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Sample records for area northern part

  1. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics in the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area, northern Bexar County, Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Morris, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    The area designated by the city of San Antonio as the Rancho Diana Natural Area is in northern Bexar County, near San Antonio, Texas. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of San Antonio, documented the geologic framework and mapped the hydrogeologic characteristics for the southern part of the Rancho Diana Natural Area. The geologic framework of the study area and its hydrogeologic characteristics were documented using field observations and information from previously published reports. Many of the geologic and hydrogeologic features were found by making field observations through the dense vegetation along gridlines spaced approximately 25 feet apart and documenting the features as they were located. Surface geologic features were identified and hydrogeologic features such as caves, sinkholes, and areas of solutionally enlarged porosity were located using hand-held Global Positioning System units. The location data were used to create a map of the hydrogeologic subdivisions and the location of karst features. The outcrops of the Edwards and Trinity aquifer recharge zones were mapped by using hydrogeologic subdivisions modified from previous reports. All rocks exposed within the study area are of sedimentary origin and Lower Cretaceous in age. The valley floor is formed in the cavernous member of the upper Glen Rose Limestone of the Trinity Group. The hills are composed of the basal nodular member, dolomitic member, Kirschberg evaporite member, and grainstone member of the Kainer Formation of the Edwards Group. Field observations made during this study of the exposed formations and members indicate that the formations and members typically are composed of mudstones, wackestones, packstones, grainstones, and argillaceous limestones, along with marls. The upper Glen Rose Limestone is approximately 410 to 450 feet thick but only the upper 70 feet is exposed in the study area. The Kainer Formation is approximately 255 feet thick in

  2. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Lower-``middle'' Oligocene units in the northern part of the Western Taurides (İncesu area, Isparta, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiraz, Mehmet Serkan; Akgün, Funda; Örçen, Sefer

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Lower-"middle" Oligocene sediments based on the fauna from the Delikarkası Formation and the microflora from the İncesu Formation of the İncesu area (northern part of the western Taurides, Isparta province, Turkey). In the area, the Oligocene sediments show a regressive succession, which begins with the limestones of the Delikarkası Formation indicating marine conditions followed by conglomerates, sandstones and coaly mudstones of alluvial and fluvial (shallow marine-continental) origin. A well preserved foraminiferal assemblage including Nummulitesintermedius, Nummulitesvascus and Halkyardiamaxima proves an Early Oligocene age for the Delikarkası Formation. Due to palynological markers such as Boehlensipollishohli, Slowakipollishippophaëoides, Dicolpopolliskockelii, Magnolipollisneogenicus ssp. minor, Plicapollispseudoexcelsus, Caryapollenitessimplex and Intratriporopollenitesinstructus the İncesu Formation, which concordantly rests on the Delikarkası Formation, may be assigned to the Early-"middle" Oligocene. From the palynomorph assemblage, three zones have been recognised according to abundance of species. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of C.simplex and Momipitespunctatus and rarely presence of tricolpate and tricolporate pollen. Zone 2 consists mainly of Inaperturopollenitesdubius, Leiotriletesmaxoides ssp. maximus, Verrucatosporitesfavus,Verrucatosporitesalienus and infrequently marine dinoflagellate cysts. Zone 3 is characterized by a high percentage of ferns such as Echinatisporis? chattensis and Polypodiaceoisporitessaxonicus. The presence of marine dinoflagellate cysts like Apectodinium sp. and Cleistosphaeridium sp., back-mangrove elements such as Acrostichumaureum and lepidocaryoid palms (e.g. Longapertitesdiscordis, Longapertitespunctatus and Longapertitespsilatus) in the sediments of the İncesu Formation imply coastal or near-coastal conditions

  3. Northern part, Ten Mile and Taunton River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    The northern part of the Ten Mile and Taunton River basins is an area of about 195 square miles within Norfolk, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties in southeastern Massachusetts. The northern boundary of the area (plate 1) is the drainage divide separating these basins from that of the Charles, Neponset, and Weymouth River basins. The western boundary is, for the most part, the divide separating the basins from the Blackstone River basin. The eastern boundary is at the edge of the Brockton-Pembroke area (Petersen, 1962; Petersen and Shaw, 1961). The southern boundary in Seekonk is the northern limit of the East Providence quadrangle, for which a ground-water map was prepared by Allen and Gorman (1959); eastward, the southern boundaries of the city of Attleboro and the towns of Norton, Easton, and West Bridgewater form the southern boundary of the area.

  4. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965–1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s–1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km 2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of

  5. The geology and petroleum potential of the North Afghan platform and adjacent areas (northern Afghanistan, with parts of southern Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Michael E.; Hashmat, Ajruddin

    2001-10-01

    platform began in the Miocene. Oil and gas traps are mainly in Upper Jurassic carbonates and Lower Cretaceous sandstones across the entire North Afghan block. Upper Jurassic carbonate traps, sealed by evaporites, occur mainly north of the southern limit of the Upper Jurassic salt. Lower Cretaceous traps consist of fine-grained continental sandstones, sealed by Aptian-Albian shales and siltstones. Upper Cretaceous-Palaeocene carbonates, sealed by Palaeogene shales are the main traps along the northern edge of the platform and in the Tajik basin. Almost all the traps are broad anticlines related to Neogene wrench faulting, in this respect, like similar traps along the San Andreas fault. Hydrocarbon sources are in the Mesozoic section. The Lower-Middle Jurassic continental coal-bearing beds provide about 75% of the hydrocarbons; the Callovian-Oxfordian provides about 10%; the Neocomian a meagre 1%, and the Aptian-Albian about 14%. The coal-bearing source rocks decrease very markedly in thickness southwards cross the North Afghan platform. Much of the hydrocarbon generation probably occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene and migrated to structural traps during Neogene deformation. Since no regional structural dip aids southward hydrocarbon migration, and since the traps are all structural and somewhat small, then there is little chance of very large petroleum fields on the platform. Nevertheless, further studies of the North Afghan platform should be rewarding because: (a) the traps of strike-slip belts are difficult to find without detailed exploration; (b) the troubles of the last 20 years mean that almost no exploration has been done; and, (c) conditions may soon become more favorable. There should be ample potential for oil, and particularly gas, discoveries especially in the northern and western parts of the North Afghan platform.

  6. Urban conflict: reterritorialization in Northern part of Bekasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadono, W.; Herlily

    2018-03-01

    Inter-group conflict is one of the crucial issues affecting urban development in Northern part of Bekasi. It begins with the destruction of monuments until the rejection of worship places (in this case is a church) by mass organizations. These incidents occurred because the native assumed that the migrants took their territory. They concerned about the modern development brought by the migrants that caused the shrinking of local culture. The behavior of these mass organizations constituted the district that made the urban space seemed ‘not inclusive’ indirectly. This paper offered another alternative in urban design to reduce conflicts within the territory. We sought about the district context and reterritorialized the conflicted area. We used Reterritorialization approach to restore ‘border’ in order to sharpen and strengthen the territory. We conducted direct observation method, socio-cultural mapping, in-depth interview, and 3D model. This paper aimed to affirm the territory in urban space that would be able to accommodate the needs of the district user. The result is a design of transitional space that functionates as negotiation space. The transitional space is an intervention using Reterritorialization approach to reduce conflicts that occur in the urban space of the Northern part of Bekasi.

  7. Late quaternary faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Fennoscandia, with particular reference to the Lansjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1990-01-01

    Many fault scarps, interpreted as post- or late-glacial in age, occur in northern Sweden and adjacent parts of Finland and Norway. In the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden attempts have been made to date fault displacement relative to the glacial and postglacial stratigraphy by trenching across some of these fault scarps. It is shown that the faulting occurred soon after the local deglaciation some 9000 years ago. There are no signs of movements since that time. The faulting was obviously associated with violent earthquakes because seismically induced phenomena, dating from the same period as the faulting, are frequently found in the vicinity. Numerous landslides, developed in glacial till, occur in the same region as the faults and different types of seismites (seismically-induced sediment deformation) were found when actively sought for. It is concluded that several earthquakes of high magnitudes occurred in northern Fennoscandia during the vanishing of the inland ice sheet. (author)

  8. Changes in the Surface Area of Glaciers in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromova, T.; Nosenko, G.

    2012-12-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies the landscape changes in the glacial zone, origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, and etc. The presence of glaciers in itself threats to human life, economic activity and growing infrastructure. Economical and recreational human activity in mountain regions requires relevant information on snow and ice objects. Absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies, their volume and changes The first estimation of glaciers state and glaciers distribution in the big part of Northern Eurasia has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory published in 1966 -1980 as a part of IHD activity. The Inventory is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in 1957-1970y. There is information about 23796 glaciers with area of 78222.3 km2 in the Inventory. It covers 23 glacier systems on Northern Eurasia. In the 80th the USSR Glacier Inventory has been transformed in the digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory. Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of XX century. In the paper we report about 15 000 glaciers outlines for Caucasus, Pamir, Tien-Shan, Altai, Syntar-Khayata, Cherskogo Range, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic which have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and could be used for glacier changes evaluation. The results show that glaciers are retreating in all these regions. There is, however

  9. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11-15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (pCanada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to understand; however, specific positive safety assets that might exist in different community contexts must also be considered.

  10. Geology of the Ulugh Muztagh area, northern Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchfiel, B.C.; Molnar, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the Ulugh Muztagh area, north central Tibet, an east-west-trending ophiolitic melange marks a suture that apparently was formed during a late Triassic or slightly younger collision between a continental fragment to the south and the rest of Asia. The southern continental fragment carries a thick sequence of upper Triassic sandstone, but the contact between the sandstone and the ophiolitic melange is covered by a younger redbed sequence of unknown age. A suite of 2-mica, tourmaline-bearing leucogranite plutons and dikes intruded the Triassic sandstone at shallow crustal levels 10.5 to 8.4 Ma. These rocks range from granite to tonalite in composition, are geochemically very similar to slightly older High Himalayan leucogranite and are interpreted to have been derived by the partial melting of crustal material. We interpret this to mean that crustal thickening began in this part of the Tibetan plateau at least by 10.5 Ma. Welded rhyolitic tuff rests on a conglomerate that consists of abundant debris from the Ulugh Muztagh intrusive rocks and has yielded Ar/Ar ages of about 4 Ma. The tuffs are geochemically identical to the intrusive rocks suggesting that crustal thickening may have continued to 4 Ma. Crustal thickening probably occurred by distributed crustal shortening similar to shortening now occurring north of Ulugh Muztagh along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of the deformation parameters of the northern part of Eg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Monem S. Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The northern part of Egypt is a rapidly growing development accompanied by the increased levels of standard living particularly in its urban areas. From tectonic and seismic point of views, the northern part of Egypt is one of the interested regions. It shows an active geologic structure attributed to the tectonic movements of the African and Eurasian plates from one side and the Arabian plate from the other side. From historical point of view and recent instrumental records, the northern part of Egypt is one of the seismo-active regions in Egypt. The investigations of the seismic events and their interpretations had led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster mitigation, for the safety of the densely populated regions and the vital projects. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS will be used in determining crustal deformation where a geodetic network covers the northern part of Egypt. Joining the GPS Permanent stations of the northern part of Egypt with the Southern part of Europe will give a clear picture about the recent crustal deformation and the African plate velocity. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. Final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions. This work will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime and to delineate the crustal stress and strain fields in the study region. This also enables to evaluate the active tectonics and surface deformation with their directions from repeated geodetic observations. The results show that the area under study suffers from continuous seismic activity related to the crustal movements taken place along trends of major faults

  12. Evaluation of the deformation parameters of the northern part of Eg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Monem S.; Radwan, Ali M.; Sharf, Mohamed; Hamimi, Zakaria; Hegazy, Esraa E.; Abou Aly, Nadia; Gomaa, Mahmoud

    2016-06-01

    The northern part of Egypt is a rapidly growing development accompanied by the increased levels of standard living particularly in its urban areas. From tectonic and seismic point of views, the northern part of Egypt is one of the interested regions. It shows an active geologic structure attributed to the tectonic movements of the African and Eurasian plates from one side and the Arabian plate from the other side. From historical point of view and recent instrumental records, the northern part of Egypt is one of the seismo-active regions in Egypt. The investigations of the seismic events and their interpretations had led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster mitigation, for the safety of the densely populated regions and the vital projects. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) will be used in determining crustal deformation where a geodetic network covers the northern part of Egypt. Joining the GPS Permanent stations of the northern part of Egypt with the Southern part of Europe will give a clear picture about the recent crustal deformation and the African plate velocity. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. Final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions. This work will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime and to delineate the crustal stress and strain fields in the study region. This also enables to evaluate the active tectonics and surface deformation with their directions from repeated geodetic observations. The results show that the area under study suffers from continuous seismic activity related to the crustal movements taken place along trends of major faults

  13. Tourism, biodiversity and protected areas--Review from northern Fennoscandia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Anne; Kangas, Katja

    2016-03-15

    Tourist numbers in northern Fennoscandia outweigh those in other northern boreal - arctic regions, which creates a specific need to evaluate the impacts of tourism. This review 1) identifies patterns and trends in the vegetation and wildlife of northern Fennoscandian terrestrial ecosystems as a consequence of tourism and recreation, 2) discusses the implications of findings in terms of the intensity, area and magnitude of impacts, changing climate and management needs under increasing tourist pressure, and 3) identifies research gaps. The reviewed studies show negative environmental and biodiversity impacts that are most pronounced near tourist resorts. The most sensitive plants, birds and mammals decline or disappear from the disturbed sites, and the species composition shifts from 'wild' species to cultural and human associated species. There is little research on the spread of alien species, but the few examples show that alien species can be promoted by tourism activities. Impacts of the use of motorized vehicles have not been widely studied either, despite the extensive track network which can cause disturbance to wildlife. The integrated impacts of tourism and climate change on the vegetation and wildlife was not addressed directly in any of the reviewed studies. In addition, little research has been done on carrying out restoration at tourist areas. Scientific research on these topics is needed to prevent, minimize or restore the most negative ecological impacts of tourism and recreation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Byrnes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories, injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objective: To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design: Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078. Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results: The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001 and fighting (p=0.02 injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01. Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94, average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97 or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91, not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85, not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97 and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98 were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59. Conclusions: Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are

  15. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  16. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  17. Traditional medicine trade in vulture parts in northern Nigeria | Saidu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report findings on the vulture trade in northern Nigeria, where it is commonly practised especially to supply the traditional medicine industry. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 113 traditional, predominantly Hausa medicinal traders in 39 markets within eight states in northern Nigeria. Of the interviewed ...

  18. High Lassa Fever activity in Northern part of Edo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose was to establish simple statistics of the effects of lassa fever in northern part of Edo State, Nigeria. Lassa fever activity in the northern part of Edo state, Nigeria, was confirmed in 2004 by laboratory analysis of samples sent to Bernhard–Nocht Institute (BNI) for Tropical Medicine Hamburg, Germany.

  19. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuanxiu; Chen, Muhong; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lanlan; Lu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a palynological analysis based on different number of air pollen samples for the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea, respectively, in order to give a reference to reconstruct the paleoclimate of the area. (1) Fifteen air pollen samples were collected from the northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011, and 13 air pollen samples were collected from the southern part of the South China Sea in December 2011. The pollen types were more abundant in the north than in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north was 10 times more than that in the south, which may be because of the sampling season. Airborne pollen types and concentrations have a close relationship with wind direction and distance from the sampling point to the continent. (2) Seventy-four samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea in the autumn. Thirty-three samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea in the winter. Pollen concentrations in the north were nearly 10 times higher than that in the south. This is because trilete spores are transported by rivers from Hainan Island to the sea and also by the summer monsoon-forced marine current. (3) Ten air pollen samples and 10 surface sediments samples were selected for comparison. The pollen and spores in the air were mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores, having seasonal pollen characteristics. Pollen in the surface sediments were mainly trilete, Pinus, and herbaceous, and may also show a combination of annual pollen characteristics.

  20. Postglacial faulting and paleoseismicity in the Landsjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1988-10-01

    Post-glacial fault scarps, up to about 20 m in height and forming a 50 km long fault set with a SSW-NNE orientation, occur in the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden. By trenching across the fault scarps it has been possible to date fault movement relative to the Quaternary stratigraphy. It is concluded that the fault scarps generally developed as single event movements shortly after the deglaciation about 9000 years ago. At one location there are indications that minor fault movements may have occurred earlier during a previous glaciation but this is uncertain. The fault scarps are, at least partially, developed in strongly fractured and chemically weathered zones of presumed pre-Quaternary age. To judge from the appearance of the bedrock fault scarps, and the deformation of the Quaternary deposits, the faults are reverse and have dips between some 40-50 0 and the vertical. The faulting was co-seismic and earthquakes in the order of M 6.5-7.0, or higher, are inferred from fault dimensions and the distribution of seismically triggered landslides in a wider region. Distortions in different types of sediment, interpreted as caused by the influence of seismic shock, occur frequently in the area. Examples of these are briefly described. (orig.)

  1. Tectonic evolution of a part of the Tethyside orogenic collage: The Kargi Massif, northern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Okan

    1990-02-01

    The central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment, one of the major tectonic units in Turkey, provides critical data for evaluating the Cimmeride and Alpide evolution of the Mediterranean Tethysides. Tectonic events that affected the central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment since the end of the Paleozoic, generated east-west trending belts with the event of every episode redeforming and partly obliterating the structures of previous episodes. This evolution may be conveniently described in terms of three major episodes: (1) Two different realms of pre-Dogger oceanic rocks are present in the area. The northern realm coincided with main branch of Paleo-Tethys that was being actively destroyed by south dipping subduction. The southern realm, the Karakaya ocean, a back arc basin related to this subduction, began opening by rifting of a retroarc carbonate platform during the Permo-Triassic. To the west a continental domain with sparse magmatism seperated the two oceanic areas. Toward the east the two oceans become united by the wedging out of the continental domain. These two pre-Dogger oceans closed during the Lias, and their remnants were emplaced between the southern margin of Laurasia and the fragments of the Cimmerian continent. (2) The second episode partly overlapped the first with rifting south of the Cimmerian continent fragment during the Lias. This rifting was followed by a transgression which covered the ruins of the Cimmeride orogenic belt by the Malm. This rifting concurrently led to the development of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys and a south facing Atlantic-type continental margin. A southerly thickening sedimentary prism developed on this margin during the Lias to early Cretaceous interval. (3) The floor of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys began to be consumed along the north dipping subduction zone beneath the previosly constructed continental margin. This convergent margin generated a magmatic arc to the north and to the south a subduction

  2. [Chronic malnutrition among children under five years of age in the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aké-Tano, Odile; Tiembré, Issaka; Konan, Yao Eugène; Donnen, Philippe; Dagnan, Simplice N'cho; Dramaix, Michelle; Koffi, Kouamé; Diarra-Nama, Alimata Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The malnutrition of children under five years of age constitutes a major public health problem in most developing countries. A cross-section study was carried in 2003 in the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire to determine the prevalence of chronic malnutrition and to identify risk factors among children under five years of age living in urban and rural areas of the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire. A total of 292 and 268 children under five years of age residing respectively in urban and rural areas were included in the study. Their median age was 24 months. Chronic malnutrition was more frequent in children from rural areas (39.9%) than in those living in urban areas (16.7%). Malnutrition was significantly associated with the type of food consumed by children under two years of age in urban areas, and it was strongly linked to emaciation of the mother and presence of childhood fever in rural areas. In light of these results, we advocate a healthy diet and adequate health status for the mother and child to improve the nutritional status of children. Moreover, these results need to be completed and complemented by further studies for more detailed information to contribute to a better definition of actions to fight efficiently against malnutrition among children of the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire.

  3. PRRSV outbreak with high mortality in northern part of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Rathkjen, P. H.

    with high mortality rate in piglets occurred in Northern Jutland. PRRSV type 2 was detected by real-time RT-PCR in lung tissue from 10 days old piglets. The outbreak was treated by extensive vaccination with Ingelvac® PRRS MLV and strict management procedures. 6 weeks later, the mortality of liveborn...

  4. Carbon dioxide exchange of the Arctic tundra in the northern part of European Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiepe, Isabell; Johansson, Paul Torbjörn; Friborg, Thomas

    Northern Russia has been subject to many speculations in relation to climatic change effects and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange but still little scientific evidence is available for this region. There is low abundance of continuous Arctic GHG exchange measurements deploying eddy covariance technique...... 70 cm in the hummocky areas. The climate is continental with a mean annual air temperature (1995-2007) of about -9.4 °C (Vorkuta). To determine the greenhouse balance of this area the eddy covariance technique was used in the late period of the growing season of 2007. In this study we focus...... on the transition period at the end of the growth season, which is a part of the year when predicted changes in temperature is likely to have the most pronounced effects on the exchange of GHGs. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange reflects two important influences on the opposed fluxes, gross photosynthesis...

  5. Bedrock geologic map of the northern Alaska Peninsula area, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Blome, Charles D.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Preller, Cindi C.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2017-03-03

    The northern Alaska Peninsula is a region of transition from the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula to a Proterozoic and early Paleozoic carbonate platform and then to the poorly understood, tectonically complex sedimentary basins of southwestern Alaska. Physiographically, the region ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska-Aleutian Range to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet on the east and Bristol Bay on the southwest. The lower Ahklun Mountains and finger lakes on the west side of the map area show strong effects from glaciation. Structurally, a number of major faults cut the map area. Most important of these are the Bruin Bay Fault that parallels the coast of Cook Inlet, the Lake Clark Fault that cuts diagonally northeast to southwest across the eastern part of the map area, and the presently active Holitna Fault to the northwest that cuts surficial deposits.Distinctive rock packages assigned to three provinces are overlain by younger sedimentary rocks and intruded by widely dispersed latest Cretaceous and (or) early Tertiary granitic rocks. Much of the east half of the map area lies in the Alaska-Aleutian Range province; the Jurassic to Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith and derivative Jurassic sedimentary rocks form the core of this province, which is intruded and overlain by the Aleutian magmatic arc. The Lime Hills province, the carbonate platform, occurs in the north-central part of the map area. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic Ahklun Mountains province in the western part of the map area includes abundant chert, argillite, and graywacke and lesser limestone, basalt, and tectonic mélange. The Kuskokwim Group, an Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequence, is extensively exposed and bounds all three provinces in the west-central part of the map area.

  6. Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Parvez, Lutfar; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-15

    Total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils of mine drainage and surrounding agricultural fields in the northern part of Bangladesh were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. The average concentrations of Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Rb, Sr, Nb and Zr exceeded the world normal averages and, in some cases, Mn, Zn, As and Pb exceeded the toxic limit of the respective metals. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and pollution load index (PLI). The soils show significant enrichment with Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Sr and Nb, indicating inputs from mining activities. The I(geo) values have revealed that Mn (1.24+/-0.38), Zn (1.49+/-0.58) and Pb (1.63+/-0.38) are significantly accumulated in the study area. The PLIs derived from contamination factors indicate that the distal part of the coal mine-affected area is the most polluted (PLI of 4.02). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses, suggest that Mn, Zn, Pb and Ti are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly coal mining activities, and the extreme proximal and distal parts are heavily contaminated with maximum heavy metals.

  7. Financial planning in the Northern Division of the UKAEA. Part 1 - The organisation and its finance. Part 2 -Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, N.; D'Eye, R.W.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the first part of the lecture the background and functions of the UKAEA, the relationship between management and the nuclear industry, and the management structure are explained. The financial cycle of the UKAEA is shown together with a breakdown of expenditure of the Northern Division between directorates and also between projects. In the second part, the constraints which influence the management of the Authority are discussed. The role of the Northern Division Planning and Resources Branch is explained and the methods of operation of its two sections ie Planning, and Resources Analysis and Forecasting, are described. (U.K.)

  8. The Miocene "Pteropod event" in the SW part of the Central Paratethys (Medvednica Mt., northern Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjak, Marija; Sremac, Jasenka; Vrsaljko, Davor; Aščić, Šimun; Bosak, Luka

    2017-08-01

    Deep marine Miocene deposits exposed sporadically in the Medvednica Mt. (northern Croatia) comprise pelagic organisms such as coccolithophores, planktic foraminifera and pteropods. The pteropod fauna from yellow marls at the Vejalnica locality (central part of Medvednica Mt.) encompasses abundant specimens of Vaginella austriaca Kittl, 1886, accompanied with scarce Clio fallauxi (Kittl, 1886). Calcareous nannoplankton points to the presence of NN5 nannozone at this locality. Highly fossiliferous grey marls at the Marija Bistrica locality (north-eastern area of Medvednica Mt.) comprise limacinid pteropods: Limacina valvatina (Reuss, 1867), L. gramensis (Rasmussen, 1968) and Limacina sp. Late Badenian (NN5 to NN6 nannozone) age of these marls is presumed on the basis of coccolithophores. Most of the determined pteropods on species level, except V. austriaca have been found and described from this region for the first time. New pteropod records from Croatia point to two pteropod horizons coinciding with the Badenian marine transgressions in Central Paratethys. These pteropod assemblages confirm the existence of W-E marine connection ("Transtethyan Trench Corridor") during the Badenian NN5 nannozone. Limacinids point to the possible immigration of the "North Sea fauna" through a northern European marine passage during the Late Badenian (end of NN5-beginning of NN6 zone), as previously presumed by some other authors.

  9. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  10. Comparing fish communities in sanctuaries, partly protected areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within coral-dominated reefs, abundances of indicator taxa showed three patterns: (1) greatest abundance in sanctuaries, intermediate in partly protected and least in open areas; (2) greatest abundance in sanctuaries but equal diminishment in partly protected and open areas; and (3) greater depletion in partly protected ...

  11. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains geographical boundary information for National Park Service properties, wildlife refuges, and other management areas in Guam and the Northern...

  12. A Detailed Study of Debris Flow Source Areas in the Northern Colorado Front Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Morales, A.; Baum, R. L.; Godt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly continuous, heavy rainfall occurred during 9-13 September 2013 causing flooding and widespread landslides and debris flows in the northern Colorado Front Range. Whereas many recent studies have identified erosion as the most common process leading to debris flows in the mountains of Colorado, nearly all of the debris flows mapped in this event began as small, shallow landslides. We mapped the boundaries of 415 September 2013 debris flows in the Eldorado Springs and Boulder 7.5-minute quadrangles using 0.5-m-resolution satellite imagery. We characterized the landslide source areas of six debris flows in the field as part of an effort to identify what factors controlled their locations. Four were on a dip slope in sedimentary rocks in the Pinebrook Hills area, near Boulder, and the other two were in granitic rocks near Gross Reservoir. Although we observed no obvious geomorphic differences between the source areas and surrounding non-landslide areas, we noted several characteristics that the source areas all had in common. Slopes of the source areas ranged from 28° to 35° and most occurred on planar or slightly concave slopes that were vegetated with grass, small shrubs, and sparse trees. The source areas were shallow, irregularly shaped, and elongated downslope: widths ranged from 4 to 9 m, lengths from 6 to 40 m and depths ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 m. Colluvium was the source material for all of the debris flows and bedrock was exposed in the basal surface of all of the source areas. We observed no evidence for concentrated surface runoff upslope from the sources. Local curvature and roughness of bedrock and surface topography, and depth distribution and heterogeneity of the colluvium appear to have controlled the specific locations of these shallow debris-flow source areas. The observed distribution and characteristics of the source areas help guide ongoing efforts to model initiation of the debris flows.

  13. Northern protected areas will become important refuges for biodiversity tracking suitable climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteaux, Dominique; Ricard, Marylène; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Casajus, Nicolas; Périé, Catherine; Beauregard, Frieda; de Blois, Sylvie

    2018-03-15

    The Northern Biodiversity Paradox predicts that, despite its globally negative effects on biodiversity, climate change will increase biodiversity in northern regions where many species are limited by low temperatures. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of a northern network of 1,749 protected areas spread over >600,000 km 2 in Quebec, Canada. Using ecological niche modeling, we calculated potential changes in the probability of occurrence of 529 species to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on (1) species gain, loss, turnover, and richness in protected areas, (2) representativity of protected areas, and (3) extent of species ranges located in protected areas. We predict a major species turnover over time, with 49% of total protected land area potentially experiencing a species turnover >80%. We also predict increases in regional species richness, representativity of protected areas, and species protection provided by protected areas. Although we did not model the likelihood of species colonising habitats that become suitable as a result of climate change, northern protected areas should ultimately become important refuges for species tracking climate northward. This is the first study to examine in such details the potential effects of climate change on a northern protected area network.

  14. The climate and flood risk potential of northern areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The extreme floods in northern parts of Pakistan are caused by glacier lake outbursts and Dam-Breaks following landslides, which block river valleys. Geographically glacier dams in mountain rivers and valleys have occurred from the east-western and west-western Karakuram ranges and in the lesser Karakuram range floods which arise from Karakuram precipitation and temperature of various region pose greater problem, as these floods are neither homogeneous nor stationary. These floods arise from various generating mechanisms i. e. generated by melting of snow and glacier and those generated from the monsoon rainfall and dam-breaks following landslide into the river and out burst of glacier lake. The estimation of present and future risk of flooding at sites in northern Pakistan requires an understanding, of the climate, which provides, the generating mechanism of floods. Climates are extremely variable and depend op broad global circulation patterns and local topographic influences. The variables of the climate are studied using available data, with emphasis on temperature and precipitation Spatial Co-relation in northern area stations have been conducted to find Co-relation Co-efficient, using regression analysis. This is spread over intra seasonal and inter station comparison. The time series analysis of the climatic variables has been conducted to examine geographically and statistically the trend in their behaviour. This may be reflected in the hydrological regime of glaciers and rivers and it can cause non linear flood series through changes in any one of the flood generating mechanism. The climate feed-back mechanism has been discussed, which are practically important because they assist seasonal prediction of climate and flow in the Indus. Additionally if climate warming is causing an upward Trend in winter and spring temperature and reduction in snowfall, the effect might be felt more widely over the region. The non-linear changes with elevation and differences

  15. Neogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Michal; Márton, Emő; Oszczypko, Nestor; Vojtko, Rastislav; Hók, Jozef; Králiková, Silvia; Plašienka, Dušan; Klučiar, Tomáš; Hudáčková, Natália; Oszczypko-Clowes, Marta

    2017-08-01

    The data on the Neogene geodynamics, palaeogeography, and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas (ALCAPA Mega-unit) are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The proposed concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Miocene development of the Outer Carpathians reflects the vanishing subduction of the residual oceanic and/or thinned continental crust. A compression perpendicular to the front of the orogenic system led to the closing of residual flysch troughs and to accretionary wedge growth, as well as to the development of a foredeep on the margin of the European Platform. Docking of the Outer Western Carpathians accretionary wedge, together with the Central Western Carpathians and Northern Pannonian domain, was accompanied by stretching of the overriding microplate. An orogen parallel and perpendicular extension was associated with the opening and subsidence of the Early and Middle Miocene hinterland (back-arc) basin system that compensated counter-clockwise rotations of the individual crustal fragments of ALCAPA. The Late Miocene development relates to the opening of the Pannonian Basin System. This process was coupled with common stretching of both ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia Mega-units due to the pull exerted by subduction rollback in front of the Eastern Carpathians. The filling up of the hinterland basin system was associated with thermal subsidence and was followed by the Pliocene tectonic inversion and consequent erosion of the basin system margins, as well as part of the interior.

  16. Environmental radioactivity in northern parts of Iran and Teheran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khademi, B.; Hanjani, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    This article deals with the measurement of the amount of 226Ra by ''radium emanation method'' in water and food products of the North, North-West and North-East of Iran. A total of 126 water samples, 249 food-stuffs and 22 air samples have been examined. The concentration of 226Ra in water was about 0.01 to 1x10 4 pci/1, and in food products was about 0.01 to 20.00 pci/gr. The measured radioactivity in the air for the city of Tehran and Tehran University reactor's environment has been about 0.003 to 0.227 pci/m 3 . The results of these measurements for Iran's atmosphere are given in various tables which indicated that in some part of Iran the rate of the radioactivity is higher than the normal rate

  17. The origin of gas seeps and shallow gas in northern part of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Jin, X.

    2003-04-01

    The northern part of South China Sea is of passive continental margin, which geologic units include shelf, slope and deep sea basin. There are rifting basins forming during Paleogene (or Cretaceous ?) to Quaternary developed on shelf and slope, which sediments are dominated by fluvial and lake clastic rock of Paleogene, and marine clastic rock and carbonate of Neogene - Quaternary. The main basins include the Pearl River Mouth Basin, Beibu Gulf basin, Qiongdongnan Basin and Yinggehai basin. They contain rich oil and gas resources, and have become important industrial oil and gas producing region in South China Sea. With the increasing of petroleum exploration actives and marine petroleum engineering, it has been paid more attention to the investigation and research of gas seeps and shallow gas, for they become a potential threaten to the marine engineering while they are regarded as the indicators of industrial oil and gas. By study the distribution and geochemical characteristics of gas seeps in northeast part of Yinggehai basin and shallow gas in sediments on slope, combined with their regional geologic background, this paper deals with the origin, migration pathway and emission mechanism of gas seeps and shallow gas in northern part of South China Sea, for providing a base knowledge for the evaluation of marine engineering geology. In northeast part of Yinggehai basin gas seeps have been found and recorded for near 100 years. During 1990s, as a part of petroleum exploration, the gas seeps in the basin have been investigated and research by oil companies (Baojia Huang et al., 1992; Jiaqiong He et al., 2000). Gas seeps were found in shallow water area along southwest coast of Hainan Island, water depth usually less than 50 m. The occurrence of gas seeps can be divided into two types: (1) gas continuously emission, continuous gas bubbles groups can be detected by sonar underwater and observed on water surface. (2) gas intermittently emission, the time intervals

  18. The olistostroms and cretaceous-Paleocene olistoplakes in sediments of Northern part of Tajik depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukhtikov, M.M.; Vinnichenko, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    In sediments of Northern part of Tajikistan the great amount of massives without foundation and accumulated blocks without order were found. These sediments are from rock of chalk-Palaeogene period. They belong to olistostrom and olistoplaka category. They are found inside neogenic cut

  19. Multiple Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Richard J.; Graymer, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    With the exception of Los Angeles, perhaps no urban area in the United States is more at risk from landsliding, triggered by either precipitation or earthquake, than the San Francisco Bay region of northern California. By January each year, seasonal winter storms usually bring moisture levels of San Francisco Bay region hillsides to the point of saturation, after which additional heavy rainfall may induce landslides of various types and levels of severity. In addition, movement at any time along one of several active faults in the area may generate an earthquake large enough to trigger landslides. The danger to life and property rises each year as local populations continue to expand and more hillsides are graded for development of residential housing and its supporting infrastructure. The chapters in the text consist of: *Introduction by Russell W. Graymer *Chapter 1 Rainfall Thresholds for Landslide Activity, San Francisco Bay Region, Northern California by Raymond C. Wilson *Chapter 2 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 3 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 4 Landslide Hazard Modeled for the Cities of Oakland, Piedmont, and Berkeley, Northern California, from a M=7.1 Scenario Earthquake on the Hayward Fault Zone by Scott B. Miles and David K. Keefer *Chapter 5 Synthesis of Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike The plates consist of: *Plate 1 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike, Russell W. Graymer, Sebastian Roberts, Naomi B. Kalman, and Steven Sobieszczyk *Plate 2 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven

  20. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments.

  1. Determinants of Skilled Birth Attendance in the Northern Parts of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwamena Sekyi Dickson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An integral part of the Sustainable Development Goal three is to ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services which include skilled delivery by the year 2030. We examined the determinants of skilled delivery among women in the Northern part of Ghana. Methods. The paper made use of data from the Demographic and Health Survey. Women from the Northern part of Ghana were included in the analysis. Bivariate descriptive analyses coupled with binary logistic regression estimation technique were used to analyse the data. Results. Region of residence, age, household wealth, education, distance to a health facility, religion, parity, partner’s education, and getting money for treatment were identified as the determinants of skilled delivery. While the probability of having a skilled delivery was higher in the Upper East Region, it was lower in the Northern and Upper West Regions compared to the Brong Ahafo Region. Conclusion. Our findings call for more attention from the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health in addressing the skilled delivery gaps among women particularly in the Northern and Upper West Regions in ensuring attainment of the Sustainable Development Goal target related to reproductive health care accessibility for all by the year 2030.

  2. Trapeze shaped flint tips as proxy data for occupation during the Late Mesolithic and the Early to Middle Neolithic in the northern part of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekus, Marcel J. Lth.

    In the northern part of the Netherlands (defined here as the area situated above the river Rhine), the Late Mesolithic is dated to the period between ca. 8100 and 6000 BP, and is characterised by the occurrence of trapeze shaped flint tips. Trapezes continue to be in use during the Swifterbant

  3. Past, present and future formation of groundwater resources in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, A.; Vallner, L.; Vaikmae, R.; Raidla, V.

    2012-04-01

    Cambrian-Vendian Aquifer System (CVAS) is the deepest confined aquifer system used for water consumption in northern part of Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB). A regional groundwater flow and transport model (Visual Modflow) was used to investigate the paleohydrogeological scientific and contemporary management problems of CVAS. The model covers the territory of Estonia and its close surrounding, all together 88,000 km2 and includes all main aquifers and aquitards from ground surface to as low as the impermeable part of the crystalline basement. Three-dimensional distribution of groundwater heads, flow directions, velocities, and rates as well as transport and budget characteristics were simulated by the model. Water composition was changed significantly during the last glaciations.Strongly depleted O and H stable isotope composition, absence of 3H and low radiocarbon concentration are the main indicators of glacial origin of groundwater in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer in northern Estonia. The noble gas analyses allowed concluding, that palaeorecharge took place at temperatures around the freezing point. While in North Estonia, most of water was changed by glacial melt water, high salinity water is till preserved in Southern part of Estonia.First results of modeling suggest that during the intrusion period lasting 7.3-9.3 ka the front of glacial thaw water movement had southeast direction and reachedto 180-220 kmfrom CVAS outcrop in Baltic Sea. Confining layer of CVAS is cut through by deep buried valleys in several places in North Estonia making possible for modern precipitation to infiltrate into aquifer system in present day. In case of natural conditions, the water pressure of CVAS is few meters above sea level and most of valleys act as discharge areas for aquifers system. Two regional depression ones have formed in North Estonia as a result of groundwater use from CVAS. Water consumption changes the natural groundwater gradient, flow direction and thereforerecharge

  4. Low-Q structure beneath The Geysers area in the northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, M.

    2010-12-01

    A large reservoir is located beneath The Geysers geothermal area, northern California. Seismic tomography revealed high-velocity (high-V) and low-Vp/Vs zones in the reservoir (Julian et al., 1996) and a decrease of Vp/Vs from 1991 to 1998 (Guasekera et al., 2003) due to withdrawal of steam from the reservoir. I build on these earlier studies by performing the attenuation tomography in this region to investigate the Q structure. The target region, 38.5-39.0°N and 122.5-123°W, covers The Geysers area. I use seismographs of Northern California Earthquake Data Center, which recorded 1235 earthquakes with magnitude larger than 2.0 and resolved focal mechanisms from 2002 to 2008. The band-pass filtered seismographs are analyzed for collecting the maximum amplitude data. Three kinds of Butterworth band-pass filters, such as 1-3, 3-7, and 7-15, correspond to the analysis of the Q structure for 2, 5, and 10 Hz, respectively. I use the P- and S-wave maximum amplitudes between the two seconds after the arrival of those waves in order to avoid the effects by coda. A total of 8980 P- and 1086 S-wave amplitude data for 949 earthquakes recorded at 48 stations are available for the analysis using the attenuation tomographic method (Zao et al., 1996). Extremely low-Qp and Qs zones are found at the northwestern (NW) of The Geysers area at sea level. These zones are consistent with the high-Vp and Vs and low-Vp/Vs zones located at the NW part of the reservoir. The low-Qs zone extends to the southeast (SE) and with approximately 15 km length and 5 km width and has another negative peak beneath the SE part of the reservoir. This low-Qs zone is also consistent with the high-Vp and Vs regions of the reservoir characterized by a low-Vp/Vs zone. However, Qp in the SE part is slightly high. Below sea level in The Geysers reservoir, there are a main greywacke layer and a felsite layer. Above sea level, there is a greenstone melange beneath the NW extremely low-Qp and Qs region and a

  5. Groundwater regimes and isotopic studies, Ranger mine area, Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M; Green, D C

    1986-12-01

    Three types of groundwater occur in the area of the Ranger mine. Type A groundwater occurs in the loose sands and gravels occupying the present day stream channels, Type B in the weathering profile and Type C occurs in relatively fresh fractured bedrock occupying open fractures and other cavities. The three types of groundwater can be distinguished both chemically and isotopically. Light stable isotope data suggest that most early rains are lost by evapotranspiration and have no imprint on the groundwater. Later in the wet season, the ground is saturated and groundwater recharge occurs on a regional scale. This younger groundwater sits on the older waters. Mixing is probably minimal as before any large scale mixing could occur, most younger waters are lost by evapotranspiration. Stable isotope data suggest that Type B groundwater in certain areas has some connection with evaporated surface water bodies. Stable isotope measurements for the pollution monitoring bores around the tailings dam do not indicate any connection with the polluted pond waters at the time of sample collection.

  6. Analysis of turbulence characteristics over the northern Tibetan Plateau area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. S.; Ma, Y. M.; Ma, W. Q.; Hu, Z. Y.; Ishikawa, H.; Su, Z. B.; Sun, G. L.

    2006-07-01

    Based on CATOP/Tibet [Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CA-IMP) on the Tibetan Plateau) turbulent data collected at the Bujiao (BJ) site of the Nagqu area, the turbulent structure and transportation characteristics in the near surface layer during summer are analyzed. The main results show that the relationship between the normalized standard deviation of 3D wind speed and stability satisfies the similarity law tinder both unstable and stable stratifications. The relations of normalized standard deviation of temperature and specific humidity to stability only obey the "-1/3 power law." tinder unstable conditions. In the case of stable stratifications, their relations to stability are dispersing. The sensible heat dominates in the dry period, while in the wet period, the latent heat is larger than the sensible heat.

  7. Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Li Wei; Chen Jiwei; Wang Hongqijie; Li Tongchao; Shen Guofeng; Shen Huizhong; Huang Ye; Wang Rong; Wang Bin; Zhang Yanyan; Tang Jianhui; Liu Wenxin; Wang Xilong; Tao Shu

    2012-01-01

    High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m 3 ) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m 3 ) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Concentration of PBDEs at each site of the studied area. Highlights: ► High levels of PBDEs with BDE-209 domination were detected in air in northern China. ► PBDE concentrations in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in rural open fields. ► Proportions of BDE-209 in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ► PBDE concentrations were correlated to local population density and Gross Domestic Production. - In northern China, PBDEs in air in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in open fields.

  8. Stratigraphy and Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Sierra Los Ajos and adjacent areas, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Iriondo, Alexander; Miggins, Daniel P.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Maldonado, Florian; Miller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the northern Sierra Los Ajos reveals new stratigraphic and structural data relevant to deciphering the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the range. The northern Sierra Los Ajos is cored by Proterozoic, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian strata, equivalent respectively to the Pinal Schist, Bolsa Quartzite and Abrigo Limestone, Martin Formation, Escabrosa Limestone, and Horquilla Limestone. The Proterozoic–Paleozoic sequence is mantled by Upper Cretaceous rocks partly equivalent to the Fort Crittenden and Salero Formations in Arizona, and the Cabullona Group in Sonora, Mexico.Absence of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Group below the Upper Cretaceous rocks and above the Proterozoic–Paleozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos was part of the Cananea high, a topographic highland during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Deposition of Upper Cretaceous rocks directly on Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos area had subsided as part of the Laramide Cabullona basin during Late Cretaceous time. Basal beds of the Upper Cretaceous sequence are clast-supported conglomerate composed locally of basement (Paleozoic) clasts. The conglomerate represents erosion of Paleozoic basement in the Sierra Los Ajos area coincident with development of the Cabullona basin.The present-day Sierra Los Ajos reaches elevations of greater than 2600 m, and was uplifted during Tertiary basin-and-range extension. Upper Cretaceous rocks are exposed at higher elevations in the northern Sierra Los Ajos and represent an uplifted part of the inverted Cabullona basin. Tertiary uplift of the Sierra Los Ajos was largely accommodated by vertical movement along the north-to-northwest-striking Sierra Los Ajos fault zone flanking the west side of the range. This fault zone structurally controls the configuration of the headwaters of the San Pedro River basin, an important bi-national water resource in the US

  9. Structural interpretation of seismic data of Abu Rudeis-Sidri area, Northern Central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Shaker Zahra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2D and 3D seismic data are interpreted to evaluate the subsurface geologic structures in the Abu Rudeis-Sidri area that occupy the northern central part of the Gulf of Suez. The 2D seismic data are used for determination of the structural configurations and the tectonic features which is analyzed through the study of interpretation with the available geologic data, in which the geo-seismic depth maps for the main interesting tops (Kareem, Nukhul, Matulla, Raha and Nubia Formations are represented. Such maps reflect that, the Miocene structure of Abu Rudeis-Sidri area is an asymmetrical NW-SE trending anticlinal feature dissected by a set of NW-SE fault system (clysmic. Added, the Pre-Miocene structure of the studied area is very complex, where the area is of NE dip and affected by severe faulting through varying stratigraphic levels.

  10. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    During Late Miocene, the Western Carpathian paleogeography started to change. The Lake Pannon retreated southwards, and the northern coast of the back arc basin was slightly elevated due to progradation of deltaic and alluvial facies, especially in the lowlands. The studied „Pannonian lake" sediments come from the Czech and Slovak parts of Central Paratethys. Changes of the sedimentary environment from deep to shallow lake and deltaic environment, followed by development of alluvial plains were noticed. Salinity crisis due to Paratethys isolation led to development of total freshwater environment to the end of this period. Samples from 3 surficial localities and 15 boreholes were palynologically studied. Occasional occurences of Dinoflagellates indicate a slightly higher salinity, whereas green algae Pediastrum, aquatic ferns Azolla, and aquatic and coastal plants (Nelumbo, Nymphaea, Myriophyllum, Sparganium, Potamogeton, Cyperaceae etc.) represent a freshwater environment. Due to paleogeographic changes and climatic oscillations the number of thermophilous taxa decreased and some of them disappeared completely from this area (f. e. Sapotaceae, Palmae). Mostly broad-leaved deciduous elements of mixed mesophytic forests (Quercus, Celtis, Carya, Tilia, Carpinus, Betula, Juglans) with some thermophilous elements admixture of Engelhardia, Castanea, Trigonobalanopsis, Symplocos, Cornaceaepollis satzveyensis generally dominate. Variously high relief of the uplifted mountainy chains created ideal conditions for higher presence of extrazonal vegetation (Cedrus, Tsuga, Picea, Cathaya) in the investigated area. Zonal type of vegetation including marshes, riparian forests with Alnus, Salix, Pterocarya, Liquidambar, Betula, Fraxinus, shrubs and lianas on dryer substrates associated riparian forest (Buxus, Ericaceae, Vitaceae, Lonicera, Rosaceae type Rubus), and coastal swamps with Taxodiaceae, Nyssa, Myrica, Sciadopitys were growing in the floodplain lowlands of Vienna Basin

  11. Plio-Pleistocene landscape and vegetation reconstruction of the coastal area of the Tjörnes Peninsula, Northern Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhoeven, Koen; Louwye, Stephen; Eiriksson, Jón

    2013-01-01

    Marine and continental deposits from the Tjornes area in northern Iceland were studied to obtain their pollen/spore content. Six Pollen Zones (PZ) were defined in the Early Pliocene Tjornes beds and the Early Pleistocene Breidavik Group. The pollen is most diverse during the deposition of the low......Marine and continental deposits from the Tjornes area in northern Iceland were studied to obtain their pollen/spore content. Six Pollen Zones (PZ) were defined in the Early Pliocene Tjornes beds and the Early Pleistocene Breidavik Group. The pollen is most diverse during the deposition...... of the lowest Tapes Zone (PZ 1) and the lower part of the overlying Mactra Zone (PZ 2). Local pollen from marshland, levee and foothill forests was deposited on a large coastal plain. The pollen spectrum reflects transgression and deepening during the second part of the Mactra Zone (PZ 3) and the lower part...... of the Serripes Zone (PZ 4). Gymnosperm pollen derived from the higher inland plateau increases in PZ 3. This background pollen was of minor importance during periods with an extensive coastal plain (PZ 1, 2, 4, 6). PZ 5 did not yield sufficient pollen for analysis. The pollen analysis allowed refinement...

  12. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    This geologic map is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service to provide a geologic database for resource management officials and visitor information services. This map was produced in response to information needs related to a proposed withdrawal of three segregated land areas near Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, from new hard rock mining activity. House Rock Valley was designated as the east parcel of the segregated lands near the Grand Canyon. This map was needed to provide connectivity for the geologic framework of the Grand Canyon segregated land areas. This geologic map of the House Rock Valley area encompasses approximately 280 mi2 (85.4 km2) within Coconino County, northern Arizona, and is bounded by longitude 111 degrees 37'30' to 112 degrees 05' W. and latitude 36 degrees 30' to 36 degrees 50' N. The map area is in the eastern part of the Arizona Strip, which lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The map is bound on the east by the Colorado River in Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, on the south and west by the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Game Preserve, and on the north by the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, the Paria Canyon Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area, and the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. House Rock State Buffalo Ranch also bounds the southern edge of the map area. The Bureau of Land Management Arizona Field Office in St. George, Utah, manages public lands of the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, Paria Canyon - Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness and Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. The North Kaibab Ranger District in Fredonia, Arizona, manages U.S. Forest Service land along the west edge of the map area and House Rock State Buffalo Ranch

  13. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  14. Assessment of the occupational exposure at a fertiliser industry in the northern part of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukouliou, V.; Seferlis, S.; Kehagia, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the northern part of Greece, close to the city of Kavala, a phosphoric acid production industry has operated since 1965. The raw material used is the phosphate rock imported from the foreign countries. During industrial processes, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) deposits exist in many facilities in the industry, causing increased levels of radiation exposure. Additionally, increased levels of NORM concentrations are also detected in the waste material of the production process, the phosphogypsum. According to the Greek Regulations for Radiation Protection (no. 216B, 5/3/2001), which is in accordance with the 96/29/EURATOM 31/5/1996, the action levels concerning the effective dose to workers at workplaces due to natural radiation sources are 1 mSv y -1 . Work activities where the corresponding doses exceed 6 mSv y -1 are under the control of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The mean yearly radon concentration action level at workplaces is 400 Bq m -3 , while the corresponding concentration limit is 3000 Bq m -3 , respectively. GAEC, according to its constitutional law, is the responsible organisation to enforce and to implement the law by means of in situ surveys and laboratory measurements. The first inspection of the area was performed in 2002 and the first measures were proposed. Periodic inspections were performed every 2 y in order to extend the operation licensing of the industry. In this work a dose assessment of the workers based on in situ and laboratory measurements is presented. In order to assess the doses to the workers the external and the internal doses are estimated. (authors)

  15. Assessment of the occupational exposure at a fertiliser industry in the northern part of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Seferlis, S; Kehagia, K

    2011-03-01

    In the northern part of Greece, close to the city of Kavala, a phosphoric acid production industry has operated since 1965. The raw material used is the phosphate rock imported from the foreign countries. During industrial processes, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) deposits exist in many facilities in the industry, causing increased levels of radiation exposure. Additionally, increased levels of NORM concentrations are also detected in the waste material of the production process, the phosphogypsum. According to the Greek Regulations for Radiation Protection (no. 216B, 5/3/2001), which is in accordance with the 96/29/EURATOM 31/5/1996, the action levels concerning the effective dose to workers at workplaces due to natural radiation sources are 1 mSv y(-1). Work activities where the corresponding doses exceed 6 mSv y(-1) are under the control of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The mean yearly radon concentration action level at workplaces is 400 Bq m(-3), while the corresponding concentration limit is 3000 Bq m(-3), respectively. GAEC, according to its constitutional law, is the responsible organisation to enforce and to implement the law by means of in situ surveys and laboratory measurements. The first inspection of the area was performed in 2002 and the first measures were proposed. Periodic inspections were performed every 2 y in order to extend the operation licensing of the industry. In this work a dose assessment of the workers based on in situ and laboratory measurements is presented. In order to assess the doses to the workers the external and the internal doses are estimated.

  16. Assessment of Soil Degradation in The Northern Part of Nile Delta, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Nahry, A.H.; Ibraheim, M.M.; El Baroudy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present work aims at monitoring soil degradation process within the last two decades in the northern part of Nile Delta .The investigated area lies between longitudes 31 00 and 31 15 E and latitudes 31 00 and 31 37 N, covering an area of about 344584.01 feddans. Detecting soil degradation and recognizing its various types is a necessity to take the practical measures for combating it as well as conserving and keeping the agricultural soil healthy. Land degradation was assessed by adopting new approach through the integration of GLASOD/ FAa approach and Remote Sensing / GIS techniques .The main types of human induced soil degradation that observed in the studied area are salinity, alkalinity (sodicity), compaction and water logging .On the other hand water erosion because of sea rise is assessed. The obtained data showed that, areas that were affected by compaction increment have been spatially enlarged by 40.9 % and those affected by compaction decrease have been spatially reduced by 22.6 % of the total area, meanwhile areas that have been unchanged were estimated by 36.5% of the total area. The areas that were affected by water logging increase have been spatially enlarged by 52.2 % and those affected by water logging decrease have been spatially reduced by 10.1 % of the total area, meanwhile the areas which have been unchanged were represented by 37.7 % of the total area. Areas that were affected by salinity increase have been spatially enlarged by 31.4 % of the total area and those affected by salinity decrease have been reduced by 43.3 % of the total area. An area represented by 25.2 % of the total area has been unchanged. Alkalinization (sodicity) was expressed by the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP).Areas that were affected by sodicity increase have been spatially enlarged by 33.7 %, meanwhile those affected by sodicity decrease have been spatially reduced by 33.6 % of the total area. An area represented by 32.6 % of the total area has been unchanged

  17. DYNAMICS OF POVERTY, DEFORESTATION AND BEEKEEPING IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: CONCERNS FOR POLICYMAKERS – Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rabi’u JA'AFAR-FURO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the role of beekeeping amidst condition of abject poverty among the majority of the populationin northern Nigeria, and the much popularised Afforestation Programmes of the public sector. Data were collectedboth from primary and secondary sources. The findings indicated that while the activities/livelihood of the peoplehad devastating effects on the environment (felling of trees of which massive adoption of low-technologybeekeeping would play immense role in reviving the situation, the attitude of the government towards promoting treeplanting campaign in the area has not been encouraging. Its concluded that the livelihoods of the poor majority ofthe people of northern Nigeria had devastating effects on the Afforestation efforts in the area, and beekeepingenterprise could be used as a bridge between the two (poverty and afforestation. It is therefore, stronglyrecommended that policymakers should address the dynamics between poverty, deforestation and beekeeping withthe hope of stabilising the economic situation of the people of northern Nigeria and by extension improves theirincomes and livelihoods

  18. Coastal change and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR has identified the input of nutrient-rich water from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB as the prime cause of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the prime means for its control. A Watershed Nutrient Task Force was formed to solve the hypoxia problem by managing the MARB catchment. However, the hypoxic zone is also experiencing massive physical, hydrological, chemical and biological changes associated with an immense river-switching and delta-building event that occurs here about once a millennium. Coastal change induced hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico prior to European settlement. It is recommended that for further understanding and control of Gulf hypoxia the Watershed Nutrient Task Force adopt a truly holistic environmental approach which includes the full effects of this highly dynamic coastal area.

