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Sample records for area northeast japan

  1. Helicopter-borne geophysical survey over the areas struck by the tsunami of March 11, 2011, in northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, S.; Ueda, T.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST conducted a helicopter-borne EM and magnetic survey over tsunami invaded areas in northeast Japan 15 months after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The purpose of the survey is to map the electrical resistivity of the ground intruded by seawater during the tsunami on March 11, 2011 for its reutilization as farming lands and water assessment of the area. The survey was flown in June 2012 at an altitude of 60m above ground with a speed of 50km/h along survey and traverse lines spaced 100m and 1,000m apart, respectively. The airborne EM system (Fuguro Airborne Surveys' RESOLVE system) was installed in a bird and towed 30m below the helicopter. This is a frequency-domain system operated at five frequencies (340, 1,500, 6,900, 31,000, 140,000 Hz) in a horizontal coplanar configuration and at a frequency (3,300 Hz) in a coaxial configuration. The survey area is located at the border of Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures along the Pacific coast in the southern part of the Sendai Plain and is divided into two sub-areas: Watari-Yamamoto-Shinchi area (area A) and Matsukawa-ura Bay area (area B). The area A is known for its production of high-quality strawberries on beach ridges and much fresh groundwater has been used for irrigation of strawberries and warming of strawberry greenhouses by water curtain. However, the salinity of groundwater from shallow irrigation wells in this area increased dramatically after the tsunami (Mori et al., 2012). Since it still remains at high level, there is an urgent need to find new water resources. Whereas, the area B is characterized by a beautiful lagoon called the Matsukawa-ura which is preserved as one of prefectural parks of Fukushima Prefecture. Rice fields occupy the areas west of the Matsukawa-ura and most of them were covered by seawater during the attack of the tsunami. Desalinization of the rice fields is being conducted intensively to resume rice farming in these fields. The

  2. Temporal and spatial variations of radioactive cesium levels in Northeast Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi

    2016-10-01

    Radioactive emissions into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident led to global contamination. Radionuclides such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were further transported to North America and Europe. Thus, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident is a global concern for both human health and the ecosystem because a number of countries ban or impose restrictions the import of Japanese products. In the present study, three-year (May 2011 to May 2014) fluctuations and accumulations of Cs, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs in two salmonid fish, white-spotted char and masu salmon were examined in Northeast Japan. The total Cs, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs levels in the fish gradually decreased throughout the three-year studied period after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident; however, higher levels (more than 100 Bq kg(-1)) were still detected in the Fukushima prefecture and neighboring prefectures in Japan 3 years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Spatial radiocesium levels gradually decreased with increasing distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (Fukushima prefecture). The radiocesium levels facing the Pacific Ocean area were generally higher than those facing the Sea of Japan area. These results suggest that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are still widely distributed and remain in the natural environment in Northeast Japan.

  3. The Relationship between Pollen Count Levels and Prevalence of Japanese Cedar Pollinosis in Northeast Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Honda

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that pollen count levels may correlate with the rate of sensitization for JC pollinosis, but may not affect the rate of onset among sensitized children in northeast Japan.

  4. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  5. Japan (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  6. Spatial variation in Earth structure inferred by GNSS seasonal deformations due to snow loads in northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H.; Kurisu, R.; Nishimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal variations are observed in GNSS site coordinate time series (e.g., Murakami and Miyazaki, 2001; Munekane et al., 2004). Heki (2001) showed that snow loads cause seasonal subsidence in winter in the Tohoku region, northeast Japan from the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan's GEONET GNSS daily site coordinates during the period 1999.0-2001.0. It becomes worth reevaluating this issue because the observed GNSS data are accumulated over 10 years and the amplitude of apparent seasonal components can be reduced with revised analysis strategies (e.g., Nakagawa et al., 2009). Here we show that the correlation between a seasonal variation in GNSS vertical displacement time-series and snow depth measured by Japan Meteorological Agency's AMeDAS over 10 years is good in some areas with the largest snow depths among the study areas, the ratio of seasonal subsidence to snow depth shows spatial variation, and the variation can be explained by spatial variation of underground structure.

  7. Avoiding downward security spirals in Northeast Asia the gradual transition to a militarily "normalized" Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Warren D.

    2006-01-01

    The world is on the verge of a dramatic shift in security relations in Northeast Asia. With a "rising China" and a Japan emerging as a "normal" military power by revising the pacifist clause of its constitution (Article 9), many analysts argue that the new century may bring with it increased instability to the region. With this forecast in mind, this thesis explores how the United States should approach a militarily "normalizing" Japan. The primary questions that will be analyzed are: 1) Will...

  8. F-Area Northeast Expansion Report, Volumes 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syms, F.H.

    1999-08-23

    A geotechnical program has been complexed in F-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as the ''northeast expansion'' located in the F-Area.

  9. The northeast Japan margin: an example of slow accretion rather than tectonic erosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalla, C.; Fisher, D. M.; Kirby, E.; Furlong, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic erosion at convergent plate boundaries is invoked to explain the evolution of nearly half the world's subduction zones. In northeast Japan, basal tectonic erosion is argued to explain regional Miocene forearc subsidence and the lack of a large, young accretionary prism. However, new analysis of upper and lower plate kinematics in northeast Japan suggest that both of can be explained by alternate mechanisms. New analysis of the timing and kinematics of deformation demonstrate that the onset of Miocene forearc tectonic subsidence was coeval with the initiation of upper plate extension and subsidence associated with the opening of the Sea of Japan, and with a rapid acceleration in local plate convergence. The coincidence of tectonic events across the upper and lower plates suggest they are both a response to lithospheric-scale processes, and that forearc tectonic subsidence represents a response to changes in plate boundary geometry, rather than tectonic erosion. New high resolution seismic profiles and 10Be geochronology of the outer wedge at the Japan Trench indicate that much of the incoming Pacific plate sediments are actively accreted, and while subducting horst and graben topography severely deforms the frontal prism, it is not an efficient mechanism for frontal tectonic erosion. The presence of a small, Plio-Quaternary accretionary wedge and the eastward younging of basal slope basin sediments argue that the outer forearc crustal structure could be explained as the result of slow, but relatively continuous frontal accretion throughout the Cenozoic. These data suggest that the northeast Japan margin has not experienced large quantities of tectonic erosion, but instead experienced: 1) forearc subsidence caused by plate velocity driven changes in slab geometry, and 2) slow accretion and frontal wedge growth disrupted by subduction of seafloor topography.

  10. Key Biodiversity Areas identification in Japan Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Natori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Priority sites within Japan Hotspot were identified using Key Biodiversity Area (KBA criteria, based on vulnerability and irreplaceability. The identification process considered 217 trigger species from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater and brackish water fishes and odonates, and focused on identifying gaps in Japan’s protected-area system. We identified 228 sites as KBAs and 50 rivers as candidate KBAs. Collectively, KBAs occupy 18% of the land, about half is not protected. Sites selected include natural and semi-natural environments, and appropriate form of protection is site-dependent. Twenty percent of Japanese terrestrial area is already protected, although to varying degrees, but additional 8% should also receive protection or proper management to strengthen the conservation of biodiversity in Japan.

  11. Relationship between outer forearc subsidence and plate boundary kinematics along the Northeast Japan convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalla, Christine; Fisher, Donald M.; Kirby, Eric; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-12-01

    Tectonic erosion along convergent plate boundaries, whereby removal of upper plate material along the subduction zone interface drives kilometer-scale outer forearc subsidence, has been purported to explain the evolution of nearly half the world's subduction margins, including part of the history of northeast Japan. Here, we evaluate the role of plate boundary dynamics in driving forearc subsidence in northeastern Japan. A synthesis of newly updated analyses of outer forearc subsidence, the timing and kinematics of upper plate deformation, and the history of plate convergence along the Japan trench demonstrate that the onset of rapid fore-arc tectonic subsidence is contemporaneous with upper plate extension during the opening of the Sea of Japan and with an acceleration in convergence rate at the trench. In Plio-Quaternary time, relative uplift of the outer forearc is contemporaneous with contraction across the arc and a decrease in plate convergence rate. The coincidence of these changes across the forearc, arc, backarc system appears to require an explanation at the scale of the entire plate boundary. Similar observations along other western Pacific margins suggest that correlations between forearc subsidence and major changes in plate kinematics are the rule, rather than the exception. We suggest that a significant component of forearc subsidence at the northeast Japan margin is not the consequence of basal tectonic erosion, but instead reflects dynamic changes in plate boundary geometry driven by temporal variations in plate kinematics. If correct, this model requires a reconsideration of the mass balance and crustal recycling of continental crust at nonaccretionary margins.

  12. Bathymetry Mapping Using Hyperspectral Data: a Case Study of Yamada Bay, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, E.; Kakuta, S.; Takeda, T.

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to examine if the inversion method using hyperspectral data is applicable in Japan. Nowadays, overseas researchers are mainly applied an inversion method for accurately estimating water depth. It is able to gain not only water depth, but also benthic spectral reflection and inherent optical properties (IOPs) at the same time, based on physics-based radiative transfer theory for hyperspectral data. It is highly significant to understand the possibility to develop the application in future for coastal zone of main island, which is a common water quality in Japan, but there is not any case study applied this method in Japan. The study site of Yamada bay in Iwate Prefecture is located in northeast of Japan. An existed analytical model was optimized for mapping water depth in Yamada bay using airborne hyperspectral image and ground survey data which were simultaneously acquired in December, 2015. The retrieved remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) is basically qualitatively appropriate result. However, when compared with all ground survey points, the retrieved water depth showed low correlation, even though ground points which are selected sand bottom indicates high relationship. Overall, we could understand the inversion method is applicable in Japan. However, it needs to challenge to improve solving error-caused problems.

  13. Possible occurrence of a giant interplate earthquake in northeast Japan greater than the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, M.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, T.; Hyodo, M.

    2012-12-01

    We supposed there occur M7-class earthquakes and the co-rupturing M8 earthquakes on the Pacific plate interface subducting beneath northeast Japan. Against our speculation, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake grew up to Mw9.0. We have so far constructed cycle models of this giant earthquake to understand why this grew up to Mw9.0. Next question is; is there any possibility that a much larger earthquake occurs in this region? In this study, we explore this possibility through quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle simulations. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a large region of 200km x 500km. The rupture region includes a confined area with huge coseismic slip over 50 m in the shallow Off-Miyagi region close to the Japan Trench, and several M7 asperities in Off-Miyagi and Ibaraki regions which have been ruptured repeatedly at intervals of several ten years. The tsunami deposit surveys suggest this giant earthquake has the recurrence time of several hundred years. The afterslip occurs mainly in the deeper region of the coseismic slip region, except the Off-Miyagi region [Ozawa et al., 2012]. At Off-Kamaishi and Off-Fukushima regions located in the northern and southern sides of the Off-Miyagi region, we can find the local maximum of the afterslip. The Off-Kamaishi region did not produce much coseismic slip, and has not experienced historical large earthquakes. And no large afterslip extended to the northern region beyond Off-Kamaishi. Then, the Off-Kamaishi region is a kind of boundary between the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its adjacent northern regions. In the northern region, there occurred the 1968 Off-Tokachi Mw8.3 earthquake, which has three M7 asperities with recurrence times of several ten years [Yamanaka & Kikuchi, 2004]. An aftershock of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which occurred 22 minutes after the main shock, is located at the southern asperity area. And there is a region close to the Japan Trench, where the 1897 Meiji-sanriku tsunami earthquake occurred. We performed

  14. A test of present-day plate geometries for northeast Asia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Alternative geometries for the present-day configuration of plate boundaries in northeast Asia and Japan are tested using NUVEL-1 and 256 horizontal earthquake slip vectors from the Japan and northern Kuril trenches. Statistical analysis of the slip vectors is used to determine whether the North American, Eurasian, or Okhotsk plate overlies the trench. Along the northern Kuril trench, slip vectors are well-fit by the NUVEL-1 Pacific-North America Euler pole, but are poorly fit by the Pacific-Eurasia Euler pole. Results for the Japan trench are less conclusive, but suggest that much of Honshu and Hokkaido are also part of the North American plate. The simplest geometry consistent with the trench slip vectors is a geometry in which the North American plate extends south to 41 deg N, and possibly includes northern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. Although these results imply that the diffuse seismicity that connects the Lena River delta to Sakhalin Island and the eastern Sea of Japan records motion between Eurasia and North America, onshore geologic and seismic data define an additional belt of seismicity in Siberia that cannot be explained with this geometry. Assuming that these two seismic belts constitute evidence for an Okhotsk block, two published kinematic models for motion of the Okhotsk block are tested. The first model, which predicts motion of up to 15 mm/yr relative to North America, is rejected because Kuril and Japan trench slip vectors are fit more poorly than for the simpler geometry described above. The second model gives a good fit to the trench slip vectors, but only if Okhotsk-North America motion is slower than 5 mm/yr.

  15. Identifying areas susceptible to desertification in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. da Silva Pinto Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 57% of the Brazilian Northeast region is recognized as semiarid land and has been undergoing intense land use processes in the last decades, which have resulted in severe degradation of its natural assets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the areas that are susceptible to desertification in this region based on the eleven driving factors of desertification (pedology, geology, geomorphology, topography data, land use and land cover change, aridity index, livestock density, rural population density, fire hot spot density, human development index (HDI, conservation units which were model-simulated for two different periods: 2000 and 2010. Each indicator were assigned weights ranging from 1 to 2 (representing the best and the worst conditions, representing classes indicating low, moderate and high susceptibility to desertification. The result indicates that 94% of the Brazilian Northeast region is under moderate to high susceptibility to desertification. The areas that were susceptible to soil desertification increased by approximately 4.6% (83.35 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The implementation of the methodology provide the technical basis for decision making that involves mitigating actions, as well as the first comprehensive national assessment within the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification framework.

  16. Tectonic shortening and coeval volcanism during the Quaternary, Northeast Japan arc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koji Umeda; Masao Ban; Shintaro Hayashi; Tomohiro Kusano

    2013-02-01

    The Northeast Japan arc, a mature volcanic arc with a back-arc marginal basin (Japan Sea), is located on a convergent plate boundary along the subducting Pacific plate and the overriding North American plate. From a compilation and analysis of stratigraphy, radiometric age and data on erupted magma volumes, 176 eruptive episodes identified from 69 volcanoes so far, indicate that notable changes in eruption style, magma discharge rates and distribution of eruptive centres occurred around 1.0 Ma. Before ca.1.0 Ma, large-volume felsic eruptions were dominant, forming large calderas in the frontal arc, a region of low crustal strain rate. After ca. 1.0 Ma to the present, the calc-alkaline andesite magma eruptions in the frontal and rear arcs, synchronous with crustal shortening characterized by reverse faulting, resulted in stratovolcano development along narrow uplifted zones. Although, it is widely assumed that magma cannot rise easily in a compressional setting, some of the magma stored within basal sills could be extruded where N–S-trending uplifted mountains bounded by reverse faults formed since about ca.1.0 Ma.

  17. Salinity status of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami affected agricultural lands in northeast Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingshuk Roy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As Japan has abundant annual rainfall (1,000 to 2,500 mm, soil salinity of agricultural lands has rarely been a major problem. Following the 2011 earthquake in the Pacific, large stretches of land along the coast in northeast Japan were devastated by a powerful tsunami. Saltwater damage of agricultural lands was so severe that agricultural crops could not be grown on large parts of the tsunami-inundated farmlands even two years after the disaster. This paper summarizes the status of agricultural lands in northeast Japan's Tohoku region that were affected by the tsunami. The paper presents the results of a field study of agricultural lands in Miyagi Prefecture, where the extent of the seawater damage was the most severe, representing 67% of the total tsunami-affected agricultural lands. Forty samples from surface and underlying (undisturbed soil were collected from 30 different locations in coastal and tsunami-inundated farmlands and from inland sites located beyond the limit of the tsunami inundation. The analyses and measurements showed that the extent of soil salinity varied greatly across these sites, with the highest electrical conductivity (EC value of 3.72 dS m−1 found in the surface soil of Minamisanriku cho. In addition, two study sites adjacent to each other, Watari cho and Yamamoto cho, had maximum and minimum EC values of 2.0 dS m−1 and 0.21 dS m−1, respectively, in their underlying soils. A comparison of the major soil properties revealed that the salinity status of the tsunami-inundated farmlands was dependent on particle size distribution and therefore on the infiltration rate of the soil, as well as the relative physical position (elevation of the farmland. This study led us to carry out further investigations and experiments (still on-going related to restoration and mitigation work in the tsunami-inundated agricultural lands, giving the highest priority to the major soil properties of different field sites in Miyagi

  18. Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. An endemic area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Coêlho, T D; Coêlho, M D

    1996-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, procedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old). Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around) and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraiba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.

  19. Spatiotemporal variations of interplate slip rates in northeast Japan inverted from recurrence intervals of repeating earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shunichi; Ogata, Yosihiko; Uchida, Naoki; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Repeating earthquakes, the sequence of stress accumulation and release at isolated small asperities on a plate interface, can be regarded as a renewal process in statistics. From such a point of view, we modelled a sequence of repeating earthquakes and developed an objective Bayesian method to estimate the space-time distribution of interplate slip rates from the recurrence intervals of repeating earthquakes. The space-time distribution of slip rates is represented by the superposition of tri-cubic B-splines. The knots of B-splines in time are unequally allocated for representing co-seismic abrupt and post-seismic rapid changes in slip rates. In addition, to avoid overfitting, smoothness constraints are imposed and their optimal weights are determined by Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion. We applied this method to the complete data set of repeating earthquakes in northeast Japan for about 18 yr before the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, and revealed spatiotemporal variations of interplate slip rates off the Hokkaido-Tohoku region, where the 1994 Sanriku-oki (M7.6), 2003 Tokachi-oki (M8.0), 2004 Kushiro-oki (M7.1), and 2008 Ibaraki-oki (M7.0) earthquakes occurred. First, we confirmed the reciprocal correlation between the spatial distribution of average slip rates for a seismically calm period (1996-2000) and that of average slip-deficit rates, which has been estimated from GPS array data. Then, we examined the temporal variations of slip rates associated with the large interplate earthquakes in detail.

  20. Formation Mechanism for the Anomalous Anticyclonic Circulation over Northeast Asia and the Japan Sea in Boreal Winter 1997/98 and the Spring of 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai; LIU Qinyu; ZHENG Jian

    2013-01-01

    A robust anomalous anticyclonic circulation (AAC) was observed over Northeast Asia and the Japan Sea in boreal winter 1997/98 and over the Japan Sea in spring 1998.The formation mechanism is investigated.On the background of the vertically sheared winter monsoonal flow,anomalous rainfall in the tropical Indo-Western Pacific warm pool excited a wave train towards East Asia in the upper troposphere during boreal winter of 1997/98.The AAC over Northeast Asia and the Japan Sea is part of the wave train of equivalent barotropic structure.The AAC over the Japan Sea persisted from winter to spring and even intensified in spring 1998.The diagnostic calculations show that the vorticity and temperature fluxes by synoptic eddies are an important mechanism for the AAC over the Japan Sea in spring 1998.

  1. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil...

  2. 78 FR 24334 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order Amending the Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ...) allowances for cheese, butter, nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and dry whey contained in the Class III and Class IV... whey for manufacturing plants located in Federal milk marketing areas. The established criteria for the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1000 Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order...

  3. Applying the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation model to the March 2011 north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo; Yap, Su Fei; Park, Donghyun

    2014-07-01

    Natural hazards have a potentially large impact on economic growth, but measuring their economic impact is subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The central objective of this paper is to demonstrate a model--the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation (NDVE) model--that can be used to evaluate the impact of natural hazards on gross national product growth. The model is based on five basic indicators-natural hazards growth rates (αi), the national natural hazards vulnerability rate (ΩT), the natural disaster devastation magnitude rate (Π), the economic desgrowth rate (i.e. shrinkage of the economy) (δ), and the NHV surface. In addition, we apply the NDVE model to the north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 to evaluate its impact on the Japanese economy.

  4. Radiocesium distribution on sea sediment and in benthic organisms in the north-east Japan coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tsuneo; Ambe, Daisuke; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujimoto, Ken; Saito, Hajime; Miki, Shiduho; Setou, Takashi; Morita, Takami; Watanabe, Tomowo [National Research Institute of Fisheries Sciences, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawaward, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-8648 (Japan); Sawada, Hideki [National Resarch Institute of Fisheries Engineering, Fisheries Research Agency, 7620-7, Hasaki, Kamisu-shi, Ibaraki, 314-0408 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials, especially radiocesium, were discharged into the western North Pacific Ocean by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. Although radiocesium concentrations in sea water had quickly diminished via water mixing processes, significant amount still existed on sea floors near Fukushima Prefecture. To assess present distributions and/or spatio-temporal variations of sea sediment radiocesium and its potential affection to benthic ecosystems, we had conducted 5'x5' 2-D observation of sea sediment radiocesium concentrations repeatedly from Feb. 2012 to Jul. 2013. Off Fukushima Prefecture, the higher concentration area of radioactive cesium was often observed in the south area from the FDNPP and a north-south high value band was tended to be along the isobaths around 100 m where the concentration values up to thousands Bq/kg-dry order were observed. The concentrations generally decreased eastward from the high concentration band. At many surveyed positions, the vertical profiles of the radiocesium concentrations in sea sediment showed an exponentially decreasing in deeper layer. The influence of the FDNPP was suggested to generally reach up to 10 cm depth from sediment-surface. A negative correlation was found between the radiocesium concentration and median grain size of the sediment, suggesting that the adsorption capability of sediment for cesium associated with grain size possibly has a large contribution to the formation process of the spatial distribution pattern of the radiocesium concentration. In contrast to the land sediment, Chemical reaching experiment results showed that the radiocesium concentration in the organic component of bottom sediment has higher value than that of bulk sediment, suggesting that non-exchangeable adsorption cite of mineral component of marine sediments had already occupied by stable cesium (~2 nM in

  5. Source parameters and radiation efficiency for intermediate-depth earthquakes in Northeast Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishitsuji, Y.; Mori, J.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated source parameters of 216 intermediate-depth (65–150 km) earthquakes (Mw 4.0–7.0) in the Pacific slab beneath Japan along using Hi-net data. We made determinations of static stress drop, radiated energy and radiation efficiency, along with estimates of the whole path attenuation, to stud

  6. Source parameters and radiation efficiency for intermediate-depth earthquakes in Northeast Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishitsuji, Y.; Mori, J.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated source parameters of 216 intermediate-depth (65–150 km) earthquakes (Mw 4.0–7.0) in the Pacific slab beneath Japan along using Hi-net data. We made determinations of static stress drop, radiated energy and radiation efficiency, along with estimates of the whole path attenuation, to stud

  7. Source parameters and radiation efficiency for intermediate-depth earthquakes in Northeast Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishitsuji, Y.; Mori, J.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated source parameters of 216 intermediate-depth (65–150 km) earthquakes (Mw 4.0–7.0) in the Pacific slab beneath Japan along using Hi-net data. We made determinations of static stress drop, radiated energy and radiation efficiency, along with estimates of the whole path attenuation, to

  8. 75 FR 36015 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... less than 2.25 percent true milk protein;'' is corrected to read ``Any product that contains less than 6.5 percent nonfat milk solids and contains less than 2.25 percent true milk protein;''. Further, in... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1000 Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas;...

  9. 75 FR 51929 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order Amending the Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ..., whey protein concentrate, milk protein concentrate, dry whey, caseinates, lactose, and any similar...; whey; plain or sweetened evaporated milk/skim milk; sweetened condensed milk/ skim milk; yogurt... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1000 Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order...

  10. 77 FR 22282 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... dry milk, and dry whey in a report titled Dairy Products Sales on April 4, 2012. (4) Section 1000.54... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent... discovery mechanism for raw milk component values, and the component values are then used in...

  11. Appendix C: Summary of Major Metallogenic Belts in Northeast Asia (the Russian Far East, Yakutia, Siberia, Transbaikalia, Northern China, Mongolia, South Korea, and Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, Sergey M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Distanov, Elimir G.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Davydov, Yuriy V.V.; Fridovskiy, Valeriy Yu.; Gamyanin, Gennandiy N.; Gerel, Ochir; Kostin, Alexei V.; Letunov, Sergey A.; Li, Xujun; Nikitin, Valeriy M.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Sudo, Sadahisa; Sotnikov, Vitaly I.; Spiridonov, Alexander V.; Stepanov, Vitaly A.; Sun, Fengyue; Sun, Jiapeng; Sun, Weizhi; Supletsov, Valeriy M.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tyan, Oleg A.; Vetluzhskikh, Valeriy G.; Wakita, Koji; Yakovlev, Yakov V.; Zorina, Lydia M.

    2010-01-01

    tectonics of Northeast Asia that have been led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These studies have produced two broad types of publications (1) a series of regional geologic, mineral-deposit, and metallogenic-belt maps, with companion descriptions of the region, and (2) a suite of metallogenic and tectonic analyses of the same region. The study area consists of eastern Russia (most of eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East), Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, Japan, and adjacent offshore areas. The major cooperative agencies are the Russian Academy of Sciences; the Academy of Sciences of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia); VNIIOkeangeologia and Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation; the Mongolian Academy of Sciences; the Mongolian University of Science and Technology; the Mongolian National University; Jilin University, Changchun, People?s Republic of China, the China Geological Survey; the Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources; the Geological Survey of Japan/AIST; the University of Texas, Arlington, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This study builds on and extends the data and interpretations from a previous project on the Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera conducted by the USGS, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, and the Geological Survey of Canada. The major products of this project were summarized by Naumova and others (2006) and are described in appendix A.

  12. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River. Drilling or blasting is expected to occur within the Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River... Lighted Buoy 27 (LL 30550/39945)). (3) Big Island. The work area includes: Part of Keg Island...

  13. Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, T

    1988-01-01

    Attitudes toward death in rural areas of Japan were investigated by means of a questionnaire. One hundred and sixty out of the 319 families residing on a small island were randomly chosen and 94 percent of them (average age 48 years, male 57 percent; living with parents 41 percent) responded. The respondents did not clearly distinguish the dead from the living in their life-styles. They seemed to recognize a continuity between living and death. They reported having confronted death as members of a family or small local community rather than individually. Community or family is seen as playing a more important role in determining respondents' attitudes toward death than their personal feelings.

  14. Prospering Revolution of Resource Efficiency in Northeast Industrial Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiancheng; Liu Zeyuan

    2007-01-01

    Despite its strong advantages in resource,technology and human resource.China's Northeast Industrial Area iS alsoexperiencing problems of unreasonable industrial structure,environmental pollution,and the degradation of ecological condition.etc.which prevent this area from achieving a sustainable development.Through analyzing the resouce problem,the present paper pmposed a stramgy of circular economy for the prosperity Of this are.disussed the theories of circular economy and resogrce recycling,and finally concluded that improving resource productivity iS at the core of circular economy.

  15. Effect on Stratum Gradient Frequency Distribution of Landslides in the Three Gorges Area of Northeast Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiaoyi; QIAO Jianping

    2006-01-01

    The landslide data were calculated in the Three Gorges Area of northeast Chongqing. The results showed that landslide frequency distributions of gradients accorded with the Weibull probability density distribution function. The landslide hazard ratios of gradients were acquired by Weibull accumulation probability distribution function in the different geological units. There was discord between landslide hazard ratio of different geological units and variance of landslide gradient. But they were approximate homology in the strata of Jurassic. The results indicate that the Weibull distribution can quantitatively evaluate the landslide hazard ratios of gradients of the different strata in the Three Gorges Area.

