shift of traditional production pattern, and the adoption of a policy of proper degree of grain self-reliance, as well as to construct livestock industry base in Northwest China.

  20. Distribution of fluoride in groundwater of Maku area, northwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Moghaddam, Asghar; Fijani, Elham

    2008-11-01

    High fluoride groundwater occurs in Maku area, in the north of West Azarbaijan province, northwest of Iran. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the area residents. Groundwater samples were collected from 72 selected points including 40 basaltic and 32 nonbasaltic springs and wells, in two stages, during June and August 2006. The areas with high fluoride concentrations have been identified, and the possible causes for its variation have been investigated. Regional hydrogeochemical investigation indicates that water-rock interaction is probably the main reason for the high concentration of ions in groundwater. The concentration of F- in groundwater is positively correlated with that of HCO3 - and Na+, indicating that groundwater with high HCO3 - and Na+ concentrations help to dissolve some fluoride-rich minerals. All of the water samples, collected from the basaltic areas do not meet the water quality standards for fluoride concentration and some other parameters. Hence, it is not suitable for consumption without any prior treatment. Inhabitants of the area that obtain their drinking water supplies from basaltic springs and wells are suffering from dental fluorosis. The population of the study area is at a high risk due to excessive fluoride intake especially when they are unaware of the amount of fluoride being ingested due to lack of awareness.

  1. Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukund C Thakur; C R K Reddy; Bhavanath Jha

    2008-06-01

    Port Okha coast,which is known for its luxuriant growth of a diverse assemblage of seaweeds on Saurashtra coast,is found to have abundant quantities of seaweeds being drifted and washed ashore every year.Studies conducted for quantifying the stranded seaweeds from May 2004 to April 2005 showed an average biomass value of 3.10 kg fresh wt/m2/month with maximum being 6.60 kg fresh wt/m2 in April.The stranded weeds constituted a total of 62 species during the entire study period.Of this,Rhodophyta ranked high with 26 species followed by Chlorophyta with 22 species and Phaeophyta with 14 species.The stranded seaweeds that were washed ashore provide valuable floristic information about the intertidal and near shore sub-tidal algae of the respective regions.Although natural senescence of seaweeds is one of the major factors,strong currents primarily forced by tides,also contribute to the uprooting and subsequent drifting of seaweeds on to the beach.This ultimately causes changes in floristic features of the existing algal beds.

  2. Estimation of the Threshold Friction Velocities over Various Dust Storm Source Areas in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hao; ZHANG Hongsheng

    2010-01-01

    The emission of dust particles into the atmosphere is governed by the aerodynamic and resistant factors, which are quantified by the friction velocity u. and the threshold friction velocity u*t, respectively. The threshold friction velocity u*t influences the vertical dust flux and dust transport. Based on the micro-meteorological data obtained in the springs of 2004 and 2006 over Hunshandake desert area, Loess Plateau, and Gobi desert area, the relationship between dust concentration and friction velocity for the dust events that occurred over Hunshandake desert area was investigated, and the threshold friction velocities over the three different dust source areas were estimated. The results show that the value of dust concentration is low during the pre-emission stage of a dust storm event, and the rapid increase of friction velocity provides favor-able dynamic conditions for dust emission. During the dust emission stage, the dust concentration increases sharply due to mechanical and thermal turbulent mixing. At the calm-down stage, the dust concentration drops nearly linearly with the decreasing friction velocity, on account of the gravitational deposition of larger dust particles. When the dust concentration is higher than 200 μgm-3, it is considered as a dust emission process. According to the criteria, the values of threshold friction velocity over Hunshandake desert area and Gobi region are 0.6 and 0.45 m s-1, respectively. The threshold friction velocity over Loess Plateau depends on the wind direction, due to the complex terrain and inhomogeneous surface. The northwest wind shows the effects of the Mu Us desert in the northwest. The corresponding u*t is 0.35 m s-1. The south wind exhibits the characteristics of the Loess hilly dunes in the south, and the u*t is 0.7 m s-1. The large roughness length of the Loess hilly dunes and the large inter-particle cohesion for the clay soil texture increases the local friction velocity. Different threshold friction

  3. Depositional setting, structural style, and sandstone distribution in three geopressured geothermal areas, Texas Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winker, C.D.; Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Garcia, D.D.

    1981-10-01

    Three areas in the Texas Gulf Coast region with different depositional settings, structural styles, and sandstone distribution were studied with well log and seismic data to evaluate some of the controls on subsurface conditions in geopressured aquifers. Structural and stratigraphic interpretations were made primarily on the basis of well log correlations. Seismic data confirm the log interpretations but also are useful in structure mapping at depths below well control.

  4. Hydrological Characteristics of the Heihe River Basin in the Arid Inland Area of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The hydrological characteristics of the Heihe River Basin in the arid inland area of northwest China were investigated.The spatial distribution of annual precipitation in the basin indicates that it decreases from east to west and from south to north,and increases with elevation by a gradient of 24.4 mm per hundred meters below 2,810 m a.s.l.,but decreases with elevation by that of 37.0 mm per hundred meters above 2,810 m a.s.l.For the last 50 years,the mountain runoff of the ba-sin has a tendency of increase.Except in the mountain area,the aridity is very high in the basin,and the aridity index ranges from 1.6 to 7.0 at the piedmont,to 9.0~20.0 in the midstream area and up to 40.0 in the downstream Ejin region.It is estimated for the last 50 years that a 1oC increment of annual temperature causes a 21.5 mm increase of evaporation in the mountain area,and the equivalent reduction of mountain runoff is 0.215×109 m3/yr at the Yingluoxia Hydrometric Sta-tion.The estimation shows also that a 1oC increment of annual temperature causes 1,842 mm increase of farmland evapotranspiration in the midstream area,an equivalent of 0.298×109 m3/yr more water consumption.The anthropogenic influence on the hydrological processes and water resources is then discussed.

  5. Malaria infection has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassahun Alemu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria elimination requires successful nationwide control efforts. Detecting the spatiotemporal distribution and mapping high-risk areas are useful to effectively target pockets of malaria endemic regions for interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify patterns of malaria distribution by space and time in unstable malaria transmission areas in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the monthly reports stored in the district malaria offices for the period between 2003 and 2012. Eighteen districts in the highland and fringe malaria areas were included and geo-coded for the purpose of this study. The spatial data were created in ArcGIS10 for each district. The Poisson model was used by applying Kulldorff methods using the SaTScan™ software to analyze the purely temporal, spatial and space-time clusters of malaria at a district levels. RESULTS: The study revealed that malaria case distribution has spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity in unstable transmission areas. Most likely spatial malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR =197764.1, p<0.001. Significant spatiotemporal malaria clusters were detected at Dera, Fogera, Farta, Libokemkem and Misrak Este districts (LLR=197764.1, p<0.001 between 2003/1/1 and 2012/12/31. A temporal scan statistics identified two high risk periods from 2009/1/1 to 2010/12/31 (LLR=72490.5, p<0.001 and from 2003/1/1 to 2005/12/31 (LLR=26988.7, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In unstable malaria transmission areas, detecting and considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity would be useful to strengthen malaria control efforts and ultimately achieve elimination.

  6. Adaptive thresholding algorithm based on SAR images and wind data to segment oil spills along the northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present an adaptive thresholding algorithm to segment oil spills. ► The segmentation algorithm is based on SAR images and wind field estimations. ► A Database of oil spill confirmations was used for the development of the algorithm. ► Wind field estimations have demonstrated to be useful for filtering look-alikes. ► Parallel programming has been successfully used to minimize processing time. - Abstract: Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been established as a useful tool for detecting hydrocarbon spillage on the ocean’s surface. Several surveillance applications have been developed based on this technology. Environmental variables such as wind speed should be taken into account for better SAR image segmentation. This paper presents an adaptive thresholding algorithm for detecting oil spills based on SAR data and a wind field estimation as well as its implementation as a part of a functional prototype. The algorithm was adapted to an important shipping route off the Galician coast (northwest Iberian Peninsula) and was developed on the basis of confirmed oil spills. Image testing revealed 99.93% pixel labelling accuracy. By taking advantage of multi-core processor architecture, the prototype was optimized to get a nearly 30% improvement in processing time.

  7. Impacts of Saharan dust and clouds on photosynthetically available radiation in the area off Northwest Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohde, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert [Leibniz Inst. for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemunde (Germany)], Email: thomas.ohde@io-warnemuende.de

    2012-01-15

    Radiation measurements in the area off Northwest Africa (research cruise, February 2008) and at Mindelo (Cape Verde Islands, May 2009) were used to investigate the impacts of Saharan dust and clouds on solar irradiance and on photosynthetically available radiation, to derive a relationship between dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) and photosynthetically available radiation and to determine the annual variations of photosynthetically available radiation. Three different kinds of atmospheric conditions were considered: cloudy skies, which decreased or increased the irradiance and dusty skies. The reduction by clouds was up to 67.2% at 400 nm and up to 84.4% at 700 nm. Enhancements of up to 21.9% at 400 nm and 34.0% at 700 nm were observed. The decrease by dust was up to 19.7% at 400 nm and up to 4.1% at 700 nm. Clouds decreased or increased the photosynthetically available radiation by up to 79.9% or up to 31.2%. The reduction by dust depended on the dust AOD and was between 3.6% and 12.3%. A linear relationship confirmed a decrease of photosynthetically available radiation of 1.2% by an increase of dust AOD of 0.1.

  8. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetry Slope, Florida Deep Coral Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of...

  9. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetry, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Jacksonville) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of Florida,...

  10. Coast-to-interior gradients and recent trends in physical and chemical properties of near-surface snow and firn in northwest Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; Hawley, R. L.; Caughey, S. K.; Courville, Z.; Howley, J.; Lutz, E.; Overly, T. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which holds enough ice to raise global sea levels by approximately 7 m, is a major driver of Arctic and global climate. Observations over the past two decades have documented changes including notable increases in ice discharge, significant warming in coastal regions, and expanded areal extent of annual surface melt (e.g., Rignot and Thomas, 2002; Mote, 2007; Hanna and others, 2008). In contrast, observations document little change in temperature or accumulation in the central regions of the ice sheet (Hanna and others, 2008, 2011). The 1120 km-long Greenland Inland Traverse (GrIT), between Thule Air Base in northwest Greenland and Summit Station in central Greenland, is a logistics traverse that follows a nearly identical route taken by Carl Benson and the US Army Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment (SIPRE) between 1952 and 1955 (Benson, 1962). Observations from the SIPRE and GrIT traverses provide two snapshots of surface conditions across the northwest region of the GIS separated by 56 years. Hawley and others (in review) observe an increase in snow accumulation rates along the GrIT traverse route based on internal reflecting horizons in radar data dated with firn cores, with larger accumulation increases observed in the coastal region near Thule. Here we expand upon the analysis of Hawley and others (in review) by determining coast-to-interior gradients in snow accumulation, density, hardness (Rammsonde), and snow chemistry using samples from 18 snow pits and 3 firn cores collected during the 2010 and 2011 GrIT traverses. Snow pit and firn core samples were analyzed for trace element (23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 32S, 39K, 44Ca, 47Ti, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, 56Fe, 59Co, 63Cu, 66Zn, 75As, 88Sr, 111Cd, 133Cs, 138Ba, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U) concentrations and stable water isotope ratios (δD, δ18O), and were dated by seasonal oscillations in chemical concentrations and isotope ratios. We compare the GrIT data to those of

  11. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper.

  12. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  13. Conservation and restoration of degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In "West Development" of China, one of the most important activities is the Natural Forest Protection Program, designed to swiftly convert the focus of management and utilization of the natural forests from a timber orientation towards forest conservation, sustainable management and environmental protection. The project covered almost all the arid and semi-arid regions in Northwest region. Accompanying this great campaign this paper studied the conservation and restoration model of degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid lands in Northwest China. The past practices have resulted in considerably natural forest degradation and loss through land conversion (primarily for agriculture), over-harvesting, inadequate reforestation and lack of protection. The consequences have been the loss of soil and water resources, diminished timber production capacity on a sustainable basis, and environmental losses. This paper applied Aronson's restoration model and proposed the conservation, restoration, re-allocation and preservation program for the implementation of environmental improvement and natural forest conservation.

  14. Geophysical and geochemical studies to delineate seawater intrusion in Bagoush area, Northwestern coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mustafa A.; Mahmoud, Hussein Hosni; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; El-Shiekh, Abdelfattah; Parker, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Coastal aquifers are the main source for sustainable freshwater in many arid and semi-arid regions around the earth. In such regions, groundwater extraction far exceeds the natural replenishment rates due to additional demands on groundwater resources especially in the last few decades. The characterization of the seawater intrusion in the Baghoush area along the northwestern coast of Egypt assesses the risk of seawater intrusion for the purpose of managing the groundwater resources in coastal areas. The (SI) in the oolitic Pleistocene aquifer is affected by several natural factors, including the drainage patterns, geological structures, distance from the sea and the manipulation of groundwater. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been implemented to identify the geometry of the brackish/saline water interface and to map the distribution of brackish water zone floating over the denser saline water. Seven 2-D resistivity imaging profiles were conducted using a Wenner array with different electrode distance spacings. The inverse resistivity models of these profiles indicate that these profiles are composed of three zones: the upper dry zone, the middle brackish water zone, and the lower saline water zone. The thickness of the brackish groundwater zone decreases toward the sea and the resistivity decreases with depth due to increase in water salinity. Water table along these profiles decreases from south to north, which indicates that groundwater flow is from south (inland) to north (sea). Groundwater chemistry and stable isotopes were used to determine the fresh groundwater recharge source(s), to identify mixing of different groundwaters, to evaluate seawater intrusion zone along the coast, and to investigate the upwelling of deep saline groundwater underneath the brackish zone. The recharge of fresh groundwater originates from the mountain watershed located upstream as well as the annual rainfall; however, seawater is the main source of groundwater

  15. The water budget of a coastal low-lying wetland area at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Graeff, Thomas; Selle, Benny; Salzmann, Thomas; Franck, Christian; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands along the German Baltic Sea coastline and the Bodden waters are characteristic elements of the landscape of this region. Their hydrological dynamic is characterized by a significant groundwater flow from the hinterland towards the landscapes areas close to the coast, a direct hydrological intertwining of groundwater and surface waters (creeks, ponds, lakes and fens) in those near-coast areas and a potential for exchange between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions, e.g. the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has undergone several transitions during the last centuries. We present the results of studies at a catchment "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" close to the city of Rostock, aimed at understanding and quantification the relevant hydrological process dynamics of such catchments. This area has formerly been used for pasture and has recently been restored as a nature reserve, which allows the investigation of past changes and the evaluation of possible and future developments. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the fen since 2009, as well as on measurements of the flow and of meteorological variables. We have conducted a general water budgeting, i.e. the balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighboring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's surface discharge. The analysis of the general hydrological characterization showed that the internal processes of those fens can only be understood if the groundwater flow from the hinterland is taken into consideration. The surface discharge out of the area is mainly generated within the catchment, whereby this area is also a transfer zone with considerable retention effects. It is surprising

  16. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of carbonatites from South Nam Xe, Lai Chau area, northwest Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thi, Thuy; Wada, Hideki; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Shimano, Taketo

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the petrography, mineral chemistry, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-C-O isotope systematics of carbonatite dykes and associated rocks from the northeastern part of the Song Da intracontinental rift in South Nam Xe (northwest Vietnam) aimed at constraining the origin of the carbonatite magmas. The carbonatites are characterized by SiO2 material. Because of the lack of tectonic data and the limited number of samples studied, this conclusion is still ambiguous and requires further study.

  17. Relationship between malaria and filariasis transmission indices in an endemic area along the Kenyan Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles M. Mbogo, Zipporah W. Ng’ang’a, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Charles Mwandawiro, Robert J. Novak & John C. Beier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: An entomological survey was conducted to determine the relationshipbetween malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission by Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus intwo inland villages along the Kenyan coast.Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled inside houses by pyrethrum spray sheet collection (PSC. In thelaboratory, the mosquitoes were sorted to species, dissected for examination of filarial infection andthe anophelines later tested for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins by an enzymelinkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: From a total of 2,032 female mosquitoes collected indoors, An. gambiae s.l constituted 94.4%while the remaining 5.6% comprised of An. funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus. None of the Cx.quinquefasciatus was positive for filarial worms. P. falciparum sporozoite rate for An. gambiae s.l.from both villages was significantly higher than Wuchereria bancrofti infectivity rate. Similarly, theentomological inoculation rate for An. gambiae s.l. was significantly higher than the corresponding W.bancrofti infective biting rate and transmission potential for both the villages. Mass treatment of peoplewith filaricidal drugs in Shakahola in the ongoing global elimination of lymphatic filariasis campaignseemed to have reduced the indices of filariasis transmission but had no effect on malaria transmission.Interpretation & conclusion: These results indicate the intensity of malaria transmission by anophelinesto be much higher than that of lymphatic filariasis in areas where both diseases co-exist and re-emphasisethe need to integrate the control of the two diseases in such areas.

  18. [Anopheles cruzii larvae found in bromelias in an urban area on the Brazilian coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela R A M; Forattini, Oswaldo Paulo

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii larvae is reported for the first time in bromelias on the ground located in an urban area within the municipality of Ilha Bela, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. From March 1998 to July 1999 312 immature forms of An. cruzii were captured, being that 8.6% of them were in bromelias in the urban environment, 40.1% in periurban bromelias and 51.3% in the forest. The average number of bromelias containing An. cruzii was 4.0% of the total investigated. The positive rate in the periurban and forested environments presented similar values. The presence of An. cruzii is probably due to their having been present previously in the forest, together with the frequent presence of these breeding places, food sources and appropriate shelter in the urban area. This set of factors makes it necessary to warn against the possibility of transferring infections from one environment to the other.

  19. PROFILE: Marine Protected Areas and Dugong Conservation Along Australia's Indian Ocean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preen

    1998-03-01

    / The coastal zone of the Indian Ocean is coming under increasing pressure from human activities. Australia may be one of the few countries in this region that can afford to take adequate conservation measures in the near future. As it also has one of the longest Indian Ocean coastlines, Australia has the opportunity, and responsibility, to make a meaningful contribution to the conservation of Indian Ocean biodiversity. Threatened species, including marine turtles, inshore dolphins, and dugongs are an important component of that biodiversity. The dugong has been exterminated from several areas in the Indian Ocean, and it appears to be particularly threatened by mesh netting andhunting. Its long-term survival may depend on adequate protection in Australia, which contains the largest known Indian Ocean populations. This protection will require, in part, an appropriate system of marine protected areas (MPAs). This paper examines the adequacy of MPAs along Australia's Indian Ocean coast. Dugongs occur in two MPAs in Western Australia. The proposed expansion of the system of marine reserves is based primarily on representative samples of ecosystems from each biogeographic region. It is inadequate because it does not take into account the distribution and relative abundance of threatened species. If the conservation of biodiversity is to be maximized, the system of MPAs should incorporate both representativeness and the needs of threatened species. The level of protection provided by MPAs in Western Australia is low. Under current government policy potentially damaging activities, including commercial fishing, seismic surveys, and oil and gas drilling are permitted in protected areas.KEY WORDS: Marine protected areas; Dugongs; Western Australia; Indian Ocean; Conservation; Biodiversity PMID:9465127

  20. Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Grassland Degradation on the Surface Climate in Overgrazing Area of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic effects of LUCC have been a focus of current researches on global climate change. The objective of this study is to investigate climatic effects of grassland degradation in Northwest China. Based on the stimulation of the conversion from grassland to other land use types during the next 30 years, the potential effects of grassland degradation on regional climate in the overgrazing area of Northwest China from 2010 to 2040 have been explored with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF. The analysis results show that grassland will mainly convert into barren land, croplands, and urban land, which accounts for 42%, 48%, and 10% of the total converted grassland area, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the WRF model is appropriate for the simulation of the impact of grassland degradation on climate change. The grassland degradation during the next 30 years will result in the decrease of latent heat flux, which will further lead to the increase of temperature in summer, with an increment of 0.4–1.2°C, and the decrease of temperature in winter, with a decrement of 0.2°C. In addition, grassland degradation will cause the decrease of precipitation in both summer and winter, with a decrement of 4–20 mm.

  1. Cohort study of occupational asbestos-exposure related neoplasms in Texas Gulf Coast area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study was conducted in Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area on individual workers who have been exposed to asbestos for 15 years or more. Most of these workers were employed in petrochemical industries. Of the 15,742 subjects initially selected for the cohort study, 3258 had positive chest x-ray findings believed to be related to prolonged asbestos exposure. These subjects were further investigated. Their work out included detailed medical and occupational history, laboratory tests and spirometry. One thousand eight-hundred and three cases with positive chest x-ray findings whose data files were considered complete at the end of May 1986 were analyzed and their findings included in this report. The prevalence of lung cancer and cancer of the following sights: skin, stomach, oropharyngeal, pancreas and kidneys were significantly increased when compared to data from Connecticut Tumor Registry. The prevalence of other chronic conditions such as hypertension, emphysema, heart disease and peptic ulcer was also significantly high when compared to data for the US and general population furnished by the National Center for Health Statistics. In most instances the occurrence of cancer and the chronic ailment previously mentioned appeared to follow 15-25 years of exposure to asbestos

  2. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204c - Survey footprint of area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2003, approximately 49 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  3. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204a - Survey footprint for area 110_0204a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2002, approximately 42 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  4. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - area110_0204b - Survey footprint of area 110_0204b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS).In 2003, approximately 49 km2 of multibeam bathymetry...

  5. Coverage Polygons for DEMs of the North-Central California Coast (DEM_coverage_areas.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS polygon shapefile outlining the extent of the 14 individual DEM sections that crompise the seamless, 2-meter resolution DEM for the open-coast region of the...

  6. Global Warming: The Instability of Desert Climate is Enhancing in the Northwest Area in China: A Case Study in the Desert Area in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Feng Chang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To disclose the relation between the sandstorms change and the temperature changes, a case study in the desert area in northwestern china is investigated. The results showed that: the instability of climate in Minqin desert area is enhancing in the arid desert region in northwest China. Mainly as follows: Variation the annual extreme maximum temperature increasing. Variation of extreme minimum temperature also an increasing trend. Average visibility of sandstorms significantly reduced and the fluctuation trend increased significantly. In the past two years, there have been some unusual climate events in other regions in China. They reflect the fact that the deterioration of the stability of the climate change. The instability of the climate change impact on human life and production is increased more than global warming, more worthy of global concern.

  7. Danforth Hills coal resources calculation area, Northwest Colorado (dan*bndg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and ARC/INFO coverages that outline the areas within which coal resources are calculated and reported for the A/B through G coal zones,...

  8. Red Alder Basal Area, by Stream Reach, for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Red alder (Alnus rubra) are a common component of forests in Western Oregon and Washington. This file provides an estimate of red alder basal area in western Oregon...

  9. Bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie Rivers, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie rivers in the Yukon territory of Canada. The distribution and general ecology of 263...

  10. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor cardiovascular health status. To improve cardiovascular health among the rural population, efforts, especially lifestyle improvements, education and interventions to make healthier food choices, reduce salt intake, increase physical activities, and cease

  11. 中国西北地区与东部地区跨区域金融流实证研究%Empirical Research of inter-regional financial flaw between Northwest Inland and East Coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培安; 白永平; 纪发俊

    2012-01-01

    between the cointegration relationship,indicating the economic gap and the financial gap does exist the long-term equilibrium relationship,this relationship can be used in cointegration equation vector error correction model representation.This paper finds out the appropriate policy recommendations.These recommendations will help us think about the Northwest development,and reduce regional disparities adverse effects.Accelerating the development of economic construction is a difficult and responsible work.For the Northwest,the lack of funds is a serious problem;the less total deposits are of inhibition of total loans to market,thereby inhibiting the economy growth of the Northwest.For the east part of China,the problem is not much money to create greater abundance of economic and social benefits.The East-Northwest gap in economic development is the main reason leading to the flow of financial flow,while the financial flows in turn further widening the economic gap.In addition,the financial environment and investment opportunities are far behind the eastern coastal areas,the benefits reduce the financial elements,making the financial flows from the northwest region to the eastern region;the flow of financial flow of funds exacerbated the lack of the Northwest finance,further inhibiting the Northwest economic growth.The policy recommendations are as follows: central government's regional development policies continue to be properly tilted to the Northwest less developed areas and to develop appropriate financial and taxation incentives,reasonable financial flow forwards the Northwest.The Northwest should create a favorable institutional environment and vigorously promote the economic and financial system,improving the financial environment for investment.On the other hand,the Northwest should learn the economic development models from the East,and combining with the actual situation of the Northwest's own,the Northwest should explore the scientifically developing

  12. Oil source analysis of Upper Tertiary Shawan Formation in Chepaizi area,in the northwest margin of Junggar basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Well che89,located in the Chepaizi area in the northwest margin of Junggar basin,acquires high production industrial oil flow,which is an important breakthrough in the exploration of the south foreland slope area of Junggar basin. The Chepaizi area is near two hydrocarbon generation depressions of Sikeshu and Shawan,which have sets of hydrocarbon source rock of Carboniferous to Jurassic as well as Upper Tertiary. Geological and geochemical parameters are proper for the accumulation of mixed source crude oil. Carbon isotope,group composition and biomarkers of crude oil in Upper Tertiary of well Che89 show that the features of crude oil in Upper Tertiary Shawan Formation are between that of Permian and Jurassic,some of them are similar to these two,and some are of difference,they should be the mixed source of Permian and Jurassic. Geochemical analysis and geological study show that sand extract of Lower Tertiary Wulunguhe Formation has the same source as the crude oil and sand extract of Upper Tertiary Shawan Formation,but they are not charged in the same period. Oil/gas of Wulunguhe Formation is charged before Upper Tertiary sedimentation,and suffered serious biodegradation and oxidation and rinsing,which provide a proof in another aspect that the crude oil of Upper Tertiary Shawan Formation of well Che89 is not from hydrocarbon source rock of Lower Tertiary.

  13. Geostatistical analysis of variations in soil salinity in atypical irrigation area in Xinjiang, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing spatial and temporal variability of soil salinity is tremendously important for a variety of agronomic andenvironmental concerns in arid irrigation areas. This paper reviews the characteristics and spatial and temporal variationsof soil salinization in the Ili River Irrigation Area by applying a geostatistical approach. Results showed that: (1) the soilsalinity varied widely, with maximum value of 28.10 g/kg and minimum value of 0.10 g/kg, and was distributed mainly atthe surface soil layer. Anions were mainly SO42- and Cl-, while cations were mainly Na+ and Ca2+; (2) the abundance ofsalinity of the root zone soil layer for different land use types was in the following order: grassland 〉 cropland 〉 forestland.The abundance of salinity of root zone soil layers for different periods was in the following order: March 〉 June 〉 September;(3) the spherical model was the most suitable variogram model to describe the salinity of the 0-3 cm and 3-20 cmsoil layers in March and June, and the 3-20 cm soil layer in September, while the exponential model was the most suitablevariogram model to describe the salinity of the 0-3 cm soil layer in September. Relatively strong spatial and temporalstructure existed for soil salinity due to lower nugget effects; and (4) the maps of kriged soil salinity showed that higher soilsalinity was distributed in the central parts of the study area and lower soil salinity was distributed in the marginal parts.Soil salinity tended to increase from the marginal parts to the central parts across the study area. Applying the krigingmethod is very helpful in detecting the problematic areas and is a good tool for soil resources management. Managingefforts on the appropriate use of soil and water resources in such areas is very important for sustainable agriculture, andmore attention should be paid to these areas to prevent future problems.

  14. Geostatistical analysis of variations in soil salinity in a typical irrigation area in Xinjiang, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamattursun Eziz; Mihrigul Anwar; XinGuo Li

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing spatial and temporal variability of soil salinity is tremendously important for a variety of agronomic and environmental concerns in arid irrigation areas. This paper reviews the characteristics and spatial and temporal variations of soil salinization in the Ili River Irrigation Area by applying a geostatistical approach. Results showed that: (1) the soil salinity varied widely, with maximum value of 28.10 g/kg and minimum value of 0.10 g/kg, and was distributed mainly at the surface soil layer. Anions were mainly SO42− and Cl−, while cations were mainly Na+and Ca2+; (2) the abundance of salinity of the root zone soil layer for different land use types was in the following order: grassland > cropland > forestland. The abundance of salinity of root zone soil layers for different periods was in the following order: March > June > Sep-tember; (3) the spherical model was the most suitable variogram model to describe the salinity of the 0–3 cm and 3–20 cm soil layers in March and June, and the 3–20 cm soil layer in September, while the exponential model was the most suitable variogram model to describe the salinity of the 0–3 cm soil layer in September. Relatively strong spatial and temporal structure existed for soil salinity due to lower nugget effects; and (4) the maps of kriged soil salinity showed that higher soil salinity was distributed in the central parts of the study area and lower soil salinity was distributed in the marginal parts. Soil salinity tended to increase from the marginal parts to the central parts across the study area. Applying the kriging method is very helpful in detecting the problematic areas and is a good tool for soil resources management. Managing efforts on the appropriate use of soil and water resources in such areas is very important for sustainable agriculture, and more attention should be paid to these areas to prevent future problems.

  15. Hydropedological model of vertisol formation along the Gulf Coast Prairie land resource area of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Driese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertisols are clayey soils containing slickensides and wedge-shaped aggregates formed by shrink-swell processes in seasonally wet climates. The dynamic distribution of macro- and microvoids as a by-product of this unique pedoturbation process, accompanied by microtopographic lows and highs (gilgai, mitigate our ability to make accurate and precise interpretations of aquic and hydric conditions in these problem soils. We studied Vertisols across a subhumid to humid climosequence to assess the formation of redoximorphic features on shallow, linear (nondepressional landscape positions in response to varying levels of rainfall. Approximately 1000 mm of mean annual precipitation (MAP is required to form soft iron masses that then increase in abundance, and to shallower depths, with increasing rainfall. Soft iron masses with diffuse boundaries become more abundant with higher rainfall in microlows, whereas masses with nondiffuse boundaries become more common in microhighs. Most soft iron masses form in oxygenated ped interiors as water first saturates and then reduces void walls where iron depletions form. In contrast, at least 1276 mm of MAP is needed to form iron pore linings in both microlow and microhigh topographic positions. Iron depletions do not correlate with rainfall in terms of abundance or depth of occurrence. The quantity of crayfish burrows co-varies with rainfall and first appears coincidentally with soft iron masses in microlows near 1000 mm of MAP; they do not appear until nearly 1400 mm of MAP in microhighs. Dithionite-citrate extractable and ammonium-oxalate extractable iron oxides increase systematically with rainfall indicating more frequent episodes of iron reduction and precipitation into pedogenic segregations. The sum of our data suggests that Vertisols forming in the Coast Prairie of Texas with MAP greater than 1276 mm should be classified as aquerts because of the presence of aquic conditions. These same soils may also meet

  16. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  17. Mental Health, Health, and Substance Abuse Service Needs for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest (NARA NW) in the Portland, Oregon Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Thomas L.; Harris, Naomi; Plumb, Mary Anne; Smith, Keri Slingerland; Gault, Jaime; Brooks, Gloria; Hungry, Lisa; Geary, Artice; Holland, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining…

  18. Splash erosion in recently-burnt area in North-West Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María

    2013-04-01

    Splash erosion is generally acknowledged as the main erosive agent, because it represents the first step in water erosion (Ellison, 1944, Sempere Torres et al., 1994). The impact of raindrops not only modifies the structure of the earth's surface, (Moss, 1991) but also breaks down and emits soil fragments which are later transported over long distances in the case of additional surface runoff processes (Moss and Green, 1983). In the whole process we need to take into account not only the specific kinetic energy associated to each rain event, but also the type of soil and the size of the particles released (Sharma et al 1991), as well as the characteristics of the layer of water formed on the surface (Moss and Green, 1983, Kinnell, 1991, Leguédois et al., 2005). The erosion process is more obvious when it affects vulnerable areas that have recently been devastated by a wildfire. This study has computed the raindrop size, its volume, the fall velocity, and its kinetic energy by means of an optical disdrometer. The data have subsequently been compared with the mass of soil that was splashed and collected in a particular area devastated by an important wildfire on the 17th of May 2012. The splash erosion produced in 6 months has been analyzed. 2. Study Site The data were gathered in the period between the 29th May and the 30th November 2012, in the area of Congosto, in the province of León, Spain. The study zone is part of a transition area between the plain and the mountainous regions. The dominant climate is the continentalized Mediterranean climate, although with more moderate temperatures. In general, in this area we find a wide temperature range (from 12 to 20°C), long and cold winters, short springs and autumns, and short and warm summers. Precipitation is irregularly scattered along the year, and may reach, depending on the area, up to 1,500 mm per year. Intense precipitation events may occur. The area presents a coarse-grained siliceous lithology, that is

  19. METEOROLOGICAL POTENTIAL FOR AIR POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS ALONG THE EAST COAST OF TAMILNADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANKARAN. S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many air pollution episodes occurred in the past decades were associated with the worst meteorological conditions like strong inversion and low mixing height apart from higher emission concentration. Quantitative study of meteorological potential with air pollution in a region is essential for environmental siting of industries, risk assessment for accidental release, etc. Generally, the coastal areas are potential sites for promotion of industrial activities because of the proximity of water and marine transport. Rapid growth of industries and high traffic volume in coastal urban area, Chennai, along the East Coast of Tamilnadu necessitated for the study of exploring the prevailing meteorological potential for air pollutant dispersion. Karaikal, another coastal rural area along the East Coast with industrial and traffic growth was also considered in this study. Upper radiosonde data and surface micrometeorological data relevant to the study areas were acquired from India Meteorological Department, Pune. Using the data, the spatial and temporal variations of wind speed and directional changes, the mixing height variation and atmospheric stability classes with respect to time and space, and the nature of inversion and its occurrence were worked out for the two study areas. From this the worst and favourableconditions for air pollutant dispersion were identified.

  20. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report

  1. Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Northwest Quandrant of the Hanford 200 East Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Pickett, W.W.

    1994-06-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Northeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East area. This report summaries historical information such at waste history, temperature, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance, along with the components of the data management effort, such as waste status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layering Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates to generate these tank content estimates are also given in this report.

  2. Quantification of Environmental Flow Requirements to Support Ecosystem Services of Oasis Areas: A Case Study in Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a wide range of quantitative research on the identification of environmental flow requirements (EFRs has been conducted. However, little focus is given to EFRs to maintain multiple ecosystem services in oasis areas. The present study quantifies the EFRs in oasis areas of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China on the basis of three ecosystem services: (1 maintenance of riverine ecosystem health, (2 assurance of the stability of oasis–desert ecotone and riparian (Tugai forests, and (3 restoration of oasis–desert ecotone groundwater. The identified consumptive and non-consumptive water requirements are used to quantify and determine the EFRs in Qira oasis by employing the summation and compatibility rules (maximum principle. Results indicate that the annual maximum, medium, and minimum EFRs are 0.752 × 108, 0.619 × 108, and 0.516 × 108 m3, respectively, which account for 58.75%, 48.36%, and 40.29% of the natural river runoff. The months between April and October are identified as the most important periods to maintain the EFRs. Moreover, the water requirement for groundwater restoration of the oasis–desert ecotone accounts for a large proportion, representing 48.27%, 42.32%, and 37.03% of the total EFRs at maximum, medium, and minimum levels, respectively. Therefore, to allocate the integrated EFRs, focus should be placed on the water demand of the desert vegetation’s groundwater restoration, which is crucial for maintaining desert vegetation to prevent sandstorms and soil erosion. This work provides a reference to quantify the EFRs of oasis areas in arid regions.

  3. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137Cs and 241Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h-1, below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h-1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h-1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  4. Land Use Changes of an Aeolian-Loessial Soil Area in Northwest China: Implications for Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Fu; LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jing; YAN Jian-Ping; GUO Xu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    China has experienced dramatic land use changes over recent decades,with marked environmental and socio-economic consequences.Hcngshan County,located in the aeolian-loessial area of Northwest China,was investigated to illustrate land use changes and their implications for environmental and long-term rural economic development.The farmland in Hengshan County significantly decreased during 1990-2003,whereas forest land and grassland increased.The conversion rates of farmland,orchard land,forest land and construction land varied markedly among different periods:1990-1995,1995-2000 and 2000-2003.Conversion of orchard land,grassland and construction land was dominant in 1990-1995,whereas the conversion of farmland to forest land mainly occurred in 2000-2003.The results suggested a profound transition in institutional policy and political economy of land management,including implementation of integrated soil erosion control projects,adoption of a market-oriented economy and the 'Grain-for-Green' policy,during this period in China.To achieve long-term sustainable land use in Hengshan County,efforts should aim at increasing off-farm income of rural families as well as establishing land-economizing mechanisms to promote land productivity,in addition to conservation measures.

  5. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Bathymetric Rugosity, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Jacksonville) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2011), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the rugosity of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic Coast of Florida,...

  6. Arc Export File Of Permitted and Mined Out Coal Areas of the Gulf Coast Coal-Bearing (gulfmines.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains permitted coal mines and mined out areas in the Gulf Coast coal-bearing geology prior to 1998. The data included in the coverage are mine...

  7. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshOR_breach: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents inundated area for the Coast Fork of the Willamette River, the Row River and Silk Creek (west of Cottage Grove, OR) for eight...

  8. Priorities for the preparation and implementation of strategic mega-projects involving new hydrocarbon areas of the Arctic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatarkin A. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The progress and further ways of development of new hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic coast of the Yamal Peninsula have been considered. It has been shown that the involvement of new resource areas in economic use must be based on the priority of achieving strategic objectives, be integrated and focused on the effects of technological modernization of the Russian economy. The adequate form of development can become the strategic mega-projects based mainly on domestic technology and equipment. As a key example the project of creating wind-hydrogen energy in the Far North has been analyzed

  9. Geomorphological & Geoarchaeological Indicators of the Holocene Sea-Level Changes on Ras El Hekma Area, NW Coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy

    2016-02-01

    Ras El Hekma area is a part of the NW coast of Egypt. It is located on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast, approximately 220 km West of Alexandria City. It is shaped as a triangle with its headland extending into the Mediterranean sea for about 15 km, and is occupied by sedimentary rocks belonging to the Tertiary and Quaternary Eras. Its western coastline consists of Pleistocene Oolitic limestone ridges with separated steep scarps, while the eastern coastline consists of sandy beaches, coastal spits, coastal bars, tombolos and bays. The objective of this paper is to define some geomorphological and geoarchaelological indicators of The Holocene sea-level changes in the study area, especially the geomorphic landforms such as: marine notches, cliffs, sea caves and benches. This is to add to some archaeological remains that have been discovered by the paper's author under the current sea level. These remains include: submerged ruins of Greek and Roman harbors, wells and fish tanks near the coastline (Leuke Akte, Hermaea, Phoinikous and Zygris), in addition to an ancient Roman harbor used during the World War II in Tell El Zaytun area (Site #6). Evaluations of the discovered archaeological remains help our understanding of the evolution of the sea level during the Holocene. This study is based on observation of the relative sea-level curves drawn of the Holocene, detailed geomorphological and Geoarchaelogical surveying, sampling, dating and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation and GIS techniques.

  10. Evaluation of Penman-Monteith model applied to a maize field in the arid area of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-Z. Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Penman-Monteith (P-M model has been applied to estimate evapotranspiration in terrestrial ecosystem widely in the world. As shown in many studies, bulk canopy resistance is an especially important factor in the application of P-M model. In this study, the authors used the Noilhan and Planton (N-P approach and Jacobs and De Bruin (J-D approach to express the bulk canopy resistance. The application of P-M mode to a maize field with two approaches in the arid area of Northwest China was evaluated by the measured half-hourly values from the eddy covariance system. The results indicate that the N-P approach underestimates slightly the bulk canopy resistance, while the J-D approach overestimates that. The estimation of bulk canopy resistance with N-P approach was then better and more consistent than that with J-D approach during the entire maize growing season. Correspondingly, the P-M model with J-D bulk canopy resistance slightly underestimated the latent heat flux throughout the maize growing season, but overestimated the latent heat flux during the dry period of the soil as compared to that with N-P approach. The good fitness of the simulated latent heat flux by the P-M model with N-P bulk canopy resistance approach to the measured one at a half-hour time step demonstrates the application of the approach is reasonable in the relative homogenous and not drought-stressed maize fields of the arid areas during the entire growing season. Further researches are discussed on enhancing the field observation, taking the correction for atmospheric stability into estimating aerodynamic resistance, to improve the performance of P-M model to simulate evapotranspiration in the cropped fields.

  11. Abyssal macrofauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (Northwest Pacific) collected by means of a camera-epibenthic sledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A.; Elsner, N. O.; Malyutina, M. V.; Brenke, N.; Golovan, O. A.; Lavrenteva, A. V.; Riehl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abyssal macrofaunal composition of 21 epibenthic sledge hauls from twelve stations taken in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (KKT) and at the adjacent abyssal plain, Northwest Pacific, is presented. Sampling with the fine meshed epibenthic sledge yielded higher abundances and species richness than was reported from previous expeditions from board of RV Vityaz. In total 84,651 invertebrates were sampled with RV Sonne between July and September of 2012 (31,854 invertebrates if standardised for 1000 m2 trawled distances) from 41 taxa of different taxonomic ranks (15 phyla, 28 classes, 7 orders) were sampled from a trawled area of 53,708 m² and have been analyzed. Few taxa were frequent and most taxa were rare in the samples, twelve taxa occurred with more than 1% frequency. Of these, the Polychaeta were most abundant followed by the benthic Copepoda and Isopoda. Total numbers of individuals varied between stations and were highest with 4238 individuals at station 2-10 close to the KKT in 4865 m depth and lowest with 374 individuals at station 6-11 in 5305 m depth. At this station also the lowest number of taxa occurred (18 taxa) while the highest number occurred with 31 taxa at station 3-9 in 4991 m depth. Numbers of individuals decreased with increasing depth between 4830 and 5780 m. Crustaceans of the superorder Peracarida were one of the dominating taxa with four orders occurring frequently in most samples. In total, Isopoda were most important and occurred with 59% of all peracarid orders sampled, followed by Amphipoda with 21%, Tanaidacea with 11%, Cumacea with 9%, and Mysidacea with abyssal area differ in terms of taxon composition from each other. A cluster analysis (nMDS) performed for all sampled stations revealed no clear pattern of community similarity between stations or hauls. All hauls close to the trench (2-9 and 2-10 close to the eastern slope of the KKT; and 3-9 and 4-3 at the western slope) were most different to the other hauls. Hauls 8-9 and 8-12 as

  12. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  13. Middle Permian Seamount from Xiahe Area, Gansu Province, Northwest China: Zircon U-Pb Age, Biostratigraphy and Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kou Xiaohu; Zhang Kexin; Zhu Yunhai; Chen Zhongqiang; Lin Qixiang; Chen Fenning; Huang Jinyuan

    2009-01-01

    The well-preserved seamount buildups are documented from the northwestern Qinling (秦岭) orogenic belts, Northwest China. The study sections are located in the Ganjia (甘加) area of the Xiahe (夏河) County, Gansu (甘肃) Province. The dark basalt and overlying massive reef carbonate characterize the Xiahe seamount buildup. Basalts are dominated by the olivine type of rocks and bear distinct porphyritic textures, and fumarole and amygdaloidal structures. The basaits are dominated by SiO2(up to 48.49 wt.%-52.29 wt.%) followed by (Na2O+ K2O) (3.80 wt.%-4.96 wt.%) and TiO2 (2.04 wt.%-2.52 wt.%). They are featured by considerably high content of Ti. The tholeilteseries rocks dominate the basalts, while calc-alkali-series rocks are also present. The REE of the basalts shows the LREE-enrichment type with distinct positive Eu abnormal. The trace elements of the basalts are characterized by the lack of P and high content of Ti. These geochemical signals suggest that the Xiahe basalts were formed in an ocean-island setting. The LA ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of the basalts is 267.6±5 Ma, which is reinforced by the presnce of the fusuHnid Neoschwagerina Zone of the Wordian (Middle Permian) in the limestone interbeds of the basalts. Integration of petrological and geochemical studies of seamount basaits and lateral correlation of seamount buildups reveals that the Qinling-qilian-Kunlun orogenic belts were probably the archipelagtc oceans during the Permian.