  19. Water quality of the Mississippian carbonate aquifer in parts of middle Tennessee and northern Alabama, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Shelton, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality data for nitrate, fecal-indicator bacteria, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds collected in parts of Middle Tennessee and northern Alabama indicate that the Mississippian carbonate aquifer in these areas is susceptible to contamination from point and nonpoint sources. Thirty randomly located wells (predominantly domestic), two springs, and two additional public-supply wells were sampled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. These wells and springs were sampled to characterize the occurrence and distribution of the above constituents in this karst aquifer of Mississippian age and to determine the principal environmental factors related to their occurrence.Nitrate and fecal indicator bacteria were frequently detected at the sampled sites. Nitrate exceeded the drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in two samples; the median concentration for all samples was about 1.5 milligrams per liter. Correlation of nitrate concentrations to the amount of cropland near a site and to pesticide detections indicates that fertilizer application is the predominant source of nitrogen to the aquifer. Fecal-indicator bacteria were present in samples from about 40 percent of the sites. The presence of fecal-indicator bacteria is weakly correlated to the depth to ground water but is not correlated to a specific land use near the sites.Pesticides and pesticide breakdown products (metabolites) were detected at 74 percent of the sites sampled. Concentrations generally were less than 1 microgram per liter and no pesticide detections exceeded drinking-water maximum contaminant levels. The maximum total pesticide concentration measured was about 4 micrograms per liter. Intensity of pesticide use, proximity of sites to areas of pesticide application, and soil hydrologic group were the primary factors affecting the occurrence of pesticides.Volatile organic compounds were

  20. Floating nuclear power plants and associated technologies in the Northern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Standring, W.J.F.

    2008-12-01

    Although floating nuclear power plants are not a new concept, all indications are that Russia, amongst other countries, has identified FNPP's (floating nuclear power plants) as one of a range of potential power solutions for both the domestic and international commercial market, utilising LCNPP's (low-capacity nuclear power plants). This focus on LCNPP's in general and LCNPP's in particular appears to be a key part of Russia's positioning of itself as a future leader in the global nuclear energy market. Given the fact that much of the support infrastructure for Russia's existing civilian nuclear fleet is located in the northern regions, the development of FNPP's as part of the nuclear industry is a matter of some interest to a number of countries including Norway. Although FNPP technology is not new, the business models being proposed to effectively commercialise FNPP's as a product on the international market are somewhat novel. This novelty may place FNPP's in a relatively grey area with respect to international laws and regulations. This situation is however also a product of recent developments and initiatives regarding the global nuclear industry and how it operates in the 21st century and the consideration of such business models by countries other than Russia means that it may not be unique to either FNPP's or Russia. A review of the available information indicates that FNPP's may be constructed, located and operated in the Russian Arctic region for a variety of purposes (civilian power/heat generation, resource extraction etc.) as well as being made available for export internationally for purposes such as desalination. Russia is and has been engaged in marketing of such systems to a wide range of potential customers. Information as to potential FNPP technologies is available from a range of sources which indicate a suite of potential designs that may be used in FNPP systems. The nature of these plants, with respect to operation, life cycle, waste handling

  1. Floating nuclear power plants and associated technologies in the Northern areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M.; Standring, W.J.F.

    2008-12-15

    Although floating nuclear power plants are not a new concept, all indications are that Russia, amongst other countries, has identified FNPP's (floating nuclear power plants) as one of a range of potential power solutions for both the domestic and international commercial market, utilising LCNPP's (low-capacity nuclear power plants). This focus on LCNPP's in general and LCNPP's in particular appears to be a key part of Russia's positioning of itself as a future leader in the global nuclear energy market. Given the fact that much of the support infrastructure for Russia's existing civilian nuclear fleet is located in the northern regions, the development of FNPP's as part of the nuclear industry is a matter of some interest to a number of countries including Norway. Although FNPP technology is not new, the business models being proposed to effectively commercialise FNPP's as a product on the international market are somewhat novel. This novelty may place FNPP's in a relatively grey area with respect to international laws and regulations. This situation is however also a product of recent developments and initiatives regarding the global nuclear industry and how it operates in the 21st century and the consideration of such business models by countries other than Russia means that it may not be unique to either FNPP's or Russia. A review of the available information indicates that FNPP's may be constructed, located and operated in the Russian Arctic region for a variety of purposes (civilian power/heat generation, resource extraction etc.) as well as being made available for export internationally for purposes such as desalination. Russia is and has been engaged in marketing of such systems to a wide range of potential customers. Information as to potential FNPP technologies is available from a range of sources which indicate a suite of potential designs that may be used in FNPP systems. The nature of these plants

  2. Indoor and underground radon activity in the northern part of Bangladesh: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.K.F.; Islam, G.S.; Islam, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors were used to determine the indoor and underground radon activity at three locations in the northern part of Bangladesh. The indoor radon activity at Naogaon was found to be higher than that at Rajshahi and Ruppur. Radon concentration in the mud-built houses at Naogaon was estimated to be ∼ 500 Bq m -3 (14pCi 1 -1 ) which is more than three times the recommended limit. The underground radon emanation at Naogaon was found to be one order of magnitude higher than that at the other two places. (author)

  3. Metabolic fingerprinting of bacterial strains isolated from northern areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, A.; Latif, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere plays a key role in the maintenance of sustainable agricultural system. In this study, samples were obtained from northern areas of Pakistan. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated, purified, characterized biochemically and subjected to the metabolic fingerprinting by performing nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, protease, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal resistance test, lead acetate assay for the H2S production. Strains showing distinct characteristics were further characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and characterized as Bacillus pumilus (KT273321), Acinetobacter baumanii (KT273323), Acinetobacter junii (KT273324), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KT273325), Bacillus circulans (KT273326) and Bacillus cereus (KT273327). As most of the strains show positive results for resistance against heavy metals, phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, IAA production, and so these strains might be utilized for the removal of heavy metals from the ecosystem as well as biofertilizer in agriculture lands of northern areas. (author)

  4. Petri nets - part 1: concepts and application areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    2004-03-01

    There exist a number of models, languages, methods, and tools that support the specification and analysis of system requirements. One important class comprises graphical methods based on the concept of Petri nets. Due to the wide variety of applications, these methods are relevant also in research and applications outside the digital systems safety domain. The present report constitutes the first of three parts of a unified exposition of graphical methods based on the concept of Petri nets. The report provides an introduction to basic concepts of Petri nets and an overview of a wide variety of application areas. The second part of the trilogy will present a number of techniques and tools. The third part will focus on analysis. Petri nets have been proposed for a wide variety of applications, and new areas are considered as new challenges emerge from scientific, technological, and social developments. The wide variety of application areas reflects a broad interest in Petri nets, coming from diverse directions. Empirically, as well as theoretically, there are good reasons to claim that Petri nets are applicable for many different kinds of problems. What is common to the different applications and problems addressed is the need for a formalism that allows adequate representation of important system characteristics like concurrency, asyncronicity, distribution, parallelism, and non-determinism. Several of the references in the report discuss NPP-related applications, or applications with great potentials for technology transfer from other areas to the nuclear domain. (Author)

  5. The characteristics of heat flow in the Shenhu gas hydrate drilling area, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Wan, Zhifeng; Wang, Xianqing; Sun, Yuefeng; Xia, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Marine heat flow is of great significance for the formation and occurrence of seabed oil, gas and gas hydrate resources. Geothermal gradient is an important parameter in determining the thickness of the hydrate stability zone. The northern slope of the South China Sea is rich in gas hydrate resources. Several borehole drilling attempts were successful in finding hydrates in the Shenhu area, while others were not. The failures demand further study on the distribution regularities of heat flow and its controlling effects on hydrate occurrence. In this study, forty-eight heat flow measurements are analyzed in the Shenhu gas hydrate drilling area, located in the northern South China Sea, together with their relationship to topography, sedimentary environment and tectonic setting. Canyons are well developed in the study area, caused mainly by the development of faults, faster sediment supply and slumping of the Pearl River Estuary since the late Miocene in the northern South China Sea. The heat flow values in grooves, occurring always in fault zones, are higher than those of ridges. Additionally, the heat flow values gradually increase from the inner fan, to the middle fan, to the external fan subfacies. The locations with low heat flow such as ridges, locations away from faults and the middle fan subfacies, are more conducive to gas hydrate occurrence.

  6. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  7. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of the Llandovery in northern peri-Gondwana: new data from the Barrandian area, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Frýda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The first complete δ13Corg record of the uppermost Hirnantian to lower Telychian strata of the Barrandian area (northern peri-Gondwana is presented based on 168 new samples. The new data from the study area reveal that the evolution of the Llandoverian organic carbon isotope reservoir was similar to that on other palaeoplates, but it differs from the development of the coeval carbonate carbon isotope reservoir in the absence of two δ13C excursions (i.e. the early Aeronian positive excursion in the upper part of the Demirastrites triangulatus graptolite Biozone and a negative excursion occurring close to the boundary between the Cystograptus vesiculosus and Coronograptus cyphus graptolite biozones.

  8. Frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis c antibodies in apparently healthy blood donors in northern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Naeem, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of HBsAg and anti HCV among the potential blood donors belonging to Northern areas.A total of 8949 apparently healthy blood donors, belonging to Northern areas were screened for HBsAg and anti-HCV by rapid method.Overall sero-positivity of HBsAg was 3.66% and anti-HCV 1.35%. The result indicates that frequency of HBsAg is more than anti-HCV in Northern areas. (author)

  9. Radiation epidemiological analysis of late effects of population exposure at northern part of east ural radioactive trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Konshina, L.G.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Zhukovsky, M.V.; Pavlyuk, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Population residing in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk oblast and the south eastern part of the Sverdlovsk oblast of Russia affected to accidental exposure since 1957. The territory (East Ural Radioactive Trace - EURT) was contaminated after explosion of container with highly radioactive wastes at the Mayak Production Association. Studies of health effects of exposure in the southern, head part of EURT are conducted in the Ural Research and Practical Center of Radiation Medicine (U.R.P.R.M.). In the 1990's U.R.P.C.R.M. formed a cohort of EURT within Chelyabinsk oblast (14,500 cases and 19,400 external controls). The cohort was followed in 1957-1987 and the results of the study are discussed by Crestinina et al. First results of study on exposure late health effects among rural population in the northern part of the EURT are presented in this paper. Firstly, or the period 1958-2000 a statistically significant increase in cancer mortality associated with accidental exposure at EURT area was observed in the critical group of population of the Kamensky district, Sverdlovsk Region (65 cancer deaths among 691 cases, 90% CI 18-144). The finding is in agreement with the results of a radiation epidemiological study in the southern head part of EURT and model radiation risk assessments. E.R.R. normalized to colon dose is 1.3 Gy-1 (90 % CI 0.36-2.9 Gy-1). Secondly, analysis of the age and temporal factors influence on solid cancers radiation risk allows conclusion on decline of radiation risk in time. At present considerable number of additional radiation-induced cancer deaths are unlikely to appear. Radiation risk of solid cancers realizes at most during 30 post-accident years. Radiation risk declines with age at first exposure and not appeared in the age group >60. Derived age and time dependencies generally agree with results of other radiation epidemiological studies. Thirdly, continuation and development of radiation epidemiological study of the population residing

  10. Radiation epidemiological analysis of late effects of population exposure at northern part of east ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Konshina, L.G.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Zhukovsky, M.V.; Pavlyuk, A.V. [V.N. Chukanov Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Population residing in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk oblast and the south eastern part of the Sverdlovsk oblast of Russia affected to accidental exposure since 1957. The territory (East Ural Radioactive Trace - EURT) was contaminated after explosion of container with highly radioactive wastes at the Mayak Production Association. Studies of health effects of exposure in the southern, head part of EURT are conducted in the Ural Research and Practical Center of Radiation Medicine (U.R.P.R.M.). In the 1990's U.R.P.C.R.M. formed a cohort of EURT within Chelyabinsk oblast (14,500 cases and 19,400 external controls). The cohort was followed in 1957-1987 and the results of the study are discussed by Crestinina et al. First results of study on exposure late health effects among rural population in the northern part of the EURT are presented in this paper. Firstly, or the period 1958-2000 a statistically significant increase in cancer mortality associated with accidental exposure at EURT area was observed in the critical group of population of the Kamensky district, Sverdlovsk Region (65 cancer deaths among 691 cases, 90% CI 18-144). The finding is in agreement with the results of a radiation epidemiological study in the southern head part of EURT and model radiation risk assessments. E.R.R. normalized to colon dose is 1.3 Gy-1 (90 % CI 0.36-2.9 Gy-1). Secondly, analysis of the age and temporal factors influence on solid cancers radiation risk allows conclusion on decline of radiation risk in time. At present considerable number of additional radiation-induced cancer deaths are unlikely to appear. Radiation risk of solid cancers realizes at most during 30 post-accident years. Radiation risk declines with age at first exposure and not appeared in the age group >60. Derived age and time dependencies generally agree with results of other radiation epidemiological studies. Thirdly, continuation and development of radiation epidemiological study of the population

  11. Map Showing Geology and Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer Catchment Area, Northern Bexar County, South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.; Blome, Charles D.; Faith, Jason R.

    2009-01-01

    Rock units forming the Edwards and Trinity aquifers in northern Bexar County, Texas, are exposed within all or parts of seven 7.5-minute quadrangles: Bulverde, Camp Bullis, Castle Hills, Helotes, Jack Mountain, San Geronimo, and Van Raub. The Edwards aquifer is the most prolific ground-water source in Bexar County, whereas the Trinity aquifer supplies water for residential, commercial, and industrial uses for areas north of the San Antonio. The geologic map of northern Bexar County shows the distribution of informal hydrostratigraphic members of the Edwards Group and the underlying upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone. Exposures of the Glen Rose Limestone, which forms the Trinity aquifer alone, cover approximately 467 km2 in the county. This study also describes and names five informal hydrostratigraphic members that constitute the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone; these include, in descending order, the Caverness, Camp Bullis, Upper evaporite, Fossiliferous, and Lower evaporite members. This study improves our understanding of the hydrogeologic connection between the two aquifers as it describes the geology that controls the infiltration of surface water and subsurface flow of ground water from the catchment area (outcropping Trinity aquifer rocks) to the Edwards water-bearing exposures.

  12. Diversity and endemism in deglaciated areas: ploidy, relative genome size and niche differentiation in the Galium pusillum complex (Rubiaceae) in Northern and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, Filip; Lučanová, Magdalena; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fér, Tomáš; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants endemic to areas covered by ice sheets during the last glaciation represent paradigmatic examples of rapid speciation in changing environments, yet very few systems outside the harsh arctic zone have been comprehensively investigated so far. The Galium pusillum aggregate (Rubiaceae) is a challenging species complex that exhibits a marked differentiation in boreal parts of Northern Europe. As a first step towards understanding its evolutionary history in deglaciated regions, this study assesses cytological variation and ecological preferences of the northern endemics and compares the results with corresponding data for species occurring in neighbouring unglaciated parts of Central and Western Europe. Methods DNA flow cytometry was used together with confirmatory chromosome counts to determine ploidy levels and relative genome sizes in 1158 individuals from 181 populations. A formalized analysis of habitat preferences was applied to explore niche differentiation among species and ploidy levels. Key Results The G. pusillum complex evolved at diploid and tetraploid levels in Northern Europe, in contrast to the high-polyploid evolution of most other northern endemics. A high level of eco-geographic segregation was observed between different species (particularly along gradients of soil pH and competition) which is unusual for plants in deglaciated areas and most probably contributes to maintaining species integrity. Relative monoploid DNA contents of the species from previously glaciated regions were significantly lower than those of their counterparts from mostly unglaciated Central Europe, suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Conclusions The aggregate of G. pusillum in Northern Europe represents an exceptional case with a geographically vicariant and ecologically distinct diploid/tetraploid species endemic to formerly glaciated areas. The high level of interspecific differentiation substantially widens our perception of the

  13. Youths´ voices about the future in northern part of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnvald Storvoll

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Youths´ choice of education and residence will affect development our part of the country. The article offers insight into how some young people from Troms are looking at the future in the north. On one hand, a statistical description of North Norway's future perspectives from SSB, the media and even researchers, can be perceived as a negative threat – also for the youth. The demographic prediction for the region described is gloomy. This may result in a negative prediction, almost a self-fulfilling prophecy. On the other hand, young people grow up in a part of the country with positive future opportunities;Tourism is increasing, northern Norway is experiencing faster economic growth than the rest of the country, and many new jobs are making the scene.There are many features in community development that make places important, and make new perspectives and theories of place evolve. Increased mobility in the world, more attention to the flow of people, products and ideas, and more intense globalization processes, also affect societal phenomena in new ways in the north. Many young people in Troms move for education. Hence, they may live in several places and experience belonging to more than one place. The concepts of multi-site affiliation and site polygamy open up for other ways of understanding interaction between different places with which to be associated. It is an interesting finding that a large proportion of young people from Troms want to study abroad. Glocal citizens with multiple and parallel identities allow for new ways to understand and recreate places.«The region of opportunity» is used by many to depict the northern part of the country. At this intersection, youth is challenged, both through electronic survey, workshop and interviews. 

  14. Do breeding phase and detection distance influence the effective area surveyed for northern goshawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, A.M.; Andersen, D.E.; Kennedy, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Broadcast surveys using conspecific calls are currently the most effective method for detecting northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) during the breeding season. These surveys typically use alarm calls during the nestling phase and juvenile food-begging calls during the fledgling-dependency phase. Because goshawks are most vocal during the courtship phase, we hypothesized that this phase would be an effective time to detect goshawks. Our objective was to improve current survey methodology by evaluating the probability of detecting goshawks at active nests in northern Minnesota in 3 breeding phases and at 4 broadcast distances and to determine the effective area surveyed per broadcast station. Unlike previous studies, we broadcast calls at only 1 distance per trial. This approach better quantifies (1) the relationship between distance and probability of detection, and (2) the effective area surveyed (EAS) per broadcast station. We conducted 99 broadcast trials at 14 active breeding areas. When pooled over all distances, detection rates were highest during the courtship (70%) and fledgling-dependency phases (68%). Detection rates were lowest during the nestling phase (28%), when there appeared to be higher variation in likelihood of detecting individuals. EAS per broadcast station was 39.8 ha during courtship and 24.8 ha during fledgling-dependency. Consequently, in northern Minnesota, broadcast stations may be spaced 712m and 562 m apart when conducting systematic surveys during courtship and fledgling-dependency, respectively. We could not calculate EAS for the nestling phase because probability of detection was not a simple function of distance from nest. Calculation of EAS could be applied to other areas where the probability of detection is a known function of distance.

  15. Intermediate earthquakes in a northern part of the Kyushu-Ryukyu arc. Kyushu-Ryukyu kohokubu iki no shoshinpatsu jishin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, T.; Miyamachi, H.; Takagi, A. (Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-06-24

    Great improvement has been made in the reduction of errors in the detection accuracy of intermediate earthquake epicenters, particularly of longitude and focal depth, by the analysis of data obtained by the observation network of Kagoshima University deployed for the purpose of observing regional seismic activities in the southern part of Kyushu. The epicenters are redetermined by adding the data observed by Fukuoka Meteorological Observatory to study the source distribution mainly. A chain of earthquakes at the depths from 119km to 177km in a vertical zone from Kaimon-dake volcano to the south and a chain of events branched off from the cluster towards Sakurajima volcano are observed. It is plausible that the existence of these seismic activities in the peripheral areas immediately below volcanos is associated with the supply of volcanic energy in Kyushu. Seismicity gaps of intermediate earthquakes are also noticeable phenomena. Although the number of earthquakes is not enough for the establishment of theories for seismic activities and seismicity gaps in the northern part of the Kyushu-Ryukyu arc, regional features are found out which is considered to be related with the characteristic thermal activity in the area of plate dipping at high angle. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  17. Report on the environmental isotopic investigations in Kedah and Perlis Area, Malaysia (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud bin Mohamad.

    1982-11-01

    A preliminary study of the isotope hydrology of the Kedah and Perlis area was undertaken under the RCA programme. This project is an attempt at elucidating the mechanism of recharge, origin, area of recharge and dating of groundwater system in the area. The results show that all groundwater samples in the area vary within a narrow range for 18 0 (-7.58 to -5.06%) while 2 H ranges from -50.3 to -35.1%. The mean isotopic composition of precipitation collected at Alor Star meteorological station fall within the range of variation of the Kedah/Perlis groundwaters. In the southern part of the study site, the isotopic results indicate the occurence of two types of water: firstly, the recharge is from the highlands where more negative 18 0 values and low tritium were observed and the second type is of local recharge where high tritium and less negative 18 0 values were observed. On the other hand, in the northern part of the basin the interpretation of stable isotopic results is quite difficult to be made at this stage. There was no correlation at all between tritium and 18 0 whatsoever. Results of the tritium assay show that some of the groundwater samples are pre-nuclear in age as indicated by low tritium content. Consequently, a Carbon-14 investigation was carried out from a few selected sites and their ages were found to be in the range of about 3000 to 5000 years. (author)

  18. An integrated quantitative basin analysis study of the northern part of the Arctic national Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Lerche, Ian

    1992-06-01

    An integrated basin analysis was conducted using one- and two-dimensional quantitative dynamic models (1-D and 2-D) in the northern part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Northeastern Alaska. Exploratory well data have been used in the reconstructions of: (1) geohistory including basement subsidence, sediment deposition, change of porosity and compaction, permeability, fluid pressure and fluid flow with time and depth; (2) thermal history including heat flux evolution with time, temperature change with time and depth, and thermal maturation history; and (3) hydrocarbon generation history including the change in the amount of hydrocarbons generated with time and depth, and determining the time and depth of peak hydrocarbon generation. 1-D and 2-D basin modeling codes were used with selected wells, and also with a 18 km section, west of ANWR, with five well controls. It is concluded that: (1) the main source rock west of ANWR area matured first about 40-30 Ma ago in the south and gradually to the north about 10-8 Ma ago on the coastal plain; (2) the modeled erosion thickness at Beli Unit-1 location, northeastern Brooks Range, was 1500-3000 m and at least 3000 m at Canning River Unit B-1; and (3) an overpressure zone within the Hue shale and the lowest part of the Canning Formation caused by rapid Tertiary deposition retained porosity, increased the temperature and speeded hydrocarbon generation in the lower part of the coastal plain.

  19. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  20. Collaborative Measurement of Performance of Jointly Managed Protected Areas in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Stacey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Responsibility for the management of many protected areas in the Northern Territory, Australia, is shared between the management agency and the aboriginal owners of that land. We describe (1 the creation and types of indicators developed by partners in a participatory process to measure management effectiveness, (2 the assessment method used to monitor progress, and (3 the results of the first cycle of evaluations in four jointly managed parks. Although each pilot park area has distinctive features, we were able to identify a set of twelve common indicators that were applied across the four park areas. The agreed indicators, which were scored using a color scale to indicate level of achievement, were primarily concerned with process rather than outcome, with particular emphasis on the strength of social relationships. Thus, there were indicators that assessed performance in governance and decision making, application and interpretation of cultural heritage and traditional ecological knowledge, expansion of social capital, human and financial resources, and visitors, with little emphasis on the biophysical outcomes of the management. The emphasis on the quality of the process of joint management was thought to indicate that the relationship between the joint management partners was relatively new, with trust only starting to develop. We discuss opportunities and difficulties for replication and adaptation of indicators to all jointly managed parks in the Northern Territory.

  1. Lithics in Neolithic Northern Greece: territorial perspectives from an off-obsidian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kourtessi-Philippakis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available C. Renfrew’s research in the Aegean at the beginning of the 1970’s and his hypothesis on the diffusion of obsidian from the island of Milos greatly influenced views of Greek Prehistory. Further lithic studies, especially in the Southern Aegean, have served to further confirmation the prevalence of obsidian in this area during the Neolithic. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to areas such as Northern Greece that are situated on the periphery of the Melian obsidian domain, where local materials occur in connection with imported ones from the North and South. With the aid of various examples from major Neolithic sites, we will discuss the question of procurement strategies in association with the reduction sequences of each material in use in this region, and outline trends of territorial organization among Neolithic farmers in the area.

  2. Ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in WZD area of northern Guizhou province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao

    2017-12-01

    The ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in Wuchuan-Zheng,an-Daozhen (short for WZD) Area of northern Guizhou Province was studied from the perspective of deposit formation mechanism. It was discovered that ore-forming fluids were mainly effective for transporting and leaching during the formation of bauxite. The means of transport mainly included colloidal transport, suspended transport and gravity flow transport. In the course of their leaching, fluids had a range of chemical reactions, as a result of which elements such as silicon and iron migrated downwards. In this process, properties of fluids changed as well.

  3. Status of external breath functions of the Northern Kazakhstan residents from a uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajnabekova, B.A.; Mukhambetov, D.D.; Sutyusheva, G.R.; Braun, M.A.; Sarzhanova, A.N.; Rutenko, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the external breath functions status in population of the Northern Kazakhstan uranium-miming areas. During the obtained data analysis it was revealed, that the indexes both the volume forced breathing-out behind the first wall and the vital lung capacity were low in residents are living at the mines more than 10 years, than in ones are living less than 10 years. The obtained data could not evidencing about reliable influence of low ionizing radiation dose on the bronchus permeability indexes. Presumably, that a possible reason for the reveled breath functions destabilization formation is the dust factor action

  4. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, H.-B.; Strom, A.; Jongmans, D.; Abdrakhmatov, A.; Delvaux, D.; Tréfois, P.

    Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan) earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  5. Regional Characteristics of Stress State of Main Seismic Active Faults in Mid-Northern Part of Sichuan-Yunnan Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, W.; Yaling, W.

    2017-12-01

    We restore the seismic source spectrums of 1012 earthquakes(2.0 ≤ ML ≤ 5.0) in the mid-northern part of Sichuan-Yunnan seismic block(26 ° N-33 ° N, 99 ° E-104 ° E),then calculate the source parameters.Based on the regional seismic tectonic background, the distribution of active faults and seismicity, the study area is divided into four statistical units (Z1 Jinshajiang and Litang fault zone, Z2 Xianshuihe fault zone, Z3 Anninghe-Zemuhe fault zone, Z4 Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault zone). Seismic source stress drop results show the following, (1)The stress at the end of the Jinshajiang fault is low, strong earthquake activity rare.Stress-strain loading deceases gradually from northwest to southeast along Litang fault, the northwest section which is relatively locked is more likely to accumulate strain than southeast section. (2)Stress drop of Z2 is divided by Kangding, the southern section is low and northern section is high. Southern section (Kangding-Shimian) is difficult to accumulate higher strain in the short term, but in northern section (Garzê-Kangding), moderate and strong earthquakes have not filled the gaps of seismic moment release, there is still a high stress accumulation in partial section. (3)High stress-drop events were concentrated on Z3, strain accumulation of this unit is strong, and stress level is the highest, earthquake risk is high. (4)On Z4, stress drop characteristics of different magnitude earthquakes are not the same, which is related to complex tectonic setting, the specific reasons still need to be discussed deeply.The study also show that, (1)Stress drops display a systematic change with different faults and locations, high stress-drop events occurs mostly on the fault intersection area. Faults without locking condition and mainly creep, are mainly characterized by low stress drop. (2)Contrasting to what is commonly thought that "strike-slip faults are not easy to accumulate stress ", Z2 and Z3 all exhibit high stress levels, which

  6. Hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters in Chaves geothermal area (northern Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires-Barros, Luis; Marques, Jose Manuel; Graca, Rui Cores; Matias, Maria Jose [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lab. de Mineralogia e Petrologia (LAMPIST), Lisboa (Portugal); Weijden, Cornelis H. van der; Kreulen, Rob [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eggenkamp, Hermanus Gerardus M. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reading Univ., Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    In order to update the geohydrologic characterisation of Chaves geothermal area, coupled isotopic and chemical studies have been carried out on hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging, in northern Portugal, along one of the major regional NNE-trending faults (the so-called Verin-Chaves-Penacova Depression). Based upon their location, and chemical and isotopic composition, the analysed waters can be divided into two groups. The northern group belongs to the HCO{sub 3}/Na/CO{sub 2}-rich type, and consists of the hot spring waters of Chaves and the cold spring waters of Vilarelho da Raia. The {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values show that these waters are of meteoric origin. The lack of an {sup 18}O shift indicates that there is no evidence of water/rock interaction at high temperatures. The southern group includes the cold spring waters of Campilho/Vidago and Sabroso/Pedras Salgadas. Their chemistry is similar to that of the northern group but their heavier {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values could be attributed to different recharge altitudes. Mixing between deep mineralised waters and dilute superficial waters of meteoric origin might explain the higher {sup 3}H activity found in the Vidago and Pedras Salgadas mineral waters. Alternatively, they could be mainly related to shallow underground flowpaths. The {delta}{sup 13}C values support a deep-seated origin for the CO{sub 2}. The {delta}{sup 37}Cl is comparable in all the mineral waters of the study areas, indicating a common origin of Cl. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in waters seem to be dominated by the dissolution of plagioclases or granitic rocks. (Author)

  7. Low-Q structure related to partially saturated pores within the reservoir beneath The Geysers area in the northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, M.

    2011-12-01

    A large reservoir is located beneath The Geysers geothermal area, northern California. Seismic tomography revealed high-velocity (high-V) and low-Vp/Vs zones in the reservoir (Julian et al., 1996) and a decrease of Vp/Vs from 1991 to 1998 (Guasekera et al., 2003) owing to withdrawal of steam from the reservoir. I perform attenuation tomography in this region to investigate the state of vapor and liquid within the reservoir. The target region, 38.5-39.0°N and 122.5-123°W, covers The Geysers area. I use seismograms of 1,231 events whose focal mechanism are determined among 65,810 events recorded by the Northern California Earthquake Data Center from 2002 to 2008 in the target region. The band-pass filtered seismograms are analyzed for collecting the maximum amplitude data. There are 26 stations that have a three-component seismometer among 47 seismic stations. I use the P- and S-wave maximum amplitudes during the two seconds after the arrival of those waves in order to avoid coda effects. A total of 8,545 P- and 1,168 S-wave amplitude data for 949 earthquakes recorded at 47 stations are available for the analysis using the attenuation tomographic method derived from the velocity tomographic method (Matsubara et al., 2005, 2008) in which spatial velocity correlation and station corrections are introduced to the original code of Zhao et al. (1992). I use 3-D velocity structure obtained by Thurber et al. (2009). The initial Q value is set to 150, corresponding to the average Q of the northern California (Ford et al., 2010). At sea level, low-Q zones are found extending from the middle of the steam reservoir within the main greywacke to the south part of the reservoir. At a depth of 1 km below sea level, a low-Q zone is located solely in the southern part of the reservoir. However, at a depth of 2 km a low-Q zone is located beneath the northern part of the reservoir. At depths of 1 to 3 km a felsite batholith in the deeper portions of the reservoir, and it corresponds

  8. Factors influencing happiness of the grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Powwattana, Arpaporn

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 400 grandmothers, aged 50-79 years, who raised their grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected through a structured interview from April to July 2009 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Multiple regression analysis. Nearly half (46.8%) of grandmothers raising grandchildren had high level of happiness, followed by moderate level (40.4%) and low level (12.8%). The factors, which significantly influenced the happiness of the grandmothers, were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p-value happiness of the grandmothers by 48.1%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of happiness among grandmothers. The factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote happiness of grandmothers, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the grandmother's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  9. Mapping of sound scattering objects in the northern part of the Barents Sea and their geological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, S. Yu.; Moroz, E. A.; Abramova, A. S.; Zarayskaya, Yu. A.; Dobrolubova, K. O.

    2017-07-01

    On cruises 25 (2007) and 28 (2011) of the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov in the northern part of the Barents Sea, the Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, conducted comprehensive research on the bottom relief and upper part of the sedimentary cover profile under the auspices of the International Polar Year program. One of the instrument components was the SeaBat 8111 shallow-water multibeam echo sounder, which can map the acoustic field similarly to a side scan sonar, which records the response both from the bottom and from the water column. In the operations area, intense sound scattering objects produced by the discharge of deep fluid flows are detected in the water column. The sound scattering objects and pockmarks in the bottom relief are related to anomalies in hydrocarbon gas concentrations in bottom sediments. The sound scattering objects are localized over Triassic sequences outcropping from the bottom. The most intense degassing processes manifest themselves near the contact of the Triassic sequences and Jurassic clay deposits, as well as over deep depressions in a field of Bouguer anomalies related to the basement of the Jurassic-Cretaceous rift system

  10. Heavy mineral survey for rare earths in the Northern part of Palawan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.Y.; Santos, G.P.; Magsambol, W.N.; Ramos, A.F.; Petrache, C.A.; Tabora, E.U.

    1992-01-01

    A reconnaissance geochemical survey for rare earths was carried out over the northern half of Palawan with considerable success. The survey represents the first systematic geochemical exploration effort to look for indigenous rare earth resources in the Philippines. Total area covered was about 5,000 sq km. The survey entailed the systematic collection of 740 heavy mineral panned concentrate and stream sediment samples along streams and rivers. The average sampling density was about one set of sample per 2-15 sq km. A total of 218 heavy mineral samples were analyzed for lathanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and yttrium. Analysis of stream sediments for rare earths was discontinued due to the high detection limit of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results of the survey clearly indicated the effectiveness of heavy mineral sampling for rare earths at the reconnaissance level of exploration. Six anomalous and well-defined areas of interest were delineated for possible rare earth mineralization. Three priority zones were further outlined from the six prospective areas for possible follow-up surveys. Mineralogical examination of heavy minerals revealed the presence of major allanite and minor monazite as the potential hosts of rare earths in the priority zone number one. Gray monazite was identified in the priority zone number two as the rare earth mineral. Minute specks and grains of gold were visibly present in some of the heavy mineral samples taken in this area. A combined mineralization of rare earths and gold in this area is a possibility. The discovery of the first gray nodular monazite in Palawan may extend the age of the oldest rocks in the Philippines to Lower Paleozoic. A separate study to establish the age of the oldest rocks in the country is likewise necessary. (auth.). 27 refs.; 6 figs.; 8 tabs

  11. The Typology of the Landscapes from the Northern Part of Cluj-Napoca City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baciu Nicolae

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The protected site Dealurile Clujului-Est is located in the Transylvanian Depression subunit known as Somes Plateau, in the northern part of Cluj-Napoca. The presence of a plateau units characterized by an alternation of valley corridors and interfluves was able to dictate the existence of a variety of types of landscapes. Along with relief, which is characterized by altitude, slope, exposition and dynamic geomorphologic processes, the land use has been taken into account. The last three centuries Dealurile Clujului suffered a considerable human impact, despite seeming insignificant anthropogenic pressures and villages with low prevalence. Therefore we can say that the natural landscapes (characterized by state of climax or biostazie are often insignificant compared to the spatial expansion of the territorial unit analyzed. The landscape is characterized by a rural lifestyle, clearly expressed, with forest vegetation positioned at higher parts of that territory, followed by traditional crops, the vast pasture and meadow, with the dominant category of small and very small villages, located along the valleys and the river origins. By applying the criteria mentioned and GIS techniques, we distinguished 14 types of landscapes and related subtypes, both natural and built.

  12. Evaluating extreme flood characteristics of small mountainous basins of the Black Sea coastal area, Northern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Lebedeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The probability of heavy rains and river floods is expected to increase with time in the Northern Caucasus region. Densely populated areas in the valleys of small mountainous watersheds already frequently suffer from catastrophic peak floods caused by intense rains at higher elevations. This study aimed at assessing the flood characteristics of several small basins in the piedmont area of the Caucasus Mountains adjacent to the Black Sea coast including ungauged Cemes River in the Novorossiysk city. The Deterministic-Stochastic Modelling System which consists of hydrological model Hydrograph and stochastic weather generator was applied to evaluate extreme rainfall and runoff characteristics of 1% exceedance probability. Rainfall intensity is shown to play more significant role than its depth in formation of extreme flows within the studied region.

  13. Preliminary Nearshore Sedimentation Rate Analysis of the Tuungane Project Northern Mahale Conservation Area, Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, R. A.; McGlue, M. M.; Yeager, K. M.; Soreghan, M. J.; Lucas, J.; Kimirei, I.; Mbonde, A.; Limbu, P.; Apse, C.

    2017-12-01

    The combined effects of climate change, overfishing, and sediment pollution are altering Lake Tanganyika's littoral fisheries in profoundly negative ways. One method for conserving critical fish resources and safeguarding biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika is by establishing small-scale nearshore protected zones, which can be administrated by lakeshore villagers organized into beach management units (BMUs). Each BMU endeavors to manage offshore "no-catch" protected zones, prohibit the use of illegal fishing gear, and promote sustainable agriculture that abates erosion in the lake watershed, in order to mitigate sediment pollution in the lake. We adopted a limnogeological approach to assist in characterizing the littoral zone associated with BMUs in the northern Mahale region of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania), a critical conservation area for the Nature Conservancy's Tuungane Project (https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/africa/wherewework/tuungane-project.xml). We hypothesized that BMUs with heavy onshore agricultural activity would experience relatively high offshore sedimentation rates, due to enhanced sediment-laden runoff in the wet season. Such changes are predicted to alter benthic substrates and degrade habitat available for fish spawning. We mapped bathymetry and sediment types along a 29 km2 area of the littoral zone using high-resolution geophysical tools, and assessed short-term sedimentation rates using sediment cores and radionuclide geochronology (210Pb). Initial results from 210Pb analyses show that sedimentation rates at the mud-line ( 85-100 m water depth) are relatively slow but spatially variable in the northern Mahale area. Offshore of the Kalilani village BMU, linear sedimentation rates are 0.50 mm/yr. By contrast, sedimentation rates offshore from the Igualula village BMU are 0.90-1.30 mm/yr. Higher sedimentation rates near Igualula are consistent with greater sediment inputs from the nearby Lagosa River and its watershed, which has been

  14. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  15. Impact on continuity of care of decentralized versus partly centralized mental health care in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Henrik Myklebust

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of continuity of care is central in contemporary psychiatric services research. In Norway, inpatient admissions are mainly to take place locally, in a system of small bed-units that represent an alternative to traditional central psychiatric hospitals. This type of organization may be advantageous for accessibility and cooperation, but has been given little scientific attention.Aims: To study whether inpatients' utilization of outpatient services differ between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized model.  Method: The study was based on data from a one-year registered prevalence sample, drawing on routinely sampled data supplemented with data from medical records. Service-utilization for 247 inpatients was analyzed. The results were controlled for diagnosis, demographic variables, type of service system, localization of inpatient admissions, and length of hospitalization. Results: Most inpatients in the area with the decentralized care model also utilized outpatient consultations, whereas a considerable number of inpatients in the area with a partly centralized model did not enter outpatient care at all. Type of service system, localization of inpatient admission, and length of hospitalization predicted inpatients' utilization of outpatient consultations. The results are discussed in the light of systems integration, particularly management-arrangements and clinical bridging over the transitional phase from inpatient to outpatient care. Conclusion: Inpatients' utilization of outpatient services differed between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized care model. In the areas studied, extensive decentralization of the psychiatric services positively affected coordination of inpatient and outpatient services for people with severe psychiatric disorders. Small, local-bed units may therefore represent a

  16. Impact on continuity of care of decentralized versus partly centralized mental health care in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Henrik Myklebust

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of continuity of care is central in contemporary psychiatric services research. In Norway, inpatient admissions are mainly to take place locally, in a system of small bed-units that represent an alternative to traditional central psychiatric hospitals. This type of organization may be advantageous for accessibility and cooperation, but has been given little scientific attention. Aims: To study whether inpatients' utilization of outpatient services differ between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized model.   Method: The study was based on data from a one-year registered prevalence sample, drawing on routinely sampled data supplemented with data from medical records. Service-utilization for 247 inpatients was analyzed. The results were controlled for diagnosis, demographic variables, type of service system, localization of inpatient admissions, and length of hospitalization.  Results: Most inpatients in the area with the decentralized care model also utilized outpatient consultations, whereas a considerable number of inpatients in the area with a partly centralized model did not enter outpatient care at all. Type of service system, localization of inpatient admission, and length of hospitalization predicted inpatients' utilization of outpatient consultations. The results are discussed in the light of systems integration, particularly management-arrangements and clinical bridging over the transitional phase from inpatient to outpatient care.  Conclusion: Inpatients' utilization of outpatient services differed between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized care model. In the areas studied, extensive decentralization of the psychiatric services positively affected coordination of inpatient and outpatient services for people with severe psychiatric disorders. Small, local-bed units may therefore

  17. Impact on continuity of care of decentralized versus partly centralized mental health care in Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Lars Henrik; Olstad, Reidun; Bjorbekkmo, Svein; Eisemann, Martin; Wynn, Rolf; Sørgaard, Knut

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of continuity of care is central in contemporary psychiatric services research. In Norway, inpatient admissions are mainly to take place locally, in a system of small bed-units that represent an alternative to traditional central psychiatric hospitals. This type of organization may be advantageous for accessibility and cooperation, but has been given little scientific attention. Aims To study whether inpatients’ utilization of outpatient services differ between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized model. Method The study was based on data from a one-year registered prevalence sample, drawing on routinely sampled data supplemented with data from medical records. Service-utilization for 247 inpatients was analyzed. The results were controlled for diagnosis, demographic variables, type of service system, localization of inpatient admissions, and length of hospitalization. Results Most inpatients in the area with the decentralized care model also utilized outpatient consultations, whereas a considerable number of inpatients in the area with a partly centralized model did not enter outpatient care at all. Type of service system, localization of inpatient admission, and length of hospitalization predicted inpatients’ utilization of outpatient consultations. The results are discussed in the light of systems integration, particularly management-arrangements and clinical bridging over the transitional phase from inpatient to outpatient care. Conclusion Inpatients’ utilization of outpatient services differed between an area with a decentralized care model in comparison to an adjacent area with a partly centralized care model. In the areas studied, extensive decentralization of the psychiatric services positively affected coordination of inpatient and outpatient services for people with severe psychiatric disorders. Small, local-bed units may therefore represent a favourable alternative

  18. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

    2007-11-01

    Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available.

  19. TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS OF FOREST CHANGES IN NORTHERN AREA OF CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS, CHINA FROM LANDSAT TM IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information from integrated Landsat TM/ETM images and geographic information systems (GIS, using dynamic model, landscape indices and temporal trajectory analysis, spatio-temporal changes in forest in the northern area of Changbai Mountains were investigated in the past 20 years. The results showed that the forests decreased by 141461 ha at the annual decrease rate of 0.19% from 1986 to 2006. The numbers of forest patch increased, while the patch size of forest land declined. Forestland experienced the process of substantial fragmentation. Close forest showed a net reduction of 13.3×104ha. The typical trajectories of forest changes included forestland-forestland-cropland, forestland-cropland-cropland, forestland-forestland-grassland and forestland-cropland-built-up land. The total area of human-induced change is 1.7 times than that of natural change in the study area. Population, cropland area and gross domestic product increased significantly as forests decreased.

  20. Habitat selection by female northern pintails wintering in the Grassland Ecological Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Gilmer, David S.; Jarvis, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    To determine relative importance of habitats available in the Grassland Ecological Area (GEA) to wintering female northern pintails, Anas acuta, we studied habitat use relative to availability (i.e., habitat selection) in the GEA during September through March, 1991-94 for 196 Hatch-Year (HY) and 221 After-Hatch-Year (AHY) female pintails that were radio tagged during August-early October in the GEA (n = 239), other San Joaquin Valley areas (n = 132), or other Central Valley areas (n = 46). Habitat availability and use varied among seasons and years, but pintails always selected shallow and, except on hunting days, open habitats. Swamp timothy, Heleochloa schoenoides, marsh was the most available, used, and selected habitat. Watergrass, Echinochloa crusgalli, marsh in the GEA was used less than available at night in contrast to previous studies in other SJV areas. Preferred late-winter habitats were apparently lacking in the GEA, at least relative to in the Sacramento Valley and Delta where most pintails moved to in December each year. Impacts on pintails of the increasing practice of managing marshes for increased emergent vegetation to attract other species should be monitored. Shallow, open habitats that produce seeds and invertebrates available to pintails in late winter would help maintain pintail abundance in the GEA.

  1. Clay vein and its implication for uranium exploration activity in the northern part of the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Eiji

    2003-01-01

    Clay veins have been found by uranium exploration drilling around the Black Rock uranium prospect in the northern part of the alligator Rivers Uranium Field (ARUF), northern Australia. The mineralogical and chemical features are described to clarify relations with uranium mineralization, because it is not accompanied by uranium mineralization. X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis for major elements indicate that the clay vein consists mainly of chlorite (clinochlore to ferroan clinochlore) and lesser mica clay mineral (t-1M dominant). The clay vein is compared with the clay alteration zone around the uranium deposits in ARUF in terms of mode of occurrence, mineral and chemical compositions. Mineral composition of the clay vein is only in accordance with that of the inner alteration halo of the clay alteration zone. It is, however, different from mineral composition of the outer alteration halo in terms of lack of Fe chlorite in the clay vein. Chemical composition of the clay vein is similar to that of the clay alteration zone, except for lack in the vein of high iron content which is observed in some samples of the alteration zone. As a whole, the feature of the clay vein corresponds to the inner alteration zone around the uranium deposit in ARUF. The mode of occurrence of the clay vein is very different from that of the clay alteration zone. Mode of occurrence, and mineral and chemical compositions of the clay vein resemble a chlorite vein in the Lower to Middle Proterozoic sandstone above the Jabiluka deposit, one of major uranium deposit in the ARUF. Because of the similarity between the clay and the chlorite veins, the clay vein is regarded as marginal facies of an alteration zone. The fluid that formed the clay vein is estimated to have been oxidized, because of the existence of hematite and ubiquitous Mg chlorite. This nature is in accordance with the mineralizing fluid that formed the inner alteration zone in the Nabarlek deposit. In conclusion, the vein

  2. Flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and insecticides in pregnant women in the northern part of The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, L.; Sauer, P. [Beatrix Childrens Hospital, University Hospital Groningen (Sweden); Weiss, J.; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Velzen, M. van; Brouwer, A. [Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Inst. for Environmental Studies

    2004-09-15

    Organohalogens (OHS) are compounds with lipophilic properties, which accumulate in the environment, wildlife and humans. Human exposure is mainly through dietary intake of animal fat. After exposure the compounds are slowly metabolised leading to accumulation, mainly in the adipose tissue. During pregnancy the compounds are transported across the placenta to the fetus. OHS have an adverse effect on human health, these adverse effects are more likely to be seen in developing fetus. In 2001 the Compare project (supported by the European Union) started with the aim to examine the exposure-effect pathways to different kinds of organohalogen compounds. Therefore a cohort was founded in which 90 pregnant women living in the northern part of the Netherlands participated, the Dutch Groningen Infant Cohort. In this cohort p,p'-DDE, PCB-153, 4OH-PCB- 107, 4OH-PCB-146, 4OH-PCB-187, PCP, BDE-47, 6OH-BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154 and HBCDD were determined in blood samples taken in the 20{sup th} and 35{sup th} week of pregnancy. Transplacental transfer of these compounds was determined by analyzing the cord blood samples of the infants. The infants were followed for 1 1/2 years to examine the influence of the compounds on their development. In this short paper the results of the levels of the selected OHS in pregnant women are presented.

  3. STATUS OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY IN THE MAKASSAR STRAIT BASED AT THE NORTHERN PART OF JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Turni Hartati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal of Makassar Strait is one of main fishing grounds for purse seine vessels from northern part of Java which based at the following landing sites, i.e. Pekalongan, Tegal and Juwana. The purse seine fishery predominantly targets small pelagic fish. This paper attempts to present the current condition of small pelagic fishery in the Makassar Strait. Catch and effort (trip data between 2004 and 2011 from the three landing sites were used to estimate Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY using Schaefer & Fox models. The results showed a decreasing trend in the catch rate, from 30.83 tons/trip in 2004 to 12.27 tons/trip in 2011. The estimated MSY is at the range of 34,705- 37,930 tons with optimum efforts for 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips. Thus the level of purse seine fishing effort in 2011, i.e. 3,078 trips, was exceeding the optimum effort. The decreasing trend in the catch rate may indicate overfishing is occurring between 2004 and 2011. For management of the small pelagic fisheries in the waters of Makassar Strait, important action recommended is fishing effort restrictions. The effort allowed would be only in the range of 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips, and the fishing capacity needs to be controled.

  4. Radon daughter concentrations in and around dwellings in the northern part of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfs, F.; Hofstede, H.; Meijer, R.J. de; Put, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of radon daughters in and around 80 dwellings located in the northern part of the Netherlands has been determined using a one-filter method. Median values of 2.0 and 0.4 mWL were measured for the indoor and outdoor concentrations, respectively. The average outdoor concentration was about an order of magnitude higher for wind directions between SE-SW than for SW-NW. On average, dwellings with double pane windows and/or concrete floors were found to have significantly higher radon concentrations than those with single pane windows and/or wooden floors. For the living room of a particular dwelling, 18 measurements were carried out. The data for this dwelling indicate a linear relation between the concentration indoors and outdoors with a slope of 3.8 +- 2.0. This unexpected behaviour is thought to be related to ventilation via the crawl space. Measurements of ventilation patterns and measurements of radon concentrations in the living room and the crawl space are consistent with this picture. (author)

  5. Effects of seasonality on drosophilids (Insecta, Diptera) in the northern part of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Silva, R D; Montes, M A; Oliveira, G F; de Carvalho-Neto, F G; Rohde, C; Garcia, A C L

    2017-10-01

    Seasonality is an important aspect associated with population dynamic and structure of tropical insect assemblages. This study evaluated the effects of seasonality on abundance, richness, diversity and composition of an insect group, drosophilids, including species native to the Neotropical region and exotic ones. Three preserved fragments of the northern Atlantic Forest were surveyed, where temperatures are above 20 °C throughout the year and rainfall regimes define two seasons (dry and rainy). As opposed to other studies about arthropods in tropical regions, we observed that abundance of drosophilids was significantly higher in the dry season, possibly due to biological aspects and the colonization strategy adopted by the exotic species in these environments. Contrarily to abundance, we did not observe a seasonal pattern for richness. As for other parts of the Atlantic Forest, the most representative Neotropical species (Drosophila willistoni, D. sturtevanti, D. paulistorum and D. prosaltans) were significantly more abundant in the rainy season. Among the most abundant exotic species, D. malerkotliana, Zaprionus indianus and Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis were more importantly represented the dry season, while D. simulans was more abundant in the rainy period. The seasonality patterns exhibited by the most abundant species were compared to findings published in other studies. Our results indicate that exotic species were significantly more abundant in the dry season, while native ones exhibited an opposite pattern.

  6. Isotopic and chemical studies of geothermal waters of Northern Areas in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dildar Hussain, S; Ahmad, M; Akram, W; Sajjad, M I [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gonfiantini, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Isotope Hydrology Section; Tasneem, M A

    1995-02-01

    Northern Areas is one of the major thermal fields of Pakistan with more than two dozen known hot springs having discharge temperature ranging from 35 deg. C to 94 deg. C. Isotopic and chemical techniques applied to study the geothermal fields show that thermal waters are of meteoric origin and can be classified as Na-HCO{sub 3}, Na-SO{sub 4} and mixed type on the basis of their chemical contents. At some places cooling of thermal waters seems to be due to steam separation whereas mixing with fresh cold water is prominent at the remaining sites. The temperatures estimated by isotopic and chemical geothermometers for the two major fields i.e. Tatta Pani and Murtazabad are 83-257 deg. C and 65-296 deg. C respectively. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs.

  7. Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape formation in a gully catchment area in Northern Hesse, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döhler, Susanne; Damm, Bodo; Terhorst, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    the differentiation between Pleistocene and Holocene landforms. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating are applied to add numerical data to the relative ages of the sediments and landforms. The gully channels are oriented along Pleistocene depressions that are built up of periglacial cover beds...... and intercalated reworked loess. As the gully channels cut through the periglacial cover beds, especially the upper layer, the gully system is of Holocene age. At least two phases of gully erosion are identified in the alluvial fan sediments. The initial gully erosion is dated to the time span between the Late......Permanent gully channels under forest are common geomorphological features in Central European low mountain areas. In the Rehgraben/Fuchslöchergraben gully catchment in Northern Hesse, Germany the Late Pleistocene landscape formation is reconstructed based on periglacial cover beds. In addition...

  8. Environmental risk of oil spills in Northern Areas[Pollution abatement in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoell, Espen

    2006-07-01

    The presentation discusses consequences and risks for the environment of oil spills and other pollution factors in the northern areas particularly in the north of Norway and the Barents Sea. Various environmental risk analysis are also discussed. The main conclusions are: Environmental risk for Obelix: The environmental risk is very low. The environmental risk for Obelix is less than 21% of Hydro's acceptance criteria for minor damage. The environmental risk is acceptable. DNV: The contingency planned for Obelix (barrier 1 and 2) will reduce the environmental risk further by approx. 60%, date: 2006-01-13. Question: Hydro Oil and Energy. Does the oil industry reach other conclusions than the national research institutes does for the Management Plan of the Barents Sea. The underlying studies (of the management plan) mainly consider the consequences of worst case events. Full rate (3000 m3/d), long duration (60 days). Blowout occurring at the worst time and place. They assume that consequences experienced by shipwreck accidents in the coastal zone are relevant also for offshore discharges. They do not consider: The probability for the worst case blowout to occur. The probability for the worst case consequences to be realized. The probability for less serious impact. The probable impact distribution. Overall conclusion: Environmental Risk of oil and gas activities in Lofoten and the Barents Sea Based on: 1) 40 years of experience in the Norwegian sector. 2) World leading risk reduction technology. 3) Systematic and thorough methods for analysis of environmental risk. 4) Several environmental risk analyses for Barents Sea and Lofoten drilling operations, indicating acceptable risk levels. 5) Recent ERA for Goliath drilling indicating similar low risk levels. 6) Well functioning contingency systems. We conclude that the environmental risk of oil and gas activities in the northern areas is low and acceptable to the Norwegian society. The environmental risk due to oil

  9. Investigation of remote sensing geology in the northern Anxi area of Gansu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wenhan

    1993-07-01

    The study of 1 : 50,000 remote sensing geology survey and prognosis of gold (uranium) mineralization in the area of northern Anxi of Gansu province has been completed. The synthetical remote sensing and multi-source information compounding technologies, such as land-satellites TM and MSS images, airborne color infrared photography and infrared ray scanning digital images, are used in the study. On the basis of information enhancement and extraction of remote-sensing images, using the theory of remote sensing to explore mineral deposits and the field investigations, many achievements have been reached, such as applications of synthetical remote sensing technology, fundamental study of geology, prognosis of gold (uranium) minerals and 1 : 50,000 remote-geologic mapping. 21 mineral resource maps and geologic maps are obtained. Nearly one thousand of altered rock zones are interpreted and found. 71 new gold anomaly hydrothermal alteration zones and 23 gold mineralized places are discovered (maximum Au 71 x 10 -6 ). 17 minerogeneration prospective areas, 67 gold-ore searching targets and favorable areas of uranium mineralization are identified. It gives important materials for searching new mines

  10. Conservation, spillover and gene flow within a network of Northern European marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Brockstedt Olsen Huserbråten

    Full Text Available To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50% for almost a year (363 days within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km(2. Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7% of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810 to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%. Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated F ST of less than 0.0001 over a ≈ 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages.

  11. Characterization of an abandoned pastoral area in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argenti G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of an investigation carried out within the research project "Study and improvement of woods and shrubbery derived from abandoned agricultural areas" (RiSelvItalia Project. Changes occurred in the past 50 years in the pastoral area of S. Paolo in Alpe (Appennino Romagnolo, Northern Apennines, Italy were described on the grounds of photo-interpretation of three sets of aerial photos (1955, 1976, 1997. A high reduction of the surface of sowable lands and pastures (from 80% to 33% was pointed out, together with an increase of shrubbery (from 5% to 18% and woods (from 0 to 42%. The characterization of woods, shrubbery and pastures was performed through structural transects and phyto-sociological investigations. Thus it was possible to reconstruct the dynamic series of vegetation, from grasslands belonging to the association Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti (Festuco-Brometea to woods referable to the association Aceri obtusati-quercetum cerridis (Querco-Fagetea. Investigations on meadows revealed also a good quality of pastures, not only in open grasslands (mean pastoral value - VP - of 30, but even in partially shrubby areas (VP 21. Some guidelines for a multi-purpose exploitation of the site are suggested, taking into account not only economic aspects, but also the conservation of environment and landscape.

  12. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fargione

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  13. Occupation and lung cancer in two industrialized areas of northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronco, G.; Ciccone, G.; Mirabelli, D.; Troia, B.; Vineis, P.