  16. Relationship between eruptive style and vesicularity of juvenile clasts during eruptive episode A of Towada Volcano, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Yoshimi; Miyamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2016-10-01

    It has been reported that juvenile pumice lapilli found in plinian eruptions have high vesicularity, while those found in phreatoplinian eruptions have low vesicularity. However, juvenile glass shards from phreatoplinian eruptions consist of large, expanded bubbles such as bubble wall-type glass. These glass shards seem to possess high vesicularity, unlike the pumice lapilli. This study examines the factors causing this difference, especially focusing on the temporal variations in the vesicularity of the juvenile pyroclasts from eruptive episode A of Towada Volcano, Northeast Japan. This examination was conducted through four analyses: density measurements of pumice lapilli, thin section texture classification of pumice lapilli, classification of glass shards, and surface texture classification of pumice lapilli. Further, pumice lapilli from plinian eruptions have a low density, and those from phreatoplinian eruptions are characterized by high density. The density of the pumice lapilli depends on the eruption style and is hence determined after the eruption. A progressive increase in the amount of large bubbles is observed in glass shards ejected during an eruptive magmatic to phreatomagmatic sequence. Because it does not hinge on the eruptive style, it is assumed that the vesicularity of the glass shards is kept from the conduit before contact with water, especially on fragmentation by magma vesiculation in the conduit. The surfaces of the pumice lapilli show a similar increase in vesicularity with time as glass shards. However, this increase is not successive throughout, but decreases temporarily at the phreatomagmatic stage of the eruption, as in the case of density. This indicates that the successive bubble growth continues within the pumice, and additional vesiculation is superposed when the magmatic eruption comes into contact with water. Because of this, different juvenile clasts exhibit different vesicularities upon cooling. Interestingly, magma

  17. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  18. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  19. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  20. Calcareous microfossil biostratigraphy of the uppermost cenozoic formations distributed in the coast of the Japan Sea (Part 1). Niigata area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tokiyuki; Takayama, Toshiaki; Kato, Michio; Kudo, Tetsuro

    1987-05-01

    Eleven calcareous nannofossil biohorizons were established in the Quaternary sequences at six sites drilled in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during DSDP-IPOD Leg 94. Correlation of these biohorizons with the magnetostratigraphy was established and ages of all datums were estimated. As the results, the applicability to the Japan Sea sedimentary basin was confirmed. The Nishiyama and Haizume formations distributed in the Oginome area, near the type locality of the Hashizume Formation in Niigata district were surveyed as the representative formation of the uppermost Cenozoic formation distributed in the coast of the Japan Sea; and five calcareous nannofossil biohorizons were recognized. Based on the above results of DSDP-IPOD, the middle Nishiyama through the Hashizume formations were Peistocene in age and could be correlated with interval between the Olduvai and Jaramillo events of the magnetostratigraphy. This age assignment agreed neither with magnetostratigraphic interpretations nor with fission track datings which were obtained in the Oguni area 25 km south of the present area. (23 refs, 11 figs)

  1. Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  2. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  3. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  4. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SALINE- ALKALI SOIL AREA OF SONGNEN PLAIN,NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-chun; LI Qu-sheng; LI Xiu-jun; SONG Chang-chun; ZHANG Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    There is great potential for agriculture in saline-alkali soil area in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Butthe sustainable crop production in this area has been restricted by a few of main factors, such as less precipitation, higherevaporation and frequent drought, high salinity and alkalinity, high exchangeable sodium content and poor infiltration ofthe soil, and insufficiency and low availability in nutrition. It is also considered that there are a few of favorable condi-tions for agricultural development in this region, such as sufficient light and heat resources, rich ground water resources,plenty of manure produced by livestock, and so on. At the same time, scientific management and measurements havebeen employed; rational irrigation and drainage system has been established; reclamation, amendment and fertilization ofsoil, and suitable strategies of cropping practices have been made for the sustainable development of agriculture. Greatprogress has been made during 1996- 2000.

  5. Palaeomagnetism of Middle Ordovician Carbonate Sequence, Vaivara Sinimäed Area, Northeast Estonia, Baltica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plado, Jüri; Preeden, Ulla; JÕeleht, Argo; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Mertanen, Satu

    2016-10-01

    The hill range of Vaivara Sinimäed in northeast Estonia consists of several narrow east- to northeast-trending glaciotectonic fold structures. The folds include tilted (dips 4-75°) Middle Ordovician (early Darriwilian) layered carbonate strata that were studied by mineralogical, palaeomagnetic, and rock magnetic methods in order to specify the postsedimentational history of the area and to obtain a better control over the palaeogeographic position of Baltica during the Ordovician. Mineralogical studies revealed that (titano)magnetite, hematite, and goethite are carriers of magnetization. Based on data from 5 sites that positively passed a DC tilt test, a south-easterly downward directed component A ( D ref = 154.6°± 15.3°, I ref = 60.9°± 9.7°) was identified. The component is carried by (titano)magnetite, dates to the Middle Ordovician ( Plat = 17.9°, Plon = 47.3°, K = 46.7, A95 = 11.3°), and places Baltica at mid-southerly latitudes. Observations suggest that in sites that do not pass the tilt test, the glaciotectonic event has caused some rotation of blocks around their vertical axis.

  6. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazujo Suzuki

    2000-01-01

    This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:...

  7. Variation Character of Grain Yield per Unit Area in Main Grain-producing Area of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yeqing; ZHANG Pingyu; ZHANG Huimin

    2007-01-01

    Based on the surveys and the statistic data during 1980-2003, the variation character of grain yield per unit area in Northeast China and its main factors have been discussed by the methods of statistics and grey correlation analysis. The results show that: 1) the grain yield per unit area has been taking on an increasing trend in the recent 20 years. It increased from 2519.80kg/ha in 1980 to 4216.11 kg/ha in 2003, with an increasing rate of 67.32%; 2) the variation of grain yield per unit area is considerably prominent and its range is also very great, with the maximal increase rate of 42.59% and maximal decrease rate of 21.13%, respectively, which are far above the whole Chinese average level; 3) the variation of main crops' yield per unit area is remarkable, which takes on the character that the yield of corn is much higher than that of soybean and rice; and 4) the grey correlation analysis shows that the most important factors impacting the variation of grain yield per unit area are the total power of agricultural machinery, the consumption of chemical fertilizer and effective irrigated area. However, the influence of natural disaster and income level should not be ignored. Effective ways to improve grain yield per unit area are to construct farmland improvement groundwork, reclaim the middle- and low-yield farmland, etc.

  8. The needs of the science teachers of Shenyang area, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of this research was to survey those individuals teaching science in the middle schools of the Shenyang area, Northeast China. Specifically, the study attempted to differentiate between rural and nonrural teachers with respect to demographic differences, problem areas, instructional activities, and perceived needs. Procedure. A 100-item survey was used to collect data for this study. The sample consisted of 224 science teachers (Rural 114, nonrural 110) who taught at least science class in 1996--97 academic year in a middle school of Shenyang area, Northeast China. Frequencies and percentages presented the needs of the teachers. The differences between rural and nonrural groups were analyzed by Chi Square statistics. Findings. Almost three quarters (74.9%) of returns were younger than 41, and 43.9% of returns held no degree. Significant differences were fond between rural and nonrural groups according to age, classroom experience, school enrollment, lab activities, motivating students to learn science, using science test data bank, peer tutoring and evaluating your own instructional effectiveness as a science teacher. Rural and nonrural teachers shared 10 of 14 greatest needs. Conclusions. Teacher in-service program designers need to establish academic training programs which lead to entry level degrees and certificates and improve young teacher's instructional skills. Increased efforts should be given to meet the perceived needs addressed in this study in order to improve teachers' teaching and students' learning. Lack of person energy or motivation and program fail to meet teachers' needs were considered as barriers of attending inservice programs.

  9. Can Trade Help Overcome Economic Crisis? Implications for Northeast Asia Creating Regional FTA between Korea, China, and Japan and Mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization processes have formed a triad of economic and trade systems in terms of GDP and trade volume. These are the European Union (EU, North America Free Trade Association (NAFTA, and Northeast Asia, the major actors in the global economic system and trade since 1990s. However, the global financial crisis in 2008 created a new global economic order and governance that consisted of existing global economic power such as the G7 as well as new emerging economic powers, such as G20 and BRICS. Under such rapidly changing global economic conditions, global trade has contributed to rapid economic growth in the world in the last half-century. Regarding FTAs, the European Union (EU is the frontrunner and has developed the most advanced system for regional economic integration. The EU’s single market provides several implications for Northeast Asian countries trying to build their own regional bilateral and multilateral FTAs and participate in different mega-FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. As a result, their economic interests are rather divided deeply and related to political and security issues in the context of Northeast Asia. Therefore, it is more difficult for Northeast Asian countries to economically integrate in a way that is comparable with the EU. This paper addresses a regional FTA between South Korea, China, and Japan that could be a starting point for their formal economic integration and create a reliable platform to strengthen their trade, boosting further economic growth. It also asks which of the three nations’ economic interests are served by participating in mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. Finally, it analyses the best scenario for participating in the multilateral FTA and mega FTAs for each nation.

  10. Area-based urban regeneration comparing Denmark and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harada, Yoko; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    and Japan, representing each one approach. The paper aims to clarify results of the two approaches in terms of five aspects of urban regeneration, relevant to the process and results: (1) strategic spatial improvement, (2) influence of the legal system and transparency of the processes, (3) empowerment...

  11. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  12. [Studies on multiple factor intervention in stroke of ten areas in northeast, north China and Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Guo, Z; Wang, Y

    1996-03-01

    In order to explore the ways to prevent from the disease, 4,793 subjects aged over 40 at high risk of stroke from a total population of 250,000 in communities with high incidence of it were studied with multiple factor intervention, by oral administration of "Nao An" capsules as a major measure in 10 areas of north and northeast China, as well as Shanghai, during 1990 to 1993. Three years after intervention, incidence of stroke decreased by 49.17% in the population, with reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, levels of blood sugar, cholesterol and triglyceride. Lowering of stroke incidence correlated positively with that of blood pressure in the population. It suggests stroke can be prevented effectively by concentrated efforts in comprehensive intervention in individuals at high risk.

  13. Terrestrial Species in Protected Areas and Community-Managed Lands in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Velho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas (including areas that are nominally fully protected and those managed for multiple uses encompass about a quarter of the total tropical forest estate. Despite growing interest in the relative value of community-managed lands and protected areas, knowledge about the biodiversity value that each sustains remains scarce in the biodiversity-rich tropics. We investigated the species occurrence of a suite of mammal and pheasant species across four protected areas and nearby community-managed lands in a biodiversity hotspot in northeast India. Over 2.5 years we walked 98 transects (half of which were resampled on a second occasion across the four paired sites. In addition, we interviewed 84 key informants to understand their perceptions of species trends in these two management regimes. We found that protected areas had higher overall species richness and were important for species that were apparently declining in occurrence. On a site-specific basis, community-managed lands had species richness and occurrences comparable to those of a protected area, and in one case their relative abundances of mammals were higher. Interviewees indicated declines in the abundances of larger-bodied species in community-managed lands. Their observations agreed with our field surveys for certain key, large-bodied species, such as gaur and sambar, which generally occurred less in community-managed lands. Hence, the degree to which protected areas and community-managed lands protect wildlife species depends upon the species in question, with larger-bodied species usually faring better within protected areas.

  14. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Japan. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing bus...

  15. 78 FR 9247 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... fluid milk and related products. Proposal 10 was submitted on behalf of Agri-Mark. Proposal 10 seeks to... February 7, 2013 Part IV Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1000 Milk in... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1000 Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final...

  16. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazujo

    2000-01-01

    Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten Überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive), das japanische Verständnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften...

  17. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Luiz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%, with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  18. Relationship between the seismic scale of the 2011 northeast Japan earthquake and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fumitaka; Makita, Shinji; Ito, Tomonori; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have reported a relationship between large earthquakes and acute coronary events, but have yielded conflicting results. On March 11, 2011, a massive magnitude 9.0 earthquake hit the northeastern coast of Japan and generated repeated aftershocks. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of this earthquake on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) including sudden cardiac death based on the data from a population-based analysis. The study subjects were residents in the northeast of Iwate prefecture, Japan. Cases corresponding to the definition of AMI according to the criteria of the World Health Organization MONICA project were registered from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the disaster and in the corresponding periods in 2009 and 2010. The relative risk of AMI was 2.03 (95% CI 1.55-2.66) for the 4-week period after the disaster compared with the corresponding periods in the preceding years. The number of events peaked within the first week after the earthquake decreased to levels seen in the preceding years and then increased again after high-magnitude aftershocks. The incidence of AMI was positively correlated with the seismic scale of the earthquake (r = 0.75, P earthquake varies depending on the seismic scale of the initial shock and each aftershock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental management and sustainable development in forested mountain areas of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper studied the sustainable development through a reasonable management of the social,economic and natural environment in a forested mountain area of northeast China. In order to show the local peopie how to manage their most important forest resource, we analyzed the life-history process of the key species and the influencing factors that were associated with the forest regeneration and sustainability. Pollination and fertilization were mainly affected by weather conditions. Light intensity under the forest canopy was the key factor that controlled seedlings growth and saplings survival. Periodic seeds setting caused the fluctuations of rodents and other related animals in the food chain. Squirrels played a very important role in the forest regeneration, theses animals were the absolutely indispensable components of the forest ecosystem. How to understand the coevolutionary relationships among species in the forest ecosystems was very important for the conservation of biodiversity and maintenance of ecosystem integrity. In conservation of the natural resources, we studied the social and economic environment of the forested mountain area. It is very hard to effectively protect the forest resources and maintain the normal life of the local people under the regime of the "unified administration and enterprise system". Reforms are needed both in administrative institutions and in enterprise management. In the end, this paper proposed that we should not only protect the trees, the related animals, the ecological habitats, and the whole forest ecosystems, but also consider the human activities and their basic requirements so as to realize a sustainable development in the forested mountain areas.

  20. Early Silurian(Telychian)rugose coral fauna of Daguan area, northeast Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianqiang; HE Xinyi; TANG Lan

    2006-01-01

    Study on rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation(early Telyehian)and Daluzhai Formation (mid-late Telychian)in Daguan area,northeast Yunnan Province,China was carded out.Rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation included 18 genera and 34 species,while Daluzhai Formation with nine genera,ten species.We described rugose coral fauna(12 genera,19 species)including one new genus and five new species,i.e.Protoketophyllum daguanense gen.et sp.nov..Crassilasma huanggexiense sp.nov.,Pseudophaulactis heae sp.nov.,P.convolutus sp.nov.,and Shensiphyllum minor sp.nov..The characteristics and geological significance of rugose coral fauna of Sifengya Formation and Daluzhai Formation were analyzed.Particularly,mgose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation represent early Telychian rugosan fauna in the Upper Yangtze region and improve the sequences of early Silurian(Llandovery)mgose coral assemblages in Yangtze region.It is therefore very meaningful to further analyze radiation period of rugose coral fauna in such epoch.

  1. Shallow seismic section in the central Kanto plain, to the north of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokokura, T.; Ito, S.; Sumita, T.; Makino, M.; Yokota, T.; Kimura, H.

    2008-12-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys were carried out in the central part of the Kanto plain, 40 km northwest of Tokyo, Japan. The survey target ranges about from 50 m to 500 m in depth. The final purpose of the surveys is to reveal the relationship between the subsurface structure and the distribution and flow of the underground water in this area. The survey lines were divided into Kawagoe1(length of CMP line: 8km), Okegawa1(5.3km), Shobu1(8.7km) and Kazo1(6.3km). They line up southwest to northeast from the Iruma upland to the Kazo lowland via the Arakawa lowland and Omiya upland. The survey lines cross the Arakawa fault, the Ayasegawa fault and the Kuki fault. They are considered active, but only the Aysegawa fault has fault topography and is confirmed by subsurface structure. The total length of the lines is about 27km and there is a 2 km long opening between the Okegawa1 and the Shobu1, because of dense population and heavy traffic. Survey parameters are as follows. Seismic source: one EnviroVib or MiniVib or Mini Impactor, shot interval: 2.5m or 10m, sweep frequency: 15-120Hz, sweep length: 13s, receiver: UltraMark2, receiver interval: 10m, elements: 6 bunching, recording instrument: DAS-1, number of channel: 144, listening length: 3.3s, spread: shots from the edge to the 48th point of 144 fixed receiver points, maximum offset: between 1440m and 960m. The data were processed to make seismic sections for each survey line by conventional CMP method. Then the sections were cut and pasted into a series of seismic sections. Many continuous reflectors are imaged between several ten meters and 1 km in depth in the whole seismic section. Reflectors are discontinuous below 1 km, probably because of lack of source energy. In the Iruma upland and Arakawa lowland, the Pliocene and Pleistocene units thicken northeastward, indicating that sedimentation has been synchronous with northeastward tilting of the underlying basement rocks. Undulation and bending of reflectors

  2. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-07-22

    The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  3. Truck-mounted Area-wide Application of Pyriproxyfen Targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    larval control , Aedes aegypti , Aedes albopictus INTRODUCTION Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Asian tiger mosquito) and Ae. aegypti (L.) (yellow fever...Bull Fla Mosq Control Assoc 9:48– 52. Seng CM, Setha T, Nealon J, Socheat D, Nathan MB. 2008. Six months of Aedes aegypti control with a novel...TRUCK-MOUNTED AREA-WIDE APPLICATION OF PYRIPROXYFEN TARGETING AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA1 CARL W. DOUD,2,3 ANTHONY M

  4. Lower air temperature is associated with ambulance transports and death in Takamatsu area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochimasu, Kazumi Dokai; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Naoko; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the linkage among ambulance transports, the number of death and air temperature in Takamatsu area, Japan. Monthly data of ambulance transports (total and acute disease) and the number of death from 2004 to 2012 were obtained from Fire Department Service in Takamatsu and Takamatsu city official website, Japan. Climate parameters for required period were also obtained from Japan Meteorological Agency. Population data in Takamatsu area were also used to adjust ambulance transports and the number of death. The linkage among ambulance transports, the number of death and climate parameters was evaluated by ecological analysis. Total ambulance transports (/a hundred thousand people/day) and ambulance transports due to acute disease (/a hundred thousand people/day) were 12.3 ± 0.9 and 6.8 ± 0.7, respectively. The number of death (/a hundred thousand people/day) was 2.5 ± 0.4. By quadratic curve, ambulance transports due to acute disease and the number of death were significantly correlated with the parameters of air temperature. However, the number of death was the highest in January and the lowest in August. Although higher air temperature was only associated with higher ambulance transports, lower air temperature was associated with both higher ambulance transports and the number death in Takamatsu area, Japan.

  5. Petrological model for the Minamigassan volcano, Nasu volcanoes, northeast Japan arc. Higashi Nippon ko, Nasu kazangun, Minamigassan kazan no gansekigakuteki model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, M. (Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-07-15

    Nasu volcanoes in Northeast Japan arc comprise ten small volcanoes, and Minamigassan is one of these volcanoes. A model of magmatic process of Minamigassan volcano is presented, based on the mineralogical and whole-rock chemical composition data. The eruption products of this volcano are divided into five units, E-1, E-2, L-1, L-2, and L-3 units from lower to upper. E-1, E-2, and L-2 units belong to tholeiite series and L-1 and L-3 units belong to calc-alkaline series. The caldera collapse occurred at the beginning stage of L-1 unit. The chemical variation within E-1 and E-2 units can be interpreted by fractional crystallization of phenocrystic minerals. On the other hand, calc-alkaline suites of L-1 and L-3 units suffered magma mixing, and were formed by mixing between basic magma which resembles E-1 unit magma and felsic magma which is derived from early stage magma through crustal contamination or crustal melt. 34 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Changes in Hydrological Cycle Due to Urbanization in the Suburb Of Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kondoh, Akihiko; Nishiyama, J

    1998-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] The suburbs of Tokyo Metropolitan area has been experiencing heavy land use/cover changes followed by modernization of Japan. The stages of land surface alteration can be precisely monitored by satellite remote sensing data and printed maps. Image processing system and Geographic Information System are used to draw land use/cover maps, and the changes in it was discussed. After delineating the urbanization process, the changes in hydrological cycle are assessed. In this paper, chan...

  7. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuo Kobayashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12 °C, which is considered suitable for the establishment of A. albopictus populations. Our retrospective search revealed the population density of A. albopictus to be high in the urban areas of Japan.

  8. Unequal Accessibility of Nurseries for Sick Children in Over- and Under-Populated Areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Infants and toddlers are prone to rapidly contracting illnesses, which are usually attributed to infectious diseases. Most nurseries and schools in Japan, however, refuse to accept children even with mild illnesses. For working parents, a sick child may therefore create new problems as the situation requires new day-care arrangements. To support such families, the Japanese government subsidizes construction and management of nurseries that operate especially for sick children. However, it has not been known whether most families are able to access such nurseries. To clarify the accessibility of these services, I calculated the distance to the nurseries from each of the 211,012 "blocks" (small residential areas with a median of 0.18 km(2)) in Japan and determined the proportion of children aged 0-4 years who lived within 3, 5, 10, 20 or 30 km of the nearest such nursery. Overall, 82.1% of these children lived within 10 km. However, the proportion was lower in northern parts of Japan such as Hokkaido and Tohoku, which have expansive land areas and low population and pediatric department densities. The proportion of children who lived within that same distance of the nearest nursery was also much lower in small towns and villages with 10,000 or fewer residents. Nurseries for sick children were not evenly distributed, and children and their caregivers in under-populated areas had to travel further to access these facilities. As the national government subsidizes such services, children and caregivers throughout Japan should have equal access to them.

  9. Fruit and Vegetables Consumption: A Pointer for Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention in Northeast Thailand, the Highest Incidence Area in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by opisthorchiasis is a specific public health problem in the Greater Mekong subregional countries. The Northeast Thailand is considered a world's prime area of CCA. Many epidemiological studies found the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA, but their results were inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA prevention in the Northeast Thailand. The authors conducted a comprehensive search of scholarships on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS published during 1990 and 2015. Selected studies about fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA were analyzed. The fixed-effect model was used to estimate pool odds ratios for the consumption vs. nonconsumption. Based on a meta-analysis, consumption of mixed fruit [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96], mixed vegetables (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50-0.75), and combined fruit and vegetables (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57-0.80) was associated with the reduction of CCA risk statistically. These findings support that fruit and vegetables consumption is associated with CCA risk reduction. If implemented in a larger geographical area, the study will shed light on possibilities to future reduction of CCA. Educators can replicate the study to solve CCA or other types of cancer and discover the best practice.

  10. Four Sporadic Pediatric Cases of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infection in a Rural Area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kisei; Yasuda, Ryu; Terakawa, Runa; Koike, Yumi; Takeuchi, Koichi; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Horiuchi, Ayaka; Kubota, Noriko; Hidaka, Eiko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-24

    In the spring of 2015, we experienced a cluster of 4 sporadic cases of yersiniosis in children in Nagano prefecture, a rural area of Japan. Two patients developed appendicitis-like episodes; one had acute gastroenteritis, and the other had bacteremia associated with liver abscess. The causative agent of these infections was Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:8. None of the patients had an underlying illness, and all have recovered completely. The patients were neither socially nor geographically related to each other. These 4 consecutive cases suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:8 has spread substantially in the middle part of Japan, and that this virulent strain might be more common than previously reported in our country.

  11. Structure and predictive skill of strong northeasterly wind events using a limited area numerical weather prediction model at Iqaluit, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Hanesiak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Strong northeasterly wind events are infrequent over Baffin Island, but are potentially hazardous for aviation and the local community of Iqaluit (the capital of Nunavut, Canada. Three strong northeasterly wind events in this region are examined in this study, using the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale-Limited Area Model (GEM-LAM with a horizontal grid spacing of 2.5 km; in-situ observations; and reanalysis data. The skill of the GEM-LAM in simulating these events is examined. With the exception of one event, the GEM-LAM was successful at predicting the large-scale flow in terms of the circulation pattern, timing of the synoptic set-up and the low-level flow over the Hall Peninsula. The onset and cessation of strong winds and timing of major wind shifts was typically well handled by the model to within ~3 h, but with a tendency to underestimate the peak wind speed. The skill of the surface wind forecasts at Iqaluit is critically dependent on the predicted timing and location of the hydraulic jump and the grid point selected to represent Iqaluit. Examination of the observed and modelled data suggest that the strong northeasterly wind events have several features in common: (1 strong gradient-driven flow across the Hall Peninsula, (2 mean-state critical layer (or reverse shear over the Hall Peninsula, (3 a low-level inversion, typically above the maximum barrier height immediately upstream of the Hall Peninsula, (4 subcritical flow, typically present upstream of the Hall Peninsula and (5 a hydraulic jump in the vicinity of Frobisher Bay. The modelled atmospheric conditions upwind of the Hall Peninsula immediately prior to the formation of the hydraulic jump (and acceleration of winds over the lee slope are largely consistent with the prediction of propagating hydraulic jumps presented in the literature.

  12. Five major areas of Northeast China for attracting foreign investment%中国东北吸引外资的五大领域

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ To encourage foreign businesses to take part in revitalising the old industrial base in northeastern China,the Office of the Leading Group for Revitalising the Old Industrial Base in Northeast China under the State Council has recently drafted the Implementation Proposals for Further Opening to the Outside World and Promoting Revitalising the Old Industrial Base in Northeast China, listing five concrete areas for attracting investment to the area. The five areas are acquisition of State-owned enterprises, upgrading of industry, opening of State-owned enterprises, upgrading of industry,opening of several sectors, taxation policy, and investment convenience. The document covers the following contents:

  13. Pain and quality of life in leprosy patients in an endemic area of Northeast Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Victor S; Santana, Jamilly C V; Castro, Fabrícia D N; Oliveira, Laudice S; Santana, Julianne C V; Feitosa, Vera L C; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Cuevas, Luis E

    2016-03-07

    Pain emerges as a challenge in the treatment of leprosy patients. In this study, we describe the prevalence and type of pain in patients with leprosy, and its effect on patients' quality of life in an endemic area of Northeast Brazil. A cross-sectional survey of 260 patients attending leprosy reference centres in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil was conducted. Individuals were assessed for the presence and type of pain, skin sensory loss, peripheral nerve enlargement, touch and pinprick sensations, mechanical allodynia and nerve palpation. Participants completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire, and we also used the Brief Pain Inventory scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF instrument to arrive at our results. One hundred and ninety-five (75 %) patients reported pain, mostly of the neuropathic type. Pain was moderate in 84 (43.1 %) and severe in 94 (48.2 %) participants. The presence of pain was associated with disability (p = 0.001), leprosy reactions (p = 0.004) and lower quality of life. Most patients with neuropathic pain were treated with steroids, despite their low efficacy for this type of pain. Pain is highly prevalent among leprosy patients and is associated with low quality of life. Leprosy management should include a systematic assessment of the type of pain a patient experiences in order to provide adequate treatment.