  14. A study of the anthropic activities impact on the Black Sea eco-system (Romanian coast area) using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research represents a first step in the direction of a real evaluation of the Black Sea - Romanian Coast pollution level. A continental closed sea, with a special chemism and a specific dynamic regime of its waters, the Black Sea is seriously affected by pollution today, its eco - systems suffering deep restructuring, many of these with an irreversible character and an alarming degradation of the marine life quality. Starting with 1996, a systematic sampling of the principal systemic parts of the Black Sea Eco - System (Romanian Coast Area) was initiated at NIPNE - HH Bucharest. The samples are prepared and analysed by high precision nuclear methods such as: neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and others. The results are presented as distribution maps and profiles of different elements (radioactive elements, heavy metals, trace elements etc.) in the investigated parts of the marine environment (water, sediments, vegetation and fauna). The research methodology and the obtained results offer a useful and efficient tool for the followup and permanent evaluation of the eco - system of the Black Sea. Monitoring this eco - system using a network and an efficient programme allows the storage of valuable data which are further used to make short - term and long - term prognosis referring to its evaluation. The results fit into the newest research programmes initiated by the international scientific community in the line of environment surveillance (The Programme of the International Board for Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean supported by the European Community and US). (author)

  15. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west Himalaya with epicentral distance and magnitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Ghosh; A K Mahajan

    2013-02-01

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation which relates the seismological data with parameters of engineering interest. In the absence of sufficient strong motion data for northwest Himalayan region, isoseismal maps of previous earthquakes were the only source of information for computing the attenuation characteristics of that region. The northwest Himalayan region had experienced major and moderate earthquakes in the past and isoseismal maps had been developed by various authors for each of these earthquakes representing intensity pattern and decay of intensity in different directions. With this information, attenuation relations of intensity with distance can be obtained. The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes ( ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the last 100 years. These are primarily Kangra (1905), Chamba-1 (1945), Chamba-2 (1995), Kinnaur (1975), Dharamsala (1986), Uttar Kashi (1991), Garhwal-1 (1996), Garhwal-2 (1996), Sundarnagar (1997) and Chamoli (1999) earthquakes. Miezoseismal zones in majority of the isoseismal maps show two major directions, i.e., either the longest axis of these isoseismal maps which are aligned in NW–SE direction following the major longitudinal features or north-northwest to south-southeast direction, following the tectonic features which are transverse to the Himalayan trend. Isoseismal maps of Kangra (1905), Chamba (1945) and Uttar Kashi (1991) earthquakes are more symmetrical and elongated in south-east direction, but compressed in north-east and north-west directions, thus indicating fast attenuation characteristics in north-east and north-west directions reflecting lithological variation. On the other hand, Sundernagar (1997) and Kinnuar (1975) earthquakes show circular pattern of intensity distribution. Combining decay patterns from different magnitude earthquakes in different directions, two attenuation relationships have been developed using regression relationship

  16. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different

  17. 华东沿海地震海啸模拟%Tsunami Simulation for the Coast Area of East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹振轩; 傅建武; 朱元清; 李俊

    2011-01-01

    利用数字地震资料及海洋地震地质基础数据,基于Matlab平台在Windows系统下重新编译Philip liu等人编写的海啸模拟源程序,将分层静态位移解结果与已建立的海啸传播初始场快速融合,用交错网格蛙跳差分方法求解笛卡尔坐标系下非线性浅水波方程,模拟华东沿海地区地震海啸传播过程,对华东沿海地区可能遭受海啸袭击的危险做出评估,结果显示华东沿海地区是发生地震海啸影响较弱地区.%Based on comprehensive consideration of topography, geological structure, seis-mological features and historical records, we simulated an earthquake tsunami with the rebuilt program from Prof. Philip Liu based on Matlab and Windows OS. We used crossed grid leap-frog difference scheme to solve linear or un-linear water wave functions in spherical coordinate and rectangular coordinate system, and simulated a scenario earthquake tsunami propagation in the coast area of East China, and evaluated the risk and hazards for the area. The results show that the coast of East China is lowly influenced by earthquake tsunami.

  18. 78 FR 40644 - Proposed Establishment of the Malibu Coast Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... proposed viticultural area that affect viticulture, such as climate, geology, soils, physical features, and... air in the early morning, at night, and during periods of cloud cover, providing a source of warmth to... 13, 1996 (61 FR 29949). It is a bowl-shaped valley located high on the south-facing side of the...

  19. Development west coast Taiwan: Redesign coastal area between Da’an River and Dajia River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, B.; Eelkema, M.; Smith, M.; Van To, P.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. In the year 2004 there was a flooding in an area between Da'an River and Dajia River in Taichung County, Taiwan. The flooding was caused by outlets which were clogged up, thus lacking the capacity to discharge the amount of rainwater that the typhoon caused into the sea. A sur

  20. Flora and phytosociology of an area of Restinga along the northern Coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Marcelino Menezes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Areas of restinga are geologically recent environments. The species that inhabit this type of ecosystem are typical of adjacent areas, such as rain forest, tabuleiro forest and caatinga, and form a diverse community of trees, shrubs and erect and prostrate herbs. The goal of this work was to evaluate the vegetation in an area of restinga located along Praia do Forte, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Four 200m transects where made within five plots of 100m2 each, and 1,640 individuals within 68 species were collected. High species diversity was found in transects 1 and 2 (H´ = 3.882 and 3 and 4 (H´ = 3.835. The most representative families were Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae and Malpighiaceae. Based on the species composition, a significant difference (p < 0.001 was found between the sampled areas, and the findings show that there are two distinct plant communities in this region, Mata deRestinga and Restinga em Moitas.

  1. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  2. Changes in the fish community structure after the implementation of Marine Protected Areas in the south western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu J. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are increasingly being recommended as management tools for biodiversity conservation and fisheries. With the purpose of protecting the region’s biodiversity and prevent the over exploitation of marine resources, in February 2011 the MPAs of Ilha do Pessegueiro and Cabo Sardão were implemented in the “Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina “(PNSACV Natural Park, south western coast of Portugal. In these areas, commercial and recreational fishing became prohibited. In order to evaluate the effects of these MPAs, the structure of its fish communities and of adjacent control areas without fishing restrictions were studied in 2011/12 (immediately after implementation and 2013 (two years after implementation. A total of 4 sampling campaigns were conducted (summer 2011, winter 2012, summer 2013 and winter 2013 using bottom trawl and gillnets. Faunal communities from the MPAs (treatment were compared with adjacent areas (controls and changes evaluated with time. Results revealed significant changes on abundance, having this parameter a slight increase after the implementation of the MPAs. Also, significant differences were observed on the structure of the protected areas communities when compared with neighbouring areas where fishing was still allowed, even though the small amount of time elapsed. In addition, specimens of larger size occurred more frequently within Ilha do Pessegueiro MPA in the last year of the study. Despite the young age of these MPAs, changes on their fish communities’ structure are already visible after only 3 years of protection, showing that these management measures may promote sustainable exploitation of fishing resources as well as protect species with conservation interest, thus leading to a global biodiversity increase.

  3. Aspects regarding environmental impact of oil marine platforms from Black sea coast - Romanian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : As a result of investigations conducted by R.A.PETROM - PETROMAR Constanta subsidiary, reserves of oil and gas in geological structures LEBADA, EOCEN - LEBADA and SINOE from romanian sector of Black Sea Continental Platform, have been discovered. These reserves are exploited by marine platforms and ways of oil transportation to the shore are submarine pipe-lines and ships. To assess environmental impact of oil transportation, studies covered following steps; Characterization of the present status of environmental factors, in the range of pipe-lines and ships; Marine water characterization: salinity, ionic composition, dissolved gases, organic depositions on metallic bodies; Marine bicenosys: phytoplankton and zooplankton characteristics, phytobenthos and zoobenthos communities, marine ichtyofauna, marine mammals. Marine resources available for exploitation; Total radioactivity analysis results; Marine water hydrocarbons analysis results; Present pollution sources in the area; Air quality in oil marine platforms area and shore area; Potential pollution sources and pollutants resulted from oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Sources and emissions in air; Sources and emissions in marine environment; Aspects regarding waste management; Environmental impact of oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the air quality and marine environment of oil marine platforms activities; Assessment of environmental impact on atmosphere generated by the oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the marine environment of oil transport ships; Effects of oil fractions on marine organisms; Acute effects of oil pollution on marine communities; Risks of causing major environmental impact accidents/failures on marine platforms PETROMAR; Chronic effects of low oil concentrations;Marine environment recovery potential after discharges accidents

  4. Ground water hydrochemical characteristics:seawater intruded area in eastern and southern coast of Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Eastern and southern coastal zones of Laizhou Bay are the mostrepresentative seawater intruded areas in the world, with two intrusion sources of contemporary seawater and paleobrine. In order to reveal the complicated hydrochemical changing process and the mechanism of fresh groundwater being polluted by saltwater, we conducted long-term observation and hydroehemical analysis at four observing sections of typical salt-fresh water transitional zone. The study indicates that seawater and brine intrusion processes have different hydrochemical features, and that ion exchange and adsorption actions between water and aquifer produce great influence on the intrusion.

  5. A proposal for how to reconstruct the prohibited return-home area due to radioactive Cs geo-pollution in Hama-Doori (Coast area facing the Pacific Ocean) and Abukuma mountain ranges, Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, one proposals how to reconstruct the area polluted by radioactive Cs materials are shown, e.g. entitled A proposal for how to reconstruct the prohibited return-home area due to radioactive Cs geo-pollution in Hama-Doori (Coast area facing the Pacific Ocean) and Abukuma mountain ranges, Fukushima Prefecture. (author)

  6. Soil Chemistry as a measure of the distinctiveness of American Viticultural Areas of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, K. R.; Pitcavage, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Columbia Basin of Washington State is the second largest wine grape growing region in the United States and presently contains 10 American Viticultural Areas (AVAs). Eight of the Columbia Basin's AVAs are smaller subdivisions (sub-AVAs) of the 46,100 km2 Columbia Valley AVA. Although legally distinct, the Columbia Basin AVAs are generally similar with regard to climate, landscape, and soils, the principle components of physical terroir. To test whether the AVAs of the Columbia Basin are distinguishable based on the chemical properties of their soils, 53 samples were collected from vineyards considered to be representative within their respective AVAs. Vineyard soils from the other major viticultural regions of the Pacific Northwest, the Willamette Valley and Snake River Valley, were also sampled for comparison. Soils were sampled from a depth of 50-75 cm and analyzed for bulk chemistry and plant-available nutrients. Based on the analyzed components, only the Columbia Gorge, Walla Walla Valley, and Lake Chelan AVAs were distinctive. The chemical differences that that account for the distinctiveness are attributed to variations in climate and parent material. Columbia Gorge AVA soils are the most distinctive, with significantly higher iron, manganese, and titanium, and significantly lower calcium, soluble salts, and pH. These characteristics can be attributed a greater influence of basaltic bedrock on soil composition, and an average annual precipitation of 76 cm, which is three times that received by most of the Columbia Basin. Another wetter-than-normal part of the Columbia Basin is the Walla Walla Valley where orographic lifting by the Blue Mountains increases the average annual precipitation in the eastern part of the AVA to near 50 cm. Vineyard soils of the Walla Walla Valley, like those of the Columbia Gorge, have higher iron, and lower calcium and soluble salts. The uniqueness of Lake Chelan AVA soils is reflected in decreased concentrations of iron

  7. Edaiila area of interest non-renewable resource assessment (phase 1) Great Bear Lake area, Northwest Territories Parts of NTS 86 K, 86 L, 86 M, 86 N and 96 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, J.S.; Jackson, J.E.; O' Neil, C.E. [AMEC Americas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Earth and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    The Edaiila study area of interest is located in the Deline District of the Sahtu Settlement area in the Northwest Territories. It lies in the Proterozoic Bear geologic province of the Canadian Shield. The area is currently covered by prospecting claims and is likely undergoing exploration for uranium, precious metals, base metals and diamonds. This document presented a Phase 1 non-renewable resource assessment (NRA) of the area that was completed as part of the Northwest Territories Protect Area Strategy (PAS). It presented compiled historical information, provided a preliminary resource assessment and made recommendations for further Phase 2 studies. This region is within the continuous permafrost zone and is characterized by a high subarctic climate. The study area straddles the tree line and contains vegetation typical of taiga and tundra regions. The bedrock covering the flat to gently rolling topography is covered by undulating glacial drift, raised beaches and outwash deposits. About 25 per cent of the area is covered by wetlands. The Bear province is subdivided into two major domains, the Wopmay orogen and the Coppermine homocline. In the eastern portion of the study area, basement rocks are part of the Great Bear magmatic zone and are locally exposed in the Fault River area. Although basement rocks in the western portion of the study area are not exposed, they are assumed to be composed of the Hottah terrane. 86 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs., 4 appendices.

  8. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  9. Environmental Modeling Using Remote Sensing And GIS For Sustainable Ecotourism Development Of RAS Banas Area, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at supporting sound planning for sustainable ecotourism development of Ras Banas area along the Red Sea Coast, Egypt. This area is characterized by unique coastal ecosystems and fragile environment. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data have been used as a source of information for the preparation of different thematic geo-environmental maps of the coastal area through visual or digital image interpretation. A digital database for the area was established and the essential derived maps representing data layers on the spatial distribution of different types of terrestrial ecosystems have been used for building a Geographic Information System (GIS) model. The thematic maps include: (1) land cover classification with emphasis on the coastal formations (sabkha, coral reefs, coastal islands and mangroves), (2) shore line, (3) drainage network and (4) basins and flash flood hazard map. In addition, topographic sheets at scale of I :50,000 were digitized and transformed to GIS digital maps that include two layers for coordinate grid and contour lines with spot heights. A spatial model has been developed and constructed for analyzing large spatial data in a GIS environment. The development of the model scenarios aimed at quantifying the impacts of different derived layers that required an assessment of different factors influencing the model. Different layers have been given different weights, based on their anticipated contributions to the model. The model was subjected to various dynamic trials related to its layer components and weights. An environmental sensitivity index map was prepared, where the coastal zone was classified, on the basis of its relative sensitivity to anthropogenic activities, into a high, a medium and a low sensitivity classes. Sensitivity classification has been used for the delineation of the suitable sites for potential sustainable ecotourism development. This derivative mapping and integrated modeling has added a significant new

  10. Effects of Ultra-drying on Viability and Physiological Characteristics of Platycladus orientalis Seed from Arid and Semiarid Areas of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to supply quality seed for vegetation restoration in arid and semiarid areas of Northwest China, the effects of Platycladus orientalis seed storage under ultra-drying and accelerated aging were studied. The seeds were dried from 6.8% to 5.1%, 4.4%, 3.7% and 2.2% MC, respectively, in a desiccator with the silica gel. The germination energy, germination percentage, germination index and vigor index of the seed were investigated. After ultra-drying, groups of seeds were carried on the accelerated agin...

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Characterizing Forest Areas with High Societal Values: Experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A.; Deal, Robert L.; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions—Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  12. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of sea surface temperature at the east coast fishing area off Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Ridani, S.; Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Ku Kassim, K. Y.; Raja Bidin, R. H.

    2015-09-01

    Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was used to study a time-series of the aqua MODIS data imageries in the exclusive economic zone of east coast off Peninsular Malaysia. Temporal and spatial characteristics were examined to determine the dominant pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) variability from January 2003 to December 2011.The data were analysed from daily Level 1A (1km spatial resolution) to monthly composites Level 3 data using SeaDAS and ERDAS imagine software. Four modes was obtained from the analysis with the highest variance (7.9%) represented by mode 1 which explained the seasonal cycle. Mode 2 (5.11 % of total variance) showed positive and negative peak signal during March and April and in October and November with variability near the Kelantan and Pahang waters that indicated the inter monsoon. Mode 3 (3.8 % of variance) shows variability near the Terengganu, Kelantan and Johor waters to the open sea during July and August and in May and June representing the Southwest monsoon. Mode 4 (3.36 %) showed positive signal during November and December with strong signal near Pahang and Kelantan waters while weak signal was detected near Terengganu and Kelantan's open sea representing the Northeast monsoon. The SST variability was influenced by the monsoonal system which originated by the wind forcing condition that influences circulation in the study area.

  13. Study on the Transport of COD in the Sea Area Around Maidao off Qingdao Coast Using Data Assimilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A two-layer pollutant advection-diffusion model is built to investigate the pollutant transport in the sea area around Maidao off Qingdao coast. An adjoint data assimilation technique is applied to estimate the optimal values of the model parameters. The experimental results on the initial field of pollutant indicate that the distribution of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration is sensitive to the horizontal eddy diffusivity. An appropriate value of horizontal eddy diffusivity is necessary in order to depict the influence of the initial field precisely, and it is also essential to the simulation of the advection-diffusion process of the pollutant. By inversion of the model parameters and optimization of the initial COD concentrations, the simulation results are improved significantly. The cost function is reduced to 40% of its first step value. The average misfit between the model outputs and the observations in the upper layer decreases from 0.46 to 0.25 mgL-1, and that in the lower layer decreases from 0.22 to 0.14mgL-1.

  14. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity among cattle in the central savannah-forest area of Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, Moussa; Abatih, Emmanuel; Thys, Eric; Fretin, David; Berkvens, Dirk; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-11-01

    Serological results obtained from 907 serum samples collected from unvaccinated cattle of at least 6 months of age in the savannah-forest region of Ivory Coast were used to investigate risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Using a parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 10.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.4) of the cattle had antibodies against Brucella in our study area. The logistic regression analysis indicated that brucellosis seropositivity was associated with age and herd size. Cattle above 5 years of age were found to have a higher chance of being seropositive (odd ratio (OR)=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3, 6.4) compared to cattle under 3 years of age. Similarly, the odd of brucellosis seropositivity for herds with more than 100 cattle was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.9) times higher compared to those with less than 50 cattle.

  15. [Specific diversity and culicidian nuisance in the villages of N'gatty and Allaba in laguna area of Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, D; Konan, K L; Djohan, V; Konan, Y L; Koné, A B; Doannio, J M C; N'goran, K E

    2010-12-01

    Entomological surveys were undertaken between June and December 2006 in N'gatty and Allaba. These villages are located in southern Ivory Coast in a laguna area in Dabou department. In these villages, there are large swampy areas, which have caused the multiplication of anthropophilic Culicidae. Mosquitoes have been collected at preimaginal stage at the time of the larval prospecting and at adult stage through human landing catch. Larval collections have been made using the classic method of "dipping". Larvae have been identified to the genus level. Then, they have been bred in the laboratory to identify adults. Adults collection has been made once a month during three consecutive nights by human landing catch inside houses. Adults have been identified to the specific level. Eight genera of mosquitoes have been collected in these two villages: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Eretmapodites, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites and Uranotaenia. Twenty-four species have been listed during this stu y. The genus Mansonia is the most predominant with 86% (N = 15,811) and 80% (N = 1,385), respectively, in N'gatty and Allaba. The average biting rate per day varies between N'gatty and Allaba. It is estimated to 308 bites per human per night (b/h/n) in N'gatty and 72 b/h/n in Allaba. In these villages, mosquito nuisance is mainly due to Mansonia with 264 b/h/n and 58 b/h/n, respectively, in N'gatty and Allaba. However, Anopheles gambiae s.l. average rate was 12 b/h/n in N'gatty and 2 b/h/n in Allaba.

  16. Spatial Areas of Genotype Probability of Cattle Genomic Variants Involved in the Resistance to East Coast Fever: A Tool to Predict Future Disease-Vulnerable Geographical Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Vajana, Elia; Rochat, Estelle; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Masembe, Charles; Joost, Stéphane; Nextgen, Consortium

    2016-01-01

    East Coast Fever (ECF) is a livestock disease caused by Theileria parva, a protozoan transmitted by the vector tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. This disease causes high mortality in cattle populations of Central and Eastern Africa, especially in exotic breeds. Here, we highlight genomic regions likely involved into tolerance/resistance mechanisms against ECF, and we introduce the estimation of their Spatial Area of Genotype Probability (SPAG) to delimit areas where the concerned genotypes a...

  17. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204c - Habitat polygons for survey area 110_0204c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  18. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204b - Habitat polygons for survey area 0204b

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  19. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary - hab110_0204a - Habitat polygons for area 110_0204a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS). OCNMS has collected multibeam backscatter, multibeam...

  20. nowCOAST's Map Service for Geo-Referenced Hyperlinks to Forecasts for Geographic Areas or Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST geolinks map service provides maps depicting the locations of geographic zones and points where NWS forecasts are available along...

  1. A checklist of the reptiles and amphibians found in protected areas along the South African Wild Coast, with notes on conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed six protected areas along the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, to determine general herpetofaunal diversity as well as the representation of species of special conservation concern. Visual encounter survey methods and standard Y-shape trap arrays were used to conduct surveys from 2011 to 2013. A total of 59 species (22 amphibians and 37 reptiles were recorded. A number of previously unknown populations of threatened species and one potential novel species were discovered in these protected areas, and the known ranges of several other species were extended. A total of 243 quarter-degree grid-cell unit records were documented, of which 90 (23% amphibians and 50% reptiles represented the first records for the area. Amphibian and reptile diversity increased along the coast and a number of species of conservation concern were well represented in current protected areas. Our study provides a comprehensive amphibian and reptile checklist for an under-sampled region and highlights the importance of baseline data for improving conservation management.Conservation implications: Small protected areas play an important role in conserving a number of threatened herpetofaunal species along the Wild Coast. The region is currently under significant and increasing pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental degradation, which affects biodiversity and subsequently the local inhabitants. The information presented here represents an important baseline for future conservation management.

  2. Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  3. Temporal variations of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in the mangrove creek area along the Karachi coast, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Naz; Naureen Aziz Qureshi; Noor Us Saher

    2014-01-01

    The temporal variations of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass (1-Volumetric method by settling volume and displacement volume and 2- Gravimetric method through wet weight, dry weight and ash-free dry weight) with relation to environmental parameters were studied in the mangrove creek area of Karachi coast, Pakistan. The data of mesozooplankton samples along with environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, etc.) were collected during January 1998 to December 1998 from two creek stations. The abun-dance of mesozooplankton also exhibited seasonal trends at both stations. At Sta. S2, the highest and low-est abundance values were observed during post-monsoon and southwest monsoon respectively whereas, at Sta. S1, a clear trend of high abundance in pre-monsoon to low abundance in southwest monsoon was observed. Mesozooplankton abundance was also positively correlated with settling volume, displacement volume, wet weight and dry weight. The highest biomass value was observed in the northeast monsoon and pre-monsoon periods. The results of the canonical analysis of the output from the discriminate function was tested. Out of fifteen variables, only one was significantly different in single character ratios dry weight/ash free-dry weight (F3,23=4.78,P<0.005). The mesozooplankton community was collectively composed of 28 taxa. Among these groups, copepoda (66.3%), gastropod larvae (9.94%), evadne (4.60%), zoea (3.60%), cypris nauplii (2.56%), lemellibranch larvae (1.87%), chaetognaths (1.81%), ostracods (1.73%), lucifer (1.15%) and barnacles nauplii (1.35%) contributed the most to the similarities within Sta. S1, while copepoda (74.68%), cypris nauplii (5.29%), gastropods (4.87%), barnacles nauplii (4.81%), evadne (1.72%), zoea (1.53%) and ca-ridean larvae (1.18%) at Sta. S2. The remaining mesozooplanktonic group were accounted for less than 5% and 6% at Sta. S1 and Sta. S2 respectively, of the total organisms. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed

  4. Study on Farmland Use Change and Driving Force in the High and Cold Areas in Northwest Yunnan——A Case Study of Ninglang Yi Autonomous County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of overview of the study area,by analyzing the dynamic change of farmland in Ninglang County,we can find that the farmland area in this county tended to decrease from 1996 to 2008.According to the investigation data concerning land change provided by Bureau of Land and Resources in Ninglang County and socio-economic data provided by Bureau of Statistics in Ninglang County,we select 11 indices,such as total population,GDP,total output value of county and so on,coupled with SPSS statistical method,we adopt principal component analysis method to analyze driving force factors of farmland use change in the high and cold areas in Northwest Yunnan.The results show that the two factors of economic development and population growth are the dominant driving factors impacting farmland use change,and the policy factors,such as "returning farmland to forests",are also the important driving factors impacting Ninglang County.

  5. Assessing spatial distribution, sources, and human health risk of organochlorine pesticide residues in the soils of arid and semiarid areas of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Guo, Qiang; Tian, Hui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Ding, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2014-05-01

    Thirty-two topsoil samples were collected to analyze the residue levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in topsoil of arid and semiarid areas of northwest China in 2011. Results showed that DDTs were the dominant contaminants with a mean concentration of 12.52 ng/g. The spatial distribution characteristics indicated that α-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were mainly used in rural sites, whereas hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and endosulfan were detected mostly in urban areas. DDTs, heptachlor, and chlordane were found almost equally in both urban and rural areas. Source identification revealed that the current levels of HCHs in soils were attributable to the residues from their historical use and fresh usage of lindane (γ-HCH). DDTs were mainly from historical use and fresh usage of dicofol, and HCB was emitted from the chemical industry. It was also found that the current soil levels of heptachlor were mainly from its historical usage, endosulfan from fresh input, and chlordane from long-range atmospheric transport, respectively. The noncarcinogenic health risk assessment with a model was also conducted using USEPA standards for adults and children. Results indicated that health risk under nondietary exposure to OCPs decreased in the sequence of ΣDDT > ΣHCH > HCB > Σheptachlor > Σendosulfan > Σchlordane. According to the reference dose from the USEPA, the health risk under nondietary exposure to OCPs in the soil samples was at a relatively safe level. PMID:24474559

  6. Are we safe? A tool to improve the knowledge of the risk areas: high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960 -2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Perez-Morales, Alfredo; Lopez-Martinez, Francisco; Barriendos-Vallve, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula concentrates an important part of the population and economic activities in Spain. Intensive agriculture, industry in the major urban centers, trade and tourism make this region the main center of economic dynamism and one of the highest rates of population and economic growth of southern Europe. This process accelerated after Franco regime started to be more open to the outside in the early sixties of the last century. The main responsible factor for this process is the climate because of warmer temperatures and a large number of sunny days, which has become in the economic slogan of the area. However, this growth process has happened without proper planning to reduce the impact of other climatic feature of the area, floods. Floods are the natural hazard that generates greater impacts in the area.One of the factors that facilitate the lack of strategic planning is the absence of a correct chronology of flood episodes. In this situation, land use plans, are based on inadequate chronologies that do not report the real risk of the population of this area. To reduce this deficit and contribute to a more efficient zoning of the Mediterranean coast according to their floods risk, we have prepared a high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for all the municipalities of the Spanish Mediterranean coast since 1960 until 2013. The methodology consists on exploring the newspaper archives of all newspapers with a presence in the area. The searches have been made by typing the name of each of the 180 municipalities of the Spanish coast followed by 5 key terms. Each identified flood has been classified by dates and according to their level of intensity and type of damage. Additionally, we have consulted the specific bibliography to rule out any data gaps. The results are surprising and worrying. We have identified more than 3,600 cases where a municipality has been affected by floods. These cases are grouped into more than 700

  7. Nose Structure Delineation of Bouguer Anomaly as the Interpretation Basis of Probable Hydrocarbon Traps: A Case Study on the Mainland Area of Northwest Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamtono Kamtono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i3.144Two important aspects in the exploration of oil and gas are technology and exploration concepts, but the use of technology is not always suitable for areas with geological conditions covered by young volcanic sediments or limestone. The land of the Northwest Java Basin is mostly covered by young volcanic products, so exploration using seismic methods will produce less clear image resolution. To identify and interpret the subsurface structure and the possibility of hydrocarbon trap, gravity measurements have been carried out. Delineation of nose structures of a Bouguer anomaly map was used to interpret the probability of hydrocarbon traps. The result of the study shows that the gravity anomalies could be categorized into three groups : low anomaly (< 34 mgal, middle anomaly (34 - 50 mgal, and high anomaly (> 50 mgal. The analysis of Bouguer anomaly indicates that the low anomaly is concentrated in Cibarusa area as a southern part of Ciputat Subbasin, and in Cikampek area. The result of delineation of the Bouguer anomaly map shows the nose structures existing on Cibinong-Cileungsi and Pangkalan-Bekasi Highs, while delineation of residual anomaly map shows the nose structures occurs on Cilamaya-Karawang high. Locally, the gas fields of Jatirangon and Cicauh areas exist on the flank of the nose structure of Pangkalan-Bekasi High, while the oil/gas field of Northern Cilamaya is situated on the flank of the nose structure of Cilamaya-Karawang High. The concept of fluid/gas migration concentrated on nose structures which are delineated from gravity data can be applied in the studied area. This concept needs to be tested in other oil and gas field areas.

  8. Using Remote Sensing Data to Delineate the Lineaments for Hydrothermal Mineral Prediction in Heqing Area, Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lineament extraction and analysis is one of the routine work in mapping medium and large areas using remote sensing data, most of which are satellite images. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) of 945×1 232 pixels subscene acquired on 21 March 2000 covering the northwestern part of Yunnan Province has been digitally processed using ER Mapper software. This article aims to produce lineament density map that predicts favorable zones for hydrothermal mineral occurrences and quantify spatial associations between the known hydrothermal mineral deposits. In the process of lineament extraction a number of image processing techniques were applied. The extracted lineaments were imported into MapGIS software and a suitable grid of 100 m×100 m was chosen. The Kriging method was used to create the lineament density map of the area. The results show that remote sensing data could be useful to extract the lineaments in the area. These lineaments are closely correlated with the faults obtained through other geological investigation methods. On comparing with field data the lineament-density map identifies two important high prospective zones, where large-scale deposits are already existing. In addition the map highlights unrecognized target areas that require follow up investigation.

  9. Quantitative assessment of gas washing of oils in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ChuPeng; GENG AnSong; LIAO ZeWen; SUN YongGe; ZHANG LüHui

    2009-01-01

    Gas washing has been known in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin, but its quantitative assessment has not yet been reported. Here the influence of gas washing fractionation in the area was discussed based on the gas chromatogram data of 68 oils and the results of the mixing experiments of a black oil and a condensate. The results show that the intensity of gas washing fractionation decreased generally from northern to southern part and vertically from deep reservoirs to shallow reservoirs. The gas washing fractionation was mainly controlled by fault systems in this area, with the increase of n-alkane mass depletion positively correlated to the number and scale of faults. Gas washing fractionation ap-pears to have affected the hydrocarbon property, and as a result the diversity of the crude oils is markedly controlled by gas washing. In addition, the occurrence of waxy oil in this area may be re-sulted from multiple factors including gas washing, mixed filling and migration fractionation.

  10. Quantitative assessment of gas washing of oils in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Gas washing has been known in the Tazhong area of the Tarim Basin,but its quantitative assessment has not yet been reported.Here the influence of gas washing fractionation in the area was discussed based on the gas chromatogram data of 68 oils and the results of the mixing experiments of a black oil and a condensate.The results show that the intensity of gas washing fractionation decreased generally from northern to southern part and vertically from deep reservoirs to shallow reservoirs.The gas washing fractionation was mainly controlled by fault systems in this area,with the increase of n-alkane mass depletion positively correlated to the number and scale of faults.Gas washing fractionation appears to have affected the hydrocarbon property,and as a result the diversity of the crude oils is markedly controlled by gas washing.In addition,the occurrence of waxy oil in this area may be resulted from multiple factors including gas washing,mixed filling and migration fractionation.

  11. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape changes and the election of tree species based on the ecological group information. Some of the critical macronutrients for plant growth were supplied in the holes to alleviate nutrient deficiencies. In addition, growth and survival parameters were taken to evaluate the initial behavior of species. Six native tree species planted with different combinations (10mx10m, 5mx5m and 3mx3m had survival rate and growth (total height, girth stem and crown projection area measured in different intervals: 6-month, 12-month and 24-month after planting. All the species presented survival rate over 90% at 24 months and comparable growth indices to other native species under similar situation and in the region. Overall, Schizolobium amazonicum (bandarra, the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande and Colubrina glandulosa (sóbrasil averaged over 90% the highest girth stem growth all over the area. S. amazonicum and the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande presented the best results for height and canopy area growth parameters, respectively. The combination among native tree species from initial successional ecological groups and fertilizer was favorable to promote reforestation in the conditions of the study area in Rondônia.

  12. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama; Rodrigo Barros Rocha; Ana Karina Dias Salman; Ângelo Mansur Mendes; Marivaldo Rodrigues Figueiró

    2013-01-01

    Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha) destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape ch...

  13. Soil gas radon–thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gulshan Kumar; Arvind Kumar; Vivek Walia; Jitender Kumar; Vikash Gupta; Tsanyao Frank Yang; Surinder Singh; Bikramjit Singh Bajwa

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon–thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon–thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon–thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon–thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  14. Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  15. [Models for biomass estimation of four shrub species planted in urban area of Xi'an city, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Four common greening shrub species (i. e. Ligustrum quihoui, Buxus bodinieri, Berberis xinganensis and Buxus megistophylla) in Xi'an City were selected to develop the highest correlation and best-fit estimation models for the organ (branch, leaf and root) and total biomass against different independent variables. The results indicated that the organ and total biomass optimal models of the four shrubs were power functional model (CAR model) except for the leaf biomass model of B. megistophylla which was logarithmic functional model (VAR model). The independent variables included basal diameter, crown diameter, crown diameter multiplied by height, canopy area and canopy volume. B. megistophylla significantly differed from the other three shrub species in the independent variable selection, which were basal diameter and crown-related factors, respectively. PMID:24765849

  16. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chamhuri Siwar; Nor Diana Mohd Idris; Muhammad Yasar; Golam Morshed

    2014-01-01

    This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in ...

  17. [Characteristics of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of agroecosystems in semi-arid area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Lin; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Run-Yuan; Wang, Sheng; Yue, Ping; Wang, He-Ling; Zhao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of ground surface energy balance and water balance, and closely related to water cycle. By using eddy covariance technique, this paper studied the ET characteristics of agroecosystems in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau in growth season (from April to September), 2010, and analyzed the relationships between crop coefficient and environmental factors. During the observation period, the diurnal variation of latent heat flux (LE) in each month was similar to single-peak curve, and the peak value (151.4 W x m(-2)) occurred in August. The daytime energy partitioning manner showed a significant seasonal variation, with LE/R(n) heat flux) from April to June, and LE/R(n) > H/R(n) from July to September. The daily ET rate also showed a significant seasonal variation, with the maximum of 4.69 mm x d(-1). The wind speed (W(s)), relative humidity (RH), soil water content (theta), and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (D) were the major factors affecting the crop coefficient K(c) which was exponentially decreased with increasing W(s), exponentially increased with increasing RH and theta, and linearly decreased with increasing D.

  18. Depositional Model for the Middle Eocene Oberlin Sand in Northwest Oberlin Field and Adjacent Areas, Allen Parish, Louisiana: A Well-log and Seismic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Timothy Keith

    The depositional environment of the middle to late Eocene Oberlin sand of Northwest Oberlin Field and Pilgrim Church Field in central Allen Parish, Louisiana, was investigated. The depositional environment of the Oberlin sand has been interpreted from observations of spontaneous potential log signatures, conventional core reports, paleontological reports, shape of isochore maps, coherency extraction attribute, amplitude extraction attribute, and multiple seismic and subsurface cross sections. Focus is centered on the juxtaposition of component sand bodies and their proximity to the interdistributary and prodelta environments. Sand bodies include distributary channels, distributary mouth bars, crevasse subdeltas and shelfal bars and are interpreted to be the products of lower deltaic and shelf processes. The results of this study are based on seismic analysis, display techniques and subsurface maps calibrated to well logs, models, and recognition criteria of modern and ancient depositional environments previously described in the regional literature. The integration of all available data provides an objective and systematic approach detailing the origin, lateral extent, geometry and architecture of the Oberlin sand in the lower deltaic plain and shelf environments. The results of this study may be applicable to similar age sands on trend with the study area. Understanding of sand component types of the lower deltaic and shelf environments is vital to exploration success and development optimization of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs.

  19. A model for simulating the response of runoff from the mountainous watersheds of inland river basins in the arid area of northwest China to climatic changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康尔泗; 程国栋; 蓝永超; 金会军

    1999-01-01

    A model for simulating the response of monthly runoff from the mountainous watersheds to climatic changes is developed.The model is based on the modifications to the HBV runoff model, and therefore represents the characteristics and runoff generation processes of inland river basins in the arid area of northwest China. Taking the mountainous watershed of an inland river, the Heihe River originating from the Qilian Mountains and running through the Hexi Corridor as an example, the monthly runoff changes under different climate scenarios are simulated. The simulation indicates that, during the years from 1994 to 2030, if the annual mean air temperature increases by 0.5℃, and precipitation keeps unchanged, then the runoff of May and October will increase because of the increase of the snow melt runoff, but the runoff of July and August will decrease to some extent because of the increase of evaporation, and as a result, the annual runoff will decrease by 4%. If the precipitation still keeps unchanged, an

  20. [Variation of soil nitrogen during in situ mineralization process under different grasslands in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yue-Li; Zhao, Tong; Yan, Hao; Huang, Yi-Mei

    2014-06-01

    Variations in organic nitrogen, microbial biomass nitrogen, soluble organic nitrogen, NH4(+) -N, NO3(-) -N, NO2(-) -N and N mineralization were investigated under three different grasslands in the mountainous area of southern Ningxia, Northwest China (natural grassland, artificial turf and abandoned land) using the close-top tube incubation method. Microbial biomass nitrogen, soluble organic nitrogen, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, NO2(-)-N and N mineralization exhibited significant seasonal variations. The nitrogen levels remained essentially unchanged from April to June, significantly decreased in July-August, rebounded after August, and were lowest in August. The organic nitrogen content remained unchanged in the whole training process. The soil mineralization rates, nitrification and ammonification rate were lowest in June-August. The ratios of each N fraction to total N responded differently to seasonal changes. The ratios of organic N, NO2(-) -N to total N did not change, in contrast, the ratios of nitrate N, microbial biomass nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen, to total soil N decreased from April to August, and increased from August to December. The soil organic matter, pH, and bulk density were closely related to soil N. There was a significant positive correlation among the six N fractions. The soil nitrogen content of the different grassland types followed the order of natural grassland > abandoned land > artificial turf.

  1. Ecological effect analysis of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping in arid area of northwest Hebei Province: I. moisture analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua ZHANG; Wei HUANG; Fenglu ZHANG; Lifeng ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 at the Zhangbei Agricultural Resource and Ecological Environment Key Field Research Station, Hebei Province, China to study water-efficient pumpkin planting patterns in this area. Four treatments of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping were used to study the problem of water resource scarcity and inefficient water use in the plateau of northern Hebei Province. The four treatments were: pumpkin sole cropping (Sp), oil-sunflower sole cropping (So), intercropp ing one row oil sunflower (IC1) or two rows (IC2) between pumpkin rows. The results showed that oil sunflower competed for soil water with pumpkin during late growth stage of pumpkin in IC2, but there was no water competition in IC1. Total rainfall during the growing season was 201.6mm and the soil water balance differed between treatments. In all cases the water percolation was low and soil moisture storage always negative. Nearly all water loss was through evapotranspiration, which varied by treatment. The seasonal evapotranspiration of IC1 was less than So, Sp and IC2, 46.57%, 41.22% and 46.73%, respectively. Economic yield of pumpkin decreased from 30.00% (IC1) to 71.42% (IC2). However, yield per plant of intercropping oil sunflower increased from 190.71% to 241.26%. as compared with So, because oil sunflower showed remarkably partial advantage. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.08-1.22, and the Water Equivalent Ratio (WER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.07-1.26. Economic value of sole pumpkin was greatest but did not differ from treatment IC1. Other treatments had significantly less economic value. In this region of rain-fed dry land farming, a sparse planting of sole pumpkin with high efficiency production could realize water resources most effectively in the Plateau of northern Hebei Province.

  2. Combinations of Quality and Frequency of Immunization Activities to Stop and Prevent Poliovirus Transmission in the High-Risk Area of Northwest Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens

    Full Text Available Frequent supplemental immunization activities (SIAs with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV represent the primary strategy to interrupt poliovirus transmission in the last endemic areas.Using a differential-equation based poliovirus transmission model tailored to high-risk areas in Nigeria, we perform one-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the impact of different assumptions about routine immunization (RI and the frequency and quality of SIAs on population immunity to transmission and persistence or emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs after OPV cessation.More trivalent OPV use remains critical to avoid serotype 2 cVDPVs. RI schedules with or without inactivated polio vaccine (IPV could significantly improve population immunity if coverage increases well above current levels in under-vaccinated subpopulations. Similarly, the impact of SIAs on overall population immunity and cVDPV risks depends on their ability to reach under-vaccinated groups (i.e., SIA quality. Lower SIA coverage in the under-vaccinated subpopulation results in a higher frequency of SIAs needed to maintain high enough population immunity to avoid cVDPVs after OPV cessation.National immunization program managers in northwest Nigeria should recognize the benefits of increasing RI and SIA quality. Sufficiently improving RI coverage and improving SIA quality will reduce the frequency of SIAs required to stop and prevent future poliovirus transmission. Better information about the incremental costs to identify and reach under-vaccinated children would help determine the optimal balance between spending to increase SIA and RI quality and spending to increase SIA frequency.

  3. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  4. Isotopic investigations of pollution transport in shallow marine environments off the Karachi coast, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollution scenario of shallow marine environments off the Karachi coast, Pakistan, is established through determination of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of total dissolved inorganic carbon, marine plants (mangroves and seaweed), stable isotope composition of nitrogen (δ15N) in mangroves and seaweed, toxic/trace concentration and gross gamma activity in sea bottom sediments, total coliform bacterial population, electrical conductivity, and turbidity in polluted water sources (Layari and Malir River mouth areas), non-polluted Karachi sea water and pollution recipients (Manora Channel, southeast coast and northwest coast of Karachi). Isotopic data show that tidal fluctuations play a key role in controlling contamination inventories in shallow sea water off the Karachi coast. The Manora Channel is found to be the most heavily polluted marine site off the Karachi coast during both high and low tide conditions. δ13C values of seaweed (range from -4.9 per mille to -31.1 per mille relative to PDB) suggest the incorporation of carbon from both domestic and industrial sources. The δ13C values of mangroves range from -26.7 per mille to -28.3 per mille PDB. The δ15N values of seaweed (7-18 per mille relative to air N2) and mangroves (range 6-13 per mille relative to air N2) indicate the input of manure/waste related nitrogen components. Significant concentrations of toxic metals such as Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn and V are observed in sediments of Karachi harbour. Bottom sediments in the harbour area have a lower gross gamma activity (52.37-111.95 Bq per kg sediments) than sediments collected from the shallow open sea along the southeast and northwest coasts (89.23-136.37 Bq per kg sediments). These studies suggest the need for quick remedial measures to combat pollution in shallow marine environments off the Karachi coast. (author)

  5. Physico-chemical quality of drinking water in the northwest area of Madrid (Spain); Calidad fisico-quimica de las aguas de abastecimiento de la zona noroeste de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Mata, M.; Orzaez Villanueva, M. T.; Tenorio Sanz, M. D.; Garcia Puertas, P. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Montes Boltella, C. [Universidad Carlos III. Leganes Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A physico-chemical analytical study of the edible waters of the northwest area of Madrid has been made. The object was to evaluate the quality characters of this water thought the water analysis of 40 representative buildings. The parameters analyzed were odour, taste, turbidity, pH, conductivity, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, oxid ability and chlorine. The results show the analyzed waters agree with the current public consume waters legislation through with some punctual exceptions. (Author) 13 refs.

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for aquaculture sites, Designated Critical Habitats, management areas, Nature Conservancy properties, parks, and...

  7. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Backscatter Mosaic, Florida Deep Coral Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the backscatter (intensity) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic...

  8. Trace metal pollution and its influence on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of trace metal pollution on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs was investigated in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast. Significant enrichment of As, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Zn in sediments was recorded. Redundancy analysis indicated that trace metal pollution contributed 68% of the variation in community structure. Monte Carlo permutation test showed that As and Sb contributed significantly to variation in species composition. T-value biplots and van Dobben circles showed that the gastropods Acteon fortis, Assiminea ovata, and Littoraria aberrans, were negatively affected by As and Sb, while the bivalve Semele radiata and the gastropod Conus litteratus were only negatively affected by As. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Mo and Zn occurred in the bivalve Mactra ovalina and the gastropod Polinices mammilla. This calls for regular monitoring and management measures.