    1988-03-15

    A population-based case-control study on lung cancer was conducted in 2 industrialized areas of northern Italy. Cases (126) were all males who died from lung cancer between 1976 and 1980. Controls (384) were a random sample of males dying from other causes during the same period. Jobs held during working life have been analyzed according to a list of occupations already known to be causally associated with lung cancer (list A) and a list of occupations suspected of being so (list B). Attributable risk percentages in the population for occupations included in either list A or B were about 36% and 12% in the 2 areas. Welders or workers in industries in which welding is common showed elevated odds ratios: 2.9 for welders (95% CI 0.9-9.8); 4.9 (1.1-22.9) for structural metal workers; 11.4 (2.6-49.9) for workers in structural metal production. Other job categories associated with lung cancer included: electricians and workers in electrical machine production, woodworkers (in furniture or cabinet making, but not in carpentry or joinery) and cleaning services. Smoking did not seem to exert a substantial confounding effect. Attributable risk percentages for tobacco smoking were about 78% and 76% in the population of the 2 areas.

  14. Occupation and lung cancer in two industrialized areas of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, G; Ciccone, G; Mirabelli, D; Troia, B; Vineis, P

    1988-03-15

    A population-based case-control study on lung cancer was conducted in 2 industrialized areas of northern Italy. Cases (126) were all males who died from lung cancer between 1976 and 1980. Controls (384) were a random sample of males dying from other causes during the same period. Jobs held during working life have been analyzed according to a list of occupations already known to be causally associated with lung cancer (list A) and a list of occupations suspected of being so (list B). Attributable risk percentages in the population for occupations included in either list A or B were about 36% and 12% in the 2 areas. Welders or workers in industries in which welding is common showed elevated odds ratios: 2.9 for welders (95% CI 0.9-9.8); 4.9 (1.1-22.9) for structural metal workers; 11.4 (2.6-49.9) for workers in structural metal production. Other job categories associated with lung cancer included: electricians and workers in electrical machine production, woodworkers (in furniture or cabinet making, but not in carpentry or joinery) and cleaning services. Smoking did not seem to exert a substantial confounding effect. Attributable risk percentages for tobacco smoking were about 78% and 76% in the population of the 2 areas.

  15. Slope Stability Analysis In Seismic Areas Of The Northern Apennines (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Presti, D.; Fontana, T.; Marchetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    Several research works have been published on the slope stability in the northern Tuscany (central Italy) and particularly in the seismic areas of Garfagnana and Lunigiana (Lucca and Massa-Carrara districts), aimed at analysing the slope stability under static and dynamic conditions and mapping the landslide hazard. In addition, in situ and laboratory investigations are available for the study area, thanks to the activities undertaken by the Tuscany Seismic Survey. Based on such a huge information the co-seismic stability of few ideal slope profiles have been analysed by means of Limit equilibrium method LEM - (pseudo-static) and Newmark sliding block analysis (pseudo-dynamic). The analysis--results gave indications about the most appropriate seismic coefficient to be used in pseudo-static analysis after establishing allowable permanent displacement. Such indications are commented in the light of the Italian and European prescriptions for seismic stability analysis with pseudo-static approach. The stability conditions, obtained from the previous analyses, could be used to define microzonation criteria for the study area

  16. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  17. Hydrogeological Investigations of the Quaternary Aquifeer in the Northern Part of El-Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Ezz El Din, M.R.; Deyab, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The hydraulic characteristics of surficial soils and materials of the Quaternary aquifer in the northern part of El-Sharkia Governorate were investigated. The surficial soil zone represents an aquitard for the aquifer and mainly composed of fine textured materials having vertical hydraulic conductivity ranged from 1.4 x10 -6 cm/sec to 2.15x10 -2 cm/sec. The semi-confined Quaternary aquifer is formed of sand and gravel with occasional clay lenses. The groundwater levels ranged from 9 m (MSL) to 5 m (MSL). The major trend of groundwater flow was from south to north and northwest directions. Another minor flow trend was observed to be from southwest to northeast direction. The aquifer is essentially recharged from Ismaillia Canal. The hydraulic gradient through the flow path was 1.9 x10 -4 , averagely. The hydraulic conductivity values differ vertically and laterally indicating the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the aquifer materials. They ranged from 40.1 to 222 m/day with an average value of about 95.8 m/day. The chemical compositions of groundwater and surface water bodies (canals and drains) were investigated. The chemistry of all water bodies was characterized by a basic nature (ph =7.2-7.9) and showed different salinities values and various hydrochemical facies. The average salinities values were 318.1 mg/l for canal water, 1013.4 mg/l for groundwater and 1260 mg/l for drain water. Canal water was fresh while groundwater and drain were fresh to brackish. The reasons causing the changes in salinity and hydrochemical facies were investigated using the relationships among water dissolved constituents and trends of ionic ratios. Subsurface flow, infiltration, evaporation, ion exchange, leaching, and dissolution were the hydrochemical processes leading to the groundwater modification. The suitability of groundwater and surface water for different uses are discussed and evaluated according to the international standards.

  18. PM10 modeling in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) by using multivariate adaptive regression splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; Antón, Juan Carlos Álvarez; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to build a regression model of the particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in size (PM10) by using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) at local scale. This research work explores the use of a nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) which has the ability to approximate the relationship between the inputs and outputs, and express the relationship mathematically. In this sense, hazardous air pollutants or toxic air contaminants refer to any substance that may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or serious illness, or that may pose a present or potential hazard to human health. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and dust (PM10) were collected over 3 years (2006-2008) and they are used to create a highly nonlinear model of the PM10 in the Oviedo urban nucleus (Northern Spain) based on the MARS technique. One main objective of this model is to obtain a preliminary estimate of the dependence between PM10 pollutant in the Oviedo urban area at local scale. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on air quality with a view to proposing health and lifestyle improvements. The United States National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establishes the limit values of the main pollutants in the atmosphere in order to ensure the health of healthy people. Firstly, this MARS regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the main pollutants in the Oviedo urban area. Secondly, the main advantages of MARS are its capacity to produce simple, easy-to-interpret models, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, on the basis of

  19. Application of geochemical exploration in the Kap Franklin Area, Northern East Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Friedrich, G.H.W.; Koensler, W.; Steenfelt, A.

    1978-02-01

    More than 800 stream sediments, soil, seepage soil and water samples collected during the field seasons of 1974 and 1975 in the Kap Franklin area, northern East Greenland, were analysed for K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe by radioisotope energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and for U by delayed-neutron counting. Samples were also analysed for V, Cu, Zn and Pb by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Areas with known mineralization are outlined by anomalous Zn and Pb contents in stream sediments and soils. A predominantly mechanical dispersion mechanism is deduced from the similarity in the chemistry of bedrock, stream sediments and soils. Narrow dispersion halos following from this observation suggest that dense sampling procedures are required. The usefulness of Cu, Zn and Pb water geochemistry is not proved. There is reasonable agreement between a reconnaissance study and detailed investigations carried out in 1974 and 1975, respectively. The distribution patterns for Cu, Zn, Pb, and U were more clearly displayed by means of the detailed sampling, and the metal contents in stream sediments were found to decrease rapidly downstream. Soil and seepage soil sampling between tributaries was shown to be advantageous. A test of daily and weekly variations of Cu, Zn, and Pb in stream sediments of selected sampling sites demonstrated changes in the metal contents of generally less than 10 per cent. Data from soil samples in the Randboeldal clearly outline the extent of U mineralisation. There is good correlation between U, and Zn and Pb in both stream sediments and soil. (author)

  20. A study on groundwater infiltration in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hideharu; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Maekawa, Keisuke; Hara, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    In the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been carrying out various hydrological observations to estimate the recharge rate. Subsurface earth temperature and soil moisture content have been observed at HGW-1 site (GL-0.7m to GL-2.3m, since 2005) and Hokushin Meteorological Station (GL-0.1m to GL-1.1m, since 2008). The results have revealed groundwater infiltration and recharge occurring throughout year, the shallow groundwater-infiltration velocity depending on the depth and the position of the Zero Flux Plane. For the estimation of boundary conditions in groundwater flow simulation, in this study, the shallow groundwater-flow system has been examined qualitatively on the basis of the variation of the subsurface earth temperature and the soil moisture content. In the future, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the shallow groundwater infiltration and recharge rate, the intermediate runoff, and the evapotranspiration based on the observed data of the weighing lysimeter, and the other measurement stations in the area. (author)

  1. Distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouras, A.; Katsoyiannis, I.; Voutsa, D.

    2007-01-01

    An integrate study aiming at the occurrence and distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece has been carried out. Groundwater samples from public water supply wells and private wells were analysed for arsenic and other quality parameters (T, pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, HCO 3 , NO 3 , SO 4 , B, Fe, Mn). Arsenic showed high spatial variation; ranged from 0.001 to 1.840 mg/L. Almost 65% of the examined groundwaters exhibit arsenic concentrations higher than the maximum concentration limit of 0.010 mg/L, proposed for water intended for human consumption. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were employed to find out possible relationships among the examined parameters and groundwater samples. Arsenic is highly correlated with potassium, boron, bicarbonate, sodium, manganese and iron suggesting common geogenic origin of these elements and conditions that enhance their mobility. Three groups of groundwater with different physicochemical characteristics were found in the study area: (a) groundwater with extremely high arsenic concentrations (1.6-1.9 mg/L) and high temperature (33-42 deg. C) from geothermal wells, (b) groundwater with relatively high arsenic concentrations (>0.050 mg/L), lower temperatures and relatively high concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese and, (c) groundwater with low arsenic concentrations that fulfil the proposed limits for dinking water

  2. Emerging feed markets for ruminant production in urban and peri-urban areas of Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konlan, S P; Ayantunde, A A; Addah, W; Dei, H K; Karbo, N

    2018-01-01

    Feed shortage in urban and peri-urban areas has triggered the emergence of feed markets in Northern Ghana. These markets were surveyed at three locations (Tamale, Bolgatanga, and Wa markets) to determine types and prices of feedstuffs sold across seasons; early dry (November-January), late dry (February-April), early wet (May-July), and main wet (August-October). Semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Three samples of each feed type in the markets were bought from three different sellers per market in each season. The samples were oven dried to constant weight and price/kg DM of each feed determined. The total respondents were 169. Out of this number, 41% were feed sellers, 46% buyers, and 13% retailers. The feedstuffs found were crop residues (groundnut haulm and cowpea haulm), agro-industrial by-products (bran of maize, rice, and sorghum), fresh grasses (Rotteboellia cochinchinensis), and local browses (Ficus sp. and Pterocarpus erinaceous). Prices of feeds differed (P  0.05) in all seasons but that of crop residues were higher (P < 05) in early to late dry season than the wet season. Majority (90%) of respondents opined that the feed market will expand due to increasing number of livestock population in the peri-urban areas.

  3. Soil-Gas Radon Anomaly Map of an Unknown Fault Zone Area, Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Kaweewong, C.; Imurai, W.; Pondthai, P.

    2015-12-01

    Soil-gas radon concentration anomaly map was constructed to help detect an unknown subsurface fault location in San Sai District, Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand where a 5.1-magnitude earthquake took place in December 2006. It was suspected that this earthquake may have been associated with an unrecognized active fault in the area. In this study, soil-gas samples were collected from eighty-four measuring stations covering an area of approximately 50 km2. Radon in soil-gas samples was quantified using Scintrex Radon Detector, RDA-200. The samplings were conducted twice: during December 2014-January 2015 and March 2015-April 2015. The soil-gas radon map obtained from this study reveals linear NNW-SSE trend of high concentration. This anomaly corresponds to the direction of the prospective fault system interpreted from satellite images. The findings from this study support the existence of this unknown fault system. However a more detailed investigation should be conducted in order to confirm its geometry, orientation and lateral extent.

  4. Transfer of radiocaesium from soil to vegetation and to grazing lambs in a mountain area in northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Loensjoe, H.; Andersson, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the northern Arctic and boreal regions many radioecological problems appear in the terrestrial environment. The climate and the soil, and as a consequence also the vegetation types, favour a high transfer of radionuclides to the food chain. Consequently there is a risk for high transfer to domestic animals grazing in these environments. As most of the lamb production in the Nordic countries is carried out on permanent pasture and in semi-natural environments the radioecological and economic effects are evident. This investigation was initiated and supported by the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS), working group RAD-3, as a part of an inter Nordic research programme. All the Nordic countries, i.e. Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, have participated in the project. The sampling technique for soil, herbage and lamb was to be the same in all countries, in areas where no countermeasures had been applied after the Chernobyl fallout. The main results of these common Nordic studies will be summarized by Hove et al., 1994. The Swedish part of the study has also been financially supported by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm. The purpose was to study the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plants and further to lamb meat in natural or semi-natural areas over the years. This paper is an extended summary of a work (Rosen et al., 1994) to be published in Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. In the present report only results of soil and transfer from soil to vegetation and lambs are given. (author)

  5. Seismogenic zonation and seismic hazard estimates in a Southern Italy area (Northern Apulia characterised by moderate seismicity rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Del Gaudio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The northernmost part of Apulia, in Southern Italy, is an emerged portion of the Adriatic plate, which in past centuries was hit by at least three disastrous earthquakes and at present is occasionally affected by seismic events of moderate energy. In the latest seismic hazard assessment carried out in Italy at national scale, the adopted seismogenic zonation (named ZS9 has defined for this area a single zone including parts of different structural units (chain, foredeep, foreland. However significant seismic behaviour differences were revealed among them by our recent studies and, therefore, we re-evaluated local seismic hazard by adopting a zonation, named ZNA, modifying the ZS9 to separate areas of Northern Apulia belonging to different structural domains. To overcome the problem of the limited datasets of historical events available for small zones having a relatively low rate of earthquake recurrence, an approach was adopted that integrates historical and instrumental event data. The latter were declustered with a procedure specifically devised to process datasets of low to moderate magnitude shocks. Seismicity rates were then calculated following alternative procedural choices, according to a "logic tree" approach, to explore the influence of epistemic uncertainties on the final results and to evaluate, among these, the importance of the uncertainty in seismogenic zonation. The comparison between the results obtained using zonations ZNA and ZS9 confirms the well known "spreading effect" that the use of larger seismogenic zones has on hazard estimates. This effect can locally determine underestimates or overestimates by amounts that make necessary a careful reconsideration of seismic classification and building code application.

  6. Transfer of radiocaesium from soil to vegetation and to grazing lambs in a mountain area in northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K; Loensjoe, H [Department of Radioecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, I [Department of Biosystems and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, 23053 (Sweden)

    1994-11-01

    In the northern Arctic and boreal regions many radioecological problems appear in the terrestrial environment. The climate and the soil, and as a consequence also the vegetation types, favour a high transfer of radionuclides to the food chain. Consequently there is a risk for high transfer to domestic animals grazing in these environments. As most of the lamb production in the Nordic countries is carried out on permanent pasture and in semi-natural environments the radioecological and economic effects are evident. This investigation was initiated and supported by the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS), working group RAD-3, as a part of an inter Nordic research programme. All the Nordic countries, i.e. Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, have participated in the project. The sampling technique for soil, herbage and lamb was to be the same in all countries, in areas where no countermeasures had been applied after the Chernobyl fallout. The main results of these common Nordic studies will be summarized by Hove et al., 1994. The Swedish part of the study has also been financially supported by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm. The purpose was to study the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plants and further to lamb meat in natural or semi-natural areas over the years. This paper is an extended summary of a work (Rosen et al., 1994) to be published in Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. In the present report only results of soil and transfer from soil to vegetation and lambs are given. (author)

  7. Why Gas Hydrate Occurrenced Over Topographic Highs in Shenhu Area Northern South China Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Methane gas hydrate has been drilled by China Geological Survey in shenhu area northern south china sea in 2007 .Shenhu area is located in the middle-lower continental slope and 17 submarine canyons are incised into the shelf,gas hydrtae was observed in boreholes over topographic highs,but origin of the hydrate is controversial.Accumulation of gas hydrate is depending on temperature-pressure field and supply quantities of methane and some other factors,in the same depth of the shallow sediments there is the same press,so temperature field and supply quantities of methane become the most important factors.Lachenbruch(1968) calculated the topographic disturbance to geothermal gradients,in shenhu area consistent local variations were observed, notably low heat flow values over prominent topographic highs and high heat flow values over the flanks of the topographic highs. At some localities over a horizontal distance of 2.5 km, heat flow increased by as much as 50%, from typical values of 65 to 100 mW/m2 .Some vertical fractures were observed beneath topographic highs in previous studies.Based on the profile across borehole SH7,we designed four experiments:A,uniform distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;B,Uniform distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs;C,uneven distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;D,uneven distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs.According to previous studies,we restored Palaeobathymetry,abundance of organic matters, sandstone-madstone ratio ,porosity and permeability of each,and parameters of vertical fractures.The result of experiment D shows the similar distribution characteristic with the drilling result,so We believe that low heat flux and Vertical fractures are the most important factors . This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41406080).

  8. Leaf area and foliar biomass relationships in northern hardwood forests located along an 800 km acid deposition gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, A.J.; Pregitzer, K.S.; Reed, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The canopies of northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were examined at five locations spanning 800 km along an acid deposition and climatic gradient in the Great Lakes region. Leaf area index (LAI) calculated from litterfall ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 in 1988, from 4.9 to 7.9 in 1989, and from 5.3 to 7.8 in 1990. The data suggest that maximum LAI for the sites is between 7 and 8. Insect defoliation and the allocation of assimilates to reproductive parts in large seed years reduced LAI by up to 34%. Allometric equations for leaf area and foliar biomass were not significantly different among sites. They predicted higher LAI values than were estimated from litterfall and could not account for the influences of defoliation and seed production. Canopy transmittance was a viable alternative for estimating LAI. Extinction coefficients (K) of 0.49 to 0.65 were appropriate for solar elevations of 63 degree to 41 degree. Patterns of specific leaf area (SLA) were similar for the sites. Average sugar maple SLA increased from 147 cm 2 g -1 in the upper 5 m of the canopy to 389 cm 2 g -1 in the seeding layer. Litterfall SLA averaged 196 cm 2 g -1 for all species and 192 cm 2 g -1 for sugar maple. Similarity among the sites in allometric relationships, maximum LAI, canopy transmittance, and patterns of SLA suggests these characteristics were controlled primarily by the similar nutrient and moisture availability at the sites. A general increasing trend in litter production along the gradient could not be attributed to N deposition or length of growing season due to year to year variability resulting from insect defoliation and seed production

  9. Concentration of 99Tc in edible seaweed (Konbu) in the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now performing uranium testing. We surveyed the distribution of background environmental radiation and radioactive materials around the plant before its full operation and studied causes of their fluctuation. The 99 Tc concentrations of edible seaweed (Konbu) collected in the northern part of Japan are reported here. Since the plant will release small amounts of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater near the plant might possibly increase in the future. Seaweeds are important food items in Japan, and concentrate some radionuclides in seawater. Therefore, the 99 Tc concentrations in edible seaweeds before the full plant's operation are important to investigate the effect of the plant on the local environmental radioactivity. However, there are few reports of concentrations in edible seaweeds in the world, including those of Japan. Because concentrations of this nuclide in a general environmental sample are extremely low, it is difficult to determine them using conventional radioanalytical techniques. In this study, Tc in a sample was simply and rapidly separated from matrix elements by a solid phase chromatographic resin and an anion exchange resin, successively. The nuclide was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Radioactivity of 137 Cs in the sample was also measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. In 2004, fishing industry cooperative associations of Aomori, Iwate and Hokkaido provided 15 edible seaweed (Konbu) samples, 11 Laminaria japonica and one each of L. ochotensis, L. angustata L. diabolica and L. longissima. Concentrations of 99 Tc in L. japonica ranged from 3.9 to 74 mBq kg -1 -dry, and mean value was 31 mBq kg -1 -dry. Concentrations in other edible seaweeds in Hokkaido were 3.4 - 6.2 mBq kg -1 -dry, except for L. longissima, which was lower than the detection limit (2.4 mBq kg -1 -dry

  10. A Dense Small-Scale Seismic Network in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Northern Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, L.; Lombardo, L.; Rodriguez-Mustafa, M.; Mai, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    A temporary deployment consisting of sixteen broadband seismic stations is conducted for the first time in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA, Northern Tanzania), located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift. A deep knowledge of the faulting systems and tectonics of the area is needed to better understand the contribution of the synsedimentary faults to the deposition of the Olduvai and surrounding basins affecting the landscapes of the Homo Habilis first settlements. Complex fault systems have been mapped in the field but their connection, especially at depth, is not well known. A first batch of ten instruments was installed in June 2016. In June 2017 two stations were dismissed and a second batch of six stations was installed in new locations. The current network of fourteen stations will record until May 2018. Stations are equipped with Nanometrics Trillium Compact Posthole 120 s sensor and Centaur digitiser recording continuously at 200 Hz. The whole network covers 1400 km2 and station interspace ranges from 8 to 15 km. We analyse probabilistic power spectra densities of the seismic noise to obtain insights of its origin and test the performances of the stations. Although factories do not exist in the area and most of the stations are far from roads, ambient noise in the range 0.01 - 1 s is relatively high (between -120 dB and -100dB at 0.1 s) probably because of the abundance of livestock living in the NCA. Ambient noise in the period range 1 - 10 s (secondary microseisms) decreases from east to west. Although the main source of the microseisms is located in the Indian Ocean (east of the study area), a contribution from the low period tremors coming from the nearby active volcano Ol Doinyo Lengai (north-east of the study area) is expected. Whereas the longer period noise (10 - 100 s) is very low in the vertical component seismograms, it is higher than the high noise model in the horizontal components for most of the stations

  11. THE NEOPROTEROZOIC ISLAND-ARC ASSOCIATION OF THE MUKODEK GOLD-ORE FIELD, NORTHERN BAIKAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vanin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamorphosed volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite were studied in the Mukodek gold-ore field located in the Baikal-Muya belt in the Northern Baikal area, Russia. The Ushmukan suite shows interleaving of ortoschists which compositions are widely variable. Basalt-andesite-dacite series of normal alkalinity are the substrate of the studied metavolcanic rocks. Based on the set of geochemical characteristics, it is concluded that the rocks were formed in suprasubduction geodynamic conditions corresponding to a mature island arc. The proximity of the geological locations and the similarity of the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite and rocks of the Kelyan suite (Neoproterozoic, 823 Ma, which have similar compositions, give grounds to consider these two rock suites as age peers. Specific features of gold distribution through the Mukodek gold-ore field are analyzed. Industrial gold contents are recorded only in berezite-listvenite metasomatic rocks of the gold-quartz-sulfide formation which were formed on metavolcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite. It is concluded that the volcanic rocks, which are specific of the island-arc setting, could be a source of gold for deposits in the Mukodek gold-ore field. 

  12. Characterization of necrophagus entomofauna in a typical agricultural area in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calzolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a checklist of Dipterans and Coleopterans accountable for carrion decay in the Po Valley (Italy, a contribution to the Forensic Entomology knowledge in Italy. Insects colonizing two pig carcasses in an agricultural area in Mezzani municipality (Parma, Northern Italy were sampled by pitfall traps and original Malaise-like traps, which allowed the sampling of a very relevant number of flying insects. A checklist of 57 taxa was obtained, of which 26 were considered of forensic importance. For the latter the arrival time of adult specimens on the carcasses was recorded, as an important parameter in minimum post mortem interval estimation. Dipterans (6141 specimens were the most common insects; the fastest specimens to detect and colonize the carcass belonged to the Calliphoridae family, while Fanniidae and Muscidae infested the carrion until completion of the skeletal stage. Coleopterans appeared later (308 adult specimens and 114 larvae were captured. Staphylinidae, Dermestidae, and Histeridae were the most common coleopterans sampled in this study.

  13. Attitudes Towards Forest Elephant Conservation Around a Protected Area in Northern Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félicien Nsonsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of local attitudes towards conservation can guide wildlife managers in the effective application of measurements to improve these perceptions. Here we conducted a quantitative questionnaire survey around a protected area in northern Congo surveying 314 households living in four villages around the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park. We investigated the impact of the benefits of a conservation project (led by an international non-governmental organisation, the experience with human-elephant conflict and the respondents' socio-economic profile on local people's attitudes towards forest elephant conservation. Using multivariate analysis, we found overall positive attitudes towards elephant conservation with more positive answers in the village where a conservation project is based. Furthermore, people employed in the conservation project stated more positive attitudes compared to logging company employees famers, natural resource users and people conducting other jobs. Experience of human elephant conflict negatively impacted people's perceptions. Socio-economic variables, such as ethnic group, education level or salary category had relatively little impact on people's responses. Qualitative statements largely supported the questionnaire results. We discuss our results in the light of the limits of attitude surveys and suggest further investigations to identify the activities needed to foster positive attitudes for elephant conservation in all villages around the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in partnership with the logging company.

  14. Preliminary geological assessment for rare earths at Ombo Area, San Vicente, Northern Palawan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Angelito F.; Santos, Gabriel Jr.; Magsambol, Wilfred N.; Castillo, Marilyn K.; Tabora, Estrelita U.

    2001-04-01

    A preliminary geological assessment for rare earths was conducted along Ombo beach area, San Vicente, northern Palawan to evaluate the potential geologic reserve and to determine the relative concentration of REE, thorium and uranium. This investigation also aims to establish the distribution of heavy minerals. The study area, covering, about 6500 m 2 is comprised of the undisturbed beach sand deposits confined between the high tide line and the base of the mountains that borders the coastline. The investigation involved the establishment of shallow test pits with depths varying from one meter ot less than three meters. A total of 23 heavy mineral panned concentrates were collected. All the samples were analyzed for REE, Th and U using the portable X-MET 820 x-ray fluorescence and GR-320 gamma ray spectrometer. Radiometric measurements were also taken along the stretch of Ombo beach to establish the natural background radioactivity. The radiometric values vary from 27 cps to 420 cps. The high readings could be attributed to the presence of radioactive rare earth bearing minerals, principally allanite. This initial investigation indicates a positive geologic reserve of approximately 19,000 metric tons beach sand deposits, containing an average grade of 22.19% REE (Ce, La), 0.85% Th and 0.55% U. The average distribution of heavy minerals is 3600 gm heavies per cubic meter. Moreover, a probable geologic reserve of about 41,000 metric tons with an average grade of 22.13% REE (Ce, La), 0.85% Th and 0.55% U was also determined. The average distribution of heavy minerals is about 3300 gm heavies per cubic meter. (Author)

  15. Precipitation reconstruction for the northwestern Chinese Altay since 1760 indicates the drought signals of the northern part of inner Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Yuan, Yujiang; Zhang, Tongwen; Shang, Huaming

    2016-03-01

    Based on the significant positive correlations between the regional tree-ring width chronology and local climate data, the total precipitation of the previous July to the current June was reconstructed since AD 1760 for the northwestern Chinese Altay. The reconstruction model accounts for 40.7 % of the actual precipitation variance during the calibration period from 1959 to 2013. Wet conditions prevailed during the periods 1764-1777, 1784-1791, 1795-1805, 1829-1835, 1838-1846, 1850-1862, 1867-1872, 1907-1916, 1926-1931, 1935-1943, 1956-1961, 1968-1973, 1984-1997, and 2002-2006. Dry episodes occurred during 1760-1763, 1778-1783, 1792-1794, 1806-1828, 1836-1837, 1847-1849, 1863-1866, 1873-1906, 1917-1925, 1932-1934, 1944-1955, 1962-1967, 1974-1983, 1998-2001, and 2007-2012. The spectral analysis of the precipitation reconstruction shows the existence of some cycles (15.3, 4.5, 3.1, 2.7, and 2.1 years). The significant correlations with the gridded precipitation dataset revealed that the precipitation reconstruction represents the precipitation variation for a large area of the northern part of inner Asia. A comparison with the precipitation reconstruction from the southern Chinese Altay shows the high level of confidence for the precipitation reconstruction for the northwestern Chinese Altay. Precipitation variation of the northwestern Chinese Altay is positively correlated with sea surface temperatures in tropical oceans, suggesting a possible linkage of the precipitation variation of the northwestern Chinese Altay to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The synoptic climatology analysis reveals that there is the relationship between anomalous atmospheric circulation and extreme climate events in the northwestern Chinese Altay.

  16. A Framework for Integrating Transboundary Values, Landscape Connectivity, and ′Protected Areas′ Values Within a Forest Management Area in Northern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Witiw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Daishowa-Marubeni International (DMI is an integrated forest products company with operations in northern Alberta, Canada. As part of its sustainable forestry practices, it has embarked on a comprehensive plan to maintain biodiversity and landscape connectivity values within its area of operation. In addition to identification of High Conservation Value Forests (HCVF as part of an internal forest planning system and to assist forest certification interests, DMI has developed a plan for a Continuous Reserve Network (CRN. This paper describes the rationale behind DMI′s decision to identify a framework for both HCVF and the CRN. The company believes this CRN is a novel approach to ensuring visibility of connected landscape processes. DMI has introduced the concept to government, local sawmill stakeholders, and its public advisory committee, with a goal towards implementing the CRN within the area of its forest tenure as part of its forest management plan. The CRN represents nearly 44% of DMI′s tenure area, and thus makes a significant contribution to landscape connectivity and forest biodiversity. The case study represents an example where values and goals of legislated protected areas are also captured by management prescriptions within non-harvestable areas and timber-producing forests associated with an ecosystem-based approach to sustainable forest management.

  17. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding by northern, rural and isolated primary care physicians: PART II: What do we need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigod Simone N

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB is a common problem that affects one in five women during the pre-menopausal years. It is frequently managed by family physicians, especially in northern, rural and isolated areas where severe shortages of gynecologists exist. Methods We surveyed 194 family physicians in northern, rural and isolated areas of Ontario, Canada to determine their educational and resource needs for the management of AUB, with a specific focus on the relevance and feasibility of using clinical practice guidelines (CPGs. Results Most physicians surveyed did not use CPGs for the management of AUB because they did not know that such guidelines existed. The majority were interested in further education on the management of AUB through mailed CPGs and locally held training courses. A major theme among respondents was the need for more timely and effective gynecological referrals. Conclusion A one-page diagnostic and treatment algorithm for AUB would be easy to use and would place minimal restrictions on physician autonomy. As the majority of physicians had Internet access, we recommend emailing and web posting in addition to mailing this algorithm. Local, hands-on courses including options for endometrial biopsy training would also be helpful for northern, rural and isolated physicians, many of whom cannot readily take time away from their practices.

  18. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  19. Exploring studies of representative areas in the middle and northern Norrland during 1979 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Henkel, H.; Scherman, S.; Tiren, S.

    1981-03-01

    The Geological Survey of Sweden has carried out an investigation of the bedrock of the districts of Gaevleborg and Kopparberg. A study of intrusive gabbros has been made in the north of Sweden. The investigation aims at a detailed knowledge of the structure of the bedrock in selected parts of Sweden and of the zones of fracture with reference to ground water flow. The study will result in a proposition of areas for further geological and hydrological investigations. A number of maps are presented. (G.B.)

  20. Uranium migration in a sedimentological phosphatic environment in Northern Palmyrides, Al-Awabed area, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    2007-01-01

    In previously published research, a factor analysis approach has been applied to airborne spectrometric data of the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria. A model of four factors (F1-F4) has proven to be sufficient to represent the acquired data, where 94% of the total data variance is explained. A scored lithological map including 11 radiometric units is established. Uranium migration trends have been determined for the first time through airborne spectrometric data of the study region, where different regional maps explaining the migration behavior have been established. A radioactive-geological model of such a migration is established and clearly shows that directions of uranium migration are strongly influenced by network drainage, topography, and fracturing systems in the region. Lithology of the 11 studied units also plays a dominant role in the rate of uranium migration. It was found that the four lithological phosphatic units P1-P4 are the main uranium sources in the study region, where the uranium migration is outward from these regions. The other seven lithological units C1-C3, M1-M4 are successively enriched by uranium during the geological evolution of the crust, where uranium migration is in an inward direction. It was also shown that uranium migration has occurred from its source for a short distance, limited by the boundaries of the lithological units which surround the phosphatic units. This finding is important from a prospecting and exploration point of view, and suggests that future uranium investigation activities are close to the phosphatic sources, if this process is creating the uranium distribution

  1. Uranium migration in a sedimentalogical phosphatic environment in Northern Palmyrides, Al-Awabed area, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    2008-01-01

    In previously published research, a factor analysis approach has been applied to airborne spectrometric data of the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria. A model of four factors (F1, F2, F3 and F4) has proven to be sufficient to represent the acquired data, where 94% of the total data variance is explained. A scored lithological map including eleven radiometric units is established. Uranium migration trends have been determined for the first time through airborne spectrometric data of the study region, where different regional maps explaining the migration behavior have been established. A radioactive geological model of such a migration is established and clearly shows that directions of uranium migration are strongly influenced by network drainage, topography and fracturing systems in the region. Lithology of the eleven studied units also plays a dominant role in the rate of uranium migration. It was found that the four lithological phosphatic units P1, P2, P3 and P4 are the main uranium sources in the study region, where the uranium migration is outward from these regions. The other seven lithological units C1, C2, C3, M1, M2, M3 and M4 are successively enriched by uranium during the geological evolution of the crust, where uranium migration is in an inward direction. It was also shown that uranium migration has occurred from its source for a short distance, limited by the boundaries of the lithological units which surround the phosphatic units. This finding is important from a prospecting and exploration point of view, and suggests future uranium investigation activities are close to the phosphatic sources, if this process is creating the uranium distribution. Al-Awabed Region. (author)

  2. Anomalous fluid emission of a deep borehole in a seismically active area of Northern Apennines (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinicke, J.; Italiano, F.; Koch, U.; Martinelli, G.; Telesca, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Miano borehole, 1047 m deep, is located close to the river Parma in the Northern Apennines, Italy. A measuring station has been installed to observe the discharge of fluids continuously since November 2004. The upwelling fluid of this artesian well is a mixture of thermal water and CH 4 as main components. In non-seismogenic areas, a relatively constant fluid emission would be expected, perhaps overlaid with long term variations from that kind of deep reservoir over time. However, the continuous record of the fluid emission, in particular the water discharge, the gas flow rate and the water temperature, show periods of stable values interrupted by anomalous periods of fluctuations in the recorded parameters. The anomalous variations of these parameters are of low amplitude in comparison to the total values but significant in their long-term trend. Meteorological effects due to rain and barometric pressure were not detected in recorded data probably due to reservoir depth and relatively high reservoir overpressure. Influences due to the ambient temperature after the discharge were evaluated by statistical analysis. Our results suggest that recorded changes in fluid emission parameters can be interpreted as a mixing process of different fluid components at depth by variations in pore pressure as a result of seismogenic stress variation. Local seismicity was analyzed in comparison to the fluid physico-chemical data. The analysis supports the idea that an influence on fluid transport conditions due to geodynamic processes exists. Water temperature data show frequent anomalies probably connected with possible precursory phenomena of local seismic events.

  3. Geological and engineering analysis of residual soil for forewarning landslide from highland area in northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkhao, Thanakrit; Phantuwongraj, Sumet; Choowong, Montri; Thitimakorn, Thanop; Charusiri, Punya

    2015-11-01

    One devastating landslide event in northern Thailand occurred in 2006 at Ban Nong Pla village, Chiang Klang highland of Nan province after, a massive amount of residual soil moved from upstream to downstream, via creek tributaries, into a main stream after five days of unusual heavy rainfall. In this paper, the geological and engineering properties of residual soil derived fromsedimentary rocks were analyzed and integrated. Geological mapping, electrical resistivity survey and test pits were carried out along three transect lines together with systematic collection of undisturbed and disturbed residual soil samples. As a result, the average moisture content in soil is 24.83% with average specific gravity of 2.68,whereas the liquid limit is 44.93%, plastic limit is 29.35% and plastic index is 15.58%. The cohesion of soil ranges between 0.096- 1.196 ksc and the angle of internal friction is between 11.51 and 35.78 degrees. This suggests that the toughness properties of soil change when moisture content increases. Results from electrical resistivity survey reveal that soil thicknesses above the bedrock along three transects range from 2 to 9 m. The soil shear strength reach the rate of high decreases in the range of 72 to 95.6% for residual soil from shale, siltstone and sandstone, respectively. Strength of soil decreaseswhen the moisture content in soil increases. Shear strength also decreases when the moisture content changes. Therefore, the natural soil slope in the study area will be stable when the moisture content in soil level is equal to one, but when the moisture content between soil particle increases, strength of soil will decrease resulting in soil strength decreasing.

  4. Forecasting of reservoir pressures of oil and gas bearing complexes in northern part of West Siberia for safety oil and gas deposits exploration and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, P. A.; Vorobyov, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    In the paper the features of reservoir pressures changes in the northern part of West Siberian oil-and gas province are described. This research is based on the results of hydrodynamic studies in prospecting and explorating wells in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. In the Cenomanian, Albian, Aptian and in the top of Neocomian deposits, according to the research, reservoir pressure is usually equal to hydrostatic pressure. At the bottom of the Neocomian and Jurassic deposits zones with abnormally high reservoir pressures (AHRP) are distinguished within Gydan and Yamal Peninsula and in the Nadym-Pur-Taz interfluve. Authors performed the unique zoning of the territory of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District according to the patterns of changes of reservoir pressures in the section of the sedimentary cover. The performed zoning and structural modeling allow authors to create a set of the initial reservoir pressures maps for the main oil and gas bearing complexes of the northern part of West Siberia. The results of the survey should improve the efficiency of exploration drilling by preventing complications and accidents during this operation in zones with abnormally high reservoir pressures. In addition, the results of the study can be used to estimate gas resources within prospective areas of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.

  5. Preliminary study of the uranium potential of the northern part of the Durham Triassic Basin, North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.B.; Thayer, P.A.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of a four-channel spectrometric survey of the northern part of the Durham Triassic basin and adjacent Piedmont, North Carolina. Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were obtained at 112 localities from 136 different lithologies. The nominal sampling density in the Durham Basin is one site per 2 mi 2 . Surface radiometric surveys reveal no anomalous radioactivity in the northern part of the Durham Basin. Uranium concentrations in Triassic rocks are from 0.6 to 9.7 ppM and average 2.9 ppM. Mudrocks contain from 1.3 to 9.7 ppM, and the average is 4.5 ppM. Sandstones contain from 0.6 to 8.8 ppM, and the average is 2.5 ppM. Fanglomerates contain the lowest concentrations of uranium, from 1.4 to 2.0 ppM, for an average of 1.8 ppM. Uranium/thorium ratios average 0.27 for Triassic rocks and are from 0.04 to 1.85. The mean log uranium/log thorium for Triassic rocks is 0.37. Mudrock has the highest average uranium/thorium ratio (0.32), and the range is 0.09 to 0.66. Sandstones have an average uranium/thorium ratio of 0.26, and the range is 0.04 to 1.85. Fanglomerates have the lowest range uranium/thorium ratio (0.19), and the range is 0.12 to 0.19. On the basis of surface radiometric surveys and geologic studies, it is believed that sedimentary strata in the northern part of the Durham Basin are poor targets for further uranium exploration. This conclusion is based on the lack of favorable characteristics commonly present in fluvial uranium deposits. Among these are: (1) carbonaceous material is absent in Triassic rocks of the northern basin, (2) indicators of a reduzate facies in sandstones are not present, and (3) no tuffaceous beds are associated with sediments in the northern Durham Basin

  6. Last millennium northern hemisphere summer temperatures from tree rings: Part I: The long term context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilson, R.; Anchukaitis, K.; Briffa, K. R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Cook, E.; D'Arrigo, R.; Davi, N.; Esper, J.; Frank, D.; Gunnarson, B.; Hegerl, G.; Helama, S.; Klesse, S.; Krusic, P. J.; Linderholm, H. W.; Myglan, V. S.; Osborn, T. J.; Rydval, M.; Schneider, L.; Schurer, A.; Wiles, G.; Zhang, P.; Zorita, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 134, FEB (2016), s. 1-18 ISSN 0277-3791 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : high-resolution paleoclimatology * stable carbon isotopes * medieval warm period * past 600 years * blue intensity * volcanic-eruptions * density data * ice-age * dendroclimatic reconstruction * cambium phenology * Tree-rings * Northern hemisphere * Last millennium * Summer temperatures * Reconstruction * CMIP5 models Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.797, year: 2016

  7. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 552 - DPCA Recreational Areas in Training Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... guests. Boat launch adjacent to Officer's Club Beach on American Lake/Beachwood area Cat Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 19 Chambers Lake Picnic and *Fishing Area—Training Area 12 (See para 2 below) Ecology Park Hiking Path—North Fort, CTA A West Fiander Lake Picnic and Fishing Area—Training Area 20...

  8. Northern and Southern European Traffic Flow Land Segment Analysis as Part of the Redirection Justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SiniŁa Vilke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural geotraffic flows act as one of the most important factors directly affecting redirections of the world transportation routes. In terms of door-to-door multimodal transport chain, several routes from Far East toward European destinations exist, with Northern European route acting as prevailing one. The proposed paper elaborates possibilities of redirection of the traffic flow by directing cargoes to an alternative route through the Adriatic Sea. The aim is to justify realisation of mentioned possibility in terms of land transportation segment analysis, i.e. by analysing cargo transportation from ports to final destinations in Central Europe, placed in natural gravitational hinterland of ports of Northern Adriatic Port Association (NAPA. Geo-traffic and logistics’ analyses of NAPA ports are presented in the paper. Container traffic and its trend as compared with Northern European ports are analysed. The development plans of inland connections are presented in function of justification of the traffic flow redirection. A model for the selection and evaluation of the optimal container transport route by using the multiple criteria analysis (MCA has been introduced and developed. The model was applied for the selection of the representative service connecting Far East (origin and the central Europe (destination by detailed analysis of the land transportation segment. The PROMETHEE method was used for the model testing and evaluation. Summarised results are presented and discussed tending to confirmation of the traffic flow redirection justification.

  9. Meteorological conditions of the mudflow origin in the northern part of the French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Pavlova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mudflow phenomena are at the top of the list of dangerous natural hazards in the mountains areas all over the world. Among factors resulting in a mudflow phenomena triggering, meteorological conditions are considered to be the most relevant. The general objective of this study was to identify meteorological parameters controlling the triggering of mudflow phenomena in one part of the French Alps over the last 40 years. Major factors are quite well explored at the global scale or contrariwise in very precise territory in particular catchment areas. However, for now we have a poor knowledge of those factors at the scale of a medium-sized region (including catchments with different geomorphic characteristics over several km² especially in the French Alps. In addition, in this region only a few studies focused on relationships with climate. To understand mudflow phenomena activity and their link with meteorological parameters in the north region of the French Alps, we used a multivariate statistical approach. Regional meteorological parameters (such as mean monthly temperature and precipitation were first computed from a Principal Component Analysis of observed meteorological data from four weather stations. A binomial monthly logistic regression probability model was then fitted between the main principal components and mudflow phenomena data base composed of 298 debris flow events triggered between 1971 and 2008. Results revealed that the most successful model including two meteorological predictors (minimal monthly temperature and the number of rainy days between May and September correctly explains more than 60% of the mudflow phenomena events.

  10. Sources and Seasonality of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Sive, B. C.; Zaragoza, J.; Lindaas, J.; Fischer, E. V.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado, with a growing population of over 3 million, was deemed an ozone (O3) nonattainment area (NAA) in 2008 despite continued work on NOx reductions. Ground-level O3 is produced from photochemical catalytic cycles initiated by the OH oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and propagated through reactions involving peroxy (HO2+RO2) and NOx (NO + NO2) radicals. We measured a suite of speciated VOCs during two 8-week deployments (March-May 2015, July-September 2015) at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. The spring deployment overlapped with the NOAA SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) campaign. The BAO site lies at an urban-rural interface in the NFRMA with multiple urban centers surrounding the site, a major interstate highway within 2 miles, local suburban development in Erie, agricultural operations in the surrounding counties, and recent rapid expansion of oil and gas development in adjacent Weld County. VOCs were measured hourly with a custom-built online gas chromatography system along with measurements of O3, NOx, PAN, CO, and CH4. VOC measurements included C2-C8 hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C1-C2 halocarbons, and several oxygenated species (OVOCs: methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, acetaldehyde). Using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) we have identified four distinct VOC sources in the spring and five in the summer: 1) Oil and Natural Gas (ONG, e.g. C2 - C5 alkanes), 2) Traffic (e.g. ethyne & aromatics), 3) Background species (e.g. long-lived halogenated species), 4) Secondary production (e.g. C3-C5 alkyl nitrates & OVOCs), and for summer 5) Biogenic (e.g. isoprene). Using the source factors generated from the PMF analysis we calculated the VOC reactivity (VOCr) of each source. For both seasons, the ONG factor dominates VOCr in the mornings. In spring afternoons, a combination of background species and secondary products make up a large percentage of VOCr as

  11. Occurrence of emerging flame retardants from e-waste recycling activities in the northern part of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Someya, Masayuki; Suzuki, Go; Ionas, Alin C.; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Xu, Fuchao; Matsukami, Hidenori; Covaci, Adrian; Tuyen, Le Huu; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contamination status of 21 emerging flame retardants (FRs) in soils (n = 32) and river sediments (n = 8) from an e-waste recycling (EWR) site in the northern part of Vietnam. Among analyzed FRs, higher levels of decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) (ND–4200 ng/g dw), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) (ND–350 ng/g dw) and Dechlorane Plus isomers (DPs) (ND–65 ng/g dw) were found in soils near EWR workshops and open burning places. The highest concentrations o...

  12. Geologic study for evaluation of geothermal resources in northern Tohoku area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Hirofumi

    1986-10-01

    Similar geothermal signs are widely distributed not only in the neighborhood of the Hakkoda volcano but all over the Hakkoda area. In this report, the area is defined as the Hakkoda regional volcanic field. Part of the geothermal signs are closely related with the Hakkoda volcano. But for the many others, relations with specific volcanos remained unknown. Surveys and investigations carried out in the present work clarified that there exists a group of volcanos that correspond well to these geothermal signs. They are referred to as the Yunosawa caldera, Ikarigaseki caldera and Okiura caldera. Thus, with the Hakkoda caldera and Towada caldera, which have already been known, there are five calderas in the Hakkoda area. The basic structure is characterized by a combination of horst/graben structures bounded by reversed faults, and depressed zones resulting from the formation of calderas. The volcanos were generated in the Pliocene or succeeding epochs. Observations have shown that the geothermal sources, reservoir layer structures and geothermal flows are basically governed by these calderas. (10 figs, 3 tabs, 14 refs)

  13. A special issue devoted to gold deposits in northern Nevada: Part 2. Carlin-type Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Theodore, Ted G.

    2003-01-01

    This is the second of two special issues of Economic Geology devoted to gold deposits in northern Nevada. Readers interested in a general overview of these deposits, their economic significance, their context within the tectonic evolution of the region, and synoptic references on each gold deposit type are directed to the preface of the first special issue (John et al., 2003). Volume 98, issue 2, contains five papers that address regional aspects important to the genesis of gold deposits in northern Nevada and five papers that present detailed studies of epithermal deposits and districts. All of the regional papers are pertinent to Carlin-type gold deposits, because they address the age of mineralization (Arehart et al., 2003), origin and evolutionary history of the northwest-striking mineral belts that localize many deposits (Grauch et al., 2003), nature of the middle and lower crust below these mineral belts (Howard, 2003), district- to deposit-scale stream sediment and lithogeochemical anomalies (Theodore et al., 2003), and stratigraphy and structure of a district located along a northeast-striking lineament (Peters et al., 2003).

  14. NOTES ABOUT THE EXPLOTATION OF NORTHERN ENVIRONMENT SCOUTING THE AREA, BEGINING OF THE HUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal López Carrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of an ethnohistoric research work about the uses and representations of the deer in the Northeastern México. It talks about the historic uses of this region starting from the original inhabitants, until recent decades. Therefore, this is a review of the quotidian life, facing nature, along the time. In the old times the people from rural area maintained certain balance with the environment because they relayed heavily on the balance with the surrounded ecosystem. The lack of knowledge and vinculation with the environment observed in these days, is caused by the migration of rural people to the big cities and the non-balanced city-country development.

  15. ISLAM IN THE NON-MUSLIM AREAS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUADRI Y A

    sculptures, drawings, paintings, animations, sounds, film, video and video games and most predominantly in this modern era, the internet, to portray its sexual themes. Who are the Owan People? The Owan are people of Edo extraction currently scattered around the Owan River in the Northern fringe of Edo State. 19 . They ...

  16. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. ÇINAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  17. A project optimization for small watercourses restoration in the northern part of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain by the geoinformation and hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Alexander; Vasilchenko, Ann; Khoperskov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The project of small watercourses restoration in the northern part of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain is considered together with the aim of increasing the watering of the territory during small and medium floods. The topography irregularity, the complex structure of the floodplain valley consisting of large number of small watercourses, the presence of urbanized and agricultural areas require careful preliminary analysis of the hydrological safety and efficiency of geographically distributed project activities. Using the digital terrain and watercourses structure models of the floodplain, the hydrodynamic flood model, the analysis of the hydrological safety and efficiency of several project implementation strategies has been conducted. The objective function values have been obtained from the hydrodynamic calculations of the floodplain territory flooding for virtual digital terrain models simulating alternatives for the geographically distributed project activities. The comparative efficiency of several empirical strategies for the geographically distributed project activities, as well as a two-stage exact solution method for the optimization problem has been studied.

  18. Study on the Venus rock composition in the northern part of the Land Aphrodita at the Vega 2 landing spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Moskaleva, L.P.; Shzheglov, O.P.; 9400005SU; AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1986-01-01

    A brief description is given of experiment on X-ray radiometric determination of the elemental composition of Venus rock carried out with the help of the landing spacecraft Vega 2. Preliminary data on the rock composition in the Northern part of the Land Aphrodita and geochemical interpretation of the studied rock character are given. The detailed analysis of the Venus rock composition with application of iterations according to the ITERA program (Surkov etalli 1983) and application of the data on content of natural raedioactive elements determined by the ''Vega-2'' station gamma spectrometer (Surkov and et alli). Show that in the northen part of the Land Aphrodita rock is close by its composition with rocks of anorthosite-norite-troctolite group, which are widely distributed on the Moon surface

  19. Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijumba, J N; Mosha, F W; Lindsay, S W

    2002-03-01

    Malaria vector Anopheles and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were monitored for 12 months during 1994-95 in villages of Lower Moshi irrigation area (37 degrees 20' E, 3 degrees 21' S; approximately 700 m a.s.l.) south of Mount Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania. Adult mosquito populations were sampled fortnightly by five methods: human bait collection indoors (18.00-06.00 hours) and outdoors (18.00-24.00 hours); from daytime resting-sites indoors and outdoors; by CDC light-traps over sleepers. Anopheles densities and rates of survival, anthropophily and malaria infection were compared between three villages representing different agro-ecosystems: irrigated sugarcane plantation; smallholder rice irrigation scheme, and savannah with subsistence crops. Respective study villages were Mvuleni (population 2200), Chekereni (population 3200) and Kisangasangeni (population approximately/= 1000), at least 7 km apart. Anopheles arabiensis Patton was found to be the principal malaria vector throughout the study area, with An. funestus Giles sensu lato of secondary importance in the sugarcane and savannah villages. Irrigated sugarcane cultivation resulted in water pooling, but this did not produce more vectors. Anopheles arabiensis densities averaged four-fold higher in the ricefield village, although their human blood-index was significantly less (48%) than in the sugarcane (68%) or savannah (66%) villages, despite similar proportions of humans and cows (ratio 1:1.1-1.4) as the main hosts at all sites. Parous rates, duration of the gonotrophic cycle and survival rates of An. arabiensis were similar in villages of all three agro-ecosystems. The potential risk of malaria, based on measurements of vectorial capacity of An. arabiensis and An.funestus combined, was four-fold higher in the ricefield village than in the sugarcane or savannah villages nearby. However, the more realistic estimate of malaria risk, based on entomological inoculation rates, indicated that exposure to

  20. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part I: Moessbauer Study of Clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, I.; Haeusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U.

    2003-01-01

    We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sican pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Moessbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.

  1. Modelling study of boundary-layer ozone over northern China - Part II: Responses to emission reductions during the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guiqian; Zhu, Xiaowan; Xin, Jinyuan; Hu, Bo; Song, Tao; Sun, Yang; Wang, Lili; Wu, Fangkun; Sun, Jie; Cheng, Mengtian; Chao, Na; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of emission reduction measures during the Olympics provided a valuable opportunity to study regional photochemical pollution over northern China. In this study, the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Centre for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model system was applied to conduct two sets of modelling analyses of the period from July 20 to September 20, 2008, to illustrate the influences of emission reduction measures on regional photochemical pollution over northern China during the Beijing Olympics. The results indicated that the implementation of emission control measures decreased the concentrations of ozone (O3) precursors, namely nitrogen oxide (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), throughout the boundary layer. The concentrations of these compounds were reduced by 45% in the central urban area of Beijing at the ground level. Although the average O3 concentration in the central urban area increased by more than 8 ppbv, the total oxidant concentration decreased significantly by more than 5 ppbv. Greater O3 concentrations mainly occurred during periods with weak photochemical reactions. During periods of strong photochemical production, the O3 concentration decreased significantly due to a weakening vertical circulation between the lower and upper boundary layer. Consequently, the number of days when the O3 concentration exceeded 100 ppbv decreased by 25% in Beijing. The emission control measures altered the sensitivity of the regional O3 production. The coordinated control region of NOx and VOCs expanded, and the control region of VOCs decreased in size. The reduction of non-point-source emissions, such as fugitive VOCs and vehicles, was more useful for controlling regional photochemical pollution over northern China.