  14. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takano Takehito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  15. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

    2005-06-14

    Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65) at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361) across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. The estimated HE65 (years) ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000) than in small and medium-size municipalities. A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  16. Prediction of Ozone Concentrations over the Sea of Japan Coastal Area Using WRF/Chem Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Md Habib Al Razi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fully coupled WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model is used to simulate air quality over the Sea of Japan coastal area. Anthropogenic surface emissions database used as input for this model are mainly based on Global hourly emissions data (dust, sea salt, biomass burning, RETRO (REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition, GEIA (Global Emissions Inventory Activity and POET (Precursors of ozone and their Effects in the Troposphere. Climatologic concentrations of particulate matters derived from Regional acid Deposition Model (RADM2 chemical mechanism and Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM with aqueous reaction were used to deduce the corresponding aerosols fluxes for input to the WRF/Chem. The model was firstly integrated for 48 hours continuously starting from 00:00 UTC of 14 March 2008 to evaluate ozone concentrations and other precursor pollutants were analyzed. WPS meteorological data were used for the simulation of WRF/Chem model in this study. Despite the low resolution of the area global emissions and the weak density of the local point emissions, it has been found that WRF/Chem simulates quite well with the diurnal variation of the chemical species concentrations over the Sea of Japan coastal area. The simulations conducted in this study showed that due to the geographical and climatologically characteristics, it is still environmentally friendly by the transported pollutants in this region.

  17. Mass movements in small canyons in the northeast of Baiyun deepwater area, north of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xishuang; LIU Lejun; LI Jiagang; GAO Shan; ZHOU Qingjie; SU Tianyun

    2015-01-01

    The process of mass movements and their consequent turbidity currents in large submarine canyons has been widely reported, however, little attention was paid to that in small canyons. In this paper, we document mass movements in small submarine canyons in the northeast of Baiyun deepwater area, north of the South China Sea (SCS), and their strong effects on the evolution of the canyons based on geophysical data. Submarine canyons in the study area arrange closely below the shelf break zone which was at the depth of –500 m. Within submarine canyons, seabed surface was covered with amounts of failure scars resulted from past small-sized landslides. A complex process of mass transportation in the canyons is indicated by three directions of mass movements. Recent mass movement deposits in the canyons exhibit translucent reflections or parallel reflections which represent the brittle deformation and the plastic deformation, respectively. The area of most landslides in the canyons is less than 3 km2. The trigger mechanisms for mass movements in the study area are gravitational overloading, slope angle and weak properties of soil. Geophysical data indicate that the genesis of submarine canyons is the erosion of mass movements and consequent turbidity currents. The significant effects of mass movements on canyon are incision and sediment transportation at the erosion phases and fillings supply at the fill phases. This research will be helpful for the geological risk assessments and understanding the sediment transportation in the northern margin of the SCS.

  18. Is global dimming and brightening in Japan limited to urban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Ohmura, Atsumu; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Ohkawara, Nozomu

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide observations indicate secular trends of all-sky surface solar radiation on a decadal time scale, termed global dimming and brightening. Accordingly, the observed surface radiation in Japan generally shows a strong decline until the end of the 1980s and then a recovery until around 2000. Because a substantial number of measurement stations are located within or close to populated areas, one may speculate that the observed trends are strongly influenced by local air pollution and are thus not of large-scale significance. This hypothesis poses a serious question as to what regional extent the global dimming and brightening are significant: are the global dimming and brightening truly global phenomena, or regional, or even only local? Our study focused on 14 meteorological observatories that measured all-sky surface solar radiation, zenith transmittance, and maximum transmittance. On the basis of municipality population time series, historical land use maps, recent satellite images, and actual site visits, we concluded that eight stations have been significantly influenced by urbanization, with the remaining six stations being left pristine. Between the urban and rural areas, no marked differences were identified in the temporal trends of the aforementioned meteorological parameters. Our findings suggest that global dimming and brightening in Japan occurred on a large scale, independently of urbanization.

  19. Revisiting the Interplate Coupling Beneath Northeast Japan Before the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) Based on Terrestrial and Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, T.; Hino, R.; Kido, M.; Ohta, Y.; Miura, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large coseismic slip along the Japan Trench during the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) highlighted the necessity of the re-examination of the interplate coupling on the boundary between the subducting Pacific and overriding continental plates beneath the northeastern Japanese Islands. Interplate coupling along the shallowest portion of the megathrust before the Tohoku Earthquake must have been persistent, but spatial resolution of the inversion analysis based only on terrestrial geodetic data is generally not high enough to constrain the coupling state in the far offshore area.Meanwhile, seafloor geodetic observation has been developed and applied off the Pacific coast of Tohoku district in this decade, and the secular displacement rates before the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake are reported by Japan Coast Guard and Tohoku University. These seafloor geodetic observation data are invaluable to estimate the interplate coupling beneath the northeastern Japan, but have been difficult to be included in the inversion analyses, because the measurements contain large uncertainties and are more sparsely sampled both in temporal and spatial domains than the terrestrial observations. To overcome this difficulty, we have taken into account the correlations between the observed displacement rates at terrestrial GPS stations in the inversion analyisis. We assumed that the covariance between the displacement rates at two different GPS sites depends on the distance, and configured the covariance between the different components, such as EW, NS and UD, by applying the result of raw GPS data processing.We performed numerical test to examine the advantage of involving the covariance matrix, and concluded that the covariance between the observations should be taken into account in the inversion analysis. We appied the inversion to the actual displacement field data obtained before the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. The results show that evident temporal change of the slip deficit had occurred after an

  20. Estimating occupancy dynamics for large-scale monitoring networks: amphibian breeding occupancy across protected areas in the northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.W.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Regional monitoring strategies frequently employ a nested sampling design where a finite set of study areas from throughout a region are selected within which intensive sub-sampling occurs. This sampling protocol naturally lends itself to a hierarchical analysis to account for dependence among sub-samples. Implementing such an analysis within a classic likelihood framework is computationally prohibitive with species occurrence data when accounting for detection probabilities. Bayesian methods offer an alternative framework to make this analysis feasible. We demonstrate a general approach for estimating occupancy when data come from a nested sampling design. Using data from a regional monitoring program of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in vernal pools, we analyzed data using static and dynamic occupancy frameworks. We analyzed observations from 2004-2013collected within 14 protected areas located throughout the northeast United States . We use the data set to estimate trends in occupancy at both the regional and individual protected area level. We show that occupancy at the regional level was relatively stable for both species. Much more variation occurred within individual study areas, with some populations declining and some increasing for both species. We found some evidence for a latitudinal gradient in trends among protected areas. However, support for this pattern is overestimated when the hierarchical nature of the data collection is not controlled for in the analysis. For both species, occupancy appeared to be declining in the most southern areas, while occupancy was stable or increasing in more northern areas. These results shed light on the range-level population status of these pond-breeding amphibians and our approach provides a framework that can be used to examine drivers of change including among-year and among-site variation in occurrence dynamics, while properly accounting for nested structure of

  1. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  2. Building areas of hospitals in Japan and distribution of areas by department--1980's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M; Nakayama, S; Liu, Y Y; Kawaguchi, Y

    1993-07-01

    (1) Areas of entire hospitals which have been continuously increasing in the past 30 years are finally showing signs for slowing down. The areas of the hospitals completed in the 1980's were generally 50 to 80 m2 per bed. (2) The distribution of the nursing department to the entire hospitals in area ratio ranges from 30 to slightly more than 40%, or higher than 35% in most cases. The actual areas of the nursing department has surpassed 20 m2 per bed in a considerably large number of hospitals. (3) The area ratio of the outpatient department tends to concentrate to about 12%. Of this percentage, in almost all hospitals, the proportion of the emergency division was less than 2%. (4) As in the 1970's, the diagnostic and treatment facilities were within the range of 18 to 22% in the majority of the hospitals. The distribution shifted to ratios higher than the previous survey. The distributions for the various sections are as follows: 1) Specimen test rooms 3 to 5% 2) Physiological examination rooms slightly below 1% to slightly above 2% 3) X-ray diagnosis rooms about 4% 4) Radiation therapy rooms about 1% 5) Nuclear medicine rooms about 1% 6) Operating department 3 to 5%, 2 to 3 m2/bed 7) Delivery suite less than 1% 8) Rehabilitation department 1 to 4% 9) Hemodialysis suite about 1% (5) The area ratios of the supply department dispersed substantially between 12 and 25%. About 70% of the hospitals remained in the range of 15 to 20%. The ratios of the various sections in the department are as follows: 1) Pharmacy: slightly less than 2% to slightly less than 3% 2) Central sterile and supply department: about 2% 3) Blood bank: installed in hospitals with more than 500 beds 4) Kitchen: slightly more than 2% to slightly more than 3%, 1.5 to 2.5 m2/bed 5) Laundry: less than 1% 6) Central storage and material hundling unit: about 1% 7) Mechanical plant: 5 to 13% (6) The administration department allocates 7 to 14% of its area to the management division and 2 to 6% to the

  3. Ambulance Dispatches From Unaffected Areas After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Impact on Emergency Care in the Unaffected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Nagata, Takashi; Abe, Takeru; Hasegawa, Manabu; Nabeshima, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-01

    Although dispatching ambulance crews from unaffected areas to a disaster zone is inevitable when a major disaster occurs, the effect on emergency care in the unaffected areas has not been studied. We evaluated whether dispatching ambulance crews from unaffected prefectures to those damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake was associated with reduced resuscitation outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases in the unaffected areas. We used the Box-Jenkins transfer function model to assess the relationship between ambulance crew dispatches and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before hospital arrival or 1-month survival after the cardiac event. In a model whose output was the rate of ROSC before hospital arrival, dispatching 1000 ambulance crews was associated with a 0.474% decrease in the rate of ROSC after the dispatch in the prefectures (p=0.023). In a model whose output was the rate of 1-month survival, dispatching 1000 ambulance crews was associated with a 0.502% decrease in the rate of 1-month survival after the dispatch in the prefectures (p=0.011). The dispatch of ambulances from unaffected prefectures to earthquake-stricken areas was associated with a subsequent decrease in the ROSC and 1-month survival rates in OHCA cases in the unaffected prefectures.

  4. The Cenozoic Volcanoes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaqi; HAN Jingtai; GUO Zhengfu

    2002-01-01

    There are more than 600 Cenozoic volcanic cones and craters with abeut 50 000 km2of lava flows in northeast China, which formed many volcanic clusters and shown the features of the continental rift - type volcanoes. Most volcanic activities in this area, especially in the east part of Songliao graben, were usually controlled by rifts and faults with the main direction of NE / NNE in parallel and become younger from the central graben towards its both sides, especially to the east continental margin. It is revealed that the volcanism occurred in northeast China was as strong as that occurred in Japan during the Miocene and the Quaternary. The Quaternary basalt that is usually distributed along river valley is called "valley basalt"while Neogene basalt usually distributed in the top of mounts is called "high position basalt". These volcanoes and volcanic rocks are usually composed of alkaline basalts with ultramafic inclusions, except Changbaishan volcano that is built by trachyte and pantellerite.

  5. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Watanabe, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 101 marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. In particular, to determine the degree of PCB contamination in the fish, we investigated the concentration of total PCB (∑PCB) and the proportions of 209 individual PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ∑PCB concentration was 1.7-33 ng/g in fat greenling (n = 29), 0.44-25 ng/g in flounder (n = 36), and 1.6-86 ng/g in mackerel (n = 36), all values being much lower than the provisional regulatory limit in Japan. In the congener analysis, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorinated PCB congeners dominated in all samples (comprising over 86% of the ∑PCB). The proportions of the chlorinated PCB congeners were similar to the contamination patterns derived from Kanechlor in the environment, implying that the marine fish were not contaminated with fresh PCBs.

  6. Geospatial analysis of invasion of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: competition with Aedes japonicus japonicus in its northern limit area in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Nihei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to Southeast Asia and nearby islands, has spread almost worldwide during recent decades. We confirm the invasion of this mosquito, first reported in Yamagata city in northeast Honshu, Japan in 2000. Previously, only Ae. japonicus japonicus had been collected in this place, but 2 years later, the population of Ae. albopictus had increased, so more than 80% of the total number of larval colonies there consisted of this species. In contrast to Yamagata’s new residential area, now infested by Ae. albopictus, the original mosquito remains in the city but its habitats are generally closer to the surrounding mountains, where the normalized difference vegetation index is higher. The factors affecting the distribution of both species in Yamagata city were studied using geographical information systems (GIS based on data derived from field surveys, aerial photographs, satellite images and digital maps. The range of Aedes mosquito habitats was estimated and visualised on polygon maps and no significant differences were noted when the polygon area was calculated by GIS software in comparison with the satellite images. Although Ae. j. japonicus was expected to be rapidly overrun by Ae. albopictus, this did not happen. Currently, both species coexist; not only in separate sites, but also simultaneously in various water bodies, where larvae from both species have frequently been seen. However, the competitive relationship between these two Aedes species within a warming environment is an issue that should be closely monitored.

  7. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Komagata, Osamu; Yonejima, Mayuko; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Hirabayashi, Kimio; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Nihei, Naoko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2014-09-01

    A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV) infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12°C, which is considered suitable for the establishment of A. albopictus populations. Our retrospective search revealed the population density of A. albopictus to be high in the urban areas of Japan. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Surficial Geologic Map of the Salem Depot-Newburyport East-Wilmington-Rockport 16-Quadrangle Area in Northeast Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet Radway; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 16 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 658 mi2) in northeast Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (grain size, sedimentary structures, mineral and rock-particle composition), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  9. Surficial Geologic Map of the Ashby-Lowell-Sterling-Billerica 11-Quadrangle Area in Northeast-Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.

    2007-01-01

    The surficial geologic map shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of eleven 7.5-minute quadrangles (total 505 mi2) in northeast-central Massachusetts. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. This compilation of surficial geologic materials is an interim product that defines the areas of exposed bedrock, and the boundaries between glacial till, glacial stratified deposits, and overlying postglacial deposits. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text (PDF), a regional map at 1:50,000 scale (PDF), quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  10. Pentastomid, Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008, infecting lizards in an area of caatinga, northeast, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Santana, G G; Vieira, W L S; Wanderley, I C; Freire, E M X; Vasconcellos, A

    2008-05-01

    Pentastomids can infect the respiratory tract of lizards, causing their death and as a result influencing the population size of hosts. Despite this, studies on rates of pulmonary infection of Brazilian lizards, including those living in Caatinga ecosystems of northeastern Brazil are scarce. Active collections of lizards were performed from October to December 2004 in an area of Caatinga of the Estação Experimental de São João do Cariri -- EESJC (07 masculine 25' S and 36 masculine 30' W), located in the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. Forty-five lizards inhabiting granite outcrops in an area of Caatinga were captured, belonging to the following species: Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) (18 individuals), T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825) (15 individuals), Phyllopezus periosus Rodrigues, 1986 (6 individuals), and P. pollicaris (Spix, 1825) (6 individuals). Laboratory examination revealed that all species had some degree of pulmonary infection caused by Raillietiella mottae. The highest rates of prevalence (66.7%) and mean intensity of infection (5.25 +/- 2.01, range of 2-11) were observed in P. periosus. The results obtained in this study show that lizards of the Brazilian semi-arid region are infected by a generalist species of pentastomid. The most likely cause for such pattern is the similarity in lizards' diets (ants and termites). It is particularly noteworthy that T. semitaeniatus, P. periosus, and P. pollicaris represent new host records for R. mottae.

  11. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Luiz; Almeida Maria; Lima Danilo DF; Bettiol Heloísa; Guimarães Alzira Maria DN; Ribeiro Eleonora RO; Silva Antônio; Gurgel Ricardo Q.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance ...

  12. Sandfly fauna in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica de Lourdes Sierpe Jeraldo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, visceral leishmaniasis, a major public health problem, has been spreading from the rural to urban areas in many areas of Brazil, including Aracaju, the capital of the State of Sergipe. However, there are no studies of the sandfly fauna in this municipality or its variation over the year. METHODS: Phlebotomine sandflies were collected from a rural area of Aracaju from September 2007 to July 2009. Modified CDC ultra-violet (UV light traps were used to evaluate sandfly monthly distribution and their presence in the domestic and peridomestic environments. RESULTS: The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4% followed by Evandromyia lenti (9.6%. A chicken shed trap site had the highest proportion of L. longipalpis (51.1% and large numbers of L. longipalpis were also collected in the houses closest to the chicken shed. There was a positive correlation between monthly rainfall and L. longipalpis abundance. CONCLUSIONS: Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most abundant species and is probably the main vector of the visceral leishmaniasis agent in the rural area of Aracaju. An increase in L. longipalpis frequency was observed during the rainy season. The peridomicile-intradomicile observations corroborate the importance of chicken sheds for the presence of L. longipalpis in the peridomestic environment. The great numbers of L. longipalpis inside the houses confirm the endophilic behaviour of this species and the possibility of visceral transmission in the intradomicile.

  13. Tremor Hypocenters Form a Narrow Zone at the Plate Interface in Two Areas of SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The tremor detectors developed for accurately locating tectonic tremor in Cascadia [Armbruster et al., JGR 2014] have been applied to data from the HINET seismic network in Japan. In the overview by Obara [Science 2002] there are three strong sources of tectonic tremor in southwest Japan: Shikoku, Kii Pen. and Tokai. The daily epicentral distributions of tremor on the HINET web site allow the identification of days when tremor in each source is active. The worst results were obtained in Shikoku, in spite of the high level of tremor activity observed there by others. This method requires a clear direct arrival of the S and P waves at the stations for coherence to be seen, so scattering and shear wave splitting are possible reasons for poor results there. Relatively wide station spacing, 19-30 km, is another possible reason. The best results were obtained in Tokai with stations STR, HRY and TYE spacing 18-19 km, and Kii Pen. with stations KRT, HYS and KAW spacing 15-22 km. In both of those areas the three station detectors see strong episodes of tremor. If detections with three stations are located by constraining them to the plate interface, a pattern of persistent sources is seen, with some intense sources. This is similar to what was seen in Cascadia. Detections with four stations give S and P arrival times of high accuracy. In Tokai the hypocenters form a narrow, 2-3 km thick, zone dipping to the north, consistent with the plate interface there. In Kii Pen. the hypocenters dip to the northwest in a thin, 2-3 km thick, zone but approximately 5 km shallower than a plate interface model for this area [Yoshioka and Murakami, GJI 2007]. The overlap of tremor sources in the 12 years analyzed here suggests relative hypocentral location errors as small as 2-3 km. We conclude that the methods developed in Cascadia will work in Japan but the typical spacing of HINET stations, ~20 km, is greater than the optimum distance found in analysis of data from Cascadia, 8 to 15 km.

  14. Landslide and debris-flow hazard analysis and prediction using GIS in Minamata Hougawachi area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Esaki, Tetsuro; Xie, Mowen; Qiu, Cheng

    2006-10-01

    On July 20, 2003, following a short duration of heavy rainfall, a debris-flow disaster occurred in the Minamata Hougawachi area, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. This disaster was triggered by a landslide. In order to assess the landslide and debris-flow hazard potential of this mountainous region, the study of historic landslides is critical. The objective of the study is to couple 3D slope-stability analysis models and 2D numerical simulation of debris flow within a geographical information systems in order to identity the potential landslide-hazard area. Based on field observations, the failure mechanism of the past landslide is analyzed and the mechanical parameters for 3D slope-stability analysis are calculated from the historic landslide. Then, to locate potential new landslides, the studied area is divided into slope units. Based on 3D slope-stability analysis models and on Monte Carlo simulation, the spots of potential landslides are identified. Finally, we propose a depth-averaged 2D numerical model, in which the debris and water mixture is assumed to be a uniform continuous, incompressible, unsteady Newtonian fluid. The method accurately models the historic debris flow. According to the 2D numerical simulation, the results of the debris-flow model, including the potentially inundated areas, are analyzed, and potentially affected houses, river and road are mapped.

  15. Geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.; Shimada, J.

    2013-12-01

    Inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to identify the evolution of groundwater in a volcanic aquifer system of Kumamoto area (103 Km2) in southern Japan. The modeling was based on flow paths proposed by different researcher using different techniques, and detailed chemical analysis of groundwater along the flow paths. Potential phases were constrained using general trends in hydrochemical data of groundwater, mineralogical data, and saturation indices data of minerals in groundwater. Hydrochemical data from a total of 180 spring, river and well water samples were used to evaluate water quality and to determine processes that control groundwater chemistry. The samples from the area were classified as recharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 type), lateral flow to discharge zone water (Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 type) and stagnant zone water (Na-Cl type). The inverse geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive water chemistry in the area. The downstream changes in groundwater chemistry could be largely explained by the weathering of plagioclase to kaolinite, with possible contributions from weathering of biotite and pyroxene. In a broad sense, the reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the area fall into three categories (1) silicate weathering reactions (2) precipitation of amorphous silica and clay minerals and (3) Cation exchange reactions of Ca2+ to Na+.

  16. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    , and that the LCG model is successful in extracting a population abundance signal fromthe data. In this regard, the model performed appreciably better than a more commonly used raising algorithm based on survey swept-area estimates. Therefore, the LCG model was expanded to include data from the entire survey time...... the correlation between the derived annual recruitment index and recruitment estimated by backcalculation of adult mackerel data. Square root transformation led to the strongest correlation, so this is recommended for further analysis of mackerel abundance. Finally,we provide maps of spatial distributions......, showing that the most important nursery areas are around Ireland, north and west of Scotland, in the northern North Sea north of 598Nand, to some extent, also in the Bay of Biscay....

  17. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  18. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Methods Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster) and 2012 (post-disaster), we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics. Results The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (–5.3%) and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%). The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture’s population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: –1.9% and 3.2%, respectively). Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20–50 km and 50–100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6–5.7) and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7–3.8) more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusions The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area. PMID:28046089

  19. Tributyltin contamination of bivalves in coastal areas around northern Kyushu, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Suguru; Abe, Shin-ichiro; Oshima, Yuji; Kai, Norihisa; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2006-06-01

    We determined tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in bivalve samples of blue mussel (Myitlus edulis), Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and pen shell (Atrina pectinata) collected from coastal areas around northern Kyushu in 1998 and 2001. TBT was detected in all bivalve samples collected, ranging in concentration from 0.008 to 0.135 microg/g wet wt. In Hakata Port, which is an industrial area, high TBT concentrations were detected in bivalves (blue mussel, maximum concentration of 0.135 microg/g wet wt). In the Ariake Sea, which is an important bivalve habitat, TBT concentrations in Manila clams ranged from 0.062 to 0.125 microg/g wet wt in 1998 and from 0.008 to 0.033 microg/g wet wt in 2001. In addition, concentrations of TBT in pen shells collected from the Ariake Sea in 2001 ranged from 0.009 to 0.095 microg/g wet wt. These results clearly demonstrate that, despite the regulation of TBT usage since 1990 in Japan, contamination of bivalves by TBT has persisted in coastal areas around northern Kyushu. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Diversity of bryophytes in priority areas for conservation in the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Patrícia Pereira Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The northeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest is the region with the greatest diversity of bryophytes in the country. However, knowledge about bryophytes is irregularly distributed among Brazilian regions. Therefore, we aimed to contribute to knowledge about bryophytes on a regional scale in the northeastern Atlantic forest, to identify the centers of bryophyte diversity in that region, and to reiterate the importance and identify locations for which new protected areas should be created. We built a database of bryophytes in 23 locations of the region, based on a literature review and new floristic inventories. To identify the locations of greatest relevance to bryophyte conservation, we considered 1 total and endemic species richness, 2 phylogenetic diversity (PD, and 3 functional diversity (proportion of shade specialists. The northeastern Atlantic rainforest contains 396 spp., representing 26% of the taxa occurring in the country, 13 of which are endemic. Generalist species predominated (164 spp., followed by shade (133 spp. and sun (92 spp. specialists. The Murici Ecological Station had the highest richness, number of endemic species, and phylogenetic diversity.

  1. Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the Jardas Al Abid area, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, northeast Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Qot, Gamal M.; Abdulsamad, Esam O.

    2016-09-01

    The Upper Cenomanian-Turonian succession exposed at Jardas al'Abid area consists mainly of carbonates with siliciclastic intercalations. This succession is subdivided lithostratigraphically into: Qasr al'Abid (Late Cenomanian) and Al Baniyah (Late Cenomanian-Coniacian) formations. This sequence is relatively rich in macrofossil assemblages especially bivalves, gastropods, and echinoids with rare ammonites. Based on the first occurrence (FO) and last occurrence (LO) of some index species of these macrofossil groups, an integrated biostratigraphic framework has been constructed. The studied Cenomanian-Turonian sequence is subdivided biostratigraphically into three ammonite biozones; Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides Total Range Zone, Choffaticeras segne Total Range Zone, and Coilopoceras requienianum Total Range Zone. Based on the rest of macrofossil assemblages other than the ammonites, eight biozones were recognized; Mecaster batnensis Total Range Zone, Ceratostreon flabellatum-Neithea dutrugei Acme Zone, Costagyra olisiponensis Acme Zone, Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesicularis vesiculosa Acme Zone, Mytiloides labiatus Total Range Zone = Mecaster turonensis Acme Zone, Rachiosoma rectilineatum-Curvostrea rouvillei-Tylostoma (T.) globosum Assemblage Zone, Radiolites sp.-Apricardia? matheroni Total Range Zone, and Nerinea requieniana Total Range Zone. Most of the proposed biozones are recorded for the first time from Libya. The integration among these biozones as well as local and inter-regional correlation of the biozones have been discussed. The stage boundaries of the studied stratigraphic intervals are discussed, where the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary is delineated at the last occurrence (LO) of Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat), while the Turonian/Coniacian boundary is delineated arbitrary being agree with the LO of the Turonian fauna.