  9. Utilizing Resistivity Soundings and Forensic Geochemistry to Better Understand the Groundwater Contributions and the Interaction with Surface Water in a Streambed in the Texas Gulf Coast Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighash, P.

    2012-12-01

    Water quality and quantity in a reservoir can be significantly affected by interactions between surface waters and adjacent aquifers. Environments that exhibit transient hydraulic conditions, such as changes in recharge and groundwater flow rates, are not well understood. The associated impacts to coastal water resources during elevated drought conditions can be better managed with a better understanding of the groundwater-surface water interaction and the transition zone. Proper characterization of the spatial and temporal extent of groundwater discharge is important for water resource management and contaminant migration pathways. The Texas coastal area has been experiencing exceptional drought conditions over the past few years which are expected to persist or intensify in the coming years. An investigation of how the hydrologic system is impacted by these conditions can be a valuable tool regarding water resource management, sustainability and conservation of the Gulf Coast region of South Texas. This study will be using resistivity soundings to vertically and laterally characterize groundwater-surface water interaction and provide a stratigraphic characterization of the transition zone in this area. Chemical and isotope tracers will be used to compliment the resistivity data in order to trace water sources in the surface water and transition zone. This information can aid in evaluating the extent of interaction and degree of mixing between the surface water and groundwater. The ultimate goal of this research is to provide new valuable information that could help professionals and researchers understand complex processes such as groundwater-surface water interaction using new methods that would improve the speed and accuracy of existing systems or techniques. This multidisciplinary approach can be useful in investigating land use impacts on groundwater inflow and in forecasting the availability of water resources in environmentally sensitive ecosystems such as

  10. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  11. Simulation of energy and water balance in Soil-Vegetation- Atmosphere Transfer system in the mountain area of Heihe River Basin at Hexi Corridor of northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Ersi; CHENG Guodong; SONG Kechao; JIN Bowen; LIU Xiande; WANG Jinye

    2005-01-01

    In the mountain area of inland Heihe River Basin at Hexi Corridor of northwest China during the vegetation growing season from May to September, the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model of Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) system is applied to simulating and studying energy and water balance of the soil-residue-plant canopy layers in the Picea crassifolia forest and the grassland by the forest at the shaded slope and the grassland at the sun-facing slope. The simulation of energy balance indicates that net radiation of the grassland at the sun-facing slope is more than that of the Picea crassifolia forest and the grassland by the forest at the shaded slope. The energy outgoing components are the first latent heat and next sensible heat from the grassland both at the shaded slope and the sun-facing slope, but those at the former are less. The energy outgoing components are the first sensible heat and next latent heat from the Picea crassifolia forest. The composition and distribution of energy in the soil-residue-plant canopy layers in the Picea crassifolia forest and the grassland by the forest at the shaded slope make the soil layer receive less energy, which therefore, especially the forest possesses the energy conditions for soil water conservation. The simulation of water balance indicates that the water loss of the grassland at the sun-facing slope is mainly caused by soil evaporation, while evapotranspiration of the Picea crassifolia forest and the grassland by the forest at the shaded slope is less than that of the grassland at the sun-facing slope. Half of the evapotranspiration of the Picea crassifolia forest and the grassland by the forest at the shaded slope is consumed by transpiration. After precipitation, the soil water storage is increased much more for the Picea crassifolia forest and also more for the grassland by the forest at the shaded slope. Therefore the shaded slope vegetation, especially the forest is favorable for soil water

  12. Landscape Changes and a Salt Production Sustainable Approach in the State of Salt Pan Area Decreasing on the Coast of Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Landsat images from 1979, 1988, 1999, 2008, and 2013 were used to analyze the landscape area change of salt pans lying on the coast of Tianjin. While initially (1979–1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan increased, later (1988–2013 it declined dramatically. In the first phase (1979–1988 of the studied period the primary roll-in landscape of the salt pan wasbarren land with an area of 60.0 km2. By 1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan rose to 457.8 km2. The main roll-out landscape of the salt pan during 1988–2013 was urban, barren land, village/town, harbor, and road whose area amounted to 69.8, 35.9, 27.3, 25.5 and 18.4 km2 respectively. The roll-out barren land will be transformed to construction land ultimately. By 2013, the total loss reached 167.3 km2, which was 36.5% of the salt pan area of Tianjin in 1988. With the development of coastal economy, the salterns with a lower economic value were transformed to and replaced by land use types with a higher economic value. This trend would influence the production of sea salt and the development of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate industries. Seawater desalination provides an opportunity for the restoration and compensation of salt production capacity. Based on the theory of circular economy and industrial symbiosis, in this article an industrial symbiosis model for sea salt production and sea water desalination is explored: “mariculture–power plant cooling–seawater desalination–Artemia culture–bromide extraction–sea salt production–salt chemical industry”. Through the application of this process sustainable development of the sea salt production in Tianjin could be achieved.

  13. METEOROLOGICAL POTENTIAL FOR AIR POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS ALONG THE EAST COAST OF TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, S; Murugappan, A.; V.Kanakasabai; M.Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    Many air pollution episodes occurred in the past decades were associated with the worst meteorological conditions like strong inversion and low mixing height apart from higher emission concentration. Quantitative study of meteorological potential with air pollution in a region is essential for environmental siting of industries, risk assessment for accidental release, etc. Generally, the coastal areas are potential sites for promotion of industrial activities because of the proximity of water...

  14. Fish assemblages in a small temperate estuary on the Argentinian coast: spatial variation, environmental influence and relevance as nursery area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Solari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effects of different environmental variables on the fish community structure were evaluated in a small temperate estuary. The biological and environmental data were collected bimonthly between 2007 and 2009 along the main estuarine axis. Multivariate analyses were applied (CLUSTER, SIMPER, CCA to determine the spatial structure of fish community and to estimate the environmental influence on it. A total of 48 species of "teleost" fishes were observed, with the families Characidae and Sciaenidae presenting the largest number of species, 90% of the catches being juveniles. The fish community was overwhelmingly dominated by one species (Micropogonias furnieri, 88.9%, and only four species contributed more than 1% of total catch (Odontesthes argentinensis5.4%, Brevoortia aurea 1.1%, Paralonchurus brasiliensis 1.1%, and Mugil platanus 1.0%. Estuarine and freshwater stragglers dominated in number of species, followed by freshwater migrants and marine migrants. Three areas with different fish assemblages, with distinctive species and functional guilds, were defined along the main axis. The occurrence and spatial spread of these areas were linked to spatial variation in salinity, which was consistently influenced by discharge from the Río de la Plata and local precipitation. The results highlight the importance of shallow environments as nursery areas and permit emphasis on their susceptibility to environmental changes.

  15. Presumptive detection of yellow head virus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. stylirostris cultured on the Northwest coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa-Vélez, J; Cedano-Thomas, Y; Cid-Becerra, J; Méndez-Payán, J C; Vega-Pérez, C; Zambrano-García, J; Bonami, J-R

    2006-12-01

    In order to assess the presence of yellow head virus (YHV) in shrimp farms along the Pacific coast of Mexico, 39 samples from 26 randomly chosen farms were analysed by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and dot-blot hybridization. Eleven samples were positive for YHV. The disease was reproduced by means of an infectivity bioassay performed with an extract of pleopods from the positive samples. Cumulative mortality reached 50% in 14 days. Four pairs of primers which amplified several YHV genome regions were designed and used to test dead and surviving shrimp from the bioassay by RT-PCR, resulting in positive results for every expected amplicon. The results of this study provide presumptive evidence of the presence of YHV in Mexican shrimp farms at least during 1999-2000. PMID:17169104

  16. Basic Soil Problems of Irrigation Association’s Areas in Right Coast of Gediz Basin-Salihli

    OpenAIRE

    USUL, Mustafa; YİĞİNİ, İlhami BAYRAMİN Orhan DENGİZ Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was carried out determination of soil problems of right side of the Gediz Basin-Salihli. For this purpose, 1:5.000 scale digital basic soil map which was detaily prepared before was used as material. Most part of the study area’s soil is Entisol (% 85,4) and rest of the it is Inceptisol (% 14, 6). According to labarotory results, It was determinated that the most important problems are high born consantraction, salinity, alkalinity and drenage in study area. While % 4...

  17. Bio-physical model provides insight into dispersal of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) from putative spawning grounds to nursery areas on the west coast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zölck, Melanie; Brophy, Deirdre; Mohn, Christian; Minto, Cóilín; McGrath, David

    2015-05-01

    In this study we use an individual-based coupled physical biological model (ICPBM) to reconstruct the dispersal pathways of 0-group juveniles (young of the year) collected from nursery grounds in Galway Bay and to identify probable spawning ground locations for plaice on the west coast of Ireland. The relative importance of passive transport, behaviour and individual growth rates on successful larval delivery, from three putative spawning grounds to suitable nursery areas, was also investigated. Using a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), combined with a particle tracking model, three model scenarios were tested: a passive tracer scenario (PTS), a linear growth scenario (LGS) and a temperature-dependent growth scenario (TDS). Hydrodynamic conditions were modelled and biological information (pelagic larval durations and size at settlement) incorporated. The LGS and TDS included vertical migration and tidally synchronised behaviour. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) comparisons showed that incorporation of behaviour and temperature-dependent growth, resulted in approximately two to three times more particles being delivered to sites of suitable depth for settlement (≤ 10 m), compared to passive transport alone (p LGS 19-78%; TDS 40-81%). The probability of successful delivery also varied significantly depending on the location, year and week of release (p < 0.05). A comparison of temperature histories between particles that were delivered to shallow inshore areas and those that failed to reach depths suitable for settlement indicated that dispersal to coastal nursery areas is facilitated by entrainment into a cool coastal current system. This study identifies a probable plaice spawning area in western Ireland and reconfirms the importance of including behaviour and growth in dispersal simulations. The model results suggest that differences in growth can influence larval delivery to potentially suitable nursery areas.

  18. Pacific Northwest: paradise lost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.V.

    1980-04-18

    An influx of new residents to the Pacific Northwest is changing social patterns and is endangering the region's valued wilderness and resources. A growing population and a feeling that the national govenment is more exploitive than conserving of its resources combines with a political tension between progressive populism and conservative Mormon influences to make residents wary of either newcomers or new prosperity. The abundant hydro power is threatened as power demand increases and utilities, industries, and the state and local governments compete for their fair share. A plan to restructure the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been introduced in Congress to give it a single appointed administrator with the authority to decide how power will be distributed and which new power sources to develop. Concern about the two national nuclear waste repositories at Hanford and Idaho Falls led to a six-month moratorium at Hanford to warn the government that the site was not intended to be a permanent solution. A legislative proposal to set up regional nuclear parks will not relieve the Pacific Northwest's problems for some time. Leaders blame the policymakers for looking on the area as too remote and underpopulated to worry about. 18 references (DCK)

  19. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  20. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; K. H. Kjær; J. M. Wahr; Bevis, M; Korsgaard, N; A. A. Bjørk; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Timm, L. M.; Dam, T. v.

    2012-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevatio...

  1. Sequence Stratigraphic Characterization of Upper Miocene through Pleistocene Siliciclastic Aquifer Sediments, Baton Rouge Area, Southeastern Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, E. L.; Hanor, J. S.; Tsai, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    Saltwater encroachment northward into freshwater sands of the Baton Rouge aquifer system, southeastern Louisiana, poses a serious environmental threat to this metropolitan municipal and industrial water source. The aquifer system consists of an 850-m thick succession of interbedded, unconsolidated south-dipping siliciclastic sandy units and mudstones of Upper Miocene through Pleistocene age. A geology-based understanding of the connectivity, geometry and depositional setting of this aquifer system is necessary for developing strategies to halt or control saltwater intrusion. Seventy five digitized spontaneous potential - resistivity logs for boreholes in the area provided data for interpreting environments of deposition, for correlating sand-rich and mudstone-rich zones, and for identifying periods of low and high rates of sediment aggradation. The sands have complex geometries representing braided stream, meandering channel fill, floodplain, levee, and crevasse splay facies. A high degree of lateral discontinuity of the sands makes visual correlation of units difficult. Therefore an assessment of lithology-depth relations was made by determining the frequency of occurrence of mudstone at discrete 0.15 m depth intervals in borehole logs along five 40-km long transects parallel to the strike of the aquifer units. Percent occurrence of mudstone was graphed as a function of depth using a 41-point centered moving average for smoothing, and mudstone-poor, sand-rich trends were correlated between transects. Ten major sand cycles were identified. Individual aquifer units are interpreted to be complex zones of amalgamated sand bodies deposited during times of low aggradation associated with sea-level falling-stages and lowstand system tracts. The amalgamation created a high degree of connectivity which results in these zones behaving as single hydrologic units. Mudstone-rich aquitard sequences are interpreted to be flood-plain sediments deposited during times of high

  2. The ecological importance of the dwarf seagrass Zostera japonica in intertidal areas on the southern coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Kun-Seop; Li, Wen-Tao; Park, Sang Rul

    2016-03-01

    The intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica, which is distributed in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones, is exposed to nutrients from over-enriched land-based discharge and storm water runoff before they can be washed out to sea. Despite its ecological importance, only a few studies have examined the ecology and physiology of Z. japonica in northeast Asia. In this study, we investigated the productivity and tissue nutrient contents of above- and below-ground tissues to evaluate the potential role of Z. japonica in carbon capture and as a nutrient sink. The average total, above-, and below-ground productivity per shoot was 0.56, 0.34, and 0.21 mg DW shoot-1 day-1, respectively. Annual leaf production was 1.5 times higher than annual below-ground production. Estimated annual whole-plant carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus incorporation based on shoot production and tissue nutrient contents was 312.8 g C m-2 y-1, 25.7 g N m-2 y-1, and 1.6 g P m-2 y-1, respectively. These values were equivalent to 7.8 × 103 kg C y-1, 6.4 × 102 kg N y-1, and 40 kg P y-1 for all Z. japonica beds in Geoje Bay. This suggests that Z. japonica meadows can incorporate a considerable amount of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the intertidal zone. High N:P ratios of above- and below-ground tissues suggest that Z. japonica growth is probably limited by phosphorus availability in the study area.

  3. Seaweeds as bioindicators of heavy metals off a hot spot area on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast during 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams El-Din, N G; Mohamedein, L I; El-Moselhy, Kh M

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, and Hg were measured successively in water, sediments, and six macroalgal species belonging to three algal classes during 3 years (2008-2010) from Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt: Chlorophyceae (Enteromorpha compressa, Ulva fasciata), Phaeophyceae (Padina boryana), and Rhodophyceae (Jania rubens, Hypnea musciformis, Pterocladia capillacea). The study aimed to assess the bioaccumulation potential of the seaweeds, as well as to evaluate the extent of heavy metal contamination in the selected study site. Metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry coupled with MH-10 hydride system. The obtained data showed that the highest mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn were recorded in E. compressa; Cd, Ni, and Hg exhibited their highest mean concentrations in P. boryana, while Pb and Co were found in J. rubens. Abundance of the heavy metals in the algal species was as follow: Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Ni > Co > Cu > Cd > Hg. E. compressa showed the maximum metal pollution index (MPI) which was 11.55. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for the metals in algae was relatively high with a maximum value for Mn. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) values for the recorded algal species were low, which ranged between 1.00 in P. boryana and 2.72 in E. compressa. Enrichment factors for sediments were low fluctuating between 0.43 for Hg to 2.33 for Mn. Accordingly, the green alga E. compressa, brown alga P. boryana, and red alga J. rubens can be nominated as bioindicators. Based on MPI and PLI indices, Abu Qir Bay in the present study is considered as low-contaminated area. PMID:24844431

  4. Referral of epileptic patients in North East Coast of West Malaysia an area with poor MRI coverage: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Y; Alias, N N; Shuaib, I L; Tharakan, J; Abdullah, J; Munawir, A H; Naing, N N

    2006-11-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), have proved invaluable in detecting structural brain lesions in patients with epilepsy in developed countries. In Malaysia, a few electroencephalography facilities available in rural district hospitals run by trained physician assistants have Internet connections to a government neurological center in Kuala Lumpur. These facilities are more commonly available than MRI machines, which require radiological expertise and helium replacement, which may problematic in Southeast Asian countries where radiologists are found in mainly big cities or towns. We conducted a cross-sectional study over a two year period begining January 2001 on rural patients, correlating EEG reports and MRI images with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy to set guidelines for which rural patients need to be referred to a hospital with MRI facilities. The patients referred by different hospitals without neurological services were classified as having generalized, partial or unclassified seizures based on the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The clinical parameters studied were seizure type, seizure frequency, status epilepticus and duration of seizure. EEG reports were reviewed for localized and generalized abnormalities and epileptiform changes. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and area under the curve. The association between clinical and radiological abnormalities was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-six males and 18 females were evaluated. The mean age was 20.7 +/- 13.3 years. Nineteen (43.2%) had generalized seizures, 22 (50.0%) had partial seizures and 3 (6.8%) presented with unclassified seizures. The EEG was abnormal in 30 patients (20 with generalized abnormalities and 10 localized abnormalities). The MRI was abnormal in 17 patients (38.6%); the abnormalities observed were cerebral

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  6. Trends in population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in a rural area of Northwest China from 1982 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in average blood pressure levels and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults in a rural area of Northwest China, and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS: Four cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted between 1982 and 2010 among randomly selected adults in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Data on blood pressure, body mass index, family history of hypertension, and socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected in similar way by trained investigators in four surveys. Data of 8575 participants aged 35-64 years was analyzed. Averages and proportions were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Average blood pressure in the population has increased since 1982 from 76.9 mm Hg to 79.6 mm Hg in 2010 (diastolic and from 120.9 to 129.7 mm Hg (systolic. Prevalence of hypertension increased from 18.4% in 1982 to 30.5% in 2010, and awareness of hypertension increased from 16.8% to 38.4% in 2010. Treatment of hypertension increased from 1.0% in 1982 to 17.4% in 2010, and control of hypertension increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 3.5% in 2010. All these gradients were statistically significant (P<0.01 for trend. Population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension were positively associated with increasing age, body mass index and having family history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Average blood pressure levels and the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in rural areas of Hanzhong have increased since 1982. However, awareness, treatment and control rates remain low. Public health programs and practical strategies are required to improve prevention and control of hypertension in rural Northwest China. In particular, attention should be given to the elderly and obese, and to those with a family history of hypertension, while raising awareness and treatment among younger adults.

  7. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation...... with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest sector, while the GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice...

  8. An effort in increasing the use of natural resources around southern coast of Yogyakarta, A case-study of coastal area of Baron, Kukup, and Krakal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJALAL S. TANDJUNG

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of Baron, Kukup, and Krakal in the southern coast of Yogyakarta is an arid and dried area, and marginal agriculture land. The potential vegetation resources only live on the lands that produce cassava, corn, peanut, and soybean. The increasing benefits of sea products such as fishes still need to be invented. The aims of this research are to inventories and to increase the use of disadvantage resources. This research was conducted from October 1995 to March 1996. The result invents 70 species of useful plants and 21 species of weed that can be used by the people for the needs of their own households. The remainder products of Anona squamosa L., which might easily rot and until now unprofitable, could be used to make some jam. Phylantus emblica L. can be put into a useful product by making them to become candies. Another natural resources that are neglected are the cattle excrement and sharkskin. All kind of sharkskin’s can be manufactured into leather products. While cattle excrement can be produced methane for cooking and lighting. There are 163 species of ornamental fishes in Kukup, and 20 species of consumed fishes in Baron. In search of ornamental fishes, the fishermen have a bad-habit of using hazardous materials such as potassium cyanide. Besides endangers the reef communities, algae and fish-larvae, it makes the ornamental fishes they caught unhealthy and cannot be exported since their lifespan is very short. Due to this factor, ornamental fishes are only available in the local market of Kukup.

  9. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate changes and to anthropogenic interventions, saltwater intrusion is affecting the aquifers and the surface water of the Po plain along the Adriatic coast. During the last decade, we recognized in this area a pattern of climate change: precipitations are less frequent and the yearly amount of rain is concentrated in a few strong storm events. This pattern results in an increase of gales strength during the winter, which causes shoreline retreat and an erosion of the coastal dunes. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The wide sandy beaches are now retreating and the dune system (only a few meters in height) is almoust destroyed, because of tourism development and of disaggregated rivers and shorelines management. A still active dune system is preserved in our study area, a coastal plain included between the Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers near the city of Ravenna. As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters have been contaminated by seawater. Despite its value for the natural ecosystem and the agricultural soil, the phreatic aquifer is not considered of interest by the regional authorities responsible for water management. A detailed hydrogeological survey was performed by our research group during the Summer 2008 within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. In this survey 29 auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we measured the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore

  10. Quaternary Tectonism in a Collision Zone, Northwest Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, P. A.; Wolf, S. C.; Intelmann, S. S.; Danforth, W. W.; Weldon, R. J.; Blair, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Kinematic, geodetic, and geologic observations define a region with 6-8 mm/y of north-south contraction between the Columbia River and Vancouver Island. We attribute this contraction to differential forearc-block motion within the Cascadia subduction system where the Oregon Coast Range block is moving northward relative to Vancouver Island. The contraction is accommodated by a combination of distributed uplift in the Olympic Mountains, and faulting along the margins of the Coast Range and Vancouver Island blocks. The tide gauge at Neah Bay, which records one of the highest rates of uplift anywhere along the Cascadia subduction margin, suggests that a significant portion of this north-south contraction occurs between the northern Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island. The northwest-trending Calawah fault, extending from Makah Bay eastward to near Lake Crescent, appears to mark the modern boundary between the Olympic Mountains block and the Vancouver Island block in northwestern Washington. Onshore, the 80+ km-long Calawah fault displaces late Quaternary glacial sediments and geodetic uplift rates increase abruptly across the fault zone. Offshore in Makah Bay, new multibeam, sidescan-sonar, and high-resolution seismic reflection data image a complex, multi-strand fault zone that offsets the seafloor and moves Cape Flattery rocks seaward. Two parallel, northwest-trending fault strands bound a down-dropped block that in turn terminates along a northward-trending anticlinal fold and thrust fault. These data suggest that the Calawah fault zone currently accommodates contraction both by uplift and by seaward translation of rocks north of the forearc-block boundary. Our geologic mapping in the Cape Flattery area indicates that differential block motion is accommodated by a combination of crustal uplift, folding, and left-lateral, strike-slip faulting.

  11. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NWS Watches for Short-Duration Hazards for Inland, Coastal, and Maritime Areas (Time Enabled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps depicting the geographic coverage of the latest NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) Watches...

  12. hab114_0402c - Habitat polygons for Chibahdehl Rocks area. Results from HMPR-114-2004-02c acoustic survey in Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary (OCNMS). ROV, towed camera sled, bathymetry data, sedimentary...

  13. hab115_0403 - Habitat polygons for Cape Flattery and Makah Bay area. Results from HMPR-115-2004-03 acoustic survey in Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat polygon coverages are being created for the Olympic Coast national marine sanctuary (OCNMS). ROV, towed camera sled, bathymetry data, sedimentary...

  14. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NWS Weather Warnings for Short-Duration Hazards in Inland, Coastal, and Maritime Areas (Time Enabled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps depicting the geographic coverage of the latest NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) Warnings...

  15. Perspective on eastern migration studies: stopover ecology of migratory landbirds in the Gulf Coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, W.C.; Johnson Randall, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Millions of Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds move through the coastal habitats of the Gulf of Mexico each spring and autumn as they migrate across and around the Gulf. Migration routes in the Gulf region are not static and they shift year to year and season to season according to prevailing wind patterns. Using data from field and radar studies, we mapped patterns of migration movement and landfall in the Gulf of Mexico region. Map categories include coastal areas where migrant numbers are consistently high, consistently common, sporadically common-abundant, sporadically common, or sparse. Weather surveillance radar data indicates that habitats along the Northwest Gulf Coast are consistently used each year.

  16. Paleogeography of Cretaceous ammonoids of the Pacific coast of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagt-Yazykova, E. A.; Zonova, T. D.

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the biogeographical distribution of Late Albian-Maastrichtian ammonites, found in sequences of the Pacific coast of Russia. The taxa typical of the Pacific Realm were identified, and their distribution traced beyond the borders of this region. In addition, species-migrants, distributed within the studied area were established. As a results of our works, a high level of endemism of ammonite fauna of the East of Russia was noted (75-88% of endemic species, on average). The bipolarity, previously established in the distribution of ammonoids within the Pacific Paleobiogeographical Realm, as well as their high regional provincialism, was confirmed. The following division of the studied area into faunal ammonite provinces in the Late Cretaceous was proposed: Arctic Province; Boreal-Pacific Province, including northeastern Russia (Chukotka Peninsula, the Koryak Upland, Penzhyna Gulf) and the boreal coast of North America (Alaska Peninsula, Arctic Canada and British Columbia); Northwest Pacific Province, including the Primorye Territory, Sakhalin and Shikotan Islands, the Japanese Islands; Northeast Province of the Pacific (the western coast of the United States and Mexico); Southwest Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, Oceania) and Southeast (the western coast of South America and Antarctica, Seymour and James Ross Islands) Provinces. This division is confirmed by data on inoceramid species. In addition, levels of global transgressions and general sea level rise, associated with the appearances of most of widespread marine taxa in the Pacific shelf seas, are established. These include Late Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Late Coniacian, Late Campanian, Early-Late Maastrichtian boundary. Moreover, migration of ammonites occurred due to the Tethys Ocean extension and followed the northern sea straits in the Arctic Ocean and within the Pacific Realm, depending on warm currents. Both the counter and one-way migrations were

  17. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  18. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems. PMID:27556895

  19. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems.

  20. Activities of radionuclides in the Pacific coastal area of Fukushima since the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident - Activities of radionuclides in the coast area off Fukushima after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Miho; Yoshida, Satoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan); Sohtome, Tadahiro; Mizuno, Takuji [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Igarashi, Satoshi [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima Prefecture Sea-Farming Association, 970-8044, Fukushima (Japan); Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 108-0075, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) has caused the release of the huge quantities of radionuclide by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and then the serious problems gave rise to pollution in marine environment widely in the coast area off Fukushima. Monitoring of radioactivity in seawater and biota are important for understanding the dispersion of radionuclides and the effects of radioecology in the marine environment around the coast of Fukushima and the Pacific. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in seawater decreased exponentially and then were almost same levels before the accident around off Fukushima after about three years from the accident. However, the high activities of radio caesium (Cs) have been monitored in marine biota off Fukushima. The aims of the present study were to examine the temporal changes in radioactivity and to clarify the variation factor and the effect of radioecology in marine biota. Cs-134 and Cs-137, and Ag-110m, were released by this accident, determined in biota sample such as the plankton, fish and benthos, although it is well-known that molluscs and crustaceans concentrate silver in visceral parts. However, Sr-90 was not detected and the activities of plutonium were almost same level before this accident in the marine biota around off Fukushima. Concentration ratios of Cs (CR-Cs) in marine organism were from 2.6 E+1 in the muscle part of squid to 1.0 E+4 in the viscera of clam. The large differences in CR-Cs by the parts of marine organism were not observed. It is suggested that rapid change in the activities of radio Cs and silver in seawater, resuspension of particles from sediments and food chain effects led to high radionuclide activities in marine biota after this accident. CR-Cs in plankton was also calculated with the activities in seawater, which were collected around sampling area during this monitoring period. These resulting values ranged from 5.8 E+1 to 7.8 E+2

  1. Activities of radionuclides in the Pacific coastal area of Fukushima since the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident - Activities of radionuclides in the coast area off Fukushima after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) has caused the release of the huge quantities of radionuclide by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and then the serious problems gave rise to pollution in marine environment widely in the coast area off Fukushima. Monitoring of radioactivity in seawater and biota are important for understanding the dispersion of radionuclides and the effects of radioecology in the marine environment around the coast of Fukushima and the Pacific. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in seawater decreased exponentially and then were almost same levels before the accident around off Fukushima after about three years from the accident. However, the high activities of radio caesium (Cs) have been monitored in marine biota off Fukushima. The aims of the present study were to examine the temporal changes in radioactivity and to clarify the variation factor and the effect of radioecology in marine biota. Cs-134 and Cs-137, and Ag-110m, were released by this accident, determined in biota sample such as the plankton, fish and benthos, although it is well-known that molluscs and crustaceans concentrate silver in visceral parts. However, Sr-90 was not detected and the activities of plutonium were almost same level before this accident in the marine biota around off Fukushima. Concentration ratios of Cs (CR-Cs) in marine organism were from 2.6 E+1 in the muscle part of squid to 1.0 E+4 in the viscera of clam. The large differences in CR-Cs by the parts of marine organism were not observed. It is suggested that rapid change in the activities of radio Cs and silver in seawater, resuspension of particles from sediments and food chain effects led to high radionuclide activities in marine biota after this accident. CR-Cs in plankton was also calculated with the activities in seawater, which were collected around sampling area during this monitoring period. These resulting values ranged from 5.8 E+1 to 7.8 E+2

  2. GMES-service for assessing and monitoring subsidence hazards in coastal lowland areas around Europe. SubCoast D3.5.1

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, Luke; Evans, Hannah; Jordan, Colm

    2011-01-01

    This document is version two of the user requirements for SubCoast work package 3.5, it is SubCoast deliverable 3.5.1. Work package 3.5 aims to provide a European integrated GIS product on subsidence and relative sea level rise. The first step of this process was to contact the European Environment Agency as the main user to discover their user requirements. This document presents these requirments, the outline methodology that will be used to carry out the integration and t...

  3. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  4. Northwest Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Portions of northwest Washington State (48.0N, 122.5) can be seen in this view as well as portions of British Columbia, Canada. The snow covered Cascade Mountains are on the eastern side of the scene. Vancouver Island is visible in the northeast corner of the photo. The strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Islannd from the northwest corner of Washington. Seattle is near the center and the snow covered Olympic Mountains are to the east.

  5. Maritime archaeology of Gujarat: Northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    of the anchors took place during the manufacturing stage and not during the anchoring processes. A composite anchor made of lime stone was found at the site. A few unfinished anchors were found from Gogha and Hathab. However, these anchors were submerged in 5... (North Gujarat) with special reference to Shell Industries of the Harappan Tradition in Gujarat", in Man and Environment, XXVIII, 2, pp.51-80. Bhan, K.K., 2006 "Towards an Understanding of Medieval Glazed Pottery Manufacture from Lakshkarshah...

  6. 2007 Oregon Department of Forestry (ODF) Northwest Oregon Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar dataset encompasses two areas in northwest Oregon. The northern area is located in Clatsop County, encompassing Clatsop State Forest ownership; the...

  7. Origin of Amazon mudbanks along the northeastern coast of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.A.; Lee, M.T.; Ogston, A.S.; Aller, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic profiles, sediment cores, and water column measurements were collected along the northeastern coast of Brazil to examine the origin of mudbanks in the Amazon coastal mud belt. These 10-60-km-long, shore-attached features previously had been observed to migrate along the 1200 km coast of the Guianas in response to wave forcing. CHIRP (3.5 kHz) seismic profiles of the shoreface and inner shelf located two mudbanks updrift of the previous eastern limit in French Guiana. 210Pb geochronology shows that these two banks are migrating to the northwest over a relict mud surface in 5-20 m water depth. The mudbanks are 3-4 m thick and are translating over a modern shoreface mud wedge deposited by previous mudbank passage in < 5 m water depth. Initial mudbank development is taking place on the intertidal and shallow subtidal mudflats at Cabo Cassipore, associated with an alongshore-accreting clinoform feature. Sediment trapping in this area is controlled by the nearshore presence of strong water column stratification produced by the enormous Amazon freshwater discharge on the shelf and by proximity to the Cassipore River estuary. Seasonal and decadal periods of sediment supply and starvation in this area likely are controlled by variations in northwest trade wind intensity. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. A bio-socioeconomic model for the management of the small pelagic fishery in northwest Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The article was extracted from the author's dissertation entitled "Management of small pelagic fisheries on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia: a bio-socioeconomic simulation analysis". The basic structure and uses of this simulation model are presented here.

  9. Extent Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two layers that depict the extent of the 2003 digital orthophoto mosaic for the coastal and nearshore areas of Bering Land Bridge...

  10. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Cape Krusenstern. These shoreline...

  11. Index Layers for High-Resolution Orthorectified Imagery from Approximately 1980 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This vector shapefile is one of two index map layers for 57 frames of orthorectified aerial photography from approximately 1980 for the coastal and nearshore areas...

  12. Digitized Shorelines from Approximately 1950 1980, and 2003 for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge NP (BELA) and Cape Krusenstern NM (CAKR), Northwest Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This file geodatabase contains all the feature classes relevant to the Digital Shorelines and Analysis for the Coastal Areas of Bering Land Bridge. These shoreline...

  13. Stratigraphic Sequences and Their Implication in a Sea Area of the Western Yellow Sea Near Qingdao Coast During the Late Quaternary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuiyang; LIANG Ruicai; R.Girault

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of seismic data obtained through a cable route survey starting from the Qingdao coast to offshore has determined nine seismic units since Late Pleistocene. Correlation of the seismic data with Borehole Hi2 confirms three eustatic events that occurred during the Late Quaternary and formed terrestrial units 2, 5 and 7. At the low sea level stage, paleo-rivers highly developed, eroded previous strata, formed paleo-valley, and left materials.

  14. Swell prediction for the East Korean coast

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Yuk; Kim, K. O.; Choi, B. H.; K. T. Jung

    2013-01-01

    Long-period abnormally high swell waves have been generated in the East Sea near Hokkaido, Japan, in winter during the atmospheric depression. These waves, named Yorimawari in Japanese, occasionally attack the coasts of both Korea and Japan. Waves significantly higher than normal years were recorded along the east Korean coast in 2006. In 2008, the swell caused considerable damages in Toyama and the Niigata coastal area of Japan and in Anmok east coast of Korea. This paper attempts to hindcas...

  15. Study on Storm Flood Surface Frequency in China’s Northwest Arid Area%西北干旱区局部暴雨洪水面频率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华兴; 刘进琪; 温慧娜; 李婳

    2013-01-01

    Based on comprehensive survey of historical,fixed point and moving point flood in six provinces of Northwest China,this paper analyzed flood surface frequency on inland rivers,the Yellow River and the Yangtze River,obtained the local storm flood surface frequency curve of three big river basins of the arid areas in Northwest China,and applied superposition method of combining surface frequency and point frequency to deal with historical and unusual floods in hydrological design. The results of case application show that this method effectively improves comfortable line accu-racy and more practical and save the engineering cost.%在全面收集中国西北三省(区)历史洪水、定点洪水、动点洪水调查结果的基础上,分内陆河、黄河、长江流域进行了洪水的面频率分析,得出了西北干旱区局部暴雨洪水面频率曲线,应用条件概率理论将面频率与点频率叠加,处理工程水文设计中的历史洪水和特大洪水。实例应用结果表明:该方法有效地提高了适线精度,更加符合实际且节约工程造价。

  16. 西北干旱区水汽收支变化及其与降水的关系%Changes of Water Vapor Budget in Arid Area of Northwest China and Its Relationship with Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐栋; 孔莹; 王澄海

    2016-01-01

    With global temperature increasing,climate in arid areas also has a marked change.Based on NCEP reanalysis datasets,the characteristics and changes of meridional and zonal water vapor transportation,evaporation,water vapor convergence and divergence in the arid areas (35°N-50°N,73°E-105°E)of northwest China during 1961 -2010 were analyzed,at the same time,their relation-ships with rainfall were also discussed.Conclusions are as follows:(1 )The meridional vapor transportation was net input in winter, spring and autumn over the arid area of northwest China,whereas the zonal vapor transportation was net output,the total vapor trans-portation was also net input.In summer,both the meridional and zonal transportation were net outputs.Precipitation in the northwest arid area increased in each season during 1961 -2010,and the increasing trend was significant in winter and spring,but it was not ob-vious in summer and autumn.The decrease of zonal water vapor net output in winter resulted in an increase of total water vapor trans-port.While the decrease of zonal water vapor net input in spring and autumn as well as the increase of zonal water vapor net output in summer caused the reduction of total water vapor input in spring,summer and autumn.(3)The evaporation increased significantly in each season in the northwest arid areas,and the increasing rate was the biggest in summer.(4)The water vapor flux divergence de-creased significantly in each season,which meant the convergence of water vapor became stronger,especially in summer.(5 )Consid-ering the effect of water vapor transport,evaporation and water vapor convergence,the increase of evaporation and water vapor conver-gence was the main positive driving force to precipitation in northwest arid area,but external vapor transportation could also affect pre-cipitation there.%利用NCEP资料计算并分析1961—2010年西北干旱区(35°N—50°N,73°E—105°E)经纬向水汽输送、蒸发和水汽辐合辐散的

  17. Impacts of Grownd water-over exploitation on agricultural development and Environment in north-west Libya (Garabolli area) using R.S and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbeli, E.

    2003-04-01

    This study was carried out in Garabolli area nort-west of Libya which is east of Tripoli about 60km. This study reviews the development of grownd water abstraction in the area and displays its impacts on the aquifer water levels and salinity. Satellite data were used to produce land use land cover and soil maps scale 1:50000. Each soil mapping units investigated in the field and the soils were characterized and classified. The comparison between 2 different dates spot multispectral images were applied in this paper. GIS techniques were used to produce different maps and some statistics tables shows in the report.

  18. Offshore siting near the coast of wind turbines. An evaluation of the visual effects of erecting large wind turbines in coastal areas; Kystnaere havvindmoelleplaceringer - en vurdering af de visuelle forhold ved opstilling af store vindmoeller naer kystomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmer, C.; Birk Nielsen, F. (Sweco Architects A/S, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2012-06-15

    Areas within a certain distance off the open coastal areas, cottage areas and cities may be suitable for the installation of coastal offshore wind turbines. Landscapes with coasts with visibly opposing country may be vulnerable to erection of major near-shore wind farms. It is recommended that small groups of wind turbines in coastal locations are erected in simple geometric patterns depending on the landscape to achieve the most easily perceivable order and visual coherence with the environment. An array of single rows is easiest perceivable pattern where the turbines appear visually distinct from almost all angles. For an array in a rectangular grid, it is difficult to perceive the overall grid-array and the turbine rows will cause more problems in the landscape. Few turbines (3 - 10) should be placed in a straight line, whereas for the larger wind farms may be preferable to set the turbines in several rows to minimize the extent of the area. (LN)

  19. Comparative Hydrological and Geoelectrical Study on the Quaternary Aquifer in the Deltas of Wadi Badaa and Ghweiba, El Ain El Sukhna Area, Northwest Suez Gulf, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. El Osta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Ain El Sukhna area was selected in the last ten years to initiate many governmental and investmental programs. The different activities in that area depend mainly on the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer, which forms the main water bearing strata. In the present work, twenty one geoelctrical soundings using the Schlumberger configuration are carried out at selected sites especially in missing parts from wells to delineate the groundwater setting in such sites. Eight of them are conducted in the close vicinity of water wells, where lithologs and pumping test data of these wells are available to relate hydrologic and geoelctric measurements. The pumping tests data are analyzed by using AQTESOLV program and the geolectrical sounding data were interpreted by partial curve matching technique to obtain the initial parameters. The results indicated that, the transmissivity is found to be closely related with transverse resistance and the hydraulic conductivity with average transverse resistivity, while the salinity is inversely related with resistivity. Finally, priority map for drilling water wells is constructed to make the results more illustrative and useful for decision maker. The promising area for drilling is located at the western portion of the study region.

  20. 湖北省西北地区食管癌合并念珠菌感染的临床研究%Clinical Study of Esophageal Cancer with Candida Infection in Northwest Area of Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊玲; 王芬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study esophageal cancer with candida infection in northwest area of Hubei and its treatment . Methods Clinical data of 356 cases of esophageal cancer from northwest area of Hubei received retrospective analysis .Results The infection rate of esophageal cancer was 19.94%.The main risk factors were:age >65,other system infection history,low im-munity,multiple cycles of chemotherapy ,the application of immunosuppressant and the long -term application of antibiotics.Con-clusion Age,merging,chronic disease,infection factors,chemotherapy and use of antibiotics are important reasons for candida infection in esophageal cancer ,strengthen awareness ,early diagnosis,and early treatment are effective and timely method to con -trol infection.%目的:探讨湖北省西北地区食管癌合并念珠菌感染的原因及治疗。方法抽取湖北省西北地区肿瘤科食管癌患者356例,回顾性分析356例食管癌患者的基本临床资料。结果食管癌合并感染发生率为19.94%。主要易感因素有:年龄>65岁,系统感染病史,免疫力低下、多个周期化疗、免疫抑制剂的应用及长期应用抗菌素。结论年龄因素、合并慢性病、感染因素、化疗方法、抗生素的使用等是导致食管癌发生念珠菌感染的重要原因,增强意识,早期诊断、早期规范治疗是及时控制感染的有效途经。

  1. [Differentiation of vegetation characteristics on slope micro-topography of fenced watershed in loess area of north Shaanxi Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Qing-Ke; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Yun, Lei; Xie, Jing; Kuang, Gao-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Based on the investigation data of the vegetations in Hegou valley in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, this paper studied the vegetation characteristics on the five typical micro-topography categories including shallow gully, gully, collapse, platform, and scarp in the loess area of north Shaanxi, with the undisturbed slope as the control. There existed distinct differences in the species composition, quantitative characteristics, and species diversity of plant communities on the five typical micro-topography categories and the undisturbed slope. After twelve years of enclosure recovery, the study area formed herbaceous plant community, with Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii as the dominant species. Among the main companion species, shrubs such as Prinsepia uniflora and Caragana korshinskii were found in scarp and gully, and hygrophyte Phragmites australis appeared in platform. The coverage, height, and biomass of the plant communities on most of the micro-topography categories, especially on the gully and collapse, were larger than those on the undisturbed slope. The Shannon index on the micro-topography categories and undisturbed slope was in the order of scarp > gully > shallow gully > undisturbed slope > platform > collapse.

  2. Impact of family ownerships, individual hygiene, and residential environments on the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghanzadeh, Reza; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Salimian, Shahin; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Khayatzadeh, Simin

    2015-11-01

    In the appraisal of head lice outbreak, in addition to socioeconomic factors and availability of health care services, environmental conditions of the households must be taken into account. However, interviewing with children or mailing questionnaires to families may not reflect the actualities. Therefore, in this study, all the inclusive factors which may be associated with head lice outbreak were thoroughly and closely investigated. The data were collected by examining students at schools and surveying patients' households. A questionnaire concerning children's personal hygienic practices, family features, and environmental conditions of the households was filled out during the close assessment of the residential area. The overall prevalence of head lice was obtained as 5.9%, and the difference was not significant within the urban (5.1%) and rural (6.1%) communities. Overall, the number of infested students was more frequent in girls (6.6%) than boys (2.8%), but the difference was not significant. The highest infestation rate was obtained in the examined students whose fathers were unemployed, farmer, and herdsman. Family income showed greater correlation with the prevalence of pediculosis capitis. A high frequency of pediculosis capitis was identified among the students who were sharing individual items with siblings. Assessment of households showed that room flooring material and keeping animals at home were highly correlated with head lice prevalence. Households should be informed that infestations happen, irrespective of socioeconomic status. However, the physical and environmental conditions of living areas and households play an important role in head lice prevention. PMID:26276644

  3. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations. PMID:26966494

  4. [Development mechanism of concentrated poverty areas under the sustainable livelihood: The example of the development-restricted ecological district of Ningxia, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun-tao; Mi, Wen-bao; Fan, Xin-gang; Yang, Mei-ling

    2015-09-01

    Livelihood capital has a close relationship with the income and expenditure of farmers' households. For example, the survival strategies of farmers' households are determined by it and it also influences regional development mechanisms and models. Under the analysis framework of sustainable livelihoods, this study evaluated farmers' livelihood capital, income, and expenditure, based on a participatory rural appraisal and a statistical method, in the development-restricted ecological district of Ningxia, decomposed into the nationality, terrain, and type of farmers' household. Further, by using an index of non-farm business households, the correlations between the livelihood capital and income with the expenditure of farmers' households and the index of non-farm business households were quantified to understand the mechanism of regional development. The results showed that livelihood capital was generally low in the study area. In particular, the livelihood capital of Hui nationality households was slightly higher than that of Han nationality households, that of river valley households was higher than that of mountain households, and that of combined occupation households and non-farm business households was significantly higher than that of agricultural households. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the net annual income of farmers' households and the non-agricultural index, human capital, physical capital, and financial capital, while a significant negative correlation existed between net annual income and natural capital. These findings suggested that efforts were required to enhance the capacity of the non-agricultural index and the human, material, and other capital in the study area. They also served as a guideline for the circulation of peasants' means of production in order to accelerate the polarization of natural capital.