  2. Assessment of mental health in adults of the northern part of the city of Kosovska Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Mental health disorders lead to disorder of effective functioning of people and deterioration of quality of life. Early detection of individuals at risk of mental health disorders is extremely important from the aspect of mental health disorders prevention. The aim of the research was to determine the frequency of mental health problems among adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica and to examine the association between frequency of mental health problems and socio-demographic and other characteristics of the population obtained by the questionnaire. Methods. The cross-sectional study on the representative sample of adult residents of northern Kosovska Mitrovica was performed in October 2009. To obtain information about the characteristics of mental health the Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used. For performing survey at site the method of rapid epidemiological assessment was chosen. Statistical analysis included the methods of descriptive statistics, multivariate regression analysis and calculation of the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency of the questionnaire. Results. Mental health problems (total score were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Psychosomatic problems were present in more than half of the respondents (55.4%, while anxiety and insomnia were present in almost half of the respondents (49.2%. Social dysfunction had more than three fifths of the respondents (63.1% and depression more than a quarter of the respondents (28.5%. More positive responses in the questionnaire were statistically significantly associated with older age, poor financial situation, abuse and assessing of the current political-security situation as high risk. The value of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.705. Conclusions. Almost half of the respondents (49.2% of North Kosovska Mitrovica had mental health problems. Mental health problems were associated with older age, poor

  3. Glacial and Quaternary geology of the northern Yellowstone area, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Krause, Teresa R.; Whitlock, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    This field guide focuses on the glacial geology and paleoecology beginning in the Paradise Valley and progressing southward into northern Yellowstone National Park. During the last (Pinedale) glaciation, the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier flowed out of Yellowstone Park and down the Yellowstone River Valley into the Paradise Valley. The field trip will traverse the following Pinedale glacial sequence: (1) deposition of the Eightmile terminal moraines and outwash 16.5 ± 1.4 10Be ka in the Paradise Valley; (2) glacial recession of ~8 km and deposition of the Chico moraines and outwash 16.1 ± 1.7 10Be ka; (3) glacial recession of 45 km to near the northern Yellowstone boundary and moraine deposition during the Deckard Flats readjustment 14.2 ± 1.2 10Be ka; and (4) glacial recession of ~37 km and deposition of the Junction Butte moraines 15.2 ± 1.3 10Be ka (this age is a little too old based on the stratigraphic sequence). Yellowstone's northern range of sagebrush-grasslands and bison, elk, wolf, and bear inhabitants is founded on glacial moraines, sub-glacial till, and outwash deposited during the last glaciation. Floods released from glacially dammed lakes and a landslide-dammed lake punctuate this record. The glacial geologic reconstruction was evaluated by calculation of basal shear stress, and yielded the following values for flow pattern in plan view: strongly converging—1.21 ± 0.12 bars (n = 15); nearly uniform—1.04 ± 0.16 bars (n = 11); and strongly diverging—0.84 ± 0.14 bars (n = 16). Reconstructed mass balance yielded accumulation and ablation each of ~3 km3/yr, with glacial movement near the equilibrium line altitude dominated by basal sliding. Pollen and charcoal records from three lakes in northern Yellowstone provide information on the postglacial vegetation and fire history. Following glacial retreat, sparsely vegetated landscapes were colonized first by spruce parkland and then by closed subalpine forests. Regional fire activity

  4. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites in the Venice lagoon and conterminous areas (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Maleci, Laura

    2013-04-01

    The lagoon of Venice and the conterminous land are affected by heavy contamination of anthropogenic origin, and for this reason the whole area has been classified as site of national interest, and must be restored. Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sb, Se, Zn) and organic compounds (IPA, PCB, Dioxine) have been identified as the main contaminants at various sites, owing to agriculture and industrial wastes discharged on soils and convoyed to the lagoon. Five case studies of soil remediation are here reported. S. Giuliano is a former palustrine area reclaimed since the 60's with various human transported materials (HTM). In this area, hot spots overpassing the reference limits for residential and green areas have been recorded for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and IPA. Campalto is a site bordering the Venice lagoon and subjected to oscillating water level, that enhances metal mobility; diffuse contamination by heavy metals, particularly Pb, has been recorded at this site, utilized since 30 years for military and sport (skate) activities. Marghera is dramatically famous for its numerous factories and for oil refineries that affected the lagoon sediments since the 50's. Sediments proved heavily contaminated by As (up to 137 mgkg-1), Cd (57 mgkg-1), Hg (30mgkg-1), Ni, Pb (700 mgkg-1), Zn (5818 mgkg-1). Murano is a small island where many glass factories (the most famous all over the world) are running since XIII century. Glass is stained with several metals and, moreover, some substances are used to regulate fusion temperature, purity, etc., and therefore the surrounding environment is heavily contaminated by these substances. Mean concentrations of As (429 mgkg-1), Cd (1452 mgkg-1), Pb (749 mgkg-1), Zn (1624 mgkg-1), Se (341 mgkg-1), Sb (74 mgkg-1) widely overpass the reference values for both residential and industrial areas in national guidelines. Molo Serbatoi is a former oil container currently under restoration in the port of Venice. Soil contamination by As, Hg, Zn and

  5. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  6. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area...

  7. Adaptive Effectiveness of Irrigated Area Expansion in Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Yields in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve adaptive capacity and further strengthen the role of irrigation in mitigating climate change impacts, the Chinese government has planned to expand irrigated areas by 4.4% by the 2030s. Examining the adaptive potential of irrigated area expansion under climate change is therefore critical. Here, we assess the effects of irrigated area expansion on crop yields based on county-level data during 1980–2011 in northern China and estimate climate impacts under irrigated area scenarios in the 2030s. Based on regression analysis, there is a statistically significant effect of irrigated area expansion on reducing negative climate impacts. More irrigated areas indicate less heat and drought impacts. Irrigated area expansion will alleviate yield reduction by 0.7–0.8% in the future but associated yield benefits will still not compensate for greater adverse climate impacts. Yields are estimated to decrease by 4.0–6.5% under future climate conditions when an additional 4.4% of irrigated area is established, and no fundamental yield increase with an even further 10% or 15% expansion of irrigated area is predicted. This finding suggests that expected adverse climate change risks in the 2030s cannot be mitigated by expanding irrigated areas. A combination of this and other adaptation programs is needed to guarantee grain production under more serious drought stresses in the future.

  8. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; ,

    1984-01-01

    ; consequently, flows in the ephemeral streams usually have larger concentrations of dissolved solids than those in perennial streams. Ground-water supplies are restricted by the low yields of wells due to small permeability. Most ground-water use is for domestic and stock-watering purposes; it is limited by the amount and type of dissolved material. The ground-water ionic composition is highly variable. Dissolved-solids concentrations for aquifers sampled in Area 53 range from a minimum of 46 milligrams per liter to a maximum of 109,000 milligrams per liter. Trace element concentrations generally are not a problem. An estimated 82 billion tons of coal exist above a depth of 6,000 feet in the Colorado parts of the area. The coal beds of greatest economic interest occur in the sedimentary deposits of the Upper Cretaceous Iles and Williams Fork Formations of the Mesaverde Group and the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations of Tertiary age. The coal characteristically has a low sulfur content. Hydrologic problems related to surface mining are erosion, sedimentation, decline in water levels, disruption of aquifers, and degradation of water quality. Because the semiarid mine areas have very little runoff and the major streams have large buffer and dilution capacities, the effects of mining on surface water are minimal. However, effects on ground water may be much more severe and long lasting.

  9. Mammal indicator species for protected areas and managed forests in a landscape conservation area in northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep K. Mathur; Harish Kumar; John F. Lehmkuhl; Anshuman Tripathi; Vishwas B. Sawarkar; Rupak. De

    2010-01-01

    There is a realization that managed forests and other natural areas in the landscape matrix can and must make significant contributions to biodiversity conservation. Often, however, there are no consistent baseline vegetation or wildlife data for assessing the status of biodiversity elements across protected and managed areas for conservation planning, nor is there a...

  10. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  11. Last millennium Northern Hemisphere summer temperatures from tree rings: Part II, spatially resolved reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Wilson, Rob; Briffa, Keith R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Cook, Edward R.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Davi, Nicole; Esper, Jan; Frank, David; Gunnarson, Björn E.; Hegerl, Gabi; Helama, Samuli; Klesse, Stefan; Krusic, Paul J.; Linderholm, Hans W.; Myglan, Vladimir; Osborn, Timothy J.; Zhang, Peng; Rydval, Milos; Schneider, Lea; Schurer, Andrew; Wiles, Greg; Zorita, Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Climate field reconstructions from networks of tree-ring proxy data can be used to characterize regional-scale climate changes, reveal spatial anomaly patterns associated with atmospheric circulation changes, radiative forcing, and large-scale modes of ocean-atmosphere variability, and provide spatiotemporal targets for climate model comparison and evaluation. Here we use a multiproxy network of tree-ring chronologies to reconstruct spatially resolved warm season (May-August) mean temperatures across the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (40-90°N) using Point-by-Point Regression (PPR). The resulting annual maps of temperature anomalies (750-1988 CE) reveal a consistent imprint of volcanism, with 96% of reconstructed grid points experiencing colder conditions following eruptions. Solar influences are detected at the bicentennial (de Vries) frequency, although at other time scales the influence of insolation variability is weak. Approximately 90% of reconstructed grid points show warmer temperatures during the Medieval Climate Anomaly when compared to the Little Ice Age, although the magnitude varies spatially across the hemisphere. Estimates of field reconstruction skill through time and over space can guide future temporal extension and spatial expansion of the proxy network.

  12. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Mössbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batán Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sicán ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  13. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-01-01

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Moessbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batan Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sican ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  14. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part I: Mössbauer Study of Clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, I.; Häusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sicán pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Mössbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.

  15. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  16. Collection and arrangement of the geological data in the northern part of Hokkaido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekiyo, Toyohiko

    1999-12-01

    The present article is to collect, to arrange, and to make new figures of the data owned by the private company in and around the site proposed for the Underground Research Laboratory (tentative name). The categories of the data are, 1) surface geological survey, 2) gravity survey, 3) seismic survey, and 4) result of the drilling well. The 1:50,000 scaled geographic maps of Toyotomi and Onobunai published by Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) of the Ministry of Construction cover the area of compiled geological survey. Formations of Masuporo, Wakkanai, Koetoi, and Yuchi are distributed in the studied area. There are some folding axes trending NNW-SSE in this area. Two notable thrust faults named Toyotomi Fault and Omagari Fault are developed and running parallel to the Toyotomi and Omagari - Yuko Anticlines. In the eastern area of these faults, the Koetoi and the lower formations are distributed with small faulted blocks. In the western area, on the other hand, the Koetoi and the upper formations are distributed with relatively gentle dip. The 1:50,000 scaled maps of Toyotomi, Wakkasakinai, Onobunai, and Teshio, published by GSI, cover the area of compiled data of gravity survey. The locations of anticline recognized from geological survey and seismic survey correspond to the area of low gravity anomaly in the west of the above mentioned faults. It may call 'abnormal gravity area'. The area of compiled seismic survey is almost the same as that of gravity survey. The underground geological contour map was made for the base of the Masuporo Formation, because this horizon is the only one that could be traced in almost of the seismic record sections over the study area. Only a little seismic reflection can be seen in the eastern area of the faults mentioned above. The well was drilled on the Kawaguchi Anticline, and the total depth (T.D) is 4,505 m. Therefore, various kind of data are arranged to the T.D continuously, and displayed in the enclosed figures. The result

  17. Thick sedimentary sequence around Bahraich in the northern part of the central Ganga foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglik, A.; Adilakshmi, L.; Suresh, M.; Thiagarajan, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of a magnetotelluric study along a 285 km long profile between Hamirpur and Rupadia (Nepal border) across the central Ganga basin. The electrical resistivity image obtained by combining 1-D Occam inversion models for 39 sites reveals a significant contrast in the subsurface structure from south to north along the profile. At the southern end, the Bundelkhand massif is delineated as a high resistivity block buried beneath 250-300 m thick sediments. The thickness of sediments gradually increases to about 500-600 m at Kanpur, and to about 1.2 km at Lucknow. Here, the basement depth increases to more than 2.5 km within a profile distance of 20 km, which could be attributed to the Lucknow fault. The underlying rocks also have moderate resistivity and possibly represent the Vindhyans. The sedimentary sequence at the northern end of the profile around Bahraich is more than 9 km thick. Integrating the resistivity image with a published seismic velocity structure from the region and the lithology from the 3927 m deep Matera-I well reveals that the top 4 km succession is constituted of highly conductive Oligocene and younger rocks of the Matera Formation and the Siwaliks, and recent sediments whereas the underlying > 5 km section is composed of sedimentary rocks of the Bahraich Group overlying the Archean basement. The high conductivity of sediments in conjunction with the low seismic velocity and large Vp/Vs obtained by receiver function analysis implies poor consolidation of sediments and thus high seismic hazard potential. The present results have implications for hydrocarbon exploration, hazard potential scenario of the central Ganga basin, and flexural strength of the Indian Plate.

  18. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  19. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium. - Highlights: • Degree of radioactive hazard has been estimated by using airborne spectrometric gamma data. • ER, ADR, AEDR, and HP of the eleven radiometric units have been computed. • Comparison of AEDR of Area-3 with the AEDR of Area-1. • Human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. • The highest heat production in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations.

  20. Thin Ice Area Extraction in the Seasonal Sea Ice Zones of the Northern Hemisphere Using Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Naoki, K.; Cho, K.

    2018-04-01

    Sea ice has an important role of reflecting the solar radiation back into space. However, once the sea ice area melts, the area starts to absorb the solar radiation which accelerates the global warming. This means that the trend of global warming is likely to be enhanced in sea ice areas. In this study, the authors have developed a method to extract thin ice area using reflectance data of MODIS onboard Terra and Aqua satellites of NASA. The reflectance of thin sea ice in the visible region is rather low. Moreover, since the surface of thin sea ice is likely to be wet, the reflectance of thin sea ice in the near infrared region is much lower than that of visible region. Considering these characteristics, the authors have developed a method to extract thin sea ice areas by using the reflectance data of MODIS (NASA MYD09 product, 2017) derived from MODIS L1B. By using the scatter plots of the reflectance of Band 1 (620 nm-670 nm) and Band 2 (841 nm-876 nm)) of MODIS, equations for extracting thin ice area were derived. By using those equations, most of the thin ice areas which could be recognized from MODIS images were well extracted in the seasonal sea ice zones in the Northern Hemisphere, namely the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. For some limited areas, Landsat-8 OLI images were also used for validation.

  1. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area.

  2. Prevalence, characteristics and severity of hypomineralization of the first permanent molars and incisors in children from the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Brankica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Molar-incisor hypomnineralization (MIH is relatively common developmental anomaly characterized by hypomineralized enamel defects in the first permanent molars and incisors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypomineralization of the first permanent molars and incisors in children aged eight and 10 years who live in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. Methods. The study included 712 respondents, 289 of whom aged eight (40.6% and 423 of whom aged 10 years (59.4%. Criteria according to Weerheijm were used for diagnosis of hypomineralization and the severity of changes was determined. Results. The frequency of hypomineralized changes in the first permanent molars and incisors of the examined children in this area was 12.2%. It was lower in children aged eight years (10.7% compared to those aged 10 (13.2%. Demarcated enamel opacity was more common in younger children, whereas both atypical restoration and tooth extraction due to hypomineralization were more common in older children. Mild form is more common in children aged eight years, whereas both severe form and severe form with extracted teeth are more common in children aged 10 years. The results indicate that the first permanent molars were most commonly affected by MIH changes. Conclusion. The percentage of the respondents with MIH changes in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, which is 12.2%, is not negligible and points to the necessity of early diagnosis in order to prevent and reduce the complications of the condition by timely prevention and treatment.

  3. Rheumatic conditions in the northern part of Central Java : an epidemiological survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Darmawan

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with a population study on rheumatic diseases in the subdistrict Bandungan, Central Java, Indonesia. It is part of a series of epidemiological surveys executed according to the World Health Organisation - International League Against Rheumatism (WHO-ILAR) initiative

  4. Geology and zircon fission track ages of volcanic rocks in the western part of Hoshino gold area, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadi, Ahmed; Himeno, Osamu; Watanabe, Koichiro; Izawa, Eiji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-12-01

    The Hoshino gold area is located in the western part of the Hohi volcanic zone, northern Kyushu. Volcanic rocks in this area vary from andesitic rocks in the north to dacite and rhyolite in the South. The basement is constituted by metamorphic rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. The volcanic rocks of Pliocene age were subdivided into eight volcanic units. Seven fission track ages of zircons from five volcanic units have been determined, using the external detector method. The age data obtained, combined with some previously reported ages, show that two main volcanic activities have occurred in the area. The first volcanic activity took place around 4.3 Ma, and resulted into the deposition of the Hoshino Andesite and the Ikenoyama Conglomerate. The second main volcanism started around 3.5 Ma, and was characterized by the eruption of the Shakadake Andesite and the Reiganji Andesite at the early stage, then, by more acidic rocks of the Takeyama Andesite, the Hyugami Dacite and the Kuroki Rhyolite at the later stage. The main volcanism in the area ceased around 2.6 Ma. (author)

  5. Long-term evolution of the Campine area in Northern Belgium: past and expected future evolution of tectonics and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Craen, M.; Beerten, K.; Brassinnes, S.; Wouters, L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Disposal of radioactive waste in a geological repository involves the reliance, now and in the long-term future, on the geological and hydrogeological environment. In preparation of the safety and feasibility case 1 (SFC1), the long-term geodynamic evolution of Boom Clay and its geological environment in the Campine area in northern Belgium is studied. Time frames considered are the geological past and the future 1 million year. The idea is that the past long-term evolution can be extended to predict what might happen in the future. In this paper, we first focusses on the past long-term tectonic evolution of the Campine area, and make an extrapolation for the future 1 Ma. We then focus on past climate evolution, and similarly, an assessment of possible future climate conditions is made for the Campine area within the next 1 Ma. Another paper focusses on the combined effect of tectonics and climate on the evolution of the surface environment in the Campine area for the next 1 Ma, with respect to geomorphological, pedological and hydrological processes. During the Palaeozoic, the geodynamic evolution of the Campine area was mainly determined by tectonics. A large intermittently subsiding sedimentary basin existed in which large amounts of sediments were deposited, and which was protected by the Brabant Massif from major oro-genetic compressive processes. Palaeozoic sediments in the Campine Basin reach a maximum thickness of 4000 m. During Mesozoic and Cenozoic, its geodynamic evolution was the interactive result of plate tectonics, sea level changes and climate evolution. Further subsidence resulted in a thick sequence of sedimentary deposits. Mesozoic sediments are found throughout the Campine area while remains of Jurassic-Triassic sediments are found only in the central Roer Valley Graben in the east. The Cenozoic is characterised by a succession of sub-horizontal layers of Tertiary clays and sands and covered by

  6. Pseudohypericin and Hyperforin in Hypericum perforatum from Northern Turkey: Variation among Populations, Plant Parts and Phenological Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cüneyt ?irak; Jolita Radusiene; Valdimaras Janulis; Liudas Ivanauskas

    2008-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial medicinal plant known as "St. John's wort" in Western Europe and has been used in the treatment of several diseases for centuries. In the present study, morphologic, phenologic and population variability in pseudohypericin and hyperforin concentrations among H. perforatum populations from Northern Turkey was investigated for the first time. The aerial parts of H. perforatum plants representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering from 10 sites of Northern Turkey to search the regional variation in the secondary metabolits concentrations. For morphologic and phenologic sampling, plants from one site were gathered in five phenological stages: vegetative,floral budding, full flowering, fresh fruiting and mature fruiting. The plant materials were air-dried at room temperature and subsequently assayed for chemical concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography. Secondary metabolite concentrations ranged from traces to 2.94mg/g dry weight (DW) for pseudohypedcin and traces -6.29mg/g DW for hyperforin. The differences in the secondary metabolite concentrations among populations of H. perforatum were found to be significant. The populations varied greatly in hyperforin concentrations, whereas they produced a similar amount of pseudohypericin. Concentrations of both secondary metabolites in all tissues increased with advancing of plant development and higher accumulation levels were reached at flowering. Among different tissues, full opened flowers were found to be superior to stems, leaves and the other reproductive parts with regard to pseudohypericin and hyperforin accumulations. The present findings might be useful to optimize the processing methodology of wild-harvested plant material and obtain Increased concentrations of these secondary metabolites.

  7. Orofacial features of subjects aged 18-30 years in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a universal term referred to herein to collectively denote a series of functional disorders of orofacial structures, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and the masticatory muscles in particular. Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, as well as the frequency of signs and symptoms of this type of disorder. Methods: The study involved a sample of 300 subjects, aged 18-30 years. The sample comprised the target student population attending the University of Pristina, Kosovska Mitrovica. A random sample, intended for sampling without replacement, was drawn from the target population. All subjects underwent the Helkimo clinical dysfunction index analysis. Results of the analysis were quantified and expressed numerically, based on severity, as the Helkimo anamnestic dysfunction index (Ai and the clinical dysfunction index (Di with specific values assigned thereto accordingly. Results: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population totaled 50.7% (Di> 0. In the majority of patients a mild form of TMP (67% was reported. Temporomandibular disorders were more common in women than in men, who appear to be three times as likely to develop the respective condition, demonstrating the ratio of 3:1. The most common TMD signs and symptoms implied mandibular kinetics disturbances (46% and TMJ sounds (45%. The prevalence of pain during mandibular movements amounted to 9%, the palpable TMJ sensitivity to 20% and the palpable sensitivity of masticatory muscles 18%. Headache and otalgia were represented with 13%, that is, 3% in the observed sample. Conclusion: Temporomandibular disorder analysis demonstrates high incidence in the population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. These findings indicate the need for an extensive prevention

  8. Simulation by a mathematical model of the groundwater flow between the Alps and the Black Forest; Part A: regional model; Part B: local model (Northern Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmeier, F.; Perrochet, P.; Kiraly, L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the development of two hydrogeologic models of the groundwater flow regime in the crystalline of northern Switzerland. These models are constructed at two scales. The regional model (23000 km 2 ) accounts for all recharge to and discharge from the crystalline within the model boundaries. The local model (900 km 2 ) allows for greater structural, stratigraphic and topographic complexity in a more restricted area including some of the areas of interest to CEDRA. The regional model provides the hydrologic boundary conditions for the local model. All steps followed in constructing and testing the models are presented. This includes defining the areal and vertical geometry of the principal aquifers and aquitards. In addition, the hydrogeologic properties of these layers are defined; including their permeability, homogeneity, anisotropy and continuity. Discontinuities (e.g. faults) are modeled as discrete features. Hydrologic boundary conditions are specified based on observed or inferred potentiometric or flow (infiltration/exfiltration) data. The developed conceptual models are tested with program FEM 301. The results of this application consist of heads at every noidal point and recharge/discharge rates at every constant head node. These results are utilized to define the general groundwater flow regimes in the crystalline. In addition, the results are compared to observed heads and discharges in an attempt to validate the conceptual models. Representative hydraulic gradients at potential areas of interest to CEDRA are presented. Sensitivity analyses have been conducted to define the groundwater flow systems response to uncertain parameters and boundary conditions

  9. Geochemistry of peat over kimberlites in the Attawapiskat area, James Bay Lowlands, northern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Keiko H. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: khattori@uOttawa.ca; Hamilton, Stewart [Ontario Geological Survey, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 6B5 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    The James Bay Lowlands, which is the SE part of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada, and within the Paleozoic limestone terrane, is covered mostly by peatlands. Peat samples were examined in the Attawapiskat area, a region of discontinuous permafrost, where more than 19 kimberlite pipes have been found beneath a cover of peat (2-4 m thick) and Quaternary sediments (up to 20 m thick) of Tyrell Sea clay beds and glacial tills. Pore water at a depth of 40 cm in the peat has a consistently low pH, <4, and high Eh, {approx}290 mV, in the areas over limestones far from kimberlites. On the other hand, peat pore water close to kimberlites has a high pH, up to 6.7, and low Eh, down to 49 mV; the values of pH and Eh are inversely correlated. The high pH and low Eh close to kimberlites suggest active serpentinization of olivine in the underlying kimberlites. The bulk compositions of peat indicate precipitation of secondary CaCO{sub 3} and Fe-O-OH. The secondary carbonate contains high concentrations of kimberlite pathfinder elements, such as Ni, rare earth elements (REE) and Y. The ratios of metal concentrations extracted by ammonium acetate solution at pH 5 (AA5) to those in a total digestion confirm that a majority of the divalent cations are hosted by the secondary carbonate, whereas tri-, tetra- and penta-valent cations are not. As these charged cations are not leached in Enzyme Leach, they are most likely adsorbed on Fe-O-OH. The compositions of peat show spatial variation with the distribution of kimberlites, suggesting that they are influenced by the underlying rocks even through there are thick layers of tills and sediments between the bedrocks and peat. However, elevated concentrations of pathfinder elements of kimberlites in bulk peat samples and AA5 leach are not necessarily directly above kimberlites. The diffused metal anomalies around kimberlites are attributed to the dissolution-precipitation of secondary phases (carbonates and Fe-O-OH) in acidic and reduced waters

  10. The Upper Devonian deposits in the northern part of Leon (Cantabrian Mountains, Northwestern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loevezijn, van G.B.S.; Raven, J.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    During the Late Devonian, deposition in the Cantabrian Mountains was largely controlled by movements along faults. By way of intermitting subsidence of the area south of the Sabero-Gordón line and the connected progradation of the coast during the Frasnian and early Famennian, three regressive

  11. Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a young boy from rural part of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Mane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India.

  12. Predicted Liquefaction in the Greater Oakland and Northern Santa Clara Valley Areas for a Repeat of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, T. L.; Noce, T. E.; Bennett, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction due to a repeat of the 1868 (M6.7-7.0) earthquake on the southern segment of the Hayward Fault were calculated for two areas along the margin of San Francisco Bay, California: greater Oakland and the northern Santa Clara Valley. Liquefaction is predicted to be more common in the greater Oakland area than in the northern Santa Clara Valley owing to the presence of 57 km2 of susceptible sandy artificial fill. Most of the fills were placed into San Francisco Bay during the first half of the 20th century to build military bases, port facilities, and shoreline communities like Alameda and Bay Farm Island. Probabilities of liquefaction in the area underlain by this sandy artificial fill range from 0.2 to ~0.5 for a M7.0 earthquake, and decrease to 0.1 to ~0.4 for a M6.7 earthquake. In the greater Oakland area, liquefaction probabilities generally are less than 0.05 for Holocene alluvial fan deposits, which underlie most of the remaining flat-lying urban area. In the northern Santa Clara Valley for a M7.0 earthquake on the Hayward Fault and an assumed water-table depth of 1.5 m (the historically shallowest water level), liquefaction probabilities range from 0.1 to 0.2 along Coyote and Guadalupe Creeks, but are less than 0.05 elsewhere. For a M6.7 earthquake, probabilities are greater than 0.1 along Coyote Creek but decrease along Guadalupe Creek to less than 0.1. Areas with high probabilities in the Santa Clara Valley are underlain by latest Holocene alluvial fan levee deposits where liquefaction and lateral spreading occurred during large earthquakes in 1868 and 1906. The liquefaction scenario maps were created with ArcGIS ModelBuilder. Peak ground accelerations first were computed with the new Boore and Atkinson NGA attenuation relation (2008, Earthquake Spectra, 24:1, p. 99-138), using VS30 to account for local site response. Spatial liquefaction probabilities were then estimated using the predicted ground motions

  13. Research on the surface water quality in mining influenced area in north-western part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smical Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the current situation of the quality of surface water in the areas influenced by mining activities in the north-western part of Romania. In this respect a series of investigations have been conducted regarding the contamination with heavy metals of the water of the Someş and Tisa hydro- graphic Basins, which cover the northern part of Maramures County and the south-western area of Maramures County, respectively. The results of the comparative research refer to the period between 1999 and 2011 and reveal the specific heavy metal ions of mining activity: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb Cd and Ni, as well as the water pH. The presented values as annual average values reveal an increase in several heavy metals after the closure of mines, which is due to the lack of effectiveness of the closure and of the conservation of the mine galleries, as well as of the impaired functioning of the mining wastewater treatment plants.

  14. Topographic and depositional signature of old anthropic lakes in northern part of the Moldavian Plateau (NE Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Niculita, Mihai; Nemeth, Alexandra; Cristea, Ionut

    2017-04-01

    The role of humans and theirs social activities in reshaping earth surface is obvious in many places of the world. Anthropic fingerprints on Earth's surface morphology are recognizable by theirs topographic and depositional signatures that can cause considerable changes in geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes. Anthropic dams and their associated sediments represent recent archives that record environmental changes. They can provide substantial data to reconstruct general models in geomorphic evolution of hydrologic catchments and the identification of extreme meteorological events and sediment fluxes. Also, geochemical tracers provide us relevant indicators about climatic patterns and local condition of sedimentation processes. Until quite recently, the identification and counting the old lakes have been carried out mostly by studying different old maps and less by analyzing their fingerprints on the Earth surface. Considered a real revolution in geomorphology, the high-resolution LiDAR data allow us nowadays a more precise recognition of minor landforms, their extent and cross-relationships, as well as to discover surface features that have escaped the attention before. Furthermore, by using Electrical Resistivity Tomography techniques, the 3D extension of the sediments can be revealed. Anthropic lakes are one of the most particular hydrological anthropic features of the landscape in the northern part of the Moldavian Plateau (Eastern Carpathian lowland). The need for water supply, have forced the inhabitants to build dams of various sizes along the entire river network. Over the time, many dams were abandoned, while others have been relocated with an impressive dynamic at historical time scale. For more than 3000 sq km we have carried out an accurate inventory of abandoned dams using LIDAR imagery. Taking into consideration the last appearance of the lakes on the old maps, they were classified: pre

  15. Landscape movements by two species of migratory nectar-feeding bats (Leptonycteris) in a northern area of seasonal sympatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Michael A.; Cryan, Paul; Weise, Christa D.; Valdez, Ernest W.

    2017-01-01

    Animals often migrate to exploit seasonally ephemeral food. Three species of nectar-feeding phyllostomid bats migrate north from Mexico into deserts of the United States each spring and summer to feed on blooms of columnar cactus and century plants (Agave spp.). However, the habitat needs of these important desert pollinators are poorly understood. We followed the nighttime movements of 2 species of long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and L. nivalis) in an area of late-summer sympatry at the northern edges of their migratory ranges. We radio-tracked bats in extreme southwestern New Mexico during 22 nights over 2 summers and acquired location estimates for 31 individuals. Both species cohabitated 2 major day roosts that were 30 km apart and in different mountain ranges, and individual bats sometimes moved between the roosts. Sampling was opportunistic and limited, but there were no obvious qualitative differences in observed patterns of movement between species or years, or among sex, age, and reproductive groups. Both species were observed foraging most often in the mountain range that had a relatively higher observed density of presumed food plants (Agave palmeri); when roosting in an adjacent mountain range, bats sometimes commuted >20 km one way to forage. Contrary to evidence indicating these species partition resources farther south in Mexico, our findings suggest that L. yerbabuenae and L. nivalis seasonally share common roost and food resources during late summer in this northern area of sympatry.

  16. Characteristics of gravity and magnetic field and their relationship with uranium mineralization in northern Guangxi area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Xiaojing; Yin Zhongfan; Hao Yuhua; guan Nansheng; Li Xuexun

    1993-08-01

    The characteristics of gravity and magnetic field, deep-seated structures and their relationship with uranium mineralization in Northern Guangxi are investigated. Especially, based on geophysical investigation, the distinguishing features of uranium ore-forming are discussed, involved with the uranium source body, the heating force and mechanical force of granite magma acted on uranium mineralization, the deep-seated geological process, the hydrothermal activity, the formation environments of granite-type uranium deposit, the source of pyrite and its influence on uranium mineralization, the uranium ore-forming of Sinian-Cambrian periods and devonian period formations, and the simple model of uranium ore-forming. On the basis of the relationship of uranium mineralization with geophysical field, as well as the ore-forming geological environments inferred by gravity and magnetic field investigation, the physical-geological model is established in order to predicate uranium prospect

  17. The fine structure of the dynamics of seismicity before earthquakes in the area of Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tyupki

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of studies of seismicity in the Reggio Emilia area (Northern Italy. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica instrumental earthquake catalogue (1975-1996 reported about three moderate-size earthquakes with M ³ 4.5 that occurred in this area (November 1983, May 1987, October 1996. The RTL prognostic parameter proposed by Sobolev and Tyupkin (1996a was used for analysis. This parameter is designed in such a way that a seismic quiescence produces negative anomaly of the RTL parameter in comparison to its perennial background level and an activation of seismicity initiates the growth of its value. The RTL prognostic parameter indicates that all three earthquakes are preceded by activation of the seismicity. The interval between the commencement of the activation identified by RTL parameter and the event itself was about one year for the 1987 and 1996 earthquakes, and about three months for the 1983 earthquake.

  18. Climatic and non-climatic drivers of spatiotemporal maize-area dynamics across the northern limit for maize production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that the ongoing anthropogenic climate change will drive changes in agricultural production and its geographic distribution. Here, we assess the extent to which climate change is already driving spatiotemporal dynamics in maize production in Denmark. We use advanced spatial...... regression modeling with multi-model averaging to assess the extent to which the recent spatiotemporal dynamics of the maize area in Denmark are driven by climate (temperature as represented by maize heating units [MHU] and growing-season precipitation), climate change and non-climatic factors (cattle...... cultivation and cattle farming, probably reflecting a change to a more favorable climate for maize cultivation: in the beginning of the study period, northern areas were mostly too cold for maize cultivation, irrespective of cattle density, but this limitation has been diminishing as climate has warmed...

  19. ROLES AND EFFICIENCY OF PARTICIPANTS IN PIG MARKETING IN THE NORTHERN PART OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ajala

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of market participants in pig marketing in Zango-Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to describe the organizational pattern of pig marketing; identify the major problems militating against the marketing efficiency and evaluate the marketing margins of pig at various levels of the marketing channel/chain. The study investigated the pig marketing practices in this area through interviews with producers, rural assemblers, wholesalers, commission agents and retailers. The data collected were analyzed using costs and marketing margins to assess market performance. Empirical findings indicated that the difference (margin between the price received by producers and the retail price of pork and butchers’ sales of by-products was N4,192.40 (US $32.75 per head of pigs. This margin expressed as percentage of the sum of the price paid by pork consumers and by-products merchants was 22% and was shared by the intermediate agents in the marketing chain. Several factors perceived by participants in the market as limiting constraints to pig production and marketing are inadequate abattoir, absence of refrigerators, absence of standard weights and measures, high cost of transportation, lack of access to formal credit sources and lack of good roads. The study recommends the provision of credit facilities, installation of processing plants, use of weights and infrastructural developments in order to increase overall volume of the market.

  20. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion...

  1. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion...

  2. New paleoreconstruction of transgressive stages in the northern part of Lake Ladoga, NW Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Anton; Sapelko, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ladoga is one of the largest lakes in the world and the largest in Europe. The watershed of lake Ladoga covers the North-Western part of European Russia and the Eastern Finland. Lake basin is on the border between the Baltic shield and the East European Platform. The most consistent paleoreconstructions of Lake Ladoga history are based on bottom sediments of smaller lakes, which used to be a part of Ladoga in the past. The stages of Ladoga evolution are directly connected with the history of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) and of the Ancylus Lake. Water level of these lakes was significant higher than nowadays level. Lake Ladoga in its present limits used to be an Eastern gulf of BIL and Ancylus Lake. The preceding paleoreconstructions of Ladoga water level oscillations were undertaken by G. de Geer, J. Ailio, E. Hyyppä, K. Markov, D. Kvasov, D. Malakhovskiy, M. Ekman, G. Lak, N. Davydova, M. Saarnisto, D. Subetto and others. The new data on multivariate analysis of bottom sediments of lakes which used to belong to Ladoga, collected in the last few years, allows to create several maps of Ladoga transgressive stages in Late Glacial period and post-glacial time. A series of maps showing the extent of Ladoga transgression was created based on lake sediments multivariate analysis and a GIS-modeling using the digital elevation data with an accuracy of several meters and an open-source software (QGIS and SAGA). Due to post-glacial rebound of the lake watershed territory, GIS-modeling should comprise the extent of the glacioisostatic uplift, so the chart of a present-day uplift velocity for Fennoscandia of Ekman and Mäkinen was used. The new digital elevation models were calculated for several moments in the past, corresponding to the most probable dates of smaller lakes isolation from Lake Ladoga. Then, the basin of Ladoga was "filled" with water into GIS program to the levels sufficient for the smaller lakes to join and to split-off. The modern coastlines of Ladoga and

  3. Designing integrated energy and spatial development for sustainable urban areas in the Northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to reduce CO2 emission in an efficient way in urban areas by reducing conventional energy use and implementing renewable energy. The research urban area is Zuidlanden, located in the south of Leeuwarden in the north of the Netherlands. The

  4. The role of remote wind forcing in the subinertial current variability in the central and northern parts of the South Brazil Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Marcelo; Castro, Belmiro Mendes

    2018-05-01

    Data analysis of continental shelf currents and coastal sea level, together with the application of a semi-analytical model, are used to estimate the importance of remote wind forcing on the subinertial variability of the current in the central and northern areas of the South Brazil Bight. Results from both the data analysis and from the semi-analytical model are robust in showing subinertial variability that propagates along-shelf leaving the coast to the left in accordance with theoretical studies of Continental Shelf Waves (CSW). Both the subinertial variability observed in along-shelf currents and sea level oscillations present different propagation speeds for the narrow northern part of the SBB ( 6-7 m/s) and the wide central SBB region ( 11 m/s), those estimates being in agreement with the modeled CSW propagation speed. On the inner and middle shelf, observed along-shelf subinertial currents show higher correlation coefficients with the winds located southward and earlier in time than with the local wind at the current meter mooring position and at the time of measurement. The inclusion of the remote (located southwestward) wind forcing improves the prediction of the subinertial currents when compared to the currents forced only by the local wind, since the along-shelf-modeled currents present correlation coefficients with observed along-shelf currents up to 20% higher on the inner and middle shelf when the remote wind is included. For most of the outer shelf, on the other hand, this is not observed since usually, the correlation between the currents and the synoptic winds is not statistically significant.

  5. Geomorphological analysis, monitoring and modeling of large rock avalanches in northern Chile (Iquique area) for regional hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugsi Molina, F. X.; Hermanns, R. L.; Crosta, G. B.; Dehls, J.; Sosio, R.; Sepúlveda, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Iquique is a city of about 215,000 inhabitants (Chilean national census 2002) settled on one of the seismic gaps in the South American subduction zone, where a M >8 earthquake with overdue return periods of ca. 100 yr is expected in the near future. The city has only two access roads coming from the east and south. The road to the east comes down along the escarpment that connects the Coastal Cordillera to the Coastal Plain. The road has been blocked by small magnitude earthquake-triggered landslides at least once in recent years. The second road, coming from the south, crosses along the Coastal Plain and connects the city to the airport where at least ten ancient debris deposits related to rock avalanches are found. These facts show the importance of determining the effects of a future high magnitude earthquake on the stability of the slopes in the area and the impact of possible slope failures on people, infrastructure and emergency management. The present work covers an area of approximately 130 km2 parallel to the coastline to the south of Iquique, divided into the two main morphological units briefly mentioned above. The eastern part corresponds to the Coastal Cordillera, a set of smoothed hills and shallow valleys that reaches up to 1200 m asl. This sector is limited to the west by a steep escarpment followed by the Coastal Plain and a narrow emerged marine plateau (1-3 km wide) locally overlaid by deposits of recent rock avalanches. Rock avalanche events have recurrently occurred at two sites to the north and center of the study area on the Coastal Cordillera escarpment. Another major single event has been mapped to the south. Marls, red and black shales, and shallow marine glauconitic deposits from Jurassic constitute the source rock for the rock avalanches in all sites. Clusters of deposits are found in the first two sites (retrogressive advance) with younger events running shorter distances and partially overlaying the older ones. Multiple lobes have been

  6. Factors Influencing Visitors to Suburban Open Space Areas near a Northern Japanese City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Shoji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visitor information often serves as the basis for the management plan of parks. However, there exist few scientific and fundamental surveys for parks and open spaces in Japan. We analyzed the correlation between the number of visitors and the various factors in a suburban open space in a northern Japanese city, Takino Park. To explain the fluctuations in the number of visitors in Takino Park, multiple regression analyses with the stepwise method were conducted. The analyses employed social factors and meteorological factors, such as the day of the week, school vacations, temperature and the weather. The results show that the most influential factor is the day of the week, i.e., Sundays and holidays. The weather is also influential as the number of visitors decreases on rainy and snowy days. Comparing different seasons of the year, we found that influential factors varied from one season to the other. A key distinguishing finding of our results is that the weather conditions at the departure site and the weather forecast are also determining factors. These findings will help park managers understand the current situations and examine future management strategies to maintain and enhance visitor satisfaction, and improve information services.

  7. Review of heavy metal accumulation on aquatic environment in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea part I: some essential metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Ayşe Bahar; Yanar, Alper; Alkan, Ela Nur

    2017-03-01

    All pollutants can reach the aquatic environments and the levels of heavy metals in upper members of the food web like fish can reach values many times higher than those found in aquatic environment or in sediments. Although heavy metals are essential or non-essential, all heavy metals are potentially harmful to humans and most organisms at some level of exposure and absorption. Marine organisms are good indicators for long-term monitoring of metal accumulation. The present review study is for evaluation of the data from previous studies about the toxic effects of selected heavy metals, like essential metals (copper, zinc, iron, chromium, and manganese), on seawater, sediment, and in different tissues of aquatic animals (demersal and bentic fish, invertabres) collected from different areas in Northern East Mediterrenean Sea since the 1990s. Some concern arose from previous studies, particularly in terms of safety for human consumption. For this purpose, 86 articles and 4 theses were examined and information was collected on the table to open a forward-looking view of the pollution of studied area. In previous studies, the variations in feeding habits, habitats, and the level of copper found in edible muscles of the demersal fish species (deep water fish species, carnivore) such as Mullus barbatus barbatus, Solea lascaris, Sparus aurata were always higher than those found in pelagic (omnivore) Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata. Results show discrepancies caused by many factors; thus, more work must be done carefully.

  8. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  9. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M.; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM 10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM 10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m 3 , respectively. The similarities in PM 10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM 10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM 10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM 10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM 10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM 10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM 10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  10. Methane Metabolizing Microbial Communities in the Cold Seep Areas in the Northern Continental Shelf of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Liang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Marine sediment contains large amount of methane, estimated approximately 500-2500 gigatonnes of dissolved and hydrated methane carbon stored therein, mainly in continental margins. In localized specific areas named cold seeps, hydrocarbon (mainly methane) containing fluids rise to the seafloor, and support oases of ecosystem composed of various microorganisms and faunal assemblages. South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by passive continental margins in the west and north and convergent margins in the south and east. Thick organic-rich sediments have accumulated in the SCS since the late Mesozoic, which are continuing sources to form gas hydrates in the sediments of SCS. Here, Microbial ecosystems, particularly those involved in methane transformations were investigated in the cold seep areas (Qiongdongnan, Shenhu, and Dongsha) in the northern continental shelf of SCS. Multiple interdisciplinary analytic tools such as stable isotope probing, geochemical analysis, and molecular ecology, were applied for a comprehensive understanding of the microbe mediated methane transformation in this project. A variety of sediments cores have been collected, the geochemical profiles and the associated microbial distribution along the sediment cores were recorded. The major microbial groups involved in the methane transformation in these sediment cores were revealed, known methane producing and oxidizing archaea including Methanosarcinales, anaerobic methane oxidizing groups ANME-1, ANME-2 and their niche preference in the SCS sediments were found. In-depth comparative analysis revealed the presence of SCS-specific archaeal subtypes which probably reflected the evolution and adaptation of these methane metabolizing microbes to the SCS environmental conditions. Our work represents the first comprehensive analysis of the methane metabolizing microbial communities in the cold seep areas along the northern continental shelf of South China Sea, would provide new insight into the

  11. Seasonal and pod-specific differences in core use areas by resident killer whales in the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Daniel W.; Matkin, Craig O.; Andrews, Russel D.; Atkinson, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    The resident killer whale is a genetically and behaviorally distinct ecotype of killer whale (Orcinus orca) found in the North Pacific that feeds primarily on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp .). Details regarding core use areas have been inferred by boat surveys, but are subject to effort bias and weather limitations. To investigate core use areas, 37 satellite tags were deployed from 2006 to 2014 on resident killer whales representing 12 pods in the Northern Gulf of Alaska, and transmissions were received during the months of June to January. Core use areas were identified through utilization distributions using a biased Brownian Bridge movement model. Distinct differences in these core use areas were revealed, and were highly specific to season and pod. In June, July, and August, the waters of Hinchinbrook Entrance and west of Kayak Island were primary areas used, mainly by 3 separate pods. These same pods shifted their focus to Montague Strait in August, September, and October. Port Gravina was a focal area for 2 other pods in June, July, and August, but this was not the case in later months. These pods were responsible for seven of eight documented trips into the deeper fjords of Prince William Sound, yet these fjords were not a focus for most groups of killer whales. The seasonal differences in core use may be a response to the seasonal returns of salmon, though details on specific migration routes and timing for the salmon are limited. We found strong seasonal and pod-specific shifts in patterns between core use areas. Future research should investigate pod differences in diet composition and relationships between core area use and bathymetry.

  12. Light Gray Surface-Gleyed Loamy Sandy Soils of the Northern Part of Tambov Plain: Agroecology, Properties, and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel'man, F. R.; Stepantsova, L. V.; Nikiforova, A. S.; Krasin, V. N.; Dautokov, I. M.; Krasina, T. V.

    2018-04-01

    Light gray soils of Tambov oblast mainly develop from sandy and loamy sandy parent materials; these are the least studied soils in this region. Despite their coarse texture, these soils are subjected to surface waterlogging. They are stronger affected by the agrogenic degradation in comparison with chernozems and dark gray soils. Morphology, major elements of water regime, physical properties, and productivity of loamy sandy light gray soils with different degrees of gleyzation have been studied in the northern part of Tambov Plain in order to substantiate the appropriate methods of their management. The texture of these soils changes at the depth of 70-100 cm. The upper part is enriched in silt particles (16-30%); in the lower part, the sand content reaches 80-85%. In the nongleyed variants, middle-profile horizons contain thin iron-cemented lamellae (pseudofibers); in surface-gleyed variants, iron nodules are present in the humus horizon. The removal of clay from the humus horizon and its accumulation at the lithological contact and in pseudofibers promote surface subsidence and formation of microlows in the years with moderate and intense winter precipitation. The low range of active moisture favors desiccation of the upper horizons to the wilting point in dry years. The yield of cereal crops reaches 3.5-4.5 t/ha in the years with high and moderate summer precipitation on nongleyed and slightly gleyed light gray soils and decreases by 20-50% on strongly gleyed light gray soils. On light gray soils without irrigation, crop yields are unstable, and productivity of pastures is low. High yields of cereals and vegetables can be obtained on irrigated soils. In this case, local drainage measures should be applied to microlows; liming can be recommended to improve soil productivity.

  13. Groundwater flow in a closed basin with a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio; Chong, Guillermo; Lambán, Luis Javier; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Wilke, Hans; Jódar, Jorge; Urrutia, Javier; Urqueta, Harry; Sarmiento, Alvaro; Gamboa, Carolina; Lictevout, Elisabeth

    2016-01-15

    Laguna Tuyajto is a small, shallow saline water lake in the Andean Altiplano of northern Chile. In the eastern side it is fed by springs that discharge groundwater of the nearby volcanic aquifers. The area is arid: rainfall does not exceed 200mm/year in the rainiest parts. The stable isotopic content of spring water shows that the recharge is originated mainly from winter rain, snow melt, and to a lesser extent from some short and intense sporadic rainfall events. Most of the spring water outflowing in the northern side of Laguna Tuyajto is recharged in the Tuyajto volcano. Most of the spring water in the eastern side and groundwater are recharged at higher elevations, in the rims of the nearby endorheic basins of Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas to the East. The presence of tritium in some deep wells in Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas indicates recent recharge. Gas emission in recent volcanoes increase the sulfate content of atmospheric deposition and this is reflected in local groundwater. The chemical composition and concentration of spring waters are the result of meteoric water evapo-concentration, water-rock interaction, and mainly the dissolution of old and buried evaporitic deposits. Groundwater flow is mostly shallow due to a low permeability ignimbrite layer of regional extent, which also hinders brine spreading below and around the lake. High deep temperatures near the recent Tuyajto volcano explain the high dissolved silica contents and the δ(18)O shift to heavier values found in some of the spring waters. Laguna Tuyajto is a terminal lake where salts cumulate, mostly halite, but some brine transfer to the Salar de Aguas Calientes-3 cannot be excluded. The hydrogeological behavior of Laguna Tuyajto constitutes a model to understand the functioning of many other similar basins in other areas in the Andean Altiplano. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Issues relating to classification of colluvial soils in young morainic areas (Chełmno and Brodnica Lake District, northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtoniak Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colluvial soils (in Polish: gleby deluwialne are an important part of the soil cover in young morainic landscapes of northern Poland. They evolved as a result of the accumulation of eroded material at the foot of the slopes and bottoms of closed depressions. The aim of this study was to determine the systematic position of colluvial soils commonly found in the Chełmno and Brodnica Lake District, northern Poland. Ten soil pits located in different types of landscapes were selected for testing soil properties. The colluvial material is characterized by diversified properties: thickness, particle-size distribution, organic carbon content, color, pH, and base saturation. As a result, the investigated soils represent broad spectrum of typological units according to Polish Soil Classification (2011. Some of them contain epipedons mollic and meet the criteria of colluvial chernozemic soils. They were found mainly on buried black earths in areas with small slope inclinations. Many pedons contain pale colored acidic colluvial material with low base saturation and low organic carbon content and must be classified as other types: arenosols (in Polish: arenosole or rusty soils (in Polish: gleby rdzawe. These soils occur mostly in areas with intensive relief and overlay the different soil types, including rusty soil and organic soils. They are formed as a result of soils lessivés and rusty soils truncation. An introduction of the additional units of “proper colluvial soils” which have epipedon ochric, and “rusty-colluvial soils” with endopedon sideric to the next edition of Polish Soil Classification would enable a more precise expression of the genesis of these soils in the type rank. Moreover, the definition of chernozemic colluvial soils could be extended to colluvial soils with umbric horizon. Classifying soils derived from colluvial material as soils of other types leads to the disappearance of this units on maps and underestimation of the

  15. Chernobyl accident. The radioactive contamination in the area of Lake Como and in other Northern Italy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Ravera, O.; Pizzala, A.; Bacci, P.

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Po Plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30, 1986; the cloud remained in the Northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds or washed by rains. The evidence in the atmosphere of radionuclides as tellurium, iodine, cesium was promply observed by the Istituto di Fisica. The intense rain, in the first week of May, washed the radioactivity and the fallout contaminated the land, soil, grass and vegetables. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fallout in the Alpine region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma-spectroscope; a linear correlation is found between the radionuclide concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on Lake Como ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fallout in the lake area have been investigated.

  16. Cloud residues and interstitial aerosols from non-precipitating clouds over an industrial and urban area in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Li, Peiren; Sun, Guode; Zhou, Shengzhen; Yuan, Qi; Wang, Wenxing

    2011-05-01

    Most studies of aerosol-cloud interactions have been conducted in remote locations; few have investigated the characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) over highly polluted urban and industrial areas. The present work, based on samples collected at Mt. Tai, a site in northern China affected by nearby urban and industrial air pollutant emissions, illuminates CCN properties in a polluted atmosphere. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to obtain the size, composition, and mixing state of individual cloud residues and interstitial aerosols. Most of the cloud residues displayed distinct rims which were found to consist of soluble organic matter (OM). Nearly all (91.7%) cloud residues were attributed to sulfate-related salts (the remainder was mostly coarse crustal dust particles with nitrate coatings). Half the salt particles were internally mixed with two or more refractory particles (e.g., soot, fly ash, crustal dust, CaSO 4, and OM). A comparison between cloud residues and interstitial particles shows that the former contained more salts and were of larger particle size than the latter. In addition, a somewhat high number scavenging ratio of 0.54 was observed during cloud formation. Therefore, the mixtures of salts with OMs account for most of the cloud-nucleating ability of the entire aerosol population in the polluted air of northern China. We advocate that both size and composition - the two influential, controlling factors for aerosol activation - should be built into all regional climate models of China.

  17. Where does blue water go in the semi-arid area of northern China under changing environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available River flow regimes in the semi-arid region of northern China show a decreasing trend in terms of quantity. River runoff (i.e. blue water reduction within the Laohahe catchment, the source area of the Liaohe River basin, manifests the aridity that exists widely in northern China. According to the water balance equation, during the past half-century, observed streamflow records in the Laohahe catchment show that blue water was re-directed to green water flow (i.e. evapotranspiration over annual and decadal time scales, whereas precipitation did not vary much. Human activities and land-use/land-cover changes are the fundamental reasons for such runoff change. In the studied catchment, extensive land reclamation for agriculture, water withdrawal from streams, and abstraction from aquifers for irrigation are the direct and main causes leading to the decrease in observed blue water. These factors further demonstrate that a land-use decision is also a decision about water. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated modelling framework to intrinsically link climate, hydrological, and agricultural models with social and economic analyses.

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for designated critical habitats, essential habitats, management areas, marine sanctuaries, National Park Service properties,...

  19. Sedimentological aspects of four Lower-Paleozoic formations in the northern part of the province of León (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1964-01-01

    This paper deals with the sedimentary structures and sedimentary petrography of the four lowermost formations of the Paleozoic as developed in the Northern part of the Province of León (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain). Three of the four formations have a detrital character, and one consists of

  20. Geological-geochemical characterization of the Semilus and upper Frasnian deposits of the northern part of the Timano-Pechorsk province. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, L.Z.; Peneva, A.Z.; Udot, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A geochemical characterization of the semilux-upper-Frasnian sections of various Paleotectonic elements of the northern part of the Timano-Pechorsk province is presented. The distribution of oil and gas source rock is established and an assessment of the regions is given.

  1. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  2. Interdisciplinary study of post-glacial faulting in the Lansjaerv area, Northern Sweden 1986-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, G.; Stanfors, R.

    1989-12-01

    Post-glacial faults have been recognized in the northern Baltic shield for several decades. It is important to evaluate whether such neotectonic movements can lead to new fracturing or decisively alter the geohydrological or geohydrochemical situation around a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The post-glacial Lansjaerv fault was chosen for interdisciplinary study because of its relative accessibility. The goals of the study were to assess the mechanisms that caused present day scarps, to clarify the extent of any recent fracturing and to clarify the extent of any ongoing movements. All these objectives were reasonable met through a series of studies. This report describes achievements that have been gained since the study was initiated by SKB 1986. Analysis of geology and geophysics over a 150x200 km region supplemented with seismic networks and field studies at outcrops and trenches set a framework for a cored borehole down to depth of 500 m at the fault. The core has been studied in detail with respect to fracture-infillings in order to analyse mineralogical and geochemical alteration. The borehole has been logged for geophysics, stress, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater pressure and the chemical constituents of the groundwater. Numerical modelling has been undertaken in order to understand the effects of glaciation on the behaviour of a blocky rock mass. Several general conclusions have been made by the interdisciplinary research group. One of the major conclusions is that pre-existing old structures were reactivated by tectonic movements, possibly triggered by deglaciation. In spite of a major earthquake that may have occurred during the deglaciation, and in spite of the anomalous tectonic setting compared to study-sites within SKB:s site investigation programme, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater chemistry are comparable with results from those sites. (83 figs., 15 tabs., 150 refs.)

  3. Toxicity evaluation for the broad area of the asbestos mine of northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2007-01-02

    The existing data regarding the quality of the environment in the asbestos mine of northern Greece (MABE) region related to the presence of asbestos are insufficient to determine the current pollution problem. In the present work, a first approach to this problem has been taken through a toxicity risk assessment. The environmental quality of an open air asbestos mine was evaluated over a long period of time by measuring and monitoring the concentration of asbestos fibres in air, soil and water. Air measurements were made to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres in the atmospheric air of the mine, the depositions and the nearby villages. The asbestos fibre concentration was also specified inside the building facilities of MABE. Analyses of soil, dust and water samples were carried out showing the presence of enormous quantities of chrysotile asbestos. The concentration of asbestos fibres in the atmospheric air was compared to older measurements that were taken at the same sampling points during the operation of the mine. The results of this work, in conjunction with individual researches that have been carried out in the past and with the evaluation of international standards of scientific and experience-based findings, provide a reliable framework with which to estimate the threat of MABE to its surrounding environment, and help to determine a basic criterion for the remediation and rehabilitation of the region. In addition, mathematical models based on human and animal studies were used to estimate the probability of a person developing cancer from breathing air containing asbestos fibres in the wider vicinity of the mine in order to define appropriate procedures for evaluating asbestos-related risk.

  4. Spatial Variations of Soil Gas Geochemistry in the Tangshan Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of Hg, Rn, H2, He and CO2 in soil gases at 756 sites were measured in the Tangshan area where Ms 7.8 earthquake occurred in 1976 and is characterized by complex tectonic structures and high seismic hazard. The results showed that, spatial variations of the gaseous anomalies, especially hydrogen and helium have spatial congruence along the tectonic lines, which can be attributed to their deep sources and the migration paths formed by the faults. A better congruence of radon and carbon dioxide is highlighted which indicates that carbon dioxide acts as the carrier gas for radon in this area. Two geochemical anomaly zones of soil gas were found in the area wherein all the studied gases exhibited anomalies or high values, related to the faults and earthquakes.

  5. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  6. Correlation of wind and solar power in high-latitude arctic areas in Northern Norway and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbakken Kine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the possibilities for combining wind and solar power in a household-scale hybrid renewable energy system in arctic high-latitude areas in the North of Norway. By combining two complementary renewable energy sources, the efficiency and reliability of the power output can be improved compared to a system utilizing wind or solar power independently. This paper assesses the correlation between wind and solar power on different timescales in four different locations in Northern Norway and Svalbard. For all locations complementary characteristics of wind and solar power are found, however, the strength of the correlation is highly variable for each location and for the different timescales. The best correlation for all places is found on a monthly timescale. HOMER is used to run simulations on hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES for each location. For three of the four locations the HRES produces more power than what is consumed in the household.