  2. Landslide properties Controlled by the Denudation degree on Granite area in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Makoto; Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiko; Ishizuka, Tadanori

    2014-05-01

    In 2009, numerous shallow landslides were induced in a cretaceous granite region by heavy rainstorms in the area of the city of Hofu, Yamaguchi Prefecture, in western Japan. Fourteen people were killed by the debris flow. This area has a widely distributed plantation surface, and topography formed by denudation processes such as the 2009 landslides. The plantation surface area is known for the frequent occurrence of landslides in the past. However, the relation between the landslide properties and the degree of mountain denudation, which is important for predicting the landslide risk, has not been clarified. We examined the relation between the degree of mountain denudation and the shallow landslide properties [landslide density (number/km2), landslide form, and soil layer structure]. First, we classified the slopes based on the degree of mountain denudation and interpretation of the 2009 landslide scars, using 1-m resolution DEMs, aerial photographs, and field surveys. As a result, the slopes were classified into three types as follows: (1) lightly denuded slopes (L-slope), (2) moderately denuded slopes (M-slope), and (3) heavily denuded slopes (H-slope). The landslide numbers were 23, 54, and 21 in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope regions, respectively. Next, we analyzed the landslide properties using ESRI ArcGIS10. The landslide densities were 77/ km2, 115/ km2, and 41/ km2 in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope areas, respectively. The investigation area experienced heavy precipitation (about 250-300 mm per day). The landslide average volumes were 423 m3, 401 m3, and 173 m3 in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope areas, respectively. The landslide average angles were 28.5° , 33.2° , and 40.4° in the L-slope, M-slope, and H-slope areas, respectively. Finally, we surveyed the landslide form and soil layer structure using detailed field surveys. The landslide form in the L-slope and M-slope areas was that of an 'arc shape type', and in the H-slope area was that of

  3. Radium isotopes in groundwater around Fuji Volcano, Japan -application for groundwater dating on volcanic area-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Young groundwater dating less than 100 years is possible to be obtained from environmental radioactivity with short half life, 3H+3He, 85Kr, or chemical material, CFC-12. The 3H+3He dating method is excellent method to estimate the residence time of shallow groundwater. The one of advantage of the method is small sample volume. The 3He in groundwater is originated by 3 sources, tritiogenic He, mantle He, radiogenic He produced in rock. Especially, as the contribution of the mantle He is greater than the radiogenic and triogenic, when 3H+3He dating apply for groundwater dating on volcanic area, we have to determine ratio of 3 sources. On the other hand, as 85Kr is only originated from atmosphere, it is excellent groundwater dating tracer on volcanic area. However, as 85Kr is ultra low concentration in groundwater, 85Kr is needed to separate from large amount of ground water about 10^5 L. Young groundwater dating by these methods has both advantages and disadvantages, but the disadvantages of the individual methods can be offset by using multiple tracers. Development of a lot of groundwater dating techniques is desired. Therefore, an application of radium isotopes which is simple origin to groundwater dating on volcanic area was tried. Ra-228 and Ra-226 are progenies of Th and U, respectively. The 228Ra/226Ra in ground waters depends on the Th/U in the relevant rocks. As the 228Ra and 226Ra in shallow groundwater on volcanic area are originated from only rock, and the collection of radium isotopes from groundwater is easier than that of 85Kr, implying that it is possible to be good tracer for volcanic area. We aim that groundwater age obtain from 228Ra/226Ra in groundwater and relevant rock on volcanic area. We determined that 228Ra/226Ra observed with river waters and the relevant rocks. The method applied for Kakitagawa around Fuji Volcano, Japan. The relevant rock of Kakitagawa is Mishima lava flow. Our method compared with 3H+3He dating. The residence time of

  4. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  5. Epidemiological investigation and analysis of bronchial asthma in combat troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China

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    Liang SHI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence and related risk factors of occurrence of bronchial asthma in troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China, and explore the corresponding prevention strategy. Methods  A portion of the recruits enlisted in 2012 to Shenyang Command were enrolled as the subjects of the study with three questionnaires. The first questionnaire was carried out during training just after recruit. The second survey was carried out after winter training in selected recruits entering the army for two years, and the last questionnaire was carried out to select recruits just before their discharge from army. The final diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the suspected cases was established by pulmonary function test. Results  In the first period of the survey, the prevalence of asthma was found to be 3.55‰in the newly enlisted recruits; in the second survey 1067 cases were found to be suspicious to have asthma; in the last survey, 26 subjects were finally diagnosed to have asthma, the incidence was 1.73‰. The most common symptoms of the illness at first attack were cough (88.5% and wheeziness (56.3%, and the main inducing factors were respiratory tract infection (76.9% and exposure to cold air (65.4%, and it frequently appeared at early morning (30.8% and forenoon (23.1%. Asthmatic attack presented obvious seasonal predisposition, and it occurred in 19 of 26 patients (73.1% during winter, and 10 (38.5% during spring. The attacks of asthma could be increased by fatigue, allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust, or dysthymia. Conclusion  Fatigue may be the most frequent factor in inducing asthma, and allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust and dysthymia are the risk factors of asthmatic attack. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.13

  6. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

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    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  7. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan

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    Satoshi Hiraoka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year.

  8. Dissolved zinc and its speciation in the coastal hydrothermal area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, H.; Kim, T.; Gamo, T.; Takeda, S.

    2016-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for marine bacteria and phytoplankton. Previous studies indicated that organic complexes of dissolved zinc in surface waters account for about 98% of the total dissolved zinc in the open ocean (e.g., Bruland, 1989; Ellwood and van den Berg, 2000). However, distributions of dissolved Zn and its speciation were not clarified yet in the coastal areas. In this study, we have investigated dissolved Zn distribution and its speciation in the Tachibana Bay (Japan), where an active hydrothermal activity was reported at the coastal areas. Seawater samples were collected from surface to near bottom (D=36 m) in the Tachibana Bay, Nagasaki Prefecture, by using acid-cleaned samplers in May 2012 and 2013. Total dissolved Zn was determined by using CSV after UV-digestion. For the Zn speciation, ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants were obtained from a titration using competitive ligand equilibrium / adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (van den Berg, 1985). In the Tachibana Bay, total dissolved Zn (D-Zn) ranged from 0.33 to 3.1 nM, which were similar concentration levels to those in the open ocean. D-Zn was sharply decreased toward the bottom. High sulfide concentration (94 nM) in coastal bottom waters was observed, reflecting active hydrothermal system near the bottom of Tachibana Bay coast. Zn is seemingly removed as Zn-sulfides from the water column. Also, relatively high total ligand concentration was calculated near the bottom. The biogeochemical cycling of Zn in the Tachibana Bay is considerably affected by hydrothermal system.

  9. Characteristics of smoking cessation in former smokers in a rural area of Japan

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    Koshi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Personal health concerns in former smokers in Nanao, Japan were the predominant motivation for quitting smoking, with the vast majority of former smokers achieving successful smoking cessation by themselves.

  10. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-03-07

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  11. Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinasuta, C; Sornamani, S; Migasena, P; Vivatanasesth, P; Pongpaew, P; Intarakao, C; Vudhivai, N

    1976-12-01

    Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal

  12. Geochemistry and tectonomagatic setting of Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Kangan area, northeast of Sarbisheh, southern Khorasan

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    Mahshid Malekian Dastjerdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located 12km away from the north east of Sarbisheh at the eastern border of the Lut block (Karimpour et al., 2011; Richards et al., 2012. The magmatic activity in the Lut blockhas begun in the middle Jurassic (165-162 Ma and reached its peak in the Tertiary age (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. Volcanic and subvolcanic rocks in the Tertiary age cover over half of the Lut block with up to 2000 m thickness and they were formed due to subduction prior to the collision of the Arabian and Asian plates (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. In the Kangan area, the basaltic lavas cropped out beyond the above intermediate to acid volcanic rocks. In this area, bentonite and perlite deposits have an economic importance. The main purpose of this paper is to present a better understanding of the tectono-magmatic settings of volcanic rocks in the northeast of Sarbisheh, east of Iran based on their geochemical characteristics. Materials and methods Fifteen samples were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion, at the Acme laboratories, Vancouver, Canada. Results The Kangan area is located at the northeast of Sarbishe, Southern Khorasan and the eastern border of the Lut block. In this area, basaltic lavas have cropped out above intermediate to acid lavas such as andesite, dacite, rhyolite (sometimes perlitic .The main minerals in the basalt are plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene, in andesite contain plagioclase, pyroxene, biotite and amphibole and in acid rocks include plagioclase, quartz, sanidine, biotite and amphibole. Intermediate to acid rocks have medium to high-K calc-alkaline nature and basalt is alkaline. Enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (Ce/Yb= 21.14-28.7, high ratio of Zr/Y(4.79- 10.81, enrichment in LILE

  13. Trace metals in bulk precipitation and throughfall in a suburban area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H.; Takamatsu, T.; Koshikawa, M. K.; Hosomi, M.

    Throughfall and bulk precipitation samples were collected monthly for 1.5 years over bare land and under canopies of Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora), Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa), and bamboo-leafed oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia) in a suburban area of Japan. Samples were analyzed for dissolved Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, In, Sn, Sb and Bi by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The metal concentrations were higher in throughfall, especially that of C. japonica, than bulk precipitation. Enrichment ratios (ERs: ratios of metal concentrations in throughfall to those in bulk precipitation) ranged from 2.5 (Zn) to 5.3 (Ag) (3.9 on average), and ERs for slightly soluble metals were generally higher than those for easily soluble metals. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn accounted for 99% of the total concentration of heavy metals in rainwater, whereas those of rare metals such as Ag, In, Sn, and Bi totaled <0.23%. Average concentrations of rare metals were 0.002 and 0.010 μg l -1 for Ag, 0.001 and 0.005 μg l -1 for In, 0.062 and 0.21 μg l -1 for Sn, and 0.006 and 0.023 μg l -1 for Bi in bulk precipitation and throughfall, respectively. The metal concentrations in rainwater were negatively correlated to the volume of rainwater, indicating that washout is the main mechanism that incorporates metals into rainwater. From the enrichment factors, that is, (X/Al) rain/(X/Al) crust, metals other than Fe were shown to be more enriched in rainwater than in the Earth's crust, including those present as a result of leaching from soil dust (Mn) and from anthropogenic sources (Cu, Zn, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, and Bi).

  14. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  15. A serological survey of minute virus of canines (MVC; canine parvovirus type-1) in dogs in the Tokai area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, A; Takiguchi, M; Hirai, K; Kida, H; Carmichael, L E

    2001-11-01

    A serological survey for antibodies to minute virus of canines (MVC) by use of a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test was performed on sera collected from dogs in the Tokai area of Japan. Forty-one of 266 (15.4%) sera had positive titers of 1:40 or higher against the MVC. Results suggest that MVC may have been present in dogs in Japan since, at least, 1990. From this serosurvey, MVC appears to be established in the dog population in Japan. MVC may have a role as a newly recognized viral pathogen of dogs in Japan.

  16. Heterogeneous structure around the rupture area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), Japan, as revealed by aftershock observations using Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Yuya; Shinohara, Masanao; Takanami, Tetsuo; Murai, Yoshio; Yamada, Tomoaki; Hirata, Naoshi; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Mikada, Hitoshi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Uehira, Kenji; Takahashi, Narumi; Nishino, Minoru; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Sato, Takeshi; Araki, Ei'ichiro; Hino, Ryota; Uhira, Kouichi; Shiobara, Hajime; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in the area off southeastern Hokkaido Island, Japan, as the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the island, which is on the North American Plate. The most recent large earthquake in this area, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), occurred on September 26, 2003. In order to investigate aftershock activity in the rupture area, 47 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were quickly deployed after the main shock. In the present study, we simultaneously estimate the hypocenters and 3-D seismic velocity models from the P- and S-wave arrivals of the aftershocks recorded by OBSs. The subducting plate is clearly imaged as a northwest dipping zone in which Vp is greater than 7 km/s, and the relocated hypocenters also show the subducting Pacific Plate. The aftershock distribution reveals that the dip angle of the plate boundary increases abruptly around 90 km from the Kuril Trench. The bending of the subducting plate corresponds to the southeastern edge of the rupture area. The island arc crust on the overriding plate has P-wave velocities of 6-7 km/s and a Vp/Vs of 1.73. A region of Vp/Vs greater than 1.88 was found north of the epicenter of the main shock. The depth of the high Vp/Vs region extends about 10 km upward from the plate interface. The plate boundary just below the high Vp/Vs region has the largest slip at the main rupture. A high Vp anomaly (~ 7.5 km/s) is found in the island arc crust in northeast part of the study area, which we interpret as a structural boundary related to the arc-arc collisional tectonics of the Hokkaido region, as the rupture of the main shock terminated at this high Vp region. We suggest that the plate interface geometry and the trench-parallel velocity heterogeneity in the landward plate are principal factors in controlling the rupture area of the main shock.

  17. Structural Analysis of Serpentinite in the Jikkoku Pass Area, Northwestern Kanto Mountains, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirauchi, K.; Hisada, K.

    2004-12-01

    Serpentinite is a product made by hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks such as peridotite. It has been understood that serpentinite along a fault or a plate boundary plays a role as a lubricant for rheological properties. However, it is unknown how serpentinite actually acts through its deformation processes. The study area is located on the Jikkoku Pass area, northwestern Kanto Mountains, central Japan. Serpentinite bodies are intermittently distributed along fault boundaries. In this study, we divided serpentinite into four deformation stages (D1-D4) based on meso- and microstructures. 1) D1 stage: It is represented by block-in-matrix structure. Block sizes are various, and their longest axis is about 1 m. Shapes of blocks are almost oblate type and rounded to subangular. The long axes of blocks nearly show a same orientation, and planar structures are nearly parallel to them. Inner structures of blocks are entirely deformed, and mesh texture as a pseudomorph of olivine and euhedral chromian spinels are observed. Serpentines consist mainly of lizardite and chrysotile. Fine-gained serpentines of various sizes are randomly scattered in the matrix. 2) D2 stage: It is represented by alternation in portions of different colors and textures. Colors consist mainly of dark green and yellowish green. Intervals of this alternation vary from 1 to 3 mm. In portions of dark green, needle-shaped antigorites have a preferred orientation. Antigorites are remarkably fine-grained in some cases, and are similar to characteristics of ultramylonite. Portions of yellowish green include opaque minerals such as magnetite, forming planar structures. A chromian spinel occurs as a porphyroclast (rounded shape) together with fine-grained recrystallized antigorites. 3) D3 stage: It is represented by fracture foliation. It is formed by foliation as fracture planes that are penetratively developed with a few hundreds of ƒEm intervals. Besides, intervals of this foliation also vary on

  18. Income inequality, area-level poverty, perceived aversion to inequality, and self-rated health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-08-01

    In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.

  19. Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of El Paso and the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines.

  20. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  1. Cytogenetic examination of persons working in the area of radiation accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan

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    Nugis V.Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: biological dose indication of employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia who took part in the work in Japan in connection with the accident at Fukushima-1 NPP and several journalists covering this event. Material and methods. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of 46 people was performed. Results. The frequency of chromosomal damages exceeded background levels in only 3 people, and aberration character testified irradiation in previous situations. Conclusion. The significant overexposure of these workers during they stayed in Japan is absent, however it is necessary to perform a preliminary analysis of chromosome aberrations if you intend to exercise of biological dose indication after returning of people from areas of potential exposure.

  2. Bisphenol analogues in sediments from industrialized areas in the United States, Japan, and Korea: spatial and temporal distributions.

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    Liao, Chunyang; Liu, Fang; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yun, Sehun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-11-06

    Bisphenol analogues are used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Despite the widespread use of bisphenols, few studies have reported the occurrence of compounds other than bisphenol A (BPA) in sediment. In this study, concentrations and profiles of eight bisphenol analogues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in sediments collected from several industrialized areas in the United States (U.S.), Japan, and Korea. The total concentrations of bisphenols (ΣBPs; sum of eight bisphenols) in sediment ranged from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 25,300 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 201 ng/g dw. Sediment samples from Lake Shihwa, Korea, contained the highest concentrations of both individual and total bisphenols. Among individual bisphenols, BPA and bisphenol F (BPF) were the predominant compounds, accounting for 64% and 30% of the total bisphenol concentrations in sediment. We also examined vertical profiles of concentrations of bisphenol analogues in sediment cores from the U.S. and Japan. Sediment cores from the U.S. showed a gradual decline in the concentrations of bisphenols as compared to the past decade. BPA concentrations were found to decline in a sediment core from Tokyo Bay, but bisphenol S (BPS) was more frequently detected in core sections that represent the most recent decade, which is consistent with the replacement of BPA with BPS in some applications since 2001 in Japan.

  3. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

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    Baoru Sun

    Full Text Available Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  4. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

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    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  5. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  6. Trends of second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori in Japan: a multicenter study in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichi; Tokunaga, Kengo; Kawai, Takashi; Kawakami, Kohei; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Kurihara, Naoto; Ito, Masayoshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Omata, Fumio; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Torii, Akira; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Mine, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, the eradication rate of first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) has been decreasing because of a high prevalence of CAM resistance. A possible decrease of the eradication rate for second-line therapy with a PPI, AMPC and metronidazole (MNZ) is of concern. The aim of this study is to assess the trends in second-line eradication therapy for H. pylori in Japan. We accumulated data retrospectively on patients administered second-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori with a PPI, AMPC, and MNZ for 1 week after failure of first-line eradication therapy with a PPI, AMPC and CAM at 15 facilities in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan from 2007 to 2011. Trends for second-line eradication rates in modified intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were investigated. Second-line eradication rates were categorized by three PPIs (rabeprazole (RPZ), lansoprazole (LPZ) or omeprazole (OMZ)) and evaluated. We accumulated data on 1373 patients. The overall second-line eradication rate was 92.4%. Second-line eradication rates in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 were 97.7, 90.6, 94.5, 91.8 and 91.8%, respectively, with no significant trends revealed. Second-line eradication rates categorized by three PPIs for the entire 5-year period were 91.6, 93.4 and 92.4% (RPZ, LPZ and OPZ, respectively) with no significant differences among the three PPIs. From 2007 to 2011, there were no significant trends in the second-line eradication rates and the rates remained consistently high. From the viewpoint of high prevalence of CAM resistance in Japan, triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and MNZ may be a better strategy for first-line therapy compared to triple therapy with PPI, AMPC and CAM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genetic diversity and distribution of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae in coastal areas of Japan.

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    Tomohiro Nishimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP: one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006-2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8-D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU r

  8. Quasi-periodic slow slip events in the afterslip area of the 1996 Hyuga-nada earthquakes, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarai, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Shinzaburo

    2013-05-01

    The time evolution of afterslip on a plate boundary experiencing interplate earthquakes is expected to show logarithmic decay. The global positioning system network in Japan has been monitoring transient deformation since the occurrence of two large interplate earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 6.8 and 6.7 in the Hyuga-nada area, southwest Japan, in 1996. The spatial and temporal evolution of aseismic interplate slip based on crustal deformation data indicates that afterslip followed the two earthquakes and gradually declined to background rates by around 2004 with total moment magnitude of 7.3. However, quasi-periodic slow slip events suddenly began within the afterslip area in 2005 with approximately one year duration and two-year recurrence interval. The moment magnitudes of the three slow slip events since January 2005 range from 6.7 to 6.8. This differs greatly from the expected behavior of logarithmic decay over time. Both velocity-strengthening and velocity-weakening rate-and-state modes have been implicated as the cause of afterslip, whose location is complementary to the main shock area of velocity-weakening, while a slow slip event occurs in the velocity-weakening area with different frictional properties from those of an afterslip area. In light of the seemingly different frictional properties, the coexistence of afterslip and slow slip events in the same area would provide additional information about precisely how the plate interface is behaving. The monitoring of these slow slip events should give the clues to understanding the coexistence of long-term afterslip and slow slip events and the increasing risk of earthquakes in neighboring areas.

  9. Risk presented by Copernicia prunifera palm trees in the Rhodnius nasutus distribution in a Chagas disease-endemic area of the Brazilian northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marli M; Coutinho, Carolina F S; Gomes, Taís F; Oliveira, Tiago G; Duarte, Rosemere; Borges-Pereira, José; Bóia, Márcio N; Sarquis, Otília

    2008-11-01

    With the aid of live-bait traps, we studied the risk that Copernicia prunifera palm trees, present in both periurban and rural localities of an endemic Brazilian northeast Chagas disease region, represent to domestic infestation by Rhodnius nasutus. In this area, this important vector has been encountered harboring and transmitting Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of the American trypanosomiasis, to mammals, possibly including humans. Results indicate that this bug colonizes C. prunifera palm trees of both regions, mainly in dry seasons, and is infected with high levels of T. cruzi. Although more triatomines were captured in rural areas, proportionally the number of infected bugs from peri-urban regions was much higher. Herein we address the epidemiologic implications and challenge for the Brazilian health authorities to control the disease in this region, where the native palm trees have been largely destroyed causing a severe disturbance in the environmental equilibrium.

  10. Development of low-CO2-emission vehicles and utilization of local renewable energy for the vitalization of rural areas in Japan

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    Kenji Amagai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of Japan's energy supply depends on imports from foreign countries, making the independence ratio of energy in Japan very low. The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami led to a mass shutdown of all the nuclear plants in Japan, a stoppage that is still in effect. In this paper, we review the energy supply situation and some social problems faced by rural areas in Japan. Given that lifestyles in rural Japan are reliant on automobiles, there is significant demand for the establishment of a sustainable mobility society. Furthermore, Japan is now entering an aging society ahead of other countries. In order to enhance the vitalization of rural areas and accelerate the establishment of sustainable society, our project developed low-CO2-emission vehicles (i.e., a single-driver EV [micro-EV] and a low-speed E-bus for elderly people and tourists through the cooperation of regional industries, a local university, and a city office. This paper also reports some trial test results on renewable energy utilization as the driving energy supply for these low-emission vehicles.

  11. The geochemical and petrological characteristics of prenatal caldera volcano: a case of the newly formed small dacitic caldera, Hijiori, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Isoji; Kita, Noriko; Morishita, Yuichi

    2017-09-01

    Evaluating the magma depth and its physical properties is critical to conduct a better geophysical assessment of magma chambers of caldera volcanoes that may potentially cause future volcanic hazards. To understand pre-eruptive conditions of a magma chamber before its first appearance at the surface, this paper describes the case of Hijiori caldera volcano in northeastern Japan, which emerged approximately 12,000 years ago at a place where no volcano ever existed. We estimated the depth, density, bulk modulus, vesicularity, crystal content, and bulk H_2O content of the magma chamber using petrographic interpretations, bulk and microchemical compositions, and thermodynamic calculations. The chemical mass balance calculations and thermodynamic modeling of the erupted magmas indicate that the upper portion of the Hijiori magmatic plumbing system was located at depths between 2 and 4 km, and had the following characteristics: (1) pre-eruptive temperature: about 780 °C; (2) bulk magma composition: 66 ± 1.5 wt% SiO2; (3) bulk magmatic H_2O: approximately 2.5 wt%, and variable characteristics that depend on depth; (4) crystal content: ≤57 vol%; (5) bulk modulus of magma: 0.1-0.8 GPa; (6) magma density: 1.8-2.3 g/cm3; and (7) amount of excess magmatic H_2O: 11-32 vol% or 48-81 mol%. The range of melt water contents found in quartz-hosted melt inclusions (2-9 wt%) suggests the range of depth phenocrysts growth to be wide (2˜13 km). Our data suggest the presence of a vertically elongated magma chamber whose top is nearly solidified but highly vesiculated; this chamber has probably grown and re-mobilized by repeated injections of a small amount of hot dacitic magma originated from the depth.

  12. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial transferability of habitat suitability models of Nephrops norvegicus among fished areas in the Northeast Atlantic: sufficiently stable for marine resource conservation?

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    Valentina Lauria

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution and habitat associations of species in relation to the environment is essential for their management and conservation. Habitat suitability models are useful in quantifying species-environment relationships and predicting species distribution patterns. Little is known, however, about the stability and performance of habitat suitability models when projected into new areas (spatial transferability and how this can inform resource management. The aims of this study were to model habitat suitability of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus in five fished areas of the Northeast Atlantic (Aran ground, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Scotland Inshore and Fladen ground, and to test for spatial transferability of habitat models among multiple regions. Nephrops burrow density was modelled using generalised additive models (GAMs with predictors selected from four environmental variables (depth, slope, sediment and rugosity. Models were evaluated and tested for spatial transferability among areas. The optimum models (lowest AICc for different areas always included depth and sediment as predictors. Burrow densities were generally greater at depth and in finer sediments, but relationships for individual areas were sometimes more complex. Aside from an inclusion of depth and sediment, the optimum models differed between fished areas. When it came to tests of spatial transferability, however, most of the models were able to predict Nephrops density in other areas. Furthermore, transferability was not dependent on use of the optimum models since competing models were also able to achieve a similar level of transferability to new areas. A degree of decoupling between model 'fitting' performance and spatial transferability supports the use of simpler models when extrapolating habitat suitability maps to different areas. Differences in the form and performance of models from different areas may supply further information on the processes

  14. Prevalence of anemia among healthy women in 2 metropolitan areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Eiji; Shoji, Midori; Endou, Shigeyuki; Kishi, Yukiko; Shibata, Taro; Murashige, Naoko; Hamaki, Tamae; Matsumura, Tomoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Yoneyama, Akiko; Kami, Masahiro

    2006-10-01

    Anemia is common among young women, and iron deficiency is one of the leading causes. In Europe and the US, the iron fortification of flour increased oral iron intake and decreased anemia prevalence from 30% to 10%. The National Nutrition Survey in Japan revealed that anemia prevalence among young Japanese women is increasing; however, no nationwide preventive policy has been aimed at iron deficiency anemia. The endpoint of this study was the estimation of anemia prevalence among healthy Japanese woman, based on a large sample size. We collected data from the consecutive check-up examination records of apparently healthy women (n = 13,147). We defined hemoglobin lower than 12 g/dL as anemia, hemoglobin lower than 10 g/dL as severe anemia, and a mean corpuscular volume lower than 80 fl as microcytic anemia. Of the 13,147 persons, anemia was identified in 2331 (17.3 %), and severe and microcytic anemia in 438 (3.3 %) and 700 (5.2 %), respectively. Among women younger than 50 years, anemia was identified in 22.3 %, and 25.2 % of them had severe anemia. In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia and severe anemia among young women is high in Japan. Some action needs to be considered to improve women's quality of life.

  15. Revisiting the high temperature metamorphic field gradient of the Ryoke Belt (SW Japan): New constraints from the Iwakuni-Yanai area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Etienne; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Hirajima, Takao; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Ikeda, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    We revisit the origin of the metamorphic field gradient exposed in the Ryoke Belt (SW Japan) - the type locality for low pressure/high temperature (LP/HT) conditions - based on combined structural, petrological and geochronological data from the Iwakuni-Yanai area (W Ryoke). In this area metasedimentary rocks pass from schist in the north to partly migmatitic paragneiss in the south, and are surrounded by numerous granitoid bodies. Three deformation phases are emphasized; an accretionary-stage or burial deformation of weak intensity (D0), a vertical shortening (D1) which generated a subhorizontal, locally extensional foliation in the southern gneiss zone, and E-W upright folding (D2) which reworked both the northern schist and southern gneiss zones. Crystallization-deformation relationships indicate that, in the schist zone, most andalusite, cordierite and mica porphyroblasts formed after D0 and before D1. Syn-D1 mineral assemblages define E-W trending metamorphic zones with increasing grade from north to south, and rare syn-D2 parageneses reveal a similar pattern. Continuous magmatic activity lasted from ca. 105 to 94 Ma. The oldest granitoids (Shimokuhara, Soo, Namera), found in the western part of the belt, were emplaced below schistose rocks at 105-100 Ma. Subsequently, syn- to post-D1 granodiorite (Gamano) intruded concordantly with the foliation of southern, high-grade gneissic rocks from 100 to 94 Ma. A large, syn-D1 pluton (Kibe) intruded the center of the belt at 98 Ma, whereas a younger granite (Iwakuni) and its satellite dykes were emplaced to the northeast at 96-94 Ma. Constraints on the timing of D1 (103-99 Ma) and the likely diachronous D2 phase (100-94 Ma) suggest a deformation continuum during magma intrusion and metamorphism. We conclude that the exposed metamorphic field gradient is an apparent, but fortuitous, alignment of P-T data resulting from spatially and temporally distinct thermal events. Peak temperature conditions in the relatively

  16. Spatio-Temporal Changes in the Rice Planting Area and Their Relationship to Climate Change in Northeast China:A Model-Based Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Tian; WU Wen-bin; ZHOU Qing-bo; YU Qiang-yi; Peter H Verburg; YANG Peng; LU Zhong-jun; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important grain crops in Northeast China (NEC) and its cultivation is sensitive to climate change. This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal changes in the NEC rice planting area over the period of 1980-2010 and to analyze their relationship to climate change. To do so, the CLUE-S (conversion of land use and its effects at small region extent) model was ifrst updated and used to simulate dynamic changes in the rice planting area in NEC to understand spatio-temporal change trends during three periods: 1980-1990, 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. The changing results in individual periods were then linked to climatic variables to investigate the climatic drivers of these changes. Results showed that the NEC rice planting area expanded quickly and increased by nearly 4.5 times during 1980-2010. The concentration of newly planted rice areas in NEC constantly moved northward and the changes were strongly dependent on latitude. This conifrmed that climate change, increases in temperature in particular, greatly inlfuenced the shift in the rice planting area. The shift in the north limit of the NEC rice planting area generally followed a 1°C isoline migration pattern, but with an obvious time-lag effect. These ifndings can help policy makers and crop producers take proper adaptation measures even when exposed to the global warming situation in NEC.