  5. Deep feelings around a shallow coast. A spatial analysis of tourism jobs and the attractivity of nature in the Dutch Wadden area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Frans J.; Daams, Michiel N.; Farjon, Hans; Buijs, Arjen E.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Wadden area is an internationally renowned natural area with World Heritage status. Its ecological uniqueness can be attributed to its shallow coastal waters. However, the Wadden area is also a rural area in search of competitive economic activity so as to provide employment to its populat

  6. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations. PMID:21937490

  7. A Probabilistic Tsunami Assessment for Western Australia and the South coast of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D. R.; Cummins, P. R.; Thio, H. K.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to July 2006, the only known, large megathrust earthquake known to have occurred (Mw=7.6, on 2 June, 1994) south of Java could be argued to be an anomaly in what is essentially aseismic subduction in this part of the Sunda Arc. The occurrence of a second such event (Mw=7.8) on 17 July, however, has demonstrated that they can occur anywhere along the Sunda Arc. These events produced large tsunamis along the coast of Java that killed hundreds (222 and 663, respectively). On the one hand, these earthquakes are much smaller than the Mw=9+ earthquakes known to occur off Sumatra, and the mortality associated with them is much smaller than the staggering human toll of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), which killed 167,000 on the Sumatran coast. On the other hand, the density of population along the south Java coast is much higher than that along the Sumatran coast, and we do not know how large or how frequent tsunamigenic earthquakes off Java may be. The possibility exists that tsunami risk, as measured in human lives, may be higher for Java than for Sumatra. Furthermore, future events off Sumatra can be expected off its central and perhaps its southern coast, where most of the teletsunami energy will be directed into the open Indian Ocean. Events off Java, however, will direct much more teletsunami energy towards the northwest coast of Australia. Both the 1994 and the 2006 tsunamis originating off south Java caused significant tsunamis at specific locations along the West Australian coast. Here we present a new probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the offshore wave height expected along the south coast of Java and the West Australian coast from earthquakes along the Sunda Arc subduction zone. This assessment is based on a new estimate of the rate of megathrust earthquake occurrence along the Sunda Arc subduction zone based on the global rate of occurrence of giant subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the subduction zone and its rate of convergence

  8. Northwest Ohio Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin

    2015-03-04

    Improvement Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily

  9. In Northwest Cool Area of Strawberry in Greenhouse Cultivation Test%西北冷凉区草莓温室栽培试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛珍

    2012-01-01

    Influenced by climatic conditions,cultivation of strawberry in high altitude and cold strip,harvest time is short, low yield. Experiments show that, cultivation facilities can be extended to flower bud differenti- ation and development time, the harvesting period, can inhibit the stolons, so as to improve the yield of straw- berry in greenhouse,and anti season cultivation is the area of strawberry production reasonable way.%受气候条件的影响,草莓在高海拔冷凉地带的栽培,采收期短,产量低。试验表明,设施栽培可以延长花芽分化及发育时间,使果实的采收期延长,还能抑制匍匐茎的发生,从而提高草莓产量。温室反季节栽培是该类地区草莓生产比较合理的方式。

  10. November 2009 tropical cyclone Phyan in the eastern Arabian Sea: Oceanic response along west India coast and Kavaratti lagoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Mehra, P.; VijayKumar, K.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Ryan, L.; Rivankar, P.; Viegas, B.

    and finally made landfall at the northwest coast of India, is examined based on time-series measurements of seasurface wind (U sub(10)), gust, gust factor, barometric pressure, precipitation, atmospheric temperature, SST, and significant wave height from...

  11. 西北边远艰苦连队官兵健康状况及其影响因素%Survey on physical condition among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓全; 李英秋; 庄开颜; 张高明; 郝建华; 程鹏; 杨玲

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the physical condition among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas and its influencing factors,provide a basis for improving the medical level in grassroots units.[Methods] By using physical examination and unified questionnaire survey,the status of food security,lifestyle,dietary habit and physical condition among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas were investigated.[Results] The total prevalence rate among servicemen in northwest remote areas was 29.65%.The prevalence rate and awareness rate of chronic diseases were as follow:overweight and obesity was 37.71% and 7.16%,hypertension was 9.28% and 4.08%,fatty liver was 15.2% and 11.44%,as well as hyperuricemia was 13.96% and 0.Other common diseases included sleep disorder,angioneurotic headache,chronic gastritis,calculus,trachoma,chronic conjunctivitis,piles and skin illness.The main problems on dietary habits and unhealthy lifestyle? in sequence were:inadequate intake of fruit (79.1%),inadequate intake of fish (73.23%),smoking (72.64%),inadequate intake of milk (71.74%),high intake of salt (59.01%),drinking (58.71%),inadequate intake of bean products (49.25%),low fluid intake (48.36%),frequently midnight snack (46.76%),high intake of sugared beverages (45.97%),excess intake of staple food(30.50%),and heavy greasy food (22.99%).[Conclusion] It is necessary to strengthen life and medical guarantee among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas,and improve the health education and management,to enhance the combat effectiveness.%目的 了解边远地区基层官兵身体健康状况及其影响因素,为提高基层部队医疗保障水平提供依据.方法 采取健康体检及问卷调查的方法,了解西北边远艰苦地区基层连队食品保障、官兵生活饮食习惯和健康状况.结果 西北边远艰苦地区官兵总患病率为29.65%,慢性病患病率和知晓率分别为:超重与肥胖37.71%和7

  12. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables

  13. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  14. Habitat structure is more important than nutrient supply in modifying mussel bed assemblage in an upwelling area of the Peruvian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstater, Fausto N.; Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Ramos, Elmer; Gamero, Patricia; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2011-06-01

    Upwelling intensity modifies coastal primary production and influences individual traits of habitat-forming species. Along the Peruvian coast, beds of the mytilid Perumytilus purpuratus provide structurally complex habitats that harbour many organisms. We predict that in the nutrient-rich system of Central Peru, the modification of structural complexity would have stronger effects on the Perumytilus community than nutrient addition. We experimentally examined the effects of nutrient addition on the Perumytilus-dominated assemblage and we evaluated the potential effect of varying shell size on the Perumytilus-dominated assemblage. Nutrient addition to the mussel bed with slow-release fertilizers caused no changes in the total macro- and microalgal biomass and did not affect abundances or composition of the assemblage. To explore the effect of structural complexity on the Perumytilus assemblage, we manipulated mussel size with experimental bags containing small and large individuals. Predators, grazers and mobile organisms were more abundant among smaller mussels, with smaller gap volume, whereas the barnacle Jehlius cirratus was more abundant on larger mussels. In conclusion, point-source nutrient addition to the mussel bed did not enhance primary production. However, the modification of structural characteristics related to mussel size induced changes in the faunal assemblage. Thus, it seems that in this nutrient-rich system, nutrient enhancement would not significantly affect Perumytilus and its assemblage, whereas structural habitat seems to play an important role in shaping this community.

  15. Study and thermodynamic characterization of the northwest area of Los Humeros, Puebla, geothermal field, Mexico; Estudio y caracterizacion termodinamica del sector noreste del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machorro Jimenez, Manuel; Pizano Herrera, Arturo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    According to the project for the study and characterization of the geothermal field Los Humeros, Puebla, drilling and production information of wells of the Northwest sector was analyzed, in order to evaluate the potential of this area. Data analysis of wells H-3, H-9, H-22, H-35 and H-37 let us determine the characteristics of this zone. We conclude that there is a producer interval with an average elevation between 1000 and 1500 most in the Andesitas of Augita, with an average temperature of 279 Celsius degree.The mechanics of productions are related to the presence of the Melpais and Antigua Faults. Wells H-3, H-37 had mechanic drilling problems, this could be the cause of low production in well H-3 as these drilling problems occurred at the producer interval. In this zone was carried out a calculation of the electric potential by means of volumetric analysis which gave a favorable estimated potential of 33 Mw for this zone during a period of time of 20 years, which indicates that it is possible to continue exploiting this area. So the future wells to drill will search objectives and be terminated to total depth of 1800 m in the zone of the wells H-35, H-37 and a depth of 2500 m in the zone of H-9. [Spanish] Como parte del proyecto para el estudio y caracterizacion del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, se analizo la informacion de la perforacion de los pozos del sector Noreste, con el proposito de evaluar el potencial de esta area. Los pozos analizados para determinar las caracteristicas de esta zona son: H-3, H-9, H-22, H-35 y H-37 de los cuales se obtuvo un intervalo productor promedio entre 1000 y 1500 msnm en las Andesitas de Augita con una temperatura promedio de 279 grados Celsius. Los mecanismos de produccion se relacionan con la presencia de las fallas Malpais y Antigua. En los pozos H-3 y H-37 se tuvieron problemas mecanicos durante la perforacion, esto puede ser la causa de que el pozo H-3 no tenga una buena produccion, ya que los problemas se

  16. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  17. Time series analysis of monthly mean data of temperature, salinity, nutrients, suspended matter, phyto- and zooplankton at eight locations on the northwest european shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M.; Batten, S.; Becker, G.; Bot, P.; Colijn, F.; Damm, P.; Danielssen, D.; van den Eynde, D.; Føyn, L.; Frohse, A.; Groeneveld, G.; Laane, R.; van Raaphorst, W.; Radach, G.; Schultz, H.; Sündermann, J.

    1996-09-01

    In this study an overview is given of the time series analysis of monthly mean data of physical, chemical and biological parameters. The time series are available at eight locations on the Northwest European Shelf. The integrated evaluation of those time series gives the opportunity to look for connections between the different parts of the shelf. Temperature and salinity seem to be externally forced. For the nutrients and biological parameters the local forcing is dominating the time series. It is concluded that there are areas that are comparable to each other (freshwater dominated boxes along the Belgian and Dutch coasts and German Bight; Atlantic dominated boxes in the English Channel and off the Scottish coast), although significant cross-correlations are hardly found. The Irish Sea can be regarded as a separate ecosystem.

  18. Northwest Ohio Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin

    2015-03-04

    Improvement Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily

  19. Lithology and late postglacial stratigraphy of bottom sediments in isolated basins of the White Sea coast exemplified by a small lake in the Chupa settlement area (Northern Karelia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakova, O. P.; Kolka, V. V.; Tolstobrova, A. N.; Lavrova, N. B.; Tolstobrov, D. S.; Shelekhova, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The complex lithological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological (diatoms, spores, pollen) investigations of stratified bottom sediments that constitute facies-variable sedimentary sequences in a small isolated lake located near the upper limit of the sea on the White Sea coast made it possible to define lithostratigraphic units (LSU) forming the complete sedimentary succession in deep parts of isolated basins. It is shown that stratigraphy of heterogeneous sequences is determined by two regional transgressive-regressive cycles in relative sea level fluctuations: alternating late Glacial and Holocene transgressions and regressions. The lower part of a clastogenic clayey-sandy-silty sequence successively composed of freshwater (LSU 1) and brackish-water (LSU 2) sediments of the ice-marginal basins and marine postglacial facies (LSU 3) was formed during the late Glacial glacioeustatic marine transgression. Its upper part formed in different isolated basins at different stages of the Holocene is represented depending on its altimetric position on the coastal slope by costal marine sediments (LSU 4) and facies of the partly isolated inlet (LSU 5). The organogenic sapropelic sequence, which overlies sediments of the marine basin and partly isolated bay, corresponds to lithostratigraphic units represented by Holocene sediments accumulated in the meromictic lake (LSU 6), onshore freshwater basin (LSU 7), and freshwater basin with elevated water mineralization (LSU 8) deposited during maximum development of Holocene transgression and lacustrine sediments (LSU 9) formed in coastal environments during terminal phases of the Holocene. The defined lithostratigraphic units differ from each other in lithological, micropaleontological, and geochemical features reflected in structural and textural properties of their sediments, their composition, inclusions, and composition of paleophytocoenoses and diatom assemblages.

  20. Algicidal activity against Skeletonema costatum by marine bacteria isolated from a high frequency harmful algal blooms area in southern Chinese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongjun; Huang, Honghui; Qi, Zhanhui; Hu, Weian; Tian, Ziyang; Dai, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Four marine bacterial strains P1, P5, N5 and N21 were isolated from the surface water and sediment of Mirs Bay in southern Chinese coast using the liquid infection method with 48-well plates. These bacteria were all shown to have algicidal activities against Skeletonema costatum. Based on morphological observations, biochemical tests and homology comparisons by 16S rDNA sequences, the isolated strains P1, P5, N5 and N21 were identified as Halobacillus sp., Muricauda sp., Kangiella sp. and Roseivirga sp., respectively. Our results showed that bacterial strain P1 killed S. costatum by release of heat labile algicide, while strains P5, N5 and N21 killed them directly. The algicidal processes of four bacterial strains were different. Strains P1, N5 and N21 disrupted the chain structure and S. costatum appeared as single cells, in which the cellular components were aggregated and the individual cells were inflated and finally lysed, while strain P5 decomposed the algal chains directly. We also showed that the algicidal activities of the bacterial strains were concentration-dependent. More specifically, 10 % (v/v) of bacteria in algae showed the strongest algicidal activities, as all S. costatum cells were killed by strains N5 and N21 within 72 h and by strains P1 and P5 within 96 h. 5 % of bacteria in algae also showed significant algicidal activities, as all S. costatum were killed by strains N5, P5 and N21 within 72, 96 and 120 h, respectively, whereas at this concentration, only 73.4 % of S. costatum cells exposed to strain P1 were killed within 120 h. At the concentration of 1 % bacteria in algae, the number of S. costatum cells continued to increase and the growth rate of algae upon exposure to strain N5 was significantly inhibited. PMID:23054696

  1. Characteristics and geological significance of the late Triassic Carnian oolitic limestone in Hanwang area, northwest Sichuan Basin,China%川西北汉旺地区卡尼期鲕粒灰岩特征及地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬国锋; 范鸿; 时志强; 杜怡星

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentary facies,paleoclimate and paleosalinity of late Triassic Carnian oolitic limestone in the lower part of Ma'antang Formation,northwest Sichuan Basin are studied based on former achievements,field investigation and sedimentary facies analysis.The Carnian limestone section is composed of three parts,occurred as composite oolite,concentric oolite,radial-concentric oolite and brain-like oolite from the bottom to top,and they are mainly deposited on carbonate ramps under the condition of decreased seawater energy and deep sea water.However,the coexistence of brain-like oolite and concentric oolite on the top of the limestone and the bimodal size distribution of concentric oolite reveal that the formation of oolites is affected storm during the deposition.According to the analysis ofδ18 O andδ13 C,the paleotemperature is 24 ~35℃ and the Z value is 127 ~131 during the deposition of oolitic limestone.It implies that the northwest Sichuan Basin was an area with high evaporation and low latitudes and characterized by hot dry climates in early Carnian of the late Triassic.Oolitic limestone in the area is of great importance in the analysis and reconstruction of paleogeography and paleotemperature.%探讨川西北地区晚三叠世卡尼期马鞍塘组下部的鲕粒灰岩的沉积相及沉积时的古气候、古盐度。在前人研究成果基础上,对绵竹县汉旺观音崖剖面开展野外调查和室内薄片鉴定及碳氧同位素测试,结果表明共发育3套鲕粒灰岩,主要沉积于碳酸盐缓坡,由下到上鲕粒以复鲕、同心鲕、放射同心鲕、脑状鲕呈现,展示鲕粒沉积时海水能量降低、水体逐渐加深的趋势;上部灰岩中脑状鲕与同心鲕共存且同心鲕具双峰态粒度分布,显示鲕粒沉积时受到风暴作用影响。碳、氧同位素测试显示,鲕粒灰岩沉积时的古温度大体在24~35℃,Z 值在127~131,表明在卡尼期早期,川西北地区以蒸发量较高

  2. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. A.; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.; Bevis, M.; Korsgaard, N.; Bjørk, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Timm, L. H.; Dam, T. v.

    2012-04-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest sector, while the GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice mass loss close to the sites. GPS data from a long term site at Thule Airbase show accelerated uplift starting in 2005 and a minor deceleration in 2009-2010. The deceleration is more dominant at GPS stations deployed in 2007 in northwest Greenland as part of the Greenland GPS Network (GNET). Independently, all three methods suggest increased ice loss in northwest Greenland starting in 2005 and a slowdown in 2009-2010.

  3. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Backscatter Mosaic, Florida Deep Coral Areas (Miami) - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the backscatter (intensity) of several deep coral priority areas off the Atlantic...

  4. 基于建构主义的桂西北壮母语地区大学英语教学模式探究%A Probe into the College English Teaching Mode in Zhuang Language Areas of Northwest Guangxi on the Basis of Constructivism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢伟萍

    2011-01-01

    Applying constructivist theory to college English teaching can play an active role and have a far -reaching impact on the development and improvement of students' cooperative learning ability, language proficiency and innovative ability. This paper, guided by the constructivist teaching concepts and combined with the acsituation of college English teaching in Zhuang language areas of Northwest Guangxi, discusses the college English language teaching mode develop students' abilities of which is suitable to adopt in Zhuang language areas of Northwest Guangxi and helps language competence and innovation.%以建构主义教学思想为指导,结合桂西北壮母语地区大学英语教学的实际情况,探讨适合于桂西北壮母语地区大学英语教学模式,以培养学生的语言应用能力和创新能力。

  5. 西北地区农村小学生贫血现状及影响因素研究%Anemia in Rural China' s Elementary Schools:Prevalence and Correlates in Northwest Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡颖萍

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to measure anemia prevalence and identify factors that correlate with anemia among school-aged children in rural areas,provide a scientific basis for effective prevention and treatment.[Method] The data set covered three provinces in northwest area.We detected hemoglobin of the sample pupils randomly chosen from the 3~-6~ grade of 305 rural elementary schools in 26 poor counties,and carried out questionnaires among them.[Result]25.24% of the pupils had anemia,most of them were girl and the lower grade students.The multiple-regression revealed that the eating habits and family condition had certain impact on their anemia.[Conclusion] Anemia is still a serious problem of rural pupils.Improving diet conditions,providing balanced meals,enhancing the knowledge of the principals,teachers and parents about anemia and the importance of students' nutritional status and health contribute to the prevention and treatment of anemia of rural pupils.%[目的]了解西北地区农村小学生贫血患病率及其影响因素,为制定有效的防治策略提供科学依据.[方法]选取西北地区3个省26个贫困县的305所农村小学的三至六年级学生作为研究对象,通过随机抽样的方法对学生进行血红蛋白测定以及问卷调查.[结果]西北地区农村小学生贫血患病率高达25.24%,女生与低年级学生是患病率较高的人群.通过多元回归结果显示,学生饮食习惯与家庭情况对学生贫血状况有一定程度的影响.[结论]西北地区农村小学生贫血问题仍很严重,改善饮食条件、平衡膳食,提高校长、班主任及家长对学生贫血的认识以及对学生营养状况与身体健康的重视有助于农村小学生贫血的防治.

  6. Source, evolution and emplacement of Permian Tarim Basalts: Evidence from U-Pb dating, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics and whole rock geochemistry of basalts from the Keping area, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dayu; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Jowitt, Simon M.; Fan, Yu; Liu, Shuai

    2012-04-01

    Permian basalts distribute at least 250,000 km2, and underlie the southwest Tarim Basin in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, northwest China. This vast accumulation of basalt is the main part of the Tarim Large Igneous Province (LIP). The basaltic units in the Lower Permian Kupukuziman and Kaipaizileike Formations in the Keping area, Tarim Basin; were the best exposure of the Permian basalt sequence in the basin. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon from the basal basaltic unit in the section gives an age of 291.9 ± 2.2 Ma (MSWD = 0.30, n = 17); this age, combined with previously published geochronological data, indicates that the basalts in the Tarim Basin were emplaced between 292 Ma and 272 Ma, with about 90% of the basalts being emplaced between 292 and 287 Ma. Basalts from the Keping area have high FeOT (10.8-18.6 wt.%), low Mg#s (0.26-0.60), and exhibit primitive mantle normalized patterns with positive Pb, P and Ti but negative Zr, Y and Ta anomalies. The basalts from both formations have similar 206Pb/204Pb (18.192-18.934), 207Pb/204Pb (15.555-15.598) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.643-38.793) ratios. The basalts also have high ɛSr(t) (45.7-62.1), low ɛNd(t) (-3.6 to -2.2) and low zircon ɛHf(t) (-4.84 to -0.65) values. These characteristics are typical of alkali basalts and suggest that the basalts within the Tarim Basin were derived from an OIB-type mantle source and interacted with enriched mantle (EMI-type) before emplacement. Rare earth element systematics indicate that the parental melts for the basalts were high-degree partial melts derived from garnet lherzolite mantle at the base of the lithosphere. Prior to emplacement, the Tarim Permian Basalts (TPB) underwent fractional crystallization and assimilated crustal material; the basalts were finally emplaced during crustal extension in an intra-plate setting. The wide distribution, deep source and high degree partial melting of the TPB was consistent with a mantle plume origin. The TPB and other coeval igneous

  7. Study of the sorption behaviour of some radionuclides releases to the aquatic ecosystem of the north western coast of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a final report of the investigations of IAEA Research Contract No. 4640/RB concerning the studies of sorption behaviour of 60Co and 134Cs as an eventual release to the aquatic systems of the north western coast of Egypt (three site stations). The first stage of the study areas deals with surveying the area and concentrating on physico-chemical characteristic studies (mineralogical, chemical, biological analyses and sampling). More details were found about the effect of Ph, caution concentration, presence or absence of competing ions, Mg++, as carrier. The current values (or sorption distribution coefficients) were traced. All sorption experiments were implemented with the sea load sediment materials using a batch technique. The work has been undertaken in the area of a planned nuclear power plant on the north-west shore of the Mediterranean Sea. 4 refs, 21 figs, 12 tabs

  8. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  9. 储层预测技术在厄瓜多尔西海岸地区的应用%The application of reservoir prediction technique in West Coast area of Ecuador

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡文; 邓国振; 韩福民; 姜军伟; 张锋军; 王献杰

    2013-01-01

    储层预测技术已成为岩性油气藏勘探中的一项常规技术.厄瓜多尔西海岸地区蕴含着丰富的石油和天然气资源,但整个地区勘探程度相对较低,使用宽带约束地震反演技术进行储层预测是非常必要的.选择瓜亚基尔工区,使用地震纯波数据进行储层预测研究.首先进行测井曲线标准化处理,利用阻抗-伽玛交汇图分析确定储层岩石地球物理特征,然后针对目的层进行稀疏脉冲反演和储层厚度的计算,最后对反演结果和储层平面分布特征进行分析,确定有利勘探目标.预测的砂岩厚度和已钻井实测的砂岩厚度之间的误差很小,吻合较好,从而证明了该技术的有效性.%Reservoir prediction technique has become a conventional technology in lithologic exploration of oil and gas reservoir.Commonly used methods of reservoir prediction mainly include seismic multi-attribute analysis and seismic inversion.Seismic attributes analysis is a qualitative method to predict reservoir,while seismic inversion is a quantitative prediction of reservoir.The latter is used in this paper for the study.The West Coast of Ecuador is located in western Ecuador on the Pacific Coast,at least there are three distinct strike-slip transform forearc basins along the West Coast of Ecuador based on facies,stratigraphy,structural styles and tectonic evolution in western Ecuador,from south to north they are respectively:Progreso Basin,Manabí Basin and Borbón Basin,which are forearc basins along the coastline formed under the action of the plate.The history of oil and gas exploration of the West Coast of Ecuador was nearly a hundred years and a number of oil and gas fields were found since oil and gas exploration in the early stage of last century.There are abundant oil and gas resources in this area,but the exploration of the entire region was relatively low,and it' s very necessary to use broadband constrained seismic inversion technology for

  10. Level of heavy metals in some edible marine fishes of mangrove dominated tropical estuarine areas of Hooghly River, north east coast of Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, T K; De, M; Das, S; Ray, R; Ghosh, P B

    2010-10-01

    The muscles of some important marine fishes collected in and around Hooghly estuarine coastal areas were analyzed for the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb. The concentration range of Cu (16.22-47.97 ppm), Pb (12.40-19.96 ppm) and Zn (12.13-44.74 ppm) were recorded comparatively higher and were similar to that found in contaminated areas. On the other hand the ranges of Ni (2.20-3.69 ppm), Cr (0-3.89 ppm) and Cd (0.62-1.20 ppm) were almost equal to those carried out over a wide range of geographical areas. The degree of bioaccumulations was metal-specific as well as species-specific in nature. The toxic groups of metals (Pb and Cd) showed higher variability than the essential metals (Cu, Zn and Ni). The calculated intake value of metals (week⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body wt) varied from 14.88 to 27.60 of Pb, 0.87 to 1.68 of Cd, 0.0 to 5.45 of Cr, 22.70 to 137.16 of Cu, 3.08 to 5.17 of Ni and 16.98 to 62.60 of Zn through human consumption of these fishes and were compared with those of standard Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake value (PTWI) per kg body weight as stipulated by WHO. The PTWI(Cal) values of Pb in some of the fishes recorded marginally excess values and may indicate a health risk through consumption of successive 7 days in a week.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water and sediment of a tropical coastal area (Bay of Bengal coast, Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Md Saiful; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Sekine, Makoto; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-15

    This study reports the first evidence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface waters and sediments collected from the coastal area of Bangladesh. Fifteen target PFAAs, including C4-14-PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylates) and C4, C6, C8, and C10-PFSAs (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates), were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The ΣPFAAs in surface water and sediment samples were in the range of 10.6 to 46.8ng/L and 1.07 to 8.15ng/gdw, respectively. PFOA in water (3.17-27.8ng/L) and PFOS in sediment samples (0.60-1.14ng/gdw) were found to be the most abundant PFAAs, and these concentrations were comparable to or less than most other reported values, particularly those recorded from the coastal areas of China, Japan, Korea and Spain. The majority of the monitored PFAAs did not show clear seasonal variation. The southeastern part (Cox's Bazar and Chittagong) of the Bangladeshi coastal area was more contaminated with PFAAs than the southern (Meghna Estuary) and southwestern parts (Sundarbans). Industrial and municipal wastewater effluents, ship breaking and port activities were identified as potential sources of the PFAA contamination in this region. Field-based sediment water distribution coefficients (KD) were calculated and corrected for organic carbon content (KOC), which reduced the variability between samples. The values of log KD (1.63-2.88) and log KOC (4.02-5.16) were higher than previously reported values, which may indicate that the partitioning of PFAAs in a tropical coastal ecosystem is different from other ecosystems, such as temperate and sub-tropical regions. Although a preliminary environmental hazard assessment indicated that PFOA or PFOS levels do not currently exceed the acute safety thresholds, we should keep in mind that they are bioavailable and can accumulate in the food chain. Therefore, the ubiquity of PFAAs in the coastal area of Bangladesh warrants further studies characterizing their specific sources and the potential long-term risks they present to both

  12. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza across Two Vegetation Types in Shangri-la Subalpine Areas of Northwest Yunnan%香格里拉亚高山两种植被类型主要植物的丛枝菌根研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋; 景跃波; 张劲峰; 李勇鹏; 李荣波

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrzhizal (AM) colonization and spore density in barren grassland and primary forest in Shangri-la subalpine areas of northwest Yunnan province were investigated. All the ten plant species in barren grassland and nine plant species in primary forest were found to be colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) , and the average AMF spore density in two vegetation types were 674 ±221/100g soil and 290 ±72/100 g soil respectively. One-way analysis of variance ( ANOVA) showed that the AMF hypha colonization and spore density varied significantly between the two vegetation types. The plant species common to the two sampled sites had high AM fungal colonization in primary forest and high AMF spore density in barren grassland. No significant correlation between AM colonization and spore density was observed when vegetation types were either considered separately or together.%以滇西北香格里拉亚高山地区生态严重退化的荒草坡植被类型和基本实现恢复的近原生林地植被类型中主要植物的丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)作为研究对象,对这些植物根系的AMF感染率及其根际土壤中的AMF孢子密度进行了调查研究.结果表明,荒草坡的10种植物和近原生林地的9种植物,均形成典型的丛枝菌根(AM).荒草坡和近原生林植物根际土壤中的平均孢子密度分别为674±221(SE)个/100g(土)和290±72个/100g土.单因素方差分析表明,两植被类型的主要植物在根系AMF菌丝感染率以及根际土壤中AMF孢子密度方面的差异都极显著.同种植物在近原生林地具有较高的AMF感染率,而根际土壤中的孢子密度则是在荒草坡为高.相关性分析表明,所调查植物的根系AMF菌丝感染率与根际土壤中的AMF孢子密度间不存在相关性.

  13. Heat flow in northwest Pacific marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lili; LI Guanbao; LI Naisheng

    2004-01-01

    Heat flow studies in Northwest Pacific marginal seas has a more than 40 years history with more than 4000 heat flow values obtained. The regional average value is 80.4 mW/m2, which is lower than the world's 87 mW/m2, but higher than those of the Eurasia continent and the Pacific Ocean. This reflects the regional crust property in the area. The studies on distribution of the heat flow and contour pattern of heat flow in 1°×1°and 2°×2°scales in Northwest Pacific marginal seas revealed that the most high heat flow anomalies in the area were found along back-arc basins and island arc in an obviously northeasterly track. Exceptions are the Komandoskaya Basin (KMB), the Izu-Bonin Trough (IBT) and the Mariana Trough (MT), which extend in northwest. The contours of low heat flow marked the boundaries of the continent and the ocean. The present heat flow values reflect the imprint of the last thermal event and relate closely to tectonic activity. The high heat flow gradient areas have high frequency of earthquake. Therefore, the area of faulting controlled the pattern of the heat flow anomalies. Heat flow gradient in 135°direction indicated a major lithosphere transformation oceanward resulting from movement of the earth's material. In this paper, we described patterns of heat flow distribution in the Northwest Pacific, heat flow value changes in horizontal and vertical directions, combining the studies of Shi (1997) on the landforms of the island arcs in east Asia and plate movement, and the results of Shi and Zhang (1998) on heat simulation of subduction of active ocean mountain and the activity of islands arc. A preliminary model of geodynamics in the Northwest Pacific and its adjacent area was put forward. There is a great lateral heat flow gradient on the surface of the mantle between ocean and continent, which indicates that the materials in asthenosphere move from continent to ocean causing movement of the crust.

  14. Desertification Process and Its Spatial Differentiation in Arid Areas of Northwest China%我国西北干旱区的荒漠化过程及其空间分异规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵哈林; 赵学勇; 张铜会; 张小由; 李玉霖; 刘立超

    2011-01-01

    我国西北干旱区的荒漠化可以归结为荒漠的荒漠化和绿洲的荒漠化两种类型.其中,荒漠的荒漠化主要表现为沙漠化,主要发生于土质荒漠和沙质荒漠.土质荒漠沙漠化的最终结果将由土质荒漠演变为沙质荒漠或砾质荒漠或风蚀劣地,沙质荒漠的沙漠化是由固定、半固定沙质荒漠演变为流动、半流动沙质荒漠的过程,其最终结果是形成流动沙质荒漠.绿洲的荒漠化主要包括绿洲的干旱化、沙漠化和盐渍化3种类型.其中,干旱化常导致绿洲植被的衰退和死亡,致使绿洲萎缩,其边缘地带常和沙漠化叠加,导致流沙对绿洲的入侵.如果绿洲水源完全断绝,其绿洲将会消失,最终演变为沙质荒漠或风蚀劣地.绿洲盐渍化主要源于过度灌溉导致地下水位抬升,下层土壤盐分聚集地表所致.其结果是形成盐渍化绿洲.我国西北地区土质荒漠的荒漠化主要发生于内蒙古阿拉善地区的东部、天山南麓冲积扇上的土质荒漠带,以及准噶尔盆地北侧的荒漠草原带;沙质荒漠的荒漠化主要发生于准噶尔盆地的古尔班通古特沙漠.绿洲干旱化和沙漠化以甘肃民勤最为典型,而绿洲的盐渍化主要发生于新疆阿克苏、喀什地区一带.%Land desertification in arid areas of northwest China could be classified as two types: desert desertification and oasis desertification. Desert desertification presents mostly aeolian desertification, which occurs mainly in terrene desert and sandy desert. As final result of desertification, terrene desert turns into sandy desert, gravel desert or aeolian land. Desertification of sandy desert is a process that fixed and semifixed desert turn into mobile or semi-mobile desert, which results finally in formation of mobile desert. Oasis desertification includes main three types: aridilization, aeolian desertification and salinization. Oasis aridilization results normally in degeneration and

  15. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, P K M; Jaikrishan, G; Sudheer, K R; Andrews, V J; Madhusoodhanan, M; Jagadeesan, C K; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2015-11-01

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤ 1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. PMID:26343038

  16. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team 5 during operations along the northeast US coast, May 2005 - March 2006 (NODC Accession 0002673)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and the Northeast US coast from the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 5 from 03 May...

  17. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team 5 during operations along the northeast US coast, March 2005 - March 2006 (NODC Accession 0002674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and the Northeast US Coast from the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 5 from 03 March...

  18. How building an underwater pipeline connecting Libya to Sicilian coast is affecting environment: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments; monitoring the evolution of the shore approach area of the Gulf of Gela (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino; Cannata, Salvatore; Culotta, Loredana

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the variation of concentrations and distribution of PAHs in the sediments of the Gela coastal area (Italy) caused by the construction of an underwater pipeline connecting Libya to Sicilian coast. The receiving terminal of offshore pipeline, crossing the Mediterranean Sea, 516 Km long, up to 1127 meters deep, is located in Gela (Sicily, Italy). No bibliographic data regarding hydrocarbons are available for this area. In this paper we report the results of analysis on the water and organic along PAHs.The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in the sediments, analyzed during five surveys, ranged from 2.4 to 434 microg/kg of dry weight. The highest concentrations of total PAHs were found in sediments during the monitoring campaign immediately following the laying of the pipeline. A progressive decrease during the subsequent surveys was observed: The found concentrations was in the direction of restoring the initial situation. Highest levels of PAHs concentration have been often observed in sample stations endowed with highest organic matter content.

  19. Malaria in pregnant women living in areas of low transmission on the southeast Brazilian Coast: molecular diagnosis and humoural immunity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Domingues Hristov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on autochthonous malaria in low-transmission areas in Brazil have acquired epidemiological relevance because they suggest continued transmission in what remains of the Atlantic Forest. In the southeastern portion of the state of São Paulo, outbreaks in the municipality of Juquitiba have been the focus of studies on the prevalence of Plasmodium, including asymptomatic cases. Data on the occurrence of the disease or the presence of antiplasmodial antibodies in pregnant women from this region have not previously been described. Although Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women has been widely addressed in the literature, the interaction of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae with this cohort has been poorly explored to date. We monitored the circulation of Plasmodium in pregnant women in health facilities located in Juquitiba using thick blood film and molecular protocols, as well as immunological assays, to evaluate humoural immune parameters. Through real-time and nested polymerase chain reaction, P. vivax and P. malariae were detected for the first time in pregnant women, with a positivity of 5.6%. Immunoassays revealed the presence of IgG antibodies: 44% for ELISA-Pv, 38.4% for SD-Bioline-Pv and 18.4% for indirect immunofluorescence assay-Pm. The high prevalence of antibodies showed significant exposure of this population to Plasmodium. In regions with similar profiles, testing for a malaria diagnosis might be indicated in prenatal care.

  20. 76 FR 77806 - International Affairs; U.S. Fish Quotas in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA868 International Affairs; U.S. Fish Quotas in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization Regulatory Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Northwest Atlantic Fisheries ] Organization (NAFO) Regulatory Area. This action is necessary to make...

  1. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  2. 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs ratios in intertidal sediments from the Cumbria and Lancashire coasts England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanners, D. A.; Aston, S. R.

    1981-10-01

    The distributions of 134Cs, 137Cs and 106Ru in intertidal surface sediments from the coasts of Cumbria and Lancashire, north-west England, are reported. The ratios of 134Cs: 137Cs and 106Ru: 137Cs activities have been used together with the isotopic composition of the Windscale radioactive effluents to examine the contamination history of sediments. Distinct differences between the activities and time of contamination of muds, silts and sands are found, and the apparent lag times of transport of radioactive wastes to different sediment localities are estimated. The relatively high activities in fine sediments reflect recent discharges indicating a rapid response to discharge, while the sands contain low levels of older contamination. Apparent lag times of up to 6 years are estimated for the study area; the transport to the south is generally more rapid than to the north. These results have consequences for the operation and interpretation of radiological monitoring in coastal areas.

  3. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  5. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  6. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  7. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  8. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  9. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  10. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  11. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  12. Space Science Network Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J.

    2002-12-01

    Space Science Network Northwest (S2N2) is a new NASA Office of Space Science Education Broker/Facilitator that serves the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. The headquarters of S2N2 is at the University of Washington in Seattle and the Director is Julie Lutz (206-543-0214; nasaerc@u.washington.edu). Each state has an S2N2 representative. Their contact information can be found on the Web site (www.s2n2.org) or by contacting Julie Lutz. The purpose of S2N2 is to form and nurture partnerships between space scientists and others (K-12 teachers, schools and districts, museums, planetariums, libraries, organizations such as Girl Scouts, amateur astronomy clubs, etc.). S2N2 can help space scientists come up with appropriate activities and partners for education and public outreach proposals and projects. S2N2 also provides information and advice about education materials and programs that are available from all of the Office of Space Science missions and scientific forums (Solar System Exploration, Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Sun-Earth Connection, Astronomical Search for Origins).

  13. Correlation Between Coastal Geomorphology and Tsunami Inundation Along the Coast of Kanyakumari, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Chandrasekar; S. Saravanan; M. Rajamanickam; C. Hentry; G. V. Rajamanickam

    2012-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out in the vicinity of the coastal villages of Kanyakumari District,India to decode the influence of coastal geomorphology on inundation degree and run-up level.Even though the tsunami waves approach the study area in different patterns,the consequences are found to be mainly dependent upon the coastal configuration and local geographic setting,the study area are considered to be of three types based upon the geomorphic arrangement,namely shallow coast,elevated coast and estuarine coast.The inundation and run-up level vary from coast to coast even though there is no remarkable variation in the intensity of the approaching tsunami surge.The inundation extent ranges from to 54 m to 4 1 3 m with maximum along estuarine coast and minimum along elevated coast.Estuarine coast recorded the maximum run-up level of about 6 m and the minimum of about 1 m along the elevated coast.The percentage of inundated area in the total coastal area varies between 19% to 10% along estuarine coast and elevated coast respectively.Inundation and run-up level cannot be appreciable in the inland along the elevated coast.The beaches of elevated coast are less affected whereas those of estuarine coast are highly affected.Inundation is limited in the elevated beaches along the study area.

  14. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  15. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  16. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  17. Biodiversity protection and sustainable management of coastal areas: The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, northwest coast of Sicily Island, is the largest area in the Mediterranean Sea, stretching over with its 53,992 hectares. Established in 1991, since 2001 it is managed by the Municipality of Favignana on behalf of the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. The Egadi’s archipelago is located in the Strait of Sicily, and includes the islands of Favignana, Levanzo, Marettimo and the islets of Formica and Maraone. The institutional mission of the Marine Protected Area is the protection and enhancement of the marine environment, environmental education, awareness and information of users, research and monitoring, integrated management of the coastal zone, and the promotion of sustainable development, with particular reference to the eco-compatibility of tourism

  18. 西北地区106种植物杀虫活性的筛选%Screening of the insecticidal activity of extracts from 106 plants in northwest area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪娇; 何军; 冯俊涛; 马志卿; 张兴

    2012-01-01

    【目的】对西北地区106种植物的杀虫活性进行测定,以期筛选出具较高杀虫活性的植物种类,为开发新型植物源杀虫剂提供参考。【方法】以粘虫3龄幼虫和小菜蛾3龄幼虫为试虫,采用小叶碟添加法,对供试植物样品的丙酮提取物进行室内杀虫活性测定。【结果】在1g/mL的供试剂量下,甘草、中国粗榧等10种植物对粘虫24h的拒食率在95.0%以上;牡丹、细柱五加、沙打旺、砂蓝刺头、白头翁和大籽蒿等6种植物对粘虫72h的校正死亡率在50.0%以上。牡丹、中国粗榧、细柱五加、天名精和甘草等5种植物样品对小菜蛾3龄幼虫的48h拒食率和72h死亡率均在90.0%以上。【结论】细柱五加、牡丹、中国粗榧、天名精和甘草等5种植物对粘虫和小菜蛾幼虫均表现出较强的拒食和毒杀作用,有进一步研究价值。%【Objective】 In this report we described the evaluating results covering 106 species of plants in the northwest area of China in order to find new plant materials for the development of botanical pesticide.【Method】 Acetone extracts of 106 plants were evaluated for insecticidal activity against the 3rd larva of Mythimna separata W.and Plutella xylostella L.by a leaf dipping method,with concentration of 1 g/mL.【Result】 Ten plant extracts showed strong antifeedant against the 3rd larvae of M.separata W.,and the antifeedant(24 h)was higher than 95.0%,six plant extracts showed obvious toxic activity against M.separata W.,and the mortality(72 h)was higher than 30.0%.In addition,Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W.Smith,Cephalotaxus sinensis(Rehd.Et Wils.)L.,Carpesium abrotanoides Linn.,Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.and Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.showed strong antifeedant and toxic activity against the 3rd larvae of P.xylostella L.,whose antifeedant(48 h)and mortality(72 h)were more than 90.0%.【Conclusion】 The results suggested that extracts from A.gracilistylus W

  19. Comparison of Flavonoids Content in Different Organs of Macrosolen cochinchinensis Collected from the Karst Areas of Northwest Guangxi%桂西北喀斯特地区珍稀兰科植物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃勇荣; 李秋明; 黄振球; 余美君; 陈贵常; 刘旭辉

    2012-01-01

    为了开发利用桂西北岩溶地区丰富的药用植物资源,利用超声波协同提取和正交试验,优化鞘花寄生总黄酮提取的工艺条件。利用分光光度法,对阴香、香樟、桂花等7种寄主的鞘花寄生枝叶、花及果实总黄酮含量进行测定。结果表明:(1)鞘花寄生果实总黄酮提取的优化工艺条件为:乙醇浓度30%,超声波提取时间60min,超声波提取功率180W,料液比1:30。在此条件下得到的鞘花寄生果实总黄酮提取率为3.96%。(2)不同寄主的鞘花寄生,其总黄酮含量有明显差异;3n同寄主的鞘花寄生,其不同器官的总黄酮含量也有极显著差异,并且均表现为:枝叶〉花〉果实。不同寄主的鞘花寄生,其枝叶、花和果实总黄酮含量分别为:5.29%~14.09%,3.92%~6.11%和2.68%-4.98%。(3)鞘花寄生总黄酮含量较高,极具开发利用价值。%In order to develop the rich resources of medicinal plant in the karst area of northwest of Guan- gxi, the ultrasonic collaborative extraction method and orthogonal design were used to optimize the flavonoids ex- traction conditions of Macrosolen cochinchinensis. Flavonoids contained in M. cochinchinensis branches and leaves, flowers and fruits which are collected from seven host plants, such as Cinrtamomum burmannii, C. camphora and Osmanthus fragrans are determined by spectrophotometry respectively. The results show that the optimum flavonoids extraction technological conditions of M. cochinchinensis fruits are as follows: ethanol concentration 30%, ultrason- ic extraction time 60 min, ultrasonic extraction power 180 W, and material to extraction solution 1:30. Under the conditions, the extraction rate of the fruits is 3.96%. Secondly, flavonoids content of M. cochinchinensis in differ- ent hosts has evident differences, the flavonoids content of different organs of M. cochinchinensis in the same hosts also

  20. A proposed wave farm on the Galician coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The productions of four wave energy converters are estimated and compared. • The electric production of single units and 12 MW power plants are considered. • Three study sites at different water depths in the northwest of Spain are studied. • The occupation of the wave plant is considered to determine the best technology. • The Wave Dragon resulted the technology with the highest production. - Abstract: This work is focused on the analysis of the wave resource and its exploitation by means of a proposed 12 MW wave plant in Northwestern Spain. For this purpose, a total of four current technologies of wave conversion are analysed at three different sites located at different water depths, which correspond to one of the European areas with the greatest wave energy resource and where its electric production is still underdeveloped. To carry out the research, the wave data recorded at an offshore buoy near the area and the power matrices of the four selected wave energy technologies are used. The offshore wave conditions—representing 95% of the total energy of an average year—are propagated through spectral numerical modelling towards the coast. On the basis of the results, two of the four selected technologies forming the 12 MW power plants and one of the three considered points emerge as the ones allowing the greatest energy production and, at the same time, having a minimum area of occupation which, in turn, is crucial to reducing the visual impact. Finally, this research discusses the energy supply capacity of the proposed plants to satisfy the energy consumption required by nearby communities

  1. 西北丝绸之路旅游区入境旅游客源市场结构变化研究--基于SSM的分析%Research on the Inbound Tourist Market Structure of the Northwest Silk Road Tourist Areas Based on SSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石斌; 马耀峰

    2014-01-01

    According to the data from China Tourism Statistics Yearbook(2001,2012)data,by using shift-share method,the inbound tourist market structure of the Northwest Silk Road tourist areas is analyzed. The research shows that the inbound tourist market structure of the Northwest Silk Road tourist areas is reasonable ,the main target market remained relatively stable,the current marketing strategy is appropriate. But the inbound tourist source market of the overall growth rate is slightly lower than the national average level,the overall competition ability is weak. At the same time,the countermeasures on tourism marketing of the Northwest Silk Road tourist areas are given with the corresponding Shift-Share chart analysis.%依据《中国旅游统计年鉴》(2001年和2012年)数据,运用SSM对西北丝绸之路旅游区入境旅游客源市场结构变化进行了分析。研究表明:西北丝绸之路旅游区入境旅游客源市场整体结构比较合理,主要目标客源市场保持相对稳定,目前的营销策略比较得当,但是入境旅游客源市场总体发展速度要略低于全国平均水平,总体竞争能力较弱。同时结合Shift-Share分析图表,提出了西北丝绸之路旅游区入境旅游营销的建议。

  2. Monitoring of heavy metals in wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Spanish North-Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Manuel Andrade, José; Schultze, Fernando; José González, Juan

    2011-04-01

    Concentrations of five heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) were determined in tissues of wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at 41 stations located on the Spanish Atlantic and Northern coasts to assess the levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment. This study, performed in 2005, constituted a contribution to the last international OSPAR pollution monitoring survey. A pool of mussel soft tissue was prepared using 50 or more individuals, representing the size range present at the sampling points. Quantification was carried out after a nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS (Cd and Pb by electrothermal AAS; Cu and Zn by flame AAS; and total mercury by the cold vapour technique). The quality of the chemical analyses was assessed by interlaboratory exercises carried out on a regular basis. In general, the levels of the metals were higher for the Northern region than for the Atlantic one (except for a sampling site close to Vigo, one of the main Galician industrial areas). Some Galician sampling points (Atlantic coast, NW of Spain) located far from human inputs showed high Cd concentrations, which were attributed to the annual upwelling processes in this region. The levels of Cu increased from Northwest to East, whereas Zn concentrations were very homogeneous throughout the two studied geographical regions. These results were confirmed using multivariate studies (PCA and cluster analysis), as well as international 'background assessment concentrations' criteria.