  7. Multi-interdisciplinary evidence of the Holocene history of a cultivated flood plain area in the wetlands of northern Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos; Boom, Arnoud; Botero, Pedro; Herrera, Luisa Fernanda; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Romero, Freddy; Sarmiento Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    An environmental reconstruction of the last 10,000 14 C years of a frequently flooded wetland ecosystem in the lower Magdalena Valley in northern Colombia is presented on the basis of a multi-disciplinary study of the sediments of the upper 15 m the core from Boquillas (74 degrade 33' E, 9 degrade 7' N; 20 m a.s.l.). We used the following studies: pollen, lithology, organic structures, clay mineralogy, soil and sediment geochemistry, and 013C values. The chronology is based on 13 AMS 14 C dates; of 7 samples the humid acid fractions were used in the case of seven samples. Pollen from local origin (swamps, open grass-rich vegetation, and gallery forest) shows the development of the wetland area. River-transported pollen from greater distance (dry forest, montane forest, Alnus) shows changes in river activity and reflects large-scale changes of climatic conditions in the Momposina basin

  8. Impacts of natural events and processes on groundwater flow conditions: a case study in the Horonobe Area, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizato, T.; Yasue, K.I.; Kurikami, H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the long-term stability of the geological environments for over several hundred thousand years, it is important to consider the influence of natural events and processes, such as uplift, subsidence, denudation and climate change, on the geological environments, especially in an active region such as Japan. This study presents a conceptual model related to the future natural events and processes which have potential impacts on the groundwater flow conditions in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, northern Japan on the basis of the neo-tectonics, palaeogeography, palaeo-climate, historical development of landform, and present state of groundwater flow conditions. We conclude that it is important to consider interactions among natural events and processes on the describing of the best-possible approximation of the time-variation of geological environment. (authors)

  9. Structural analysis south of the malakand and adjoining areas, northern pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Jehan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Two major faults the Kishora thrust and a back thrust. dominate the structure of the study area. The Kishora thrust divide the study area into two tectonic terranes, the Indus melanges including Dargai ultramafic complex, and the Indian shelf terrane, whereas the back thrust brings higher grade almandine zone rocks in contact with low grade chlorite zone rocks near Bar Bazdara and Zormandai village. An important aspect of this study is the relationship of the structures of Swat with the Peshawar basin. The structures and stratigraphy in Swat extends into the Peshawar basin. (author)

  10. Occurrence of emerging flame retardants from e-waste recycling activities in the northern part of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Someya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the contamination status of 21 emerging flame retardants (FRs in soils (n = 32 and river sediments (n = 8 from an e-waste recycling (EWR site in the northern part of Vietnam. Among analyzed FRs, higher levels of decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE (ND–4200 ng/g dw, 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE (ND–350 ng/g dw and Dechlorane Plus isomers (DPs (ND–65 ng/g dw were found in soils near EWR workshops and open burning places. The highest concentrations of DBDPE (20 ng/g dw, BTBPE (5.7 ng/g dw and DPs (6.7 ng/g dw were also detected in sediments collected from the middle of the EWR site. The levels decreased concomitantly with increasing distance from the EWR site. These results indicate that these FRs were released to the surrounding environment from improper recycling activities, such as manual dismantling of devices and open burning of e-wastes. Moreover, the estimated daily intakes of those FRs via soil ingestion were approximately ten times higher for children than adults. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study on characterization of soil and sediment contamination by a series of emerging FRs at an EWR site in Vietnam.

  11. Concentrations of 99Tc and 137Cs in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Iyogi, T.; Takaku, Y.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sekine, T.

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now under the active test using actual spent nuclear fuels. Since the plant will release small amount of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater nearby the plant will possibly increase in future. Since it is important to get background concentration levels of 99 Tc and 137 Cs in marine products from the ocean nearby the plant for assessing the effect to the concentration levels by the plant, the nuclides in edible kelps and sea urchin ovaries from the northern part of Japan (Aomori, Hokkaido and Iwate) were observed. Concentrations of 99 Tc in the kelps were lower than those reported for other non-edible seaweeds (Sargassum thunbergii) in Aomori, and the same level to the reported value of Hizikia fusiformis in Kyushu. 99 Tc concentrations in the urchin ovaries were lower than the detection limit of our method, and concentrations of 137 Cs in them were similar to these in the kelps. It suggested that 99 Tc is not concentrated in sea urchin ovaries. This work was supported by a grant from Aomori prefecture, Japan. (author)

  12. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  13. Geochemical significance of neoproterozoic rasimalai alkali syenite emplaced along Dharmapuri shear zone in the Northern part of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavel, S.; Balasubramani, S.; Nagaraju, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Zakaulla, Syed; Rai, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Rasimalai alkali syenite complex is emplaced within Peninsular Gneissic complex and spatially associated with NE-SW trending major Dharmapuri shear zone (DSZ) in the northern part of Tamil Nadu. It is surrounded by epidote hornblend egneiss, which is the fenetised product of Charnockite and occurs about 20 km NE of Alangayam in Vellore district. It is mainly comprised of medium to coarse grained grey syenite (albite and orthoclase) and medium to micro grained pink syenite (orthoclase, microcline and perthite) at places porphyritic in nature with hornblende, riebeckitc, aegirine and acmite as accessory minerals. Grey syenite is non radioactive and uranium mineralisation is associated with pink syenite (syngenetic and disseminated type) and quartz-barite veins (hydrothermal type). Hydrothermal activity is manifested in the form of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, barite, calcite and calcian-strontianite which occur in the form of disseminations, stringers, lumps, aggregates, veinlets and veins. Presence of high silica (63.14-75.43%) with high field strength elements (U, Th, Nb and Pb) and large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Sr, K, Ba) possibly indicates that Rasimalai alkali syenite is the product of crustal communication and partial melting of protracted emplacement of parental alkali basaltic magma

  14. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    .... ACTION: Final rule; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision expands the Russian River Valley... describe the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES... consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval...

  15. Flora and phytosociology of an area of Restinga along the northern Coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Marcelino Menezes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Areas of restinga are geologically recent environments. The species that inhabit this type of ecosystem are typical of adjacent areas, such as rain forest, tabuleiro forest and caatinga, and form a diverse community of trees, shrubs and erect and prostrate herbs. The goal of this work was to evaluate the vegetation in an area of restinga located along Praia do Forte, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Four 200m transects where made within five plots of 100m2 each, and 1,640 individuals within 68 species were collected. High species diversity was found in transects 1 and 2 (H´ = 3.882 and 3 and 4 (H´ = 3.835. The most representative families were Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae and Malpighiaceae. Based on the species composition, a significant difference (p < 0.001 was found between the sampled areas, and the findings show that there are two distinct plant communities in this region, Mata deRestinga and Restinga em Moitas.

  16. Prevalence of cognitive impairment no dementia in a rural area of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Zhihong; Liu, Mengyuan; Liu, Shuai; Yue, Wei; Liu, Shuling; Xiang, Lei; Lu, Hui; Liu, Ping; Wisniewski, Thomas; Wang, Jinhuan; Ji, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Few data are available on the prevalence of cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) in rural China. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of CIND in individuals aged 60 years and older in a large rural community, and to analyze the associated risk factors. A two-phase, door-to-door epidemiological study was used for residents aged 60 years and older in Ji County, a rural county near Tianjin in Northern China. In phase 1 of the study, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating were administered for screening purposes. In phase 2, the subjects who screened positive were further examined by neurologists. A total of 5,744 individuals underwent the home visit interview, where demographic variables and comorbidities were recorded; 5,550 individuals completed the two phases. CIND was diagnosed by the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study on CIND criteria. The odds ratio (OR) for each risk factor was calculated by logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of CIND among those aged 60 years and older was 23.3%. The prevalence of CIND was lower among those with a higher level of education or social involvement. CIND was more prevalent in females, older individuals, those with a past history of stroke, and those living without a partner. Significant risk factors were found by multivariate analyses: past history of stroke (OR = 1.889; 95% CI: 1.437-2.483); being female (OR = 1.546; 95% CI: 1.305-1.832); and having no partner (divorced, widowed or single; OR = 1.250; 95% CI: 1.042-1.499). In turn, level of education (OR = 0.560; 95% CI: 0.460-0.681) and engagement in social activities (OR = 0.339; 95% CI: 0.258-0.404) were protective factors. This is the first large-scale community-based epidemiological study assessing the prevalence of cognitive loss in the rural Chinese population. The total prevalence of CIND observed was 23.3%, which was higher than in other studies in Western and Asian countries. Living without a partner, female gender

  17. Performances of the snow accumulation melting model SAMM: results in the Northern Apennines test area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Daniela; Martelloni, Gianluca; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo; Fanti, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    In this work we propose a snow accumulation-melting model (SAMM) to forecast the snowpack height and we compare the results with a simple temperature index model and an improved version of the latter.For this purpose we used rainfall, temperature and snowpack thickness 5-years data series from 7 weather stations in the Northern Apennines (Emilia Romagna Region, Italy). SAMM is based on two modules modelling the snow accumulation and the snowmelt processes. Each module is composed by two equations: a mass conservation equation is solved to model snowpack thickness and an empirical equation is used for the snow density. The processes linked to the accumulation/depletion of the snowpack (e.g. compression of the snowpack due to newly fallen snow and effects of rainfall) are modelled identifying limiting and inhibitory factors according to a kinetic approach. The model depends on 13 empirical parameters, whose optimal values were defined with an optimization algorithm (simplex flexible) using calibration measures of snowpack thickness. From an operational point of view, SAMM uses as input data only temperature and rainfall measurements, bringing the additional advantage of a relatively easy implementation. In order to verify the improvement of SAMM with respect to a temperature-index model, the latter was applied considering, for the amount of snow melt, the following equation: M = fm(T-T0), where M is hourly melt, fm is the melting factor and T0 is a threshold temperature. In this case the calculation of the depth of the snowpack requires the use of 3 parameters: fm, T0 and ?0 (the mean density of the snowpack). We also performed a simulation by replacing the SAMM melting module with the above equation and leaving unchanged the accumulation module: in this way we obtained a model with 9 parameters. The simulations results suggest that any further extension of the simple temperature index model brings some improvements with a consequent decrease of the mean error

  18. Deformation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas, Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland, 1993-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Verhagen, Sandra; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Spaans, Karsten; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún

    2017-09-01

    The Krafla volcanic system has geothermal areas within the Krafla caldera and at Bjarnarflag in the Krafla fissure swarm, 9-km south of the Krafla caldera. Arrays of boreholes extract geothermal fluids for power plants in both areas. We collected and analyzed InSAR, GPS, and leveling data spanning 1993-2015 in order to investigate crustal deformation in these areas. The volcanic zone hosting the geothermal areas is also subject to large scale regional deformation processes, including plate spreading and deflation of the Krafla volcanic system. These deformation processes have to be taken into account in order to isolate the geothermal deformation signal. Plate spreading produces the largest horizontal displacements, but the regional deformation pattern also suggests readjustment of the Krafla system at depth after the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting episode. Observed deformation can be fit by an inflation source at about 20 km depth north of Krafla and a deflation source at similar depth directly below the Krafla caldera. Deflation signal along the fissure swarm can be reproduced by a 1-km wide sill at 4 km depth closing by 2-4 cm per year. These sources are considered to approximate the combined effects of vertical deformation associated with plate spreading and post-rifting response. Local deformation at the geothermal areas is well resolved in addition to these signals. InSAR shows that deformation at Bjarnarflag is elongated along the direction of the Krafla fissure swarm (∼ 4 km by ∼ 2 km) while it is circular at Krafla (∼ 5 km diameter). Rates of deflation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas have been relatively steady. Average volume decrease of about 6.6 × 105 m3/yr for Krafla and 3.9 × 105 m3/yr for Bjanarflag are found at sources located at ∼ 1.5 km depth, when interpreted by a spherical point source of pressure. This volume change represents about 8 × 10-3 m3/ton of the mass of geothermal fluid extracted per year, indicating important renewal

  19. Application of PCR-Based Tools to Explore Strongyloides Infection in People in Parts of Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma J. Robertson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis, which is caused by infection with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, is endemic to areas of northern Australia. Diagnosis in this region remains difficult due to the distances between endemic communities and diagnostic laboratories, leading to lengthy delays in stool processing for microscopy and culture. PCR represents a viable solution to this difficulty, having potential for high sensitivity detection of S. stercoralis, even in older, unpreserved faecal samples. We prospectively collected 695 faecal specimens that were submitted to The Townsville Hospital Microbiology Laboratory from the North Queensland region for routine parasitological examination, and subjected them to a Strongyloides sp. real-time (qPCR. Results were confirmed with a novel nested conventional PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP. Of the 695 specimens tested, S. stercoralis was detected in three specimens (0.4% by classical parasitological methods (direct microscopy and formyl-ether acetate concentration, whereas 42 positives were detected by qPCR (6.0%. Conventional PCR confirmed the real-time PCR results in 24 of the samples (3.5%. Several apparent false-positive results occurred at higher cycle times (Ct in the qPCR. Use of real-time PCR in these populations is promising for the enhanced detection of disease and to support eradication efforts.

  20. Uranium deposits in the Beaverlodge area, northern Saskatchewan: their relationship to the Martin Group (Proterozoic) and the underlying basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazimhaka, P.K.; Hendry, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    The rocks of the Martin Group crop out in an area 60 km by 50 km north of Lake Athabasca near Uranium City, northern Saskatchewan. This area has numerous uranium showings within a few kilometres of the unconformity below the Martin Group. Mineralization occurs in fault zones, in basement rocks and in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Martin Group. Martin Group sediments accumulated in alluvial fans, braided streams, and ephemeral lakes. The thickest sequence (8 km to 10 km) is preserved in the Beaverlodge area, near Uranium City. The style of sedimentation changed through time as the basin evolved from deposition of conglomeratic detritus along fault scarps to the accumulation of silt in ephemeral lakes. The uneven nature of the sub-Martin unconformity surface, the lithotype of the lowermost conglomerates and breccias (Beaverlodge Formation), and the shape of the basin fill indicate deposition in fault-controlled basins. The earliest economic uranium mineralization in the rocks of the Martin Group was epigenetic. The mineralization was coeval with that in basement rocks. Economic mineralization in basement rocks and in the lowermost formation of the Martin Group is close to the unconformity. Epigenetic uranium mineralization thus appears to have resulted from processes that were related, in time and space, to either the formation of the unconformity or the deposition of the Martin Group or both. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  1. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  2. An attempt to evaluate horizontal crustal movement by geodetic and geological approach in the Horonobe area, Northern Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Nohara, Tsuyoshi; Asamori, Koichi; Matsuura, Yuki; Kosaka, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present the preliminary results for the estimation of a horizontal crustal movement by using geodetic and geological approach in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan. The estimations have been carried out by using a GPS data and a geological cross section obtained by applying balanced-section method. As results of this study, both of the shortening rates estimated by GPS data and balanced-section method indicate several millimeters per year. Namely, there is no contradiction between geodetic and geological data, and it is considered that Horonobe area is still situated similar tendency and magnitude of a crustal movement. It is seemingly considered that geodetic data is unhelpful for estimating the long-term crustal movement, because period of geodetic observations is a very short. However, the result of this study indicates that geodetic data provide valuable information for estimating the long-term crustal movement in the area, and it is considered that geodetic approach play an important role in improvement of the credibility of evaluation for prediction of long-term stability. (author)

  3. Distribution of Euphausia mucronata at the upwelling area of Peninsula Mejillones, northern Chile: The influence of the oxygen minimum layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Escribano

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of zooplankton samples from 53 stations obtained around Peninsula Mejillones (Northern Chile, from two strata: 0-50 m and 150-200 m, during active upwelling in December 1996, allowed the study of horizontal and vertical distribution of Euphausia mucronata, endemic Krill of the Humboldt Current. Information from CTDO and a fluorometer was used to analyze the influence of oceanographic variables on distribution of E. mucronata. E. mucronata was found distributed all around the Peninsula, although with greater aggregations in the southern area, especially in the deeper layer. Stepwise multiple regression showed that none of the variables (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll was significantly correlated to numerical abundance of the species. However there was a significant effect of depth of the oxygen minimum layer (OML, defined as 0.5 ml O2 l-1, on integrated abundance of the species, such that individuals are more likely to be found in areas where the OML is deeper. A vertical distribution parameter suggested a diurnal migrational pattern. This parameter was also correlated with distance to shoreline. The OML rises abrutply in nearshore areas because of active upwelling, but there are still nearshore zones where the OML remains deep. Therefore E. mucronata appears to aggregate around the upwelling lenses and filaments, where phytoplankton is more concentrated, but at the same time avoiding places where the OML is too shallow.

  4. Structural model of the Northern Latium volcanic area constrained by MT, gravity and aeromagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gasparini

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of about 120 magnetotelluric soundings carried out in the Vulsini, Vico and Sabatini volcanic areas were modeled along with Bouguer and aeromagnetic anomalies to reconstruct a model of the structure of the shallow (less than 5 km of depth crust. The interpretations were constrained by the information gathered from the deep boreholes drilled for geothermal exploration. MT and aeromagnetic anomalies allow the depth to the top of the sedimentary basement and the thickness of the volcanic layer to be inferred. Gravity anomalies are strongly affected by the variations of morphology of the top of the sedimentary basement, consisting of a Tertiary flysch, and of the interface with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates. Gravity data have also been used to extrapolate the thickness of the neogenic unit indicated by some boreholes. There is no evidence for other important density and susceptibility heterogeneities and deeper sources of magnetic and/or gravity anomalies in all the surveyed area.

  5. Soil map, area and volume calculations in Orrmyrberget catchment basin at Gideaa, Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, T.; Tammela, P.T.; Gustafsson, E.

    1991-06-01

    Fallout studies in the Gideaa study site after the Chernobyl fallout in 1986, has come to the point that a more exact surface mapping of the studied catchment basin is needed. This surface mapping is mainly made for area calculations of different soil types within the study site. The mapping focus on the surface, as the study concerns fallout redistribution and it is extended to also include materials down to a depth of 0.5 meter. Volume calculations are made for the various soil materials within the top 0.5 m. These volume and area calculations will then be used in the modelling of the migration and redistribution of the fallout radionuclides within the studied catchment basin. (au)

  6. Probability density functions of photochemicals over a coastal area of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiadis, T.; Fortezza, F.; Alberti, L.; Strocchi, V.; Marani, A.; Dal Bo', G.

    1998-01-01

    The present paper surveys the findings of experimental studies and analyses of statistical probability density functions (PDFs) applied to air pollutant concentrations to provide an interpretation of the ground-level distributions of photochemical oxidants in the coastal area of Ravenna (Italy). The atmospheric-pollution data set was collected from the local environmental monitoring network for the period 1978-1989. Results suggest that the statistical distribution of surface ozone, once normalised over the solar radiation PDF for the whole measurement period, follows a log-normal law as found for other pollutants. Although the Weibull distribution also offers a good fit of the experimental data, the area's meteorological features seem to favour the former distribution once the statistical index estimates have been analysed. Local transport phenomena are discussed to explain the data tail trends

  7. Modelling approach for the rainfall erosivity index in sub-humid urban areas in northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaibia, I.; Abderrahmane Guenim, N.; Touaibia, B.

    2014-09-01

    This work presents an approach for storm water erosivity index modelling in the absence of measurement in an urban area, in a sub-humid climate. In torrential storms, floods, loaded with sediments, obstruct storm water drainage. With the aim of estimating the amount of sediment that can be deposited on a stretch of road, adjacent to the study area, the erosivity index is determined from a count of 744 rain showers recorded over a period of 19 years. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) of Wischmeier and Smith is applied, where only the index of erosivity is calculated; it is based on the intensity of the rain starting the process of erosion in the basin. Functional relations are required between this factor and the explanatory variables. A power type regression model is reached, making it possible to bring a decision-making aid in absences of measurements.

  8. Modelling approach for the rainfall erosivity index in sub-humid urban areas in northern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Touaibia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an approach for storm water erosivity index modelling in the absence of measurement in an urban area, in a sub-humid climate. In torrential storms, floods, loaded with sediments, obstruct storm water drainage. With the aim of estimating the amount of sediment that can be deposited on a stretch of road, adjacent to the study area, the erosivity index is determined from a count of 744 rain showers recorded over a period of 19 years. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE of Wischmeier and Smith is applied, where only the index of erosivity is calculated; it is based on the intensity of the rain starting the process of erosion in the basin. Functional relations are required between this factor and the explanatory variables. A power type regression model is reached, making it possible to bring a decision-making aid in absences of measurements.

  9. Terrestrial mammal assemblages in protected and human impacted areas in Northern Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Burgos de Luna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammal communities in the vicinity of human settlements are often subject to subsistence hunting and retaliatory killings. We used fourteen digital camera traps equipped with infrared triggers to sample the medium-sized and large mammal communities for ca. 34 (±1.64 days per site. Diversity was measured as both Shannon entropy and Fager´s number of moves (NMS, and dominance was quantified using the Berger-Parker index. We used Kruskall-Wallis tests to investigate if there were statistically significant differences in richness, diversity and dominance among the sites. At an overall sampling effort of 1,946 trap days we recorded 216 independent observations of a total of 20 species belonging to 17 genera and 15 families. Richness and diversity appeared to be determined by forest structure, since, independent of the level of human impact, the richest areas were those closest to the ombrophilous forests of southern Guyana shield, closest to central Amazonia, whereas the poorest were at those sites closest to the vegetation mosaics of central Guyana shield. The disappearance of Tayassu pecari from the impacted areas as well as higher relative abundances in the protected areas, albeit not significant, foresees a possible bleak future for the mammalian assemblages in the near future.

  10. Regional distribution of released earthquake energy in northern Egypt along with Inahass area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-hemamy, S.T.; Adel, A.A. Othman

    1999-01-01

    A review of the seismic history of Egypt indicates sone areas of high activity concentrated along Oligocene-Miocene faults. These areas support the idea of recent activation of the Oligocene-Miocene stress cycle. There are similarities in the special distribution of recent and historical epicenters. Form the tectonic map of Egypt, distribution of Intensity and magnitude show strong activity along Nile Delta. This due to the presence of a thick layers of recent alluvial sediments. The released energy of the earthquakes are effective on the structures. The present study deals with the computed released energies of the reported earthquakes in Egypt and around Inshas area . Its effect on the urban and nuclear facilities inside Inshas site is considered. Special consideration will be given to old and new waste repository sites. The application of the determined released energy reveals that Inshas site is affected by seismic activity from five seismo-tectonic source zones, namely the Red Sea, Nile Delta, El-Faiyum, the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba seismo-tectonic zones. El-Faiyum seismo-tectonic source zone has the maximum effect on the site and gave a high released energy reaching to 5.4E +2 1 erg

  11. Hydrology of area 59, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggiani, Neville G.; Britton, Linda J.; Minges, Donald R.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Parker, Randolph S.; Kircher, James E.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis aid in decisions to lease federally owned coal and to prepare necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of Public Law 95-87, the "Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977." This act requires an appropriate regulatory agency to issue permits, based on the review of permit-application data to assess hydrologic impacts. This report, which partially fulfills this requirement, is one in a series of nationwide coal province reports that present information thematically, through the use of a brief text and accompanying maps, graphs, charts, or other illustrations for single hydrologic topics. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 59 in north-central Colorado and southeastern Wyoming.The report area, located within the South Platte River basin, covers a 16,000-square-mile area of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics.The South Platte River, the major stream in the area, and most of its tributaries originate in granitic mountains and flow into and through the sedimentary rocks of the Great Plains. Altitudes range from less than 5,000 feet to more than 14,000 feet above sea level. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, and produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt during the spring and summer produces most streamflow. Transmountain diversion of water from the streams on the western slope of the mountains also adds to the streamflow. Precipitation in the plains is as little as 10 inches annually. Streams that originate in the plains are ephemeral.Streamflow quality is best in the mountains, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally small. Concentrations increase in the plains as streams flow through sedimentary basins, and as urbanization and irrigation increase. The quality of some mountain streams is affected by

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis in Perilla frutescens from Northern areas of China based on simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S J; Sa, K J; Hong, T K; Lee, J K

    2017-09-21

    In this study, 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure among 77 Perilla accessions from high-latitude and middle-latitude areas of China. Ninety-five alleles were identified with an average of 4.52 alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) and genetic diversity values were 0.346 and 0.372, respectively. The level of genetic diversity and PIC value for cultivated accessions of Perilla frutescens var. frutescens from middle-latitude areas were higher than accessions from high-latitude areas. Based on the dendrogram of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), all accessions were classified into four major groups with a genetic similarity of 46%. All accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens were discriminated from the cultivated P. frutescens var. crispa. Furthermore, most accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens collected in high-latitude and middle-latitude areas were distinguished depending on their geographical location. However, the geographical locations of several accessions of the cultivated var. frutescens have no relation with their positions in the UPGMA dendrogram and population structure. This result implies that the diffusion of accessions of the cultivated Perilla crop in the northern areas of China might be through multiple routes. On the population structure analysis, 77 Perilla accessions were divided into Group I, Group II, and an admixed group based on a membership probability threshold of 0.8. Finally, the findings in this study can provide useful theoretical knowledge for further study on the population structure and genetic diversity of Perilla and benefit for Perilla crop breeding and germplasm conservation.

  13. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  14. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  15. Landslide mapping and analysis of Korbous area, Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Djbel Korbous is an important relief dominating the south-eastern edge of the Gulf of Tunis. It is an anticline truncated by a NS fault that passes through the axis of the fold, reason of the collapse of western slopes under the sea. This geometry gives the appearance of a large cased fold and the individualization of series of crests forming the massive of Korbous where altitudes exceed sometimes 400.0 m. Different types of landslides, with various origins and evolution, affect this area. Reactivated pre-existing structures, heterogeneity of lithology and water flow infiltration are the main agents of this phenomenon. The degradation of steep cliffs along the road is strongly accentuated by physico-chemical alteration due to the dissolution of rocks by the runoff flowing through a dense network of fractures and cracks and the spalling of the sandstone bar. The situation has become increasingly critical since 2009 when a large rock slide affected the slope over the sea, threatening, especially the only access to the village with heavy consequences for the population of the region (infrastructure, regional medical center, trade and tourism). The present study aims at defining (i) the main structurally controlled failure types;(ii) the detection of potential instabilities from steep slopes and cliff areas; (iii) the preliminary estimation of potential run-out areas. Geographical Information System GIS (generation of slope map and azimuth map), digital elevation modeling (DEM) are among the most useful tools used for a reliable analysis in this area. Additionally, field work in this paper includes a program of in situ recognition of inventoried instabilities (field measurements, discontinuities characterization, stereoplots and kinematic tests ) and digital photogrammetry using a Canon EOS 7D camera (construction of 3D models and discontinuity measurements were all achieved using VisualSFM and CloudCompare software). The application of those techniques on the area of

  16. Spatial Variations of Soil Gas Geochemistry in the Tangshan Area of Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Li; Jianguo Du; Xin Wang; Xiaocheng Zhou; Chao Xie; Yueju Cui

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of Hg, Rn, H2, He and CO2 in soil gases at 756 sites were measured in the Tangshan area where Ms 7.8 earthquake occurred in 1976 and is characterized by complex tectonic structures and high seismic hazard. The results showed that, spatial variations of the gaseous anomalies, especially hydrogen and helium have spatial congruence along the tectonic lines, which can be attributed to their deep sources and the migration paths formed by the faults. A better congruence of radon ...

  17. Crustal structure in the Kiruna area, northern Sweden, based on seismic reflection profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhojuntti, Niklas; Bergman, Stefan; Olsson, Sverker

    2013-04-01

    Northernmost Sweden is currently one of the most active mining areas in Europe. In order to better understand the regional three-dimensional crustal structure and to support deep ore exploration, we have acquired a 74 km long seismic reflection profile in the Kiruna area. The upper crust in this area is largely composed of various supracrustal units, which are dominated by metabasalts, acidic metavolcanics and clastic metasedimentary rocks, resting on an Archaean metagranitoid complex. All of these units have been intruded by plutonic rocks, and to variable degrees folded, sheared and metamorphosed, during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The profile crosses several steep ductile shear zones, some of which extend for hundreds of kilometres along strike. Many of the lithological contacts and deformation zones are expected to be seismically reflective. The profile is located only a few kilometres from the world's largest underground iron-ore mine in Kiruna, and closer to the profile there are several known ore bodies, some of which are active exploration targets. For the seismic recording we used approximately 350 geophones in split-spread configuration, at a separation of 25 m. The main seismic source was the Vibsist system (an impact source), which normally was employed at every geophone station. We also fired explosive charges (8-16 kg) at a few locations distributed along the profile to image deeper structures, although at very low resolution. Wireless seismometers were placed along and to the side of the profile, mainly in order to achieve better velocity control and to study out-of-the-plane reflections. Some mining blasts in Kiruna were also recorded. The upper crust in the area is quite reflective, most clearly demonstrated by the dynamite shot records. Some of the reflections appear to originate from steeply dipping structures. The dynamite shot records show a set of reflections at 3-4 s twt, corresponding to a depth of roughly 10 km, the explanation for which is

  18. Long-term evolution of the surface environment of the Campine area, Northern Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerten, K.; De Craen, M.; Brassinnes, S.; Wouters, L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Boom Clay in the Campine Basin is studied as the reference host formation for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Near Mol, it is covered by approximately 200 m of sediment which protects the clay layer. Here, we will give a preliminary assessment of the long-term evolution of the surface environment in the Campine area for the next 1 Ma, with respect to geomorphological, pedological and hydrological processes. The current surface environment started to develop after the last major marine regression around 2 Ma ago. Then, the climatic and tectonic evolution caused significant changes in surficial geology, relief intensity, soils and hydrography. The palaeo-geographical evolution during the Quaternary is characterized by important stream divergences, relative uplift and erosion. Tectonic uplift of the Campine Plateau forced the river Meuse to incise into the substrate. To the west, erosional processes shaped the Nete and the Lower Scheldt basins as a result of combined uplift and gradual sea-level drop. The Campine Plateau being covered by coarse fluvial deposits from the Early and Middle Pleistocene, is largely protected from erosion. The same is true for the Campine Cuesta, that stands out as a result of the cohesive and erosion resistant Kempen Clay substrate. Burial graphs covering the last few million years from different locations in the Boom Clay sub-crop zone reflect processes of subsidence, uplift, sea level variations and climate change in relation to the erodibility of the substrate. Continuous burial during the Quaternary as a result of subsidence is observed near the Dutch border, and for the Roer Valley Graben. Burial graphs for the Campine Plateau do not show important erosional phases during the last several million years. This is due to the protecting cover of coarse fluvial deposits. The area that is now occupied by the Lower Scheldt and the Nete basin has experienced erosion during

  19. Some results of processing NURE geochemical sampling in the northern Rocky Mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, P.A.; Cook, J.R.; Price, V. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was begun in the spring of 1973 to evaluate domestic uranium resources in the continental United States and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. The significance of the distribution of uranium in natural waters and sediments will be assessed as an indicator of favorable areas for the discovery of uranium deposits. This paper is oriented primarily to the discussion of stream sediments. Data for the Challis 1 0 x 2 0 NTMS quadrangle will be used for specific samples of NURE data processing. A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility at SRL is used to determine uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples. Evaluation of the areal distributions of uranium ratios demonstrate that most of the high U/Hf, U/Th and U/(Th + Hf) ratios occur scattered throughout the western two-thirds of the quadrangle. Most of the higher ratio values are found in samples taken at sites underlain by granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith or Tertiary-age plutons

  20. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) Part I—Geographic Areas A. Criteria for Food Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will...

  1. The Neolithization of Northern Black Sea area in the context of climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Kotova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neolithisation of the Pontic steppe was a long process, with four stages which were associated with climate changes. It began c. 7500 calBC, with early animal husbandry in the western Azov Sea area. The beginning of the second stage was connected with an arid climate (7000–6900 calBC and the origin of the Rakushechny Yar culture in the Lower Don region. The third stage (6500–6300 calBC occurred during a humid period. Besides animal husbandry, the steppe population borrowed the first pottery from the Rakushechny Yar culture. The fourth phase (6300–6000 calBC was connected with extreme aridity and the neolithisation of the modern forest-steppe and forest zones of Ukraine and Russia.

  2. Estimation of erosion amount by geochemical characteristic in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazuharu; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Eiichi

    2005-08-01

    This article presents the results of the estimated amount of erosion and uplifting based on mineralogy and organic geochemical characters of the Neogene siliceous rock (Wakkanai and Koetoi Formations) in Horonobe. As a result of the transformational change of silica minerals, it was clarified that the erosion amount was about 0.66 [m ky -1 ] or more at the large uplift site, and about 0.21 [m ky -1 ] or more at the small uplift site at Hokushin region, Horonobe area. In this case of the correlation with the palaeo-geothermal temperature and the sterane/sterene ratio, the ratio is effective measure to estimate the burial depth and erosion amount. We think that the estimation of the amount of erosion and uplifting became possible in high resolution by the organic geochemical character. (author)

  3. Land subsidence along the Delta-Mendota Canal in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, California, 2003-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin; Solt, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Extensive groundwater withdrawal from the unconsolidated deposits in the San Joaquin Valley caused widespread aquifer-system compaction and resultant land subsidence from 1926 to 1970—locally exceeding 8.5 meters. The importation of surface water beginning in the early 1950s through the Delta-Mendota Canal and in the early 1970s through the California Aqueduct resulted in decreased pumping, initiation of water-level recovery, and a reduced rate of compaction in some areas of the San Joaquin Valley. However, drought conditions during 1976–77 and 1987–92, and drought conditions and regulatory reductions in surface-water deliveries during 2007–10, decreased surface-water availability, causing pumping to increase, water levels to decline, and renewed compaction. Land subsidence from this compaction has reduced freeboard and flow capacity of the Delta-Mendota Canal, the California Aqueduct, and other canals that deliver irrigation water and transport floodwater. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the San Luis and Delta-Mendota Water Authority, assessed land subsidence in the vicinity of the Delta-Mendota Canal as part of an effort to minimize future subsidence-related damages to the canal. The location, magnitude, and stress regime of land-surface deformation during 2003–10 were determined by using extensometer, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), spirit leveling, and groundwater-level data. Comparison of continuous GPS, shallow extensometer, and groundwater-level data, combined with results from a one-dimensional model, indicated the vast majority of the compaction took place beneath the Corcoran Clay, the primary regional confining unit. Land-surface deformation measurements indicated that much of the northern portion of the Delta-Mendota Canal (Clifton Court Forebay to Check 14) was fairly stable or minimally subsiding on an annual basis; some areas showed

  4. Passive seismic experiment in the Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli region (Ngorongoro Conservation Area), Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Laura; Lombardo, Luigi; Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli basins, located within the Ngorogoro Conservation Area (NCA), are a cornerstone for understanding the evolution of early humans and are two paleo-antropological excavation sites of global importance. NCA is located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift (EAR), in the vicinity of Ngorongoro Crater and other major volcanic edifices. Thus, understanding the geology and tectonics of the NCA may shed light onto the question why early Hominins settled in this region. Environmental and geological conditions in the Olduvai and Laetoli region that promoted human settlement and development are still debated by geologists and paleo-anthropologists. Paleo-geographical reconstructions of the study area of the last 2 million years may take advantage of modern passive seismology. Therefore, we installed a dense seismic network covering a surface of approximately 30 x 40 km within the NCA to map the depth extent of known faults, and to identify seismically active faults that have no surface expression. Our ten seismic stations, equipped with Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, started to operate in June 2016 and will continue for a total of 2 years. At the end of the first year, other 5 stations will densify our network. Here we analyse data quality of the first four months of continuous recordings. Our network provides good quality 3-C waveforms in the frequency range of 0.7-50 Hz. Vertical component seismograms record frequencies reliably down to 8 mHz. Preliminary results of the seismicity obtained with standard location procedures show that NCA is characterised by frequent tectonic seismicity (not volcano-related) with Ml between 0.5 and 2.0. Seismic activity is more frequent in the South (Laetoli region) where major fault systems have not been recognised at the surface yet.

  5. Trends in dynamics of forest upper boundary in high mountains of northern Baikal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Voronin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of spatial-temporal variability of the upper boundary of the forest on the north-western coast of Lake Baikal (Baikal and Upper Angara Ridges are performed on the base of the analysis of forests renewal processes and of the dynamics of larch radial increment in the ecotone of the forest upper boundary and out of it. The presence of a large amount of well-developed uplands and circuses with considerable heights drops in the structure of mountain system favours formation of interrupted boundary between forest and subgoltsy belt. The timber stand of the upper forest boundary in the studied area is represented by Daurian larch. Three tree-ring chronologies of larch are obtained. The longest chronology is obtained for mountain taiga belt of Baikal Ridge and is as long as 460 years. Since 1980ies, a sustainable trend of increase of radial trees growth is observed. It is observed the most distinctly in trees of the upper forest boundary on the Baikal Ridge. There is advancing of trees species into subgoltsy belt and into mountain tundra, which depends, respectively, on slopes heights, exposition and tilting, on sites of growth of concrete cenoses. Modern peculiarity of the vegetation of the studied area is presence of abundant viable larch undergrowth (from 2–3 to 25 y.o. and fir in the ecotone of upper forest boundary and in subgoltsy belt, as well as appearing of single specimens of spruce. Main undergrowth mass (2/3 is presented by trees aged in average 15–25 y.o., i.e., they appeared in late 1980ies. Due to increase of snow cover thickness in winter, the trees young growth obtained great protection from freezing resulting in the increase of ability of young growth to live up to elder age.

  6. Hazardous metal pollution in a protected coastal area from Northern Patagonia (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C H; Giarratano, E; Esteves, J L; Narvarte, M A; Gil, M N

    2017-03-01

    The San Antonio Bay is a protected natural coastal area of Argentina that has been exposed to mining wastes over the last three decades. Iron and trace metals of potential concern to biota and human health (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) were investigated in the sediments from the bay and in the soils of the Pile (mining wastes). Concentrations of Cd (45 mg kg -1 ), Pb (42,853 mg kg -1 ), Cu (24,505 mg kg -1 ), and Zn (28,686 mg kg -1 ) in the soils Pile exceeded guidelines for agricultural, residential, and industrial land uses. Risk assessment due to exposure to contaminated soils (Pile) was performed. Hazard quotients were superior to non-risk (HQ >1) for all trace metals, while accumulative hazard quotient index indicated a high risk for children (HI = 93) and moderate for adults (HI = 9). In the bay, sediments closest to the Pile (mudflat and salt marsh) exceeded sediment quality guidelines for protection of biota. Results of different acid extraction methods suggest that most of the pseudototal content was potentially mobile. Principal component analysis indicated that the sites near the Pile (Encerrado channel) were more polluted than the distal ones. Tissues of Spartina spp. located within Encerrado channel showed the highest metal levels among all studied sites. These results show that the problem still persists and the mining wastes are the sources of the pollution. Furthermore, the Encerrado channel is a highly impacted area, as it is shown by their metal enriched sediments.

  7. Optimal geophysical complex and methods for investigation of peleogene and upper cretaceous deposits in search and exploratory wells in the northern areas of Tumen region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelepchenko, O.M.; Akhiyarov, V.Kh.

    1975-01-01

    A number of geophysical studies of the Paleogene and upper Cretaceous deposits in prospecting and exploration boreholes in the northern part of the Tyumen field are described. The studies include, besides the essential ones, neutron logging with thermal neutrons (NKT-50), infrared logging, and lateral logging

  8. Size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust from a desert area of northern China by eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fratini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust emission accounts for a substantial portion of particles present in the troposphere. It is emitted mostly from desert areas, mainly through intense storm episodes. The aim of this work was to quantify size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust particles emitted during storm events occurring in desert areas of northern China (Alashan desert, Inner Mongolia, known to act as one of the strongest sources of mineral dust particles in the Asian continent. Long-range transport of mineral dust emitted in this area is responsible for the high particle concentrations reached in densely populated areas, including the city of Beijing. Based on a theoretical analysis, an eddy covariance system was built to get size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust particles with optical diameters ranging between 0.26 and 7.00 µm. The system was optimised to measure fluxes under intense storm event conditions. It was tested in two sites located in the Chinese portion of the Gobi desert. During the field campaign, an intense wind erosion event, classified as a "weak dust storm", was recorded in one of them. Data obtained during this event indicate that particle number fluxes were dominated by the finer fraction, whereas in terms of mass, coarser particle accounted for the largest portion. It was found that during the storm event, ratios of size-segregated particle mass fluxes remained substantially constant and a simple parameterization of particle emission from total mass fluxes was possible. A strong correlation was also found between particle mass fluxes and the friction velocity. This relationship is extremely useful to investigate mechanisms of particle formation by wind erosion.

  9. Setting Up CD-ROM Work Areas. Part I: Ergonomic Considerations, User Furniture, Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasi, John; LaGuardia, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    The first of a two-part series on design of CD-ROM work areas in libraries discusses (1) space and location considerations; (2) ergonomics, including work surface, chairs, lighting, printers, other accessories, and security; and (3) other considerations, including staff assistance, reference tools, literature racks, and promotional materials. (MES)

  10. Faunistic Study of the Aquatic Arthropods in a Tourism Area in Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeghi, Mansoureh; Dehghan, Hossein; Pakdad, Kamran; Nikpour, Fatemeh; Absavaran, Azad; Sofizadeh, Aioub; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Aghai-Afshar, Abbass

    2017-06-01

    Aquatic insects are very abundant and divers groups of insects that are associated with an aquatic or semiaquatic environment in one or more of their life stages. These insects have been, in some cases, well studied because they are vectors of several diseases. This is the first comprehensive faunistic study of aquatic insects from Babol County. The results may provide basic data for further taxonomic and ecological studies of aquatic insects as biological control agent or classification of water quality for the country. The specimens were collected using different methods including: D-frame net collector, standard mosquito dipper (350ml), Sweep-Netting and plastic pipette. Sampling carried out in different part of breading places in several times. During this study a total of 196 aquatic specimens were collected from different habitats and were morphologically identified including 18 families classified in 6 orders: Diptera, Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. Babol and Amol district in Mazandaran Province are located in humid climate regions with suitable ecological factors of humidity, moderate temperature and the variety of plant species. There are different species of aquatic insects in different habitats. The results will provide information for biodeveristy, species richness, their role for biological control as well as calcification of rivers based on abundance of aquatic insects. Therefore the understanding of ecological specifications of aquatic insects could provide a clue for further Arthropod-borne disease control. Additionally aquatic insect could be used for classification of water bodies.

  11. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p pollution load index (PLI) value was observed greater than three indicating high level of contamination in the study area. The concentrations of Cr (1.80-6.99 mg/kg) and Cd (0.21-0.90 mg/kg) in foodstuffs exceeded their safe limits, while Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations were observed within their safe limits. In all foodstuffs, the selected heavy metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p 1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk.

  12. Raft tectonics in northern Campos Basin; Tectonica de jangada (raft tectonics) na area norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Marilia R. de [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio da Bacia de Campos; Fugita, Adhemar M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP

    2004-07-01

    In the northern area of Campos Basin salt gliding/spreading processes promoted the break-up and transport of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks overlying the evaporites. This process is known as raft tectonics, and it represents the most extreme form of thin-skinned extension above the salt decollement surface. Three distinct geotectonic domains were recognized that formed in response to the raft tectonics. The first one, confined to the shallower shelf portion of the basin, is characterized by minor extension (pre-raft domain), probably because of small salt thickness and low gradient. In the second domain (or disorganized rafts domain), located in distal platformal and slope areas, seismic sections show the occurrence of blocks or rafts with angular shapes, sometimes imbricated and frequently discontinuous. In the third domain, or domain of organized rafts, located in bacinal region, seismic sections show a more continuous raft pattern, often folded because of salt compression in the distal portions of the basin. The main purposes of this work is to characterize these three tectonic domains distinguished by raft tectonics, as well as their importance in hydrocarbon accumulations in calcarenites. (author)

  13. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Visceral Leishmaniasis Outbreak in a Northern Italian Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Franceschini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean area. In the last decades a northward spread of the parasite has been observed in Italy. This paper describes a VL outbreak in Modena province (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy between 2012 and 2015. Methods. Retrospective, observational study to evaluate epidemiological, microbiological characteristics, and clinical management of VL in patients referring to Policlinico Modena Hospital. Results. Sixteen cases of VL occurred in the study period. An immunosuppressive condition was present in 81.3%. Clinical presentation included anemia, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Serology was positive in 73.3% of cases, peripheral blood PCR in 92.3%, and bone marrow blood PCR in 100%. Culture was positive in 3/6 cases (50% and all the isolates were identified as L. infantum by ITS1/ITS2 sequencing. The median time between symptom onset and diagnosis was 22 days (range 6–131 days. All patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin b. 18.8% had a VL recurrence and were treated with miltefosine. Attributable mortality was 6.3%. Conclusions. VL due to L. infantum could determine periodical outbreaks, as the one described; thus it is important to include VL in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin, even in low-endemic areas.

  14. Current status of epilepsy treatment and efficacy of standard phenobarbital therapy in rural areas of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinbei; Luo, Nan; Wang, Zan; Lin, Weihong

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment and the efficacy and adverse effects of phenobarbital therapy in rural areas of Northern China. A total of 2192 patients diagnosed with convulsive epilepsy were recruited from seven different rural regions in Jilin Province, China to investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment, and 1379 of them were enrolled in a standard phenobarbital therapy trial. Patients were selected according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and medical records for all patients were collected and analyzed before the standard treatment was started. Patients were followed up monthly, and efficacy in 1218 patients was analyzed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. More patients had the initial seizure in juveniles than in adults, and 40.72% of the 2192 patients were not receiving any treatment before the treatment trial. The efficacy of phenobarbital increased and adverse effects decreased within the treatment period. Among the 349 patients who were followed up for 12 months from the beginning of the phenobarbital treatment, seizures were decreased by more than 75% in 71.3% of patients using a low-to-medium dose of phenobarbital. Major adverse effects of phenobarbital included mild exhaustion, drowsiness, dizziness and headache. Standardized long-term and regular administration of phenobarbital at a low-to-medium dose can be used as an effective, economic and safe treatment against epilepsy in rural areas.

  15. Attrition of Knowledge Workforce in Healthcare in Northern parts of India – Health Information Technology as a Plausible Retention Strategy

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    Indrajit Bhattacharya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a global shortage of skilled health workers due to attrition, countries are struggling to build and maintain optimum knowledge workforce in healthcare for delivering quality healthcare services. Forces that affect healthcare professionals’ turnover needs to be addressed before a competent uniformly adoptable strategy could be proposed for mitigating the problem. In this study we investigate the effects of the socio–demographic characteristics on attrition of healthcare knowledge workforce in northern parts of India that have a wide gradient of rural and urban belt, taking into account both public and private healthcare organizations. For this purpose healthcare professional attrition tracking survey (HATS was designed. The data has been collected from a random sample of 807 respondents consisting of doctors, nurses, paramedics and administrators to explore the relationships between various factors acting as antecedents in affecting the job satisfaction, commitment and intention of a healthcare professional to stay in the job. Structured questionnaires were utilized as the data collection tools. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and path analysis were carried out using multiple regression and correlation to propose a model that best explains the theoretical assumption of factors leading to attrition. Six factors of attrition namely compensation and perks, work life balance, sense of accomplishment, work load, need for automation and technology improvement, substandard nature of work have been identified as the main factors with a data reliability of 0.809%. It has also been identified that the intention to shift is a major decision maker that affects attrition and in turn affected by job satisfaction dimensions. Based on the survey response and analysis, a highly possible strategy of utilizing information technology implementation for increasing worker motivation, job satisfaction and commitment to reduce attrition has been

  16. Rb-Sr geochronology of neoproterozoic syenites in parts of northern Tamil Nadu: implication on Pan-African magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, U.K.; Prasad, R.N.; Krishna, Veena; Paneer Selvam, A.; Chabria, Tikam

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age data on two syenite plutons viz. Elagiri and Rasimalai, and results of this study may constrain the timing of magmatic event and crystal evolution in northern granulite segment

  17. Technology line and case analysis of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in Northern heating areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    The building area in northern heating areas accounting for 70% of the total land area in China is 6,500,000,000 m 2 . The average heating energy consumption in northern China is 100-200% times more than developed countries in the same latitude. This paper introduced firstly the heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit background of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China organized by mohurd and MOF, and then put forward the total principle and contents of retrofit. Through analyzing some retrofit cases in Germany, Poland and China, some technological experiences were summarized and finally a technology line suitable for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China which involved retrofit for heat metering and temperature regulation of heating systems, heat balance of heat source and network, and building envelope was described to provide a systematic, scientific, technological guide for the retrofit projects of 0.15 billion m 2 in 'the Eleventh Five-Year Plan' period.

  18. ETHNO-BIOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE MEYAH TRIBE FROM THE NORTHERN PART OF MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA (Catatan Etnobiologi Pada Suku Meyah di Pantai Utara Manokwari, Papua Barat

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    Sepus Fatem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tropical forests provide many products such as fruits, seeds, resin, medicines, meat and by-products such as non-timber forest products. In June 2005, February 2008 and June 2009, ethno botanical and ethno zoological surveys were conducted among Meyah hunter-gatherers and on the flora and fauna. This paper aims to reveal the interaction between the Meyah Tribe in the Northern Part of Manokwari and utilization of forest products. Our study reports that the tribe used about 67 species of plants and 11 wild animals to support their livelihood. Due to the expansion of the Manokwari regency as part of the development process in West Papua Province, we would therefore like to suggest that the local government should pay attention to developing and preserving the biodiversity in this area. ABSTRAK Hutan tropis pada prinsipnya menyediakan berbagai kebutuhan manusia baik buah, biji, resin, tumbuhan obat, daging dan dikenal sebagai  hasil hutan bukan kayu. Survei etnobiologi ini dilakukan pada bulan June 2005, Februari 2008 dan Juni 2009 pada masyarakat yang melakukan kegiatan pemanfaatan tumbuhan dan berburu satwa liar. Tulisan ini bermaksud untuk mengungkapkan interaksi Suku Meyah di Wilayah Pantai Utara Manokwari dalam pemanfaatan produk hasil hutan bukan kayu. Studi ini mencatat sekitar 67 spesies tumbuhan dan 11 jenis satwa lair yang di manfaatkan untuk menopang kehidupan suku Meyah. Data jumlah jenis tumbuhan dan satwa liar yang di manfaatkan ini, di harapkan dapat berguna bagi  pemerintah daerah dan lembaga lainnya dalam mengatur pola pemanfaatan sumberdaya hutan non kayu. Dalam hubungan dengan pemekaran wilayah, maka tantangan terhadap kelestarian sumberdaya hutan ini sangat besar, karena diprediksi akan mengalami tekanan dan kerusakan. Dengan demikian siklus kehidupan masyarakat akan terganggu. Sehingga di butuhkan kebijakan guna  mengakomodir kepentingan masyarakat asli dan juga kebutuhan pembangunan.

  19. Chemical composition of rainwater in a tropical urban area of northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad Al Obaidy, Abdul Hameed M.; Joshi, Himanshu

    Rainwater samples during the monsoon of 2001 and 2002 were collected from Roorkee urban area, a medium sized "town group" situated on the right bank of Solani River, a tributary of the Ganga River, near the Himalayan foothills and analyzed for EC, pH, TSS, TDS and major ions. The median value of pH was 7.05, well above 5.6, which is the reference pH. The ratios of SO 42-+NO 3- and Ca 2++Mg 2+ (TA/TC) have been considered for acidity. In this study, ratio of TA/TC is quite below 1.0, indicating alkaline nature of rainwater. The concentration of ions in rain water have been observed to follow the pattern Ca 2+>HCO 3->Cl ->NO 3->Na +>Mg 2+>SO 42->K +. In order to estimate the marine and non-marine contribution, sea salt fraction has been calculated taking Na + as reference. All ionic ratios have been found to be higher than the recommended sea water ratios in all three types of land use, viz. residential, commercial and industrial, suggesting a significant contribution of non-marine origin for these components. A comparison with the data of the other Indian sites validates the inverse relation of Cl - and Na + with distance from the sea and highlights higher Ca 2+ concentration and lower SO 42- concentration.

  20. Study of fluid inclusions in rodioactive mineralized pegmatites, dara area northern eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, B.H.; Abdel Warith, A.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous pegmatite pockets of un zoned and zoned types are the most important rock types from the radioactive point of view. They occur at the marginal parts and higher topographic level of G.Dara younger granites. Zoned pegmatites are composed of extremely coarse-grained milky quartz core, intermediate zone and wall zone. The alteration zone is found at the contact between quartz core and intermediate zone. It is recorded the highest radioactive values due to their mineral composition, as a result of alteration processes associated with radioactive minerals. Only two alteration zones (P1 and P2) has been studied in this paper. The late magmatic alteration process (hematization, kaolinization, chloritization and fluortization) of the pegmatite resulted in the formation of chlorite, fluorite, clay minerals and carbonates (calcite) in the alteration zones as mineral assemblage. opaque minerals are found as pyrite, iron oxyhydroxide and garnet. Fluid inclusion studies by microthermometry were carried out on authigenic minerals (such as quartz and fluorite) in alteration zones (primary fluid inclusions). This study revealed that, at least two stages of the post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration are involved. The first stages of high temperature, low saline fluids are involved. The first stage is of high temperature, low saline fluids which characterized with hematization and/or chloritization resulted from fluid-rock interaction with late magmatic fluids that very probably mixed with external low salinity fluids along brittle structure. The second stage is of low temperature the main role in re high saline fluids characterized the fluoritized alteration due to consequent reaction with wall rocks and mixing with meteoric water. Mixing of low salinity meteoric water with hot a sending saline hydrothermal solution leads to ph change and continuous interaction with wall rock

  1. Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and its relation to sandstone-type uranium mineralization in northern Tarim area--Evidence from apatite fission track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongxu; Dong Wenming; Liu Zhangyue; Chen Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    The apatite fission track dating and inversion result of geological thermal history of four rock specimens from Sawafuqi area and Talike area in northern Tarim Basin show that two areas uplifted at different ages. The apatite fission track ages of Sawafuqi range from 3.5 to 3.9 Ma, while the ages of Talike range from 53 to 59 Ma. The thermal history recorded by rock samples reveals that there are at least three prominent cooling phases since Late Cretaceous epoch. Detailed study was made on the division of uplifting stages during Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution with the existing data in northern Tarim area. And new ideas on tectonic evolution and sandstone-type uranium mineralization have been put forward by combining with the sandstone-type uranium mineralization ages in this area.(authors)

  2. Seasonal phenology and species composition of the aphid fauna in a northern crop production area.

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    Sascha M Kirchner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007-010 using yellow pan traps (YPTs placed in 4-8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days. Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change.

  3. Using Remote Sensing to Evaluate Wetland Recovery in the Northern Tampa Bay Area Following Reduction in Groundwater Withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Amor

    In the past, the Northern Tampa Bay Area (NTBA) wetlands saw severe declines in hydrologic conditions due to excessive groundwater withdrawal rates. Eventually these rates were reduced to allow the wetlands to recover. To monitor this recovery, the Southwest Florida Water Management district (SWFWMD) set up a fieldwork based scoring methodology, called the Wetlands Assessment Procedure (WAP). WAP has been used in many studies of the area since groundwater withdrawal reductions; with many of those studies finding the recovery to be mixed at best. However, these studies were very limited in the number of wetlands they could assess due to the limitations of fieldwork. Therefore, it was proposed that remotely sensed variables associated with water consumption and stress be used to assess the recovery of the NTBA wetlands, as remote sensing allows for efficient assessments of targets over large area. Utilizing ASTER imagery scenes from 2005 and 2014, 211 wetlands' remotely sensed responses of NDVI, Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Evapotranspiration (ET) were mapped and statistically examined for trends indicating improvement or decline. Furthermore, a subset of WAP scores for the two years were examined and compared to the remotely sensed values. The results were contradictory, with remotely sensed responses showing an improvement over the time period, WAP scores indicating a decline in hydrologic conditions, and the two methods showing little to no fit when modeled against each other. As such, it is believed at this time that the remotely sensed method is not suitable for measuring the indicators of wetland recovery used in the WAP methodology.