  17. SUBDUCTION OF THE PACIFIC PLATE IN THE SEA OF JAPAN AND EARTHQUAKES OF NORTHEAST CHINA%日本海板块俯冲与中国东北地震

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文斌; 和跃时

    2015-01-01

    利用日本海区丰富的震史资料,研究了该区强震活动时—空变化的某些特征,并以此为据,将1900年以来的地震活动划分了三个地震轮回,同时还分析了各轮回的强震地区分布及其持续时间.分析了中国东北地区深震(mb≥6.0)及浅震(MS≥5.0)的成组性活动特征,研究了日本海西部深震与中国东北地区浅震的相关性.这些结果可作为研究日本海区强震高潮到来和结束的标志以及为判断未来主体活动区等强震预测问题提供线索.%By using the rich historical earthquake data, the author studied some features of temporal and spatial variation of strong seismicity in the Sea of Japan,According to the seismicity since 1900 three seismic cycles are divided,The duration time and the regional distribution of strong earthquakes for each cycle are discussed in the paper. Based on the analyses of grouped activities of deep focus (MS≥6.0)and shallow- focus (MS≥5.0) earthquake in Northeast China, the spatial and temporal correlation between the deep focus "strong earthquake group" and shallow-focus "strong earthquake group"was studied. The research results may be used to the marks for beginning and ending of the high tide period of strong earthquakes to a certain extent.

  18. S-wave reflection and surface wave surveys in liquefaction affected areas: a case study of the Hinode area, Itako, Ibaraki, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Toshiyuki; Jinguuji, Motoharu; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Murata, Kazunori

    2017-10-01

    Property damage results from liquefaction that occurs easily in soft sandy layers. Moreover, liquefaction damage tends to be more serious at locations where earthquake ground motions are locally amplified. It is commonly understood that ground stiffness is correlated with S-wave velocity (Vs); in addition, the structure of the local subsurface is important for predicting local earthquake ground motion. Surface wave and S-wave reflection surveys are efficient, non-destructive techniques used to obtain two-dimensional S-wave velocity distributions and to map subsurface structures. In this study, we performed surface wave and S-wave reflection surveys to investigate the Hinode area of Itako, Ibaraki, Japan. This area suffered serious liquefaction damage during the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 2011. Using subsurface boundaries imaged by the reflection surveys and the Vs structures obtained by surface wave analyses, it is possible to extrapolate geological and hydraulic information obtained by boring and cone penetration tests (CPTs). The combined information was used to delineate the layer in which liquefaction occurred, identified as an artificial layer of sandy dredged material, formed after 1970. The results of this study confirmed the effectiveness and applicability of geophysical surveys to the evaluation of the liquefaction potential. These methods enable us to predict the spatial distribution of liquefiable soils for future large earthquakes.

  19. Reconstruction of northeast Asia spring temperature 1784–1990

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    M. Ohyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a first attempt of wide-area dendroclimatic reconstruction, based upon seven spring temperature-sensitive chronologies from the ring widths of living trees, in Japan and Korea. Mean March–May temperature derived from a gridded land air temperature dataset (CRUTEM4 between 35–40° N and 125–140° E was reconstructed for the period of AD 1784–1990. Of the seven, two Japanese chronologies were eliminated during the calibration trials. The reconstruction accounted for 19.4% of the temperature variance in the calibration period, and is considered to be skillful for estimating interannual-to-interdecadal variations and not for long-term change. This reconstruction showed remarkably similar fluctuations to regional dendroclimatic reconstructions in Japan and Korea, indicating the past spatial coherency of spring temperatures in the region. The reconstruction was validated against other climate proxies. A fairly good agreement was found with cold periods as estimated from documentary records in southeast China and Japan. The west Japan temperature series recovered from instrumental records also showed a reasonable agreement with the reconstruction. On the other hand, the reconstruction did not show clear abrupt depressions after the Laki and the Tambora eruptions. These comparisons revealed that dendroclimatic spatial reconstruction in this area offers a good potential for reconstructing long-term and large-scale past temperature patterns for northeast Asia.

  20. Reconstruction of northeast Asia spring temperature 1784-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, M.; Yonenobu, H.; Choi, J.-N.; Park, W.-K.; Hanzawa, M.; Suzuki, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a first attempt of wide-area dendroclimatic reconstruction, based upon seven spring temperature-sensitive chronologies from the ring widths of living trees, in Japan and Korea. Mean March-May temperature derived from a gridded land air temperature dataset (CRUTEM4) between 35-40° N and 125-140° E was reconstructed for the period of AD 1784-1990. Of the seven, two Japanese chronologies were eliminated during the calibration trials. The reconstruction accounted for 19.4% of the temperature variance in the calibration period, and is considered to be skillful for estimating interannual-to-interdecadal variations and not for long-term change. This reconstruction showed remarkably similar fluctuations to regional dendroclimatic reconstructions in Japan and Korea, indicating the past spatial coherency of spring temperatures in the region. The reconstruction was validated against other climate proxies. A fairly good agreement was found with cold periods as estimated from documentary records in southeast China and Japan. The west Japan temperature series recovered from instrumental records also showed a reasonable agreement with the reconstruction. On the other hand, the reconstruction did not show clear abrupt depressions after the Laki and the Tambora eruptions. These comparisons revealed that dendroclimatic spatial reconstruction in this area offers a good potential for reconstructing long-term and large-scale past temperature patterns for northeast Asia.

  1. Northeast Asia acid rain problem and environmental cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, E.S. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Total emission amounts of sulfur dioxide in the twenty-three (23) territories of Northeast Asia was 14.7 million tons in 1990. The Northeastern area of China accounted for 81%, Korea 12%, Japan 5%, and North Korea 2%. In the basic scenario, the emission amount of sulfur dioxide in Northeast Asia is estimated to reach 40.5 million tons by the year 2020. Long distance, cross-border air pollutants originating in China, move to the Korean Peninsula and Japan, and esp. acid rain is greatly influenced by the emission of sulfur dioxide in China. Acid rain severely damages not only the natural ecosystem and agricultural products, but also human health, too. Therefore, in order to reduce the future damage from acid rain, emission of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide material should be lessened both domestically and in nearby countries. It would be difficult for those countries in Northeast Asia to sign the multilateral agreement for environmental cooperation within a short period of time because they are in different stages of economic development and set different priorities in their discussion of environmental cooperation. Therefore, it is desirable to make them observe improved environmental standards through existing regional cooperative organizations such as ESCAP, APEC or multilateral external financial institutions such as IBRD, ADB, ODA, and to carry out cooperative businesses for regional environmental improvements. At the same time, environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia related to acid rain should start step by step from obtaining objective and reliable information through scientific studies and should be carried out multi-dimensionally and comprehensively by not only the central government but the local government and NGO in various fields, such as Politics, Economics, Science, Diplomacy, etc. 30 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Serum albumin and mortality risk in a hyperendemic area of HCV infection in Japan

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    Sata Michio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoalbuminemia has been shown to be associated with increased mortality. We reported a mass screening in 1990 of X town in Japan, which demonstrated a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. This follow-up study determined, through a period of 12 years, whether serum albumin levels impact on the life prognosis of the residents of X town. Results Of the 509 subjects, 69 had died and 55 had moved to other regions by 2002. Therefore, we analyzed 454 people for whom we could confirm life and death between 1990 and 2002. Albumin levels were assigned to two groups, low ( Conclusions We show that the serum albumin level is an independent risk factor for mortality from all causes in the residents of X town and an important prognostic indicator. Improvement of hypoalbuminaemia should be considered for improvement of prognosis.

  3. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  4. Terrestrial heat flow distribution in Japan area based on the temperature logging in the borehole of NIED Hi-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of heat flow and geothermal gradient using boreholes on land are often concentrated in specific areas such as geothermal region, so the measured heat flow data in non-volcanic area is poorly mapped. We newly measured thermal gradients and heat flow all over Japanese Islands by using the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's (NIED) high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) boreholes. NIED Hi-net is composed of about 800 borehole stations installed almost homogeneously over the Japanese Islands with an average spacing of 20km. Although majority of the Hi-net stations have the boreholes of 100- 200m in depth, 55 deep (300-1000m) and 29 very deep (1000-3500m) observation wells were constructed at some specific sites if necessary. Because these Hi-net boreholes are designed for a long-term observation, these are structurally stable with using casing pipe. These borehole temperature profiles contain an influence of climate change, so we correct temperature profile for climatic change, the rapid warming of 1950-2000A.D. Comprehensive heat flow distribution in Japan is as follows: low heat flow in forearc region, high heat flow in back-arc region, and there seems to be the correlation between the seismogenic layer thickness in upper crust and terrestrial heat flow. In the volcanic chain area, very high terrestrial heat flow over 200mW/m2 are observed. In the fore-arc area, low heat flow under 50mW/m2 are observed. In the South Kanto area where is metropolitan Tokyo and the Hokkaido Hidaka area, very low heat flow under 40 mW/m2 are observed. In the southern Kii Peninsula, there are many non-volcanic hot springs, so around this area high heat flow over 150mW/m2 are observed. In Shikoku area also high heat flow over 100mW/m2 are observed. Geographical distributions of terrestrial heat flow show that high heat flow stations are observed along the region where non-volcanic long-period tremors occur about 30km deep. In SW Japan

  5. Shallow and Deep-Seated Landslide Differentiation Using Support Vector Machines: A Case Study of the Chuetsu Area, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Dou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are one of the most destructive geological disasters affecting Japan every year, resulting in huge losses in life and property. Numerous susceptibility studies have been conducted to minimize the risk of landslides; however, most of these studies do not differentiate landslide types. This study examines the differences in landslide depth, volume and the risk imposed between shallow and deep-seated landslide types. Shallow and deep-seated landslide prediction is useful in utilizing emergency resources by prioritizing target areas while responding to sediment related disasters. This study utilizes a 2-m DEM derived from airborne Light detection and ranging (Lidar, geological information and support vector machines (SVMs to study the 1225 landslides triggered by the M 6.8 Chuetsu earthquake in Japan and the successive aftershocks. Ten factors, including elevation, slope, aspect, curvature, lithology, distance from the nearest geologic boundary, density of geologic boundaries, distance from drainage network, the compound topographic index (CTI and the stream power index (SPI derived from the DEM and a geological map were analyzed. Iterated over 10 random instances the average training and testing accuracy of landslide type prediction was found to be 89.2 and 77.8%, respectively. We also found that the overall accuracy of SVMs does not rapidly decrease with a decrease in training samples. The trained model was then used to prepare a map showing probable future landslides differentiated into shallow and deep-seated landslides.

  6. Terrane Tectonics in the Northeast Part of Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jiapeng; Ye Mao; Dong Yongsheng; Sun Weizhi

    2000-01-01

    As the members of Chinese Group of the international cooperative project of "Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis,and Tectonics of Northeast Asia", the authors had the opportunity to review the recent achievement of regional geology in this area. This paper is confined to a brief discussion of the nature, composition and evolution of terranes in a part of Northeast China. Nine terranes were recognized. A splicing pattern of when and how the amalgamation of 9 terranes into one microcontient is proposed here.

  7. Extraction of Flooded Areas due the 2015 Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall in Japan Using PALSAR-2 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, F.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    Triggered by two typhoons, heavy rainfall hit Kanto and Tohoku regions of Japan from September 9 to 11, 2015. Increased river water by the continuous rainfall overflowed and destroyed several river banks and caused damaging floods in wide areas. PALSAR-2 onboard ALOS-2 satellite carried out emergency observation for the impacted areas during and after the heavy rainfall. In this study, two pre-event and four co- and post-event PALSAR-2 images were used to extract the inundation area in Joso city, Ibaraki prefecture. First, using the pre-event SAR intensity image and a detailed topographic map, the backscattering coefficient of river water was investigated. Then the flooded areas were extracted by a common threshold value of backscatter for water bodies in the six temporal images. The colour composite of the sigma naught values was also made to visualize pixels that had been converted from ground to water. Finally, the extracted results were compared with those from the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and field survey reports. This comparison revealed that the accuracy of the flood extraction was fairly good for agricultural lands and non-urban land uses. But for built-up urban areas, it was not easy to extract water body since radar illumination did to reach the ground (water) surface.

  8. ECONOMIC EXCHANGES AND SECTORAL AND INTER-CITY COOPERATION IN NORTHEAST ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Northeast Asia with China, Japan and South Korea as the main components has drawn more and more attention worldwide. Many scholars have researched on the prospect of some alternatives of regional economic integration in Northeast Asia and/or Yellow Sea Rim as its core area. In this paper the authors start with an introduction of the major arguments embracing Yellow Sea Rim regionalism, and attempt to identify the dynamics challenging the proposed approaches of sub-regionalism of Northeast Asia. The paper firstly gives a brief review on the update development of bilateral economic exchanges, mainly Sino-Japanese and Sino-South Korean trades and direct investments with related contemporary issues. When the changing pattern of economic interactions is analyzed, special concerns are given to the possibility to realize the supposed potential of regional economic cooperation mainly based on economic complementarity among the related regions of China, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan. The authors then made their major efforts on putting forward possible approaches of multilateral cooperation of three countries in the near future, that is, deepened cooperation in selected sectors of industry and transportation and coordinated development among major cities. The authors stress that the development of sub-regional sectoral cooperation and the formation of interactive network of city-regions via social and economic interactions at local level are significant to the future regional integrated development in Northeast Asia.

  9. Estimation of Secondary Compounds Concentrations Contributed by Biogenic VOC With Chemical Transport Model in the Central Area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Kanemaru, A.; Okumura, M.; Tohno, S.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic VOC (BVOC) has comparably large contribution to generation of secondary air pollutants, such as photochemical oxidant or urban aerosol. In this study a BVOC emission inventory in the Kansai area, which is located in the central part of Japan, based on the field observation was developed. Some validations of the inventory were conducted by estimating the concentration distribution of oxidants with this developed and an existing BVOC emission inventory in Kansai area by meteorological model MM5 and atmospheric chemical transport model CMAQ. In the development of BVOC emission, the vegetation map by the Biodiversity Center of Japan which had been arranged as basic information on natural environmental preservation in a regional standard mesh (the third mesh) in 1999 was used. In this study isoprene and the mono-terpene were taken up as BVOC. Quercus crispula and Quercus serrata were selected as the source of isoprene, and Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtuse, Quercus phillyraeoides, Pinus densiflora, and Pinus thunbergii were selected as sources of mono-terpene. The parameter of the basic emission rate included in the model was decided by arranging the result of the observation in Kansai Research Center of Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in each season. This emission flux from each species were calculated by G93 model by Guenther et al. and meteorological fields for the model, such as temperatures and sunlight intensities, were renewed hour by hour, therefore, this emission inventory has a high time resolution according to the season and time. In calculating meteorological fields, meteorological model MM5 Ver.3.7 was conducted in Japanese standard mesh in the selected five days of April, July, and October in 2004, and January 2005 respectively, and taking out the result of wind velocities and temperatures for substituting to the G93 model. Then atmospheric chemical transport model CMAQ Ver.4.6 with the emission inventories and

  10. 中国东北东部边境地区旅游业发展研究%Tourism Development in the Eastern Border Area of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑梅; 李圆慧; 王亚丰

    2012-01-01

    近年来,随着东北三省几大经济区(带)的战略地位上升,以及一批重大基础设施的相继开建,使得东北地区经济呈现出快速发展之势。同时东北区域一体化进程明显地加快,东北亚地区国际环境的改善以及合作需求的增强,为东北东部边境地区旅游业发展提供了巨大动力。在具体分析了东北东部边境地区旅游资源优势、旅游业发展现状及存在问题的基础上,对区域旅游业发展提出具体建议,特色旅游产品开发主要集中于对边境旅游、自然生态旅游、冰雪旅游、文化旅游等产品的开发,并在此基础上构建"五区-四轴"的旅游空间布局及区域战略合作关系。%With the development of major economic zones(belts) in the three provinces becoming a national strategy and the successive construction of many big infrastructures recently,the economy of Northeast China has been rapidly developed,which obviously accelerates the integration process of Northeast China.Moreover,the improving international environment and increasing cooperation demand remarkably motivate the tourism development of the eastern border area in Northeast China.The eastern border area herein is defined as an area of Northeast China which is close to Russia and North Korea,including territorial ranges of Hegang,Jiamusi,Shuangyashan,Qitaihe,Jixi,Mudanjiang,Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture,Baishan,Tonghua,Benxi,and Dandong.In terms of geographic location,touring resources and historical cultures,the border area definitely plays a leading role in Chinese regional touring cooperation in the northeastern Asia.Touring in the northeastern Asia presently is becoming globally popular,and tourism development will encounter a new breakthrough in regional cooperation of China.Simultaneously,the border area is a main body of Chinese regional cooperation in the northeastern Asia,which bears the reality and feasibility of all-win researching and

  11. Clinical features of Vibrio vulnificus infections in the coastal areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kouichi; Ohshige, Kenji; Fujita, Naohiro; Tomita, Yukiko; Mitsumizo, Shinji; Nakashima, Mikio; Oishi, Hirotaka

    2010-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infection can result in necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis and is associated with high mortality. Most patients infected with this microbe have liver dysfunction as an underlying disease. However, because of the sporadic nature of outbreaks and unidentified cases, extensive evaluation of clinical features and identification of factors affecting prognosis have not been performed. We retrospectively analyzed 37 cases in Japan from 1984 to 2008 to review clinical features and to identify risk factors associated with prognosis. Statistical differences between clinical features (patient's characteristics, initial clinical laboratory data, symptoms upon admission, and other risk indicators) and prognosis were analyzed by use of the chi(2) test or the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed to assess factors which potentially affect hospital mortality. The mortality rate was 64.9%. An underlying liver disease was observed in 91.6% of the patients. The presence of liver cirrhosis tended to be related to hospital mortality; however, statistical significance was not achieved. Advanced age, lower platelet counts, and the presence of extensive skin lesions at onset affected outcomes with statistical significance. The prognosis of this disease is poor, because septic shock and necrotizing fasciitis often develop within a few days. Early diagnosis and treatment are needed to improve the prognosis of V. vulnificus infection.

  12. Geologic factors contributing to landslide generation in a pyroclastic area: August 1998 Nishigo Village, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Masahiro

    2002-07-01

    Vertical contrasts in permeability, particularly where permeable surface materials overlie impermeable materials that prohibit the downward infiltration of groundwater, concentrate the groundwater and become an important focus of landslides that are triggered by intense rainfall. Just such a hydrogeological structure is present within the pyroclastics in Nishigo Village in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, where intense rainfall of 1200 mm in 6 days generated more than 1000 landslides in August 1998. Three types of landslides occurred. The first type occurred along the edges of small plateaus, where horizontal beds of permeable ash, scoria, and pumice overlie impermeable mudflow deposits consisting of tuffaceous fines and andesite blocks, and massive, weakly consolidated ignimbrites. The rainfall on the plateaus infiltrated downward first, then laterally within the permeable beds, finally gushing out at the plateau edges and triggering landslides. The second type of landslide occurred where weathered tuff of the same ignimbrite was present with a slip surface at the base of the heavily weathered zone. Within this heavily weathered zone, the tuff exfoliated into thin weak plates running parallel to the slope surface. The third type of landslide involved failure of colluvium or ash that filled hollows. This type occurred as a result of subsurface erosion caused by the groundwater infiltrating the superficial beds above the impermeable tuff.

  13. Gamma generalized linear model to investigate the effects of climate variables on the area burned by forest fire in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Futao Guo; Guangyu Wang; John L Innes; Xiangqing Ma; Long Sun; Haiqing Hu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable model for investigating the effects of climate factors on the area burned by forest fire in the Tahe forest region, Daxing’an Mountains, in northeast China. The response variables were the area burned by lightning-caused fire, human-caused fire, and total burned area. The predictor variables were nine climate variables collected from the local weather station. Three regression models were utilized, including multiple linear regression, log-linear model (log-transformation on both response and predictor variables), and gamma-generalized linear model. The goodness-of-fit of the models were compared based on model fitting statistics such as R2, AIC, and RMSE. The results revealed that the gamma-generalized linear model was generally superior to both multiple linear regression model and log-linear model for fitting the fire data. Further, the best models were selected based on the criteria that the climate variables were statistically significant at a=0.05. The gamma best models indicated that maximum wind speed, precipitation, and days that rainfall greater than 0.1 mm had significant impacts on the area burned by the lightning-caused fire, while the mean temperature and minimum relative humidity were the main drivers of the burned area caused by human activities. Overall, the total burned area by forest fire was significantly influenced by days that rainfall greater than 0.1 mm and minimum rela-tive humidity, indicating that the moisture condition of forest stands determine the burned area by forest fire.

  14. Clinical characteristics of healthcare-associated pneumonia in a public hospital in a metropolitan area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Midori; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Aki; Saitoh, Hitoshi; Shingu, Akiko; Narato, Ritsuko; Nomura, Koichiro

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new category that is essential in the present aging society. Knowing the different characteristics and outcomes between patients with HCAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) would help physicians manage and treat HCAP patients. Although HCAP is thought to be heterogeneous in regions, there are no reports from a metropolitan area in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings of all consecutive pneumonia patients who required hospitalized care in our hospital between April 2006 and March 2010. There were 184 (35.0%) patients with HCAP and 342 (65.0%) patients with CAP. Previous hospitalization within 90 days of the infection was the most common criterion for HCAP (63.0%). HCAP patients were significantly older than CAP patients (82.5 vs. 70.0 years, P nutritional status and high severity scores on the pneumonia severity scoring system.

  15. Quantitative PCR assay for detection and enumeration of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Gonyaulacales) in coastal areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Hariganeya, Naohito; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2016-02-01

    In Japan, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been increasingly reported not only in subtropical areas but also in temperate areas in recent years, causing a serious threat to human health. Ciguatera fish poisoning is caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated toxins produced by an epiphytic/benthic dinoflagellate, genus Gambierdiscus. Previous studies revealed the existence of five Gambierdiscus species/phylotypes in Japan: Gambierdiscus australes, Gambierdiscus scabrosus, Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, Gambierdiscus sp. type 3, and Gambierdiscus (Fukuyoa) cf. yasumotoi. Among these, G. australes, G. scabrosus, and Gambierdiscus sp. type 3 strains exhibited toxicities in mice, whereas Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 strains did not show any toxicity. Therefore, it is important to monitor the cell abundance and dynamics of these species/phylotypes to identify and characterize CFP outbreaks in Japan. Because it is difficult to differentiate these species/phylotypes by observation under a light microscope, development of a rapid and reliable detection and enumeration method is needed. In this study, a quantitative PCR assay was developed using a TaqMan probe that targets unique SSU rDNA sequences of four Japanese Gambierdiscus species/phylotypes and incorporates normalization with DNA recovery efficiency. First, we constructed standard curves with high linearity (R(2)=1.00) and high amplification efficiency (≥1.98) using linearized plasmids that contained SSU rDNA of the target species/phylotypes. The detection limits for all primer and probe sets were approximately 10 gene copies. Further, the mean number of SSU rDNA copies per cell of each species/phylotype was determined from single cells in culture and from those in environmental samples using the qPCR assay. Next, the number of cells of each species/phylotype in the mixed samples, which were spiked with cultured cells of the four species/phylotypes, was calculated by division of the total number of rDNA copies

  16. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  17. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  18. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  19. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  20. "I used to be as fit as a linnet" - beliefs, attitudes, and environmental supportiveness for physical activity in former mining areas in the North-East of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Studies of geographical variations in physical activity behaviours have suggested that activity levels are particularly low in areas that have undergone employment loss associated with the decline of industry. This is of concern given that affected populations are already at risk of poor health. Applying focus group methodology amongst 19 participants in four groups, this study aims to unpack how broader societal and environmental changes associated with industrial decline affect beliefs and attitudes towards physical activity in ex-mining communities in the North-East of England. Identified core themes comprise the direct impact of deindustrialisation on social and physical environments. Based on our findings, we provide evidence for mechanisms that operate via loss of occupational physical activity as well as the progressive development of environments that are not fit to support population activity levels. Particularly important was the loss of recreational facilities, public green spaces and sports facilities that were owned and organised by the miners themselves with support from the mining companies. Attitudes and beliefs directly related to the areas' industrial past were also seen to be key. We suggest that the development of interventions considering the socio-cultural history and socio-economic reality of communities could be a promising route to encourage more active lifestyles in deprived areas with particularly low levels of physical activity.

  1. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  2. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  3. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  4. Water Environmental Degradation of the Source Area of the Yellow River on Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Shanzhong; Luo Fang; Xiao Honglang

    2005-01-01

    The issue on water environmental degradation in the source area of the Yellow River has been one of very serious ecological and socially economic problems. The temporal-spatial changes of water environment led to the decreasing of land capacity and river disconnecting. The status of water environmental degradation in this paper was analyzed based on the data and field investigation. The results indicated that the surface water area in the region has obviously decreased owing to the climate changes and human irrational use of water resources and the continuous lowering of the regional groundwater table and the steadily decreasing tendency of the flow rate in the source areas of the Yellow River.

  5. The Economic Development of Border Areas of Northeast China%关于东北地区沿边经济发展的思考与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏婉滢; 李红星

    2015-01-01

    东北地区沿边经济的发展是实现东北地区乃至全国对外开放战略格局的必然选择,更是目前东北经济下行压力下的新经济增长点.通过以东北地区的沿边经济发展问题为出发点,深入分析东北地区沿边经济发展的战略意义以及发展中面临的制约因素,并从战略性角度为东北地区沿边经济的有序发展提出对策建议,即加强政府间协商沟通,完善跨区域合作机制;完善现代基础设施体系,提高互联互通能力;推动产业结构优化升级,发展沿边地区特色化产业;加强跨境合作服务,强化信用体系建设等.%The economic development of border areas of northeast China is an inevitable option for the open strategy of northeast China and even the whole country. It is also a new source for economic growth under the background of downward pressure on the economy of the region. Starting with problems for the economic growth of the areas, the study analyzes the strategic importance and constraints for the de-velopment and put forward responding strategies for orderly economic growth. The strategies include strengthening intergovernmental ne-gotiation and communication to build a regional cooperation system, improving modern infrastructure system for promoting interconnection capacity, boosting upgrading and optimization of industrial structure to develop characteristic industries in the border areas, and enhancing cross-border cooperation service to intensify the establishment of the credit system.

  6. Heterogeneous structure around the rupture area of the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw=8.0), Japan, as revealed by aftershock observations using Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Yuya; SHINOHARA, MASANAO; Takanami, Tetsuo; Murai, Yoshio; Yamada, Tomoaki; Hirata, Naoshi; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi; KANAZAWA, Toshihiko; KANEDA, YOSHIYUKI; Mikada, Hitoshi; SAKAI, Shin'ichi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Uehira, Kenji; TAKAHASHI, NARUMI; NISHINO, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in the area off southeastern Hokkaido Island, Japan, as the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the island, which is on the North American Plate. The most recent large earthquake in this area, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw = 8.0), occurred on September 26, 2003. In order to investigate aftershock activity in the rupture area, 47 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were quickly deployed after the main shock. In the present study, we simultaneously estim...

  7. Atrazine in Surface Water and Relation to Hydrologic Conditions Within the Delaware River Basin Pesticide Management Area, Northeast Kansas, July 1992 Through December 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Larry M.