  3. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  4. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  5. Manado: A Developing Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenthof van Noorden, C.; Vermeij, D.; Van Zuijlen, J.; Zeelenberg, W.

    2013-01-01

    Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi in Indonesia, is rapidly developing. The last years Manado has been extending into the sea, which changed the hydraulics and morphology of Manado Bay. This had negative effects on the currents, inducing erosion along the coast. Also Manado has problems with

  6. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A

    2008-09-01

    Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México.

  7. Resilience in Pre-contact Pacific Northwest Social Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available If, like other ecosystems, the variable and dynamic ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest exhibited cycles and unpredictable behavior, particularly when humans were present, the indigenous societies of that region had to have been resilient in order to persist for such a long time. They persisted for two millennia prior to contact with people from the “old world.” The Resilience Alliance (2002 proposes that social and ecological resilience requires three abilities: the ability to buffer, the ability to self-organize, and the ability to learn. This paper suggests that the characteristics of the potlatch system among Indians on the Northwest Coast, namely property rights, environmental ethics, rules of earning and holding titles, public accountability, and the reciprocal exchange system, provided all three required abilities. The resulting resilience of these societies confirms the validity of many of the ideas now being discussed as important components in providing successful and sustainable relationships between humans and their ecosystems. That so many separate ideas seem to have been linked together into resilient systems in the Pacific Northwest suggests that social ecological resilience is complicated.

  8. A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Mackenzie River delta, Northwest Territories, Canada (Notes on Cetacea, Delphinoidea VIII)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Sergeant, D.E.; Hoek, W.

    1977-01-01

    A Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, taken from near Shallow Bay, Mackenzie River Delta, Northwest Territories (68°48’ N 136°35’ W) in July 1973 represents a range extension 800 km eastwards from the previous extreme northeastern record on the north Alaskan coast. All 12 Harbour Porpoises so far e

  9. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  10. Solar 78 Northwest conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are included. One was abstracted previously. Separate entries were prepared for thirty-seven. Also included are the conference evaluation summary, Pacific Northwest Solar Energy Association organization information, lists of commercial and non-commercial exhibitors, speakers and stearing committee members, and attendees. (MHR)

  11. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  12. Manado: A Developing Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Tenthof van Noorden, C.; Vermeij, D.; Van Zuijlen, J.; Zeelenberg, W.

    2013-01-01

    Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi in Indonesia, is rapidly developing. The last years Manado has been extending into the sea, which changed the hydraulics and morphology of Manado Bay. This had negative effects on the currents, inducing erosion along the coast. Also Manado has problems with the presence of garbage in the rivers and river flooding. Now the municipality is planning to build a new reclamation, which might even increase these problems. Based on the requests of our client...

  13. 75 FR 23823 - Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council (Northwest Power and Conservation Council; the Council). ACTION: Notice of adoption of the Sixth Northwest Electric Power and...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  15. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  16. Multipeakedness and groupiness of shallow water waves along Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.; Mandal, S.

    . 123-129. BHAT, S.S.; MANDAL, S., and NAYAK, B.U., 1989. Monsoon wave groups off North-West coast of India, Proceedings Eighth Inter. national CDnferelU:e Dn OffshDre Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (The Hague), pp. 605-611. CARTWRIGHT, D.E. and Lo... successive wave periods.. Joumal ofOffshore Mechanics andArctic Engineering, 121, 166-177- NARASIMHAN, S. and DEO, M.C., 1979. Spectral analysis of waves A study. Proceedings Civil Engineering in the Oceans N Confer ence (San Francisco) Vol. II, 877...

  17. Trends of Rural Tropospheric Ozone at the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saavedra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone levels around urban and suburban areas at Europe and North America had increased during 80’s–90’s, until the application of NOx reduction strategies. However, as it was expected, this ozone depletion was not proportional to the emissions reduction. On the other hand, rural ozone levels show different trends, with peaks reduction and average increments; this different evolution could be explained by either emission changes or climate variability in a region. In this work, trends of tropospheric ozone episodes at rural sites in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analyzed and compared to others observed in different regions of the Atlantic European coast. Special interest was focused on the air quality sites characterization, in order to guarantee their rural character in terms of air quality. Both episodic local meteorological and air quality measurements along five years were considered, in order to study possible meteorological influences in ozone levels, different to other European Atlantic regions.

  18. Petrography, geochemistry and geodynamic environment of potassic alkaline rocks in Eslamy peninsula, northwest of Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Hajalilou; M Moayyed; Gh Hosseinzadeh

    2009-12-01

    Eslamy peninsula, 360 km2 in area, is located in the eastern coast of Urmieh lake in the northwest of Iran. This peninsula is a complex stratovolcano with a collapsed center, which is elevated due to later intrusions of sub-volcanic masses with trachytic to microsyenitic composition. The composite cone consists of a sequence of leucite tephrite, tephrite, leucite basanite, basanite and related pyroclastic rocks. Magmatic activities in the Eslamy peninsula begin with potassic alkaline to ultrapotassic and basic, silica-undersaturated shoshonitic rocks and they are followed by intrusions of lamprophyric dykes and end with acidic magmatism including trachytic, microsyenitic, syenitic and phonolitic domes. The original magma of the Eslamy peninsula rocks has a potassic alkaline nature (Roman type) rich in LREE and LILE and depleted of HREE. These characteristics suggest that the origin of magma can be from deep mantle with a garnet lherzolite composition, a low partial melting rate which has been contaminated by crustal materials in its way up. Fractional crystallization of olivine, diopsidic clinopyroxene and leucite played an important role in the evolution of magmas. Scrutinizing the geodynamic environment of Eslamy peninsula rocks in discrimination diagrams indicates that these rocks must have been formed in a post-collision magmatic arc setting.

  19. Circulation patterns and wave climate along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasilla Álvarez, D.; García Codrán, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    and Balearic Islands suffer stormier episodes than Mar de Alborán. Moderate wave power conditions occurred frequently by circulation patterns predominately stable and characterized by weak (mostly sea breezes) winds. Synoptic situations dominated by extra-tropical cyclones produced the highest, but least frequent wave power conditions. Depending on the location of the shorelines, three types of storm events are defined: 1. Long winds fetch and locally strong westerly and northwesterly winds expose the northern coast of Iberia to episodes of intense storminess. Extratropical disturbances tracking between the 50-60°N parallels are the main forcing mechanism of those episodes, many of them result of a cyclogenesis processes along the eastern coast of North America. In some cases, the systems evolves as a secondary cyclon, crossing the area southward of the 50°N parallel; significant wave heights can be as high as the northernmost cyclones, but the wave period is slightly lower. 2.Cyclones tracking along the 40°N parallel bring stormy conditions to the western coast and the Gulf of Cádiz area, associated to southwesterly winds. 3. Finally, the Mediterranean shoreline suffer the worst conditions during easterly and northeasterly wind events, usually dominanted by local disturbances formed along the Western Mediterranean basin. Trends observed on the different circulation patterns can explain the temporal evolution of the wave climate along the Spanish coast, characterized by calmer conditions on the south and an increase of the wave period on the north, without discernible wave height trend. The overall results indicated that this synoptic climatological approach provides a viable framework to establish and examine links between weather systems and wave conditions.

  20. 鄂西北地区不同生长条件和品种柴胡中多糖含量比较%Comparison of Polysaccharide Content in Different Species of Bupleurum under Different Growth Conditions in Northwest Area of Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶方; 杨光义; 杜士明; 王刚; 孙荣进

    2012-01-01

    目的 测定鄂西北地区不同生长条件和品种柴胡中多糖的含量.方法 采用蒽酮-硫酸比色法,以620 nm波长为检测波长,分别测定柴胡中可溶性多糖和粗多糖,计算总多糖含量.结果 鄂西北地区野生竹叶柴胡多糖含量高于同地区种植柴胡,但低于山西产北柴胡和湖北南漳种植的三岛柴胡.结论 不同生长条件的柴胡药材中柴胡多糖含量不同,但差异不明显;不同品种柴胡药材中的多糖含量有明显差异.%Objective To compare the content of polysaccharide in different species of Bupleurum under different growth conditions in Northwest area of Hubei Province. Methods The contents of polysaccharide in Bupleurum was determinated by colorimetric method and detected at 620 nm. Results Polysaccharide content in wild Bupleurum marginatum Wall, ex DC. was higher than that in the planted Bupleurum in Northwest Area of Hubei Province, but lower than that in Bupleurum chinese DC. of Shanxi Province and that in B. falcatum L. of Hubei Nanzhang. Conclusion Polysaccharide content of Bupleurum Radix Bupleurum is different under different growth conditions, but no significant difference between the polysaccharide content in different varieties of Bupleurum Radix

  1. [Assessment of landscape ecological security and optimization of landscape pattern based on spatial principal component analysis and resistance model in arid inland area: A case study of Ganzhou District, Zhangye City, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing-hu; Liu, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Starting from ecological environment of inland river in arid area, the distribution of ecological security pattern of Ganzhou District was obtained by using the theory of landscape ecology, spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) and GIS techniques. Ten factors such as altitude, slope, soil erosion, vegetation coverage, and distance from road, were selected as the constraint conditions. According to the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model of landscape, the ecological corridor and nodes were established to optimize the structure and function of ecological function network. The results showed that the comprehensive ecological security situation of the research area was on the average. Area of moderate level of security was 1318.7 km2, being the largest and accounting for 36.7% of the research area. The area of low level of security was mainly located in the northern part and accounted for 19.9% of the study area. With points, lines and surfaces being interlaced, a regional ecological network was constructed, which was consisted of six ecological corridor, 14 ecological nodes, a large ecological source region and a plurality of small area source region, and could effectively improve ecological security level of the study area. PMID:26995922

  2. Pacific Northwest Regional and Ecozone-scale Carbon Cycle Responses to 25 Years of Variation in Climate and Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Kennedy, R. E.; Gray, A. N.; Yang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variation in climate, soils, disturbance regime, and forest management - as well as temporal variation in weather - all influence terrestrial carbon sources and sinks. Spatially-distributed, process-based, carbon cycle simulation models provide a means to integrate information from these various influences to estimate carbon pools and flux over large domains. Here we apply the Biome-BGC model over the 4 state (OR, WA, ID, Western MT) Northwest U.S. region for the interval from 1986-2010. Landsat data was used to characterize disturbances and revealed that the overall disturbance rate on forest land across the region was 0.8 % yr-1, with 49 % as harvests, 28 % as fire, and 23 % as pest/pathogen. A large proportion of the harvested area was on private forestland (62 %) and a large proportion of total burned area was on public forestland (89 %). Net ecosystem production (NEP) for the 2006-2010 interval on forestland was predominantly positive (a carbon sink) throughout the region, with maximum values in the Coast Range, intermediate values in the Cascade Mountains, and relatively low values in the Inland Rocky Mountain ecoregions. Croplands throughout the region had consistently high NEP. Localized negative NEPs were mostly associated with recent disturbances. There was large interannual variation in regional NEP, with notably low values across the region in 2003. In all ecoregions there was a downward trend in NEP over the 25 year study period. The net ecosystem carbon balance was positive in OR, near neutral in ID and WA, and negative (a carbon source) MT. The Northwest region as a whole was a carbon sink in the 2006-2010 period.

  3. 西北干旱地区一次降水性层状云的飞机观测分析%Observation Study on PMS Data of Precipitation Stratiform Cloud in Northwest Arid Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞朝云; 张丰伟; 张建辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the scientificalness and effect of the artificial rainfall,and select operation opportunity and operation sites more accurately,the aerial observation of a rainfall weather process occurred in the west region of Gansu Province on August 30,2007 was carried out by using airborne PMS particle detection system.We had some understanding about the micro physical structure of summer precipitation cloud in arid region of northwest China through analysis of the micro physical feature of the precipitation cloud.The observation showed that the average concentration of small particles in the cloud was 4.62 × 106 m-3,the average liquid water content (LWC) was 0.0134 g/m3,and the mean diameter of cloud droplet was 15 μm.LWC and the concentration of cloud droplet in the upper part of the cloud were bigger than those of the lower part,and the water vapor was transported mainly by the higher weather system.%利用机载PMS粒子探测系统对2007年8月30日甘肃省河西地区一次降水性天气过程进行空中观测,通过对云的微物理特征进行分析,对西北干旱地区夏季降水云的微物理结构有了一些认识.观测到此次云层中小云粒子平均浓度为4.62×106个/m3;计算含水量均值为0.0134g/m3;粒子平均直径均值为15 μm.发现云系上层云水含量、云粒子浓度都较下层大,水汽主要由较高层的系统输送.

  4. Distribution, biomass and size of grooved Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes tanneri) from annual bottom trawl surveys (2003-2010) along the U.S. west coast (Washington to California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Harms, John H.; Buchanan, John C.

    2012-09-01

    Catch and distribution of grooved Tanner crab (Chionoecetes tanneri Rathbun, 1893) from the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey (55-1280 m) were examined along the U.S. west coast (lat. 32°30'N-48°30'N). Grooved Tanner crabs were present in 28% of tows and occurred primarily at depths from 300 to 1280 m. Annual biomass (metric tons, mt) indices and density (kg km-2) estimates for the population varied significantly throughout the study area and within five International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC) statistical areas. Highest estimates occurred in the Monterey INPFC area (lat. 36°N-40°30'N) and within the 601-800 m depth interval. Depth distribution varied by year and coast-wide catch-weighted average depths (m) were significantly correlated with average annual Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) indices (2003-2010), a measure of Pacific climate variability. Annual mean carapace widths (CW), measured from 2005 to 2010, were always greater for males (96.9-113.9 mm) relative to females (85.3-95.8 mm). Size frequency distributions varied by year with strong recruitment for both sexes apparent in 2010. Grooved Tanner crabs were partially segregated by depth and stage. Males and females were found in all depth intervals but the average depth of adult females was significantly shallower (756 m) than adult males (837 m); adults were significantly shallower than subadult female (907 m) and subadult male (927 m) crabs.

  5. Adaptive Ecosystem Management in the Pacific Northwest: a Case Study from Coastal Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Gray

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive ecosystem management has been adopted as a goal for decision making by several of the land management and regulatory agencies of the U.S. government. One of the first attempts to implement ecosystem management was undertaken on the federally managed forests of the Pacific Northwest in 1994. In addition to a network of reserve areas intended to restore habitat for late-successional terrestrial and aquatic species, "adaptive management areas" (AMAs were established. These AMAs were intended to be focal areas for implementing innovative methods of ecological conservation and restoration and meeting economic and social goals. This paper analyzes the primary ecological, social, and institutional issues of concern to one AMA in the Coast Range in northern Oregon. Based on existing knowledge, several divergent approaches are available that could meet ecological goals, but these approaches differ greatly in their social and economic implications. In particular, approaches that rely on the natural succession of the existing landscape or attempt to recreate historical patterns may not meet ecosystem goals for restoration as readily as an approach based on the active manipulation of existing structure and composition. In addition, institutions are still adjusting to recent changes in management priorities. Although some innovative projects have been developed, adaptive management in its most rigorous sense is still in its infancy. Indeed, functional social networks that support adaptive management may be required before policy and scientific innovations can be realized. The obstacles to adaptive management in this case are similar to those encountered by other efforts of this type, but the solutions will probably have to be local and idiosyncratic to be effective.

  6. TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Abdul Rasheed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on the post tsunami survey conducted in January 2005 along the southwest coast of India. Although tsunami affected the whole coastline of Kerala, it devastated the low- lying coastal areas of Kollam, Alleppey and Ernakulam districts leading to the loss of life and property. This paper illustrates the variation of tsunami intensity along the coasts of these districts and the consequent morphological changes occurred in the coastal area during tsunami. Topographic survey data showed that the coastal inundation was rampant along the worst affected regions where the coastal areas are like a narrow strip of land of width 100-400m, lying between the Arabian Sea and the backwaters and the down slope of the coastal area increases towards the backwater side. The data on run-up height showed a variation of 1.9 – 5 m along the study area. Post tsunami beach profiles showed erosion of the foreshore and backshore and landward transport of beach material during the run-up of waves at Puthu- Vypeen. The erosion of the backshore (berm in several places along the coast was quite evident in the study. This has caused reduction in the elevation which may make these areas more vulnerable to breaching by the high waves, particularly during the monsoon and also during certain spring tides which is a matter of serious concern.

  7. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  8. China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute,founded by the state on June 1, 1952 is the first and largest architectural design institute in northwest China. For over 50 years, Northwest Institute has gradually established itself as a renowned and comprehensive design institute. It is staffed by a team of outstanding engineering design specialists able to undertake various architectural design projects from home and abroad.

  9. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. Water use trends and demand projections in the Northwest Florida Water Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, R.L.; Mokray, M.F.; Hallock-Solomon, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Northwest Florida Water Management District is located in the western panhandle of Florida and encompasses about 11,200 square miles. In 1995, the District had an estimated population of 1.13 million, an increase of about 47 percent from the 1975 population of 0.77 million. Over 50 percent of the resident population lives within 10 miles of the coast. In addition, hundreds of thousands of visitors come to the coastal areas of the panhandle during the summer months for recreation or vacation purposes. Water withdrawn to meet demands for public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial, agricultural irrigation, and recreational irrigation purposes in the District increased 18 percent (52 million gallons per day) between 1970 and 1995. The greatest increases were for public supply and domestic self-supplied (99 percent increase) and for agricultural irrigation (60 percent increase) between 1970 and 1995. In 1995, approximately 70 percent of the water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, with the majority of this from the Floridan aquifer system. The increasing water demands have affected water levels in the Floridan aquifer system, especially along the coastal areas. The Northwest Florida Water Management District is mandated under the Florida Statutes (Chapter 373) to protect and manage the water resources in this area of the State. The mandate requires that current and future water demands be met, while water resources and water-dependent natural systems are sustained. For this project, curve fitting and extrapolation were used to project most of the variables (population, population served by public supply, and water use) to the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. This mathematical method involves fitting a curve to historical population or water-use data and then extending this curve to arrive at future values. The population within the region is projected to reach 1,596,888 by the year 2020, an increase of 41 percent between 1995 and 2020

  11. Ethnomedicine use in the war affected region of northwest Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Ihsan; Tariq, Akash; Murad, Waheed; Azizullah, Azizullah; Khan, Abdul Latif; Ali, Nawab

    2014-01-01

    Background North-West of Pakistan is bestowed with medicinal plant resources due to diverse geographical and habitat conditions. The traditional use of plants for curing various diseases forms an important part of the region’s cultural heritage. The study was carried out to document medicinal plants used in Frontier Region (FR) Bannu, an area affected by the “War on Terror”. Methods Fieldwork was carried out in four different seasons (spring, autumn, summer and winter) from March 2012 to Febr...

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  13. Sediment distribution and transport along a rocky, embayed coast: Monterey Peninsula and Carmel Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Field, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Field measurements of beach morphology and sedimentology were made along the Monterey Peninsula and Carmel Bay, California, in the spring and summer of 1997. These data were combined with low-altitude aerial imagery, high-resolution bathymetry, and local geology to understand how coastal geomorphology, lithology, and tectonics influence the distribution and transport of littoral sediment in the nearshore and inner shelf along a rocky shoreline over the course of decades. Three primary modes of sediment distribution in the nearshore and on the inner shelf off the Monterey Peninsula and in Carmel Bay were observed. Along stretches of the study area that were exposed to the dominant wave direction, sediment has accumulated in shore-normal bathymetric lows interpreted to be paleo-stream channels. Where the coastline is oriented parallel to the dominant wave direction and streams channels trend perpendicular to the coast, sediment-filled paleo-stream channels occur in the nearshore as well, but here they are connected to one another by shore-parallel ribbons of sediment at depths between 2 and 6 m. Where the coastline is oriented parallel to the dominant wave direction and onshore stream channels are not present, only shore-parallel patches of sediment at depths greater than 15 m are present. We interpret the distribution and interaction or transport of littoral sediment between pocket beaches along this coastline to be primarily controlled by the northwest-trending structure of the region and the dominant oceanographic regime. Because of the structural barriers to littoral transport, peaks in wave energy appear to be the dominant factor controlling the timing and magnitude of sediment transport between pocket beaches, more so than along long linear coasts. Accordingly, the magnitude and timing of sediment transport is dictated by the episodic nature of storm activity. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. A study of plutonium and americium concentrations in seaspray on the southern Scottish coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaspray and seawater have been collected from the southern Scottish coast and, for comparison, Cumbria in northwest England during 1989 and 1991. The occurrence of sea-to-land transfer of the actinides plutonium and americium in seaspray was observed on these coasts using muslin screens (a semi-quantitative technique most efficient for collecting large spray droplets) and high volume conventional air samplers. The actinides and fine particulate in the spray were present in relatively higher concentrations than measured in the adjacent seawater, i.e. the spray was enriched in particulate actinides. The net efficiency of the muslim screens in collecting airborne plutonium isotopes and 241Am generally appeared to be about 20%. A review of earlier published concentrations of 239+240Pu and 241Am measured in aerosol and deposition for over a year several tens of metres inland was carried out. This suggested that airborne activities are up to a factor of 5 times higher in Cumbria than southern Scotland. However, neither the new data collected in 1989 and 1991 nor this older data suggests any enhancement of seaspray actinide enrichment in southern Scotland compared to Cumbria. This finding contrasts with earlier, more limited, comparisons that have been carried out which suggested such a difference. There is clear evidence of considerable localised spatial and temporal variability in aerosol actinide enrichment over the beaches in both areas. Enrichments varies between 20 and 500 relative to the adjacent surf zone waters. However, the average enrichment in spray based on the continuous measurements made further inland is likely to be at the lower end of this range. (author)

  15. Changing Forest Land Use in the Pacific Northwest and Implications for Ecosystem Processes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B. E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Yang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Human use of forests in the Pacific Northwest US has evolved from underburning for wildlife habitat, to clearing for subsistence living, and an emphasis on timber production. In Oregon, forests older than 200 years now occupy less than 1 percent of private land that accounts for half the forest area, and ranges from 15 to almost 60 percent of public lands depending on the ecoregion. The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was implemented on public lands in 1993 as a region-wide forest management regime intended to conserve species at risk from extensive harvest of older forests. The result was an 82 percent reduction in harvest removals on public forest lands, and subsequently, public forestland became a carbon sink while private forest remained near carbon neutral. Currently, forest management on public lands in the PNW emphasizes widespread thinning of forests to reduce wildfire risk, and thinning and slash removal for bioenergy production. In addition, several states have set ambitious GHG reduction targets. These policies are being implemented even though many aspects have not been adequately assessed for the effects on forests. CLM4 simulations over Oregon show that by the year 2100, net carbon uptake increases by 32-68% depending on the climate and CO2 scenario, suggesting that enhanced productivity from a warmer climate and CO2 fertilization compensates for disturbance losses if business-as-usual management continues. Water cycle implications are also considered. Simulated repeat thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality and fire emissions, and clearcut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for both wood products and bioenergy. CLM input to a Life Cycle Assessment, which tracks emissions off-site, shows that none of the scenarios reduce regional net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by the end of the 21st century. Thinning dry forests to reduce potential fire emissions led to no net change in emissions from BAU

  16. A comprehensive evaluation of nutritional value of nine shrubs in the karst area of northwest Guizhou%黔西北岩溶区九种灌木综合营养价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红; 于应文; 马向丽; 牟晓明; 廖加法

    2014-01-01

    灌木作为山羊日粮主要成分,能为家畜补充能量、蛋白质、矿质和多种维生素等,明晰灌木营养价值对野生灌木资源开发具重要意义。本研究定量分析了黔西北9种野生饲用灌木的矿质成分和营养价值,用隶属函数法和灰色关联法与聚类分析对其营养价值进行评价和分类。结果表明,9种灌木矿质含量为,Ca:0.56%~1.10%;P:0.08%~0.21%;Na:0.26%~0.36%;K:0.7%~1.8%;Mg:0.25%~1.00%;Fe:0.03%~0.06%;Cu:15.2~24.1 mg/kg;Mn:76.5~114.0 mg/kg;Zn:33.2~113.1 mg/kg。营养价值为,CP:7.5%~17.1%;WSC(除羊奶子):7.8%~13.6%;ADF:11.2%~26.5%;NDF:16.2%~45.1%;ME:5.9~7.9 MJ/kg;OMD:37.1%~49.4%。隶属函数法和灰色关联法与聚类分析对9种灌木矿质成分、营养价值和综合营养价值评价结果类似;矿质成分为,悬钩子和平枝子>老母七和中华柳>羊奶子和红果蔷薇>黄花香、醉鱼草和救军粮;营养价值为,救军粮>羊奶子>老母七>黄花香、醉鱼草、中华柳、红果蔷薇、悬钩子和平枝子。综合营养价值评价和聚类结果为,悬钩子和平枝子属优等饲料,老母七、中华柳、羊奶子、红果蔷薇和救军粮属良等饲料,黄花香和醉鱼草属中等价值饲料。营养价值评价应考虑植物矿质成分、营养价值和生物活性物质及家畜采食特性。%Shrubs are one kind of diet for goats and can provide energy,protein,minerals and multivitamins for grazing animals.Information about the feeding value off wild shrubs is useful to graziers.The mineral element content and nutritional value of nine shrubs in the karst region of northwest Guizhou were quantitatively ana-lyzed and further evaluated using fuzzy membership function,grey correlation degree and

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sackschewsky, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tilden, Harold T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Su-Coker, Jennifer [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ballinger, Marcel Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stoetzel, Gregory A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lowry, Kami L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moon, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendez, Keith M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Raney, Elizabeth A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chamness, Michele A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Kyle B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science’s 10 national laboratories, provides innovative science and technology development in the areas of energy and the environment, fundamental and computational science, and national security. DOE’s Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) is responsible for oversight of PNNL at its Campus in Richland, Washington, as well as its facilities in Sequim, Seattle, and North Bonneville, Washington, and Corvallis and Portland, Oregon.

  18. Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Erosion in Northwest Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhovich, Y.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Alaska is experiencing significant climate change and human impacts. The study area includes the coastal zone of Kotzebue Sound and the Chukchi Sea and provides the local population (predominantly Inupiaq Eskimo) with critical subsistence resources of meat, fish, berries, herbs, and wood. The geomorphology of the coast includes barrier islands, inlets, estuaries, deltas, cliffs, bluffs, and beaches that host modern settlements and infrastructure. Coastal dynamics and sea-level rise are contributing to erosion, intermittent erosion/accretion patterns, landslides, slumps and coastal retreat. These factors are causing the sedimentation of deltas and lagoons, and changing local bathymetry, morphological parameters of beaches and underwater slopes, rates of coastal dynamics, and turbidity and nutrient cycling in coastal waters. This study is constructing vulnerability maps to help local people and federal officials understand the potential consequences of sea-level rise and coastal erosion on local infrastructure, subsistence resources, and culturally important sites. A lack of complete and uniform data (in terms of methods of collection, geographic scale and spatial resolution) creates an additional level of uncertainty that complicates geographic analysis. These difficulties were overcome by spatial modeling with selected spatial resolution using extrapolation methods. Data include subsistence resource maps obtained using Participatory GIS with local hunters and elders, geological and geographic data on coastal dynamics from satellite imagery, aerial photos, bathymetry and topographic maps, and digital elevation models. These data were classified and ranked according to the level of coastal vulnerability (Figure 1). The resulting qualitative multicriteria model helps to identify the coastal areas with the greatest vulnerability to coastal erosion and of the potential loss of subsistence resources. Acknowldgements: Dr. Ron Abileah (private consultant, j

  19. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  20. Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rodney B.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Boetsch, John R.; Schaberl, James P.; Happe, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This protocol narrative outlines the rationale, sampling design and methods for monitoring landbirds in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) during the breeding season. The NCCN, one of 32 networks of parks in the National Park System, comprises seven national park units in the Pacific Northwest, including three large, mountainous, natural area parks (Mount Rainier [MORA] and Olympic [OLYM] National Parks, North Cascades National Park Service Complex [NOCA]), and four small historic cultural parks (Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve [EBLA], Lewis and Clark National Historical Park [LEWI], Fort Vancouver National Historical Park [FOVA], and San Juan Island National Historical Park [SAJH]). The protocol reflects decisions made by the NCCN avian monitoring group, which includes NPS representatives from each of the large parks in the Network as well as personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS-FRESC) Olympic Field Station, and The Institute for Bird Populations, at meetings held between 2000 (Siegel and Kuntz, 2000) and 2005. The protocol narrative describes the monitoring program in relatively broad terms, and its structure and content adhere to the outline and recommendations developed by Oakley and others (2003) and adopted by NPS. Finer details of the methodology are addressed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that accompany the protocol narrative. We also provide appendixes containing additional supporting materials that do not clearly belong in either the protocol narrative or the standard operating procedures.

  1. Dynamic changes of sandy land in northwest of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ting; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Aixia; Zhou, Qing

    2006-10-01

    The area northwest of Beijing is one of the most important regions where many organizations invest and pay most attention. The environmental problems in this region affect not only Beijing but also the surrounding area. Based on observation of the characteristics of the change in sandy land, this study classified four types of dynamic change of sandy land, including extended sandy land, the reversely changed sandy land, the potential sandy land and no change in sandy land. Then the process and the trend of changes in sandy land and their environmental impact on the area northwest of Beijing were analyzed. The results show that the area of sandy land has increased in this region in the period of 1991 to 2002. Change between sandy land and grassland was the dominant change. It is found that the monitoring zones of Hunshandake sandy land and north of Yin Shan are regions with high ratio of extended sandy land, and are connected with widespread potential change of sandy land. This implies that these two regions have a high probability of increase in sandy land in the future. On the other hand, in the monitoring zone of Horqin sandy land and Ba Shang Plateau and its surrounding area, desertification had been controlled and the area of sandy land is expected to decrease. This indicates that the direction of the sandstorm to Beijing is expected to gradually move to the northwest. Furthermore, the decreases in sandy land and the reversing change from arable land to grassland and forests in the study region will affect the land quality and atmosphere. And the logistic multiple regression (LMR) model was employed to better understand the complexity and processes of increases in sandy land. This model predicts that there is a high probability of increases in sandy land in north of Siziwang Banner, Zhengxiangbai Banner and Zhenglan Banner. Finally, suggestions to the ecological construction of the study area have been proposed. PMID:16758285

  2. Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yunwei; LING Zheng; CHEN Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Winter coastal upwelling off northwest Borneo in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated by using satellite data, climatological temperature and salinity fields and reanalysis data. The upwelling forms in Decem-ber, matures in January, starts to decay in February and almost disappears in March. Both Ekman trans-port induced by the alongshore winter monsoon and Ekman pumping due to orographic wind stress curl are favorable for the upwelling. Transport estimates demonstrate that the month-to-month variability of Ekman transport and Ekman pumping are both consistent with that of winter coastal upwelling, but Ek-man transport is two times larger than Ekman pumping in January and February. Under the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the upwelling shows remarkable interannual variability: during winter of El Niño (La Niña) years, an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) wind anomaly is established in the SCS, which behaves a northeasterly (southwesterly) anomaly and a positive (negative) wind stress curl anomaly off the north-west Borneo coast, enhancing (reducing) the upwelling and causing anomalous surface cooling (warming) and higher (lower) chlorophyll concentration. The sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) associated with ENSO off the northwest Borneo coast has an opposite phase to that off southeast Vietnam, resulting in a SSTA seesaw pattern in the southern SCS in winter.

  3. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  4. Appropriate Strategies for Rural Houses In Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Quan; LIU Jia-ping; LU Xiao-hui; YANG Liu

    2009-01-01

    To avoid the old road of urban development with high consumption and high pollution,this paper took the houses in a village near Yinchuan(a typical city of Northwest China)as an exemplary proiect to explore the appropriate strategies in the arid cold climate for the sustainable devdopment in rural undeveloped areas Northwest China.Firstly,all houses were designed according to the principles of passive solar heating.Second-ly,optimized biomass energy technologies such as biogas pit and straw gasification stove were utilized for cooking or heating.Last but not the least important,the ecological building materials such as earth,straw bale,fly ash were used to construct houses,which improves the indoor thermal comfort and meanwhile lowers the negative impact on the environment.Low costs,easy accessibility and habitants'inclination were taken into account in the process of design.

  5. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration over Northwest China using remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is a very complicated problem to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a large area of land surface. In this paper, the evapotranspiration estimation models for dense vegetation and bare soil are presented, based on the information of parameters like vegetation cover-degree and surface albedo. Combined with vegetation cover-degree data, a model for regional evapotranspiration estimation over the heterogeneous landscape is derived. Through a case study using remote sensing data over Northwest China, the accuracy of the model for regional evapotranspiration estimation is checked. The result shows that the accuracy of the model is satisfactory. The features of evapotranspiration over Northwest China are also discussed with the application of the model.

  6. A survey of groundwater levels and hydrogeochemistry in irrigated fields in the Karamay Agricultural Development Area, northwest China: Implications for soil and groundwater salinity resulting from surface water transfer for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Song, Xianfang; Currell, Matthew J.; Cao, Guoliang; Zhang, Yinghua; Kang, Yuehu

    2011-08-01

    SummaryAnalysis of the water budget, along with hydrochemistry and stable isotopes in shallow groundwater were carried out in the Karamay Agricultural Development Area (KADA) in order to assess the impact of transfer of irrigation water from the IrtySh River, in particular in relation to the mechanisms of salinization and the nature of the water table regime. In terms of aquifer dynamics, the addition of the irrigation water without any groundwater abstraction has caused a sharp rise in the water table is and the development of serious soil salinity, together with an almost complete attenuation of inter-seasonal water table oscillations. The mean rise in the groundwater table from September 1997 to October 2009 was 6.9 m, representing an accumulated total water storage change of close to 150 million cubic meters. The analysis of aquifer water budget shows that infiltration of irrigation water occupied over 90% of the total recharge of the groundwater in the KADA. Sources of groundwater recharge and mechanisms of salinization in the KADA were also investigated using geochemical and isotopic techniques. The groundwater is characterized by Cl(SO 4)-Na type, generally becoming more Na and Cl dominated with increasing salinity. The total dissolved solids (TDS) content of the groundwater ranges from 0.5 g/L to over 65 g/L, with greater TDS values in areas of low topographic relief and shallow water tables. Where the sediments are more permeable (e.g. due to the presence of palaeochannels), TDS values are generally lower and the seasonal water table fluctuations greater. The ratios of K/Cl, Ca/Cl, Na/Cl, and Mg/Cl decrease with increasing Cl - concentrations especially in the shallow groundwater from 10 to 15 m depth, indicating hydrogeochemical evolution via minor water-rock interaction (feldspar weathering) and significant evaporation. The stable isotopic compositions show a characteristic evaporation effect in the shallow groundwater and confirm that direct

  7. Climate change and water availability in north-west Algeria: investigation by stable water isotopes and dendrochronology

    OpenAIRE

    Lambs, Luc; Labiod, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s, rainfall has declined along the North African coast, while the demographic pressure has increased. Supplementing the rainfall data and water level of the Béni Bahdel dam, water isotopic signature and tree ring analyses were used to better understand the effects of climate change (lower rainfall, higher summer temperature) and the water circulation in the Tafna River basin in north-west Algeria. Changes are recommended in water storage and afforestation policies and irrigation...

  8. The Research on Characteristics and Developing Strategies of the Body-building Projects in Tujia People Gathering Area in Northwest of Hubei%鄂西北土家集聚区健身项目特色及发展对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛丽丽; 张聘婷

    2012-01-01

      运用文献资料、问卷调查、实地访谈和数理统计等方法,对鄂西北土家集聚区健身项目的特色及发展现状进行调查与分析。结果表明:鄂西北土家集聚区健身项目种类繁多,形式多样,它们在动作、音乐、健身形式上都具有地方特色,在发展中也存在一些不足,并在综合考虑各种因素后提出了一系列发展对策。%  By literature, questionnaires, field interviews, mathematical statistics, etc. we have investigated and analyzed characteristics and present situation of Tujia body-building projects in Tujia people gathering area in northwest of Hubei. The results show that Tujia body-building projects are wide and colorful, and have many characteristics in movement, music, fitness and entertainment. However, there are many shortcomings in their developing course. In order to develop Tujia body-building projects fully, we have put forward a series of developing measures based on the various factors.

  9. Preverbal Position in Coast Tsimshian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Revised version of a paper presented at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Northwest Anthropological Association, Portland, Oregon, April 1972; research supported by the National Museum of Canada, the Philips Fund of the American Philosophical Society, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. (DD)

  10. Sediment Transport Along the Coast of Israel: Examination of Fluorescent Sand Tracers [Case Study: Fluorescent Tracer Applications for Sediment Transport Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of labeled natural sand particles was used to study sediment transport along the central Mediterranean coast of Israel. Six portions of 300 kg each were tagged with various fluorescent colors, and distributed at six different locations in the vicinity of the Herzliya Marina. The tagged sand was scattered at the end of autumn, and sampled three times during the winter. Sampling was interrupted in mid-January because of unexpected dredging at the marina canal entrance. The samples were analyzed at the Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnological Laboratory. The wave climate during that time was analyzed using wave data from Ashdod (40 km south). Seven wave storms with significant wave heights of over 2.5 m were observed. Two of them clearly indicate a dominant direction from the southwest and two others from the northwest. However, the time durations and the relative angles between the wave directions and the orthogonal to the coast of the storms propagating from the southwest are essentially larger than those arriving from the northwest. The following results were noted: (i) The drift of tagged sand particles correlated to longshore sediment transport at all depths was in a northern direction throughout the field experiment. The longest distance of transport was 5 km over a period of 86 days. (ii) ''Onshore'' sediment transport was present; sand from 15 m depth was found at 8 m depth. (iii) The cross-shore sediment transport carried sand to a depth of 8 m, but no colored sand from shallow water (2-4 m) was found deeper than 8 m. (iv) Although sedimentation at the marina entrance during the experiment was high, only small amounts of tagged sand were found at the entrance. (v) Findings of tagged sand showed the main area of sedimentation to be along the marina's main breakwater. (author)

  11. Vulnerability map to erosion of the Uruguayan pla tense coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Uruguay, the coast of the Rio de la Plata is characterized as the area of ​​greatest population growth, which has meant an increase in the exploitation of natural resources associated with it. It has become essential to know in depth coastal resources and the response of geo morphological processes before such pressures. Conducting a geo morphological map and vulnerability to erosion is essential to obtain this knowledge.The coast of the Rio de la Plata extends approximately 473 km from Nu eva Palmira to Punta del Este. She covers part of the coastal area of ​​the departments of Colonia and Maldonado, and the entire San J osé, Montevideo and Canelones. Some 191 km of the coast linear have some type of erosion process assets represented by HF metrics cliffs , gullies sectors, islands, capes and points or platforms heights. This set of landforms constitute 42 % of the River Plate coast.This contribution presents the map of La Plata coast with the distribution of these landforms for the purposes of establishing the most vulnerable areas for better management of coastal resources

  12. 77 FR 41182 - Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ..., Northwest proposes to remove a pig\\1\\ launcher, install two new pig launchers and one pig receiver, and... gas per day to meet demand in the south Seattle market area. \\1\\ A ``pig'' is a tool that the...

  13. Arid land irrigation in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2001 summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the area of arid land irrigation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United...

  14. Status of Gulf Coast salt dome characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening and characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository have progressed through the area phase in these Gulf Coast Salt Basins. The domes studied during the area phase are described briefly. The area characterization studies are outlined, and the resulting reports are listed. Geologic and environmental studies resulted in elimination of four domes from further consideration. The remaining domes were judged acceptable and were classified as to their favorability to license. Site characterization planning for location phase activities deals primarily with technical, environmental, and socioeconomic issues of concern to the states and/or to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Department of Energy (DOE). These issues are listed and discussed. 16 references, 9 figures

  15. 准噶尔盆地西北缘克百地区天然气成因与潜力分析%Analyses of the Genesis and Potential of Natural Gas in Kebai Area of Northwest Margin, Jungar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高岗; 王绪龙; 柳广弟; 张越迁; 黄志龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the natural gas occurrence features, component features, types and sources, this article shows the contribution of source rock of the Carboniferous and Jiamuhe Formation of the Lower Permian to the gas reservoir and points out that future research should be strengthened to the source rock geology, geochemistry characteristics, and gas-generating potential. To natural gas, there is not only dissolved gas in oil pools but also pure gas in gas pools. The dissolved gases distribute in both the Permian system and the Mesozoic, and were derived from the Fengcheng Formation source rocks. They migrate and accumulate with crude oil and are oil-type gases. The natural gases in gas pools distribute chiefly in the Jiamuhe Formation and the Upper Wuerhe Formation which overlays the Jiamuhe Formation in Wuba Area, were derived from the highly mature Jiamuhe Formation source rock and migrated, accumulated in gaseous phase, and they are coal type gas. The Jiamuhe Formation source rocks have an important controling role in gas pools in the Jiamuhe Formation and the strata overlying the Jiamuhe Formation. The Carboniferous source rocks have contribution to coal-type gas in depth. There is certain natural gas exploration potential in the structural downdip part of the discovered gas pools and deeper parts which will be the next main exploration target.%通过准噶尔盆地西北缘克拉玛依一百口泉百地区天然气赋存特征、组成、类型与来源的分析,明确了佳木河组与石炭系烃源岩对气藏气的贡献,指出应加强烃源岩地质与地化特征、成气潜力的研究.天然气既有原油溶解气,也有较纯的气藏气.原油溶解气在二叠系和中生界油藏中均有分布,来源于风城组烃源岩,与原油同源同期运移聚集而成,属于油型气.气藏气主要分布在五八区的佳木河组和直接覆盖于佳木河组之上的上乌尔禾组,为佳木河组烃源岩高成熟阶段以独立气相运

  16. Neah Bay to Cape Alava, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Topographic Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser...