  4. Snow cover monitoring model and change over both time and space in pastoral area of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Suju; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Juan; Wen, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Snow disaster is a natural phenomenon owning to widespread snowfall for a long time and usually affect people's life, property and economic. During the whole disaster management circle, snow disaster in pastoral area of northern china which including Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Tibet has been paid more attention. Thus do a good job in snow cover monitoring then found snow disaster in time can help the people in disaster area to take effective rescue measures, which always been the central and local government great important work. Remote sensing has been used widely in snow cover monitoring for its wide range, high efficiency, less conditions, more methods and large information. NOAA/AVHRR data has been used for wide range, plenty bands information and timely acquired and act as an import data of Snow Cover Monitoring Model (SCMM). SCMM including functions list below: First after NOAA/AVHRR data has been acquired, geometric calibration, radiometric calibration and other pre-processing work has been operated. Second after band operation, four threshold conditions are used to extract snow spectrum information among water, cloud and other features in NOAA/AVHRR image. Third snow cover information has been analyzed one by one and the maximum snow cover from about twenty images in a week has been selected. Then selected image has been mosaic which covered the pastoral area of China. At last both time and space analysis has been carried out through this operational model ,such as analysis on the difference between this week and the same period of last year , this week and last week in three level regional. SCMM have been run successfully for three years, and the results have been take into account as one of the three factors which led to risk warning of snow disaster and analysis results from it always play an important role in disaster reduction and relief.

  5. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    area below the coastal dunes and that the surface water is all brackish to salty. Where compared with the elevation map, in fact, the electrical conductivity data (a proxy for salinity) seem to be strongly controlled by topography (even small variations). In the study area, the topographic reliefs consist of several rows of dunes, the topographic lows are artificial ditches and ponds or dune slacks. The farmland is about at the same level of the sea. In the northern part of the study area, the fresh groundwater lens in the backshore zone is missing, as dunes were eroded (down to 1.5 m above m.s.l.) and a series of saltwater ponds (about 1 m below m.s.l.) are present right behind the active dunes. The central part of the study area is characterised by the presence of a 3 m high active dune and of a large pond in the innermost side of the backshore. In this case, there is a narrow fresh groundwater lens in the active dunes area, whereas inland the aquifer is completely salty up to the agricultural fields. The southern area has the best preserved and tallest dunes (more than 4 m) and do not contain any pond. Here, the fresh groundwater lens is wider than everywhere else and the aquifer becomes salty only where the drainage ditches are causing upconing of deeper salty groundwater. Our study has recognized the importance of coastal dunes in counteracting saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer. Therefore, it is important to consider measures and interventions in order to preserve the integrity of the dunes not only for the purposes of avoiding shoreline erosion and coastal ecosystem destruction but also for freshwater resources protection. On the other hand, in low lying coastal areas, drainage and the construction of ponds may enhance seawater upconing.

  6. Post-glacial faulting in the Lansjaerv area, Northern Sweden. Comments from the expert group on a field visit at the Molberget post-glacial fault area, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanfors, R.; Ericsson, L.O.

    1993-05-01

    Post-glacial faults have been recognized in the northern Baltic shield for several decades. It is important to evaluate whether such neotectonic movements can lead to new fracturing or decisively alter the geohydrological or geohydrochemical situation around a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The post-glacial Lansjaerv fault was chosen for an interdisciplinary study because of its relative accessibility. The goals of the study were to assess the mechanisms that caused present day scraps, to clarify the extent of any recent fracturing and to clarify the extent of any ongoing movements. All these objectives were reasonably met through a series of studies, which have been performed by SKB during 1986-1992 in two phases. This report gives a summary of the first phase of the Lansjaerv study (1986-1989) and describes achievements that have been gained during the second phase of the study. As a final of the field-work in the Lansjaerv area a meeting combined with a field excursion was arranged by SKB in June 1991 for a group of international experts. Comments from the expert group on the excursion and the overall Lansjaerv project are presented. One of the major conclusions is that the Lansjaerv post-glacial fault reactivated pre-existing old structures and that the causes of the post-glacial movements is a combination of plate tectonics and deglaciation

  7. Part 5: Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve and Area under the Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple diagnostic tools are used by emergency physicians,every day. In addition, new tools are evaluated to obtainmore accurate methods and reduce time or cost of conventionalones. In the previous parts of this educationalseries, we described diagnostic performance characteristicsof diagnostic tests including sensitivity, specificity, positiveand negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Thereceiver operating characteristics (ROC curve is a graphicalpresentation of screening characteristics. ROC curve is usedto determine the best cutoff point and compare two or moretests or observers by measuring the area under the curve(AUC. In this part of our educational series, we explain ROCcurve and two methods to determine the best cutoff value.

  8. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  9. Malaria infection and life-style factors among hilltribes along the Thai-Myanmar border area, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit

    2004-12-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted between January, 2001 and June, 2002 to determine the life-style factors associated with malaria infection among hilltribes in the Chiang Rai Province, Mae Fah Luang district located along the Thai-Myanmar border, northern Thailand. The data collected were a thick blood film examination and a face-to-face interview using a local language interviewer at a mobile clinic or a home visit. The chi-square test, odds ratio, 95% confidence interval and multiple logistic regression were used as data analysis. P. vivax (61.3%) was detected more than P falciparum (38.2%). Parasitic infection was seen in 45.8% of a total of 417 blood examinations. The study area was in a valley covered with forests and small streams, which was ideal for a malaria epidemic. The communities were distributed along different ethnic groups. There were 12 ethnic groups, dominated by the Muser, Eko, and Akha tribes (60-70%). The risk factors included living or working in the forest, accompanying their family during movement through the forest, age < or =14 years (40.9%), poor knowledge of how to protect against malaria (75-80%), and unavailability of protection against malaria via long sleeved clothes, topical repellents, and insecticide treated nets (use and carry), which resulted in an increased exposure to malaria and risk for malaria infection.

  10. Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy

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    Consolo Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes. Methods Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional survey of 863 high school students and 2,331 parents of middle and high school students using two anonymously completed questionnaires covering the knowledge of HPV infection and related diseases, and attitudes to vaccinations. The approached schools were a convenience sample of the schools of the greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Results More mothers than fathers were aware that HPV infection could concern their children (58% vs 53%; p = 0.004 and were favourable towards vaccinating their children against HPV (68% vs 65%; p = 0.03; among the students, more females than males were aware that HPV infection could concern themselves (45% vs 26%; p vs 40%; p Conclusions Both students and parents seem to underestimate the likelihood of HPV infection, and this is associated with a lower propensity for vaccination. This is an important indication for future training programmes concerning HPV prevention designed to increase the acceptance of HPV vaccine in families.

  11. Designing and implementing more effective Integrated Early Warning Systems in mountain areas: a case study from Northern Italy

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    Carolina García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to consider and to understand the social context in which an Early Warning System (EWS is planned and to integrate all of its components, otherwise it is likely to fail. EWS are complex tools for disaster risk reduction which are only effective if they generate an appropriate response in the exposed population. Any effective EWS relies on the reaction capacity of all stakeholders. This reaction capacity is strongly dependent on how well EWS are integrated within their social context, especially with regards to potential marginalized and vulnerable communities. This dependence was confirmed in the study area in Valtellina di Tirano, northern Italy, which is recurrently affected by multiple mountain hazards. The local population is geographically marginalized due to restricted access to the region and exposure to hazardous events, and socially marginalized due to the lack of participation in decision making. Results of a survey show that the local population has low levels of perceived risk, a general lack of self-responsibility with regard to disaster risk reduction, and a tendency to transfer the responsibility to the authorities. However, respondents acknowledge and show interest in addressing their lack of preparedness and in participating actively in disaster risk reduction efforts. A follow-up survey demonstrates that significant variations in vulnerability within a given community over time, occur together with changes in traditional livelihood activities, economic systems and population demographics.

  12. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sano, Sakae; Nhuan, Mai Trong

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg -1 dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium).

  13. Three-dimensional distribution and hydrogeological properties of the Omagari fault in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Tsukuwi, Routa; Tanaka, Takenobu; Matsuo, Koichi; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Matsuo, Shigeaki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the geological structure and hydrogeological properties of the Omagari Fault in Neogene siliceous sedimentary rocks of the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, by geological mapping, borehole investigations, reflection seismic survey, and audio-frequency magnetotelluric survey. As a result of the investigation, the 3-D distribution of the Fault was clarified and the following were shown. In addition, the magnetotelluric survey in particular was effective for mapping of the 3-D distribution and hydrogeological properties of the fault. The Omagari Fault has a fault zone, about 120 m wide, that consists mainly of the damage zone, and has a permeable structure. The magnetotelluric survey shows several high-resistivity zones, one of which corresponds to the Omagari Fault inferred from the reflection seismic surveys. The high resistivity zones are correlative with the concentration zones of low-saline water, which suggests infiltration of ground water through the permeable Omagari Fault zone. The Omagari Fault over-steps at the earth surface and at the same time is converging in subsurface zones. (author)

  14. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sakakibara, Masayuki, E-mail: sakakiba@sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Department of Geology, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nhuan, Mai Trong [Department of Environmental Geology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-02-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium).

  15. Snow conditions and usability value of pastureland for semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in northern boreal forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Kumpula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied variation in snow conditions and selection of pasture area according to altitude by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus during 1999 - 2002 in a pine forest area utilised by forest industry in the Ivalo reindeer herding district, northern Finland. Snow conditions were measured over the course of three winters along equilateral triangles (side 3.5 km for three times per winter. The altitudinal selection of pasture area by reindeer was studied using GPS tracking data (10 977 locations from 29 female reindeer. We observed that interannual weather variation mostly affected the depth, density and hardness of snow in the study area. At the forest landscape level, snow depth and density increased with altitude. Thinnest and deepest snow cover occurred on western and northern slopes, respectively. In contrast, forest harvesting did not seem to affect snow conditions. From spring to autumn, reindeer mainly used higher altitudes in pastures. In early and mid-winter, when snow conditions were easy or moderate reindeer still preferred higher altitudes, but in late winter when snow conditions and food accession were at their most difficult, they preferred lower altitudes. We conclude that especially the use of high elevation forestland pastures may become more difficult for reindeer if the global climatic change causes higher winter precipitation to the northern boreal forest area. In general, the low-elevation forestland areas have primary winter grazing value for reindeer but these areas are also intensively used by forest industry.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Lumiolosuhteet ja laidunten käyttöarvo poronhoidossa pohjoisella havumetsäaluella Lumiolosuhteiden vaihtelua ja porojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus laidunalueen valintaa maaston korkeuden perusteella tutkittiin vuosina 1999–2002 metsätalouden hyödyntämällä mäntymetsäalueella Ivalon paliskunnassa, Pohjois-Suomessa. Lumiolosuhteet mitattiin kolme kertaa

  16. Groundwater flow in a closed basin with a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio; Chong, Guillermo; Lambán, Luis Javier; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Wilke, Hans; Jódar, Jorge; Urrutia, Javier; Urqueta, Harry; Sarmiento, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Laguna Tuyajto is a small, shallow saline water lake in the Andean Altiplano of northern Chile. In the eastern side it is fed by springs that discharge groundwater of the nearby volcanic aquifers. The area is arid: rainfall does not exceed 200 mm/year in the rainiest parts. The stable isotopic content of spring water shows that the recharge is originated mainly from winter rain, snow melt, and to a lesser extent from some short and intense sporadic rainfall events. Most of the spring water outflowing in the northern side of Laguna Tuyajto is recharged in the Tuyajto volcano. Most of the spring water in the eastern side and groundwater are recharged at higher elevations, in the rims of the nearby endorheic basins of Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas to the East. The presence of tritium in some deep wells in Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas indicates recent recharge. Gas emission in recent volcanoes increase the sulfate content of atmospheric deposition and this is reflected in local groundwater. The chemical composition and concentration of spring waters are the result of meteoric water evapo-concentration, water–rock interaction, and mainly the dissolution of old and buried evaporitic deposits. Groundwater flow is mostly shallow due to a low permeability ignimbrite layer of regional extent, which also hinders brine spreading below and around the lake. High deep temperatures near the recent Tuyajto volcano explain the high dissolved silica contents and the δ"1"8O shift to heavier values found in some of the spring waters. Laguna Tuyajto is a terminal lake where salts cumulate, mostly halite, but some brine transfer to the Salar de Aguas Calientes-3 cannot be excluded. The hydrogeological behavior of Laguna Tuyajto constitutes a model to understand the functioning of many other similar basins in other areas in the Andean Altiplano. - Highlights: • Recent volcanism formations play a key role in producing recharge. • Groundwater can flow across local

  17. Groundwater flow in a closed basin with a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Christian, E-mail: cherrera@ucn.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Centro de Investigación Tecnológica del Agua en el Desierto (CEITSAZA), Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Custodio, Emilio [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia/Barcelona Tech (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Chong, Guillermo [Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Lambán, Luis Javier [Geological Institute of Spain (IGME), Zaragoza (Spain); Riquelme, Rodrigo; Wilke, Hans [Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Jódar, Jorge [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia/Barcelona Tech (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Urrutia, Javier; Urqueta, Harry [Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Centro de Investigación Tecnológica del Agua en el Desierto (CEITSAZA), Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Sarmiento, Alvaro [Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); and others

    2016-01-15

    Laguna Tuyajto is a small, shallow saline water lake in the Andean Altiplano of northern Chile. In the eastern side it is fed by springs that discharge groundwater of the nearby volcanic aquifers. The area is arid: rainfall does not exceed 200 mm/year in the rainiest parts. The stable isotopic content of spring water shows that the recharge is originated mainly from winter rain, snow melt, and to a lesser extent from some short and intense sporadic rainfall events. Most of the spring water outflowing in the northern side of Laguna Tuyajto is recharged in the Tuyajto volcano. Most of the spring water in the eastern side and groundwater are recharged at higher elevations, in the rims of the nearby endorheic basins of Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas to the East. The presence of tritium in some deep wells in Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas indicates recent recharge. Gas emission in recent volcanoes increase the sulfate content of atmospheric deposition and this is reflected in local groundwater. The chemical composition and concentration of spring waters are the result of meteoric water evapo-concentration, water–rock interaction, and mainly the dissolution of old and buried evaporitic deposits. Groundwater flow is mostly shallow due to a low permeability ignimbrite layer of regional extent, which also hinders brine spreading below and around the lake. High deep temperatures near the recent Tuyajto volcano explain the high dissolved silica contents and the δ{sup 18}O shift to heavier values found in some of the spring waters. Laguna Tuyajto is a terminal lake where salts cumulate, mostly halite, but some brine transfer to the Salar de Aguas Calientes-3 cannot be excluded. The hydrogeological behavior of Laguna Tuyajto constitutes a model to understand the functioning of many other similar basins in other areas in the Andean Altiplano. - Highlights: • Recent volcanism formations play a key role in producing recharge. • Groundwater can flow across local

  18. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 2; Implementation, Analysis and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Samanta, Arindam; Schull, Mitchell A.; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramajrushna R,; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of a new global monthly leaf area index (LAI) data set for the period July 1981 to December 2006 derived from AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data is described. The physically based algorithm is detailed in the first of the two part series. Here, the implementation, production and evaluation of the data set are described. The data set is evaluated both by direct comparisons to ground data and indirectly through inter-comparisons with similar data sets. This indirect validation showed satisfactory agreement with existing LAI products, importantly MODIS, at a range of spatial scales, and significant correlations with key climate variables in areas where temperature and precipitation limit plant growth. The data set successfully reproduced well-documented spatio-temporal trends and inter-annual variations in vegetation activity in the northern latitudes and semi-arid tropics. Comparison with plot scale field measurements over homogeneous vegetation patches indicated a 7% underestimation when all major vegetation types are taken into account. The error in mean values obtained from distributions of AVHRR LAI and high-resolution field LAI maps for different biomes is within 0.5 LAI for six out of the ten selected sites. These validation exercises though limited by the amount of field data, and thus less than comprehensive, indicated satisfactory agreement between the LAI product and field measurements. Overall, the intercomparison with short-term LAI data sets, evaluation of long term trends with known variations in climate variables, and validation with field measurements together build confidence in the utility of this new 26 year LAI record for long term vegetation monitoring and modeling studies.

  19. Molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. from the endemic area of northern Iran based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Nabil; Halajian, Ali; Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2011-07-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola spp. (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) is considered as the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. In the endemic regions of the North of Iran, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica have been previously characterized on the basis of morphometric differences, but the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species and intermediate forms. Samples from buffaloes and goats from different localities of northern Iran were identified morphologically and then genetically characterized by sequences of the first (ITS-1) and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of the ITS of the northern Iranian samples with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank showed that the examined specimens had sequences identical to those of the most frequent haplotypes of F. hepatica (n=25, 48.1%) and F. gigantica (n=20, 38.45%), which differed from each other in different variable nucleotide positions of ITS region sequences, and their intermediate forms (n=7, 13.45%), which had nucleotides overlapped between the two Fasciola species in all the positions. The ITS sequences from populations of Fasciola isolates in buffaloes and goats had experienced introgression/hybridization as previously reported in isolates from other ruminants and humans. Based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, flukes are scattered in pure F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate Fasciola clades, revealing that multiple genotypes of Fasciola are able to infect goats and buffaloes in North of Iran. Furthermore, the phylogenetic trees based upon the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences showed a close relationship of the Iranian samples with isolates of F. hepatica and F. gigantica from different localities of Africa and Asia. In the present study, the intergenic transcribed spacers ITS-1 and ITS-2 showed to be reliable approaches for the genetic

  20. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  1. Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the western part of Maira area, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A case study by using electrical resistivity

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.; Jadoon, Khan; Akhter, Gulraiz; Iqbal, Muhammad Asim

    2012-01-01

    at the western part of the Maira area, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan. Aquifer lithology in the eastern part of the study area is dominated by coarse sand and gravel whereas the western part is characterized by fine sand. An attempt has been made to estimate

  2. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area...

  3. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Latimer, Karen

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales.

  4. Responses of Crop Water Use Efficiency to Climate Change and Agronomic Measures in the Semiarid Area of Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingting Zhang

    Full Text Available It has long been concerned how crop water use efficiency (WUE responds to climate change. Most of existing researches have emphasized the impact of single climate factor but have paid less attention to the effect of developed agronomic measures on crop WUE. Based on the long-term field observations/experiments data, we investigated the changing responses of crop WUE to climate variables (temperature and precipitation and agronomic practices (fertilization and cropping patterns in the semi-arid area of northern China (SAC during two periods, 1983-1999 and 2000-2010 (drier and warmer. Our results suggest that crop WUE was an intrinsical system sensitive to climate change and agronomic measures. Crops tend to reach the maximum WUE (WUEmax in warm-dry environment while reach the stable minimum WUE (WUEmin in warm-wet environment, with a difference between WUEmax and WUEmin ranging from 29.0%-55.5%. Changes in temperature and precipitation in the past three decades jointly enhanced crop WUE by 8.1%-30.6%. Elevated fertilizer and rotation cropping would increase crop WUE by 5.6-11.0% and 19.5-92.9%, respectively. These results indicate crop has the resilience by adjusting WUE, which is not only able to respond to subsequent periods of favorable water balance but also to tolerate the drought stress, and reasonable agronomic practices could enhance this resilience. However, this capacity would break down under impact of climate changes and unconscionable agronomic practices (e.g. excessive N/P/K fertilizer or traditional continuous cropping. Based on the findings in this study, a conceptual crop WUE model is constructed to indicate the threshold of crop resilience, which could help the farmer develop appropriate strategies in adapting the adverse impacts of climate warming.

  5. Genetic Types and Source of the Upper Paleozoic Tight Gas in the Hangjinqi Area, Northern Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and stable isotopic compositions of the Upper Paleozoic tight gas in the Hangjinqi area in northern Ordos Basin were investigated to study the geochemical characteristics. The tight gas is mainly wet with the dryness coefficient (C1/C1–5 of 0.853–0.951, and δ13C1 and δ2H-C1 values are ranging from -36.2‰ to -32.0‰ and from -199‰ to -174‰, respectively, with generally positive carbon and hydrogen isotopic series. Identification of gas origin indicates that tight gas is mainly coal-type gas, and it has been affected by mixing of oil-type gas in the wells from the Shilijiahan and Gongkahan zones adjacent to the Wulanjilinmiao and Borjianghaizi faults. Gas-source correlation indicates that coal-type gas in the Shiguhao zone displays distal-source accumulation. It was mainly derived from the coal-measure source rocks in the Upper Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation (C3t and Lower Permian Shanxi Formation (P1s, probably with a minor contribution from P1s coal measures from in situ Shiguhao zone. Natural gas in the Shilijiahan and Gongkahan zones mainly displays near-source accumulation. The coal-type gas component was derived from in situ C3t-P1s source rocks, whereas the oil-type gas component might be derived from the carbonate rocks in the Lower Ordovician Majiagou Formation (O1m.

  6. Estimating the incidence of connective tissue diseases and vasculitides in a defined population in Northern Savo area in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, P; Marjoniemi, O; Niinisalo, H; Kononoff, A; Arstila, L; Savolainen, E; Rutanen, J; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2016-07-01

    Objective of the study was to evaluate the annual incidence and distribution of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides during 2010. All units practicing rheumatology in the Northern Savo area, Finland, participated in the study by collecting data on newly diagnosed adult patients with autoimmune connective tissue disease or vasculitis over 1-year period. Seventy-two cases with autoimmune connective tissue disease were identified. The annual incidence rates were as follows: systemic lupus erythematosus 3.4/100,000 (95 % CI 1.4-7.0), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies 1.9 (0.5-5.0), systemic sclerosis 4.4 (2.0-8.3), mixed connective tissue disease 1.0 (0.1-3.5), Sjögren's syndrome 10.7 (6.7-16.1) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease 13.6 (9.0-19.6). The annual incidence rates among vasculitis category were as follows: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis 1.5/100,000 (95 % CI 0.3-4.3), central nervous system vasculitis 0.5 (0-2.7) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura 1.5 (0.3-4.3). The annual incidence of giant cell arteritis in the age group of 50 years or older was 7.5/100,000 (95 % CI 3.2-14.8). The longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis occurred in systemic sclerosis. The incidences of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides were comparable with those in published literature. The present study showed female predominance in all connective tissue diseases, excluding idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases and mean age at onset of disease around 50 years of age. Despite improved diagnostic tools, diagnostic delay is long especially among patients with systemic sclerosis.

  7. Prospects of potential fodder-crops in hilly regions, especially northern areas of pakistan, their production and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The comparison of green-fodder and dry-matter yields in various winter cereal fodder crops showed that oat is a high fodder-yielding and more nutritive crop than barley, cereal rye wheat and triticale. Average of the three locations in northern areas of Pakistan (i.e. Gilgit, Chilas and Skardu) indicated that green-fodder yield obtained from oats was 54% higher than barley and 50% than cereal rye. It was also determined that oats and barley have greater re-growth potential than triticale. In oats, it was assessed that whole dose of N=75 kg/ha applied at the time of sowing and the split doses of N at the time of sowing and at vegetative stage of the crop increased green-fodder yield by 250% and 287% respectively than control. Improved varieties of oats viz. PD2L V65 and S-81 produced the highest total green-fodder yields of 87.34 and 86.10 t/ha under two cut system. Also re-growth potential of these varieties was the highest than the other cultivars. In winter legume fodder crops, berseem produced two times more green and dry matter yields as compared to shaftal at Gilgit and Chilas. Berseem harvested 6 cm above ground level and 45 days interval showed good results. Protein percentage decreased as cutting intervals increased in berseem crop. The improved lucerne variety Sundor was superior to local variety both in green-fodder and dry-matter yields. The yield of lucerne decreased with the increase in altitude which might be due to low temperattlre, variation in soil fertility and short growing seasons. Green forage and pasture crop species are dried enough to permit their safe storage, without spoilage or serious loss of nutrients. About 70-90% of water present in standing crop at mowing is reduced to 18-20% by sun and wind without adversely affecting nutritive value. (author)

  8. Source contribution to the bulk atmospheric deposition of minor and trace elements in a Northern Spanish coastal urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Puente, Mariano; Montecalvo, Lucia; Irabien, Angel

    2014-08-01

    The bulk atmospheric deposition of the minor and trace elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn was investigated in Santander, a Northern Spanish coastal city. Bulk deposition samples were collected monthly for three years using a bottle/funnel device. Taking into account that heavy metals are bioavailable only in their soluble forms, water-soluble and water-insoluble fractions were evaluated separately for element concentration. The fluxes of the studied elements in the bulk deposition exhibited the following order: Zn > Mn ≫ Cu > Cr > Pb > V > Ni ≫ As > Mo > Cd. The fluxes of Zn and Mn were more than 10 times higher than those of the other elements, with maximum values of 554.5 and 334.1 μg m- 2 day- 1, respectively. Low solubilities (below 22%) were found for Cr, Ti and Pb, whereas the highest solubility was found for Zn (78%). With the exception of Cu, all of the studied metals in the water-soluble fraction of the atmospheric deposition showed seasonal dependence, due to the seasonal variability of precipitation. The enrichment factors (EFs) of Cu, Cd and Zn were higher than 100, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The EF of Mn (50) was below 100, but an exclusively industrial origin is suggested. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) was used for the source apportionment of the studied minor and trace elements in the soluble fraction. Four factors were identified from PMF, and their chemical profiles were compared with those calculated from known sources that were previously identified in Santander Bay: two industrial sources, the first of which was characterised by Zn and Mn, which contributes 62.5% of the total deposition flux of the studied elements; a traffic source; and a maritime source. Zinc and Mn are considered to be the most characteristic pollutants of the studied area.

  9. Responses of Crop Water Use Efficiency to Climate Change and Agronomic Measures in the Semiarid Area of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingting; Ren, Wei; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; He, Di; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Tian, Hanqin

    2015-01-01

    It has long been concerned how crop water use efficiency (WUE) responds to climate change. Most of existing researches have emphasized the impact of single climate factor but have paid less attention to the effect of developed agronomic measures on crop WUE. Based on the long-term field observations/experiments data, we investigated the changing responses of crop WUE to climate variables (temperature and precipitation) and agronomic practices (fertilization and cropping patterns) in the semi-arid area of northern China (SAC) during two periods, 1983-1999 and 2000-2010 (drier and warmer). Our results suggest that crop WUE was an intrinsical system sensitive to climate change and agronomic measures. Crops tend to reach the maximum WUE (WUEmax) in warm-dry environment while reach the stable minimum WUE (WUEmin) in warm-wet environment, with a difference between WUEmax and WUEmin ranging from 29.0%-55.5%. Changes in temperature and precipitation in the past three decades jointly enhanced crop WUE by 8.1%-30.6%. Elevated fertilizer and rotation cropping would increase crop WUE by 5.6-11.0% and 19.5-92.9%, respectively. These results indicate crop has the resilience by adjusting WUE, which is not only able to respond to subsequent periods of favorable water balance but also to tolerate the drought stress, and reasonable agronomic practices could enhance this resilience. However, this capacity would break down under impact of climate changes and unconscionable agronomic practices (e.g. excessive N/P/K fertilizer or traditional continuous cropping). Based on the findings in this study, a conceptual crop WUE model is constructed to indicate the threshold of crop resilience, which could help the farmer develop appropriate strategies in adapting the adverse impacts of climate warming.

  10. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. 2.5D S-wave velocity model of the TESZ area in northern Poland from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Receiver function (RF) locally provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and information about the shear wave (S-wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. The data recorded by "13 BB Star" broadband seismic stations (Grad et al., 2015) and by few PASSEQ broadband seismic stations (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2008) are analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in northern Poland. The TESZ is one of the most prominent suture zones in Europe separating the young Palaeozoic platform from the much older Precambrian East European craton. Compilation of over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles, vertical seismic profiling in over one hundred thousand boreholes and magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods allowed for creation a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Grad et al. 2016). On the other hand the receiver function methods give an opportunity for creation the S-wave velocity model. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) are used to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. 3D P-wave velocity model are interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and synthetic back-azimuthal sections of receiver function are calculated for different Vp/Vs ratio. Densities are calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Next, the synthetic back-azimuthal sections of RF are compared with observed back-azimuthal sections of RF for "13 BB Star" and PASSEQ seismic stations to find the best 2.5D S-wave models down to 60 km depth. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  12. Distinct cortical areas for names of numbers and body parts independent of language and input modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clec'H, G; Dehaene, S; Cohen, L; Mehler, J; Dupoux, E; Poline, J B; Lehéricy, S; van de Moortele, P F; Le Bihan, D

    2000-10-01

    Some models of word comprehension postulate that the processing of words presented in different modalities and languages ultimately converges toward common cerebral systems associated with semantic-level processing and that the localization of these systems may vary with the category of semantic knowledge being accessed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate this hypothesis with two categories of words, numerals, and body parts, for which the existence of distinct category-specific areas is debated in neuropsychology. Across two experiments, one with a blocked design and the other with an event-related design, a reproducible set of left-hemispheric parietal and prefrontal areas showed greater activation during the manipulation of topographical knowledge about body parts and a right-hemispheric parietal network during the manipulation of numerical quantities. These results complement the existing neuropsychological and brain-imaging literature by suggesting that within the extensive network of bilateral parietal regions active during both number and body-part processing, a subset shows category-specific responses independent of the language and modality of presentation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Mineralogical study of uraniferous graphitic ore from Deogpyeong, Mogso and southern part of Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D J; Nam, S K [Korean Inst. of Energy and Resources, Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1981-11-01

    Uranium minerals of torbernite, metatorbernite, metatyuyamunite and autunite have been identified from the uraniferous ores in graphitic beds of Ogcheon Group in Deogpyeong, Mogso and southern part of Daejeon area. Polarizing and ore microscopic studies, and chemical and X-ray powder diffraction analyses were carried out on the uraniferous graphite and associated materials. Main component minerals of uraniferous samples are graphite and quartz. Minor minerals are calcite, muscovite, sericite, andalusite, barite, kaolinite, hyaline opal, uranium minerals, sulfides such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, zincblende, and pyrrhotite, limonite, zeolite minerals such as laumontite and heulandite. Metatyuyamunite, torbernite, metatorbernite and autunite generally occur together with secondary minerals such as kaolinite, hyaline opal, calcite and limonite. They were found along the minor fissures or on the surface. Secondary uranium minerals described above were formed by supergenetic origin from primary uranium mineral. Uraniferous phosphatic nodule from Deogpyeong area are mainly composed of graphite and fluorapatite. And minor minerals are barite, quartz, muscovite and pyrite. Autoradiograph from uraniferous nodule shows that uranium enrichment in outer part of nodules is much higher than in inner part. This feature coincides with chemical analyses data of this uraniferous nodule.

  14. Demise of the northern Tethyan Urgonian carbonate platform and subsequent transition towards pelagic conditions: The sedimentary record of the Col de la Plaine Morte area, central Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmi, Karl B.; Gainon, François

    2008-04-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Col de la Plaine Morte area (Helvetic Alps, central Switzerland) documents the disappearance of the northern Tethyan Urgonian platform in unprecedented detail and suggests stepwise platform demise, with each drowning phase documented by erosion and phosphogenesis. The first identified drowning phase terminated Urgonian carbonate production in a predominantly photozoan mode. Using a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record with the well-dated record from SE France, its age is inferred to as Middle Early Aptian (near the boundary between the weissi and deshayesi zones). A subsequent drowning phase is dated by ammonites and by a correlation of the whole-rock δ13C record as Late Early Aptian (late deshayesi to early furcata zone). A third drowning phase provides an ammonite-based age of Early Late Aptian ( subnodosocostatum and melchioris zones) and is part of a widely recognized phase of sediment condensation and phosphogenesis, which is dated as latest Early to Middle Late Aptian (late furcata zone to near the boundary of the melchioris and nolani zones). The fourth and final drowning phase started in the latest Aptian ( jacobi zone) as is also indicated by ammonite findings at the Col de la Plaine Morte. The phases of renewed platform-carbonate production intervening between the drowning phases were all in a heterozoan mode. During the ultimate drowning phase, phosphogenesis continued until the Early Middle Albian, whereas condensation processes lasted until the Middle Turonian. Coverage of the external margin of the drowned Urgonian platform by a drape of pelagic carbonates started only in the Late Turonian. During the Santonian, the external part of the drowned platform underwent normal faulting and saw the re-exposure of already lithified Urgonian carbonates at the seafloor. Based on the here-inferred ages, the first drowning phase just precedes oceanic anoxic episode 1a (OAE 1a or "selli event") in time, and the second

  15. Statistical Study of Aircraft Icing Probabilities at the 700- and 500- Millibar Levels over Ocean Areas in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Porter J.; Lewis, William; Mulholland, Donald R.

    1957-01-01

    A statistical study is made of icing data reported from weather reconnaissance aircraft flown by Air Weather Service (USAF). The weather missions studied were flown at fixed flight levels of 500 millibars (18,000 ft) and 700 millibars (10,000 ft) over wide areas of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans. This report is presented as part of a program conducted by the NACA to obtain extensive icing statistics relevant to aircraft design and operation. The thousands of in-flight observations recorded over a 2- to 4-year period provide reliable statistics on icing encounters for the specific areas, altitudes, and seasons included in the data. The relative frequencies of icing occurrence are presented, together with the estimated icing probabilities and the relation of these probabilities to the frequencies of flight in clouds and cloud temperatures. The results show that aircraft operators can expect icing probabilities to vary widely throughout the year from near zero in the cold Arctic areas in winter up to 7 percent in areas where greater cloudiness and warmer temperatures prevail. The data also reveal a general tendency of colder cloud temperatures to reduce the probability of icing in equally cloudy conditions.

  16. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Karen; Lawton, Aoife

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  17. Clinopyroxenite dykes within a banded unit in the basal mantle section of the northern part of the Oman ophiolite: A record of the latest deep-seated magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Satoko; Arai, Shoji; Tamura, Akihiro

    2017-11-01

    We found clinopyroxenite dykes in a banded harzburgite block within the Sumeini area in the uppermost part of the metamorphic sole of the northern part of the Oman ophiolite. The dykes clearly cut the deformational structure of the harzburgite and contain its fragments, indicating dyke formation during obduction of the ophiolite. The Mg# [= Mg / (Mg + total Fe)] of clinopyroxenes in the dykes ranges from 0.81 to 0.91, and increases up to 0.93 proximal to harzburgite fragments. Mantle minerals in the harzburgite fragments were modified chemically through interaction with the magma that formed the dyke, yielding lower clinopyroxene and spinel Mg#, and spinels with higher TiO2 contents than those in the unaltered harzburgite. These geochemical features indicate that the clinopyroxenite dykes are cumulates derived from a relatively deep-seated primitive magma enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) with an ocean island basalt (OIB)-like affinity, geochemically similar to the V3 lavas of an off-ridge origin. Combining these data with geological observations suggests that the clinopyroxenite dykes represent root system of the V3 lavas. Our analyses of the clinopyroxenite dykes testify to the external nature of the V3 magmas, which was added to the sliced oceanic lithosphere from the outside. It is likely that the V3 magma underwent deep-seated crystallization of clinopyroxene and had limited interaction with mantle peridotite en route to the surface. The mode of occurrence of the Sumeini clinopyroxenites (i.e., emplaced into a banded harzburgite block surrounded by garnet amphibolite) is consistent with the generation of OIB-like magmas (V3 lava) beneath the Oman ophiolite resulting from the break-off of the "subducting slab" and subsequent infiltration of hot asthenospheric mantle. This view is consistent with the limited distribution of V3-related rocks in the Oman ophiolite. The production of such OIB-like magmas during ophiolite obduction is not a rare event

  18. Analysis of Multi-Scale Changes in Arable Land and Scale Effects of the Driving Factors in the Loess Areas in Northern Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, statistical data on the national economic and social development, including the year-end actual area of arable land, the crop yield per unit area and 10 factors, were obtained for the period between 1980 and 2010 and used to analyze the factors driving changes in the arable land of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi, China. The following areas of arable land, which represent different spatial scales, were investigated: the Baota District, the city of Yan’an, and the Northern Shaanxi region. The scale effects of the factors driving the changes to the arable land were analyzed using a canonical correlation analysis and a principal component analysis. Because it was difficult to quantify the impact of the national government policies on the arable land changes, the contributions of the national government policies to the changes in arable land were analyzed qualitatively. The primary conclusions of the study were as follows: between 1980 and 2010, the arable land area decreased. The trends of the year-end actual arable land proportion of the total area in the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City were broadly consistent, whereas the proportion in the Baota District had no obvious similarity with the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City. Remarkably different factors were shown to influence the changes in the arable land at different scales. Environmental factors exerted a greater effect for smaller scale arable land areas (the Baota District. The effect of socio-economic development was a major driving factor for the changes in the arable land area at the city and regional scales. At smaller scales, population change, urbanization and socio-economic development affected the crop yield per unit area either directly or indirectly. Socio-economic development and the modernization of agricultural technology had a greater effect on the crop yield per unit area at the large-scales. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis

  19. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area...

  20. Meteorological, hydrological and oceanographical information and data for the site investigation program in the communities of Oesthammar and Tierp in the northern part of Uppland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson-McCann, Sonja; Karlsson, Anna; Nord, Margitta; Sjoegren, Jonas; Johansson, Lasse; Ivarsson, Mats; Kindell, Sven [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    Northeast Uppland, especially the coast, shows a wind direction distribution that differs from the basic South Swedish pattern, through a frequent occurrence of wind blowing from the North. South and Southwest winds are also frequent. In winter strong northerly winds often bring heavy snowfall, through the moisture uptake from an open sea surface followed by rising air over land. The estimated true annual precipitation (adjusted for measuring losses) is about 700 mm at the coastline, with a maximum 5-15 km inland. The temperature is typical Central Swedish with a yearly mean 5-6 deg C. The South-eastern part of Sweden has the lowest values of specific runoff, with a mean (1961-1990) of <10 l/s/km{sup 2}. Specific runoff for the regions Oesthammar and Tierp is 6-9 l/s/km{sup 2}. For the Oskarshamn region it is <6 l/s/km{sup 2}. For lakes in both Southern and Northern Sweden the ice freeze-up is strongly related to lake depth; it appears earlier on a lake with small depth than on a lake with great depth. When it comes to ice break-up, there are no significant relationships between the characteristics of different lakes like for ice freeze-up. This is because ice break-up is mostly affected by weather, especially solar radiation. The water around Forsmark area has a good water exchange except for the deepest parts of the Oeregrundsgrepen where periods of stagnation can occur. The area is strongly effected by coastal processes induced by the local wind conditions and the stratification in the sea. Similar conditions are valid for the water around Oskarshamn. Existing observing stations in the area around Oesthammar and Tierp have been located. At the nuclear power plant Forsmark there is a 100 m tall mast instrument for registration of wind (direction and speed) and temperature at several levels. Measurements started in 1975 and are still going on. Registrations on paper are kept in the archives at Forsmark. Until about 1996 data were collected by SMHI but have never

  1. Climate change between the mid and late Holocene in northern high latitudes – Part 2: Model-data comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Holmgren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate response over northern high latitudes to the mid-Holocene orbital forcing has been investigated in three types of PMIP (Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project simulations with different complexity of the modelled climate system. By first undertaking model-data comparison, an objective selection method has been applied to evaluate the capability of the climate models to reproduce the spatial response pattern seen in proxy data. The possible feedback mechanisms behind the climate response have been explored based on the selected model simulations. Subsequent model-model comparisons indicate the importance of including the different physical feedbacks in the climate models. The comparisons between the proxy-based reconstructions and the best fit selected simulations show that over the northern high latitudes, summer temperature change follows closely the insolation change and shows a common feature with strong warming over land and relatively weak warming over ocean at 6 ka compared to 0 ka. Furthermore, the sea-ice-albedo positive feedback enhances this response. The reconstructions of temperature show a stronger response to enhanced insolation in the annual mean temperature than winter and summer temperature. This is verified in the model simulations and the behaviour is attributed to the larger contribution from the large response in autumn. Despite a smaller insolation during winter at 6 ka, a pronounced warming centre is found over Barents Sea in winter in the simulations, which is also supported by the nearby northern Eurasian continental and Fennoscandian reconstructions. This indicates that in the Arctic region, the response of the ocean and the sea ice to the enhanced summer insolation is more important for the winter temperature than the synchronous decrease of the insolation.

  2. Heat flow pattern in the gas hydrate drilling areas of northern south china sea and the implication for further study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Sha, Zhibin

    2015-04-01

    Numerous seismic reflection profiles have been acquired by China Geological Survey (CGS) in the Northern Slope of South China Sea (SCS), clearly indicating widespread occurrence of free gases and/or gas hydrates in the sediments. In the year 2007 and 2013 respectively the gas hydrate samples are successfully recovered during two offshore drilling exploratory programs. Results of geothermal data during previous field studies along the north continental margin, however, show that the gas hydrate sites are associated with high geothermal background in contrast to the other offshore ones where the gas hydrates are more likely to be found in the low geothermal regional backgrounds. There is a common interesting heat flow pattern during the two drilling expeditions that the gas hydrate occurrences coincide with the presences of comparatively low geothermal anomalies against the high thermal background which is mainly caused by concentrated fluid upward movements into the stability zone (GHSZ) detected by the surface heat flow measurements over the studied fields. The key point for understanding the coupling between the presences of the gas hydrates and heat flow pattern at regional scale is to know the cause of high heat flows and the origin of forming gases at depth. We propose that these high heat flows are attributed to elevated shallow fault-fissure system due to the tectonic activities. A remarkable series of vertical faults and fissures are common on the upper continental slope and the forming gases are thought to have migrated with hot advective fluid flows towards seafloor mainly via fault-fissure system from underlying source rocks which are deeper levels than those of the GHSZ. The present study is based on an extensive dataset on hydrate distribution and associated temperature field measurements collected in the vicinity of studied areas during a series of field expeditions organized within the framework of national widely collaborative projects. Those

  3. Occupational exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs of metallurgical workers in some industrial plants of the Brescia area, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abballe, Annalisa; Barbieri, Pietro Gino; di Domenico, Alessandro; Garattini, Siria; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Marra, Valentina; Miniero, Roberto; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to respond to public concern on the occupational exposure of metallurgical workers to highly toxic PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the area of the city of Brescia, northern Italy. The study investigated the effects on the haematic burden of occupational exposures to the aforesaid contaminants in different work environments, attempting to establish causal relationships and providing indications for occupational health preventive measures. Chemical concentrations were measured in blood serum of "professionally exposed" (PE) and "not professionally exposed" (NPE) subjects. NPE subjects included industrial administrative employees, Brescia inhabitants, and remote rural people. The central tendency indexes of contaminant cumulative concentrations were higher in PE than in NPE samples (for the mean values: PCDDs+PCDFs, 22.9 vs. 19.5 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; DL-PCBs, 26.0 vs. 23.6 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; PCDDs+PCDFs+DL-PCBs (TEQ(TOT)), 48.9 vs. 43.1 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; Σ(6)[NDL-PCBs], 427 vs. 401 ng g(-1)lb); however, no statistical differences were detected at P=0.05. A significant difference for PCDDs+PCDFs and TEQ(TOT) was observed as the NPE data were progressively reduced to those of the remote rural people. The existence of a differential occupational exposure due to different environments was detected by applying the factor analysis to congener-specific data (analytical profiles). Findings indicate that metallurgical workers may be exposed to PCDD, PCDF, and PCB more than the general population, in particular due to non-negligible contributions to exposure from workplace ambient air. Findings also suggest that an improvement of preventive measures may be required to avoid chemical overexposure in certain metallurgical workplaces. To identify exposure groups, the DL- and NDL-PCB analytical profiles seemed to be more sensitive to environmental exposure sources/pathways than those of PCDDs and PCDFs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Calibration and Validation of A One-dimensional Complex Marine Biogeochemicalfluxes Model In Different Areas of The Northern Adriatic Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, M.; Oddo, P.; Zavatarelli, M.; Coluccelli, A.; Coppini, G.; Celio, M.; Fonda Umani, S.; Pinardi, N.

    In this contribution we show results from numerical simulations carried out with a complex biogeochemical fluxes model coupled with a one-dimensional high-resol ution hydrodynamical model and implemented at three different locations of the north- ern Adriatic shelf . One location is directly affected by Po river influence, one has more open-sea characteristics and one is located in the Gulf of Trieste with an in- termediate behavior; emphasis is put on the comparison with observations and on the functioning of the northern Adriatic ecosystem in the three areas. The work has been performed in a climatological context and has to be considered as preliminary to the development of three-dimensional numerical simulations. Biogeochemical model parameterizations have been ameliorated with a detailed description of bacterial sub- strate utilization associated to the quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in order to improve model skill in capturing the observed DOM dynamics in the basin. The coupled model has been calibrated and validated at the three locations by means of climatological datasets. Results show satisfactory model behavior in simulating local seasonal dynamics in the limit of the available boundary conditions and the one-dimensional implementation. Comparisons with available in situ measurements of primary and bacterial production and bacterial abundances have been performed in all locations. Model simulated rates and bacterial dynamics are in the same order of magnitude of observations and show a qualitatively correct time evolution. The importance of temperature as a factor controlling bacteria efficiency is investigated with sensitivity experiments on the model parameterizations. The different model be- havior and pelagic ecosystem structure developed by the model at the three location can be attributed to the local hydrodynamical features and interactions with external inputs of nutrients. The onset of the winter/spring bloom in the climatological

  5. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  6. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Project ALTKUL was commissioned by DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden; the Danish Energy Agency followed the project closely. The first part of the study has been reported in Rasmussen and Thorning (2012).The starting point of the study was a need for more knowledge on methods that could be used for hydrocarbon exploration in Danish onshore areas, as an alternative to seismic investigations, when these cannot be used for nature protecting reasons. DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden approached GEUS, suggesting a study of seven different non-seismic methods. The Danish Energy Agency was interested in the subject and requested that an actual test of a method be carried out as a part of the project. The optimum choice for a field test was an electromagnetic experiment with a galvanic controlled source (Rasmussen and Thorning, 2012). However, due to organisational issues and a limited timeframe of the project, the final choice of method for the field test was settled on using the magnetotelluric method (MT). Though MT does not utilise galvanic controlled sources, and hence does not serve as a tool for direct hydrocarbon exploration, MT has been used in the past in relation with hydrocarbon exploration onshore and has recently gained considerable interest in China. A contract was entered with Uppsala University for some initial tests of the magnetotelluric (MT) method. The test was carried out August 2012 in an area around Toender, and is reported here as ALTKUL Project Report Part 2. In total 42 MT stations were measured in a 180 km{sup 2} area. The digital data are enclosed with the report and hereby released to the public. A 3D model of the electrical resistivity variations to a depth of 6 km constitutes, together with the actual measured data, the main results of part 2 of the ALTKUL project. The 3D model was derived from an unconstrained 3D inversion of the MT data. The MT data show that pronounced lateral resistivity variations exist at the depth of interest for

  7. GIS-based maps and area estimates of Northern Hemisphere permafrost extent during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, A.; Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; Christensen, T.R.; Vandenberghe, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents GIS-based estimates of permafrost extent in the northern circumpolar region during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), based on a review of previously published maps and compilations of field evidence in the form of ice-wedge pseudomorphs and relict sand wedges. We focus on field

  8. Area occupancy and detection probabilities of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) using nest-box surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Kurtis R. Moseley; Craig W. Stihler; John W. Edwards

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant with the delisting of the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in 2008, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service mandated a 10-year post-delisting monitoring effort to ensure that subspecies population and distribution stability will persist following a changed regulatory status. Although criticized for the...

  9. Automated detection of malaria pigment: feasibility for malaria diagnosing in an area with seasonal malaria in northern Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Langen, Adrianus J.; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Witte, Piet; Mucheto, Samson; Nagelkerke, Nico; Kager, Piet

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of automated malaria detection with the Cell-Dyn 3700 (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA, USA) haematology analyser for diagnosing malaria in northern Namibia. METHODS: From April to June 2003, all patients with a positive blood smear result and a subset of

  10. Physical properties and petrologic description of rock samples from an IOCG mineralized area in the northern Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrin, Alessandro; Edfelt, Å.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2009-01-01

    The Tjårrojåkka Fe-Cu prospect in northern Sweden is considered an example of a Fe-oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) deposit and is hosted in metamorphosed Paleoproterozoic volcanic and intrusive rocks. Rock samples from 24 outcrops were collected for petrophysical analysis (magnetic susceptibility, remanent ma...

  11. Soapstone as a locally used and limited sculptural material in remote area of Northern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavro, Martin; Gajda, J.; Přikryl, R.; Siegl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 8 (2015), s. 4557-4571 ISSN 1866-6280 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : soapstone * quarrying history * Northern Moravia * local use * properties Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12665-014-3742-3

  12. Continental Environment of Triassic Alluvial Beds in the Northern North Sea Area: Core Examples from the Lunde Formation, Snorre Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystuen, Johan Petter; Bergan, Morten

    1999-07-01

    Alluvial processes transport and deposit gravel, sand and mud in a series of depositional systems such as alluvial fans, fluvial channels, floodplain and lacustrine basins. In the northernmost part of the North Sea alluvial sandstones form major reservoir rocks in several oil fields in the Tampen Spur area. In the Snorre Field, the Norian- Early Rhaetian Lunde Formation has given a great database from exploration and production wells, seismic studies, reservoir modelling, production experience and comparative analogue studies on facies distribution, alluvial architecture, heterogeneities and reservoir properties of alluvial successions. The Lunde Formation is subdivided in three members, the lower, middle and upper Lunde members, with the upper member being the main part of the Lunde reservoir rocks. The scope of presenting core samples from the upper Lunde member is to demonstrate main alluvial facies and facies associations, how facies analysis proceeds into construction of conceptual fluvial models that in turn are fundamental in evaluation of reservoir heterogeneities and reservoir modelling. The upper Lunde member consists of repeated units of red and grey sandstone and mudstone. Sandstones are dominantly medium-grained with common range from coarse- to very fine-grained. A basic building stone of the alluvial succession consists of a thick single- or multi-storey sandstone body overlain by a thick mudstone unit. Such couplets form allostratigraphic units and define the main reservoir zones.

  13. Detection and treatment of hyperthyroidism in sea coastal areas and chemically polluted areas in Gujarat, (western part) India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Om Prakash; Mayank, M.; Rachh, S.; Patel, N.; Patel, K.M.; Soni, M.K.; Bhatt, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thyrotoxicosis results from a high level of thyroid hormone in blood. 131 I therapy for this is very safe treatment. Surgery is not acceptable in youngsters because of cosmetic point of view. Objective: In India most of thyrotoxicosis occurs in sea coastal region and hypothyroidism in Himalayan region. The main objective of this study to evaluate, the effect of geographical distribution and chemical pollution on thyroid. To calculate exact dose based on gland size. Materials and Methods: 160 patients of primary hyperthyroidism were selected. Age group range between 15-65 yrs. All patients from Gujarat (India) it is located in western part of India. It's sea coast is approx. 1600 km long. Here Asia's largest chemical zone is situated. Method: 5ml of blood collected from each patient. T3,T4 and TSH test done by RIA and IRMA techniques. After that 99m TcO 4 - Scintigraphy done by gamma camera (GE infinia) 15 days before administration of 131 I all iodine containing food and drugs had been stopped, even iodized salts also. 20 patients got fixed dose of 131 I 10 mci per patient. 140 patients got 120 micro curie per gram of thyroid tissues weight. Follow up study done after 6 months of 131 I administration. Thyroid function test and scintigraphy done to evaluate pre and post therapy changes. Result: 60% of treated patients from sea coastal area, 25% from chemical and 15% from planes. The patients who got fixed dose 10 mci 131 I, of them 35% became hypothyroid and 3% got 2nd dose (13-15 mci) other group who got 120 micro curie 131 I per gram of thyroid tissue of them only 10% became hypothyroid but 5.4% had been treated with 20% more 131 I than primary dose. In the age group of 50-65 yrs on ECG cardiac arrhythmia detected. Conclusion: In treatment of thyrotoxic patients 120 micro curie/gram group shows better result than fixed dose 10 mCi. 60% of treated patients were from sea coastal range, but 25% patients were from chemically polluted zone is guiding us to

  14. Geochronology and geochemistry of lithologies of the Tabuaço W-prospect area (Northern Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerejo, Tiago; Francisco Santos, Jose; Sousa, Joao Carlos; Castanho, Nuno; Sergio, Gabriel; Ribeiro, Sara

    2016-04-01

    This work is focussed on lithologies occurring at Quinta de São Pedro das Águias, which is located in the Tabuaço prospect (an area of 45 km2 where exploration for W-skarn deposits is taking place, in northern Portugal, close to the Douro valley). At Quinta de São Pedro das Águias several lithologies are recognized: "normal" phyllites, black phyllites (graphite-bearing), marbles, calcsilicate (s.s.) rocks and skarns (sometimes, scheelite-bearing), belonging to the Bateiras Formation, of the Douro Group (one of the two major subdivisions of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Dúrico-Beirão Supergroup); Paredes da Beira-Tabuaço granite; several aplitic and pegmatitic bodies. The studied area belongs to the Central Iberian Zone, a geotectonic unit of the Iberian Variscan Chain. Rb-Sr isotope analyses done in the scope of this work, provided a 316 ± 7 Ma whole-rock isochron (MSWD = 1.7; initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7146) for the granitoids, using the 87Rb decay constant recently recommended by IUPAC-IUGS (Villa et al., 2015). This date is interpreted here as the emplacement age of those rocks, during a late stage of the Variscan D3. The granite revealed a S-type nature, namely because it is a muscovite granite, it shows a peraluminous composition (average A/CNK = 1.28), and the Sr and Nd isotope fingerprints (-8.9 ≤ ɛNd(316Ma) ≤ -7.8; +0.7105 ≤ 87Sr/86Sr(316Ma) ≤ 0.7182) fit into the composition of metasedimentary crust. The analysed phyllites show the following isotopic compositions: -9.7 ≤ ɛNd(316Ma) ≤ -8.2; +0.7148 ≤ 87Sr/86Sr(316Ma) ≤ 0.7188. Therefore, the isotope signatures, at 316 Ma, of the granite and of the studied metapelites overlap, suggesting that the parental magma was generated by anatexis of Grupo do Douro metasediments. According to their petrographic, geochemical and isotopic features, aplites and pegmatites are viewed as extreme differentiates from the granite. São Pedro das Águias metapelites show biotite zone parageneses

  15. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  16. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites...

  17. Factors Affecting Adoption of Agroforestry Farming System as a Mean for Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment Conservation in Arid Areas of Northern Kordofan State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, Siddig El Tayeb

    2008-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas represent about 60 percent of Sudan total area. One of the main environmental problems in the arid and semi-arid areas is diffraction's which reduces the natural potential of the already fragile ecosystems and renders rural people vulnerable to food shortages, the vagaries of weather and natural disasters. Deforestation which is considered one of the most critical environmental problems facing the world is one of the main causes of diffraction's. Between the years 1990 and 2005 Sudan lost about 8.8 millions hectares of forests, which represents 11%, of its forests mainly because of subsistence activities such as overgrazing, trees cutting and expansion of traditional agriculture. One of the areas that are very much affected by diffraction's is Northern Kordofan State. To rescue the situation the government of Sudan, with assistance from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and some donors, implemented a project that aimed primarily at restocking Acacia Senegal trees in Northern Kordofan State. This study is intended to explore the factors that caused differential rate of farmers' adoption rate of the Acacia Senegal based agroforestry farming system. The study data was collected from a clustered random sample of 300 farmers, through face to face interviews using a questionnaire that was pre-tested and validated. Frequency distribution and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. It has been found that farmers' adoption of agroforestry farming system in Northern Kordofan state was significantly affected by the farmers' level of formal education, contact with extension agents, level of environmental awareness, cosmopoliteness, total area of owned land and extent of social participation. (author)

  18. Concentrations of radiocesium and stable elements in different parts of pine tree collected in Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masumi; Suzuki, Akira; Linkov, Igor; Dvornik, Alexander; Zhuchenko, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Radial distributions of 137 Cs and related stable elements in a pine tree collected in Chernobyl contaminated area in Belarus were determined, in order to get basic information for dose estimation of pine tree. The concentration of 137 Cs in annual tree rings was the highest in cambium, and decreased sharply toward inside. The highest concentration of 137 Cs in cambium suggests the highest radiation dose to growing part of wood. Distribution of stable Cs was similar as that of 137 Cs, and the 137 Cs/stable Cs ratio was almost constant, indicating the equilibrium of Chernobyl 137 Cs with stable Cs in the pine wood. The similar distributions as Cs were observed for K and Rb. (author)

  19. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough - the Chociwel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Maciej; Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Pająk, Leszek

    2015-09-01

    The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method). An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years' time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  20. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  1. Genetic diversity of Taenia hydatigena in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine as determined by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Kamel; Jayousi, Alaa; Abuseir, Sameh; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Adwan, Ghaleb; Jarrar, Naser

    2018-06-26

    Cysticercus tenuicollis is the metacestode of canine tapeworm Taenia hydatigena, which has been reported in domestic and wild ruminants and is causing veterinary and economic losses in the meat industry. This study was conducted to determine the sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coxl) gene in 20 isolates of T. hydatigena metacestodes (cysticercus tenuicollis) collected from northern West Bank in Palestine. Nine haplotypes were detected, with one prevailing (55%). The total haplotype diversity (0.705) and the total nucleotide diversity (0.0045) displayed low genetic diversity among our isolates. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype. The Tajima's D, and Fu and Li's statistics in cysticercus tenuicollis population of this region showed a negative value, indicating deviations from neutrality and both suggested recent population expansion for the population. The findings of this study would greatly help to implement control and preventive measures for T. hydatigena larvae infection in Palestine.