    1995-01-01

    Since about 1960, atrazine has been used as an effective pre- and postemergent herbicide in the production of corn and grain sorghum. Atrazine is a triazine-class herbicide and was the most frequently detected herbicide in surface water of the lower Kansas River Basin of southeast Nebraska and northeast Kansas (Stamer and Zelt, 1994). Approximately 95 percent of the atrazine applied in the United States is used in corn and grain-sorghum production, predominately in the Mississippi River Basin where about 82 percent of the Nation's corn acreage is planted (CIBA-GEIGY Corp., 1992). Until recent changes in product labeling, atrazine commonly was applied at relatively high rates to control weeds around commercial and industrial areas and along railroad right-of-ways. Crop yields have increased during the last 40 years due in part to the use of herbicides in reducing weed growth and competition for moisture and nutrients. However, concern on the part of water suppliers, health officials, and the public also has increased regarding the safe and responsible use of herbicides. One issue is whether the widespread use of atrazine may pose a potential threat to public-water supplies in areas where the herbicide is used because of its ability to easily dissolve in water and its possible effects on the health of humans and aquatic life.

  8. The radial increment and stemwood element concentrations of Scots pine in the area influenced by the Narva power plants in Northeast Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Katri; Reisner, Vaike

    2007-07-01

    In the northeastern part of Estonia, near the town of Narva, there are two large oil shale fueled power plants, Baltic PP and Estonian PP. On burning oil shale the main atmospheric pollutants are fly ash, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides. The radial increment was measured and concentrations of Ca and Cu were estimated in the stemwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from four sites in the influence area of the Narva power plants. Increment cores were taken also from two sites in an unpolluted area located 112 and 120 km northwest from the Estonian PP. The stands selected for investigation were similar as to their edaphic conditions and forest survey indicators (75- to 80-year-old (Oxalis-) Myrtillus-type pine stands of 0.7-0.8 density and of quality class II). The strongest effect of air pollution on radial increment was observed on the sampling site in the direction of dominating winds at a distance of 22 km to northeast from the Estonian PP. Using the annual rings, the core samples were divided into five-year sections (1945-1949; 1950-1954 etc.). The concentration of Ca increased and that of Cu decreased from the youngest, outermost annual rings towards the centre of the stem. High concentrations of Ca and Cu in stemwood in 1970-1974 may be due to the launching of the Estonian PP in 1969 in addition to the Baltic PP, which has operated since 1959.

  9. Spatial distribution of microbial populations and carbon cycle in the subsurface environment of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Y.; Ise, K.; Terashima, M.; Sasaki, Y.; Amamiya, H.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms are widely distributed in the subsurface environments. However, the distribution, role and rate of metabolisms, and the source of their activity are not well known. In this study, we investigated deep groundwater samples from sedimentary rocks, containing saturated methane and CO2, using boreholes at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL), northern Hokkaido, Japan. The hydrochemical conditions of groundwaters, such as in-situ water pressure, temperature, electric conductivity, pH, redox potential, were monitored without degassing at multiple intervals along the borehole. Groundwater samples were taken periodically and chemical composition was analyzed using ICP-MS, etc. Cell counts were in the range of 103 to 105 cells ml-1. Molecular analyses revealed the spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the microbial population. Abundant methanogens were detected in the groundwater, and 80% of them were related to either Methanoregula boonei or Methanobacterium flexile that can utilize H2/CO2 by methanogenesis. Phylotypes clustered within the phylum Firmicutes, beta-Proteobacteria, delta-Proteobacteria and candidate division TM7 were dominant in the groundwater samples. Laboratory experiments using a culture technique showed that humic substances purified from the groundwater at Horonobe area appear to be degraded by microorganisms. Our results suggest that microbial spatial distributions in the subsurface environment were correlated closely with geochemical conditions, such as redox condition and carbon sources. In addition, it is inferred that humic substances are one of the important carbon sources for the subsurface microbial redox processes in the environment. This study was partly funded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan.

  10. Characterizing the effect of summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency ambulance dispatches in the Kanto area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2014-07-01

    Despite rising concern on the impact of heat on human health, the risk of high summer temperature on heatstroke-related emergency dispatches is not well understood in Japan. A time-series study was conducted to examine the association between apparent temperature and daily heatstroke-related ambulance dispatches (HSAD) within the Kanto area of Japan. A total of 12,907 HSAD occurring from 2000 to 2009 in five major cities—Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama—were analyzed. Generalized additive models and zero-inflated Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of daily maximum three-hour apparent temperature (AT) on dispatch frequency from May to September, with adjustment for seasonality, long-term trend, weekends, and public holidays. Linear and non-linear exposure effects were considered. Effects on days when AT first exceeded its summer median were also investigated. City-specific estimates were combined using random effects meta-analyses. Exposure-response relationship was found to be fairly linear. Significant risk increase began from 21 °C with a combined relative risk (RR) of 1.22 (95 % confidence interval, 1.03-1.44), increasing to 1.49 (1.42-1.57) at peak AT. When linear exposure was assumed, combined RR was 1.43 (1.37-1.50) per degree Celsius increment. Overall association was significant the first few times when median AT was initially exceeded in a particular warm season. More than two-thirds of these initial hot days were in June, implying the harmful effect of initial warming as the season changed. Risk increase that began early at the fairly mild perceived temperature implies the need for early precaution.

  11. Propagation mechanisms of incident tsunami wave in Jiangsu coastal area, caused by eastern Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-guang; Wang, Yi-gang; Huang, Hui-ming; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Da-ke

    2016-03-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force's impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  12. Propagation Mechanisms of Incident Tsunami Wave in Jiangsu Coastal Area, Caused by Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春光; 王义刚; 黄惠明; 陈橙; 陈大可

    2016-01-01

    At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force’s impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.

  13. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Area Affected by Waterlogging and Saline Groundwater and Ecohydrology Management in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phayom Saraphirom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling approach was employed to predict potential impact of climate change on waterlogging and salinity distribution with the ecohydrology options for land management under the projected climate conditions in Huai Khamriam subwatershed in the northeastern region, Thailand. The prediction was simulated using the variable density groundwater model SEAWAT supported with recharge estimation model HELP3 under the projected weather data from PRECIS RCM scenario A2. As the result of the higher precipitation simulated by PRECIS RCM scenario A2, the predicted groundwater recharge was likely to be higher in the middle of this century onward. The areas affected by shallow saline groundwater were found to increase with the climate change scenario as well as for the base case. Based on scenario simulation, climate change did not have substantial impact on salinity distribution, but it was significant impact to the expansion of waterlogging areas. Management option using ecohydrology simulation approach was performed to reduce the recharge water to groundwater system, which consequently minimizes the impact of the higher precipitation in the future. The results indicated that establishment of the fast growing tree integrated with the shallow groundwater interception in the recharge areas could reduce the expansion of waterlogging and salinised areas under the climate change condition.

  14. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  15. Improving the interpretability of climate landscape metrics: An ecological risk analysis of Japan's Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Molinos, Jorge; Takao, Shintaro; Kumagai, Naoki H; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Burrows, Michael T; Fujii, Masahiko; Yamano, Hiroya

    2017-02-17

    Conservation efforts strive to protect significant swaths of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems from a range of threats. As climate change becomes an increasing concern, these efforts must take into account how resilient-protected spaces will be in the face of future drivers of change such as warming temperatures. Climate landscape metrics, which signal the spatial magnitude and direction of climate change, support a convenient initial assessment of potential threats to and opportunities within ecosystems to inform conservation and policy efforts where biological data are not available. However, inference of risk from purely physical climatic changes is difficult unless set in a meaningful ecological context. Here, we aim to establish this context using historical climatic variability, as a proxy for local adaptation by resident biota, to identify areas where current local climate conditions will remain extant and future regional climate analogues will emerge. This information is then related to the processes governing species' climate-driven range edge dynamics, differentiating changes in local climate conditions as promoters of species range contractions from those in neighbouring locations facilitating range expansions. We applied this approach to assess the future climatic stability and connectivity of Japanese waters and its network of marine protected areas (MPAs). We find 88% of Japanese waters transitioning to climates outside their historical variability bounds by 2035, resulting in large reductions in the amount of available climatic space potentially promoting widespread range contractions and expansions. Areas of high connectivity, where shifting climates converge, are present along sections of the coast facilitated by the strong latitudinal gradient of the Japanese archipelago and its ocean current system. While these areas overlap significantly with areas currently under significant anthropogenic pressures, they also include much of the MPA

  16. Cough and asthma diagnosis: physicians’ diagnosis and treatment of patients complaining of acute, subacute and chronic cough in rural areas of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamasaki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Akira Yamasaki1, Keichi Hanaki2, Katsuyuki Tomita3, Masanari Watanabe1, Yasuyuki Hasagawa1, Ryota Okazaki1, Miki Yamamura1, Kouji Fukutani4, Yuji Sugimoto5, Kazuhiro Kato4, Masahiro Kodani6, Toshikazu Ikeda7, Tatsuya Konishi8, Yuji Kawasaki9, Hirokazu Tokuyasu9, Hiroki Yajima3, Hitoshi Sejima10, Takeshi Isobe11, Eiji Shimizu1, SAN-IN Asthma Research Group1Third Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Tottori University, Japan; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hakuai Hospital, Japan; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital,  Japan; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tottori Prefectural Central Hospital, Japan; 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tottori Red Cross Hospital, Japan; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Organization, Matsue Hospital, Japan; 8Department of Respiratory Medicine, Matsue City Hospital, Japan; 9Department of Respiratory Medicine, Matsue Red Cross Hospital, Japan; 10Department of Pediatrics,  11Department of Internal Medicine, Shimane University, Shimane, JapanBackground: Cough is one of the most common reasons for visiting a clinic. The causes of cough differ according to the duration of cough. Infectious disease is commonly observed in acute cough while noninfectious disease is commonly observed in chronic cough. On the other hand, cough is frequently observed in patients with asthma/cough variant asthma (CVA.Objective: In this study, we investigated the causes of cough in a rural region in Japan and the clinical examination and treatment for the patients diagnosed as asthma/CVA.Methods: We analyzed 124 patients who complained of cough.Results: The most common reason for acute cough was respiratory tract infection while asthma/CVA is the most common reason for subacute and chronic cough. The diagnostic procedure for asthma/CVA depends on clinical symptoms in asthmatic patients with acute cough. While in asthmatic patients with subacute and chronic cough, diagnosis

  17. Evaluation of summertime surface ozone in Kanto area of Japan using a semi-regional model and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Tran Thi Ngoc; Goto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Hisashi; Murata, Ryo; Sudo, Kengo; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-03-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant and harmful to human life. The spatial distribution of the air pollution has been estimated by chemical transport models, but still there are large uncertainties depending on detailed condition of the region. In this study, we extended Goto et al. (2015a) for implementing a chemical transport model to simulate short-lived gases such as ozone over Kanto area (around Tokyo in Japan) for August 2010. Comparison of simulation results with observed data indicated that the model had ability to capture observed ozone diurnal cycles over the target region with high correlation coefficients (0.69-0.81). The simulation result showed a vital role of meteorological conditions in the model performance. The correlation coefficients were much higher (0.78-0.87) and biases were lower (ozone concentrations in the unstable weather conditions. This study helped achieve a better understanding of the chemistry transport model performance under unstable meteorological conditions in the Kanto area. Maximal association between meteorological factors and surface ozone distribution was revealed. In addition, uncertainty of emission inventories of ozone precursors especially the underestimate NOx level certainly contributed to high level surface ozone during nighttime in this study.

  18. Legal-Ease Beijing & Northeast China Investment Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming areas of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of cities in northeast China and consider the options for setting up business in the capital.

  19. Legal-Ease:Beijing & Northeast China Investment Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming areas of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of cities in northeast China and consider the options for setting up business

  20. A Model Planning of Design and Means for Recuperation of East Japan Disaster Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Misaki; Emori, Hisashi; Tsunaki, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Naoaki; Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Masanori

    We propose the following recuperation planning in Tarou area in Miyako city as a model area with the aid of educational industrial complex. Proposed means and vision are the following. First, setting up networked anti disaster facility within 500 m evacuation distance. Second, planning a model city of fence off which is more agreeable to the 21st century concept than traditional fence up concept, using natural energy and anti-disaster bridge instead of giant embankment. Third, proposing hill side residence instead of hill top residence. Fourth, putting up computergraphics of model planning for the residents. Lastly, we examined the possibility of the solar energy city based on the energy test calculation of photovoltaic power generation by solar heat in the inundation ground.

  1. Problematic eating attitudes among college and university dietetics students in an urban area of Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 伸; 青沼, 紀伊子; 佐藤, 美佳; 堀尾, 真理; 杉山, 英子

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to survey the prevalence of problematic eating behaviors among dietetics students. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT) was distributed to college and university dietetics students and students of other majors in the Nagano city area. For dietetics freshmen, the survey was repeated again after an interval of 5 months. The incidence of disordered eating attitudes was significantly greater in the dietetics majors than in other students. The incidence was significantly higher i...

  2. Biology of Herbivorous Fish in the Coastal Areas of Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Yagishita, Naoki; KUME, Gen

    2010-01-01

    Seaweed beds in Japanese coastal waters have significantly declined in recent years and feeding by herbivorous fish has been identified as one of the potential causes of this decline. In the western coastal areas of Kyushu, seaweed consumption by fish species such as the mottled spinefoot (Siganus fuscescens), sea chubs (Kyphosus spp.), and the Japanese parrotfish (Calotomus japonicus) has become a matter of concern. Our research group has been investigating the biology of herbivorous fish in...

  3. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  4. Lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake: The need for disaster preparedness in the area of disaster mental health for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, Shuei; Homma, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 brought unprecedented challenges to individuals, families, and communities of the Tohoku region in Japan. Children are especially vulnerable to the postdisaster risk factors that impact their ability to heal. The destruction of the infrastructure by the disasters made it more challenging to reach out to children in an area where the stigma against mental illness is persistent. The authors share their experiences, what they heard from patients, and their reflections on lessons learned. The authors recommend the development of a coordinated mental health response system in preparation for the next disaster.

  5. Green-tuff landslide areas are beneficial for rice nutrition in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Tazaki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Islands are covered with weathered volcanic rocks and soils. Terraced rice field are located in green-tuff areas which are very fertile but where landslides occur associated to strong earthquakes. The Xray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analyses of the soils in landslide area identified predominant smectite and Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, Mn and Fe are main components. The rice leaf showed that S, Cl, K and Ca play important roles for nutrients in the area. Drainpipe systems have set up in the green- tuff areas to reduce the risks of landslides. Reddish brown microbial mats inhabited bacteria and diatom in the drainpipe outlets. The microbial mats are rich in Fe and PO4(3-. The iron bacteria in the ground water have a high metabolic rate suggesting that the weathering materials were produced by not only physical and chemical influence but also by microorganism. Many microorganisms attach to mineral surfaces and show their high impact in the water mineral chemistry in the landslide area. Bacteria in the green-tuff over landslide area play important roles for sustainable agriculture including rice nutrition.As Ilhas Japonesas são cobertas de rochas e solos vulcânicos intemperizados. Terraços de campos de arroz estão comumente localizados em áreas de tufos verdes, as quais são férteis, mas estão geralmente sujeitas a trágicos deslizamentos de terra associados a grandes terremotos. As análises dos solos por difração e fluorescência de raios-X em áreas de deslizamento identificam a predominância de esmectitas, cujos componentes principais são Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, e Fe como principais componentes. A palha de arroz mostrou que S, Cl, K, e Ca têm importantes papéis para a nutrição dos solos dessa área. Sistemas de tubos de deslizamento foram instalados nestas áreas detufos verdes de forma a reduzir os riscos de deslizamentos. Nas saídas dos tubos de descarga se formou uma esteira de algas microbianas marrom avermelhadas

  6. Inflation of Aira Caldera (Japan detected over Kokubu urban area using SAR interferometry ERS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Remy

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nine ERS-1 and ERS-2 descending orbit data acquired over the Aira Caldera between June 1995 and November 1998 were used to create 31 differential interferograms. Although the interferograms exhibit a relatively low level of coherence, even for couples sampling short time intervals (6 months, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DinSAR reveals a pattern of range change signal during the observation period in the urban area of Kokubu city. The analysis of the ground deformation time series relative to the earliest ERS images evidenced a maximum uplift of 23 mm between the north and the south of the city during the studied period. Taking the reduced surface of the coherent area into account, we performed a simple modelling of the deformation field assuming a spherical inflating source within an elastic half-space medium. This simple model predicts a source located beneath the centre of Aira Caldera with a maximum volume increase of 30 106 m3 between 1995 and 1997, which would produced an inflation of about 7 cm of the centre of Aira Caldera and 4 cm of the south of Kokubu city. These results are in good agreement with other geophysical observations carried out on Aira caldera during this unrest period. Despite the limited spatial extent of the coherent areas around Aira Caldera, this study shows that DinSAR method using ERS data can be successfully used to detect subtle ground displacement changes of the volcanic complex and thus provides complementary information to ground-based geodetic monitoring of dynamic processes at Aira Caldera and Sakurajima volcano.

  7. Above and below ground carbon stocks in northeast Siberia tundra ecosystems: a comparison between disturbed and undisturbed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, L. R.; Pena, H., III; Curasi, S. R.; Ramos, E.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in arctic tundra vegetation have the potential to alter the regional carbon (C) budget, with feedback implications for global climate. A number of studies have documented both widespread increases in productivity as well as shifts in the dominant vegetation. In particular, shrubs have been replacing other vegetation, such as graminoids, in response to changes in their environment. Shrub expansion is thought to be facilitated by exposure of mineral soil and increased nutrient availability, which are often associated with disturbance. Such disturbances can be naturally occurring, typically associated with permafrost degradation or with direct anthropogenic causes such as infrastructure development. Mechanical disturbance associated with human development is not uncommon in tundra and will likely become more frequent as warming makes the Arctic more hospitable for resource extraction and other human activities. As such, this type of disturbance will become an increasingly important component of tundra C balance. Both increased productivity and shrub expansion have clear impacts on ecosystem C cycling through increased C uptake and aboveground (AG) storage. What is less clear, however, are the concurrent changes in belowground (BG) C storage. Here we inventoried AG and BG C stocks in disturbed and undisturbed tundra ecosystems to determine the effects of disturbance on tundra C balance. We measured differences in plant functional type, AG and BG biomass, soil C, and specific leaf area (SLA) for the dominant shrub (Salix) in 2 tundra ecosystems in northern Siberia—an undisturbed moist acidic tundra and an adjacent ecosystem that was used as a road ~50 years ago. Deciduous shrubs and grasses dominated both ecosystems, but biomass for both functional types was higher in the disturbed area. SLA was also higher inside the disturbance. Conversely, nonvascular plants and evergreen shrubs were less abundant in the disturbed area. BG plant biomass was substantially

  8. Changes in soil particulate organic matter, microbial biomass, and activity following afforestation of marginal agricultural lands in a semi-arid area of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2010-07-01

    Afforestation of agricultural lands has been one of the major land use changes in China in recent decades. To better understand the effect of such land use change on soil quality, we investigated selected soil physical, chemical and microbial properties (0-15 cm depth) in marginal agricultural land and a chronosequence of poplar (Populus euramericana cv. 'N3016') plantations (5-, 10-, 15- and 20-years old) in a semi-arid area of Northeast China. Soil bulk density significantly declined after conversion of agricultural lands to poplar plantations. Soil total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (TN) concentrations, microbial biomass C (MBC) and potential N mineralization rate (PNM) decreased initially following afforestation of agricultural lands, and then increased with stand development. However, soil metabolic quotient (qCO(2)) exhibited a reverse trend. In addition, soil particulate organic matter C (POM-C) and N (POM-N) concentrations showed no significant changes in the first 10 years following afforestation, and then increased with stand age. These findings demonstrated that soil quality declined initially following afforestation of agricultural lands in semi-arid regions, and then recovered with stand development. Following 15 years of afforestation, many soil quality parameters recovered to the values found in agricultural land. We propose that change in soil quality with stand age should be considered in determining optimum rotation length of plantations and best management practices for afforestation programs.

  9. Large and great earthquakes in the Shillong plateau-Assam valley area of Northeast India Region: Pop-up and transverse tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, J. R.; Arefiev, S. S.; Baruah, Saurabh; Hazarika, D.; Gogoi, N.; Gautam, J. L.; Baruah, Santanu; Dorbath, C.; Tatevossian, R.

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic model of the Shillong plateau and Assam valley in the northeast India region, the source area for the 1897 great earthquake (Ms ~ 8.7) and for the four (1869, 1923, 1930 and 1943) large earthquakes (M. ≥ 7.0), is examined using the high precision data of a 20-station broadband seismic network. About 300 selected earthquakes M ≥ 3.0 recorded during 2001-2009 are analysed to study the seismicity and fault plane solutions. The dominating thrust/reverse faulting earthquakes in the western plateau may be explained by the proposed pop-up tectonics between two active boundary faults, the Oldham-Brahmaputra fault to the north and the Dapsi-Dauki thrust to the south, though the northern boundary fault is debated. The more intense normal and strike-slip faulting earthquakes in the eastern plateau (Mikir massif) and in the Assam valley, on the other hand, are well explained by transverse tectonics at the long and deep rooted Kopili fault that cuts across the Himalaya and caused the 2009 Bhutan earthquake (Mw 6.3). It is conjectured that the complex tectonics of the Shillong plateau and transverse tectonics at the Kopili fault make the region vulnerable for impending large earthquake(s).

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infection by Opisthorchis viverrini in an Urban Area of Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiputcha, Kusumaporn; Promthet, Supannee; Bradshaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional analytic study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection in an urban area of Northeastern Thailand. The participants were 254 household representatives aged 15 years or older living in the most urbanised part of Chiang Yuen municipality in Mahasarakham Province. All participants provided stool samples which were examined using the modified Kato-Katz procedure, and a structured interview questionnaire was used to collection demographic information, knowledge about OV infection, and the consumption of unsafely prepared freshwater fish. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The overall prevalence of OV infection was 15.0%, and in the multivariate analysis male gender was found to be significantly and positively associated with OV infection (ORadj=9.75, 95%CI: 34.03-23.58) while education to secondary school level or above was a significant protective factor (ORadj=0.30, 95%CI: 0.12-0.74). The eating of unsafely prepared fish and knowledge about OV were not significantly related to infection status. The findings were discussed in terms of issues for future research, especially the need to consider the possibility of higher rates of OV infection in urban areas than might be expected and to investigate the sources of infected fish products which may well be different from those in rural villages.

  11. [Survey of Trichophyton tonsurans Infection in the Kyushu, Chugoku and Shikoku areas of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Honma, Kizou; Shinoda, Hidekazu; Ogasawara, Yumie

    2005-01-01

    A survey on the infestation of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans was made by inquiry to dermatologists. Patients strongly suggestive of having skin lesions due to T. tonsurans were seen in all areas examined, and were mainly schoolboys, including those practicing judo, of high schools and junior high schools. In Nagasaki, a mycological examination was done on 21 judo students and their teacher in a high school in which a patient with T. tonsurans infection was mycologically confirmed and treated by antimycotics. Mycological examinations failed to isolate T. tonsurans, but even after the examination sporadic cases were reported among the group members. In Saga prefecture, Kyushu, a mycological screening for T. tonsurans infection among judoists and wrestlers in 13 high-schools and 7 junior high schools was done using the blush sampling method. Fifty-six strains of T. tonsurans were isolated from 248 students. The problems concerning the control of this infection were discussed.

  12. Cerebral microbleeds-prevalence, distribution and risk factors in northeast population without preceding large-area stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng-fei; CUI Ying-zhe; NA Jing; GAO Pei-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) occur frequently in patients suspected of cerebrovascular disease and they are the principle radiographic findings in patients with sub-clinical neurological impairment. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, distribution, severity and associated clinical features of CMBs in a prospective hospital patient based cohort undergoing brain MRI for suspected cerebrovascular disease, excluding cases with known intracranial hemorrhage or prior large-area stroke.Methods The study population consisted of 447 patients who were evaluated with T2~*-gradient echo sequences to detect the CMBs lesion number, location, and their association with white matter hyperintensities and clinical parameters, including blood pressure.Results CMB lesions were presented in 95 of the 447 patients (21.3%). The distribution of CMBs was 43.95% cortical, 19.77% thalamic, 14.41% in the brainstem, 11.58% cerebellar, 6.21% periventricular white matter, 5.64% involving the basal ganglia regions, and 0.28% involving the hippocampus. There was a statistically significant association between the presence of CMBs and advancing age (adjusted OR 2.082, P <0.01), the severity of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.208, P <0.01). Also there was a statistically significant (P <0.01) correlation between the presence of CMBs and the severity of hypertension and white matter lesions.Conclusions CMBs occur frequently in patients with no prior large-area stroke who were referred for brain MRI for suspected cerebrovascular disease. The severity of CMBs correlates with the severity of hypertension and the presence of cerebral white matter changes detected by MRI.

  13. Heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture, NE Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a detailed spatial distribution of principal stress axis orientations in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture earthquake that occurred in the forearc of northeastern Japan. Aftershock hypocentres were precisely relocated by applying the double difference method to arrival time data obtained at temporary stations as well as at surrounding routine stations. We picked many P-wave polarity data from seismograms at these stations, which enabled us to obtain 312 well-determined focal mechanism solutions. Stress tensor inversions were performed by using these focal mechanism data. The results show that quite a lot of focal mechanisms are difficult to explain by the uniform stress field, especially near the large slip area of the main-shock rupture. Stress tensor inversions at the location of individual earthquakes show that σ1 axes are orientated mainly to WSW-ENE in the northern part of the source area, while they are oriented to NW-SE in the southern part. This spatial pattern is roughly similar to those of the static stress change by the main shock, which suggests that the observed spatially heterogeneous stress field was formed by the static stress change. If this is the case, the deviatoric stress magnitude before the main shock was very small. Another possibility is the heterogeneous stress field observed after the main shock had existed even before the main shock, although we do not know why it was formed. Unfavourable orientation of the main shock fault with respect to this stress field suggests that the fault is not strong in this case too.

  14. Impact of the Great East Japan earthquake on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with cardiac origin in non-disaster areas [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Iwami, Taku; Nishiyama, Chika; Kawamura, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    To examine changes in the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with cardiac origin in the non-disaster areas of Japan before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. The 35 prefectures in Japan with no dead or missing caused directly by the earthquake were defined as the non-disaster areas. Data of adult OHCA patients in the non-disaster areas from March 4 to 24 each year from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from the All-Japan Utstein Registry. Risk ratios (RRs) of OHCA incidence and 95% CIs were estimated for three specific weeks in 2011 (1 week before and 2 weeks after the earthquake) by applying multivariable Poisson regression model. Incidence in the corresponding periods of March 4-24 from 2005 to 2010 was set as the baseline risk. In the analyses from a total of 17,353 OHCA patients, the incidence statistically significantly increased in the first week after the earthquake in all adults (adjusted-RR=1.13, 95% CI=1.05 to 1.22, p=0.001) and in elderly women (adjusted-RR=1.23, 95% CI=1.11 to 1.37, pJapan Earthquake caused the increase of OHCA among elderly women even in the non-disaster areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. [Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces of land use change in industrial relocation area: a case study of old industrial area in Tiexi of Shenyang, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Bing, Long-Fei; Xi, Feng-Ming; Wu, Rui; Geng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Based on the QuickBird remote sensing images and with the support of GIS, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in old industrial area of Tiexi, Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in 2000-2010. During the study period, the industrial and mining warehouse land pattern had the greatest change, evolving from the historical pattern of residential land in the south and of industrial land in the north into residential land as the dominant land use pattern. In the last decade, the residential land area increased by 9%, mainly transferred from the industrial and mining warehouse land located in the north of Jianshe Road, while the industrial and mining warehouse land area decreased by 20%. The land areas for the commercial service and for the administrative and public services were increased by 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The land area for construction had a greater change, with an overall change rate being 76.9%. The land use change rate in 2000-2005 was greater than that in 2005-2010. National development strategies and policies, regional development planning, administrative reform, and industrial upgrading were the main driving forces of the land use change in old industrial area of Tiexi.