  17. Hydrographic & Topographic LIDAR Acquisition, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Bathymetric Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser...

  18. Determination of phenols in seawater along north-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Bhangale, V.P.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Indian_J_Environ_Prot_13_15.pdf.txt stream_source_info Indian_J_Environ_Prot_13_15.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  19. H09511: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest Coast of Florida, Florida, 1975-11-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. H10950: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest Coast of Etolin Island, Alaska, 2000-05-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. Occurrence of Hydroclathrus tenuis Tseng and Baoren, (Phaeophyta) from Gulf of Kutch, northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Hydroclathrus tenuis (C. Agardh), a marine brown alga was considered to be a monotypic, till H. tenuis Tseng and Baoren was reported during 1983 from south China Sea. Recently the same alga was noticed to be abundant from Kalubhar Island in the Gulf...

  2. Four new species of the genus Rhopalophthalmus (Mysidacea: Crustacea) from the northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.; Biju, A.

    . Antenna Figure 6. Labrum Figures 7-8. Mandible Figure 9. Maxillule Figure 10. Maxilla Rhopalophthalmus mumbayensis sp. nov. (male) Figure 11. First thoracic endopod Figure 12. Second thoracic endopod Figure 13. Third... Figure 27. Apical spines of telson Rhopalophthalmus anishi sp. nov. (male) Figure 28. Anterior part of body Figure 29. Antennule Figure 30. Antenna Figure 31. Third thoracic endopod Figure 32. Fifth thoracic limb Figure 33. Seventh...

  3. H10949: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest Coast of Etolin Island, Alaska, 2000-05-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. H09583: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest Coast of Florida, Florida, 1976-02-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. H09509: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest Coast of Florida, Florida, 1975-08-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. Pleural calcification in northwest Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass miniature radiography in 1969 detected a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population over the age of 10 was carried out with a 80% response rate. Full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements, and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, type of work, and residence were used. Independent classification of the 408 films by two readers using the ILO/UC scheme showed very few small opacities but a very high prevalence of pleural calcification first evident in young adults and rising to 70% in the elderly. The overall prevalence was 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. A comparison with the 1969 survey showed a progression rate of 5% per annum. In neither sex was there a significant relation of pleural calcification to smoking, ventilatory capacity, nor type of work, though those classified as field croppers had a slightly higher prevalence. There was no obvious evidence of increased lung cancer or mesothelioma in the village. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified

  7. Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas, Rhode Island Worst Case Hurricane Surge Inundation Areas; Worst case Hurricane Surge Inundation areas for category 1 through 4 hurricanes striking the coast of Rhode Island., Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information...

  8. Effects of Land Use/Cover Change on Soil Erosion in Karst Area of Northwest Guizhou Province%黔西北喀斯特区域土地利用/覆盖变化对土壤侵蚀的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红; 马友鑫; 吴家福; 刘文俊; 李红梅; 吴建普

    2012-01-01

    利用黔西北地区1974,1992和2008年共3期遥感影像解译的土地利用图,结合修正的通用土壤流失方程,分析和模拟了该区土地利用/覆盖变化前后的土壤侵蚀状况,以及主要地类转化类型的土壤侵蚀效应。结果表明,黔西北地区土地利用结构变化显著,1974—2008年灌木林和旱地面积变化剧烈,且呈现相反的变化趋势。1974—1992年,随旱地面积的显著增加,灌木林的显著减少,黔西北土壤侵蚀模数由29.55t/(hm2.a)上升到37.76t/(hm2.a),随旱地面积的显著减少,灌木林、有林地的显著增多,2008年下降到30.39t/(hm2.a);旱地和其他地类发生土壤侵蚀最为剧烈,大面积的灌木林转为旱地是1992年土壤侵蚀加剧的主要原因,而大面积的旱地转为灌木林和有林地使2008年土壤侵蚀状况显著改善,灌木林转为旱地仍是近期土壤侵蚀加剧的主要原因,应加强对灌木林的使用管理。%Based on the land use maps of Northwest Guizhou Province, which were interpreted from Landsat images of 1974, 1992 and 2008, we analyzed and simulated the status of soil erosion before and after the land use/cover change(LUCC) and the soil erosion effect of main types of LUCC with incorporation of the revised universal soil loss equation(RUSLE). The results show that the structure of LUCC had changed significantly in Northwest Guizhou Province. The areas of shrub and cultivated land varied dramatically, showing oppo- site change trends from 1974 to 2008. With great increment of cultivated land and decrement of shrub, the soil erosion modulus increased from 29.55 t/(hm2 ~ a) to 37.76 t/(hm2 ~ a) in the area from 1974 to 1992. The area of cultivated land decreased and the area of shrub and forest increased from 1992 to 2008, resulting a significant reduction in soil erosion(30.39 t/(hma ~ a) in 2008]. As cultivated land contributes most to soil erosion, the massive conversion from shrub to

  9. Tectonic evolution of the Tualatin basin, northwest Oregon, as revealed by inversion of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Wells, Ray; Blakely, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The Tualatin basin, west of Portland (Oregon, USA), coincides with a 110 mGal gravity low along the Puget-Willamette lowland. New gravity measurements (n = 3000) reveal a three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface geometry suggesting early development as a fault-bounded pull-apart basin. A strong northwest-trending gravity gradient coincides with the Gales Creek fault, which forms the southwestern boundary of the Tualatin basin. Faults along the northeastern margin in the Portland Hills and the northeast-trending Sherwood fault along the southeastern basin margin are also associated with gravity gradients, but of smaller magnitude. The gravity low reflects the large density contrast between basin fill and the mafic crust of the Siletz terrane composing basement. Inversions of gravity data indicate that the Tualatin basin is ∼6 km deep, therefore 6 times deeper than the 1 km maximum depth of the Miocene Columba River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the basin, implying that the basin contains several kilometers of low-density pre-CRBG sediments and so formed primarily before the 15 Ma emplacement of the CRBG. The shape of the basin and the location of parallel, linear basin-bounding faults along the southwest and northeast margins suggest that the Tualatin basin originated as a pull-apart rhombochasm. Pre-CRBG extension in the Tualatin basin is consistent with an episode of late Eocene extension documented elsewhere in the Coast Ranges. The present fold and thrust geometry of the Tualatin basin, the result of Neogene compression, is superimposed on the ancestral pull-apart basin. The present 3-D basin geometry may imply stronger ground shaking along basin edges, particularly along the concealed northeast edge of the Tualatin basin beneath the greater Portland area.

  10. Constraining Landscape History and Glacial Erosivity Using Paired Cosmogenic Nuclides in Upernavik, Northwest Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Graly, Joseph A.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude landscape evolution processes have the potential to preserve old, relict surfaces through burial by cold-based, nonerosive glacial ice. To investigate landscape history and age in the high Arctic, we analyzed in situ cosmogenic Be(sup 10) and Al (sup 26) in 33 rocks from Upernavik, northwest Greenland. We sampled adjacent bedrock-boulder pairs along a 100 km transect at elevations up to 1000 m above sea level. Bedrock samples gave significantly older apparent exposure ages than corresponding boulder samples, and minimum limiting ages increased with elevation. Two-isotope calculations Al(sup26)/B(sup 10) on 20 of the 33 samples yielded minimum limiting exposure durations up to 112 k.y., minimum limiting burial durations up to 900 k.y., and minimum limiting total histories up to 990 k.y. The prevalence of BE(sup 10) and Al(sup 26) inherited from previous periods of exposure, especially in bedrock samples at high elevation, indicates that these areas record long and complex surface exposure histories, including significant periods of burial with little subglacial erosion. The long total histories suggest that these high elevation surfaces were largely preserved beneath cold-based, nonerosive ice or snowfields for at least the latter half of the Quaternary. Because of high concentrations of inherited nuclides, only the six youngest boulder samples appear to record the timing of ice retreat. These six samples suggest deglaciation of the Upernavik coast at 11.3 +/- 0.5 ka (average +/- 1 standard deviation). There is no difference in deglaciation age along the 100 km sample transect, indicating that the ice-marginal position retreated rapidly at rates of approx.120 m yr(sup-1).

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of the seasonal sea level cycle in the northwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Marcos, Marta; Calafat, Francisco M.; Zheng, Jinhai; JordÃ, Gabriel; Cipollini, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    The seasonal sea level variations observed from tide gauges over 1900-2013 and gridded satellite altimeter product AVISO over 1993-2013 in the northwest Pacific have been explored. The seasonal cycle is able to explain 60-90% of monthly sea level variance in the marginal seas, while it explains less than 20% of variance in the eddy-rich regions. The maximum annual and semiannual sea level cycles (30 and 6 cm) are observed in the north of the East China Sea and the west of the South China Sea, respectively. AVISO was found to underestimate the annual amplitude by 25% compared to tide gauge estimates along the coasts of China and Russia. The forcing for the seasonal sea level cycle was identified. The atmospheric pressure and the steric height produce 8-12 cm of the annual cycle in the middle continental shelf and in the Kuroshio Current regions separately. The removal of the two attributors from total sea level permits to identify the sea level residuals that still show significant seasonality in the marginal seas. Both nearby wind stress and surface currents can explain well the long-term variability of the seasonal sea level cycle in the marginal seas and the tropics because of their influence on the sea level residuals. Interestingly, the surface currents are a better descriptor in the areas where the ocean currents are known to be strong. Here, they explain 50-90% of interannual variability due to the strong links between the steric height and the large-scale ocean currents.

  12. Spring northward juvenile migration of the Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus from the Northwest Patagonian waters of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Cubillos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Important nursery grounds for Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus are located mainly in the Northwest Patagonian Inner Sea (42ºS-44ºS, from which juvenile must to disperse or migrate offshore, then along the Chilean coast either northward or southward. The objective of this paper was to estimate northward spring juvenile migration of the Patagonian grenadier from nursery to feeding areas, which are located near Talcahuano (35º00’S-37º10’S. Length-frequency data (LFD were obtained from an acoustic survey carried out in November 1999, which covered from 35ºS to 47ºS. Generalized linear model was used to describe the presence of juvenile per latitude and depth, and to infer the origin and displacement of juveniles. Subsequently, LFD data were grouped according to latitudinal strata. Grouped LFD were decomposed into normal component groups, from which mean, standard deviation and proportion were estimated from the mixed LFD. The average length of the identified groups were sorted from south to north, and linked to compute significant increment in fish length and age per kilometers. The length increment per time was not due to growth, rather they was due to spatial displacement of juvenile from southern nursery grounds to northern feeding areas. Although homing to feeding areas and/or high residency (partial migration have been postulated, it seems that recruitment of juveniles to northern feeding areas are origintaed from NPIS nurseries. The West Wind Drift Current seems to be the main drive for dispersion of Patagonian grenadier to recruit northward in open waters along the continental shelf.

  13. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  14. [The migration policy of the Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brou, K; Charbit, Y

    1994-01-01

    Migration policies adopted by the Ivory Coast at independence were essentially a continuation of colonial policies aimed at providing manpower for the coffee and cacao plantations of the south, whose exports were to form the basis of the national development strategy. Instead of forced labor, the government facilitated installation of migrants in agricultural areas by means of laws assuring their access to lands not currently in use. Massive immigration of workers resulted in an age and sex distribution favorable to the needs of the plantation economy. The concentration of development efforts in the forest zone of the south, including Abidjan, encouraged thousands of workers from the savannah to migrate south in search of higher incomes and better living conditions. Bilateral accords with the former Upper Volta and with France and multilateral accords with the Economic Community of the West African states regulated the migratory movement. The Ivory Coast's migration policy succeeded in populating the forest zone and permitted the Ivory Coast to construct a powerful economy. But the policy produced sometimes violent opposition among natives overwhelmed by foreigners in search of lands. The loss of labor force in the savannah threatened the nation's food supply and demographic balance. In the forest zone itself, many of the immigrant workers left the plantations to seek greater success in the cities, swelling the ranks of the urban unemployed and leaving much of the rural area short of labor. In prosperous times, when prices for southern goods were high, the system worked reasonably well. When economic conditions worsened, the inefficiency of the policy became clear. At those times the international conventions failed to control the influx because of the conflicting interests of the countries. Ethnic and regional tensions mounted, the rural exodus continued despite attempts to encourage regional development, and conflicts over land tenure intensified.

  15. Priority plant communities for conservation in Northwest Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of limited resources, it is very important for biodiversity conservation to make accurate assessments of biodiversity prior to setting out measures for protecting regions and communities. To moreeffectively manage and protect forest resources in Northwest Yunnan, we evaluated the priority plant community types for conservation by mainly considering the function of plant communities in maintaining habitat and biodiversity. Recognizing the principles of good science, hierarchy and practicability, we established an evaluation indicator system consisting of six indicators: species diversity, number of rare and endangered plant species, protection level of plant species, number of endemic plant species, and rarity and endemism of community type. We selected 61 formations belonging to 13 vegetation subtypes in Northwest Yunnan for analysis. Assessment criteria followed a general ranking assignment methodology, and weights assigned to individual indicators were determined using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and expert consultation. GIS technology was used as an aid to integrate evaluation. The results yielded conservation values of communities as follows: (1 at the association level: 4 associations were at first category, 31 second category, 23 third category, and three general category; (2 at the vegetation subtype level: one was at first category, six second category, six third category. The distribution of priority vegetation subtypes for conservation were: (1 first category: a small area distributed in Gaoligong Mountains; (2 second category: mainly distributed in high altitude mountains in the northwest, and also in some alpine areas in the southeast of the study area; (3 third category: distributed at low altitude in the southeast of the study area and in valleys of the Dulong River, Nu River, Lancang River and Jinsha River.

  16. Assessment of Saurida tumbil (Bloch) stock in the northwest continental shelf water of India

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, D K; Devaraj, M.; George, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the data collected from New Ferry Wharf, Sassoon Dock and exploratory survey of MFV Saraswati on the Northwest coast of India, the growth, mortality, population and stock parameters of Saurida tumbil is reported in the present communication. The Von Bertalanffy growth function (GF) parameters for growth on length were found to be L∞=49.8 cm, K=0.96/year, t0 = -.141 year. The length at recruitment (lr) is 80 mm. (tr=.167 year) while the length at first capture (lc) for the commercial ...

  17. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales

    OpenAIRE

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Kristin L Laidre; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Citta, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite trackin...

  18. Aeromagnetic and gravity investigations of the Coastal Area and Continental Shelf of Liberia, West Africa, and their relation to continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1970-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey has shown the existence of several basins in which magnetic basement depths are greater than 5 km on the continental shelf off Liberia. Magnetic diabase of 176 to 192 m.y. (Jurassic) in age intruding the Paleozoic (?) rocks and overlain by younger rocks onshore requires the distinction between “magnetic basement” and “basement.” Several lines of evidence suggest that the Paleozoic(?) rocks are less than 1 km thick; this implies that the diabase does not introduce a large error in depth-to-basement estimates. The dikes or their extrusive equivalents are traceable, on the basis of the magnetic data, beneath the younger sedimentary rock in the basins to the edge of the continental slope. The magnetic data also delineate a second zone of diabase dikes 90 km inland, parallel to the coast, which cross the entire country. The intrusion of the younger dikes probably coincides with rifting at the beginning of the separation of Africa and South America, and the associated magnetic anomaly zones appear to be parallel with and continuous into the anomaly bands in the Atlantic. A major northeast-trending break in the magnetic fabric intersects the coast near 9° W. and is associated with Eburnean age rocks (about 2000 m.y.) to the southeast as contrasted with Liberian-age rocks (about 2700 m.y.) to the northwest. Change in magnetic fabric direction inland from northeast to northwest in the coastal area allows recognition of a boundary between the Liberian-age rocks inland and Pan-African-age (about 550 m.y.) rocks in the coastal area northwest of about 9° 20'W. Sets of north-northwest-and west-northwest—trending faults of 1 to 2 km vertical displacement cut the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks onshore and can be traced into the offshore basins. Vertical displacements of several kilometers in the magnetic basement underlying the continental shelf suggest a pattern of block faulting all along the coast and continental shelf. Negative Bouguer

  19. Arsenic and radionuclide occurrence and relation to geochemistry in groundwater of the Gulf Coast Aquifer System in Houston, Texas, 2007–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2016-03-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, began a study in 2007 to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring trace elements and radionuclides in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Houston, Texas. Water samples were collected from 91 municipal supply wells completed in the Evangeline and Chicot aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern Houston; hereinafter referred to as northeast, northwest and southwest Houston areas. Wells were sampled in three phases: (1) 28 municipal supply wells were sampled during 2007–8, (2) 60 municipal supply wells during 2010, and (3) 3 municipal supply wells during December 2011. During each phase of sampling, samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, and radionuclides. At a subset of wells, concentrations of arsenic species and other radionuclides (carbon-14, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, and tritium) also were analyzed. Selected physicochemical properties were measured in the field at the time each sample was collected, and oxidation-reduction potential and unfiltered sulfides also were measured at selected wells. The source-water (the raw, ambient water withdrawn from municipal supply wells prior to water treatment) samples were collected for assessment of aquifer conditions in order to provide community water-system operators information that could be important when they make decisions about which treatment processes to apply before distributing finished drinking water.

  20. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...

  1. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  2. Unexpected increasing AOT trends over northwest Bay of Bengal in the early postmonsoon season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishcha, P.; Starobinets, B.; Long, Charles N.; Alpert, P.

    2012-12-13

    The main point of our study is that aerosol trends can be created by changes in meteorology without changes in aerosol source strength. Over the 10 year period 2000–2009, in October, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) showed strong increasing aerosol optical thickness (AOT) trends of approximately 14% yr-1 over northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the absence of AOT trends over the east of the Indian subcontinent. This was unexpected because sources of anthropogenic pollution were located over the Indian subcontinent and aerosol transport from the Indian subcontinent to northwest BoB was carried out by prevailing winds. In October, winds over the east of the Indian subcontinent were stronger than winds over northwest BoB, which resulted in wind convergence and accumulation of aerosol particles over northwest BoB. Moreover, there was an increasing trend in wind convergence over northwest BoB. This led to increasing trends in the accumulation of aerosol particles over northwest BoB and, consequently, to strong AOT trends over this area. In contrast to October, November showed no increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB or the nearby Indian subcontinent. The lack of AOT trends over northwest BoB corresponds to a lack of trends in wind convergence in that region. Finally, December domestic heating by the growing population resulted in positive AOT trends of similar magnitude over land and sea. Our findings illustrate that in order to explain and predict trends in regional aerosol loading, meteorological trends should be taken into consideration together with changes in aerosol source strength.

  3. DYNAMICS ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though over the years has enjoyed wide media coverage, with highlighted aspects, discrepancies and inequalities of economic potential between different regions of the world, or even parts of the same countries always remained topical. Difficulties arising from these differences were always felt, extremely painful by humans. Analyzing distinctly, participation of each county to the GDP of the Northwest Region and the composition of all indicators, we can identify significant discrepancies between counties, regions and municipalities. This is one of the reasons that led us trying to identify the causes that generated the current situation. From the perspective of the contribution of each county in the Northwest Region to Region's domestic product composition, the first place is taken by Cluj county 32.3%, followed by Bihor with 24.3%, Maramures, with 14.9% Satu-Mare, 12.1%, Bistrita-Nasaud, 9.1% and 7.2% Salaj. Consulting of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 indicates that the poorest areas in the Northwest Region are in Maramures and Bistrita-Nasaud. An important part of the active population of North-West Region was employed in public enterprises and an increase of unemployment in the counties of Salaj, Satu Mare and Maramures became predictable, imminent amid restructuring of public enterprises with losses. Studies of employed population by sectors of the economy, shows a high rate of population employed in services in the counties of Cluj and Bihor and high employment in agriculture on other four counties. In a modern market economy, services are most concentrated labors, and how the workforce is distributed in the Northwest region also shows an imbalance. How Northwest Region is participating in international economic cycle has major effects on the population's living standards. Relevant for the inter-district disparities analysis is the human and agents behavior analysis and the savings and loan relationships. How people

  4. 77 FR 1895 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... action, we are proposing to approve South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317.... South Coast Air Quality Management District There are two 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas within the... Quality Management Plan, as revised in 1999.\\9\\ The approved 1-hour ozone SIP in the Southeast...

  5. Coastal defence solutions (approach of ComCoast)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Visser, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Along the North Sea coast, water levels are rising and waves are intensifying due to climate change. The best scientific evidence suggests that both phenomena are likely to accelerate over the coming decades. In some North Sea coastal areas also land is sinking and tidal heights and rates of erosion

  6. The Coast Alarm System Editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has for several years worked in the field of alarm handling. COAST was developed based on long experience with several different methods for identification of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. COAST has been delivered to a number of different organisations which generate their own applications. With COAST one can implement many alarm generation or structuring methods. So far, the alarm system is defined using a COAST language, COLA. Now, a first version of an editor to implement alarm systems is available, to support alarm system designers to write and structure their COLA code. It is developed based on general guidelines for user interface design and a thorough discussion of different editor types. The most important functionality needed when designing alarm systems for complex processes was emphasized when choosing the type of editor. A structure-oriented editor is currently implemented, and the report gives a description for how to include graphic features towards a more complete editor in the future. Support and encouragement for reuse of code is obtained by defining classes in a class library browser. Separate applications with their specific object definitions are constructed in an application browser. In this way the alarm classes from the class libraries can easily be used in several applications. The application browser offers the possibility to organize the alarm objects in a structured hierarchy. In big complex alarm systems such a structuring feature is of vital importance to keep the overview of the alarm system and to perform maintenance. (author)

  7. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  8. French in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  9. Seismic survey probes urban earthquake hazards in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M.A.; Brocher, T.M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Trehu, A.M.; Weaver, C.S.; Creager, K.C.; Crosson, R.S.; Parsons, T.; Cooper, A. K.; Mosher, D.; Spence, G.; Zelt, B.C.; Hammer, P.T.; Childs, J. R.; Cochrane, G.R.; Chopra, S.; Walia, R.

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary seismic survey earlier this year in the Pacific Northwest is expected to reveal much new information about the earthquake threat to U.S. and Canadian urban areas there. A disastrous earthquake is a very real possibility in the region. The survey, known as the Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS), engendered close cooperation among geologists, biologists, environmental groups, and government agencies. It also succeeded in striking a fine balance between the need to prepare for a great earthquake and the requirement to protect a coveted marine environment while operating a large airgun array.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  12. Study on Development of Traditional Agricultural Areas in Northwest China Based on Ecological Footprint---A Case Study of Ledu District, Haidong City%基于生态足迹的西北传统农业区发展研究--以海东市乐都区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银森录; 徐靖; 周海英; 王占月; 刘文静; 马正举

    2016-01-01

    生态足迹是一种常用的度量生态承载力的方法,已在我国开展了大量研究。本文以乐都区为例研究了西北传统农业区生态足迹与承载力的现状。乐都区生态承载力主要由耕地和林地提供,生态足迹主要由猪肉生产和能源使用产生,全区生态承载力和足迹水平均较低,但已呈现显著的生态赤字。随着社会经济的进一步发展,乐都区碳足迹比重将不断增加,生态赤字将不断增长。建议采取一系列措施维护区域环境质量和生态平衡。%Ecological footprint is often used in measuring ecological capacity, and a good many studies had been carried out in China. In this paper, the state of ecological footprint and ecological capacity of Ledu District, as a case of traditional agricultural areas in Northwest China, was learned. It shows that cultivated land and woodland make up most of the ecological capacity, while pork producing and utilizations of fossil fuel bring out the majority of ecological footprint. Both ecological footprint and ecological capacity of Ledu District were at a low level, but the deficit was significant. With economic growth and society development, carbon footprint in Ledu District would keep increasing and ecological deficit would become threating. Some actions were suggested to be taken to keep the ecological balance.

  13. 新疆高血压病中医症状、证型分析及其与西北燥证的关联研究%Analysis of TCM symptoms and types of hypertension in Xinjiang area and association study with northwest dryness syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 赵明芬; 荆晶; 张慧田; 毛丽旦·阿扎提

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the TCM symptoms and types of hypertension in Xinjiang area and correlation with northwest dryness syndrome (NDS). Methods: This study used methods of case-control, totally 249 hypertension cases group and 245 normal blood pressure cases control group. The hypertension cases group was analyzed with diagnostic assessment of hypertension patients, the questionnaire on TCM syndrome score and northwest dryness syndrome sore. The normal blood pressure control group was only analyzed with northwest dryness syndrome sore. The hypertension cases group was analyzed on the main symptoms and prevalence rate of NDS, and disease state scores and TCM syndrome indices were analyzed between dryness group and no-dryness group. Results: ①The main symptoms of the hypertension patients in Xinjiang area were vertigo, cephalalgia, palpitation, insomnia, soreness and weakness of waist and knee, etc. ②The incidence of NDS in the hypertension case group was 61.85%, higher than 14.69% in the normal blood pressure control group (P<0.01).③The score of pathological conditions of hypertension combining with NDS group was higher than no NDS group (P<0.01). ④Compared the indices of the TCM symptoms in two groups, the scores of TCM syndrome of excessive liver-fire and yin deficiency and yang hyperactivity in the hypertension with NDS group were higher than that of hypertension with no NDS group (P<0.01), while the difference was not significant in the excessive accumulation of phlegm-dampness syndrome and the deficiency syndrome of both yin and yang. Conclusion: There was a closed correlation between NDS and hypertension in Xinjiang area.%目的:探讨新疆高血压病中医症状证侯特点及其与西北燥证的相关关系.方法:采用问卷量表形式进行病例对照研究,共调查高血压病例组249例,正常血压对照组245例,对高血压病例组进行高血压诊断性评估、高血压中医证候类型调查及西北燥证计量评分,而对正

  14. Geochemistry and age of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeberl, Christian; Bottomley, Richard; Glass, Billy P.; Storzer, Dieter

    1997-04-01

    Ivory Coast tektites were first reported in 1934 from a geographically restricted area at Ivory Coast, West Africa. Although some additional specimens have been found later, the total number remains small (a few hundred). The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana is most likely the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites, based on the finding that the tektites and the crater have the same age as well as similar isotopic and chemical compositions. In addition to tektites on land, microtektites were found in (so far) eleven deep-sea cores off the West African coast, between about 9°N and 11°S and 0° and 23°W, defining the extent of the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field. In this study we analyzed eleven Ivory Coast tektites for their major and trace element composition, studied their petrographical characteristics, provided major element data for 111 microtektites, and major and trace element data for four microtektites. We determined the 40Ar sbnd 39Ar step-heating age of five Ivory Coast tektites and four microtektites and obtained fission-track dates for ten tektites and one Bosumtwi impact glass. The tektites have very small intersample and intrasample variations of their major and trace element composition. 111 Ivory Coast microtektites from eleven cores were analyzed for their major element compositional range. Their compositional range is significantly wider than that of the Ivory Coast tektites, but the majority of all microtektites have compositions very similar to those of the tektites (within a factor of 1.2). Trace element compositions of the tektites also show little variation between samples. The samples do not show any distinct Eu anomaly in the REE patterns. This characteristic, as well as the high absolute REE abundances and La NYb N ratios of about 8, indicate that Archean rocks are plausible source rocks. The major and trace element contents of four individually analyzed Ivory Coast microtektites show compositions that are very similar to those of

  15. Governance of Clean Energy in Rural Northwest Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayatullah Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective institutional arrangements at local and national levels are important for promotion of renewable energy in a country. The present study attempts to examine the institutional arrangements for development of domestic clean energy in rural northwest Pakistan. The survey data were collected from 100 randomly selected households in District Swat in northwest Pakistan. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test was applied wherever needed. The study describes that very limited number of public and private organizations were working on CD (Clean Development in the area. Surprisingly, no institutional arrangements exclusively meant for domestic clean energy promotion were observed in the area. The study concludes that the objectives of Kyoto Protocol in Pakistan can be achieved only if the government and NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations work together to initiate cost-effective renewable energy interventions, particularly in rural areas. This will not only improve the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the local context, but will play a key role in achieving the SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nation?s post-2015 development agenda.

  16. FY 1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy R. LaBarge

    1999-11-05

    This is a report of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (Pacific Northwest's) FY1999 Annual Self-Evaluation Report. This report summarizes our progress toward accomplishment of the critical outcomes, objectives, and performance indicators as delineated in the FY1999 Performance Evaluation & Fee Agreement. It also summarizes our analysis of the results of Pacific Northwest's Division and Directorate annual self-assessments, and the implementation of our key operational improvement initiatives. Together, these provide an indication of how well we have used our Integrated Assessment processes to identify and plan improvements for FY2000. As you review the report you will find areas of significantly positive progress; you will also note areas where I believe the Laboratory could make improvements. Overall, however, I believe you will be quite pleased to note that we have maintained, or exceeded, the high standards of performance we have set for the Laboratory.

  17. Place-classification analysis of community vulnerability to near-field tsunami threats in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Spielman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis that begin to arrive in a matter of minutes following a major Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. Previous research has documented the residents, employees, tourists at public venues, customers at local businesses, and vulnerable populations at dependent-care facilities that are in CSZ-related tsunami-prone areas of northern California, Oregon, and the open-ocean coast of Washington. Community inventories of demographic attributes and other characteristics of the at-risk population have helped emergency managers to develop preparedness and outreach efforts. Although useful for distinct risk-reduction issues, these data can be difficult to fully appreciate holistically given the large number of community attributes. This presentation summarizes analytical efforts to classify communities with similar characteristics of community exposure to tsunami hazards. This work builds on past State-focused inventories of community exposure to CSZ-related tsunami hazards in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. Attributes used in the classification, or cluster analysis, fall into several categories, including demography of residents, spatial extent of the developed footprint based on mid-resolution land cover data, distribution of the local workforce, and the number and type of public venues, dependent-care facilities, and community-support businesses. As we were unsure of the number of different types of communities, we used an unsupervised-model-based clustering algorithm and a v-fold, cross-validation procedure (v=50) to identify the appropriate number of community types. Ultimately we selected class solutions that provided the appropriate balance between parsimony and model fit. The goal of the exposure classification is to provide emergency managers with

  18. Coastal erosion: Coast problem of the Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erosion promoted by the sea, affects different sectors of the coast of the Colombian Caribbean. The erosion is particularly clear in the central and western sector of the coast. The coastal problem of Punta Sabanilla - Puerto Salgar - Puerto Colombia; Pueblo Nuevo - Lomarena; Manzanillo del Mar; La Boquilla; sector Tolu - Covenas and Arboletes areas are described. This discussion is presented comform to the data obtained in field and of the revision of maps, pictures and other documents related with the coast design. The coastal erosion is not only affecting to low areas conformed by beaches, but rather this phenomenon impacts on rocky cliffs of different elevation; it is the case of El Castillo and Punta Sabanilla to Barranquilla (west Part) sectors . The causes of the setback that it experiences the coast of the Colombian Caribbean are not known in clear form; however they can be contributing such factors as: the elevation of the sea level, phenomenon that has been checked in different costs of the world; equally it can be due to a decrease in the volume of silts contributed by the Magdalena River, inside the coastal area. A third factor would be related with the diapirism of mud, that possibly would be altering the conformation of the Caribbean littoral

  19. Estimation of the Change in Freshwater Volume in the North Coast Limestone Upper Aquifer of Puerto Rico in the Rio Grande de Manati-Rio de la Plata Area between 1960 and 1990 and Implications on Public-Supply Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the upper aquifer of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system historically has been the principal source of public-supply and self-supplied industrial water use in north-central Puerto Rico. Development of the aquifer for these two major water-use categories began in about 1930; however, withdrawals did not become an important water-supply source for sustaining local development until the 1960s. Ground-water withdrawals averaged about 6 million gallons per day from 1948 to the mid-1960s and peaked at about 33 million gallons per day in the 1980s. Withdrawals have since declined, averaging about 11.5 million gallons per day in 2002. Aquifer contamination by industrial chemical spills and by nitrates from agricultural and domestic sources initially reduced pumpage for public-supply use within localized areas, leading eventually to increased withdrawals at unaffected well fields. The long-term effect of unconstrained ground-water withdrawals has been a regional thinning of the freshwater lens in an area encompassing 50,600 acres between the Rio Grande de Manati and Rio de la Plata, generally north of latitude 18?25?. The effects of aquifer overdraft have been documented in the regional thinning of the freshwater lens, with an increase in dissolved-solids concentration in ground-water wells. Dissolved-solids concentration in public-supply wells were generally between 250 and 350 milligrams per liter during the 1960s, but increased to greater than 500 milligrams per liter in virtually all of the wells by 2000. Depletion of fresh ground water was estimated at 282,000 acre-feet: 103,000 acre-feet in the Rio Grande de Manati to Rio Cibuco area between 1960 and 1995, and 179,000 acre-feet in the Rio Cibuco to Rio de la Plata area between 1960 and 1992. Thus, aquifer freshwater volume depletion below mean sea level datum may have contributed as much as 38 percent (7.5 million gallons per day) of the 20-million gallons per day average withdrawal rate during

  20. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  1. On High-Resolution Scatterometer Winds near the Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffelen, Ad; Verhoef, Anton; Vogelzang, Jur; Portabella, Marcos; Figa, Julia

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) operational processing uses spatial filtering with a Hamming window to avoid noise due to aliasing. The spatial extent of the Hamming windows prevents processing near the coast line. However, sea surface winds near the coast are very important, given that activities related to shipping and transport, off-shore resource exploitation, wind parks and tourism are most intense near the coast. Furthermore, coastal winds are also important for monitoring ecological and erosion processes. To provide ASCAT winds closer to the coast, three different products have been generated with spatial filtering over a circular box, and subjected to validation both in coastal and open ocean areas. The product made with a backscatter averaging cut-off radius Rmax = 15 km closely resembles the operational ASCAT 12.5-km product. However, the smaller spatial averaging extent of the box compared to the Hamming window, not only allows retrieving winds closer to the coast, but also captures smaller ocean wind variability and it is consequently providing greater consistency of the ASCAT backscatter triplet with the wind Geophysical Model Function (GMF), as observed by a reduced elimination of points by the Quality Control (QC). Due to the low noise observed in this product, we anticipate that in cases with high wind gradients, such as near tropical cyclones, even higher resolution winds than the ones presented here may be worthwhile retrieving.

  2. A Comparative Investigation in Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of 11 Moraceae Plants from Karst Areas of Northwest Guangxi%桂西北岩溶地区11种桑科植物生理生化特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃勇荣; 潘振兴; 黄江滨; 农艳春; 梁文忠; 刘旭辉

    2011-01-01

    In order to select excellent species suitable for economic development and vegetation restoration in karst areas, leaves of 11 species in the famly Moraceae were collected from Karst areas of northwest Cuangxi to investigate the physiological and biochemical characteristics in the current work. A total of 13 parameters, including the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar and proline etc were determined. The results showed that there were marked differences in physiological and biochemical characteristics among the different species. Moraceae plants demonstrated complex adaptation mechanisms and survival strategy to the Karst environment. The species well - suited for vegetation rehabilitation in rocky hill are Broussonetia papyrifer, Ficus virens, F. Microcarpa, Cudrania tricuspidata and F. Pumila, etc. Plants suitable for wild fruit prodction are F. Esquiro-liona and F. Variegata Bl. Var. And that for scale management of cash crops are F. Carica and M. Alba.%为筛选适合岩溶地区经济开发和植被恢复的优良物种,采集了构树、大叶榕、小叶榕、无花果等11种桂西北岩溶地区常见桑科植物的叶片,测定其叶绿素、可溶性总糖、脯氨酸含量等13个生理生化指标,并用数理统计方法对有关数据进行处理分析.结果表明:不同桑科植物的生理生化特性有明显差异,桑科植物对岩溶环境具有复杂的适应机制和不同的生存策略,对岩溶环境具有良好的适应性.适合石山植被恢复的优良树种为构树、大叶榕、小叶榕、柘树和薜荔等;适合作为野果资源开发的树种为黄毛榕和青果榕;适合作为经济作物进行规模化经营的树种为无花果和桑树.

  3. Numerical evaluation of the wave energy resource along the Atlantic European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes Soares, C.; Bento, A. Rute; Gonçalves, Marta; Silva, Dina; Martinho, Paulo

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper a hindcast system is applied to the analysis of the Atlantic European coast as a whole with specific nestings for sites of interest in each country. The areas included in this study were: Ireland west coast, UK South Western coast, France west coast, northern Spain and Canary Islands and Portugal's continental coast. Two contemporary spectral models were used: WaveWatch III for wave generation, covering almost the entire North Atlantic basin, which outputs are then used as boundary conditions for SWAN which simulates wave transformation in coastal areas. Wind fields were taken from the ERA Interim data base. Results are validated against buoy data. These validations allowed a reformulation, when needed, of the model's configurations in order to better tune its outcomes to the real data. Using the energy transport vectors given by SWAN, the wave power is afterwards calculated and an energy resource assessment is done for a period of several years.

  4. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  5. A new species of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae from the Sahamalaza Peninsula, northwest Madagascar, with acoustic monitoring of its nocturnal calling activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Penny

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of treefrog of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae is described from the Sahamalaza – Iles Radama National Park in northwest Madagascar. This new species is green in colour with bright red speckling across its head and dorsum; similar in morphology to other species of this group including: B. bottae, B. rappiodes, B. erythrodactylus and B. tasymena. The new species can be distinguished by its advertisement call and by a genetic divergence of more than 4.9% in the analysed mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment. Its call consists of two note types: a trill and a click; although similar sounding to B. bottae, the trill note of the new species has a faster pulse rate while the click note is predominantly two-pulsed rather than three. All individuals were detected from the banks of two streams in Ankarafa Forest. The new species represents the only member of the B. rappiodes group endemic to Madagascar’s western coast, with the majority of other members known from the eastern rainforest belt. Despite its conspicuous call, it has not been detected from other surveys of northwest Madagascar and it is likely to be a local endemic to the peninsula. The ranges of two other amphibian species also appear restricted to Sahamalaza, and so the area seems to support a high level of endemicity. Although occurring inside a National Park, this species is highly threatened by the continuing decline in the quality and extent of its habitat. Due to these threats it is proposed that this species should be classified as Critically Endangered according to the IUCN Red List criteria.

  6. 1991 Pacific Northwest loads and resources study, Pacific Northwest economic and electricity use forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan)

  7. Seasonal patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in digestive gland and arm of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Northwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Miguel; Oliveira, Marta; Gomes, Filipa; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone; Ferreira, Marta

    2014-05-15

    Among organic pollutants existing in coastal areas, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their ubiquity and carcinogenic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal patterns of PAHs in the digestive gland and arm of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Northwest Atlantic Portuguese coast. In the different seasons, 18 PAHs were determined and the detoxification capacity of the species was evaluated. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities were measured to assess phase I biotransformation capacity. Individual PAH ratios were used for major source (pyrolytic/petrogenic) analysis. Risks for human consumption were determined by the total toxicity equivalence approach. Generally, low levels of PAHs were detected in the digestive gland and in the arm of octopus, with a predominance of low molecular over high molecular weight compounds. PAHs exhibited seasonality in the concentrations detected and in their main emission sources. In the digestive gland, the highest total PAH levels were observed in autumn possibly related to fat availability in the ecosystem and food intake. The lack of PAH elimination observed in the digestive gland after captivity could be possibly associated to a low biotransformation capacity, consistent with the negligible/undetected levels of EROD and ECOD activity in the different seasons. The emission sources of PAHs found in the digestive gland varied from a petrogenic profile observed in winter to a pyrolytic pattern in spring. In the arm, the highest PAH contents were observed in June; nevertheless, levels were always below the regulatory limits established for food consumption. The carcinogenic potential calculated for all the sampling periods in the arm were markedly lower than the ones found in various aquatic species from different marine environments. The results presented in this study give relevant baseline data for environmental

  8. The 2010-2011 excavation season at Al Zubarah, north-west Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Tobias; al-Naimi, Faisal; Yeomans, Lisa;

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the results of the 2010–2011 archaeological fieldwork at the late eighteenth–twentieth-century abandoned city of al-Zubarah in north-west Qatar. The excavations in five areas inside the town, covering courtyard houses, a suq, a palatial compound, and a midden are dis...

  9. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  10. A brief account of coast vegetation near Port Elizabeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment and vegetation of an area of coast north-east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, are briefly described. Five major vegetation categories are recognized. These are: 1.  Scaevola thunbergii Pioneer Vegetation of  littoral dunes and  Ficinia lateralis Sedgeland of calcrete gravel; 2.  Olea exasperata Bush,  Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus Bushclumps and Dune Woodland; 3. Sundays River Scrub; 4. Fynbos of calcrete areas; and 5.  Themeda triandra Grassland. Invasion of the area by Acacia cyclops (Australian W'attle is described. A recommendation for the conservation of the area as a nature reserve is made.

  11. Subsidence Detection Using InSAR and Geodetic Measurements in the North-West of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Morteza

    2010-05-01

    The subsidence of the Earth surface is a phenomenon that occurs in some places in the world which overuse underground sources of water. As Iran has semi-arid and arid climate and the rate of rainfall is lower than the mean rate in the world then nowadays we are encountered by over-exploitation of groundwater in agricultural areas and also for extending the cities and industrial areas. Geodetic measurements i.e., repeated leveling measurements of first order leveling network of Iran and continuous GPS measurements of Iranian Permanent GPS Network of Iran (IPGN), showed that there are subsidence areas in the north-west of Iran. In this paper we try to find the area and rate of subsidence in the north-west of Iran using InSAR and geodetic techniques. The result of InSAR technique shows a better understanding on this phenomenon in these areas and has a good consistency with accurate geodetic measurements.

  12. HIV/TB co-infection in the North-West Region of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Z. M. Zagdyn; V. B. Galkin; G. S. Balasanyants

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to assess the HIV/TB epidemic situation and its features in the different areas of the North-West Federal Region statistical data during the last five years (2008–2012) were analyzed. In the study we used information of HIV-infection, tuberculosis and their combination from the annual reporting forms. The study found that in the North-West Federal Region in the recent years the number of HIV/TB co-infected patients is increased steadily the majority of whom is revealed in the pen...

  13. The Bicentennial of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the political history surrounding the development of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Includes a shortened and simplified version of the major articles of the Ordinance. Identifies three instructional resources for teaching about the Northwest Ordinance in secondary schools. (JDH)

  14. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  15. Northwest Introduces Its New World Business Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Northwest Airlines today unveiled several major enhancements to its international World Business Class product, providing its premium customers in the Asia Pacific region with a new lie-flat bed seat and state-of-the-art inflight entertainment system.In addition the carrier announced chanaes to its world

  16. Prevalence of smoking in northwest Iran: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco addiction is a major cause of preventable death worldwide. Thus, efforts to eliminate its use have the potential of producing significant health benefits. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among people in the age range of 15 to 64. The specific objective of this meta-analysis was to provide valid data that policy makers can use to make evidence-based decisions. Methods: To determine the prevalence of smoking among the adult population in northwest Iran, we used reports published by the surveillance system used to assess the risk factors for non-communicable diseases in different provinces in northwest Iran for the years 2004 and 2006-2009. Several variables were extracted, including the years of study, gender, ages, and smoking prevalence. Based on the heterogeneity of the results, we used fixed or random effects models to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. The analyses were performed using Stata 11 software. Results: A total of 28,436 subjects (14,248 males and 14,188 females in five age groups, i.e., 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64, were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men showed that, across the age groups, the lowest prevalence was 22.9%, the highest prevalence was 26.5%, and the average prevalence was 24.7%. Among women, the lowest prevalence was 0.3%, the highest prevalence was 0.8%, and the average prevalence was 0.5%. Conclusion: We found that approximately one-fourth of males in the age range of 15-64 in northwest Iran smoked cigarettes daily. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of addiction to tobacco in this area.