  2. Amphibia and insects as potential bioindicators of high acid and aluminium levels in the northern part of the Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, J.; Vollmer, W.; Rahmann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide loads have caused an acidification of numerous surface waters in the calcium-deficient regions of Europe. The effects of acidification on aquatic organisms was examined in the Northern Black Forest. High acid loads and correlatively high aluminium loads were found to decrease the diversity of aquatic species. Both in wild conditions and in the aquarium embryonic and larval mortality rates were seen to be elevated, leading to a decrease in population of many species. Sublethal impairments such as damage to organs or growth or behavioural disorders were also found. The observed changes in amphibian spawn and populations were used exemplarily as a bioindication of the acid state of the 37 standing waters studied. (orig.) [de

  3. Radiocarbon datings and glacial striae from the innar part of Boknfjord area, South Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anundsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Whale bones overlain by moraine at Borgoey island have been dated to 12,380+-150 B.P. At Tveit, further east, whale bones overlain by littoral material were dated to 11,970+-100 B.P. These datings, together with the glacial striae in the area, show that Borgoe was covered by ice during a glacial advance at about Older Dryas Chronozone, while Tveit was not, and that a calving bay existed in the inner part of the Boknfjord area at the same time. At the mouth of Vindafjord, east of Tveit, and 3-4 km outside terminal moraines of Younger Dryas age, shells overlain by ground moraine were dated to 11,630+-100 B.P. This shows that the ice front in an early phase of the Younger Dryas glacial advance was situated at least 3-4 km beyond the pronounced Ra moraines in Vindafjord. The main trend of the shore line displacement between 12,000 and 9,500 B.P., based upon the whale bones and earlier investigations, can be established. (Auth.)

  4. Distribution of Euphausia mucronata at the upwelling area of Peninsula Mejillones, northern Chile: The influence of the oxygen minimum layer

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, R.; Marin, V.; Irribarren, C.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of zooplankton samples from 53 stations obtained around Peninsula Mejillones (Northern Chile), from two strata: 0-50 m and 150-200 m, during active upwelling in December 1996, allowed the study of horizontal and vertical distribution of Euphausia mucronata, endemic Krill of the Humboldt Current. Information from CTDO and a fluorometer was used to analyze the influence of oceanographic variables on distribution of E. mucronata. E. mucronata was found distributed all around the Peninsu...

  5. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, Pham Manh; Sebesvari, Zita; Minh, Tu Binh; Viet, Pham Hung; Renaud, Fabrice G.

    2011-01-01

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: → Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. → Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. → Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. → Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. → Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  6. Heavy mineral as a tool to refine the stratigraphy of kaolin deposits in the Rio Capim Area, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Góes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of heavy minerals in kaolin deposits from the Ipixuna Formation in the Rio Capim area (Northern Brazil showed a mature to super mature assemblage dominated by zircon and tourmaline, and subordinately rutile, kyanite and staurolite. These minerals do not change much throughout the whole section; however, each kaolin unit displays a particular signature, defined by differences in the proportions of the whole assemblage of heavy minerals, as well as of their textural characteristics. This work revealed that the lower and upper kaolin units can be definitely considered as distinct depositional sequences. A higher proportion of opaque minerals and higher zircon values characterize the lower unit. The higher volumes of anhedric, rounded to sub-rounded grains of zircon and tourmaline in the upper unit suggests that this includes grains that were undergone to a higher degree of reworking. The increased volume of unaltered staurolite and kyanite in the upper unit leads to conclude that, even considering sediment reworking, a distinct source must be invoked. The results also show that the characteristics of the heavy mineral assemblage from the intermediate unit are comparable with those from the upper unit, which suggests they might record a same stratigraphic sequence.Estudos de minerais pesados provenientes em depósitos cauliníticos da Formação Ipixuna na região do rio Capim (Brasil revelaram uma mineralogia matura a supermatura, representada dominantemente por zircão e turmalina e, subordinadamente, rutilo, cianita e estaurolita. Os minerais encontrados não variam muito, entretanto cada unidade caulinítica apresenta uma assinatura particular definida por diferenças nasproporções entre os principais minerais, assim como em suas características texturais. Este trabalho demonstrou que asunidades de caulim soft (inferior e semi-flint (superior podem ser consideradas seqüências deposicionais distintas. As altas percentagens de opacos

  7. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features

  8. Quantitative Estimation of Soil Carbon Sequestration in Three Land Use Types (Orchard, Paddy Rice and Forest in a Part of Ramsar Lands, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zakieh pahlavan yali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing Greenhouse Gases in atmosphere is the main cause of climate and ecosystems changes. The most important greenhouse gas is CO2 that causes global warming or the greenhouse effect. One of the known solutions that reduces atmospheric carbon and helps to improve the situation, is carbon sequestration in vegetation cover and soil. Carbon sequestration refers to the change in atmospheric CO2 into organic carbon compounds by plants and capture it for a certain time . However, the ecosystems with different vegetation have Impressive Influence on soil carbon sequestration (SCS. Soil as the main component of these ecosystems is a world-wide indicator which has been known to play an important role in global balance of carbon sequestration. Furthermore, carbon sequestration can be a standard world trade and becomes guaranteed. Costs of transfer of CO2 (carbon transfer From the atmosphere into the soil based on the negative effects of increased CO2 on Weather is always increasing, This issue can be faced by developing countries to create a new industry, especially when conservation and restoration of rangeland to follow. This research was regarded due to estimation of SCS in three land use types (orchard, paddy rice and forest in a Part of Ramsar Lands, Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: Ramsar city with an area of about 729/7 km2 is located in the western part of Mazandaran province. Its height above sea level is 20 meters. Ramsar city is situated in a temperate and humid climate. Land area covered by forest, orchard and paddy rice. After field inspection of the area, detailed topographic maps of the specified zone on the study were also tested. In each of the three land types, 500 hectares in the every growing and totally 1,500 hectares as study area were selected .For evaluation the sequestration of carbon in different vegetation systems,15 soil profile selected and sampling from depth of 0 to 100 centimetres of each profile

  9. A Fragment of Ophiolite Assemblage of Kasargi Lake Area: East-Urals Megazone, Northern Part of the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of rocks of ophiolite assemblage exposed on the east coast of Kasargi Lake are presented. The ophiolite assemblage is formed with the serpentinised ultramafic rocks of dunite-harzburgite association, which are residual and the shlirenbanded gabbros with a number of later dikes of diabases and porphiritic gabbros. The chemical content of mafic and ultramafic rocks of Kasargi massif shows that they are likely the equivalent rocks encountered within the backarc spreading ridges.

  10. Establishing a baseline of estuarine submerged aquatic vegetation resources across salinity zones within coastal areas of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Eva R.; DeMarco, Kristin; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are dynamic and productive areas that are vulnerable to effects of global climate change. Despite their potentially limited spatial extent, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds function in coastal ecosystems as foundation species, and perform important ecological services. However, limited understanding of the factors controlling SAV distribution and abundance across multiple salinity zones (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) in the northern Gulf of Mexico restricts the ability of models to accurately predict resource availability. We sampled 384 potential coastal SAV sites across the northern Gulf of Mexico in 2013 and 2014, and examined community and species-specific SAV distribution and biomass in relation to year, salinity, turbidity, and water depth. After two years of sampling, 14 species of SAV were documented, with three species (coontail [Ceratophyllum demersum], Eurasian watermilfoil [Myriophyllum spicatum], and widgeon grass [Ruppia maritima]) accounting for 54% of above-ground biomass collected. Salinity and water depth were dominant drivers of species assemblages but had little effect on SAV biomass. Predicted changes in salinity and water depths along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast will likely alter SAV production and species assemblages, shifting to more saline and depth-tolerant assemblages, which in turn may affect habitat and food resources for associated faunal species.

  11. Characterization of some archaeological ceramics and clay samples from Zamala - Far-northern part of Cameroon (West Central Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntah, Z.L. Epossi; Sobott, R.; Bente, K., E-mail: zoilaepossi@yahoo.fr [Institute of Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, University of Leipzig (Germany); Fabbri, B. [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council (CNR) of Italy, Faenza (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    Seventeen ceramics samples (515±95 BP, about 580 years old) and two clay raw materials from Zamala (Far-northern, Cameroon) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA/TG) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The aim of the work was the deduction of the production technology and provenance of these ceramics. With the exception of one sample the analysed ceramics formed a homogeneous chemical and mineralogical group. The observed mineralogical phases were quartz, mica (biotite), potassium feldspar (microcline) and plagioclase (albite and oligoclase). The XRD study of two local clays yielded the presence of quartz, kaolinite, mica, feldspar and plagioclase. The presence of the broad endothermic peak in the DTA/TG curves of the clays and its absence in the curves of the ceramics indicated that the firing temperature of the ceramics was above 550-600 °C, which is the temperature of the kaolinite-metakaolinite transformation. The firing experiments of the clay between 400-1200 °C in oxidizing atmosphere showed that mica disappeared above 900 °C. Therefore, the firing temperature of the sherds should have been between 600-900 °C. The chemical correlation between ceramics and local clay materials pointed out to a local production of these ceramics. (author)

  12. The effects of petroleum activity in the Northern areas. Northern Sea, Jan Mayen and the Barents sea; Ringvirkninger av petroleumsaktivitet i nordomraader. Norskehavet, Jan Mayen og Barentshavet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eika, Torbjoern; Prestmo, Joakim; Cappelen, Aadne

    2012-11-15

    The effects of petroleum activity respectively in the north-eastern Norwegian Sea,Barents Sea south-east and around Jan Mayen are not likely to be very large in a national context, but clearly noticeable. The calculations show the effects of activity in the relevant area, compared to a situation where this activity is not initiated. This can be considered as a study of how the Norwegian economy is affected by a decision to start exploration, followed by developing of the economically viable discoveries. Fiscal policy is assumed unaffected. It is thus not taken into account how the different scenarios will affect the pension fund and thus the frames for oil spending resulting from the fiscal rule. The effects we study are the direct employment in the petroleum sector that can be expected, and the effects of the demand in the form of capital goods and intermediate input. Uncertainty is discussed for each area in terms of alternative scenarios of relatively high and relatively low quantities of petroleum resources. The impact on the economy is clearly most significant in the development phase. This is because the demand related to exploration and operation phases are much more modest. The effects during the production phase are dampened by the weakened cost competitiveness as results of higher level of activity in previous phases. In scenarios with modest demand and petroleum production, employment may at some point of time even be lower than a scenario without increased petroleum activity. In the two scenarios with low and high levels of petroleum activity in the northeastern Norwegian Sea, total annual employment in Norway increases by respectively 3 000 and 10 000 persons at the most. On average for the period 2014-2045, the increase is 800 persons with a low level of activity and 2 300 persons with a high activity level. GDP excluding recovery will in the period 2014-2045, on average, increase by respectively 1.5 and 5.3 billion 2009 million annually in the two

  13. Missing female fetus: a micro level investigation of sex determination in a periurban area of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rohini; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A micro-level investigation of 983 pregnant women (aged 15-49 years) regarding sex determination and associated factors was carried out in a periurban region of Northern India. Among the women surveyed, 183 chose to use sex determination. The highest percentage of sex determination was among 30-39-year-old women, and general caste and family size were two risk factors associated with sex determination. Correcting imbalances in sex ratios at birth is a complex issue without easy answers, especially in patriarchal societies. Apart from raising awareness among decisionmakers, property rights in favor of women and strict vigilance and record of registration of ultrasound machines are necessary.

  14. Spacetime Distributions of Wildfire Areas and Emissions of Carbon-Containing Gases and Aerosols in Northern Eurasia according to Satellite-Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondur, V. G.; Gordo, K. A.; Kladov, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    Based on online wildfire satellite-monitoring data, distributions of burned-out areas, as well as emission volumes of carbon-containing gases (CO and CO2) and fine aerosols (PM2.5), for different regions and months in 2005-2016 (across the territory of Russia) and in 2010-2016 (northern Eurasia) are analyzed. Distinctive features of the seasonal behavior of wildfires and emission volumes of carbon-containing gases and fine aerosols for different regions of northern Eurasia are determined. It is shown that between 2005 and 2016 the annual area of territories burned out during wildfires in Russia decreased by almost a factor of 2.6 owing to early detection and suppression of fire sources. It is determined that in 2014-2016 the relative size of burned-out areas in Ukraine increased 6-9-fold and volumes of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 emissions by more than a factor of 6.5-7.5 times when compared to earlier years and these characteristics for other European countries.

  15. Hydrogeologic characterization of basalts: The northern rim of the Columbia Plateau Physiographic Province and of the Creston Study Area, eastern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, T.D.; Paschis, J.A.; Koenig, R.A.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a general but comprehensive characterization of hydrogeologic and hydrogeochemical baseline conditions for the Creston area located along the northern rim of the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. Historical as well as recent data and other available information from previous studies and alternative sources have been considered in this baseline hydrological characterization. These include data and information on water levels, aquifer characteristics, and water quality for shallow basalt units comprising the Wanapum Formation and the Grande Ronde Formation in the Creston study area and for the general region surrounding this study area. The overall goal of this hydrologic characterization was to provide useful information leading to the selection of the Roza Member of the Wanapum Formation as the study's basalt horizon and for other related, subsequent study components of In-Situ's research project. 110 refs., 52 figs., 25 tabs

  16. WILDFIRES IN THE LATE PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS THE LATE PERMIAN OF THE BLETTERBACH-BUTTERLOCH AREA (NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIETER UHL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time fossil macroscopic remains of charcoal as direct evidence of palaeo-wildfires from the Late Permian Gröden Formation of the Bletterbach-Butterloch area in Northern Italy is described. The charcoal consists of pycnoxylic wood and originates from gymnosperms, but a more specific affiliation is not possible due to the fragmentary nature of the material. On a global scale our knowledge about Late Permian fire-ecology is still rather scarce and this finding helps to fill one of the numerous geographical gaps in our current knowledge about Late Permian wildfires. 

  17. Analytical results and sample locality map for rock, stream-sediment, and soil samples, Northern and Eastern Coloado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Harley D.; Chaffee, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1996-1998 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geochemical study of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area (usually referred to as the NECD in this report), Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, southeastern California (figure 1). This study was done in support of the BLM's Coordinated Management Plan for the area. This report presents analytical data from this study. To provide comprehensive coverage of the NECD, we compiled and examined all available geochemical data, in digital form, from previous studies in the area, and made sample-site plots to aid in determining where sample-site coverage and analyses were sufficient, which samples should be re-analyzed, and where additional sampling was needed. Previous investigations conducted in parts of the current study area included the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program studies of the Needles and Salton Sea 1? x 2? quadrangles; USGS studies of 12 BLM Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) (Big Maria Mountains, Chemehuevi Mountains, Chuckwalla Mountains, Coxcomb Mountains, Mecca Hills, Orocopia Mountains, Palen-McCoy, Picacho Peak, Riverside Mountains, Sheephole Valley (also known as Sheep Hole/Cadiz), Turtle Mountains, and Whipple Mountains); and USGS studies in the Needles and El Centro 1? x 2? quadrangles done during the early 1990s as part of a project to identify the regional geochemistry of southern California. Areas where we did new sampling of rocks and stream sediments are mainly in the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range and in Joshua Tree National Park, which extends into the west-central part of the NECD, as shown in figure 1 and figure 2. This report contains analytical data for 132 rock samples and 1,245 stream-sediment samples collected by the USGS, and 362 stream-sediment samples and 189 soil samples collected during the NURE program. All samples are from the Northern and Eastern Colorado

  18. Creating a monthly time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Northern Tampa Bay area, Florida, January 2000-December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie M.; Fouad, Geoffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    In Florida’s karst terrain, where groundwater and surface waters interact, a mapping time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer offers a versatile metric for assessing the hydrologic condition of both the aquifer and overlying streams and wetlands. Long-term groundwater monitoring data were used to generate a monthly time series of potentiometric surfaces in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a 573-square-mile area of west-central Florida between January 2000 and December 2009. Recorded groundwater elevations were collated for 260 groundwater monitoring wells in the Northern Tampa Bay area, and a continuous time series of daily observations was created for 197 of the wells by estimating missing daily values through regression relations with other monitoring wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevation in the Upper Floridan aquifer over a decade. The mapping time series gives spatial and temporal coherence to groundwater monitoring data collected continuously over the decade by three different organizations, but at various frequencies. Further, the mapping time series describes the potentiometric surface beneath parts of six regionally important stream watersheds and 11 municipal well fields that collectively withdraw about 90 million gallons per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Monthly semivariogram models were developed using monthly average groundwater levels at wells. Kriging was used to interpolate the monthly average potentiometric-surface elevations and to quantify the uncertainty in the interpolated elevations. Drawdown of the potentiometric surface within well fields was likely the cause of a characteristic decrease and then increase in the observed semivariance with increasing lag distance. This characteristic made use of the hole effect model appropriate for describing the monthly semivariograms and the interpolated surfaces. Spatial variance reflected in the monthly

  19. Geology of Kubi Algi and Derati mountains, pantellerite bodies of Miocene age from the northern part of the Kenyan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, R. T.

    The small isolated peaks of Kubi Algi and Derati on the periphery of the Koobi Fora basin, to the north-east of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya, are remnants of silicic peralkaline volcanic centres. Detailed geological maps of the areas of the two mountains are presented. Both are massive bodies of generally aphyric, microgranular pantellerite sharing similar petrography and chemistry. Kubi Algi shows evidence of having formed as an extrusive dome and is considered the source of local pantellerite lava flows, here designated the Il Burrka Formation. Derati mountain can best be interpreted as a denuded plug of a second extrusive centre. The volcanoes were active in the middle Miocene towards the end of a period of regional magmatism extending from late-Oligocene times. The pantellerites are holocrystalline and thus contrast with the normally glassy over-saturated peralkaline rocks from the East African rifts, including older pyroclastic pantellerites of the northern Lake Turkana region. Despite being very finely crystalline, they show mineralogical features seen elsewhere in more slowly cooled, deep-seated, peralkaline granites. A very broad range of feldspar compositions present in the rocks is explained by the interaction of groundwater with the rapidly cooling magma. Of additional interest is the abundance of aegirine, present as a product of primary magmatic crystallization and, in the Derati rock, as a hydrothermal mineral. It contains significant but highly variable amounts of titanium and zirconium, the latter broadly equivalent to typical maximum concentrations reported from peralkaline intrusive complexes.

  20. Distribution, sources and contamination assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of the South Yellow Sea and northern part of the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Li, Anchun; Huang, Peng

    2017-11-15

    Surface sediment samples collected from the South Yellow Sea and northern part of the East China Sea during spring and autumn, respectively, were analyzed for grain size, aluminum, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) to evaluate heavy metal levels and the contamination status. The results showed that all of the heavy metal concentrations met the standard criteria of the Chinese National Standard Criteria for Marine Sediment Quality. Both the EFs and a multivariate analysis (PCA) indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn were mainly from natural contributions, while Pb was influenced by anthropogenic inputs, especially during autumn. The geoaccumulation index of Pb near the mouth of the Yangtze River suggested that the pollution degree in autumn was heavier than that in spring, which might be caused by the greater river discharge in summer and more heavy metal adsorption with finer grain sizes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  2. Density and habitat use by the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus in an agricultural area of northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Serrano Pérez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitat selection by the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus in agro-ecosystems is still poorly understood. From December 2005 to March 2008, we assessed pre- and post-breeding wild rabbit densities and habitat use at different range levels in an agro-ecosystem area of northern Italy. Rabbit presence/absence, based on faecal pellets, was assessed in July and August 2007 for 150 1-m radius plots. The range of the species was defined by Kernel Analyese (99% and 50% of the total positive plots and Jacobs'index of selection was calculated for each habitat type. Moreover, we calculated the w index of selection and Manly's α indexof preference to compare habitat use to availability within the range. Ten macro-habitat variables and 11 micro-habitat ones were measured and tested for difference between plots with and without rabbits. Discriminant Function Analysis was applied to test for variables that differed between the two types of plots. Wild rabbit density averaged 113.4 individuals per km2 (SD=19.88. Rabbits selected woods and field edges, which provide food in the proximity of refuges, avoiding open areas. The dense tree cover of woods would reduce rabbit detectability by raptors while the undergrowth provides shelter against terrestrial predator, reducing the risk of predation. On the basis of our results, management actions for rabbit conservation should aim to improve the ecotones between woods and arable lands and to preserve scrub and woodland. Riassunto Densità e uso dell'habitat da parte de lconiglio selvatico (Oryctolagus cuniculus in un'area agricola dell'Italia settentrionale L'individuazione delle caratteristiche dell'habitat che determinano la qualità ambientale per il coniglio selvatico è importante per la conoscenza dell'ecologia della specie e per la gestioen delle popolazioni. L'abbondanza e la distribuzione

  3. Driving Forces of Dynamic Changes in Soil Erosion in the Dahei Mountain Ecological Restoration Area of Northern China Based on GIS and RS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic change in soil erosion is an important focus of regional ecological restoration research. Here, the dynamic changes of soil erosion and its driving forces in the Dahei Mountain ecological restoration area of northern China were analyzed by LANDSAT TM remote sensing captured via geographic information system (GIS) technologies during three typical periods in 2004, 2008 and 2013. The results showed the following: (1) a decrease in intensive erosion and moderate erosion areas, as well as an increase in light erosion areas, was observed during two periods: one from 2004 to 2008 and the other from 2008 to 2013. (2) Between 2004 and 2008, the variation in the range of slight erosion was the largest (24.28%), followed by light erosion and intensive erosion; between 2008 and 2013, the variation in the range of intensive erosion area was the largest (9.89%), followed by slight erosion and moderate erosion. (3) Socioeconomic impact, accompanied by natural environmental factors, was the main driving force underlying the change in soil erosion within the ecological restoration area. In particular, the socioeconomic factors of per capita forest area and land reclamation rate, as well as the natural environmental factor of terrain slope, significantly influenced soil erosion changes within the ecological restoration area.

  4. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Northern Ross Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica: 1962-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. Thomas and others (2004), on the basis of aircraft and satellite laser altimetry surveys, believe the thinning may be accelerating. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), on the basis of analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance, whereas Rignot and others (2004) infer even larger negative mass balance for glaciers flowing northward into the Amundsen Sea, a trend suggested by Swithinbank and others (2003a,b; 2004). The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be strongly positive on the basis of the change in satellite altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation?s (1990) Division of Polar

  5. Experimental study on plaeo-geothermal and its history in the central and northern part of Huanghua depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wei; Xia Yuliang; Ou Guangxi; Liu Dechang; Zhao Yunlong

    1999-11-01

    Started with the research on the unification of material source and pre-stage thermal history of Tertiary sedimentary rocks, the authors firstly analyse and discuss the paleo-geothermal and its gradient of the representative drilling well, identifies the temperature which the strata experienced at different period and the geologic factor that controls the geothermal field with fission track dating; then comprehensively analyse the paleo-geothermal field and its history in the concerned area after restoring the sedimentary and burying history; finally proposed some suggestion for oil- gas exploration in this area and for paleo-geothermal study method

  6. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Ricardo J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Methods Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Results Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50% were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. Conclusions There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps

  7. Finding malaria hot-spots in northern Angola: the role of individual, household and environmental factors within a meso-endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Ricardo J Soares; Langa, Antonio; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Clements, Archie C A; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2012-11-22

    Identifying and targeting hyper-endemic communities within meso-endemic areas constitutes an important challenge in malaria control in endemic countries such like Angola. Recent national and global predictive maps of malaria allow the identification and quantification of the population at risk of malaria infection in Angola, but their small-scale accuracy is surrounded by large uncertainties. To observe the need to develop higher resolution malaria endemicity maps a predictive risk map of malaria infection for the municipality of Dande (a malaria endemic area in Northern Angola) was developed and compared to existing national and global maps, the role of individual, household and environmental risk factors for malaria endemicity was quantified and the spatial variation in the number of children at-risk of malaria was estimated. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict small-scale spatial variation using data collected during a parasitological survey conducted from May to August 2010. Maps of the posterior distributions of predicted prevalence were constructed in a geographical information system. Malaria infection was significantly associated with maternal malaria awareness, households with canvas roofing, distance to health care centre and distance to rivers. The predictive map showed remarkable spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the Dande municipality in contrast to previous national and global spatial risk models; large high-risk areas of malaria infection (prevalence >50%) were found in the northern and most eastern areas of the municipality, in line with the observed prevalence. There is remarkable spatial heterogeneity of malaria burden which previous national and global spatial modelling studies failed to identify suggesting that the identification of malaria hot-spots within seemingly mesoendemic areas may require the generation of high resolution malaria maps. Individual, household and hydrological factors play an important role

  8. Observations of salinity patterns in shallow groundwater and drainage water from agricultural land in the Northern part of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velstra, J.; Groen, J.; de Jong, K.

    2011-01-01

    In studies concerning rainwater lenses on a parcel scale in brackish polder areas it is assumed that infiltrated rainwater flows through the rainwater lens and seeps to the watercourses. This freshwater system is supposed to be superimposed on the brackish diffuse upward seepage system. This study

  9. Contribution to fauna of invertebrates of sink holes within the agricultural landscape of the Moravian Karst Protected Area. Part one: Carabidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Horáková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The epigeic fauna in the sink holes was studied using formaldehyde ground traps at 14-day intervals from April to October in 2002 and 2003. A total of 5 transects of traps have been installed within 5 selected areas of the northern part of the Moravian Karst. Areas within the district of Vilémovice, Lažánky and Ostrov near Macocha villages have been studied in particular. Sink holes have been selected on the basis of how they are probably influenced by human activities (types such as regularly mown sink holes within a thoroughly exploited field – 1, sink holes partially or totally overgrown by shrubs – 3 and 2, sink holes with fully developed trees – 4, sink holes within an intensely exploited meadow – 5.It was the aim of this study to determine the species composition of individual areas, numbers of individual species, differences among areas characterised by synoecological characteristics such as the dominance, Shannon-Wieneręs index of species diversity, equitability, Jaccardęs index of similarity and to try to express the degree of anthropogenic influence. Similarity of individual areas has also been evaluated by means of the cluster analysis (on the basis of the Jaccardęs index.Eudominant species were Abax parallelepipedus, Anchomenus dorsalis, Carabus ullrichi, Microlestes maurus, Poecilus cupreus and Pterostichus melanarius. Species such as Aptinus bombarda, Licinus depressus, Molops elatus and Syntomus obscuroguttatus were the most important ones. The highest and lowest values of the index of species diversity were found in the area No. 4, and 1 and 2, respectively. Equitability was the highest and the lowest in the area No. 4 and 1, respectively. According to the Jaccardęs index, areas No. 2 and 3, and No. 1 and 4 were the most and least similar ones, respectively. A total of 53.3%, 45.6% and 1.1% of species could, be classified as belonging to the group E, A and R, respectively. The group E represents eurytopic species

  10. Mapping of risk prone areas of kala-azar (Visceral leishmaniasis) in parts of Bihar State, India: an RS and GIS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, S; Srinivas, T; Palit, A; Kar, S K; Battacharya, S K

    2006-09-01

    The kala-azar fever (Visceral leishmaniasis) is continuing unabated in India for over a century, now being largely confined to the eastern part of India mainly in Bihar state and to some extent in its bordering states like West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. Two study sites namely Patepur block in Vaishali district with high endemicity in northern part and Lohardagga block in Lohardagga district with absolute non-endemicity in southern part of Bihar were selected for the study with the following objectives : (i) to study the macro-ecosystem in relation to distribution of vector -Phlebotomus argentipes; (ii) to identify/map the risk prone areas or villages in a block for quick remedial measures; and (iii) to make use of satellite remote sensing and GIS to demonstrate the utility for rapid assessment of landuse/landcover and their relation with the incidence of kalaazar leading to the mapping of risk prone areas. Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-1D LISS III satellite data for the periods of March and November 2000 were analysed in Silicon graphic image processing system using ERDAS software. False color composites (FCC) were generated and landuse/landcover was assessed using Maximum likelihood supervised classification techniques based on ground truth training sets. During the study the GIS functions are used to quantify the remotely sensed landscape proportions of 5 km2 buffer surrounding each known group of villages of high occurrence of sandflies in endemic and nonendemic study sites. Instead of traditional ground based survey methods to vector surveillance, the present study used a combination of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) approach to develop landscape predictors of sandfly abundance-an indicator of human vector contact and as a measure of risk prone areas. Statistical analysis using the remotely sensed landscape variables showed that rural villages surrounded by higher proportion of transitional swamps with soft stemmed edible plants and

  11. Distribution of total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium in pod of killer whales (Orcinus Orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan: Comparison of mature females with calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)]. E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Kimura, Osamu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Hisamichi, Yohsuke [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Minoshima, Yasuhiko [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Kakumoto, Chiharu [Marine Wildlife Center of JAPAN - Incorporated Non Profit Organization/NPO, 1-35-103, N21W6 Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Kobayashi, Mari [Marine Wildlife Center of JAPAN - Incorporated Non Profit Organization/NPO, 1-35-103, N21W6 Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Total mercury (T-Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales including five mature females and three calves stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed. In the mature female, contamination level of T-Hg in the liver sample (62.2 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/wet g) was markedly higher than that in kidney sample and muscle sample. The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver sample was approximately 1, and those in the kidney and muscle samples were markedly lower than 1. These results suggest that the formation of HgSe compound increases the hepatic accumulation of mercury (Hg). In contrast, contamination level of T-Hg in the calf organs was much lower than that in the mature female organs. These results suggest that the transfer of Hg from the mother to the fetus via placenta and/or to calf via milk is trace. - Total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed.

  12. Distribution of total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium in pod of killer whales (Orcinus Orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan: Comparison of mature females with calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Haraguchi, Koichi; Kakumoto, Chiharu; Kobayashi, Mari

    2006-01-01

    Total mercury (T-Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales including five mature females and three calves stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed. In the mature female, contamination level of T-Hg in the liver sample (62.2 ± 21.9 μg/wet g) was markedly higher than that in kidney sample and muscle sample. The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver sample was approximately 1, and those in the kidney and muscle samples were markedly lower than 1. These results suggest that the formation of HgSe compound increases the hepatic accumulation of mercury (Hg). In contrast, contamination level of T-Hg in the calf organs was much lower than that in the mature female organs. These results suggest that the transfer of Hg from the mother to the fetus via placenta and/or to calf via milk is trace. - Total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed

  13. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 1; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Schull, Mitchell A.; Samanta, Arindam; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multi-decade long Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from remote sensing measurements of multiple sensors is key to monitoring long-term changes in vegetation due to natural and anthropogenic influences. Challenges in developing such ESDRs include problems in remote sensing science (modeling of variability in global vegetation, scaling, atmospheric correction) and sensor hardware (differences in spatial resolution, spectral bands, calibration, and information content). In this paper, we develop a physically based approach for deriving LAI and FPAR products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data that are of comparable quality to the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI and FPAR products, thus realizing the objective of producing a long (multi-decadal) time series of these products. The approach is based on the radiative transfer theory of canopy spectral invariants which facilitates parameterization of the canopy spectral bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF). The methodology permits decoupling of the structural and radiometric components and obeys the energy conservation law. The approach is applicable to any optical sensor, however, it requires selection of sensor-specific values of configurable parameters, namely, the single scattering albedo and data uncertainty. According to the theory of spectral invariants, the single scattering albedo is a function of the spatial scale, and thus, accounts for the variation in BRF with sensor spatial resolution. Likewise, the single scattering albedo accounts for the variation in spectral BRF with sensor bandwidths. The second adjustable parameter is data uncertainty, which accounts for varying information content of the remote sensing measurements, i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, low information content), vs. spectral BRF (higher

  14. Malnutrition and Associated Factors Influencing Nutrition of Children in Post War Resettlement Areas in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Angela; Senarath, Upul; Mbuya, Nkosinathi; Navaratne, Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Over 250000 persons were displaced within the Northern Province, Sri Lanka at the end of the war (2009/10). With the ensuing resettlement process, the Japan Social Development Fund emergency project (JSDF) on Local Nutrition interventions for the Northern Province was implemented to combat undernutrition in children. A baseline survey was undertaken to describe prevalence of acute malnutrition among children < 5 years in the Northern Province and associated factors that would inform project activities of supplementary feeding, community mobilization and behavior change communication. Methodology: A cross sectional survey using a multistage cluster sampling design evaluated nutrition status in a representative sample of 2600 children aged 0-5 years from the Northern Province. Height and weight were measured using standard survey equipment, and anthropometric indices (height-for-age Z, weight-for-age Z, weight-for-height) were calculated using WHO growth standards and Anthro software. An interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited data on breastfeeding, complementary feeding and nutrition knowledge and practices of caregivers. Significant factors associated with nutrition indicators were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis [presented as Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)]. Results: Prevalence of Global Acute Malnutrition (WHZ<-2) among children aged 0-5 years was 20.1%; Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM; WHZ<-2 and ≥-3) was 15.7% and 5.6 % had Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM; WHZ<-3). Multivariate analysis of younger children (0-23 months) showed that SAM and MAM were associated with increasing age [12-17 month olds were more likely to be wasted compared to younger children (AOR 1.7)]. Other associated factors were low birth weight (AOR 1.54) and lack of toilets (AOR 2.02), a proxy indicator of poor socioeconomic status. Risk of wasting was greater with recent episodes of acute respiratory infection (AOR 1.51). Assessment of

  15. RIGED-RA project - Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area - Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Greggio, Nicolas; Sistilli, Flavia; Fabbri, Stefano; Scarelli, Frederico; Candiago, Sebastian; Anfossi, Giulia; Lipparini, Carlo A.; Cantelli, Luigi; Antonellini, Marco; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Coastal dunes play an important role in protecting the coastline. Unfortunately, in the last decades dunes have been removed or damaged by human activities. In the Emilia- Romagna region significant residual dune systems are found only along Ravenna and Ferrara coasts. In this context, the RIGED-RA project “Restoration and management of coastal dunes along the Ravenna coast” (2013-2016) has been launched with the aims to identify dynamics, erosion and vulnerability of Northern Adriatic coast and associated residual dunes, and to define intervention strategies for dune protection and restoration. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the expertise of several researchers and investigates all aspects (biotic and abiotic), which drive the dune-beach system. All datasets were integrated to identify test sites for applying dune restoration. The intervention finished in April 2016; evolution and restoration efficiency will be assessed.

  16. EVALUATION OF TROPHIC STATUS OF AGRAKHAN BAY (THE NORTH CASPIAN SEA AS A PART OF ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gadzhiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Hydrochemical composition of waters of Agrakhan Bay (the North Caspian Sea, degree of pollution, structure and quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos is given in the paper. Evaluation of a trophic status of the bay and seasonal trophodynamics are given as a result of study.Material and methods. The study is based on original materials from expeditions of 2012 (Autumn and 2013 (Spring and Summer in Agrakhan Bay. The complex materials are collected on stations with distance 3.5 km. Totally was made 16 marine stations, where samples of water, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos were taken.Results. Agrakhan Bay is eutrophic by level of dissolved oxygen and its BOD. However, the oxygen deficiency is not observed. concentration of oxygen is high almost in all seasons, that has a beneficial effect on hydrobionts. Seasonal dynamics indicates that Agrakhansky bay is oligotrophic within a year, but its trophic status increases to mesotrophic and even to hypertrophic in some periods. The northern part ща the bay is eutrophic. Difference in trophic levels of different parts of the bay is the result of significant differences in depth and area of water surface.Conclusions. Anthropogenic impact on Agrakhan Bay increases its trophic status. Seasonal trophic level of Agrakhan Gulf except natural processes depends on the "purity" of the Terek River sediments, which are the main source of biogenic elements. Typically, the absolute concentration of biogenic elements in Agrakhan Bay increases with the increase of eutrophication.

  17. Lobster and cod benefit from small-scale northern marine protected areas: inference from an empirical before–after control-impact study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben Moland; Knutsen, Halvor; Garrigou, Pauline; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Kleiven, Alf Ring; André, Carl; Knutsen, Jan Atle

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented as tools to conserve and manage fisheries and target species. Because there are opportunity costs to conservation, there is a need for science-based assessment of MPAs. Here, we present one of the northernmost documentations of MPA effects to date, demonstrated by a replicated before–after control-impact (BACI) approach. In 2006, MPAs were implemented along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast offering complete protection to shellfish and partial protection to fish. By 2010, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) had increased by 245 per cent in MPAs, whereas CPUE in control areas had increased by 87 per cent. Mean size of lobsters increased by 13 per cent in MPAs, whereas increase in control areas was negligible. Furthermore, MPA-responses and population development in control areas varied significantly among regions. This illustrates the importance of a replicated BACI design for reaching robust conclusions and management decisions. Partial protection of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was followed by an increase in population density and body size compared with control areas. By 2010, MPA cod were on average 5 cm longer than in any of the control areas. MPAs can be useful management tools in rebuilding and conserving portions of depleted lobster populations in northern temperate waters, and even for a mobile temperate fish species such as the Atlantic cod. PMID:23303544

  18. Radiological and hydrochemical study of thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea and Sperchios areas, Greece: insights into groundwater natural radioactivity and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, C; Mitropoulos, P; Argyraki, A

    2018-04-04

    A radiological and hydrochemical study has been conducted on thermal and fresh groundwater samples of northern Euboea Island and eastern central Greece. Both areas are characterized by complex geology and are renowned since antiquity for their hot springs, that are exploited for therapeutic spa purposes until today. The aim of the study was to combine radiological and hydrochemical data in order to achieve a holistic water quality assessment with insights into the geology of the study areas. All samples were characterized with respect to their major and trace ion and element composition, as well as activity concentrations of 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K. The samples demonstrated elevated natural radioactivity and U concentrations, especially in some locations of the Kamena Vourla area, reaching 179 Bq/L 222 Rn, 2.2 Bq/L 226 Ra, 2.9 Bq/L 228 Ra, and 17 μg/L U. The estimated circulation depth of thermal groundwater ranges between 250 m in central Greece and 1240 m in north Euboea study area, whereas the calculated water residence times range between 27 and 555 years. Our data suggest the possible presence of an unknown until know U-rich plutonic rock formation in Kamena Vourla area and immiscibility of the fresh and thermal groundwaters in the studied areas.

  19. Concentration and dispersion characteristics of U, Au and Si in the granite area of northern Guangdong and Southern Jiangxi and their model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengyi; Li Yongli; Chen Jinrong; Shen Chaiqing; Li Jun; Guo Xiuying

    1995-05-01

    On the basis of studying the concentration and dispersion characteristics of U, Au and Si in the granite area of Northern Guangdong and Southern Jiangxi in combination with the model experiments of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, the spatial distribution of U, Au and Si, the environment of the formation for U-productive and auriferous granitic bodies and migration characteristics of U, Au and Si during magmatic and hydrothermal stages, the relationship between uranium, gold and pyrite, are briefly described. The metallogenic prediction is also given. The research achievements provided important reference for the second-round U-prospecting in the South China and Au-prospecting in the U-productive areas. This approach of research method of self-proposing hypotheses combined with model experiments is first used in the research domain of uranium geology. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  20. Distribution of greenhouse gases in hyper-arid and arid areas of northern Chile and the contribution of the high altitude wetland microbiome (Salar de Huasco, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Verónica; Eissler, Yoanna; Cornejo, Marcela; Galand, Pierre E; Dorador, Cristina; Hengst, Martha; Fernandez, Camila; Francois, Jean Pierre

    2018-04-06

    Northern Chile harbors different bioclimatic zones including hyper-arid and arid ecosystems and hotspots of microbial life, such as high altitude wetlands, which may contribute differentially to greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). In this study, we explored ground level GHG distribution and the potential role of a wetland situated at 3800 m.a.s.l, and characterized by high solar radiation arid to hyper-arid zones. The microbiome from the water and sediments was described by high-throughput sequencing 16S rRNA and rDNA genes. The results indicate that GHG at ground level were variable along the elevation gradient potentially associated with different bioclimatic zones, reaching high values at the high Andean steppe and variable but lower values in the Atacama Desert and at the wetland. The water areas of the wetland presented high concentrations of CH 4 and CO 2 , particularly at the spring areas and in air bubbles below microbial mats. The microbial community was rich (> 40 phyla), including archaea and bacteria potentially active in the different matrices studied (water, sediments and mats). Functional microbial groups associated with GHG recycling were detected at low frequency, i.e., arid and arid areas of northern Chile are sites of GHG exchange associated with various bioclimatic zones and particularly in aquatic areas of the wetland where this ecosystem could represent a net sink of N 2 O and a source for CH 4 and CO 2 .

  1. Evaluation of Land Surface Models in Reproducing Satellite-Derived LAI over the High-Latitude Northern Hemisphere. Part I: Uncoupled DGVMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zeng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI represents the total surface area of leaves above a unit area of ground and is a key variable in any vegetation model, as well as in climate models. New high resolution LAI satellite data is now available covering a period of several decades. This provides a unique opportunity to validate LAI estimates from multiple vegetation models. The objective of this paper is to compare new, satellite-derived LAI measurements with modeled output for the Northern Hemisphere. We compare monthly LAI output from eight land surface models from the TRENDY compendium with satellite data from an Artificial Neural Network (ANN from the latest version (third generation of GIMMS AVHRR NDVI data over the period 1986–2005. Our results show that all the models overestimate the mean LAI, particularly over the boreal forest. We also find that seven out of the eight models overestimate the length of the active vegetation-growing season, mostly due to a late dormancy as a result of a late summer phenology. Finally, we find that the models report a much larger positive trend in LAI over this period than the satellite observations suggest, which translates into a higher trend in the growing season length. These results highlight the need to incorporate a larger number of more accurate plant functional types in all models and, in particular, to improve the phenology of deciduous trees.

  2. Upper Triassic limestones from the northern part of Japan: new insights on the Panthalassa Ocean and Hokkaido Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrotty, Giovan; Peybernes, Camille; Ueda, Hayato; Martini, Rossana

    2017-04-01

    In comparison with the well-known Tethyan domain, Upper Triassic limestones from the Panthalassa Ocean are still poorly known. However, these carbonates represent a unique opportunity to have a more accurate view of the Panthalassa Ocean during the Triassic. Their study will allow comparison and correlation of biotic assemblages, biostratigraphy, diagenesis, and depositional settings of different Triassic localities from Tethyan and Panthalassic domains. Moreover, investigation of these carbonates will provide data for taxonomic revisions and helps to better constrain palaeobiogeographic models. One of the best targets for the study of these carbonates is Hokkaido Island (north of Japan). Indeed, this island is a part of the South-North continuity of Jurassic to Paleogene accretionary complexes, going from the Philippines to Sakhalin Island (Far East Russia). Jurassic and Cretaceous accretionary complexes of Japan and Philippines contain Triassic mid-oceanic seamount carbonates from the western Panthalassa Ocean (Onoue & Sano, 2007; Kiessling & Flügel, 2000). They have been accreted either as isolated limestone slabs or as clasts and boulders, and are associated with mudstones, cherts, breccias and basaltic rocks. Two major tectonic units forming Hokkaido Island and containing Triassic limestones have been accurately explored and extensively sampled: the Oshima Belt (west Hokkaido) a Jurassic accretionary complex, and the Cretaceous Sorachi-Yezo Belt (central Hokkaido). The Sorachi-Yezo Belt is composed of Cretaceous accretionary complexes in the east and of Cretaceous clastic basin sediments deposited on a Jurassic basement in the west (Ueda, 2016), both containing Triassic limestones. The origin of this belt is still matter of debate especially because of its western part which is not in continuity with any other accretionary complex known in the other islands of Japan and also due to the lack of data in this region. One of the main goals of this study is to

  3. Achilles heel of a powerful invader: restrictions on distribution and disappearance of feral pigs from a protected area in Northern Pantanal, Western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L.P. Cordeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a rare case of natural disappearance of feral pigs (Sus scrofa in an extensive area without using traditional methods of eradication programs. The study was conducted both in the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (PRNH Sesc Pantanal and in an adjacent traditional private cattle ranch. In 1998, feral pigs were abundant and widely distributed in the PRNH. However, the feral pigs gradually disappeared from the area and currently, the absence of pigs in the PRNH contrasts with the adjacent cattle ranch where the species is abundant. To understand the current distribution of the species in the region we partitioned the effects of variation of feral pigs’ presence considering the habitat structure (local, landscape composition and the occurrence of potential predators. Additionally, we modeled the distributions of the species in Northern Pantanal, projecting into the past using the classes of vegetation cover before the PRNH implementation (year 1988. Our results show areas with more suitability for feral pigs in regions where the landscape is dominated by pastures and permeated by patches of Seasonal Dry Forest. The species tends to avoid predominantly forested areas. Additionally, we recorded that the environmental suitability decreases exponentially as the distance from water bodies increases. The disappearance of feral pigs in the PRNH area seems to be associated with changes in the landscape and vegetation structure after the removal of the cattle. In the Brazilian Pantanal, the feral pigs’ occurrence seems strongly conditioned to environmental changes associated to livestock activity.

  4. The application study on the prospecting for gold by car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric method in northern Hebei and other areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongxiang; Liu Tengyao; Zhang Peng; Lu Shili; Zhai Yugui; Ma Yanfang

    1995-01-01

    The prospecting method for gold by car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey is a new geophysical and geochemical technique in the search for concealed gold deposits which can be used to effectively predict the regional gold metallogenetic potential area. The method of car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey was adopted and 63416 data at gamma-ray spectrometric measuring sites from rock masses (or strata) in northern Hebei and other areas (49100 km 2 ) are obtained. On the basis of the size of geological bodies, the sliding filtering technique was applied to process the gamma-ray spectrometric data from regional geological bodies and maps showing the parameter distribution characteristics were plotted (11 sheets). In accordance with the thorough on the distribution characteristics of gamma-ray spectrometric parameters that reflect the regional geological environment of gold metallogenesis, a set of gamma-ray spectrometric combination parameters in correlation with regional gold metallogenesis has been established and the characteristic information of gamma-ray spectrometric parameters has been extracted. Combined with geological information, the gold metallogenetic geological environment in the working area was studied, and two potential areas were predicted. After verification, gold mineralization was encountered in some areas. The study results show that the car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric method used for regional gold prospecting is a rapid, economical and effective one

  5. Intestinal parasites of owned dogs and cats from metropolitan and micropolitan areas: prevalence, zoonotic risks, and pet owner awareness in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.

  6. Achilles heel of a powerful invader: restrictions on distribution and disappearance of feral pigs from a protected area in Northern Pantanal, Western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Jose L P; Hofmann, Gabriel S; Fonseca, Carlos; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on a rare case of natural disappearance of feral pigs ( Sus scrofa ) in an extensive area without using traditional methods of eradication programs. The study was conducted both in the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (PRNH) Sesc Pantanal and in an adjacent traditional private cattle ranch. In 1998, feral pigs were abundant and widely distributed in the PRNH. However, the feral pigs gradually disappeared from the area and currently, the absence of pigs in the PRNH contrasts with the adjacent cattle ranch where the species is abundant. To understand the current distribution of the species in the region we partitioned the effects of variation of feral pigs' presence considering the habitat structure (local), landscape composition and the occurrence of potential predators. Additionally, we modeled the distributions of the species in Northern Pantanal, projecting into the past using the classes of vegetation cover before the PRNH implementation (year 1988). Our results show areas with more suitability for feral pigs in regions where the landscape is dominated by pastures and permeated by patches of Seasonal Dry Forest. The species tends to avoid predominantly forested areas. Additionally, we recorded that the environmental suitability decreases exponentially as the distance from water bodies increases. The disappearance of feral pigs in the PRNH area seems to be associated with changes in the landscape and vegetation structure after the removal of the cattle. In the Brazilian Pantanal, the feral pigs' occurrence seems strongly conditioned to environmental changes associated to livestock activity.

  7. Intestinal Parasites of Owned Dogs and Cats from Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas: Prevalence, Zoonotic Risks, and Pet Owner Awareness in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%−60.42%) and dogs (57.41%−43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320

  8. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Niu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD and soil water retention curve (WRC under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1 the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL > abandoned grassland (ABG; (2 the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL; (3 the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4 the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  9. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP) > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL) > abandoned grassland (ABG); (2) the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL) were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM) were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL); (3) the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4) the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure. PMID:26633458

  10. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2016-01-01

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the alpine habitats of European middle-latitude mountains, as well as explored those patterns within Fennoscandian tundra based on climate-vegetation patterns obtained from a fine-scale vegetation map. Our analyses reveal that ecologically meaningful January-February snow and thermal conditions differ between different types of tundra. High precipitation and mild winter temperatures prevail on middle-latitude mountains, low precipitation and usually cold winters prevail on high-latitude tundra, and Scandinavian mountains show intermediate conditions. Similarly, heath-like plant communities differ clearly between middle latitude mountains (alpine) and high-latitude tundra vegetation, including its altitudinal extension on Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, high abundance of snowbeds and large differences in the composition of dwarf shrub heaths distinguish the Scandinavian mountain tundra from its counterparts in Russia and the north Fennoscandian inland. The European tundra areas fall into three ecologically rather homogeneous categories: the arctic tundra, the oroarctic tundra of northern heights and mountains, and the genuinely alpine tundra of middle-latitude mountains. Attempts to divide the tundra into two sub-biomes have resulted in major discrepancies and confusions, as the oroarctic areas are included in the arctic tundra in some biogeographic maps and in the alpine tundra in others. Our analyses based on climate and vegetation criteria thus seem to resolve the long-standing biome

  11. Prediction of Exploration Target Areas for GEM Deposits in Mogok Stone Tract, Northern Myanmar by Integrating Remote Sensing and Geoscience Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Tin Ko

    2011-07-01

    The Mogok Stone Tract area has long been known for world famous finest ruby since 1597. The Mogok area lies in northern Myanmar and is located at about 205.99km northeast from Mandalay, the second largest city of Myanmar. The Mogok Group of metasedimentary rocks is divided into four units: (1) Wabyudaung Marble, (2) Ayenyeinchantha Calc-silicate, (3) Gwebin Quartzite, and (4) Kabe Gneiss. Igneous rocks in the Mogok area are classified into two units: (1) Kabaing Granite and (2) Pingutaung Leucogranite. The Mogok area has a complex structure involving several folds and faults. Using marbles and calc-silicates as marker horizons, a series of anticline and syncline can be identified such as Mogok syncline, Ongaing anticline, Bawpadan syncline, and Kyatpyin anticline. All the foldings show a low-angle plunge to the south. The main precious stones of the Mogok area are ruby and sapphire; and the other important semi-precious stones are spinel, topaz, peridot, garnet, apatite, beryl, tourmaline (rubellite), quartz, diopside, fluorite, and enstatite. Geological and remote sensing data are processed to extract the indicative features of gem mineralized areas: lithology, structure, and hydrothermal alteration. Density slice version of Landsat ETM band ratios 5/7 is used to map clay alterations. Filtering Landsat ETM band 5 by using edge detection filter is applied for lineament mapping. Spatial integration of various geoscience and remote sensing data sets such as geological maps, Landsat ETM images, and the location map of gem mines show the distribution of alteration zones associated with the gem mineralization in the study area. Geographic Information System (GIS) model has been designed and implemented by ARCVIEW software package based on the overlay of lithologic, lineament, and alteration vector maps. This process has resulted in delineation of most promising areas of probable gem mineralized zones as on the output map.

  12. Using an FFQ to assess intakes of dietary flavonols and flavones among female adolescents in the Suihua area of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yanping; Zhao, Yan; Xia, Wei

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to (i) evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a designed FFQ, (ii) apply the FFQ for estimating the dietary intakes of four flavonols and two flavones in female adolescents and (iii) explain their major dietary sources. The reproducibility between the first and second FFQ administrations (1 year interval) was estimated using the intra-class correlation coefficient. The validity of the first FFQ relative to the average of four three-day 24 h dietary recalls (24-HR) from four seasons was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Using a flavonoid content database, the individual flavonol and flavone intakes were calculated and the major food sources were estimated. Middle school in Suihua area of Heilongjiang Province, northern China. Female adolescents (n 887) aged 12-18 years. Better reproducibility and validity were obtained in the present study. The flavonol and flavone intakes were 16.29 and 4.31 mg/d, respectively. Quercetin and kaempferol were the major contributors (26.8 % and 23.7 %, respectively) to the total intake of flavonols and flavones. The main food sources of flavonols and flavones were apples (14.1 %), followed by potatoes (7.5 %), lettuce (7.3 %) and oranges (7.3 %). The dietary flavonol and flavone intakes among female adolescents in northern China were similar to those reported in several countries, but significant differences were observed in the food sources ascribed to the geographical location and dietary characteristics.

  13. TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS: THE CASE OF THE NATIONAL MARINE PARK OF ALONISSOS-NORTHERN SPORADES IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanos Paraskevopoulos

    2017-01-01

    The tourist development of Greece began in the '50s to become one of the main sources of income, both nationally and locally, since many areas are the main source of tourism revenue. The concepts of sustainability and viability of this product and its operation, is being strongly marked recent decades in many conferences, notices, and scientific research. Greece established 30 Management Bodies to integrated management of protected areas belonging to this network. One of the main problems fac...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... * Chula Vista, Escondido, and San Diego, and a 10-mile buffer extending from the border of the combined... buffer extending from the city border Louisville, KY. LA Baton Rouge Area * Baton Rouge and a 10-mile buffer extending from the city border Baton Rouge, LA. New Orleans Area New Orleans and a 10-mile buffer...

  15. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas-Part II: Implementation and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    we use the theory developed in Part I to design a convergent nonlinear branch-and-bound method tailored to solve large-scale instances of the original discrete problem. The problem formulation and the needed theoretical results from Part I are repeated such that this paper is self-contained. We focus...... the largest discrete topology design problems solved by means of global optimization....