  16. Foraging activity and dietary spectrum of the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in invaded natural areas of the northeast Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, S; Oliveras, J; Gómez, C

    2007-10-01

    We analyzed the foraging activity and the dietary spectrum of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile Mayr) and select native ants on cork oaks from Mediterranean open cork oak (Quercus suber) secondary forests. The study areas included invaded and noninvaded zones in close proximity. The Argentine ant's daily foraging activity was correlated to the abiotic factors studied, whereas the seasonal foraging activity was related not only to the variations in the average air temperature, but also to the trophic needs of the colony. Argentine ant workers focused their attention on protein foods during the queens' oviposition periods and during the larvae development phase, and on carbohydrate foods, such as honeydew, when males and workers were hatching. There were no significant differences over the entire year in the quantity of liquid food collected by the Argentine ant workers in comparison with the native ants studied. The solid diet of the Argentine ant on cork oaks is composed of insects, most of which are aphids. Our results have clear applications for control methods based on toxic baits in the invaded natural ecosystems of the Iberian Peninsula.

  17. Roadside Rhododendron pulchrum leaves as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in traffic areas of Okayama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Yabuki, Toru; Ono, Yoshiro

    2009-02-01

    The leaves of roadside Rhododendron pulchrum Sweet were examined as a bioindicator of traffic-related heavy metal pollution in Okayama. Total contents of heavy metals in roadside soil and the R. pulchrum leaves were determined. Results of correlation analyses showed significant correlations among Pb, Ni, and Zn contents of roadside soil and leaf samples. These results suggest that R. pulchrum is a useful bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in traffic areas. To identify traffic-related heavy metal pollution sources, traffic-related materials such as tires, asphalt pavement, and road paint were collected and analyzed. The results of analyses of our data show that Zn is emitted mainly from the abrasion of tires; Cr is emitted mainly from wear of the asphalt pavement. Furthermore, the respective lead isotope ratios in R. pulchrum leaves, soil, roadside dust, and traffic-related materials were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The isotopic compositions of lead in R. pulchrum leaves were 207Pb/206Pb = 0.861-0.871 and 208Pb/206Pb = 2.093-2.127, which agrees well with ratios in automobile wheel balance weights, suggesting that lead-containing products associated with automobiles, such as wheel balance weights, contribute to traffic-related lead pollution.

  18. Source identification of eight heavy metals in grassland soils by multivariate analysis from the Baicheng-Songyuan area, Jilin Province, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yuan; Guo, Jia; Chai, Sheli; Cai, Jing; Xue, Linfu; Zhang, Qingwei

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of the concentration, chemical speciation and source of heavy metals in soils is an imperative for pollution monitoring and the potential risk assessment of the metals to animal and human health. A total of 154 surface horizons and 53 underlying horizons of grassland soil were collected from the Baicheng-Songyuan area in Jilin Province, Northeast China, in which the concentrations and chemical fractionations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn were investigated. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in grassland topsoil were 7.2, 0.072, 35, 16.7, 0.014, 15.2, 18.3 and 35 mg kg(-)(1) for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, and those averaged contents were lower than their China Environmental Quality Standard values for the Soils, implying that heavy metal concentrations in the studied soils were of the safety levels. The mobility sequence of the heavy metals based on the sum of the soluble, exchangeable, carbonate-bound and humic acid-bound fractions among the seven fractions decreased in the order of Cd 50.4%)>Hg (39.8%)>Cu (26.5%)>As (19.9%)>Zn (19.1%)>Ni (15.9%)>Pb (14.1%)>Cr (4.3%), suggesting Cd and Hg may pose more potential risk of soil contamination than other metals. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg had the similar lithogenic sources, however, Cd and Hg were more relevant to organic matter than other heavy metals, which was confirmed by the chemical speciation analysis of the metals. The study provides a base for local authority in the studied area to monitor the long term accession of heavy metals into grassland soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Ecological characteristics of preferred habitat of reindeer of Daxing'an Mountain forest area Northeast China in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Wei-Ping; Sheng, Yan; Feng, Jin-Chao; Zhou, Yi-Jun; Xue, Da-Yuan; Meng, Xiu-Xiang

    2014-09-01

    In July and August of 2012 and 2013, habitat selection and use patterns of reindeer were studied using both line and strip-transect surveys. Twenty-three habitat factors were measured and compared in known reindeer range areas in northwestern China. A total of 72 sampling sites were designated as being used by reindeer, and 162 sites were designated as unused control plots. The results indicated that, compared to the non-used habitat plots, reindeer selected summer habitats with higher values in altitude (26.9 ± 0.8 m), arbor canopy (17.9% ± 2.4%), arbor DBH (35.5 ± 2.1 cm), arbor height (8.2 ± 0.5 m), arbor density (6.9 ± 0.5 ind · 400 m(-2)) and stump quan- tity (1.3 ± 0.2 ind · 400 m(-2)), and with a lower shrub height (54.2 ± 2.0 cm). Moreover, reindeer also selected habitats at intermediate positions of intermediate slope gradient, which provided good water accessibility, more distance from human disturbance and herder influence, but bad concealment and lee condition. Results of the principal component analysis showed that the disturbance intensity (i. e. residential dispersion, anthropogenic-disturbance dispersion), arbor characteristics (arbor height and arbor density, arbor DBH and arbor canopy), geography characteristics (i. e. slope position, slope aspect and soil moisture), food abundance (ground-plant cover and shrub cover), openness (concealment and lee condition) and slope gradient were the most important factors influencing the habitat selection of reindeer in summer. In summary, the summer habitat selection of reindeer is a multidimensional process, through which reindeer adapt according to their ecological needs of food resources, safety and anti-predation. Furthermore, the pattern of habitat selection of reindeer showed that reindeer in China has not yet been domesticated, and reindeer populations and their core habitats should be conserved from intensive disturbance.

  20. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)).

  1. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.

    2002-12-01

    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  2. Geochronological Significance of the Post-Orogenic Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks in the Hongqiling Area of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guangliang; Wu Fuyuan

    2006-01-01

    Mafic-ultramafic complexes are widespread in Hongqiling in central Jinlin Province, NE China. The Hongqiling complex comprises pyroxenite, olivine websterite, lherzolite, gabbro and leucogabbro. Based on the latest geochronological results, these intrusions yield a zircon U-Pb age of about 216 Ma, implying that they emplaced in the late Triassic period and that the mafic-ultramafic complexes are post-orogenic in origin. These ages are coeval with the emplacement of A-type granites in the area, but slightly younger than syn-orogenic granitic magmatism. The composition of the parent magma during the equilibration of the accumulated olivine crystallizing is basaltic with high MgO, and it comes from depleted or juvenile lithospheric mantle, according to the results of trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes. Amount of crustal material contaminated the magmatic source, implying that the mafic-ultramafic rocks originate from the mixing product of crust- and mantle-derived magma. Therefore, the magmatic source was contaminated by an amount of crustal material, and the subsequent crystal fractionation resulted in the Cu-Ni mineralization. Dynamic analyses indicate that, after the collision of the North China Craton and Jiamusi Massif, the lithospheric delamination during post-orogeny resulted in the upwelling of asthenosphere and the intruding of the mass and underplating of the mantle-derived magma, which led to the formation of the primary mafic-ultramafic magma due to the mantle-derived magma and partial melting of the lower crust. This result suggests that the mafic-ultramafic complexes belong to a typically important magmatic suite that evolved during post-orogenic processes, and they were exposed as maficultramafic dyke swarms that existed in the post-orogenic extension environment. It also implies that the orogenic process finished ultimately in this regional geological setting. The widespread occurrence of mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Xing'an-Mongolia Orogenic Belt

  3. Independent living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and home mechanical ventilation in areas of Japan with insufficient national welfare services.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, there is no national 24-hour home care system for people with severe impairments. Despite this fact, a small number of people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy on home mechanical ventilation pursue independent living. Therefore, our aim was to better understand the process by which these individuals arrived at this goal for independence (i.e., choosing to live at home in Japan instead of in special sanatoriums that provide sufficient support and care). Twenty-one participants were in...

  4. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1v infection in pediatric population: a multicenter study in a North-East area of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calistri Arianna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Data on clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of 2009 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1v in paediatric population are still emerging; most of the data so far available came from selected cohorts of children admitted to tertiary care paediatric hospitals. Methods - An observational study involving all the 19 Divisions of Paediatrics of the Veneto Region was conducted with the aim of investigating into the demographic and clinical characteristics, the treatment, the outcome and the risk factors for disease severity of H1N1v infection occurring in children. Results - Two hundred children, median age of 4.15 years (range 0-15 were enrolled from the last week of October till the first week of January 2010 for an overall hospitalization rate of 23/100.000. At least one underlying medical condition was found in 44% of patients. Fever and cough were the most frequent symptoms (93% and 65% respectively. 11 patients (6% were admitted to a PICU and 5 (2.5% required mechanical ventilation. Antiviral therapy was administered in 103 patients (51.5% Death occurred in 2 patients (1%; both had severe prior medical conditions. Pre-existing neurologic diseases (OR 7.82; 95%CI: 1.15-53.34, the presence of hypoxemia (OR 10.47; 95%CI: 2.12-51.70 and anemia (Haemoglobin Conclusions - This observational study in a given area of North-East Italy confirms the rather favourable prognosis of children with influenza A H1N1 (2009. Pre-existing conditions, and which is new, significant anemia, are risk factors for a complicated course.

  5. Identification, assessment and prioritization of ecotoxicological risks on the scale of a territory: Application to WWTP discharges in a geographical area located in northeast Lyon, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Alain; Perrodin, Yves

    2017-09-13

    The ecotoxicological risk assessment methodologies developed up to now mainly focus on local pollution and do not incorporate an evaluation and prioritization of the different risk situations present in the same territory. This article presents the different phases of formulating an innovative methodology developed to fill this gap, and its application to all the 18 WasteWater Treatment Plants (WWTP) of a geographical area located northeast of Lyon, France. The aim was also take into account emerging pollutants that are very often "forgotten" in ecotoxicological risk assessments. The results of the study show the extreme diversity of the ecotoxicity of the pollutants present in discharges, with "minimum" PNEC values in the region of a millionth of a microgram (10(-6) μg/l) and "maximum" PNEC values in the region of several tens of micrograms. They also show very considerable diversity of the flows of the receiving watercourses in the territory concerned (from several m(3)/s to 600 m(3)/s). The Risk Quotients (RQ) resulting from these 2 datasets, calculated for each WWTP and for each of the 10 pollutants most implicated in ecotoxicological risks (Diclofenac, Amoxicillin, Trimethoprim, Roxithromycin, 17β-estradiol, 17α-Ethynylestradiol, Estrone, Nonylphenol, Octylphenol, Nickel, et NH4(+)), vary from 0.000002 to 187.7 when using the median concentration values of these pollutants, and from 0.000007 to 3750 when using their maximum concentration values. Globally, they show that: (1) the risks are higher for small streams that receive WWTP discharges of average size, (2) the risks are low to very low for discharges into watercourses with high flow rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Nutritional status of children under 6, according to land tenure, in rural areas of the State of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lira, P I; Cartagena, H A; Romani, S de A; Torres, M A; Batista Filho, M

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the distribution of protein-energy malnutrition, anemia and hypovitaminosis A in relation to accessibility and size of rural lands. About 689 families from the Agreste rural area (Pernambuco, North-East Brazil) were studied. A total of 1,257 children under 6 years of age were distributed in four groups according to the size of the land. The nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria of Gómez, Ariza-Macías and Seoane-Latham, modified by Batista Filho. In accordance with the Gómez' method, 55.1% of the children suffered from some degree of malnutrition. About 67.0% of the landless families suffered from malnutrition, in contrast to 25% of the landowners who had 50 or more than 50 hectares of land (p less than 0.01). Hemoglobin was determined in 976 children; 38.9% of them suffered from anemia. No significant differences were detected among the several groups of land tenants. Serum retinol levels were measured in 412 children and a high incidence of hypovitaminosis A was detected: 24% had serum retinol levels below 20 mcg/100 ml. No significant association was found in relation to the different land tenure groups. These data demonstrate a high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition, anemia and hypovitaminosis A. A significant correlation between protein-energy malnutrition and the size of the land was also found, demonstrating that this region is one of the most affected by food and nutritional problems.

  7. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Topographic features of gas hydrate mounds of shallow gas hydrate areas in Joetsu Basin , eastern margin of Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromatsu, M.; Machiyama, H.; Matsumoto, R.

    2010-12-01

    Mega pockmarks and mounds, both of which are 300m to 500m in diamater and 30m to 40 m deep or high, characterize the Umitaka Spur and Joetsu Knoll of the Joetsu Basin. A number of pockmarks and mounds develop in NNE to SSW direction parallel to the general trend of mobile belt along the eastern margin of Japan Sea, suggesting that the topography has been strongly controlled by regional tectonics. Seismic profiles have revealed well-developed chaotic to transparent zones (gas chimneys) in the area of pockmarks and mounds, from which a number of active methane plumes stand up to 700m above sea floor. Ultra-high resolution bathymetric data and reflection images were acquired by Multi Beam Echo Sounder (MBES) and Side Scan Sonar (SSS) of the AUV "URASHIMA” during the YK10-08 cruise of R/V Yokosuka (JAMSTEC), July 2010. Based on mosaic images of MBES and SSS, we could identify several types of the hydrate mounds over gas chimney zones. Some are represented as a smooth and low bulge without strong reflections of background level, but the others show rough and uneven topography, featured by a few meter scale depressions, crevasses and minor ridges with strong reflector images, indicating the development of hard ground. Such strong reflectors are due to carbonate crusts and concretions and gas hydrate exposures as observed by ROV . Micro-topographic features are likely to represent a growth stage of hydrate mounds, and perhaps the accumulation of shallow gas hydrates. MBES and SSS onboard AUV are powerful tools to identify gas hydrate accumulation and evolution of shallow gas hydrate system.

  9. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  10. Seismic wavefield imaging in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, based on the replica exchange Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Masayuki; Nagao, Hiromichi; Nagata, Kenji; Ito, Shin-ichi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hori, Muneo; Hirata, Naoshi

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes sometimes cause serious disasters not only directly by ground motion itself but also secondarily by infrastructure damage, particularly in densely populated urban areas. To reduce these secondary disasters, it is important to rapidly evaluate seismic hazards by analyzing the seismic responses of individual structures due to the input ground motions. Such input motions are estimated utilizing an array of seismometers that are distributed more sparsely than the structures. We propose a methodology that integrates physics-based and data-driven approaches in order to obtain the seismic wavefield to be input into seismic response analysis. This study adopts the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) method, which is one of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, for the estimation of the seismic wavefield together with one-dimensional local subsurface structure and source information. Numerical tests show that the REMC method is able to search the parameters related to the source and the local subsurface structure in broader parameter space than the Metropolis method, which is an ordinary MCMC method. The REMC method well reproduces the seismic wavefield consistent with the true one. In contrast, the ordinary kriging, which is a classical data-driven interpolation method for spatial data, is hardly able to reproduce the true wavefield even at low frequencies. This indicates that it is essential to take both physics-based and data-driven approaches into consideration for seismic wavefield imaging. Then the REMC method is applied to the actual waveforms observed by a dense seismic array MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), in which 296 accelerometers are continuously in operation with several kilometer intervals in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. The estimated wavefield within a frequency band of 0.10-0.20 Hz is absolutely consistent with the observed waveforms. Further investigation suggests that the seismic wavefield is successfully

  11. Environmental changes of the last 30,000 years in the gas hydrate area of Joetsu Basin, eastern margin of Japan Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, A.F.M.; Sugai, T. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwanoha Campus, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Natural Environmental Studies; Takeuchi, E.; Nagasaka, A.; Hiruta, A.; Ishizaki, O.; Matsumoto, R. [Tokyo Univ., Hongo Campus, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science

    2008-07-01

    The Japan Sea is a semi-isolated marginal sea with an average depth of 1350 metres and a maximum water depth of approximately 3700 metres in the northern basin. This paper presented a study that inferred the age and the nature of the environmental events of the last 30 thousand years using geochemical and sedimentary records from piston cores collected on the gas hydrates bearing-sediments of Joetsu Basin, eastern margin of Japan Sea, south of Sado Islands. Interbedded dark gray thinly laminates and dark brown to gray bioturbated units are common throughout the quaternary sediments of the Japan Sea. They have been explained in terms of glacio-eustatic sea-level change. Active methane venting and gas hydrates have also been recognized, which are widely distributed just beneath the sea floor in the Joetsu Basin, in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. In order to identify the nature of the organic matter present in the study area and to make a correlation with samples collected in the Pacific Ocean, the study utilized total organic carbon contents and carbon isotopic composition of the gas hydrates bearing-sediments. Using X-ray diffraction analysis, these data were used to apply sequence stratigraphy concepts to locate the holocene/pleistocene boundary and to identify key stratigraphic surfaces, and also to recognize methane flux variations and sulfate-methane interfaces. The paper discussed total organic carbon in the Holocene/Pleistocene boundaries; nature of the organic matter and terrestrial versus marine phytoplankton production; and terrigenous material input. Sulfate oxidation of methane was also discussed. It was concluded that the correlation between the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean was possible using piston cores. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Assessment of the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry Model to Simulate Ozone Concentrations in March 2008 over Coastal Areas of the Sea of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritomi Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The fully coupled WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model is used to simulate air quality over coastal areas of the Sea of Japan. The anthropogenic surface emissions database used as input for this model was based primarily on global hourly emissions data (dust, sea salt, and biomass burning, RETRO (REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition, GEIA (Global Emissions Inventory Activity, and POET (Precursors of Ozone and their Effects in the Troposphere. Climatologic concentrations of particulate matter derived from the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2, chemical mechanism, and the Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM with aqueous reactions were used to deduce the corresponding aerosol fluxes for input to the WRF/Chem model. The model was first integrated continuously over 48 hours, starting from 00:00 UTC on 14 March 2008, to evaluate ozone concentrations and other precursor pollutants. WPS meteorological data were used for the WRF/Chem model simulation in this study. Despite the low resolution of global emissions and the weak density of the local point emissions, it was found that the WRF/Chem model simulates the diurnal variation of the chemical species concentrations over the coastal areas of the Sea of Japan quite well. The Air Quality Management Division of the Ministry of the Environment in Japan selected the maximum level of the air quality standard for ozone, which is 60 ppb. In this study, the atmospheric concentrations of ozone over the coastal area of the Sea of Japan were calculated to be 30–55 ppb during the simulation period, which was lower than the Japanese air quality standard for ozone.

  13. Monitoring Fallout From Fukushima, Japan After Nuclear Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, on March 23rd, 2011, following the radioactivity releases after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, the first arrival of the airborne fission products 131I in Heilongjiang province the northeast of China, were detected

  14. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Sato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars (‘Toyoshiro’, ‘Kitahime’, ‘Snowden’ and ‘Poroshiri’ were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.

  15. Psychiatric assessment of suicide attempters in Japan: a pilot study at a critical emergency unit in an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishida Ikuko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of suicide has increased markedly in Japan since 1998. As psychological autopsy is not generally accepted in Japan, surveys of suicide attempts, an established risk factor of suicide, are highly regarded. We have carried out this study to gain insight into the psychiatric aspects of those attempting suicide in Japan. Methods Three hundred and twenty consecutive cases of attempted suicide who were admitted to an urban emergency department were interviewed, with the focus on psychosocial background and DSM-IV diagnosis. Moreover, they were divided into two groups according to the method of attempted suicide in terms of lethality, and the two groups were compared. Results Ninety-five percent of patients received a psychiatric diagnosis: 81% of subjects met the criteria for an axis I disorder. The most frequent diagnosis was mood disorder. The mean age was higher and living alone more common in the high-lethality group. Middle-aged men tended to have a higher prevalence of mood disorders. Conclusion This is the first large-scale study of cases of attempted suicide since the dramatic increase in suicides began in Japan. The identification and introduction of treatments for psychiatric disorders at emergency departments has been indicated to be important in suicide prevention.

  16. Locality of Chlorophyll-A Distribution in the Intensive Study Area of the Ariake Sea, Japan in Winter Seasons based on Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism of chlorophyll-a appearance and its locality in the intensive study area of the Ariake Sea, Japan in winter seasons is clarified by using remote sensing satellite data. Through experiments with Terra and AQUA MODIS data derived chlorophyll-a concentration and truth data of chlorophyll-a concentration together with meteorological data and tidal data which are acquired for 6 years (winter 2010 to winter 2015, it is found that strong correlation between the chlorophyll-a concentration and tidal height changes. Also it is found that the relations between ocean wind speed and chlorophyll-a concentration. Meanwhile, there is a relatively high correlation between sunshine duration a day and chlorophyll-a concentration. Furthermore, it is found that there are different sources of chlorophyll-a in the three different sea areas of Ariake Sea area in the back, Isahaya bay area, and Kumamoto offshore area.

  17. Research on potential radiation risks in areas with nuclear power plants in Japan: leukaemia and malignant lymphoma mortality between 1972 and 1997 in 100 selected municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko [Research Centre for Radiation Safety, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ward, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yoshinaga, Shinji [Research Centre for Radiation Safety, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ward, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhide [Research Centre for Radiation Safety, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ward, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fijimoto, Kenzo [Research Centre for Radiation Safety, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ward, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Nishizawa, Kanae [Research Centre for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ward, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sasaki, Yasuhito [Board of Executive Directors, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ward, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    The results of a geographical correlation study using Poisson regression analysis are reported for leukaemia and malignant lymphoma mortality between 1972 and 1997 in 100 selected Japanese municipalities with or without a nuclear power plant (NPP). The data did not support social concerns of an increased risk of malignant lymphoma in the vicinity of Japanese NPPs. However, some estimates of overall excess relative risk (ERR; relative risk minus one) were statistically significantly positive for leukaemia mortality in 20 NPP municipalities compared with mortality in the remaining 80 control areas, taking into account a minimum two-year latency following the start of commercial operation. One estimate was 0.228 (95% CI: 0.074-0.404) from a simple area adjustment using the mortality in all Japan as the external baseline rate. This superficial increase is not due to leukaemia among young people, aged less than 25 years at death. The ERR estimate for ages at death of 50-74 years was confounded to be positive for leukaemia and distorted to be negative for malignant lymphoma. For leukaemia, a positive ERR estimate was seen, especially for females and during specific periods. Confounding of the ERR estimate for two causes was also seen in some NPP areas including a high adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) area. Temporal area variations associated with ATL misclassification and a temporal increasing trend of leukaemia mortality in the elderly caused the confounding effects. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of a leukaemogenic impact of NPPs in Japan.

  18. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; Pcause of PDD, the PDD rate was higher at GHs compared to DBHs (24/316, 7.6% vs 21/552, 3.8%; Pcauses of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, disrupted lifelines, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters at coastal hospitals, and delayed medical intervention at inland hospitals. Meanwhile, investigation of PDD causes based on type of medical institution demonstrated that, while delayed medical intervention and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters were the most common causes at DBHs, insufficient medical resources and disrupted lifelines were prevalent causes at GHs. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at coastal hospitals. Insufficient resources (at GHs), environmental factors (at coastal hospitals), and delayed medical intervention (at all hospitals) constituted the major potential

  19. ECONOMIC EXCHANGES AND SECTORAL AND INTER—CITY COOPERATION IN NORTHEAST ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWen-yan; PANGXiao-min

    2002-01-01

    Northeast Asia with China ,Japan and South Korea as the main components has drawn more and more atten-tion worldwide.Many scholars have researchec on the prospect of some alternatives of regional economic integration in Northeast Asia/or Yellow Sea Rin as its core area.In this paper the authors start with an introduction of the major arguments embracing Yellow Sea Rim regionalism,and attemptto identify the dynamics challenging the proposed approach-es of sub-regionalism of Northeast Asia.The paper firstly gives a brief review on the undate development of bilateral econom-ic exchanges,mainly Sino-Japanese and Sino-South Korean trades and direct investments with related contemporary is-sues.When the changing pattern of economic interactions is analyzed,special concerns are given to the possibility to real-ize the supposed potential of regional economic cooperation mainly based on economic complementarity among the related regions of China ,North Korea,South Korea,and Japan.The authors then made their major efforts on putting forward possible approaches of multilateral cooperation of three countries in the near future,that is ,deepened cooperation in select-ed sectors of industry and transportation and coordinated development among major cities.The authors stress that the develop-ment of sub-regional sectoral cooperation and the formation of interactive network of city-regions via social and economic interactions at local level are significant to the future regional integrated development in Northeast Asia..

  20. null Kirishima, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  1. Applying heat integration total site based pinch technology to a large industrial area in Japan to further improve performance of highly efficient process plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kazuo; Hirochi, Yoshiichi [Chiyoda Corporation, Energy Frontier Business Development Office, 2-12-1 Tsurumichuo, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8601 (Japan); Tatsumi, Hiroyuki [Simulation Technology Limited, Yokohama-Kanazawa High-Tech Center, Techno-Core 5F, 1-1-1 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Shire, Tim [KBC Energy Services (Formerly Linnhoff March), Targeting House, Gadbrook Park, Northwich, Cheshire CW9 7UZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    ''Area-wide pinch technology'' which consists of R-curve analysis and Site Source Sink Profile (SSSP) analysis, was applied to Kashima industrial area, one of the biggest heavy chemical complexes in Japan. This case study demonstrates that despite the very high efficiency of the individual sites in the complex, there is a huge amount of energy saving potential through energy sharing among the various sites. In addition it was found that appropriate use of the available pinch technology tools and techniques allows an industrial area of enormous scale and complexity to be analysed conveniently. This has resulted in practical area-wide energy saving projects being proposed and implemented. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Line Immunoassay to Detect HTLV-1 Infection in an Endemic Area, Southwestern Japan; Comparison with Polymerase Chain Reaction and Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Kazumi; Umekita, Kunihiko; Hashikura, Yuuki; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2017-02-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been recognized as a cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, and HTLV-1-associated uveitis. HTLV-1 infection is normally detected by screening for HTLV-1 antibodies, and positive samples are confirmed by Western blot (WB). However, WB fails to confirm some samples that were positive for HTLV-1 antibodies on screening. Line immunoassay (LIA) is commonly used in Europe and Brazil, but not in Japan. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of LIA as a method of confirming HTLV-1 antibodies using samples in Japan. LIA was compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and WB using 50 negative and 70 positive samples tested by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) in Miyazaki, Japan, an HTLV-1 endemic area. LIA (INNO-LIA HTLVI/II Score) and WB (Problot HTLV-I) were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Real-time PCR for HTLV-1 pX region was performed using DNA derived from white blood cells. The samples that tested negative by real-time PCR were further tested by nested PCR. All 50 CLEIA negative samples were determined to be negative by LIA and PCR. Of the 70 positive samples, 66 tested positive by both of LIA and PCR. Three samples tested negative by LIA and PCR, and the remaining sample (PCR negative) showed non-specific staining in LIA and WB. WB showed more indeterminate results than LIA. Gp21 antibody in LIA demonstrated a high ability to discriminate between positive and negative PCR results. Furthermore, the degree of gp21 antibody reaction by LIA showed correlation with HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs). Our results indicate that LIA performs well in confirming HTLV-1 seropositivity by showing a low incidence of indeterminate results and good agreement with PCR using samples in Japan, although the number of samples tested was small. In addition, semi-quantitative antibody titer to gp21 correlated well with HTLV-1 PVLs. Further study

  3. The 2nd Seminar on Standardization Cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Seminar on Standardization Cooperation in Northeast Asia(2003) was held in Beijing from Oct 30th - Oct 31st, which was the succession of the first one in Korea, 2002, with the participants coming from the standardization circles in China, Japan and Korea.