  17. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  18. 2010 Ecological Survey of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Perry, Christopher; Downs, Janelle L.; Powell, Sylvia D.

    2011-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL Site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL Site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL Site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL Site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), and the recently completed Physical Sciences Facility (PSF). This report describes the results of the annual survey of the biological resources found on the undeveloped portions of the PNNL Site in 2010. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the surveys and the results of the surveys are presented. Actions taken to fully delineate noxious weed populations discovered in 2009 and efforts in 2010 to control those weeds also are described. Appendix A provides a list of plant and

  19. Genetic structure of capelin (Mallotus villosus in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L Kenchington

    Full Text Available Capelin (Mallotus villosus is a commercially exploited, key forage-fish species found in the boreal waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. We examined the population structure of capelin throughout their range in the Canadian northwest Atlantic Ocean using genetic-based methods. Capelin collected at ten beach and five demersal spawning locations over the period 2002 through 2008 (N = 3,433 fish were genotyped using six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Temporally distinct samples were identified at three beach spawning locations: Chance Cove, Little Lawn and Straitsview, Newfoundland. Four capelin stocks are assumed for fisheries management in the northwest Atlantic Ocean based on meristics, morphometrics, tag returns, and seasonal distribution patterns. Our results suggested groupings that were somewhat different than the assumed structure, and indicate at least seven genetically defined populations arising from two ancestral populations. The spatial mosaic of capelin from each of the two basal cluster groups explains much of the observed geographic variability amongst neighbouring samples. The genetic-defined populations were resolved at Jost's Dest ≥ 0.01 and were composed of fish collected 1 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 2 along the south and east coasts of Newfoundland, 3 along coastal northern Newfoundland and southern Labrador, 4 along coastal northern Labrador, 5 near the Saguenay River, and at two nearshore demersal spawning sites, 6 one at Grebes Nest off Bellevue Beach on the east coast of Newfoundland, and 7 one off the coast of Labrador at Domino Run. Moreover, the offshore demersal spawners on the Scotian Shelf and Southeast Shoal appeared to be related to the inshore demersal spawners at Grebes Nest and in Domino Run and to beach spawners from the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

  20. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi Valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 yr−1 was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 yr−1 due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3 particles (0.1 μg m−3 yr−1 was attributed to the spatial variability of NH3 in Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with wildland fires in southeast and northwest US that are sensitive to climate changes. The four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its sources originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries along the coast. This approach allowed for quantitatively assessing the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of

  1. Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs in the Seattle, WA Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. K.; Alberti, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen loading has been identified as a potential stressor to marine ecosystems of the Puget Sound in the Pacific Northwest, and the Washington State Department of Ecology has estimated that anthropogenic sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to the Sound are 2.7 times higher than natural loads (Mohamedali et al. 2011). The Seattle urban area, situated in the southeast of the Sound, has the largest population in the northwestern US. Heavily urbanized along the coast, the 4 counties comprising the region (Snohomish, King, Pierce, and Kitsap) also include forests and agriculture. Urban and agricultural areas tend to have substantial anthropogenic N loading due to fertilizer application, presence of N-fixing vegetation, N atmospheric deposition, and human and other animal waste. To determine the relative contribution of urban vs. rural agricultural activities to N loads from the Seattle region to the Puget Sound, we used the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) calculator developed by Hong et al. (2011) for the watersheds of this region. The NANI calculator uses nationally available datasets to calculate NANI as the sum of oxidized N deposition, fertilizer application, agricultural N fixation, net food and feed inputs, and net animal and human N consumption. We found that NANI ranged from approximately 100 to 1500 kg m-2 y-1, with some of the highest rates in watersheds with high impervious surface or agricultural areas with N-fixing crops or large fertilizer additions. Many of the agricultural watersheds have intervening low-NANI watershed between themselves and the coast, thus it is likely that agricultural NANI is attenuated before entering the Puget Sound. The urban areas in the region do not have these attenuating watersheds, and so are likely to be the main contributor to the observed total aquatic N yield. This information is helpful for developing policies to reduce N loading to the Sound.

  2. Studies on Intestinal Helminthiasis in Dickleh, Arasbaran, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. MOBEDI

    1971-07-01

    Full Text Available Stool examinations undertaken among 961 inhabitants ora few villages ~ ~ in Dickleh, Azerbaijan, northwest Iran, revealed the presence of Ascaris among 62 ~j:J of the persons examined. In addition, 17.3 ~~<;, 8 ~~--;'; and 1~>;; were found infected respectively with 1'. trichiura, Trichostrongylus spp. and H. nana. The eggs of Oxyuris and Taenia were seen in the stool of 3.4 II ( and 1./5 (J 0 respectively, and 3 patients passed the larvae of Strongyloides stercora/ is. The factors responsible for the finding of higher rates of infection with most of these parasites in another area (Kalibar, which is very close to this area, are discussed.

  3. 78 FR 11670 - Eastern Great Lakes Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Eastern Great Lakes Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard... the Area Maritime Security Committee, Eastern Great Lakes, and its five regional subcommittees: Northeast Ohio Region, Northwestern Pennsylvania Region, Western New York Region, Lake Ontario Region,...

  4. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Navigation Areas: Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA (a) Location. The following areas are...

  5. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda; Polagye, Brian

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  6. ANALYSIS MACROSCOPIC HEADENDS DRAINAGE IN THE URBAN AREA OF UMUARAMA, NORTHWEST REGION - PARANÁ / BRAZIL Análise macroscópica nas cabeceiras de drenagem da área urbana de Umuarama, região noroeste - Paraná/Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro França Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated process of urbanization, coupled with the use and occupancy can trigger serious changes in the hydrological cycle in river basins, especially in areas near the headwaters of drainage. The municipality of Umuarama, like other municipalities in the Northwest of Paraná, has, since its occupation in the mid-twentieth century experiencing rapid and disorganized urban growth, which has promoted issues in relation to vegetation cover in urban areas as in agricultural use. Front these findings, this study aimed to identify and assess the level of degradation in headwater drainage in urban areas of Umuarama, particularly in the tributaries of the upper basin, located in the stream Pinhalzinho II. We evaluated various parameters such as: water color, odor, litter around, floating materials, foams, oils, sewage, vegetation preservation, occupancy by domestic animals, by humans and proximity to buildings. The classification was based on the ranking of Degree of Impacts Springs (2004 and the Guide for Assessment of Water Quality (2004. According to the analysis, the sources present themselves degraded mainly by the presence of solid wastes, domestic sewage and industrial effluent. The results represent a warning sign of concern about the water quality and thus point to the need for monitoring of water resources, establishing limits to the legal protection of ownership and uses, and environmental awareness of the population regarding the production and proper disposal of waste generated.O acelerado processo de urbanização, aliado ao uso e ocupação podem desencadear graves alterações no ciclo hidrológico em bacias hidrográficas, principalmente nas áreas próximas às cabeceiras de drenagem. O município de Umuarama, a exemplo de outros municípios do Noroeste paranaense, vem, desde sua ocupação em meados do século XX, experimentando um rápido e desorganizado crescimento urbano, que tem promovido problemas em relação à cobertura

  7. 桂西北岩溶地区11种常见桑科植物生理特性比较%A comparison of physiological characteristics of eleven common Moraceae species in karst areas of Northwest Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃勇荣; 潘振兴; 黄江滨; 农艳春; 梁文忠

    2012-01-01

    In order to select excellent plant species suitable for economic development and vegetation restoration in karst areas, the leaves of 11 common Moraceae plants growing in karst areas of Northwest Guangxi were collected, with their 14 physiological indices such as soluble sugar and proline contents determined. There existed obvious differences in the physiological characteristics among the plants. Ficus hispida had the highest chlorophyll content but F. Microcarpa had the lowest one. The soluble sugar content was the highest for Morus alba but the lowest for F. Vi-rens. M. Alba contained the highest proline content but F. Esquiroliona had the lowest one. There were also obvious differences in other physiological indices, e. G. , antioxidant enzyme activities, water-soluble protein, and membrane permeability, among the plant species. All of these indicated that Moraceae plants had complicated adaptation mechanisms and survival strategies to fit the karst environment. It was suggested that in the process of vegetation restoration in karst areas, a reasonable configuration of different species should be considered based on the soil physical and chemical background and the plant biological characteristics. The preferred plant species suitable for rocky hill vegetation rehabilitation would be Broussonetia papyrifer, F. Virens, F. Microcarpa, Cudrania tricuspidata and F. Pumila, the species suitable for wild fruit resources development would be F. Esquiroliona and F. Variegata var. Chlorocarpa, and those suitable for scale management of cash crops would be F. Carica and M. Alba.%为筛选适合岩溶地区经济开发和植被恢复的优良物种,采集了桂西北岩溶地区11种常见桑科植物的叶片,测定其可溶性总糖、脯氨酸含量等14个生理指标.研究发现:不同桑科植物的生理特性有明显差异,叶绿素含量最高的是榕树,最低的是小叶榕;可溶性糖含量最高的是桑树,最低的是大叶榕;脯氨酸含量最高

  8. The exceptional surface turbidity of the North-West European shelf seas during the stormy 2013-2014 winter: Consequences for the initiation of the phytoplankton blooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohin, F.; Bryère, P.; Griffiths, J. W.

    2015-08-01

    A succession of storms during the winter 2013-2014 enhanced the resuspension of sediments in the surface waters of the North-West European shelf seas. The effects of waves on satellite-derived non-algal SPM (Suspended Particulate Matters) are discussed for the January 2008-March 2014 period. A simple statistical model relating locally SPM to tidal intensity and waves helps us analyse the main characteristics of the winter 2013-2014. The exceptional run of storms observed in this stormy and rainy winter has resulted in the highest SPM concentration in the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay ever observed by remote-sensing during the 1998-2014 period. Despite the lower clarity of the surface waters over a large part of the continental shelf during the first days of March 2014, blooms occurred early off the coast of Southern Brittany (Bay of Biscay) and later in April, as usual, in the Celtic Sea. Off the coast of southern Brittany, a region of freshwater influence, the lower clarity of the waters was counterbalanced by stronger haline stratification, due to high river discharges, enabling the initiation of blooms in late winter when the solar irradiance is sufficient; which was the case in March 2014 with 7 sunny days in a row just after the last storm. As a consequence, we can postulate that a possible increase in the intensity of waves occurring from December to early March, along with a possible scenario of global change, would not restrict the productive period in the Bay of Biscay. However an extension of the period of storms later in March would delay the timing of the blooms as observed in March 2008 in most of the investigated area.

  9. Qingdao - Pearl onthe Shandong coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUCE CONNOLLY

    2004-01-01

    <正> Qingdao, its name is synonymous with beer. Tsingtao Beer, one of the country’s finest, has put the city firmly onto the international scene. However, there is so much more to this pearl on the coast of Shandong Province. As China goes forward to the 2008 Olympics the city will become even better known for it has been chosen as the venue for the ocean sailing events.Qingdao occupies a peninsula jutting into the Yellow Sea. It is hilly, with a coastline of rocky headlands connected by fine curving sandy beaches. Its natural

  10. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  11. The naked and the differently clothed : Spanish encounters with native Americans in 18th century explorations of the Pacific Northwest and Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Sobek, María

    2010-01-01

    My analysis focuses on the journals of Alejandro Malaspina titled, Alejandro Malaspina: En busca del paso del Pacífico (1990 edition), written during his expeditions to the Pacific Coast of California and the Northwest (Alaska) in 1791, and the diary of Fray Pedro Font edited and translated by Herbert Eugene Bolton as Font’s Complete Diary of the Second Anza Expedition. The edited and translated volume was first published in 1930 and reissued in 1966. The Font diaries record th...

  12. Radiological assessment of the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of extensive sampling, gamma spectrometry, laboratory analyses, data evaluation and comparison with the reference data, the following assessment has been carried out. The radiological assessment has been done for a wide scale study area (about 1100 km) from El-Salloum in the west of the Mediterranean coast of Egypt to El-Arish in the east. The environmental radiological assessment steps are based on the criteria previously mentioned. The sources of radioactivity possibly reach the Egyptian Mediterranean coast can be summarized as: primordial and radiogenic radionuclides (e.g. 40K, 23'8U and 232Th series), cosmic rays and cosmogenic radionuclides (e.g. 7Be), fertilizers (e.g. superphosphate), black sand (transported by the Nile River), fallout (either from nuclear testing or Chernobyl), seawater currents (transported either natural or man-made), Suez Canal (subject to receive a radioactive releasing and effluents from either nuclear power ships or submarines passing through the Canal), biological migration and sedimentary longshore movement (e.g. Anguilla anguilla), atmospheric radioactivity (e.g. 222Rn and its daughters), domestic and medical sewage (minor source, short half-life), depleted uranium dust (possibly), satellite and aircraft accident (accidental) and rarely loss of industrial radioactive source (incidentally). El-Salloum, Rashid and El-Gamil have been considered as concentrated basins for the majority of the radioisotopes. This suggestion was due to the special topographical features of these three stations, which make the accumulation of the radioactive isotopes possible. Calculations of outdoor absorbed dose rate for human population at all stations under investigation from 238U, 232Th and 40K were carried out. The calculated absorbed dose rate has been distinguished the coast into normal areas and Rashid black sand area as high background area. The range of calculated dose was 8.39-38.5 nGy/h. Good agreement was observed with NCRP

  13. Radiological assessment of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of extensive sampling, gamma spectrometry, laboratory analyses, data evaluation and comparison with the reference data, the following assessment has been carried out. The radiological assessment has been done for a wide scale study area (about 1100 km) from El- Salloum in the west of the Mediterranean coast of Egypt to El-Arish in the east. The environmental radiological assessment steps are based on the criteria previously mentioned. The sources of radioactivity possibly reach the Egyptian Mediterranean coast can be summarized as: primordial and radiogenic radionuclides (e.g. 40K, 238U and 232Th series), cosmic rays and cosmogenic radionuclides (e.g. 7Be), fertilizers (e.g. superphosphate), black sand (transported by Nile River), fallout (either from nuclear testing or Chernobyl), seawater currents (transported either natural or man-made), Suez Canal (subject to receive a radioactive releasing and effluents from either nuclear power ships or submarines passes through the canal), biological migration and sedimentary longshore movement (e.g. Anguilla anguilla), atmospheric radioactivity (e.g. 222Rn and its daughters), domestic and medical sewage (minor source, short half-life), depleted uranium dust (possibly), satellite and aircraft accident (accidentally) and rarely loss of industrial radioactive source (incidentally). El-Salloum, Rashid and El-Gamil have been considered as concentrated basins for the majority of the radioisotopes. This suggestion was due to the special topographical features of these three stations, which make the accumulation of the radioactive isotopes possible. Calculations of outdoor absorbed dose rate for human population at all stations under investigation from 238U, 232Th and 40K were carried out. The calculated absorbed dose rate has been distinguished the coast into normal areas and Rashid black sand area as high background area. The range of calculated dose was 8.39-38.5 μGy/h. Good agreement was observed with NCRP

  14. Challenges in determining b value in the Northwest Geysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltiel, S.; Boyle, K.; Majer, E.

    2011-02-01

    Past analyses of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value in the Geysers and other geothermal settings have revealed a deviation from the assumed linear relationship in log space between magnitude and the number of earthquakes. In this study of the Northwest Geysers, we found a gently-sloping discontinuity in the b-value curve. This is especially apparent when comparing the least-squares fit (LSQ) of the curve to the fit obtained by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), a widely-respected method of analyzing magnitude-frequency relationships. This study will describe the assumptions made when using each of these two methods and will also explore how they can be used in conjunction to investigate the characteristics of the observed b-value curve. To understand whether slope-fit differences in the LSQR and MLE methods is due to physical properties of the system or due to artifacts from errors in sampling, it is extremely important to consider the catalog completeness, magnitude bin size, number of events, and differences in source mechanisms for the events comprising the study volume. This work will hopefully lead to informative interpretations of frequency-magnitude curves for the Northwest Geysers, a geothermal area of ongoing high-volume coldwater injection and steam production. Through this statistical investigation of the catalog contents, we hope to better understand the dominant source mechanisms and the role of injected fluids in the creation of seismic clustering around nearly 60 wells of varying depths and injection volumes.

  15. Recent and Future Climate Change in Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of global warming and an enhanced water cycle, the climate changed in northwest China, most notably in the Xinjiang area in the year 1987. Precipitation, glacial melt water and river runoff and air temperature increased continuously during the last decades, as did also the water level of inland lakes and the frequency of flood disasters. As a result, the vegetation cover is improved, number of days with sand-dust storms reduced. From the end of the 19th century to the 1970s, the climate was warm and dry, and then changed to warm and wet. The effects on northwest China can be classified into three classes by using the relation between precipitation and evaporation increase. If precipitation increases more than evaporation, runoff increases and lake water levels rise. We identify regions with: (1) notable change, (2) slight change and (3) no change. The future climate for doubled CO2 concentration is simulated in a nested approach with the regional climate model-RegCM2. The annual temperature will increase by 2.7C and annual precipitation by 25%. The cooling effect of aerosols and natural factors will reduce this increase to 2.0C and 19% of precipitation. As a consequence, annual runoff may increase by more than 10%

  16. Potential Incursion of Marine Sediment Inland in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area of fine sediment off the Cumbrian coast acts as a reservoir for many of the radionuclides discharged into the Irish Sea from Sellafield. The origin of any sediment that could come ashore in a single storm event has been evaluated, the areas of coast that could be at risk from flooding have been identified and an assessment made of the doses that might be received as a result of such flooding. Any sediment transported inland would have come from the nearshore zone rather than directly from the offshore area. Moreover, although parts of the coast between Morecambe Bay and the Solway are currently at risk from flooding during severe storms, the doses that would be received by those engaged in the clean-up operations and by residents would be a small fraction of the limit recommended by ICRP for members of the public. (author)

  17. Adaptive Ecosystem Management in the Pacific Northwest: a Case Study from Coastal Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew N Gray

    2000-01-01

    Adaptive ecosystem management has been adopted as a goal for decision making by several of the land management and regulatory agencies of the U.S. government. One of the first attempts to implement ecosystem management was undertaken on the federally managed forests of the Pacific Northwest in 1994. In addition to a network of reserve areas intended to restore habitat for late-successional terrestrial and aquatic species, "adaptive management areas" (AMAs) were established. These AM...

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-07-15

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release.

  19. The earliest shellmounds of the central-south Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T.A.; Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Coimbra, M.M.; Elmore, D

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents a new date for one of the oldest shellmounds of the central-south Brazilian coast. This date seems to confirm three previous results obtained from two other shellmounds in the same region and formerly seen as unreliable by the archaeological community. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Sambaqui do Algodao, was dated by {sup 14}C-AMS to 7860 {+-} 80 years BP. Besides confirming the previous ones, this new date is pulling back by some two thousand years the consensually accepted antiquity for the initial settlement of the central-south Brazilian coast - around 6000 years BP. The geographical and chronological proximity of those archaeological sites suggest that the initial settlement of the coast would have begun in this region rather than in the nuclear area with denser concentrations of shellmounds further to the South. It also strengthens the evidence of the possible route used by inland hunter-gatherers to reach this part of the coast.

  20. Statistic forecast of typhoons going over the Chinese coasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGLihua; WUZhanghua

    2003-01-01

    According to the measured data of typhoons going over the Chinese coasts in 1949-2002,a statistic relative equation showing the relation between the central atmospheric pressure of typhoons in a certain region at a certain period of time and their accumulation of frequency is established, and the concept of recurrence interval of typhoons is put forward, which is of actual significance for typhoon disaster reduction along the coastal area.

  1. Dynamics of the Pacific Northwest Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, E.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic imaging resolves a complex structure beneath the Pacific Northwest (PNW) that is interpreted as: an high-velocity piece of accreted (~50 Ma) Farallon lithosphere that deepens from being exposed (at coast, where it is called Siletzia) to lower crust in SE Washington and then descending vertically to ~600 km as a 'curtain' beneath central Idaho; a stubby Juan de Fuca slab (to prevented because the mantle wind blows eastward. A stagnation line between mantle drawn west into the mantle wedge and that flowing east in the far field may exist near the Farallon curtain. Other sources of supply to the Cascadia mantle wedge include: mantle flowing north beneath California, entrained with the Pacific Plate; flow from below the Juan de Fuca slab, perhaps especially through the Oregon gap; toroidal flow around the southern edge of the slab; and possible up-flow beneath the backarc. Anisotropy studies suggest the importance of toroidal flow. PNW lithosphere stress is dominated by N-S compression, a result of the Sierra Nevada driving the PNW into British Columbia; this push, and oblique subduction, are responsible for PNW clockwise rotation. Modeled (in 2D, map view) north-directed tractions on the Cascadia mega-thrust average ~4 TN per meter of along-strike fault length, or probably a shear stress of ~40 MPa over much of the locked mega-thrust (i.e., much more shear stress than the typical earthquake stress drop of 1-10 MPa). Normal to the coast, southern Cascadia is relatively tensional (where margin-normal compression is less than typical ridge push by ~4 TN/m of along-strike fault length) whereas northern Cascadia is compressional. This indicates that the southern Cascadia mega-thrust is more weakly coupled than the northern mega-thrust. Southern Cascadia slab rollback and extension of the Cascade graben and Basin-and-Range are enabled by the weak coupling, in conjunction with high gravitational potential energy of the southern Oregon arc and back-arc. Juan de Fuca

  2. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district...

  3. Radiological criteria for the remediation of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Sneve, M K; Titov, A V; Smith, G M; Novikova, N Ya; Romanov, V V; Seregin, V A

    2008-12-01

    In the 1960s, two technical bases of the Northern Fleet were created in Northwest Russia, at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, performing receipt and storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and are now designated sites of temporary storage (STSs). An analysis of the radiation situation at these sites demonstrates that substantial long-term remediation work will be required after the removal of the waste and spent nuclear fuel. Regulatory guidance is under development to support this work. Having in mind modern approaches to guaranteeing radiation safety, the primary regulatory focus is on a justification of dose constraints for determining acceptable residual contamination which might lead to exposure to workers and the public. For these sites, four principal options for remediation have been considered-renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation. This paper describes a system of recommended dose constraints and derived control levels formulated for each option. The unconditional guarantee of long-term radioecological protection provides the basis for criteria development. Non-exceedance of these dose constraints and control levels implies compliance with radiological protection objectives related to the residual contamination. Dose reduction below proposed dose constraint values must also be carried out according to the optimisation principle. The developed criteria relate to the condition of the facilities and the STS areas after the termination of remediation activities. The proposed criteria for renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation are entirely within the dose limits adopted in Russia for the management of man-made radiation sources, and are consistent with ICRP recommendations and national practice in other countries. The proposed criteria for STS remediation and new industrial (non-radiation-hazardous) facilities and buildings on

  4. Radiological criteria for the remediation of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandala, N K; Titov, A V; Ya Novikova, N; Seregin, V A [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sneve, M K [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo (Norway); Smith, G M [GMS Abingdon Ltd (United Kingdom); Romanov, V V [Federal Medical-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-12-15

    In the 1960s, two technical bases of the Northern Fleet were created in Northwest Russia, at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, performing receipt and storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and are now designated sites of temporary storage (STSs). An analysis of the radiation situation at these sites demonstrates that substantial long-term remediation work will be required after the removal of the waste and spent nuclear fuel. Regulatory guidance is under development to support this work. Having in mind modern approaches to guaranteeing radiation safety, the primary regulatory focus is on a justification of dose constraints for determining acceptable residual contamination which might lead to exposure to workers and the public. For these sites, four principal options for remediation have been considered-renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation. This paper describes a system of recommended dose constraints and derived control levels formulated for each option. The unconditional guarantee of long-term radioecological protection provides the basis for criteria development. Non-exceedance of these dose constraints and control levels implies compliance with radiological protection objectives related to the residual contamination. Dose reduction below proposed dose constraint values must also be carried out according to the optimisation principle. The developed criteria relate to the condition of the facilities and the STS areas after the termination of remediation activities. The proposed criteria for renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation are entirely within the dose limits adopted in Russia for the management of man-made radiation sources, and are consistent with ICRP recommendations and national practice in other countries. The proposed criteria for STS remediation and new industrial (non-radiation-hazardous) facilities and buildings on

  5. Studies on Effective Ways to Improve the Quality of Farmers in Northwest Poverty-stricken Areas:Taking Water-saving Technologies Farmer Field Schools in Wuwei City, Gansu Province as an Example%提高西北贫困地区农民科技素质的有效途径初探--以甘肃省武威市节水技术农民田间学校为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超男; 刘林; 李凡; 梁植睿; 吴迪; 董平国; 韩万海

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the low technical quality of farmers and thus restricting the sustainable economic and social development of the poverty-stricken areas of northwest China, the article, based upon intensive policy and documentary analysis, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, survey and other methods, with emphasis on analysis of the practice of four farmers' field schools (FFSs) of Wuwei City, Gansu. By summing up the successful experience of four FFSs in Wuwei City, Gansu Province, the article points out that FFSs’unique operating mode, including the effective conversion of peasants roles, enhancing the learning atmosphere of the community, the improvement of the organization of farmers, has enhanced the difficulties faced by improving technical quality of farmers in poverty-stricken areas of northwest China. FFS is an effective extension and supplement Peasant education promotion system. In the end, the article pointed out that the sustainable developmental management and operation FFS mode is an effective way to improve quality of the farmers in poverty-stricken areas.%  为了解决西北贫困地区农民科技素质较低进而制约西北地区经济社会可持续发展的问题,采用文献研究、实地踏查、深入访谈、调查问卷等方法,重点对甘肃武威4所农民田间学校的实践进行了深入的分析。通过总结甘肃武威市4所农民田间学校的成功经验,认为农民田间学校通过其特有的运行模式实现了农民角色的有效转换、社区整体学习气氛的增强、农民组织化程度的提高,有效的解决了西北贫困地区提升农民科技素质面临的困难,是现阶段农民教育推广体系的一种有效延伸和补充。最后提出,可持续发展的农民田间学校管理运行模式是确保提升贫困地区农民科技素质的有效途径。

  6. Sustaining the Northwest way of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: ''Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms ''Most Competitive'' and ''Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues

  7. Market Quality of Pacific Northwest Pears

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Rosa Karina; Kupferman, Eugene M.; Beaudry, Randolph M.; Blankenship, Sylvia M.; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Watkins, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data collected from retail grocery chains during marketing season 2003-2004 to examine the external quality and price variations of Pacific Northwest pears. Quality refers to overall fruit appearance and presence of external disorders. Results from a bivariate probit model show that fruit weight and firmness had a positive effect on overall appearance. Results from a hedonic price model show that the recurrence of external disorders is not necessarily negatively correlated wit...

  8. Sustaining the Northwest Way of Life.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Customer Services.

    1991-08-01

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms Most Competitive'' and Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues.

  9. Marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    . Foreign travellers have mentioned the names of active ports on the Saurashtra coast since the early historical period. During the medieval period this coast has witnessed hectic maritime activities and international trade and commerce. Marine...

  10. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  11. Vulnerability map to erosion of the Uruguayan atlantic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Atlantic Ocean washes about 233 km of coastline in Uruguay from Punta del Este to Barra del Chuy, covering the entire coast of Rocha Department and part of the Department of Maldonado. In this coastal area can be seen a set of landforms that indicate the action of erosion processes that are acting from the highest Quaternary. Mainly highlights the extensive sectors gully nestled on the coastal plain adjoining the strip of beaches , platforms and secondarily the coastal cliffs of more or less active measuring height between these landforms. Approximately 32% of the Atlantic coast (about 74 km) is subjected to the erosive action, especially during times of storms by wind and storm waves . It should also be mentioned that have been estimated at about 86 km2 occupied by mobile dunes area, of which the majority shows evidence of the deflationary action (blow out). With this contribution is to illustrate the distribution of the areas of the Atlantic coast have these landforms of erosion

  12. The public view of Pacific Northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are diverse communities that make up the public in the Pacific Northwest, all with differing views on the forest. To the media, the public are those indirect stakeholders, or average citizens, who have become keenly aware of the importance of environmental issues, including the implications for global change. Linkages between the forests, deforestation, global climate change, and overall environmental sustainability have been widely publicized, though less frequently analyzed in depth. Consequently, the state of Northwest forests has become a vital public interest. The need for an overall margin of global environmental security, and a concern over unsuspected consequences of all economic activity (including forestry) have created a community of interest among the urban population. In part, this is a spillover effect from promoting individual environmental responsibility and the conserver ethic into issues beyond the city boundary. In the Northwest, this often translates as a deep concern over forest management issues and strong conviction that changes are needed. At the same time, and largely as a direct response, the socioeconomic interests of rural forest communities have become a high-profile issue, raising debate over local empowerment and local forest stewardship models. The consequences of this complex and rapidly evolving public view of the forests are critical to forest managers and policymakers. 12 refs

  13. Electricity: Cornerstone of the northwest economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this Northwest Power Plan is to preserve and enhance valuable assets by identifying the steps that need to be taken to ensure the lowest cost electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest. With the 1980's the region entered a new age of electrical power, which poses five major new challenges for the region. (1) All new sources of power are much more expensive than the region's existing hydropower system. (2) The region's industries have divergent needs, and the dilemma is that new additions to the power system will raise costs and threaten the traditional industries. (3) The current surplus of electricity is expensive. Today's surplus is made up of coal and nuclear powered systems which are expensive. (4) The surplus is not evenly shared. High growth metropolitan served by investor-owned utilities with fewer resources compared to demand than the publicly-owned utilities. (5) The surplus could disappear quickly, with high growth the region would need new supplies in the next few years. A 25 year history of the Northwest electrical power development is given

  14. Estimation of the radionuclide distribution in sediment in coast area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The study of radionuclide distribution in sediment is a very important aspect in environmental impact of the low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) from coastal nuclear facilities or nuclear power plant. Even now we do not know much about it. In this paper, a simple and useful method is put forward and it is used to estimate the nuclide distribution in sediment. The result showed that the LLW from nuclear facility or nuclear power plant will do little harm to the sediment nearby. But the harm is not veryserious. Much works have to be done before full understanding of the situation.

  15. Population genetic structure of the messmate pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus in the northwest pacific: evidence for a cryptic species

    OpenAIRE

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Takagi, Motohiro

    2013-01-01

    The population genetic structure of the messmate pipefish, Corythoichthys haematopterus, in the northwest Pacific was investigated based on the partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (589 bp) and 16S rRNA (528 bp) region sequences of 108 individuals collected from six sites along the coast of the Japanese archipelago and one site on Mactan Island, the Philippines. A total of 60 and 28 haplotypes were obtained from the cytochrome b and 16S rRNA regions, respectively. Two genetically distinct l...

  16. The oldest rock of Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamelan, Alain Nicaise; Djro, Sagbrou Chérubin; Allialy, Marc Ephrem; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Peucat, Jean-Jacques

    2015-03-01

    The tonalitic gneiss of Balmer (TGB), in the SASCA area of south-western Ivory Coast, previously dated at 3141 ± 2 Ma using the single zircon evaporation method, is regarded as a relic of Archean rock within the Paleoproterozoic (Birimian) formation of the West African Craton (WAC). We present new geochronological data for the TGB using the laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method. We obtain a U-Pb age of 3207 ± 7 Ma for abundant zircons extracted from the tonalitic gneiss, and interpret this age as that of the magmatic protolith because of the igneous-type homogeneous zircon population. Certain magmatic zircon edges and some round zircons define an upper intercept age of 3155 ± 17 Ma which could represent overgrowths during gneissification. It appears that the TGB was not affected by the events posterior to its genesis, i.e. the Liberian (2.9-2.7 Ga) and Eburnean (2.4-2.0 Ga) events. Additionally, the TGB proves to be a juvenile Leonian rock, as indicated by the Nd model age of 3456 Ma, and could also constitute the protolith of the granulitic grey gneisses and charnockites of the Man area, which are 150-400 Ma younger.

  17. Relative importance of estuarine flatfish nurseries along the Portuguese coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Henrique N.; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vinagre, Catarina; França, Susana; Fonseca, Vanessa; Maia, Anabela; Reis-Santos, Patrick; Lopes, Marta; Ruano, Miguel; Campos, Joana; Freitas, Vânia; Santos, Paulo T.; Costa, Maria José

    2007-02-01

    The relative importance of nursery areas and their relationships with several environmental variables were evaluated in nine estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast based on trawl surveys. Historical data were used to outline changes and trends in the nursery function of some of these estuaries over the past decades. The dominant flatfish species in Portuguese estuaries were Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758), Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858 and Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque, 1814, but their occurrence differed among the estuaries. P. flesus only occurred in estuaries north of the Tejo estuary (39°N), S. solea was quite rare along the southern Portuguese coast (south of 37°30'N), S. senegalensis occurred in estuaries throughout the coast, but its abundance varied considerably, and the occurrence of M. hispidus was limited to the Sado estuary and Ria Formosa. A Correspondence Analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between flatfish species abundance and geomorphologic and hydrologic characteristics of estuaries (latitude, freshwater flow, estuarine area, intertidal area, mean depth and residence time). Abiotic characteristics (depth, temperature, salinity, sediment type) of nursery grounds of each flatfish species were also evaluated. Results showed that some estuaries along the Portuguese coast have nursery grounds used by several flatfish species (e.g. Ria de Aveiro, Sado estuary), while in other systems a segregation was noticed, with juveniles of different species occurring in distinct estuarine areas (e.g. Minho and Mondego estuaries). This emphasizes the relevance of niche overlap, but the potential for competition may be considerably minimized by differences in resource use patterns and by an extremely high abundance of resources. Peak densities of flatfishes recorded in nurseries areas along the Portuguese coast were within the range of values reported for other geographical areas. Inter-annual abundance

  18. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan FY 1998--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s core mission is to deliver environmental science and technology in the service of the nation and humanity. Through basic research the lab creates fundamental knowledge of natural, engineered, and social systems that is the basis for both effective environmental technology and sound public policy. They solve legacy environmental problems by delivering technologies that remedy existing environmental hazards, they address today`s environmental needs with technologies that prevent pollution and minimize waste, and they are laying the technical foundation for tomorrow`s inherently clean energy and industrial processes. The lab also applies their capabilities to meet selected national security, energy, and human health needs; strengthen the US economy; and support the education of future scientists and engineers. The paper summarizes individual research activities under each of these areas.

  20. Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project, Northwest Geysers, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Mark A.

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of the Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project was to drill, test, and confirm the present economic viability of the undeveloped geothermal reservoir in the 870 acre Caldwell Ranch area of the Northwest Geysers that included the CCPA No.1 steam field. All of the drilling, logging, and sampling challenges were met. Three abandoned wells, Prati 5, Prati 14 and Prati 38 were re-opened and recompleted to nominal depths of 10,000 feet in 2010. Two of the wells required sidetracking. The flow tests indicated Prati 5 Sidetrack 1 (P-5 St1), Prati 14 (P-14) and Prati 38 Sidetrack 2 (P-38 St2) were collectively capable of initially producing an equivalent of 12 megawatts (MWe) of steam using a conversion rate of 19,000 pounds of steam/hour

  1. Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project, Northwest Geysers, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Mark A.

    2013-04-25

    The purpose of the Caldwell Ranch Exploration and Confirmation Project was to drill, test, and confirm the present economic viability of the undeveloped geothermal reservoir in the 870 acre Caldwell Ranch area of the Northwest Geysers that included the CCPA No.1 steam field. All of the drilling, logging, and sampling challenges were met. � Three abandoned wells, Prati 5, Prati 14 and Prati 38 were re-opened and recompleted to nominal depths of 10,000 feet in 2010. Two of the wells required sidetracking. � The flow tests indicated Prati 5 Sidetrack 1 (P-5 St1), Prati 14 (P-14) and Prati 38 Sidetrack 2 (P-38 St2) were collectively capable of initially producing an equivalent of 12 megawatts (MWe) of steam using a conversion rate of 19,000 pounds of steam/hour

  2. Fish resource data from the Snare River, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive fish sampling and tagging program was conducted on the Snare River, Northwest Territories, in order to collect baseline data on the fish populations in sections of the river altered by hydroelectric projects. Fish populations were sampled from May to July 1977 in five sections of the river that were influenced by development of hydropower at three dams currently on line; 530 tagged fish were also released. The biweekly catch composition in experimental gill nets for each study area and the catch per gill net mesh size are presented for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake cisco (Coregonus artedi), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus). Age-specific data on length, weight, age, sex, and maturity are also included. 7 refs., 12 figs., 42 tabs

  3. 2011 Annual Ecological Survey: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Chamness, Michele A.

    2012-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) oversees and manages the DOE contract for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a DOE Office of Science multi-program laboratory located in Richland, Washington. PNSO is responsible for ensuring that all activities conducted on the PNNL site comply with applicable laws, policies, and DOE Orders. The DOE Pacific Northwest Site Office Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan (DOE/PNSO 2008) addresses the requirement for annual surveys and monitoring for species of concern and to identify and map invasive species. In addition to the requirement for an annual survey, proposed project activities must be reviewed to assess any potential environmental consequences of conducting the project. The assessment process requires a thorough understanding of the resources present, the potential impacts of a proposed action to those resources, and the ultimate consequences of those actions. The PNNL site is situated on the southeastern corner of the DOE Hanford Site, located at the north end of the city of Richland in south-central Washington. The site is bordered on the east by the Columbia River, on the west by Stevens Drive, and on the north by the Hanford Site 300 Area (Figure 1). The environmental setting of the PNNL site is described in Larson and Downs (2009). There are currently two facilities on the PNNL site: the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory and the Physical Sciences Facility. This report describes the annual survey of biological resources found on the undeveloped upland portions of the PNNL site. The annual survey is comprised of a series of individual field surveys conducted on various days in late May and throughout June 2011. A brief description of the methods PNNL ecologists used to conduct the baseline surveys and a summary of the results of the surveys are presented. Appendix A provides a list of plant and animal species identified in the

  4. {sup 129}I dispersion and sources in Northwest Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herod, Matthew N., E-mail: mattherod@gmail.com [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Clark, Ian D. [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Kieser, W.E. [University of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Agosta, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Zhao Xiaolei [University of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Radioiodine, {sup 129}I is a biophilic and mobile radionuclide, and a major contaminant of concern for long term radioactive waste disposal. Nuclear fuel reprocessing has released large amounts of anthropogenic {sup 129}I in a number of locations globally; this has led to an increase in the concentration of {sup 129}I and the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the environment. Therefore, a detailed understanding of its movement and concentration in the environment is essential. While {sup 129}I dispersion has been examined in the vicinity of nuclear activities, little is known about its accumulation in remote regions. Accordingly, we have undertaken reconnaissance sampling in the Arctic as a location that may be affected by {sup 129}I fallout. Samples from large watersheds were collected in northern Canada on a trajectory starting in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory (60 Degree-Sign 43 Prime 00 Double-Prime N) and moving north to Tsiigehtchic, Northwest Territory (67 Degree-Sign 26 Prime 26 Double-Prime N). Results show concentrations of {sup 129}I up to 27 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} atoms/L are present in Northwest Canada and {sup 129}I/I ratios up to 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. Annual {sup 129}I fallout ranges from 2.78 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 7.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} atoms/m{sup 2}/yr, calculated by normalizing the measured values to watershed area and discharge. These quantities substantially exceed literature values for waters containing only geogenic or cosmogenic production and are similar for all watersheds regardless of watershed area or discharge. Anthropogenic releases of {sup 129}I into the atmosphere or oceans are the major potential sources of {sup 129}I in the Arctic.

  5. Possible pingos and a periglacial landscape in northwest Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R.J.; Burr, D.M.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrostatic (closed-system) pingos are small, elongate to circular, ice-cored mounds that are perennial features of some periglacial landscapes. The growth and development of hydrostatic pingos is contingent upon the presence of surface water, freezing processes and of deep, continuous, ice-cemented permafrost. Other cold-climate landforms such as small-sized, polygonal patterned ground also may occur in the areas where pingos are found. On Mars, landscapes comprising small, elongate to circular mounds and other possible periglacial features have been identified in various areas, including Utopia Planitia, where water is thought to have played an important role in landscape evolution. Despite the importance of the martian mounds as possible markers of water, most accounts of them in the planetary science literature have been brief and/or based upon Viking imagery. We use a high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera image (EO300299) and superposed Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data tracks to describe and characterise a crater-floor landscape in northwest Utopia Planitia (64.8?? N/292.7?? W). The landscape comprises an assemblage of landforms that is consistent with the past presence of water and of periglacial processes. This geomorphological assemblage may have formed as recently as the last episode of high obliquity. A similar assemblage of landforms is found in the Tuktoyaktuk peninsula of northern Canada and other terrestrial cold-climate landscapes. We point to the similarity of the two assemblages and suggest that the small, roughly circular mounds on the floor of the impact crater in northwest Utopia Planitia are hydrostatic pingos. Like the hydrostatic pingos of the Tuktoyaktuk peninsula, the origin of the crater-floor mounds could be tied to the loss of ponded, local water, permafrost aggradation and the evolution of a sub-surface ice core. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of seasonal variation of deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope composition of precipitation in karst peak-cluster depression area, northwest Guangxi of China%桂西北喀斯特峰丛洼地降水氢氧稳定同位素的季节变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡可; 陈洪松; 聂云鹏; 杨静; 王克林

    2013-01-01

    The specific double hydrogeological structure increases the difficulty of study on hydrological processes in karst area. As an important input of water cycle in the basin, to study the seasonal variation of deuterium and oxygen-18 in precipitation and their influencing factors are necessary for discussing hydrological processes, such as origin of water vapor, separation of runoff and mean residence time of water. Studies on stable deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope composition of precipitation in China have been focused a lot, but little is known about seasonal variation especially in karst area. Based on the monthly data of precipitation, temperature and deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope compositions in precipitation determined by using liquid water isotope analyzer (DLT-100) from April in 2009 to August in 2011, the distribution of rainfall and seasonal variation of stable isotopes in precipitation and their influencing factors was analyzed in the typical karst peak-cluster depression areas in Huanjiang of northwest Guangxi. Rainfall amount displayed an obviously seasonal variation in this study area, rainy season start from Mar and end to September. The rainfall amount gets a big increase shift in Mar in comparison to April. The average monthly rainfall amounts of rainy and dry season are 142.5 mm and 44.0 mm. The totally rainfall amount of rainy season contributed about 75%of whole year precipitation. The local meteoric water line is obtained from linear relationship between deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope compositions in monthly weighted precipitation. The discrepancy between local and global meteoric water lines is appealed. The local meteoric water line characterized by larger gradient and intercept relative to global meteoric water line, demonstrates that the level of unbalanced in isotopic fractionation between gas and liquid is higher than normal during the formative process of rainfall mass and evaporation give some influences. Deuterium excess range from 2

  7. Probabilistic estimation of dun retreate on the Gold Coast, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2014-01-01

    Sand dunes are an important natural buffer between storm impacts and development backing the beach on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. The ability to forecast dune erosion at a prediction horizon of days to a week would allow efficient and timely response to dune erosion in this highly populated area. Towards this goal, we modified an existing probabilistic dune erosion model for use on the Gold Coast. The original model was trained using observations of dune response from Hurricane Ivan on Santa Rosa Island, Florida, USA (Plant and Stockdon 2012. Probabilistic prediction of barrier-island response to hurricanes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(F3), F03015). The model relates dune position change to pre-storm dune elevations, dune widths, and beach widths, along with storm surge and run-up using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian approach captures the uncertainty of inputs and predictions through the conditional probabilities between variables. Three versions of the barrier island response Bayesian network were tested for use on the Gold Coast. One network has the same structure as the original and was trained with the Santa Rosa Island data. The second network has a modified design and was trained using only pre- and post-storm data from 1988-2009 for the Gold Coast. The third version of the network has the same design as the second version of the network and was trained with the combined data from the Gold Coast and Santa Rosa Island. The two networks modified for use on the Gold Coast hindcast dune retreat with equal accuracy. Both networks explained 60% of the observed dune retreat variance, which is comparable to the skill observed by Plant and Stockdon (2012) in the initial Bayesian network application at Santa Rosa Island. The new networks improved predictions relative to application of the original network on the Gold Coast. Dune width was the most important morphologic variable in hindcasting dune retreat, while hydrodynamic variables, surge and

  8. Probabilistic estimation of dune retreat on the Gold Coast, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2014-01-01

    Sand dunes are an important natural buffer between storm impacts and development backing the beach on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. The ability to forecast dune erosion at a prediction horizon of days to a week would allow efficient and timely response to dune erosion in this highly populated area. Towards this goal, we modified an existing probabilistic dune erosion model for use on the Gold Coast. The original model was trained using observations of dune response from Hurricane Ivan on Santa Rosa Island, Florida, USA (Plant and Stockdon 2012. Probabilistic prediction of barrier-island response to hurricanes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(F3), F03015). The model relates dune position change to pre-storm dune elevations, dune widths, and beach widths, along with storm surge and run-up using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian approach captures the uncertainty of inputs and predictions through the conditional probabilities between variables. Three versions of the barrier island response Bayesian network were tested for use on the Gold Coast. One network has the same structure as the original and was trained with the Santa Rosa Island data. The second network has a modified design and was trained using only pre- and post-storm data from 1988-2009 for the Gold Coast. The third version of the network has the same design as the second version of the network and was trained with the combined data from the Gold Coast and Santa Rosa Island. The two networks modified for use on the Gold Coast hindcast dune retreat with equal accuracy. Both networks explained 60% of the observed dune retreat variance, which is comparable to the skill observed by Plant and Stockdon (2012) in the initial Bayesian network application at Santa Rosa Island. The new networks improved predictions relative to application of the original network on the Gold Coast. Dune width was the most important morphologic variable in hindcasting dune retreat, while hydrodynamic variables, surge and

  9. Land Use / Land Cover Classification of kanniykumari Coast, Tamilnadu, India. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hajeeran Beevi. N,; Sivakumar.S

    2015-01-01

    The land use/ land cover details of Kanniyakuamri coast which is Located in the southern part of Tamil Nadu (India) is studied. Satellite imagery is used to identify the Land use/ Land cover status of the study area. The software like ERDAS and Arc GIS are used to demarcate the land use / Land cover features of Kanniyakuamari coast. Remote sensing and GIS provided consistent and accurate base line information than many of the conventional surveys employed for such a task. The tota...