  16. Cross-sectional serologic assessment of immunity to poliovirus infection in high-risk areas of northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Sunil; Estívariz, Concepción F; Sutter, Roland W; Sarkar, Bidyut K; Verma, Harish; Jain, Vibhor; Agrawal, Ashutosh; Rathee, Mandeep; Shukla, Hemant; Pathyarch, Surendra K; Sethi, Raman; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Jafari, Hamid; Deshpande, Jagadish M

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this survey were to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to poliovirus types 1 and 3 and the impact of bivalent (types 1 and 3) oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) use in immunization campaigns in northern India. In August 2010, a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method identified infants aged 6-7 months in high-risk blocks for wild poliovirus infection. Vaccination history, weight and length, and serum were collected to test for neutralizing antibodies to poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3. Seroprevalences of antibodies to poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97%-99%), 66% (95% CI, 62%-69%), and 77% (95% CI, 75%-79%), respectively, among 664 infants from Bihar and 616 infants from Uttar Pradesh. Infants had received a median of 3 bOPV doses and 2 monovalent type 1 OPV (mOPV1) doses through campaigns and 3 trivalent OPV (tOPV) doses through routine immunization. Among subjects with 0 tOPV doses, the seroprevalences of antibodies to type 3 were 50%, 77%, and 82% after 2, 3, and 4 bOPV doses, respectively. In multivariable analysis, malnutrition was associated with a lower seroprevalence of type 3 antibodies. This study confirmed that replacing mOPV1 with bOPV in campaigns was successful in maintaining very high population immunity to type 1 poliovirus and substantially decreasing the immunity gap to type 3 poliovirus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Integration of Remote Sensing Techniques for Intensity Zonation within a Landslide Area: A Case Study in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tofani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of remote sensing techniques, based on SAR interferometry for the intensity zonation of the landslide affecting the Castagnola village (Northern Apennines of Liguria region, Italy. The study of the instability conditions of the landslide started in 2001 with the installation of conventional monitoring systems, such as inclinometers and crackmeters, ranging in time from April 2001 to April 2002, which allowed to define the deformation rates of the landslide and to locate the actual landslide sliding surface, as well as to record the intensity of the damages and cracks affecting the buildings located within the landslide perimeter. In order to investigate the past long-term evolution of the ground movements a PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry analysis has been performed making use of a set of ERS1/ERS2 images acquired in 1992–2001 period. The outcome of the PSI analysis has allowed to confirm the landslide extension as mapped within the official landslide inventory map as well as to reconstruct the past line-of-sight average velocities of the landslide and the time-series deformations. Following the high velocities detected by the PSI, and the extensive damages surveyed in the buildings of the village, the Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBInSAR system has been installed. The GBInSAR monitoring system has been equipped during October 2008 and three distinct campaigns have been carried out from October 2008 until March 2009. The interpretation of the data has allowed deriving a multi-temporal deformation map of the landslide, showing the up-to-date displacement field and the average landslide velocity. A new landslide boundary has been defined and two landslide sectors characterized by different displacement rates have been identified.

  18. Ecological restoration and recovery in the wind-blown sand hazard areas of northern China: relationship between soil water and carrying capacity for vegetation in the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XingRong; Zhang, ZhiShan; Tan, HuiJuan; Gao, YanHong; Liu, LiChao; Wang, XingPing

    2014-05-01

    The main prevention and control area for wind-blown sand hazards in northern China is about 320000 km(2) in size and includes sandlands to the east of the Helan Mountain and sandy deserts and desert-steppe transitional regions to the west of the Helan Mountain. Vegetation recovery and restoration is an important and effective approach for constraining wind-blown sand hazards in these areas. After more than 50 years of long-term ecological studies in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, we found that revegetation changed the hydrological processes of the original sand dune system through the utilization and space-time redistribution of soil water. The spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water was significantly related to the dynamics of the replanted vegetation for a given regional precipitation condition. The long-term changes in hydrological processes in desert areas also drive replanted vegetation succession. The soil water carrying capacity of vegetation and the model for sand fixation by revegetation in aeolian desert areas where precipitation levels are less than 200 mm are also discussed.

  19. Land use changes and its driving forces in hilly ecological restoration area based on gis and rs of northern china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    Land use change is one of the important aspects of the regional ecological restoration research. With remote sensing (RS) image in 2003, 2007 and 2012, using geographic information system (GIS) technologies, the land use pattern changes in Yimeng Mountain ecological restoration area in China and its driving force factors were studied. Results showed that: (1) Cultivated land constituted the largest area during 10 years, and followed by forest land and grass land; cultivated land and unused land were reduced by 28.43% and 44.32%, whereas forest land, water area and land for water facilities and others were increased. (2) During 2003–2007, forest land change showed the largest, followed by unused land and grass land; however, during 2008–2012, water area and land for water facilities change showed the largest, followed by grass land and unused land. (3) Land use degree was above the average level, it was in the developing period during 2003–2007 and in the degenerating period during 2008–2012. (4) Ecological Restoration Projects can greatly change the micro topography, increase vegetation coverage, and then induce significant changes in the land use distribution, which were the main driving force factors of the land use pattern change in the ecological restoration area. PMID:26047160

  20. Aerial gamma spectrometric survey as a tool for evaluating the uranium remobilization degree: Case study from Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between equivalent uranium (eU), eTh, K% and their ratios in the 11 lithological units determined by previous research in the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria have been analyzed in order to define their trend variations and evaluate the degree of uranium remobilization. Uranium favorability index U I and alteration-F indicators have been used in this research to characterize the different lithological units by following their radioactive element re-distribution and to determine their favorability as regards uranium potentiality. It was shown that uranium remobilization took place in all the lithological units, but to different degrees. This remobilization is qualified as weak, indicating that limited uranium redistribution is expected in the studied region. A plausible geological model is proposed for the uranium distribution, where the Abou Qila location is found to be favorable for uranium accumulation and merits further uranium exploration. (Authors)

  1. Guidebook of the Western United States: Part A - The Northern Pacific Route, With a Side Trip to Yellowstone Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marius R.; ,

    1915-01-01

    The United States of America comprise an area so vast in extent and so diverse in natural features as well as in characters due to human agency that the American citizen who knows thoroughly his own country must have traveled widely and observed wisely. To 'know America first' is a patriotic obligation, but to meet this obligation the railroad traveler needs to have his eyes directed toward the more important or essential things within his field of vision and then to have much that he sees explained by what is unseen in the swift passage of the train. Indeed, many things that attract his attention are inexplicable except as the story of the past is available to enable him to interpret the present. Herein lie the value and the charm of history, whether human or geologic. The present stimulus given to travel in the home country will encourage many thousands of Americans to study geography at first hand. To make this study most profitable the traveler needs a handbook that will answer the questions that come to his mind so readily along the way. Furthermore, the aim of such a guide should be to stimulate the eye in the selection of the essentials in the scene that so rapidly unfolds itself in the crossing of the continent. In recognition of the opportunity afforded in 1915 to render service of this kind to an unusually large number of American citizens, as well as to visitors from other countries, the United States Geological Survey has prepared a series of guidebooks covering four of the older railroad routes west of the Mississippi. These books are educational in purpose, but the method adopted is to entertain the traveler by making more interesting what he sees from the car window. The plan of the series is to present authoritative information that may enable the reader to realize adequately the scenic and material resources of the region he is traversing, to comprehend correctly the basis of its development, and above all to appreciate keenly the real value of the

  2. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal.... The following will be forwarded to the Administrator, Attention: Water and Waste Disposal Division...

  3. Potential soil organic carbon stocks in semi arid areas under climate change scenarios: an application of CarboSOIL model in northern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Abd-Elmabod, Sameh K.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Anaya-Romero, Maria; De la Rosa, Diego

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Climate change is predicted to have a large impact on semi arid areas which are often degraded and vulnerable to environmental changes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2012a; 2012b; 2013). However, these areas might play a key role in mitigation of climate change effects through sequestration of carbon in soils (United Nations, 2011). At the same time, increasing organic carbon in these environments could be beneficial for soil erosion control, soil fertility and, ultimately, food production (Lal, 2004). Several approaches have been carried out to evaluate climate change impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but soil carbon models are amongst the most effective tools to assess C stocks, dynamics and distribution and to predict trends under climate change scenarios (Jones et al., 2005 ). CarboSOIL is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths of 0 to 25, 25 to 50 and 50-75 cm (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013). CarboSOIL model has been designed as a GIS-integrated tool and is a new component of the agroecological decision support system for land evaluation MicroLEIS DSS (De la Rosa et al., 2004). 2. GENERAL METHODS In this research, CarboSOIL was applied in El-Fayoum depression, a semi arid region located in northern Egypt with a large potential for agriculture (Abd-Elmabod et al, 2012). The model was applied in a total of six soil-units classified according the USDA Soil Taxonomy system within the orders Entisols and Aridisols under different climate climate change scenarios. Global climate models based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Agrawala at al., 2004) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) were applied to predict short-, medium- and long-term trends (2030, 2050 and 2100) of SOC dynamics and sequestration at different soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75) and land use types (irrigated areas, olive groves, wheat, cotton and other annual

  4. 75 FR 32280 - Safety Zones; Marine Events Within the Captain of the Port Sector Northern New England Area of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    .... 8.7 Lake Champlain Dragon Boat Event Type: Row and Paddle Festival. Boat Race. Sponsor: Dragonheart... Albans Bay in St. Albans, Vermont. Festival of Lights Boat Date: July 8, 2010. Parade. Time: 7 pm to 11... Boat Date: August 8, 2010. Festival. Time: 7 am to 5 pm. Location: The regulated area includes all...

  5. Precipitation measurement and derivation of precipitation inclination in a windy mountainous area in northern Costa Rica. Scientific Briefing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frumau, K.F.A.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Tobón, C.

    2011-01-01

    Over small-scale topography in windy areas, precipitation tends to be redistributed by wind through the modification of precipitation inclination. The latter is often derived from wind speed and conventional rain gauge records by application of relations-derived mainly for convective rainfall

  6. Soybean Protein Fibres Part 2: Soybean Fibres Properties and Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz Yıldırım

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean protein fibres (SPF, which is a protein based botanic fibre, has various beneficialproperties such as softness, brightness, smoothness, drape, UV and bacterial resistance. These fibers areused in production of various yarn blends, woven, knit and nonwoven fabrics to manufature apperal andhome textiles such as t-shirts, bedding, sweater and baby dress due to these superior properties. This review,about SPF, is divided into two sections. In the first part; structure and production stages of SPF and itsenviromental effects had been described. In the second part of this review, properties and application areasof SPF have been described.

  7. Distribution of creep in the northern San Francisco Bay Area illuminated by repeating earthquakes and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funning, G.; Shakibay Senobari, N.; Swiatlowski, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Surface observations of fault creep in the region north of San Francisco Bay are sporadic. While there are long-standing instances of creep-affected infrastructure on the Maacama and Bartlett Springs faults, the lateral and depth extents of creep on these and other faults in the region remain a question. Here, we supplement this sparse existing observation set with additional information from repeating earthquake sequences (REs) and InSAR, to illuminate, and significantly improve our knowledge of, creep across the region. Repeating earthquakes have long been considered indicators of creep on faults. We present the results of an extensive similarity search through over 600,000 archived waveforms from 43,000 events using a fast algorithm; from this we can identify 39 periodic repeating sequences and over 80 nonperiodic repeated event groups. We compare these with decadal line-of-sight velocity measurements made by applying the StaMPS time series InSAR code to ERS and Envisat data covering the region, that can be used to identify surface creep on faults. On the Rodgers Creek, Maacama and Bartlett Springs faults, both InSAR and REs show corroborating evidence for creep at locations where it was previously inferred. The REs additionally provide information on its depth extent. On the Maacama fault, we find REs extending almost to the southern limit of the mapped fault trace, south of Cloverdale, suggesting that creep may be pervasive on the fault. We can also identify structural complexity both in the stepover region with the Rodgers Creek fault, and in the northern segment of the fault close to Willits, potentially indicating parallel and/or down-dip branching creeping structures in both locations. REs on the Bartlett Springs fault indicate creep that extends across the full down-dip width of the brittle fault; here the proximity of InSAR creep rate estimates and a shallow RE sequence may permit a calibration of the RE `creepmeter', allowing us to estimate creep rates

  8. Determination of extent of the subsiding areas in the Czech part of Upper Silesian Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlečík, Pavel; Kajzar, Vlastimil; Marek, Tomáš

    -, Part 2 (2012), s. 715-721 ISSN 1314-2704. [International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO SGEM 2012 /12./. Albena, 17.06.2012-23.06.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Upper Silesian Basin * mining * subsidence Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  9. A recent Mw 4.3 earthquake proving activity of a shallow strike-slip fault in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Ebraheem, Mohamed O.; Zahradník, Jiří

    2018-03-01

    The Mw 4.3 earthquake of September 2015 is the first felt earthquake since 1900 A.D in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt, south of the El-Alamein City. The available waveform data observed at epicentral distances 52-391 km was collected and carefully evaluated. Nine broad-band stations were selected to invert full waveforms for the centroid position (horizontal and vertical) and for the focal mechanism solution. The first-arrival travel times, polarities and low-frequency full waveforms (0.03-0.08 Hz) are consistently explained in this paper as caused by a shallow source of the strike-slip mechanism. This finding indicates causal relation of this earthquake to the W-E trending South El-Alamein fault, which developed in Late Cretaceous as dextral strike slip fault. Recent activity of this fault, proven by the studied rare earthquake, is of fundamental importance for future seismic hazard evaluations, underlined by proximity (∼65 km) of the source zone to the first nuclear power plant planned site in Egypt. Safe exploration and possible future exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves, reported around El-Alamein fault in the last decade, cannot be made without considering the seismic potential of this fault.

  10. Geospatial risk assessment and trace element concentration in reef associated sediments, northern part of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, Southeast Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Simon Peter, T; Godson, Prince S; Chandrasekar, N; Magesh, N S

    2017-12-15

    Fifty two surface sediments were collected from the northern part of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve to assess the geospatial risk of sediments. We found that distribution of organic matter and CaCO 3 distributions were locally controlled by the mangrove litters and fragmented coral debris. In addition, Fe and Mn concentrations in the marine sediments were probably supplied through the riverine input and natural processes. The Geo-accumulation of elements fall under the uncontaminated category except Pb. Lead show a wide range of contamination from uncontaminated-moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated category. The sediment toxicity level of the elements revealed that the majority of the sediments fall under moderately to highly polluted sediments (23.07-28.84%). The grades of potential ecological risk suggest that predominant sediments fall under low to moderate risk category (55.7-32.7%). The accumulation level of trace elements clearly suggests that the coral reef ecosystem is under low to moderate risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.

  12. Distribution of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae across an urban-rural gradient in an area of endemic visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Marcos Souza de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases has increased over the past 10 years in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urbanisation of VL vectors in Barcarena, Pará, an area in northern Brazil where VL is endemic. Sandflies were captured using Centers for Disease Control (CDC light traps along an urban-rural gradient. The CDC traps were installed inside hen houses at a height of 150 cm. A total of 5,089 sandflies were collected and 11 species were identified. The predominant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (rate of 95.15%, which suggests its participation in the transmission of VL. A total of 1,451 Lu. longipalpis females were dissected and no Leishmania infections were detected. Most of the sandflies were captured at the border of a forest (88.25% and no flies were captured in the urban area, which suggests that transmission is still restricted to rural sites. However, the fact that a specimen was collected in an intermediate area indicates that urbanisation is a real possibility and that vector monitoring is important.

  13. Thermal-history reconstruction of the Baiyun Sag in the deep-water area of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Yang, Shuchun; Hu, Shengbiao

    2017-11-01

    The Baiyun Sag, located in the deep-water area of the northern South China Sea, is the largest and deepest subbasin in the Pearl River Mouth Basin and one of the most important hydrocarbon-accumulation depression areas in China. Thermal history is widely thought to be of great importance in oil and gas potential assessment of a basin as it controls the timing of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion from the source rock. In order to unravel the paleo-heat flow of the Baiyun Sag, we first analyzed tectonic subsidence of 55 pseudo-wells constructed based on newly interpreted seismic profiles, along with three drilled wells. We then carried out thermal modeling using the multi-stage finite stretching method and calibrated the results using collected present-day vitrinite reflectance data and temperature data. Results indicate that the first and second heating of the Baiyun Sag after 49 Ma ceased at 33.9 Ma and 23 Ma. Reconstructed average basal paleoheat flow values at the end of the rifting periods are 57.7-86.2 mW/m2 and 66.7-97.3 mW/m2, respectively. Following the last heating period at 23 Ma, the study area has undergone a persistent thermal attenuation phase, and basal heat flow has cooled down to 64.0-79.2 mW/m2 at present.

  14. Climate change science applications and needs in forest ecosystem management: a workshop organized as part of the northern Wisconsin Climate Change Response Framework Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie Brandt; Chris Swanston; Linda Parker; Maria Janowiak; Richard Birdsey; Louis Iverson; David Mladenoff; Patricia. Butler

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is leading to direct and indirect impacts on forest tree species and ecosystems in northern Wisconsin. Land managers will need to prepare for and respond to these impacts, so we designed a workshop to identify forest management approaches that can enhance the ability of ecosystems in northern Wisconsin to cope with climate change and address how National...

  15. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and risk assessment in the urban and rural areas of Northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.H.; Sun, S.U. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community Medicine]|[CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Koga, M. [Prefectural Univ. of Kumamoto (Japan). Fac. of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    In China, during the past 40 years, organochlorine pesticides (OPs) with impurity were produced and used in a large quantity. However, little is known on the OPs contamination status of the residents in mainland of China. To elucidate body burden of organochlorine compounds and factors associated with organochlorine levels of the residents in North China, we performed life style questionnaire and collected breast milk specimens at Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural area, Hebei Province, North China.

  16. K-Ar ages of the Nyuto-Takakura volcanic products, southern part of the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Shigeru; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    The K-Ar age determination of the volcanic rocks from the Nyuto-Takakura volcano group, northeast Japan, was carried out. Nyuto-Takakura volcanoes are situated in the southern part of the Sengan geothermal area. And the Young Volcanic Rocks in the area were already divided into the Early stage volcanics (erupted in Matsuyama reversed epoch or more older epoch) and the Later stage volcanics (erupted in Brunhes normal epoch) by accumulated paleomagnetic and K-Ar age data. The results in this study are as follows; Nyuto Volcano: 0.63±0.06, 0.36±0.07 Ma, Sasamoriyama Volcano: 0.09±0.07, 0.3±0.3 Ma, Marumori Lava Dome: 0.4±0.3, 0.31±0.12 Ma, Mikadoyama Lava Dome: <1 Ma, Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano: 1.4±0.5, 1.0±0.4, <0.4 Ma. The determinated ages are concordant with the volcanic stratigraphy and the paleomagnetic data. Nyuto Volcano, Sasamoriyama Volcano, Marumori Lava Dome, Mikadoyama Lava Dome and upper part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama Volcano are interpreted to be erupted in Brunhes normal epoch. The volcanic rocks from the lower part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano show normal magnetic polarity, so they are interpreted to be erupted in Jaramillo normal polarity event. The Early stage volcanics and the Later stage volcanics in the studied area are tend to be distributed in the central part and the outer part of the area, respectively. But the determinated ages in this study show that there is no simple migration of the eruption center of the volcanic rocks from the central part to the peripheral part. There is no geothermal manifestation or alteration area around the Sasamoriyama Volcano and the Marumori Lava Dome, which are the youngest volcanoes in the studied area. So it is concluded that there is no direct correlation between the eruption age of the nearest volcano and the geothermal activity. (author)

  17. Deficit irrigation and fertilization strategies to improve soil quality and alfalfa yield in arid and semi-arid areas of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianmin; Kamran, Muhammad; Ali, Shahzad; Sun, Lefeng; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Xiaolong; Jia, Zhikuan

    2018-01-01

    In the arid and semi-arid areas of northern China, overexploitation of fertilizers and extensive irrigation with brackish groundwater have led to soil degradation and large areas of farmland have been abandoned. In order to improve the soil quality of abandoned farmland and make reasonable use of brackish groundwater, we conducted field trials in 2013 and 2014. In our study, we used three fertilization modes (CF, chemical fertilizer; OM, organic manure and chemical fertilizer; NF, no fertilizer) and three deficit irrigation levels (I 0 : 0 mm; I 75 : 75 mm; I 150 : 150 mm). The results showed that the activities of soil urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, catalase, and dehydrogenase in the OM treatment were significantly improved compared with those in the CF and NF treatments under the three deficit irrigation levels. Compared with NF, the OM treatment significantly increased soil organic carbon (SOC), water-soluble carbon (WSC), total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (MBC and MBN), and soil respiration rate, and significantly decreased soil C:N and MBC:MBN ratios and the metabolic quotient, thus improving the soil quality of abandoned farmland. Furthermore, the OM treatment increased alfalfa plant height, leaf area index, leaf chlorophyll content, and biomass yield. Under the CF and OM fertilization modes, the activities of urease and catalase in I 150 were significantly higher than those in I 0 , whereas irrigating without fertilizer did not significantly increase the activity of these two enzymes. Regardless of fertilization, alkaline phosphatase activity increased with an increase in irrigation amount, whereas invertase activity decreased. The results showed that deficit irrigation with brackish groundwater under the OM treatment can improve soil quality. Over the two years of the study, maximum SOC, total nitrogen, WSC, MBC, and MBN were observed under the OM-I 150 treatment, and the alfalfa biomass yield of this treatment was also

  18. Deficit irrigation and fertilization strategies to improve soil quality and alfalfa yield in arid and semi-arid areas of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianmin Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background In the arid and semi-arid areas of northern China, overexploitation of fertilizers and extensive irrigation with brackish groundwater have led to soil degradation and large areas of farmland have been abandoned. In order to improve the soil quality of abandoned farmland and make reasonable use of brackish groundwater, we conducted field trials in 2013 and 2014. Methods In our study, we used three fertilization modes (CF, chemical fertilizer; OM, organic manure and chemical fertilizer; NF, no fertilizer and three deficit irrigation levels (I0: 0 mm; I75: 75 mm; I150: 150 mm. Results The results showed that the activities of soil urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, catalase, and dehydrogenase in the OM treatment were significantly improved compared with those in the CF and NF treatments under the three deficit irrigation levels. Compared with NF, the OM treatment significantly increased soil organic carbon (SOC, water-soluble carbon (WSC, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (MBC and MBN, and soil respiration rate, and significantly decreased soil C:N and MBC:MBN ratios and the metabolic quotient, thus improving the soil quality of abandoned farmland. Furthermore, the OM treatment increased alfalfa plant height, leaf area index, leaf chlorophyll content, and biomass yield. Under the CF and OM fertilization modes, the activities of urease and catalase in I150 were significantly higher than those in I0, whereas irrigating without fertilizer did not significantly increase the activity of these two enzymes. Regardless of fertilization, alkaline phosphatase activity increased with an increase in irrigation amount, whereas invertase activity decreased. Discussion The results showed that deficit irrigation with brackish groundwater under the OM treatment can improve soil quality. Over the two years of the study, maximum SOC, total nitrogen, WSC, MBC, and MBN were observed under the OM-I150 treatment, and the alfalfa

  19. Atmospheric Dust Modeling from Meso to Global Scales with the Online NMMB/BSC-Dust Model Part 2: Experimental Campaigns in Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K.; Perez, C.; Baldasano, J. M.; Jorba, O.; Basart, S.; Miller, R. L.; Janjic, Z.; Black, T.; Nickovic, S.; Todd, M. C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The new NMMB/BSC-Dust model is intended to provide short to medium-range weather and dust forecasts from regional to global scales. It is an online model in which the dust aerosol dynamics and physics are solved at each model time step. The companion paper (Perez et al., 2011) develops the dust model parameterizations and provides daily to annual evaluations of the model for its global and regional configurations. Modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) was evaluated against AERONET Sun photometers over Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe with correlations around 0.6-0.7 on average without dust data assimilation. In this paper we analyze in detail the behavior of the model using data from the Saharan Mineral dUst experiment (SAMUM-1) in 2006 and the Bodele Dust Experiment (BoDEx) in 2005. AOD from satellites and Sun photometers, vertically resolved extinction coefficients from lidars and particle size distributions at the ground and in the troposphere are used, complemented by wind profile data and surface meteorological measurements. All simulations were performed at the regional scale for the Northern African domain at the expected operational horizontal resolution of 25 km. Model results for SAMUM-1 generally show good agreement with satellite data over the most active Saharan dust sources. The model reproduces the AOD from Sun photometers close to sources and after long-range transport, and the dust size spectra at different height levels. At this resolution, the model is not able to reproduce a large haboob that occurred during the campaign. Some deficiencies are found concerning the vertical dust distribution related to the representation of the mixing height in the atmospheric part of the model. For the BoDEx episode, we found the diurnal temperature cycle to be strongly dependant on the soil moisture, which is underestimated in the NCEP analysis used for model initialization. The low level jet (LLJ) and the dust AOD over the Bodélé are well reproduced

  20. Atmospheric dust modeling from meso to global scales with the online NMMB/BSC-Dust model – Part 2: Experimental campaigns in Northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haustein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The new NMMB/BSC-Dust model is intended to provide short to medium-range weather and dust forecasts from regional to global scales. It is an online model in which the dust aerosol dynamics and physics are solved at each model time step. The companion paper (Pérez et al., 2011 develops the dust model parameterizations and provides daily to annual evaluations of the model for its global and regional configurations. Modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD was evaluated against AERONET Sun photometers over Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe with correlations around 0.6–0.7 on average without dust data assimilation. In this paper we analyze in detail the behavior of the model using data from the Saharan Mineral dUst experiment (SAMUM-1 in 2006 and the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx in 2005. AOD from satellites and Sun photometers, vertically resolved extinction coefficients from lidars and particle size distributions at the ground and in the troposphere are used, complemented by wind profile data and surface meteorological measurements. All simulations were performed at the regional scale for the Northern African domain at the expected operational horizontal resolution of 25 km. Model results for SAMUM-1 generally show good agreement with satellite data over the most active Saharan dust sources. The model reproduces the AOD from Sun photometers close to sources and after long-range transport, and the dust size spectra at different height levels. At this resolution, the model is not able to reproduce a large haboob that occurred during the campaign. Some deficiencies are found concerning the vertical dust distribution related to the representation of the mixing height in the atmospheric part of the model. For the BoDEx episode, we found the diurnal temperature cycle to be strongly dependant on the soil moisture, which is underestimated in the NCEP analysis used for model initialization. The low level jet (LLJ and the dust AOD over the Bodélé are

  1. The decontamination of a pressurised suit area at AEE Winfrith. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.D.; Rankin, J.D.; Robinson, D.H.; Sanders, M.J.

    1984-04-01

    Dry suction cleaning and chemical foam treatment were used on a plutonium oxide decontaminated area. Details of the equipment and reagents are given together with the results. Average levels of contamination by one application were reduced by over 80 percent, and airborne levels by more than 99 percent. (U.K.)

  2. In the Soup: Integrating and Correlating Social Studies with Other Curriculum Areas: Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Virginia A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Demonstrates a thematic approach, using soup as the theme, to integrate and correlate elementary social studies with other subject areas. Outlines four soup activities, presenting goals, materials, strategies, and extensions of each. Stresses how integrated curricula effectively develops skills such as observing, inferring, serial ordering, and…

  3. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Chen, Xun [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hassen, Ahmed A [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  4. Malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas of the northern coast of Ecuador: high prevalence of asymptomatic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz, Fabián E; Arévalo-Cortés, Andrea; Valenzuela, Gabriela; Vallejo, Andrés F; Castellanos, Angélica; Poveda-Loayza, Andrea C; Gutierrez, Juan B; Alvarez, Alvaro; Yan, Yi Heng; Benavides, Yoldy; Castro, Luis Enrique; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2017-07-26

    The recent scale-up in malaria control measures in Latin America has resulted in a significant decrease in the number of reported cases in several countries including Ecuador, where it presented a low malaria incidence in recent years (558 reported cases in 2015) with occasional outbreaks of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in the coastal and Amazonian regions. This success in malaria control in recent years has led Ecuador to transition its malaria policy from control to elimination. This study evaluated the general knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) about malaria, as well as its prevalence in four communities of an endemic area in northwest Ecuador. A total of 258 interviews to assess KAP in the community indicated that most people in the study area have a basic knowledge about the disease but did not use to contribute to its control. Six hundred and forty-eight blood samples were collected and analysed by thick blood smear and real-time PCR. In addition, the distribution of the infections was mapped in the study communities. Although, no parasites were found by microscopy, by PCR the total malaria prevalence was 7.5% (6.9% P. vivax and 0.6% P. falciparum), much higher than expected and comparable to that reported in endemic areas of neighbouring countries with higher malaria transmission. Serology using ELISA and immunofluorescence indicated 27% respondents for P. vivax and 22% respondents for P. falciparum. Results suggest that despite a great malaria reduction in Ecuador, transition from control to elimination would demand further improvement in malaria diagnostics, including active case detection to identify and treat parasite asymptomatic carriers, as well as community participation in its elimination.

  5. Educational Activity for the Radiation Emergency System in the Northern Part of Japan: Meeting Report on "The 3rd Educational Symposium on Radiation and Health (ESRAH) by Young Scientists in 2016".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuya, Yusuke; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Kimura, Takaaki; Mori, Ryosuke; Yamada, Ryota; Saga, Ryo; Fujishima, Yohei; Date, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    In the northern part of Japan, close cooperation is essential in preparing for any possible emergency response to radiation accidents because several facilities, such as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant and the Vitrified Waste Storage Center, exist in Rokkasho Village (Aomori Prefecture). After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, special attention should be given to the relationship between radiation and human health, as well as establishing a system for managing with a radiation emergency. In the area of Hokkaido and Aomori prefectures in Japan, since 2008 an exchange meeting between Hokkaido University and Hirosaki University has been held every year to have opportunities to discuss radiation effects on human health and to collect the latest news on monitoring environmental radiation. This meeting was elevated to an international meeting in 2014 titled "Educational Symposium on Radiation and Health (ESRAH) by Young Scientists". The 3rd ESRAH meeting took place in 2016, with the theme "Investigating Radiation Impact on the Environmental and Health". Here we report the meeting findings on the continuing educational efforts after the Fukushima incident, what was accomplished in terms of building a community educational approaches, and future goals.

  6. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Degradation and leaching of the herbicides metolachlor and diuron: a case study in an area of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra Caracciolo, A.; Giuliano, G.; Grenni, P.; Guzzella, L.; Pozzoni, F.; Bottoni, P.; Fava, L.; Crobe, A.; Orru, M.; Funari, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the degradation of the herbicides metolachlor, diuron, monuron and of the metabolites 2-ethyl-6-methylaniline (EMA), and 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) was assessed in laboratory experiments on microbiologically active and sterilized soils. Their leaching potentials were calculated, using Gustafson's equation, by determining their mobility (as K oc ) and persistence (expressed as DT 50 ). Lysimeter experiments were also conducted to assess the actual leaching of the studied herbicides in a cereal crop tillage area vulnerable to groundwater contamination. The data obtained from the field were compared to the laboratory results. Moreover, some compounds of particular concern were searched for in the groundwater located near the experimental area in order to evaluate actual contamination and to test the reliability of the leaching potential. The GUS index, computed on data from microbiologically active soil, shows monuron as a leacher compound, EMA and DCA as non-leachers, metolachlor and diuron as transient ones. The presence of metolachlor in the groundwater monitored, even at concentrations up to 0.1 μg/l, confirms the possibility that transient compounds can be leached if microbial activity has not completely occurred in active surface soil. - Pesticide mobility to vulnerable groundwaters in Italy is assessed and ranked

  8. Tools for forming strategies for remediation of forests and park areas in northern Europe after radioactive contamination: background and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, L.; Rantavaara, A.; Andersson, K.; Roed, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report compiles background information that can be used in planning appropriate countermeasures for forest and park areas in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, in case a nuclear accident results in large-scale contamination of forests. The information is formulated to inform the forestry sector and radiation protection experts about the practicality of both forest management techniques and mechanical cleanup methods, for use in their planning of specific strategies that can lead to an optimal use of contaminated forests. Decisions will depend on the site and the actual situation after radioactive deposition to forested areas, but the report provides background information from investigations performed before an accident occurs that will make the process more effective. The report also discusses the radiological consequences of producing energy from biomass contaminated by a major nuclear accident, both in the context of normal bio-fuel energy production and as a means of reducing potentially severe environmental problems in the forest by firing power plants with highly contaminated forest biomass. (au)

  9. Levels of Heavy Metals in Adolescents Living in the Industrialised Area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Northern Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Interdonato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n=29 living 45 km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24 h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls  (P<0.0001 or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population.

  10. Assessment of selected inorganic constituents in streams in the Central Arizona Basins Study Area, Arizona and northern Mexico, through 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations from data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment and other U.S. Geological Survey water-quality programs were analyzed to (1) assess water quality, (2) determine natural and human factors affecting water quality, and (3) compute stream loads for the surface-water resources in the Central Arizona Basins study area. Stream temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration and percent saturation, and dissolved-solids, suspended-sediment, and nutrient concentration data collected at 41 stream-water quality monitoring stations through water year 1998 were used in this assessment. Water-quality standards applicable to the stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentration data for the stations investigated in this study generally were met, although there were some exceedences. In a few samples from the White River, the Black River, and the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam, the pH in reaches designated as a domestic drinking water source was higher than the State of Arizona standard. More than half of the samples from the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam and almost all of the samples from the stations on the Central Arizona Project Canal?two of the three most important surface-water sources used for drinking water in the Central Arizona Basins study area?exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for dissolved solids. Two reach-specific standards for nutrients established by the State of Arizona were exceeded many times: (1) the annual mean concentration of total phosphorus was exceeded during several years at stations on the main stems of the Salt and Verde Rivers, and (2) the annual mean concentration of total nitrogen was exceeded during several years at the Salt River near Roosevelt and at the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam. Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations were related to

  11. Rb-Sr geochronolgy of the Jervois Range area in the eastern part of the Arunta Block, NT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    New Rb-Sr isotopic data are presented for the Jervois Range area in the eastern part of the Arunta Block. The post-metamorphic Jinka and Jervois Granites yield an age of about 1750 m.y. An alaskitic granite is dated at about 1460 m.y. Pegmatite formation occurred about 1660 m.y. ago. Mineral ages are generally younger than total-rock ages, but no values significantly less than that of the alaskitic granite were found. This means that the Alice Springs Orogeny, which extensively reset large areas of the Arunta Block to the west, did not effect the Jervois area. In this and other geochronological comparisons, the Jervois area seems more akin to the rocks of the Tennant Creek Block, 400 km to the northwest, than to those of the Arunta Block

  12. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  13. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-07-26

    A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Patients' work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants' employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was 'freelancer' (17.5%), followed by 'blue-collar worker' (10.6%) and 'farmer' (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  14. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. Setting We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. Participants A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients’ work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants’ employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Results Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was ‘freelancer’ (17.5%), followed by ‘blue-collar worker’ (10.6%) and ‘farmer’ (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Conclusion Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. PMID:28751487

  15. Area 2 Photo Skid Wastewater Pit corrective action decision document Corrective Action Unit Number 332: Part 1, and Closure report: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Area 2 Photo Skid Wastewater Pit, Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 02-42-03, the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 332, has been identified as a source of unquantified, uncontrolled, and unpermitted wastewater discharge. The Photo Skid was used for photographic processing of film for projects related to weapons testing, using Kodak RA4 and GPX film processing facilities for black and white and color photographs. The CAU is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The CAS consists of one unlined pit which received discharged photographic process wastewater from 1984 to 1991. The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) and the Closure Report (CR) have been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CADD and the CR for this CAS have been combined because sample data collected during the site investigation do not exceed regulatory limits established during the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. The purpose of the CADD and the CR is to justify why no corrective action is necessary at the CAU based on process knowledge and the results of the corrective action investigation and to request closure of the CAU. This document contains Part 1 of the CADD and Part 2 of the CR

  16. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection....69 N 176 12.44 W 52 6.59 N 176 6.12 W 2 Cape Moffett I 52 0.11 N 176 46.65 W 52 0.10 N 176 53.00 W 51 55.69 N 176 53.00 W 51 55.69 N 176 48.59 W 51 57.96 N 176 46.52 W 3 Adak Canyon 51 39.00 N 177 0.00 W...

  17. Research on metallogenic conditions of intersection-type uranium ore-deposits in Zhongdong area, Northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengqi; Wu Lieqin; Zhang Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    The methods following as field geological investigation, trace element geo- chemistry and isotope geochemistry were used in this project. Based on geological and geochemical characteristics of Xiaoshui uranium ore deposits in Zhongdong area, Xiazhuang ore-field, Guangdong province, it could be concluded that: (1) The Provenance of Cretaceous mantle is a enriched mantle; (2) Silicified zone-type and intersection-type uranium ore are distinctness in the metallogenic period and mineralization process, and main metallogenic period of Xiaoshui uranium ore-deposit is 73.5 Ma; (3) The sources of uranium mineralization substance derived from enriched mantle; and (4)The intersection-type high grade uranium deposits were controlled by substances derived from mantle (contain with U, CO 2 , F, et al), tracks of intersection of NWW-across with NNE-trending faults and lithology of diabase. (authors)

  18. Vascular plants diversity of El Aribabi Conservation Ranch: A private natural protected area in northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Denise Z. Avila-Jimenez; David A. Delgado-Zamora; Liliana Armenta-Cota; Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia. Reina-Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    In northeastern Sonora, isolated Sky Island mountain ranges with desertscrub, desert grassland, oak woodland, and pine-oak forest have high biodiversity. El Aribabi Conservation Ranch in the Sierra Azul (from 30°51’13”N, 110°41’9”W to 30°46’38”N, 110°32’3”W) was designated a Private Protected Natural Area by the Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas in March...

  19. Geologic remote sensing study of the Hayden pass-Orient Mine Area, Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wychgram, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensor data from a NASA Convair 990 radar flight and Mission 101 and 105 have been interpreted and evaluated. Based on interpretation of the remote sensor data, a geologic map has been prepared and compared with a second geologic map, prepared from interpretation of both remote sensor data and field data. Comparison of the two maps gives one indication of the usefulness and reliability of the remote sensor data. Color and color infrared photography provided the largest amount of valuable information. Multiband photography was of lesser value and side-looking radar imagery provided no new information that was not available on small scale photography. Thermal scanner imagery proved to be a very specialized remote sensing tool that should be applied to areas of low relief and sparse vegetation where geologic features produce known or suspected thermal contrast. Low sun angle photography may be a good alternative to side-looking radar imagery but must be flown with critical timing.

  20. Research on metallogenic conditions of intersection-type uranium ore-deposits in Zhongdong area, Northern Guangdong province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengqi, Wang [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China); [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Lieqin, Wu [Institute No.290, CNNC, Shaoguan (China); Guoyu, Zhang [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China)

    2007-12-15

    The methods following as field geological investigation, trace element geo- chemistry and isotope geochemistry were used in this project. Based on geological and geochemical characteristics of Xiaoshui uranium ore deposits in Zhongdong area, Xiazhuang ore-field, Guangdong province, it could be concluded that: (1) The Provenance of Cretaceous mantle is a enriched mantle; (2) Silicified zone-type and intersection-type uranium ore are distinctness in the metallogenic period and mineralization process, and main metallogenic period of Xiaoshui uranium ore-deposit is 73.5 Ma; (3) The sources of uranium mineralization substance derived from enriched mantle; and (4)The intersection-type high grade uranium deposits were controlled by substances derived from mantle (contain with U, CO{sub 2}, F, et al), tracks of intersection of NWW-across with NNE-trending faults and lithology of diabase. (authors)

  1. A Study on the Rural Residence in the Northern Area of Zhejiang Province from the Perspective of Green Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Gao, W. J.; Wang, C.

    2018-05-01

    At present, owing to the rapid development of rural construction, it lacks corresponding theories and practices and damages to the features of rural area, ignoring the geography, suitability and green living environment factors. The research selects rural residence as the object, defining “courtyard” as the basic unit for rural residence. It utilizes the principle of topology as the expanding media, by the method of principle of cellular structure and green living environment design strategy. The essay establishes the design and construction system of “rural basic unit”, combining functions and structures, prototype menu, chamber space and compound interface, from the perspective of green living environment. It aims to guide rural construction and protect the ruralliving environment.

  2. Differences in reproductive risk factors for breast cancer in middle-aged women in Marin County, California and a sociodemographically similar area of Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uratsu Connie S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Northern California county of Marin (MC has historically had high breast cancer incidence rates. Because of MC's high socioeconomic status (SES and racial homogeneity (non-Hispanic White, it has been difficult to assess whether these elevated rates result from a combination of established risk factors or other behavioral or environmental factors. This survey was designed to compare potential breast cancer risks and incidence rates for a sample of middle-aged MC women with those of a demographically similar population. Methods A random sample of 1500 middle-aged female members of a large Northern California health plan, half from Marin County (MC and half from a comparison area in East/Central Contra Costa County (ECCC, were mailed a survey covering family history, reproductive history, use of oral contraceptives (OC and hormone replacement therapy (HRT, behavioral health risks, recency of breast screening, and demographic characteristics. Weighted data were used to compare prevalence of individual breast cancer risk factors and Gail scores. Age-adjusted cumulative breast cancer incidence rates (2000–2004 were also calculated for female health plan members aged 40–64 residing in the two geographic areas. Results Survey response was 57.1% (n = 427 and 47.9% (n = 359 for MC and ECCC samples, respectively. Women in the two areas were similar in SES, race, obesity, exercise frequency, current smoking, ever use of OCs and HRT, age at onset of menarche, high mammography rates, family history of breast cancer, and Gail scores. However, MC women were significantly more likely than ECCC women to be former smokers (43.6% vs. 31.2%, have Ashkenazi Jewish heritage (12.8% vs. 7.1%, have no live births before age 30 (52.7% vs. 40.8%, and be nulliparous (29.2% vs. 15.4%, and less likely to never or rarely consume alcohol (34.4% vs. 41.9%. MC and ECCC women had comparable 2000–2004 invasive breast cancer incidence rates. Conclusion

  3. THE PILOT STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE GENERATED IN SUBURBAN PARTS OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Steinhoff-Wrześniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies were waste generated in suburban households, in 3-bag system. The sum of wastes generated during the four analyzed seasons (spring, summer, autumn, winter – 1 year, in the households under study, per 1 person, amounted to 170,3 kg (in wet mass basis. For 1 person, most domestic waste was generated in autumn – 45,5 kg per capita and the least in winter – 39,0 kg per capita. The analysis performed of sieved composition (size fraction showed that fractions: >100 mm, 40–100 mm, 20–40 mm constituted totally 80% of the mass of wastes (average in a year. The lowest fraction (<10 mm, whose significant part constitutes ashes, varied depending on the season of year: from 3.5% to 12.8%. In the morphological composition of the households analyzed (on average in 4 seasons, biowastes totally formed over 53% of the whole mass of wastes. A significant part of waste generated were also glass waste (10,7% average per year and disposable nappies (8,3% average per year. The analysis of basic chemical components of biowastes showed that in case of utilizing them for production of compost, it would be necessary to modify (correct the ratios C/N and C/P. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that the biowastes were characterized by very high moisture content and neutral pH.

  4. Radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtazaev, Kh.; Boboev, B.D.; Bolibekov, Sh.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau. The physicochemical properties of water of northern slopes of Mogoltau were studied. The radiation monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau was carried out during several years under various weather conditions. The exposure rate of human settlements of northern part of Mogoltau was defined.

  5. Effects of sand burial on dew deposition on moss soil crust in a revegetated area of the Tennger Desert, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rong-liang; Li, Xin-rong; Liu, Li-chao; Pan, Yan-xia; Gao, Yan-hong; Wei, Yong-ping

    2014-11-01

    Sand burial and dew deposition are two fundamental phenomena profoundly influencing biological soil crusts in desert areas. However, little information is available regarding the effects of sand burial on dew deposition on biological soil crusts in desert ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sand burial at depths of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mm on dew formation and evaporation of three dominant moss crusts in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert (Northern China) in 2010. The results revealed that sand burial significantly decreased the amount of dew deposited on the three moss crust types by acting as a semi-insulator retarding the dew formation and evaporation rates. The changes in surface temperature cannot fully explain the variations of the formation and evaporation rates of dew by moss crusts buried by sand. The extension of dew retention time was reflected by the higher dew ratios (the ratio of dew amount at a certain time to the maximum value in a daily course) in the daytime, and may to some extent have acted as compensatory mechanisms that diminished the negative effects of the reduction of dew amount induced by sand burial of moss crusts. The resistances to reduction of dewfall caused by sand burial among the three moss crusts were also compared and it was found that Bryum argenteum crust showed the highest tolerance, followed by crusts dominated by Didymodon vinealis and Syntrichia caninervis. This sequence corresponds well with the successional order of the three moss crusts in the revegetated area, thereby suggesting that resistance to reduction of dewfall may act as one mechanism by which sand burial drives the succession of moss crusts in desert ecosystems. This side effect of dew reduction induced by sand burial on biological soil crusts should be considered in future ecosystem construction and management of desert area.

  6. Evaluating Environment, Erosion and Sedimentation Aspects in Coastal Area to Determine Priority Handling (A Case Study in Jepara Regency, northern Central Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, S. I.; Adi, H. P.

    2018-04-01

    Many areas of the northern coastal in Central Java, Indonesia, have been suffering from damage. One of the areas is Jepara, which has been experiencing this kind of damage for 7.6 kilometres from total 72 kilometres long beach. All damages are mostly caused by coastal erosion, sedimentation, environment and tidal flooding. Several efforts have been done, such as replanting mangroves, building revetment and groins, but it still could not mitigated the coastal damage. The purposes of this study are to map the coastal damages, to analyze handling priority and to determine coastal protection model. The method used are by identifying and plotting the coastal damage on the map, assessing score of each variable, and determining the handling priority and suitable coastal protection model. There are five levels of coastal damage used in this study, namely as light damage, medium, heavy, very heavy, and extremely heavy. Based on the priority assessment of coastal damage, it needs to be followed up by designing in detail and implementing through soft structure for example mangrove, sand nourishes and hard structure, such as breakwater, groins and revetment.

  7. Searching for the effects of the May-June 2012 Emilia seismic sequence (northern Italy: medium-depth deformation structures at the periphery of the epicentral area

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    Lisa Borgatti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, a seismic sequence occurred in the lowlands of the Emilia-Romagna Region (northern Italy, between the borders of the Modena, Ferrara and Bologna Provinces. It consisted of seven mainshocks (5.9 > Ml > 5 that were recorded between May 20 and 29, 2012 [INGV 2012a] and 2,200 minor earthquakes [INGV 2012b]. An interferometric analysis [Bignami et al. 2012, Salvi et al. 2012, this volume] highlighted three main deformation areas, each of which was 12 km wide (from S to N and 10 km to 20 km long in an ESE-WNW to E-W direction, thus affecting an area of about 600 km2 (Figure 1. Field and aerial geological surveys recorded numerous surficial effects, such as: (i sediment liquefaction [Crespellani et al. 2012]; (ii localized ground fissures resembling surficial faulting [Fioravante and Giretti 2012] (Figure 2; (iii groundwater levels rising up to 400 cm above the local ground level in phreatic wells during the mainshocks (lower values were observed in confined aquifers; and (iv dormancy of previously known sinkholes [Borgatti et al. 2010, Cremonini 2010a, and references therein]. Some of the observed surface phenomena were previously recorded as coseismic effects during the earthquakes of Ferrara (1570 and Argenta (1624 [Boschi et al. 1995, Galli 2000], together with the early rising of the water level of the Po River in the Stellata section. […

  8. Mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and tectonomagmatic setting of Late-Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Kojid area (south of Lahijan, northern Alborz

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    morteza delavari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic rocks of Kojid area (south of Lahijan crop out in northern Alborz. They show mainly pillow structure with numerous cross-cutting dykes. Based on lithostratigraphic relationships and interpillow pelagic limestones, the volcanics are Late Cretaceous in age. The volcanics of Kojid area are predominantly basic in composition (olivine basalt and basalt and minor more evolved suites such as trachyandesite and dacite. Olivine phenocrysts display forsterite (Fo content of 63 to 83%. The phenocrystic and interstitial clinopyroxene crystals are augite to diopside in composition, with Na2O, Al2O3 and TiO2 contents of 0.24- 0.68, 2.3-6.53 and 1-5.1 wt.%, respectively. Furthermore, plagioclase is labradorite (An%= 51-68. The results of various geothermobarometric methods of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and olivine indicate good correlation with each other. Different thermometric calculations yielded temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1250 °C which are compatible with temperatures of basic melts. Moreover, clinopyroxene and plagioclase barometry of the phenocrysts (4 to 8 Kb and interstitial phases (

  9. Geospatial analysis of land use and water interaction in the peri-urban area of Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua. A socio-environmental study in northern Mexico

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    Rolando Enrique Díaz Caravantes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, city growth has been considered only in terms of land availability. In cities of northern Mexico, usually located in arid or semi-arid regions, there is a high dependence on groundwater. For this reason, comprehensive planning urban must consider the peri-urban area not only in terms of soil, but also groundwater. Water transfer for urban use produces severe alterations to the natural environment as aquifer depletion and drastic changes in land use/cover. This paper presents a spatial analysis of land use and water in the peri-urban area of Ciudad Cuauhtémoc. Using geographic modeling and remote sensing we assessed the dynamics of land use/cover. The results indicate that land change processes occur in a context of high competition for water between different users. This process is not usually considered in studies measuring urban spatial expansion, but should be considered to fully understand the effects of urban growth in the territory.

  10. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, and γ-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention.

  11. Mapping end-stage renal disease (ESRD: spatial variations on small area level in northern France, and association with deprivation.

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    Florent Occelli

    Full Text Available Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors.The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR and credible intervals (CI were estimated for each quintile.Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00-1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11-1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14-1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32-1.74] for Q5.For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably independent of the patients' financial

  12. Evaluation of Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram scheme and out of pocket expenditure in a rural area of Northern India

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    Sandeep Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The stagnant performance of countries with regard to maternal and child health is linked to low investment in health and out of pocket expenditure (OOP. To address issue of OOP expenses related to maternal and newborn care, Janani Shishu SUraksha Karyakram (JSSK was launched in the year 2011 in Mewat district of Haryana with the objective to eliminate OOP expenses of obstetric women and sick infants. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken in rural area of Haryana to know the utilization of JSSK scheme and OOP expenditure. A total of 200 delivered mothers were included as study subjects. The study was conducted from July 20113 to September 2014. Results: Out of 200, 134 subjects delivered in government institutions and hence were eligible for benefits of JSSK scheme. Twenty nine percent of deliveries occurred in private facilities and 17% newborns were sick within 30 days of birth. OOP expenditure was done by 83.5% subjects with median amount Rs. 1100. Most common suggestions given by subjects were the availability of ultrasound facility, cooperative staff and crowd management in hospitals. Conclusion: For reducing OOP expenses, up-gradation and constant supervision is required to maintain the adequacy of services. More evaluation studies need to be conducted to know the utilization pattern of JSSK so as to improve the coverage and removing the bottlenecks to further increase the utilization of JSSK scheme.

  13. A NEW EARLY SEMIONOTIDAE (SEMIONOTIFORMES, ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE UPPER LADINIAN OF MONTE SAN GIORGIO AREA SOUTHERN SWITZERLAND AND NORTHERN ITALY

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    ANDREA TINTORI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the Semionotiformes is still scarcely known as, apart from the Permian Acentrophorus, most of the Early and Middle Triassic taxa traditionally ascribed to this order are often poorly known and/or they actually belong to other groups. Sangiorgioichthys aldae gen. n. sp. n. is described from the Upper Ladinian Kalkschieferzone (Upper Meride Limestone of the Monte San Giorgio area on specimens coming from both Italy and Switzerland. The new genus is ascribed to the family Semionotidae as it shows several of the characters usually considered as diagnostic of the family itself, even if no real synapomorphies have been so far proposed for it. As a Semionotidae, Sangiorgioichthys gen. n. has an almost complete circumorbital series, large ascending process of the premaxilla, rostral and nasals almost tube-like, short maxilla, several suborbital bones posterior and ventral to the infraorbitals, long antero-dorsal process of the suboperculum, sensory canal system very rich in pores, mid dorsal ridge scales with an incipient spine. Peculiar characters of the new genus are dermal skull bones completely covered by ganoine, a very large ventral infraorbital almost attaining the anterior edge of the preoperculum, two ‘ventral’ suborbitals, very elongate anterior supraorbital bone,  dentition made of a number of tiny pencil-like teeth, anterior and posterior lateral line scales differentiated. 

  14. SCREENING FOR BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN AFRICAN BUFFALO (SYNCERUS CAFFER) IN NGORONGORO CONSERVATION AREA, NORTHERN TANZANIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katale, Bugwesa Z; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Mjingo, Eblate E; Sayalel, Kuya; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Matee, Mecky I; Keyyu, Julius D; Muumba, Justice; Mdaki, Maulid; Mbugi, Erasto V; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Mpanduji, Donald G

    2017-10-01

    In the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, where wildlife and livestock interaction is intense, greater potential for intra- and interspecies disease transmission is expected. We assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) residing on the valley floor of the crater in the NCA. Apparently healthy animals were randomly selected from herds in nine sites of the Ngorongoro Crater. Syncerus caffer buffalo herds were located using very high-frequency radio-aided rangers positioned in various observation points around the crater in the NCA. A total of 102 African buffalo from 16 herds were immobilized from the ground using a cocktail of 4-10 mg etorphine hydrochloride (M99) and 60-150 mg azaperone tartrate. The M99 was reversed using 10-25 mg diprenorphine hydrochloride depending on age of animals. An interferon gamma assay was performed on harvested plasma samples using sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 102 animals sampled, two (2%) African buffalo tested positive for bovine tuberculosis. These results corroborate those of the skin test done recently in cattle in the NCA. The presence of bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife suggested the possibility of cross-species transmission of the disease, indicating the need for appropriate intervention measures.

  15. Extramarital Sex Among Vietnamese Married Men: Results of a Survey in Urban and Rural Areas of Northern and Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Research on extramarital sex (EMS) is commonly conducted from a perspective that implicitly understands this behavior as a violation of the marital relationship. In contrast, Vietnamese cultural norms have, at some points in history, condoned if not outright encouraged EMS in the name of preserving family lineage. Yet little is known about the prevalence of EMS among contemporary Vietnamese men and its association with marriage quality. This is a notable gap, given the enormous sociocultural and ideological shifts the country has experienced over the past several decades. Drawing upon a sample of 126 married men (Mean age = 45.56; SD = 10.52) surveyed in urban (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City) and rural areas (Ha Tay and Can Tho) in Vietnam, we examined the relationship between EMS and geographic region, demographic characteristics, sexual values, quality of marriage, and sexual satisfaction within marriage. Our results show that geographic location had a strong impact on EMS, while most marital relationship quality variables did not impact the odds of EMS for married men in Vietnam.

  16. THE POSSIBILITY OF SAGO STARCH MARKETING IN JAPAN FROM SAGO PRODUCING AREAS IN THE EASTERN PART OF INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Datu, Diyah Yumeina R.; Katsuya, Osozawa

    2011-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sp.) is distributed and grows naturally in almost every island throughout Indonesia, especially in swampy coastal areas along rivers. After the World War II, the sago cultivation in the regions that surround Malaysia and the Western Indonesia, have been consolidated by the investors while farmers in the eastern Indonesia continue their conventional practice. Recently, these farmers in the eastern part have been shifting from sago production to others crops such as corn a...

  17. Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the western part of Maira area, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: a case study by using electrical resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Asam; Jadoon, Khanzaib; Akhter, Gulraiz; Iqbal, Muhammad Asim

    2013-03-01

    Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the Maira vicinity is important for the characterization of aquifer system and developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource. Conventionally, the aquifer parameters are obtained by the analysis of pumping tests data which provide limited spatial information and turn out to be costly and time consuming. Vertical electrical soundings and pump testing of boreholes were conducted to delineate the aquifer system at the western part of the Maira area, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan. Aquifer lithology in the eastern part of the study area is dominated by coarse sand and gravel whereas the western part is characterized by fine sand. An attempt has been made to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system by establishing a relationship between the pumping test results and vertical electrical soundings by using regression technique. The relationship is applied to the area along the resistivity profiles where boreholes are not drilled. Our findings show a good match between pumped hydraulic conductivity and estimated hydraulic conductivity. In case of sparse borehole data, regression technique is useful in estimating hydraulic properties for aquifers with varying lithology.

  18. Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the western part of Maira area, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A case study by using electrical resistivity

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2012-06-27

    Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the Maira vicinity is important for the characterization of aquifer system and developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource. Conventionally, the aquifer parameters are obtained by the analysis of pumping tests data which provide limited spatial information and turn out to be costly and time consuming. Vertical electrical soundings and pump testing of boreholes were conducted to delineate the aquifer system at the western part of the Maira area, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan. Aquifer lithology in the eastern part of th