  10. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured fluid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic properties of the genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf Coast region were systematically investigated classified, and differentiated. The following topics are coverd: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs, characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast sandstones; fault-compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer fluid volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, Wells of Opportunity; internal properties of sandstones; and implications for geopressured fluid production. (MHR)

  11. The Holocene palaeogeography and relative sea level for two tidal basins of the German North Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungenstock, Friederike; Wartenberg, Wolfram; Mauz, Barbara; Freund, Holger; Frechen, Manfred; Weerts, Henk J. T.; Berner, Heinrich

    2014-05-01

    autonomous from isochronic relative sea-level. This all shows the importance to understand the differences of local landscape and depositional developments for a reliable interpretation of sea-level data. References Bungenstock, F. & Schäfer, A. (2009): The Holocene relative sea-level curve for the tidal basin of the barrier island Langeoog, German Bight, Southern North Sea. - Global and Planetary Change 66: 34-51. Bungenstock, F. & Weerts, H.J.T. (2011): The high-resolution Holocene sea-level curve for Nothwest Germany: global signals, local effects or data-artefacts? - International Journal of Earth Sciences 99: 1687-1706. Bungenstock, F. & Weerts, H.J.T. (2012): Holocene relative sea-level curves for the German North Sea coast. International Journal of Earth Sciences. ? - International Journal of Earth Sciences 101:1083-1099. Mauz, B. & Bungenstock, F. (2007):. How to reconstruct trends of late Holocene relative sea level: A new approach using tidal flat clastic sediments and optical dating. Marine Geology 237: 225-237. Wartenberg, W. & Freund, H. (2011): Late Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary record within the Jade Bay, Lower Saxony, Northwest Germany - New aspects for the palaeoecological record. - Quaternary International:1-11. Wartenberg, W., Vött, A., Freund, H. Hadler, H., Frechen, M., Willershäuser, T., Schnaidt, S., Fischer, P. & Obrocki, L. (2013): Evidence of isochronic transgressive surfaces within the Jade Bay tidal flfl at area, southern German North Sea coast - Holocene event horizons of regional interest. - Zeitschrift für Geomorphologi, Supplementary Issue. DOI: 10.1127/0372-8854/2013/S-00150

  12. Color view to Northwest of Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers) view was obtained on sol 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The view is toward the northwest, showing polygonal terrain near the lander and out to the horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  14. Variation in Cutoff Effect and Sound Field Caused by Geometrical Structures near the Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Jun; Iwase, Ryoichi; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Mizutani, Koichi

    2006-09-01

    The mysterious mass stranding of whales often arises in specific areas in the world. Moreover, vibrational noise, suspected to originate from large-scale construction in coastal areas, is problem. These problems could be considered to be related to sound propagation near coastal areas with a special geometrical structure and an ambient noise environment. We set up a propagation model in a coastal area, and simulated low-frequency sound propagation near the coast using the parabolic equation method (PE method) and the normal mode method. It has been shown that low-frequency sound cannot propagate from the ocean to the coast owing to the cutoff effect of shallow water that occurs when there is a water layer with a basement half space. However, when the water layer has a sediment layer, mode coupling occurs between the water layer and the sediment layer and propagation attenuation rapidly decreases. Sound can propagate to the coast in this case.

  15. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is a crown corporation of the government of the Northwest Territories. The Corporation operates diesel and hydroelectric production facilities to provide utility services on a self-sustaining basis in the Northwest Territories. Total revenue for 1991/92 amounted to $92,872,000 with $84,954,000 coming from the sale of power. Financial statements are presented. 3 figs

  16. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1992/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is a crown corporation of the government of the Northwest Territories. The Corporation operates diesel and hydroelectric production facilities to provide utility services on a self-sustaining basis in the Northwest Territories. Total revenue for 1992/93 amounted to $98,327,000 with $90,274,000 coming from the sale of power. Financial statements are presented. 3 figs

  17. 75 FR 53667 - Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Economic Development Administration Space Coast Regional Innovation Cluster Competition AGENCY: Economic...: This notice announces the upcoming availability of funding for the Space Coast Regional Innovation.... Additional information can be found at the Space Coast RIC Web site at...

  18. Dynamic Agroecological Zones for the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, D. R.; Rupp, R.; Gessler, P.; Pan, W.; Brown, D. J.; Machado, S.; Walden, V. P.; Eigenbrode, S.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Northwest cereal production systems to adapt to and mitigate climate change. The AEZ concept is central to project-wide integration that will enable researchers, stakeholders, students, the public, and policymakers to acquire a more holistic understanding of the interrelationships of agriculture, climate change and the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. Therefore AEZ's are part of a prescription for land management, given climate change that will enable the incorporation of information from climate models, economic models, crop models, pest disease and weed vulnerabilities, and other data sources. Specific to this presentation, we address the AEZ-related objective of developing methodology for defining major AEZ's within the Inland Pacific Northwest REACCH study area based on annual NASS cropland data.

  19. Recent Extreme Marine Events at Southern Coast of Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kirezci, Cagil; Baykal, Cuneyt; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Erol, Onur; Zaytsev, Andrey; Kurkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The utilization at the coastal areas of Black Sea basin has increased in the recent years with the projects such as large commercial ports, international transportation hubs, gas and petrol pipelines, touristic and recreational infrastructures both along surrounding shoreline. Although Black Sea is a closed basin, extreme storms and storm surges have also been observed with an increasing frequency in the recent years. Among those events, February 1999, March 2013 and September 2014 storms impacted Southern coast of Black sea have clearly shown that the increasing economic value at the coastal areas caused the increasing cost of damages and loss of property by natural hazards. The storm occurred on February 19-20, 1999 is one of the most destructive storm in the last decades. The 1999 event (1999 Southern Black sea storm) caused destruction at all harbors and coastal protection structures along the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The complete damage of the breakwater of Giresun Harbor and damage on the harbor structures and cargo handling equipment were the major impacts of the 1999 Southern Black sea storm. Similar coastal impact have also been observed during the September 24, 2014 storm at 500m East of Giresun harbor. Although there are considerable number of destructive storms observed at southern coast of Black sea recently, data on these events are limited and vastly scattered. In this study the list of recent extreme marine events at South coast of the Black sea compiled and related data such as wind speed, wave height, period, and type of damages are cataloged. Particular attention is focused on the 1999 and 2014 storm events. The meteorological and morphological characteristics which may be considered as the reasons of the generation and coastal amplification of these storms are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This study is partly supported by Turkish Russian Joint Research Grant Program by TUBITAK (Turkey) and RFBR (Russia), and TUBITAK 213M534 Research Project.

  20. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  1. 76 FR 5796 - Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ..., 2011. Take notice that on January 14, 2011, Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation (GTN), 717 Texas... capacity and GTN's related obligation to provide transportation service related to maximum...

  2. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 per year was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 per year due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3− particles (0.1 μg m−3 per year was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential

  3. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, M.-C.; McElroy, B.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2013-04-01

    The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m-3 per year) was related to lower levels of SO42- (0.2 μg m-3 per year) due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3- particles (0.1 μg m-3 per year) was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires) sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential of offshore activities

  4. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-170-2100, Northwest Vocational School, Cincinnati, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaguer, D.; Klein, M.

    1991-02-01

    In response to a request from the Director of Vocational Programs for the Northwest School District, an evaluation was undertaken of possible hazardous working conditions at the location. The requestor was concerned about the potential formaldehyde (50000) exposures to students and instructors from the use of formaldehyde cabinet fumigants in the Cosmetology Laboratory. The school, a single building located behind the Northwest High School, is serviced by six separate HVAC systems. The Cosmetology laboratory includes a reception area, a girls locker room/restroom, the laboratory area and dispensary room, and classroom, all serviced by a single HVAC system. Analysis indicated that inadequate amounts of fresh outside air were being delivered to the occupied space and that carbon-dioxide (124389) levels ranged from 1000 to 1300 parts per million (ppm), exceeding guidelines for indoor air quality. Measurements for formaldehyde concentration reached 2.9ppm, exceeding the short term exposure limit of 2.0ppm.

  5. Household energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Northwest: Tracking changes between 1983 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Shankle, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed the changes in consumer energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Pacific Northwest between 1983 and 1985. The information was collected through stratified random telephone surveys on 2000 and 1058 households, respectively, for 1983 and 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This report covers four topic areas and tests two hypotheses. The topics are as follows: consumer perceptions and attitudes of energy use and conservation in the home; consumer perceptions of energy institutions and other entities; past and intended conservation actions and investments; and segmentation of homeowners into market prospect groups. The hypotheses tested are as follows: (1) There has been no change in the size and psychographic make-up of the original three market segments found in the 1983 survey analysis; and (2) image profiles of institutions with respect to familiarity, overall impression, and believability as sources of energy conservation information remain unchanged since 1983.

  6. Regulatory supervision of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Sneve, M K; Smith, G M; Kiselev, M F; Kochetkov, O A; Savkin, M N; Simakov, A V; Novikova, N Ya; Titov, A V; Romanov, V V; Seregin, V A; Filonova, A V; Semenova, M P

    2008-12-01

    In the 1960s two technical bases for the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, receiving and storing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further waste was received after 1985, and the technical bases have since been re-categorised as temporary storage sites. The handling of these materials to put them into a safe condition is especially hazardous because of their degraded state. This paper describes regulatory activities which have been carried out to support the supervision of radiological protection during recovery of waste and spent fuel, and to support regulatory decisions on overall site remediation. The work described includes: an assessment of the radiation situation on-site; the development of necessary additional regulatory rules and standards for radiation protection assurance for workers and the public during remediation; and the completion of an initial threat assessment to identify regulatory priorities. Detailed consideration of measures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and radiation exposure of the public during and after operations and emergency preparedness and response are complete and provided in sister papers. The continuing requirements for regulatory activities relevant to the development and implementation of on-going and future remediation activities are also outlined. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority supports the work, as part of the Norwegian Government's plan of action to promote improvements in radiation protection and nuclear safety in northwest Russia. PMID:19029594

  7. La estructura del Grupo Sierras Bayas en el sector norte de las sierras homónimas, noroeste de las Sierras Septentrionales de Buenos Aires The structure of Sierras Bayas Group in the north area of the homonymous hills, northwest of Sierras Septentrionales of Buenos Aires, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Massabie

    2005-03-01

    ían vincular la materialización de esta estructura con un único episodio de deformación constriccional. No obstante, el diseño de interferencia de tipo 1 podría haberse producido también por una superposición de pliegues en respuesta a dos deformaciones contraccionales y ortogonales, de carácter regional, bajo condiciones reológicas de bajo contraste de ductilidad. El episodio tectónico vinculado con la interferencia de pliegues del Grupo Sierras Bayas habría ocurrido con anterioridad a la Formación Balcarce de edad cambro-ordovícica de las Sierras Septentrionales, durante el lapso Precámbrico tardío - Paleozoico Inferior bajo. La deformación por interferencia de pliegues del Grupo Sierras Bayas con participación del basamento por la reactivación tectónica de anisotropías penetrativas principales, se correlaciona con diseños estructurales comparables, correspondientes al ciclo tectónico panafricano, que fueron relevados en unidades coetáneas, de la Secuencia Damara y el Grupo Nama de África Sudoccidental.The Sierras Bayas Group of Late Precambrian age is formed by sedimentary Villa Mónica, Cerro Largo and Loma Negra formations. It is located in the northwest area of Sierras Septentrionales of Buenos Aires Province. The outcrops of this group are located around Olavarría city, mainly in the low isolated hills of Sierras Bayas and also though in a limited way, in the Barker city area. The morphstructure of these sedimentary rocks in the Northern sector of Sierras Bayas is defined by an asymmetric basin subtly tilted to south - southwest. Two interfering fold systems, F1(NE and F2(NW which define a type 1 domes and basins pattern , were recognized based on systematic structural mapping of de Sierras Bayas Group formations. Both F1 and F2 foldings with interference angles between 70º to 90º have subvertical axial planes and subhorizontal B axis. In adopted mapping scales, folding systems were observed in three fold orders which exert a direct control

  8. Incidence of Leukemia in the Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Asvadi Kermani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukemia is cancer of the blood or bone marrow, characterized by an unusualincrease in white blood cells. It is the sixth most common malignancy in the country in bothmales and females. The aim of this study was to document some epidemiological features ofleukemia in the Northwest of Iran.Methods: The study subjects (n=669, including 377 males and 292 females comprised allleukemia cases registered/notified to the clinical and pathology centers of Tabriz and Ardebilcities, from 2003 to 2006. All patients were classified using the ICD-10 based coding system(C91-C95, C77 and C42. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated to assessthe statistical significance of the data.Results: Annual incidence of leukemia was 3.7 [95% CI: 3.3–4.0] and 4.9 [95% CI: 4.2–5.6]per 100 000 population in Tabriz and Ardebil, respectively, with an overall case fatality rateof 13.5 percent [95% CI: 10.8–16.0]. The sex ratio (male/female was 1.23. Myeloid leukemia(C92 and Hematopoetic and Reticuloendothelial system (C42 accounted proportionally formore than 47 percent of cases in the region. Over the study period, the annual occurrence ofleukemia in the region increased from 3.9 [95% CI: 3.4–4.5] to 4.1 [95% CI: 3.5–4.6] per 100000 population (P>0.1.Conclusions- The data from this cross-sectional study of leukemia in the North-West of Iranmay be used as the baseline information to establish a population-based registry of hematologicdisorders in the area for health care and research purposes. However, more investigationsare needed to develop effective strategies to control the relevant disorders in high-riskgroups.

  9. Human impact on dynamics of Barents and Kara Seas Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodov, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    The coasts of Barents and Kara Seas which are composed of unconsolidated deposits have poor erosion resistance qualities. In natural conditions such coasts may retreat with a rate of 1 to 2 m a year. Under the influence of human activities this rate can double and even triple. Over the last twenty years the human impact on the natural coastal geosystems has noticeably increased due to the latest oil and gas developments on the sea shelf and coasts of the Russian North. A range of facilities - oil custody terminals for drilling and production platforms, submerged pipelines, ports and other industrial features and residential infrastructure - are currently being operated in the coastal and shelf zones. In most of the cases no morphodynamic or lithodynamic features of the coastal zone had been taken into account during the construction or operation of these facilities. This results in a disturbance of the sediment transport in the coastal zone, which triggers active erosion of both the shore itself and the coastal slope beneath. The operated facilities themselves are then threatened as their destruction is possible and often no new facilities can be constructed in the disturbed area. The operating companies have to bear forced nonmanufacturing expenses to protect or move their facilities of oil and gas industry to new areas. We may cite here three instances for Barents and Kara Seas where human impact has already brought in negative effects. One of the examples is Varandey Coast of the Barents Sea. From 1979 to 2012 a deliberate destruction of the dune chain of the barrier beach by vehicle traffic and a removal of the beach material for construction needs led to a quick intensification of the coastal retreat here. And now, storm surges without hindrance penetrate inland for several kilometers. Let's move further east to the Kara Sea: on to Kharasavey Coast to the Yamal Peninsula. A large-scale extraction of sediments from the coastal slope has resulted in a depletion

  10. Muddy Coast Dynamics and Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerfve, Björn

    Muddy coasts are land-sea transitional environments common along low-energy shorelines around the world. They exist in climatic settings and tidal regimes ranging from microtidal to macro-tidal. Climatic warming and relative sea level rise are likely to have a greater impact on low-lying muddy coasts and deltas than most other coastal environments. This was the working hypothesis of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group 106, “Relative Sea Level and Muddy Coasts of the World,” which concluded its deliberations in the late 1990s.

  11. Persistence and Detectability of Hydrologic Changes Following Multiple Timber Harvest Entries in the Oregon Coast Range: Alsea Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stednick, J. D.; Ice, G. G.; Hale, V. C.

    2006-12-01

    The original Alsea Watershed Study (1959-1973) was a paired study in the Oregon Coast Range designed to assess the physical and biological effects of timber harvesting on water and salmonid resources. The 3 streams chosen for study, Deer Creek, Flynn Creek, and Needle Branch, are tributaries of Drift Creek, which flows into Alsea Bay. The watersheds lie about 16 km from the Pacific Ocean, and have a maritime climate, with mean annual precipitation approximately 250 cm, almost all of which falls as rain from October through March. Flynn Creek served as an undisturbed control watershed, Deer Creek had 3 patch cuts (25% of the watershed area) with a streamside vegetation buffer, and Needle Branch was clearcut (85%) with no streamside buffer. The results of the original Alsea Study showed an increase in annual water yield and 3-day peak flows for Needle Branch, and no significant change for any streamflow metric (annual yield, peak flow, or low flows) on Deer Creek. Because the watersheds "generally appear to be returning to pre-logging conditions" the authors of the original study believed hydrologic recovery had occurred. The streamflow gauging network was reestablished in 1990 as the New Alsea Watershed Study. Additional streamflow monitoring (1990-1996) suggested that the watersheds deemed to be "recovered" still showed departures from the pre-treatment relations. Streamflow monitoring from the same period suggested 24 years for vegetation regrowth to return to hydrologic functions similar to the pretreatment. A literature review of paired watershed studies suggested that in the Pacific Northwest at least 25% of the watershed area needed to be harvested to be detectable with streamflow monitoring. Flynn Creek was designated a long-term Research Natural Area by the USDA Forest Service in 1976, and remains an undisturbed temperate coniferous forested watershed. Deer Creek had a second timber harvesting entry in 1978 of 20 ha and two units of 14.5 and 8.4 ha were

  12. Snake envenomations in northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Tinoco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of envenoming in Northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000 was evaluated. Reports from the Municipal Secretariat of Health of these counties were used. The results demonstrated that, from 1997 to 1999, there was a shortage of notification, and 40 cases of envenomations caused by Bothrops snakes were registered. These cases were more common from February to October, and the lower limbs of male peasants were the mainly affected areas.

  13. Falcon Nest Occupancy and Hatch Success Near Two Diamond Mines in the Southern Arctic, Northwest Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel W. Coulton; John A. Virgl; Colleen English

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance in conjunction with slow population recovery has raised conservation concerns over impacts to raptor species from industrial development in pristine areas of their North American breeding range. We evaluated whether the presence of two diamond mines resulted in negative effects to nest use and hatch success of breeding falcons in the southern Arctic barren-grounds of the Northwest Territories. A total of 20 nest sites of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregr...

  14. Significance and Effect of Ecological Rehabilitation Project in Inland River Basins in Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Tengfei

    2013-01-01

    The Ecological Water Transfer and Rehabilitation Project in the arid inland area of northwest China is an important measure in restoring a deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This article examines the attitudes of the local populace toward the project, its impact on the livelihood of the people, and the positive effects of water-efficient agricultural practices in Ejina County. Related data were collected through quest...

  15. Environmental Politics Applied on Contaminated Sites within 6 North-West Region

    OpenAIRE

    PROOROCU M.; A. DINUŢĂ; Raluca HAŢEGAN; Antoanela POPOVICI; P. BELDEAN; Sînziana PAULIUC

    2009-01-01

    Soil is a vital factor for human activities and also for all ecosystems development. Soil is in a continue evolution influencedby pedogenetic factors and human activities. Following the last decades intense industrialization, soil pollution intensified. In 6North-West Region, areas with different soil pollution levels have been identified. According to the partial inventory, thisphenomenon was generated especially by the industrial activities, most of all by mining and chemical industry. Amon...

  16. Proceedings of the Northwest regional energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A S; Comstock, D R [eds.

    1978-12-01

    The conference was directed toward two main objectives. First, a major portion of the proceedings were to focus on the policies, programs, and priorities of the new US DOE, and their relationships to the Pacific Northwest region. Second, the conference was to explore specific energy issues of regional significance and provide an opportunity for regional feedback on energy policies. The 10 sessions of the conference are Keynote Session: Congress, and the National Energy Plan Sen. Henry Jackson; National Perspectives on Energy Issues (I): An Overview of the NEP, Programs and Priorities of DOE (Alvin Alm and NEP - Conservation and Solar Applications (Don Beattie); and Luncheon address - Alaska Energy Issues (Robert LeResche); National Perspectives on Energy Issues (II): Utility Rate Reform - National Provisions and Relationships to the Pacific Northwest (David Bardin) and Technology for Energy and Long Term Short Alternatives (Robert Thorne); Concurrent Interest Group Sessions: State and Local Roles in Energy Planning and Decision-Making and Industry and University Roles in DOE Research and Programs; Banquet address. The US Energy Future (James Schlesinger); Regional Perspectives on Energy Issues: DOE-X - Organization and Response to Regional Needs (Randall Hardy). What Comes After Number 13 (Sterling Munro), Hanford 1978 (Alex Fremling), and Low Head Hydro and Geothermal (Richard Wood); Lucheon address - The Washington Perspective on Energy (Dixie Lee Ray); Regional Power Planning (Panel); and Conference Wrap Up Session. (MCW)

  17. Ice Thickness in the Northwest Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, C.; Howell, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first-ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. Results show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. There are few other data to compare with to evaluate if the ice of the Northwest Passage has transitioned as other parts of the Arctic have. Although likely thinner than some 20 or more years ago, ice conditions must still be considered severe, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelao may well be considered the last ice refuge of the Arctic. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice break-up and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  18. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  19. SEAWATER INTRUSION TYPES AND REGIONAL DIVISIONS IN THE SOUTHERN COAST OF LAIZHOU BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广兰; 韩有松; 王少青; 王珍岩

    2002-01-01

    The southern coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, is one of the areas in China most seriously impacted by seawater intrusion. Based on the sources of intruding waterbedies, seawater intrusion can be divided into two types: intrusion of saline water derived from modern seawater, and intrusion of subsurface brine and saline water derived from paleo-seawater in shallow Quaternary sediments. There are some distinct differences in their formation, mechanism and damage. The subsurface brine intrusion is a special type, which can cause very serious disaster. The coastal landform and the Quaternary hydrogeological environment are predominant factors in the classification of seawater intrusion types. Various coastal environments in different coastal sections result in three types of intrusion: seawater intrusion, saline groundwater intrusion, and mixed seawater and saline water intrusion, in the southern coast of Laizhou Bay, which can be divided into four areas: the sea-water intrusion area in the northern Laizhou City coast, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrusion area in the Baisha River-Jiaolai River mouth plain area, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrusion area in the Weihe River mouth plain area northern Changyi county coast, and the saline ground-water intrusion area in the northern Shouguang plains.

  20. SEAWATER INTRUSION TYPES AND REGIONAL DIVISIONS IN THE SOUTHERN COAST OF LAIZHOU BAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广兰; 韩有松; 王少青; 王珍岩

    2002-01-01

    The southern coast of Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, is one of the areas in China most seriously impacted by seawater intrusion. Based on the sources of intruding wate rbodies, seawater intrusion can be divided into two types: intrusion of saline water derived from modern seawater, and intrusion of subsurface brine and saline water derived from paleo-seawater in shallow Quaternary sediments. There are so me distinct differences in their formation, mechanism and damage. The subsurface brine intrusion is a special typ e, which can cause very serious disaster.The coastal landform and the Quaternary hydrogeological environment are pr edominant factors in the classification of seawater intrusion types. Various coastal environments in diff erent coastal sections result in three types of intrusion: seawater intrusion, saline groundwater intrusion, and mixed seawater and saline water intrusion, in the southern coast of Laizhou Bay, which can be divided into four areas: the seawater intrusion area in the northern Laizhou City coast, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater in trusion area in the Baisha River-Jiaolai River mouth plain area, the mixed seawater and saline groundwater intrus ion area in the Weihe River mouth plain area northern Changyi county coast, and the saline groundwater intrusion area in the northern Shouguang plains.

  1. 33 CFR 100.801 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nature of the event and the number of participants and type(s) of vessels involved will also be published... application each year in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may patrol the event area under... Display Sponsor: Donaldsonville Tourism Commission. Date: December 31st. Regulated Area: Located on...

  2. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the.... longitude to the North American land mass; thence along the west coast of the North, Central, and...

  3. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  4. STUDY ON CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND ENERGY RESOURCES IN TWO TIPICAL AREAS IN CHINA%中国典型地区风能资源特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 宋丽莉; 黄浩辉; 刘爱君; 范绍佳

    2011-01-01

    利用西北地区和东南沿海地区具有代表性的测风塔资料,对比分析其风能资源特性差异,结果发现:①即使西北和东南沿海地区的年平均风速相同,西北地区的年平均风功率密度和年风能密度均显著大于东南沿海地区,其风功率密度可大1~2个等级,造成这种显著差异的关键因子是西北地区"大风速"的出现频率较东南沿海地区多;②西北地区和东南沿海地区的风向变化主要以小角度变化为主,但两地区的风向变化特征明显不同:西北地区的小风向变差角出现频率略少于东南沿海地区,而较大的风向变差角出现频率明显多于东南沿海地区.两类地区不同的风资源特性将影响风电场选址和设计、风电机组选型以及建成后的运行管理模式,具有重要的现实意义和使用价值.%Northwest China and southeast coast of China are the two typical areas which are affluent in wind-energy resources in our country. A comparative study was carried out on characteristics of wind-energy resources by analyzing the observational data obtained from towers which are representative in the two areas. The results showed that even if the annual mean wind speed in the northwest China is the same as that in the southeast coast of China, the annual mean wind power density and the annual wind energy density in the northwest China are significantly Larger than those in the southeast coastal area of China, with the scale of one to two order larger for the wind power density. Such significant differences may be attributed to the key factor that the frequency of gale force winds in the northwest China is higher than that in the southeast coastal area of China, and changes of wind directions are dominated by small variations of directional angles of winds in both areas, with differences in frequency of wind direction changes that may be revealed by that frequency of wind direction changes is less evident for small angle

  5. Utilization of statistical table for waves in North-west Pacific Ocean and a long-term estimation on hull responses; Seihoku Taiheiyo haro tokeihyo no riyo to sentai oto choki yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Designing a vessel to sail oceans for an extended period of time requires statistical estimation on different hull responses to waves. To meet the requirement, it is necessary to accurately identify hydrographic conditions (particularly waves) which are considered to be encountered by the vessel. This paper makes clear the statistical characteristics of the wave statistics table presented by Fang et al, and compares them with other processes for discussion. This statistics collection is based on data collected in China, Hong Kong and Japan, including those collected in the Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea, the North Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea. It was found that these data provide results slightly lower than the long-term estimation values derived from data of the global wave statistics (GWS) prepared by Hogben et al. The cause for this was found attributable to the format of the statistical data, especially setting of wave height classes. However, since the data provided by Fang et al include items of detailed information on small sea areas near the Chinese coast lines, the data are thought to provide useful information source in investigating long-term hull response characteristics relative to spatial spread of the sea areas in the North-west Pacific Ocean. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Geochemistry of low-temperature springs northwest of Yellowstone caldera: Seeking the link between seismicity, deformation, and fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; van Soest, M.C.; Huebner, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Revesz, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive geochemical survey of springs outside the northwest margin of the Yellowstone caldera was undertaken in 2003 and 2004. This survey was designed to detect: (1) active leakage from a huge reservoir of CO2 gas recently postulated to extend from beneath the caldera into this area; and (2) lingering evidence for subsurface flow of magmatic fluids into this area during the 1985 seismic swarm and concomitant caldera subsidence. Spring temperatures are low (fluids through the caldera rim in this area.

  7. Evidence of climatic change during Holocene in the nearshore regions of Konkan (central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    In order to understand the paleoenvironmental setting of the nearshore area of the central west coast of India, three vibro-cores from the Kalbadevi Bay, from a depth range of 6-12 m were analysed for sedimentological, mineralogical...

  8. Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

  9. THE GROWTH OF THE SOUTH MARGIN FAULT OF THE YUXIAN-GUANGLING BASIN IN NORTHWEST BEIJING AREA%京西北蔚县-广灵半地堑盆地南缘断裂带的断层生长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 田勤俭; 李德文; 张效亮

    2011-01-01

    通过高分辨率遥感影像解译、高分辨率DEM三维分析、野外地质地貌调查以及探槽开挖等方法,对蔚县-广灵盆地南缘断裂带上多处断层生长发育的现象进行了分析和研究.结果发现,断层的生长发育主要发生在几何结构不规则的区段,亦即断层的生长是由其几何结构不规则性决定的.这种不规则性主要包括几何形态的不平滑性或不连续性.断层的生长发育具有一种“截弯取直”的趋势和效应,消除几何结构的不规则性,使断层变得更加平滑和连续,结果是降低了滑动面的粗糙程度,更加有利于盆地内半地堑地块沿滑动面进行下滑运动.此外,断层的生长发育受不规则形态的空间尺度的影响,“截弯取直”的程度随着不规则形态空间尺度增大而降低.%Yuxian-Guangling Basin is a half-graben basin unit belonging to the basin-ridge structure zone in northwest Beijing area. The southern boundary of this basin is controlled by a normal fault belt called the Yuguang Basin South Margin Fault ( YBSMF). The YBSMF is about 120km long, with a general strike of N70°E,and is an active fault zone.The YBSMF was evolved from the propagation, interaction or linkage of existing isolated segments and the forming of new fault segments, and there are actually many segments and places along the YBSMF where the faults propagate and grow. However, except the study on the fault growth at the Jiugongkou segment by Cheng Shaoping in 1998,which indicated that the fault has propagated several kilometers westwardly in the late Late Pleistocene alluvial fans, the research about the propagation and growth of the faults at other places and segments is quite limited. At these segments and places, in what ways or patterns does the fault propagate, grow, link and evolve? What on earth controls and affects the propagation and growth of the faults? All these questions still remain unanswered yet and deserve further analysis

  10. Gulf Coast Basins and Uplifts [gcstructsg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide generalized outlines of major basins and uplifts in the Gulf Coast region modified after Plate 2, Principal structural features, Gulf of Mexico...

  11. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  12. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  13. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A....

  14. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  15. Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment and Conservation Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed partnership to support a Gulf Coast Landscape Conservation Liaison will provide much needed coordination across multiple programs and partnerships to...

  16. Education by Television in the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerien, Jean

    1981-01-01

    The management, administration, production, and broadcasting of educational television are discussed and evaluated with respect to its use in elementary education, training of teachers, and out-of-school education in the Ivory Coast during the 1970s. (CHC)

  17. Beryllium-10 in Ivory Coast Tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefiddin, F.; Herzog, G. F.; Koeberl, C.

    2005-03-01

    10Be concentrations in Ivory Coast tektites are consistent with formation from near surface terrestrial soils. Concentrations 77% lower than in Australasian tektites reflect differences in source materials, longer decay and environmental factors.

  18. Pacific Coast Groundfish Individual Fishing Quota Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On January 11, 2011, NOAA Fisheries implemented a new fishery management system for the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Catch Share Program as specified in the...

  19. CoastWatch Regions in HDF Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest. Each file contains multiple data variables stored using the HDF-4...

  20. Distribution of seagrasses along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Seagrass environments, from the main coast of India, Lakshadweep and Andaman Islands, were surveyed for seagrass and marine algal composition. Extensive seagrass meadows and the maximum number of species (seven genera and 12 species) occurred along...

  1. Tree Trunks from MIS3 Revealed in Pacific Northwest Landslide Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, P. K.; Leavitt, S. W.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Jull, A. T.; Testa, N. R.; Squire, J.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple large tree trunks have been discovered in landslide deposits dating to before the last full-glacial provide a new source for paleo-climatic reconstructions from the northwest coast of North America. Excavation during US Highway 20 realignment through the Oregon Coast Range uncovered organic deposits at depth that included the boles of twelve large trees. Radiocarbon dates on subsurface organic material from multiple landslide deposits range from 17,850 ± 100 to >46,400 (radiocarbon dates B.P.). A single cohort of twelve tree trunks, found emplaced nearly upright, date to >53,000 radiocarbon years B.P. The sedimentary deposits are interpreted as paleo-translational landslides involving the Tyee Formation. The trees are tentatively identified as Thuja plicata, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Abies spp. Preservation of the wood material and associated macrofossils is excellent because of clay sediments that encased the material, halting decomposition. Preliminary analysis shows excellent preservation of late-wood rings but the early wood is composed primarily of ghost tracheids. Ring counts from a portion of the Thuja plicata bole, a four inch block of outer rings, contained between 120 to 130 rings of annual growth with good sensitivity for climate reconstruction. This makes the find particularly important for inferring high-resolution environmental variability, because it is one of only very few deposits of wood of this age worldwide. In addition to paleobotanical and paleoclimatic information, the large amount of wood will be used for radioisotope and stable isotope studies.

  2. Assessment of food security-related projects of the Student Rag Community Service Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University / Pianca Swart

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, Pianca

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a global concern, experienced at a household level in South Africa (SA). The country experiences income inequality with a high unemployment rate. Many that are employed live under the international poverty line. The Potchefstroom area in the North-West Province of SA has a high unemployment rate. The Student Rag Community Service (SRCS) is a student driven non-profit organisation (NPO) of the North-West University (NWU) that is actively involved in socio-economic development ...

  3. Gulf Coast Geology (GCG) Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A large percentage of the present and future energy resources of the United States reside in the Gulf of Mexico Basin, one of the major hydrocarbon producing areas...

  4. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2˜50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2˜55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km˜26 °C/km and 12 °C/km˜30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  5. Implications for Fault and Basin Geometry in the Central California Coast Ranges from Preliminary Gravity and Magnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Jachens, R. C.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Preliminary aeromagnetic and newly processed gravity data help define block-bounding faults and deep sedimentary basins in the central California Coast Ranges, ranging from the Hosgri fault east to the San Andreas fault and from Monterey Bay south to Pt. Conception. Interpretation of these data results in an improved framework for seismic hazard and groundwater studies. Aeromagnetic data include a new survey with a flight-line spacing of 800 m at a nominal 300 m above ground and covering 15,000 km2. More than 11,500 gravity measurements, reprocessed with terrain corrections calculated from 30-m DEMs, form a roughly 2-km grid over most of the study area. Combined potential-field data and existing geologic mapping, delineate major fault-bounded blocks in the central California Coast Ranges. Main block-bounding faults from west to east include the San Gregorio- Hosgri, San Luis-Willmar-Santa Maria River-Little Pine, Oceanic-West Huasna, Nacimiento, Rinconada-South Cuyama, San Juan-Chimineas-Morales, and San Andreas faults. Most of these faults have evidence of Quaternary activity. Gravity gradients indicate that the reach of the San Andreas fault bounding the Gabilan Range and the northern extension of the Rinconada fault bounding the Santa Lucia Range dip steeply southwestward and have a reverse component of slip. Magnetic and microseismicity data suggest that the northern reach of the Hosgri fault dips eastward. The potential-field data also delineate several deep sedimentary basins, such as the 3-4 km deep Cuyama basin, the Santa Maria basin, and several basins along and possibly offset by the Rinconada fault. Gravity data show that the main west-northwest-striking faults bounding the Cuyama basin dip away from the basin, indicating compression adjacent to the big bend in the San Andreas fault. Prominent gravity and magnetic highs northeast of the San Andreas fault immediately east of Cuyama Valley suggest that there the San Andreas fault dips southwest. Such dip

  6. 77 FR 50979 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., 1994, for Amendments to the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents within the...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Solicitation of nominees to the Northwest Forest Plan...

  7. Changing Sea Ice Conditions in the Northwest Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivy, A. C.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Derksen, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Northwest Passage lies in the middle of Canadian Arctic Archipelago providing a potential deepwater route that links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Discovered by Sir Robert M’Clure in the 1850s, ever-present multi-year ice (MYI) has always prevented its practical navigation. 2007 marked extreme low MYI conditions in the Arctic and temporarily cleared the Northwest Passage. However, is one single clearing event within the Northwest Passage over the past 40 years indicative of future clearings? This analysis addressed two inter-related questions: i) why has the Northwest Passage contained historically heavy amounts of MYI? and ii) will decreases in MYI within the Northwest Passage continue into the future? Results indicate that for nearly 4 decades, the southern regions of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have continuously operated as a drain-trap for MYI and this mechanism is responsible for maintaining the heavy MYI conditions within the Northwest Passage. The oldest and thickest MYI in the world resides along the northern flank of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago therefore, as the transition to a sea ice-free Arctic continues, MYI from this region will continue to migrate southward to the channels of the Northwest Passage. Results also find that 2007 was indeed an anomalously light sea ice year in the Northwest Passage but record low ice conditions have since been observed as of mid-August 2010.

  8. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. 334.961 Section 334.961 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone...

  9. The Catacomb cultures of the North-West Caspian steppe : C-14 chronology, reservoir effect, and paleodiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, N. I.; van der Plicht, J.; Hedges, R. E. M.; Zazovskaya, E. P.; Sevastyanov, V. S.; Chichagova, O. A.

    2007-01-01

    For the Bronze Age Catacomb cultures of the North-West Caspian steppe area in Russia, there is a conflict between the traditional relative archaeological chronology and the chronology based on radiocarbon dates. We show that this conflict can be explained largely by the fact that most dates have bee

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  11. Spatial Runoff Estimation and Mapping of Potential Water Harvesting Sites: A GIS and Remote Sensing Perspective, Northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Melesse, A.M.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources scarcity is becoming a limiting factor for development and sustenance in most parts of Ethiopia. The Debre Mewi watershed, in northwest Ethiopia, is one of such areas where the need for supplemental water supply through rainwater harvesting is essential. Suitable water harvestin

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics

  13. Work-Related Well-Being of Educators in a District of the North-West Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the relationship between burnout, health, job demands and job resources in a sample of educators. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Stratified random samples (N = 266) were taken of educators in an area of the North-West Province. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Health…

  14. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region. PMID:24517012

  15. Indoor air quality measurements in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Bonneville Power Administration-funded study monitored ventilation rates and a variety of indoor air pollutants in 38 Pacific Northwest commercial buildings. The buildings ranged in age from 6 months to 90 years, in size from 864 to 34,280 m2, and occupancy from 25 to 2500 people. Building average formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were below the 20 ppB detection limit in 48% of the buildings. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration averages ranged from 5 ppB to 43 ppB and were lower than outdoor concentrations in 8 of 13 buildings. At only one site, an elementary school classroom, did carbon dioxide (CO2) exceed 1000 ppM. Radon (Rn) levels were elevated in one building with an average concentration of 7.4 pCiL-1. Respirable particles (RSP) concentrations in smoking areas in 32 buildings had a geometric mean of 44 μg m-3 and ranged up to 308 μg m-3 at one site. In non-smoking areas the geometric mean RSP was 15 μg m-3. Outside air ventilation rates did not appear to be the single dominant parameter in determining indoor pollutant concentrations. Measured pollutant concentrations in 2 ''complaint'' buildings were below accepted guidelines. The cause of the complaints was not identified

  16. Public information - Northwest region of Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional Center of Public Information in Northwest region of Russian Federation is a part of the State Regional Educational Center of Ministry of the Russian Federation for atomic energy in St.-Petersburg, Russia (http://graph.runnet.ru/). This Center of Public Information (CPI) provides a wide range of information dealing with the nuclear power. The objectives of the CPI are: to conduct informational and educational activities so as to form a positive attitude toward atomic energy and nuclear technologies; to provide the population with a means reliable information about objects of potential risk; to organize an active exchange of the information with enterprises using nuclear technologies in the region. The main topics of informational support are these: electricity production, the ground of nuclear power, new Russian nuclear reactors, nuclear safety, nuclear power and environment, radioactivity, Leningrad nuclear power plant, responsibilities in nuclear engineering. (author)

  17. Characterization of upwelling phenomenon along the Italian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasi, Arianna; Morucci, Sara; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Bignami, Francesco; Inghilesi, Roberto; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2013-04-01

    In order to investigate wind-driven upwelling along the Italian coasts, preliminary wind data provided by the ISPRA Italian Tide Gauge Measurement Network (RMN) have been analyzed. In a further step, MyOcean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data have been analyzed in order to define an SST index for wind-driven coastal upwelling assessment. At first, hourly wind data for the period 2009 - 2011 have been used in order to provide the statistical distribution and the wind rose plots at each RMN station. In particular, wind direction and speed have been selected in order to find upwelling-favorable areas and periods of time. E.g. wind directions in the sector between North and West in the Tyrrhenian Sea and between South and East in the Adriatic Sea have been defined as upwelling favorable, the wind sector being defined as the ± 30° arc around the direction parallel to the coast. Moreover only wind speeds greater than 3.0 m/s have been considered as significant for upwelling. For each location, the number of selected data has been divided by the total number of recorded wind data, thus obtaining a sort of upwelling frequency, which allows to define areas mostly exposed to upwelling. Once these areas were defined, satellite SST data have been used as a proxy to study the changes in upwelling intensity, since upwelling waters are colder than surrounding waters. So, in a given satellite SST image the upwelling event is identifiable through SST minima along the coasts. Finally, the SST upwelling index has been defined; also, this index has been "weighted" with wind intensity and direction indicating upwelling conditions obtained from the RMN wind dataset, to better distinguish between upwelling-favorable and downwelling-favorable conditions at each RMN site.

  18. Northwest Africa 8535 and Northwest Africa 10463: New Insights into the Angrite Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Agee, C. B.; Shearer, C. K.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The angrite meteorites are valuable samples of igneous rocks formed early in Solar System history (approx.4.56 Ga, summarized in [1]). This small meteorite group (approx.24 individually named specimens) consists of rocks with somewhat exotic mineral compositions (e.g., high Ca olivine, Al-Ti-bearing diopside-hedenbergite, calcium silico-phosphates), resulting in exotic bulk rock compositions. These mineral assemblages remain fairly consistent among angrite samples, which suggests they formed due to similar processes from a single mantle source. There is still debate over the formation process for these rocks (see summary in [1]), and analysis of additional angrite samples may help to address this debate. Toward this end, we have begun to study two new angrites, Northwest Africa 8535, a dunite, and Northwest Africa 10463, a basaltic angrite.

  19. Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.

    in these regions (Sarker, 1966; Xie et al., 2006). The high rainfall is matched by high freshwater discharge from rivers, making the river discharge crucial for determining the near-surface salinity and temperature (Han et al., 2001; Howden and Murtugudde, 2001...–April. The small area and mountainous terrain of the west coast make it difficult to impound water, leading to a large fraction of the heavy summer-monsoon rainfall flowing into the eastern Arabian sea. The large number of rivers and their small scale has ensured...

  20. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.