  4. Metallogenic belt and mineral deposit maps of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Gerel, Ochir; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Seminskiy, Zhan V.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains explanatory material and summary tables for lode mineral deposits and placer districts (Map A, sheet 1) and metallogenic belts of Northeast Asia (Maps B, C, and D on sheets 2, 3, and 4, respectively). The map region includes eastern Siberia, southeastern Russia, Mongolia, northeast China, and Japan. A large group of geologists—members of the joint international project, Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia—prepared the maps, tables, and introductory text. This is a cooperative project with the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian National University, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian Technical University, Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia, Geological Research Institute, Jilin University, China Geological Survey, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Japan, and U.S. Geological Survey. This report is one of a series of reports on the mineral resources, geodynamics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia. Companion studies include (1) a detailed geodynamics map of Northeast Asia (Parfenov and others, 2003); (2) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000); (3) a series of metallogenic belt maps (Obolenskiy and others, 2004); (4) location map of lode mineral deposits and placer districts of Northeast Asia (Ariunbileg and others, 2003b); (5) descriptions of metallogenic belts (Rodionov and others, 2004); (6) a database on significant metalliferous and selected nonmetalliferous lode deposits and selected placer districts (Ariunbileg and others, 2003a); and (7) a series of summary project publications (Ariunbileg and 74 others, 2003b).

  5. Independent living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and home mechanical ventilation in areas of Japan with insufficient national welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Miku; Suzuki, Machiko

    2013-08-26

    In Japan, there is no national 24-hour home care system for people with severe impairments. Despite this fact, a small number of people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy on home mechanical ventilation pursue independent living. Therefore, our aim was to better understand the process by which these individuals arrived at this goal for independence (i.e., choosing to live at home in Japan instead of in special sanatoriums that provide sufficient support and care). Twenty-one participants were interviewed in 2011 and 2013. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed following a grounded theory approach. These individuals placed particular emphasis on their personal choice regarding where and how they live as well as on whom they depend. Therefore, the core element underlying participants' goals for independent living was self-reliant independency. To improve their social inclusion, the strategies used by the participants to retain their autonomy in an underdeveloped Japanese welfare system by establishing relationships with people in their communities can prevent them from experiencing social isolation. This could serve as an example to their counterparts in other countries.

  6. Independent living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and home mechanical ventilation in areas of Japan with insufficient national welfare services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miku Yamaguchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, there is no national 24-hour home care system for people with severe impairments. Despite this fact, a small number of people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy on home mechanical ventilation pursue independent living. Therefore, our aim was to better understand the process by which these individuals arrived at this goal for independence (i.e., choosing to live at home in Japan instead of in special sanatoriums that provide sufficient support and care. Twenty-one participants were interviewed in 2011 and 2013. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed following a grounded theory approach. These individuals placed particular emphasis on their personal choice regarding where and how they live as well as on whom they depend. Therefore, the core element underlying participants’ goals for independent living was self-reliant independency. To improve their social inclusion, the strategies used by the participants to retain their autonomy in an underdeveloped Japanese welfare system by establishing relationships with people in their communities can prevent them from experiencing social isolation. This could serve as an example to their counterparts in other countries.

  7. New Record of Odonata in the Northeast Area and Jilin Province in China%中国东北地区和吉林省蜻蜓目新记录种记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晨; 王志明; 赵东芳

    2011-01-01

    Specimens of Odonata collected were identified, and four new records in northeast area and six new records in Jilin province were confirmed.New records in northeast area are Sympetrum ruptum Needham, Libellula basilinea McLachlan, Somatochlora dido Needham and Ischnura elegans Vander Linden.New records in Jilin province are Sympetrum ruptum Needham, Libellula basilinea McLachlan, Somatochlora dido Needham, lschnura elegans Vander Linden, S、 croceolum Selys and S.imitens Selys.%对采集的蜻蜓标本进行鉴定,确定了4个东北地区新记录种和6个吉林省新记录种.其中东北地区新记录种为双横赤蜻Sympetrum rupturm Needham,高斑蜻Libellula basilinea McLachlan,绿金光伪蜻 Somatochlora dido Needham和长叶异痣蟌Ischnura.elegans Vander Linden.吉林省新记录种除上述外还有半黄赤蜻S.croceolum Selys和黄腿赤蜻S.imitens Selys.

  8. 近代东北地区城乡关系的新变化及其动因探析%Relationship between Urban and Rural Areas in Modern Northeast China:New Change and Its Reasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎元智

    2016-01-01

    The urban and rural development in Northeast China is extremely unbalanced in modern times. The urban areas develop fast while the rural areas develop slowly, and the gap between them is increasingly bigger. This leads to rapid change of the urban and rural relationship. A new pattern of the relationship between urban and rural areas with cities as the center and rural areas as the subordinate has been initially formed. The communication be-tween urban and rural areas is accelerating. Rural population begins to move to cities. Large and medium sized central market formed in the city and became the center of the urban and rural communication in modern Northeast China. The development difference, development speed and the close environment and backward transportation are reasons for the change of the relationship between urban and rural areas in modern Northeast China.%近代中国东北地区的城乡发展极不平衡。城市发展较快,乡村发展缓慢,且二者间的差距越来越大。随之而来,原有的城乡关系也急速发生变化。“以城市为中心、以乡村为从属”的新型城乡关系格局初步形成,城乡间的交流逐渐加快,乡村人口开始向城市集中,大中型中心市场在城市形成并成为近代东北地区城乡交流的中心。而促使近代东北地区城乡关系发生变化的动因更值得我们深入探析,以期对近代东北社会史研究有所裨益。

  9. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  11. One of the Possible Causes for Diatom Appearance in Ariake Bay Area in Japan In the Winter from 2010 to 2015 (Clarified with AQUA/MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible causes for diatom appearance in Ariake bay area I Japan in the winter seasons from 2010 to 2015 is clarified with AQUA/MODIS of remote sensing satellite. Two months (January and February AQUA/MODIS derived chlorophyll-a concentration are used for analysis of diatom appearance. Match-up data of AQUA/MODIS with the evidence of the diatom appearance is extracted from the MODIS database. Through experiments, it is found that diatom appears after a long period time of relatively small size of red tide appearance. Also, it depends on the weather conditions and tidal effect as well as water current in the bay area in particular.

  12. Performance evaluation of a ground-source heat pump system utilizing a flowing well and estimation of suitable areas for its installation in Aizu Basin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gaurav; Uchida, Youhei; Kuronuma, Satoru; Yamaya, Mutsumi; Katsuragi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Shohei; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Yoshioka, Mayumi

    2017-08-01

    Development of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with higher efficiency, and evaluation of its operating performance, is essential to expand the growth of GSHP systems in Japan. A closed-loop GSHP system was constructed utilizing a flowing (artesian) well as a ground heat exchanger (GHE). The system was demonstrated for space-heating and space-cooling of a room (area 126.7 m2) in an office building. The average coefficient of performance was found to be 4.5 for space-heating and 8.1 for space-cooling. The maximum heat exchange rate was 70.8 W/m for space-heating and 57.6 W/m for space-cooling. From these results, it was determined that a GSHP system with a flowing well as a GHE can result in higher performance. With this kind of highly efficient system, energy saving and cost reduction can be expected. In order to assess appropriate locations for the installation of similar kinds of GSHP systems in Aizu Basin, a suitability map showing the distribution of groundwater up-flowing areas was prepared based on the results of a regional-scale three-dimensional analytical model. Groundwater up-flowing areas are considered to be suitable because the flowing well can be constructed at these areas. Performance evaluation of the GSHP system utilizing the flowing well, in conjunction with the prepared suitability map for its installation, can assist in the promotion of GSHP systems in Japan.

  13. Performance evaluation of a ground-source heat pump system utilizing a flowing well and estimation of suitable areas for its installation in Aizu Basin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gaurav; Uchida, Youhei; Kuronuma, Satoru; Yamaya, Mutsumi; Katsuragi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Shohei; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Yoshioka, Mayumi

    2017-02-01

    Development of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with higher efficiency, and evaluation of its operating performance, is essential to expand the growth of GSHP systems in Japan. A closed-loop GSHP system was constructed utilizing a flowing (artesian) well as a ground heat exchanger (GHE). The system was demonstrated for space-heating and space-cooling of a room (area 126.7 m2) in an office building. The average coefficient of performance was found to be 4.5 for space-heating and 8.1 for space-cooling. The maximum heat exchange rate was 70.8 W/m for space-heating and 57.6 W/m for space-cooling. From these results, it was determined that a GSHP system with a flowing well as a GHE can result in higher performance. With this kind of highly efficient system, energy saving and cost reduction can be expected. In order to assess appropriate locations for the installation of similar kinds of GSHP systems in Aizu Basin, a suitability map showing the distribution of groundwater up-flowing areas was prepared based on the results of a regional-scale three-dimensional analytical model. Groundwater up-flowing areas are considered to be suitable because the flowing well can be constructed at these areas. Performance evaluation of the GSHP system utilizing the flowing well, in conjunction with the prepared suitability map for its installation, can assist in the promotion of GSHP systems in Japan.

  14. Numerical simulation of afterslips and slow slip events that occurred in the same area in Hyuga-nada of southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ryoko; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hori, Takane

    2012-08-01

    We propose a model of numerical simulation for the coexistence of afterslip for ˜M7 earthquake and slow slip events in the Hyuga-nada region of Japan that incorporates 3-D geometry of the Philippine Sea Plate. Coseismic slip events, recurrence of slow slip events and afterslip are qualitatively reproduced using the composite law, which is a type of rate- and state-dependent friction law with higher cut-off velocity. In addition, characteristic slip distances in the area are larger than those in other seismic source areas. In our simulation, afterslip, which occurred at the velocity-weakening regime, triggered an aseismic transient event. After the termination of this event, spontaneous slow slip events repeatedly occurred in the same area. After a similar event sequence was repeated, another afterslip occurrence triggered a larger coseismic slip in a wide area including that of the slow slip events. Following this coseismic slip, the aseismic slip area was locked until the next afterslip propagation, which triggered an aseismic transient event. These results suggest that detailed observation of spatial and temporal distribution within the area of aseismic slip may indicate the potential of recurring slow slip events and future large earthquakes.

  15. Preliminary publications book 2 from project on mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Bounaeva, Tatiana M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This is the Web version of a CD-ROM publication. This report consists of summary major compilations and syntheses accomplished in the six-year project through April 2003 for the study on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, and Japan). The major scientific goals and benefits of the project are to: (1) provide a comprehensive international data base on the mineral resources of the region that is the first, extensive knowledge available in English; (2) provide major new interpretations of the origin and crustal evolution of mineralizing systems and their host rocks, thereby enabling enhanced, broad-scale tectonic reconstructions and interpretations; and (3) promote trade and scientific and technical exchanges between the North America and Northeast Asia. Data from the project are providing sound scientific data and interpretations for commercial firms, governmental agencies, universities, and individuals that are developing new ventures and studies in the project area, and for land-use planning studies that deal with both mineral potential issues. Northeast Asia has vast potential for known and undiscovered mineral deposits; however, little information existed in English in the West until publication of products from this project. Consequently, data and interpretations from the project are providing basic knowledge for major scientific, commercial, national, and international endeavors by other interested individuals and groups.

  16. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Bathymetry Model - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a bathymetry model of the seafloor of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) of the Northeast Ecological Reserve:...

  17. Faszination Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Árokay, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Japan ist ein Ausnahmeland. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg stieg Japan rasand schnell zu einer Wirtschaftsmacht auf, heute ist es das westlichste Land im Fernen Osten. Über das Leben im modernen Japan sowie über Einschätzungen und Fehleinschätzungen dieses faszinierenden Landes in Deutschland sprach der Campus-Reporter Nils Birschmann mit der Professorin für Japanologie an der Universität Heidelberg, Frau Prof. Dr. Judit Árokay. Der Beitrag "Faszination Japan" erschien in der Sendereihe "Camp...

  18. 日朝关系的新动向及对东北亚局势的影响%New Tendency in Japan-DPRK Relations and Its Impact on Situation in Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锐; 孙天宇

    2015-01-01

    2014年7月4日,朝鲜正式成立了由国防委员会特别授权的主要是针对“绑架日本人问题”的“特别调查委员会”,并开始启动对在朝鲜境内所有日本人的全面调查工作。同一天,日本首相安倍晋三则宣布解除了针对朝鲜的部分单边经济制裁作为积极回应。不过,日朝关系的一度趋热局面,至今仍然难以改变两国在东北亚地区深处外交困境的尴尬现实。日朝关系出现的诸多新变化,如果从冷战结束后日朝关系史的角度来考察,不过是两国处在与东北亚国家外交关系“寒冷”时期所采取的“抱团取暖”的应急性策略。日朝关系真正步入正常化阶段,尚需较长时日和更多的务实努力。%On July 4 , 2014 , North Korea set up a special committee authorized by National Defense Commis-sion to investigate the issue that Japanese were abducted by North Korea and started to completely survey all Japa -nese in North Korea .On the same day , as a positive response , Japanese Prime Minister Abe Shinzo announced to lift some unilateral sanctions against North Korea .However , this relaxation has not changed the fact that the two countries have still been in a diplomatic dilemma .In the perspective of the history of Japan-DPRK relations after the Cold War , many new changes in the Japan-DPRK relations are just contingency strategies they adopted to get rid of the isolated diplomatic situation .The normalization of the Japan-DPRK relations needs more time and prag-matic efforts.

  19. Geographic trends and spread of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in the metropolitan areas of Japan studied from the national sentinel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaida, Shinako; Yasui, Yoshinori; Tada, Yuki; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The identification of geographic trends of an influenza pandemic is important for analyzing its social epidemic factors. We performed spatiotemporal analyses focusing on the metropolitan areas in Japan by using the influenza-like illness (ILI) sentinel surveillance data for the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal influenza. The epidemic curves and spread features expressed by the kriging method of geographic information system (GIS) and correlations between reported cases and demographic data were analyzed. The incidence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 increased gradually at the beginning and showed more sporadic epidemic features compared to seasonal influenza. However, there were coincidental locations of patient clusters affected by the seasonal influenza, with a significant coefficient for the total sentinel reported cases (r = 0.71, P < 0.01). This suggested similar patterns of the epidemic over seasons. Patient clusters tended to be located in suburban areas, and there seemed to be stronger relationships between epidemics and higher ratio of larger families (with r = 0.26-0.35, P < 0.01, between ratio of families having more than 3 members and total reported cases in Tokyo and Nagoya areas). Whether populous areas had a greater probability of maintaining the epidemic patterns needs to be determined. Nonetheless, the patterns found in this study can be useful for further analyses for epidemic modeling and designing relevant controls.

  20. Seasonal and multi-annual patterns of Phragmites australis decomposition in a wetland of the Adriatic area (Northeast Italy: a three-years analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoli M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are one of the most biologically productive ecosystems, in which reedbeds of Phragmites australis are an essentially detritus-based system where litter decomposition is a fundamental process. This study represents a three year dataset describing cyclic trends of Phragmites australis leaf litter breakdown in a temporary and managed environment. For three years, 45 days field experiments were seasonally performed, using leaf bag technique within a large managed temporary pond (Natural Reserve of the Isonzo River Mouth, Northeast Italy, in order to analyze spatial and temporal variation in decomposition processes, to search for patterns on seasonal and inter-annual time scale and to infer the relevance of the main environmental features (physical and chemical on decomposition dynamic. During the three years of analysis, decay rates (k ranges were 0.0066–0.0075 days-1 in autumn, 0.0108–0.0158 days-1 in spring and k = 0.0168 days-1 in summer. Average mass loss per day % range was 0.97–1.31% in autumn, 1.12–2.04% in spring and 1.79–2.06% in summer. A well-defined seasonal cycle was observed through the study years as result of the drought-reflooding dynamic and the highest percentage (91.1% of the average mass loss per day % variability was explained above all by rainfall, temperature and conductivity.

  1. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  2. Soil erosion along a long slope in the gentle hilly areas of black soil region in Northeast China%东北黑土漫岗区长坡面坡耕地侵蚀产沙沿程变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明; 蔡强国; 朱阿兴; 范昊明

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of soil erosion change along a long slope in the gentle hilly areas in black soil region in Northeast China are discussed. A simplified slope model based on segments was used to analyze the runoff data and soil erosion data observed between 2003 and 2004 over 10 field plots with different slope length in Heshan Farm, Heilongjiang Province. We found that soil erosion rate over long slopes in the black soil region changed alternatively along the slope and creates alternative zones of intensive erosion and week erosion.The exact place of each zone is different for different rainfall conditions. In a year with less and mild precipitation, rill cannot happen within the top 50 m, while in a year with large and intensive precipitation, rill can be formed starting even at 15 m from the top of the slope.

  3. Northeast Asian Energy Corridor Initiative for Regional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore's AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an elFor historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore’s AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an electronically integrated Over-the-Counter (OTC market clearing mechanism accompanied by other key financial instruments among Korea, Japan and China can be an effective means for promoting financial collaboration in the region.

  4. Update Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  5. Marine Pollution at Northeast of Penang Island

    OpenAIRE

    H.A. Gasim; Hashim, A. M.; P.Z.M. Bakri; M.Z. Samsuri; N.L.A. Rais; N.D.M. Noor

    2013-01-01

    Oceans cover large area of earth surface and it is important for humans to protect from pollution. Malaysia has large marine areas which consist of islands, coastal and sea areas which are facing pollution problem due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization. This study investigated sources of marine pollution occurred at area near a reclamation project at the northeast of Penang Island. Three locations were chosen for water sampling which included Sg. Fetes, North Tanjung Tokong and G...

  6. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations.

  7. Changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake and their effect on economic factors: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orui, Masatsugu; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2014-11-01

    Devastating disasters may increase suicide rates due to mental distress. Previous domestic studies have reported decreased suicide rates among men following disasters. Few reports are available regarding factors associated with disasters, making it difficult to discuss how these events affect suicide rates. This study aimed to observe changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken and neighboring areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake, and examine associations between suicide rates and economic factors. Monthly suicide rates were observed from March 2009 to February 2013, during which time the earthquake occurred on March, 2011. Data were included from disaster-stricken (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures) and neighboring (control: Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures) areas. The association between changes in suicide rates and economic variables was evaluated based on the number of bankruptcy cases and ratio of effective job offers. In disaster-stricken areas, post-disaster male suicide rates decreased during the 24 months following the earthquake. This trend differed relative to control areas. Female suicide rates increased during the first seven months. Multiple regression analysis showed that bankruptcy cases (β = 0.386, p = 0.038) and ratio of effective job offers (β = -0.445, p = 0.018) were only significantly associated with male post-disaster suicide rates in control areas. Post-disaster suicide rates differed by gender following the earthquake. Our findings suggest that considering gender differences might be important for developing future post-disaster suicide prevention measures. This ecological study revealed that increasing effective job offers and decreasing bankruptcy cases can affect protectively male suicide rates in control areas.

  8. Spatiotemporal inhomogeneity in atmospheric trace-gas over Fukuoka, an urban area in Japan, observed by ground-based MAX-DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Irie, H.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous trace-gas observations have been made using ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) at Fukuoka (33.55N, 130.36E), an urban area in Japan. The maximum of the NOx emissions at Fukuoka is estimated to be at the city center, and the monitoring site is located ~5 km southwest of the city center, outside of the central area. To clarify the inhomogeneity as well as the transport/mixing processes of the polluted air in the urban area, continuous profile measurements have been conducted in two azimuth directions: towards and away from the city center. From NO2 observations, we sometimes observed spatial inhomogeneity associated with vertical/horizontal transport of high concentrations of NO2 from the city center, and horizontal transport of low concentrations from the ocean via a land-sea breeze. On the other hand, we observed spatial inhomogeneity in HONO and HCHO during summer, which was probably due to photochemical production over the city center.

  9. [Effects of empathy on fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, focusinig on the residents in the South Kanto area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Youichi; Yoo, Seonyoung; Matsui, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    Fund-raising activities on behalf of victims of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake during the year after the earthquake were investigated in residents of the South Kanto area (N = 749), which is adjacent to the disaster area. The percentage of people that raised funds was 67.4%. We investigated the effects of the following on fundraising activities: demographic variables (sex, age, and educational background), trait empathy (empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress), former experience with fund-raising activities, effects of similarity to victims (e.g., experienced inconveniences because of the disaster, or had problems returning home), and psychological closeness to victims (e.g, have family members or acquaintances that suffered from the disaster, or that once lived in the disaster area). The results indicated that fund-raising activities were affected by former experience with fund-raising, similarity to victims, psychological closeness to victims, empathic concern, and being female. The relationship between fund-raising activities for victims and empathy are discussed.

  10. Island-enhanced cooling mechanism in typhoon events revealed by field observations and numerical simulations for a coral reef area, Sekisei Lagoon, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    While widely known for their destructive power, typhoon events can also bring benefit to coral reef ecosystems through typhoon-induced cooling which can mitigate against thermally stressful conditions causing coral bleaching. Sensor deployments in Sekisei Lagoon, Japan's largest coral reef area, during the summer months of 2013, 2014, and 2015 were able to capture local hydrodynamic features of numerous typhoon passages. In particular, typhoons 2015-13 and 2015-15 featured steep drops in near-bottom temperature of 5 °C or more in the north and south sides of Sekisei Lagoon, respectively, indicating local cooling patterns which appeared to depend on the track and intensity of the passing typhoon. This was further investigated using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) numerical simulations conducted for the summer of 2015. The modeling results showed a cooling trend to the north of the Yaeyama Islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-13, and a cooling trend that moved clockwise from north to south of the islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-15. These local cooling events may have been initiated by the Yaeyama Islands acting as an obstacle to a strong typhoon-generated flow which was modulated and led to prominent cooling of waters on the leeward sides. These lower temperature waters from offshore may then be transported to the shallower inner parts of the lagoon area, which may partly be due to density-driven currents generated by the offshore-inner area temperature difference.

  11. Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite Plan in Japan (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, H.; Kasai, Y.; Kita, K.; Irie, H.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.

    2009-12-01

    As emissions of air pollutants in Asia have increased in the past decades accompanying with rapid economic growth of developing countries, Asian regional air pollution has attracted concern from the view of inter-continental and intra-continental long-range transport as well as domestic air quality. Particularly in Japan, transboundary transport of ozone is of recent social concern as one of a cause of increasing trend of near surface ozone concentration. In order to elucidate the transport and chemical transformation processes of air pollution in East Asia, and to attain internationally common understanding on this issue, geostationary atmospheric observation satellite has been proposed in Japan. In 2006, the Japan Society of Atmospheric Chemistry (JSAC) formed Commission on the Atmospheric Environmental Observation Satellite to initiate the discussion. In 2009, Committee on Geostationary Atmospheric Observation Satellite has been formed within JAXA to promote the plan. The proposed satellite consists of a UV/VIS sensor for O3, NO2, HCHO and AOT, and a MIR sensor for O3, CO, HNO3, NO2, H2O and temperature. Targeted spatial and temporal resolutions are ca.10 km and 1-2 hrs, respectively, and focused observation area is northeast Asia potentially covering the southeast and south Asia. Sensitivity analysis and simulation have been made for both the UV/VIS and MIR sensors. Overview of user requirement and the sensitivity analysis for each species will be presented in this talk.

  12. Coupling Mechanism of Slope-gully Erosion in Typical Black Soil Area of Northeast China%东北典型黑土区坡沟侵蚀耦合关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 张树文; 方海燕

    2012-01-01

    Black Soil Area of Northeast China is one of the most important marketable grain bases in China, but serious soil loss bring the crucial challenge to the marketable grain production. In this paper, supportad by Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, taking typical Black Soil Area of Northeast China which is located in the Wuyuer River and Nemoer River basins as study area, based on USLE model and SPOT 5 imagery, the amount of soil erosion on hillslope and gully distribution data in 2005 were obtained respectively. Then the coupling relations be- tween hillslope erosion and gully erosion of different grades, slopes, aspects and so on were ana- lyzed. The results showed that slight erosion and light erosion were the main hillslope eroded area in the study area. Gully erosion was much serious and had a great potential for development. When the slope was below 5°, slope was the key factor causing gully erosion. However, when the slope was above 5°, slope was no more the important factor causing gully erosion. In addition, it showed that the amount of hillslope erosion on sunny slope was higher than shady slope, but for the gully erosion, aspect was not the key factor affecting the formation of gully erosion in Black Soil Area of Northeast China. In areas with an erosion intensity smaller than 2500 t/( km2· a) , erosion gully density increased with the amount of hillslope erosion. However, When it is greater than 2500 t/( km2· a), the erosion gully density would be comparatively stable.%东北黑土区是中国重要的商品粮基地,但是严重的水土流失给其粮食产量带来了严峻考验。论文在遥感和GIS支持下,选择黑龙江省乌裕尔河和讷谟尔河两流域包含的东北典型黑土区作为研究区,以USLE模型和SPOT5影像为基础,分别获取了2005年研究区的坡面侵蚀量和侵蚀沟分布数据,据此分析了典型黑土区坡面侵蚀和沟蚀之间在不同等级、坡度、坡向等方面的

  13. 3D seismic experiment in difficult area in Japan; Kokunai nanchiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    Difficult area in this context means an exploration-difficult area supposed to store oil/gas but retarded in exploration for the lack of knowledge about the geological structure due to poor quality of available seismic survey records. Discussed in this paper is a survey conducted into an area covering the southern part of Noshiro-shi, Akita-ken, and Yamamoto-cho, Yamamoto-gun, Akita-ken. An area size suitable for data collection at a target depth of 2500m is determined using an interpretation structure compiled on the basis of available well data and 2D seismic survey data. The plan for siting shock points and receiving points is modified case by case as restrictive factors come to the surface (resulting from the complicated hilly terrain, presence of pipes for agricultural water, etc.). The peculiarities of seismic waves in the terrain are studied through the interpretation of the available well data and 2D seismic survey data for the construction of a 3D velocity model for the confirmation of the appropriateness of the plan for siting shock points and receiving points. Efforts are exerted through enhanced coordination with the contractor to acquire data so that a technologically best design may be won within the limits of the budget. The quality of the data obtained from this experiment is in general better than those obtained from previous experiments, yet many problems remain to be settled in future studies about exploration-difficult areas. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Silicification of pelitic schist in the Iwakuni-Yanai area of the Ryoke belt, southwest Japan: Origin of competent layers in the deep crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terabayashi, M.; Yamamoto, H.

    2003-12-01

    Bright-layer reflections have been imaged at about 15-20 km depth in fore-arc region of southwest Japan, and most of the epicenter distributes above the bright-layer (Ito, 1999). To understand the cause of a seismic bright-layer with the mechanism of large inland earthquake, we studied the low-P/T metamorphic rocks in the Ryoke belt, southwest Japan. The Ryoke belt in the Iwakuni-Yanai area is underlain by Jurassic accretionary complex and their metamorphosed equivalents. They were intruded by Cretaceous granitic rocks. Five metamorphic zones can be difined by mineral assemblages of pelitic rocks as a regional metamorphism before the intrusion; chlorite, chlorite-biotite, biotite, cordierite and sillimanite zones from north to south (Ikeda, 1993). Silicified rocks have been found in pelitic schist of the biotite zone and northernmost part of the cordierite zone. The pelitic schist is dark in color but silicification turned it to be pale gray or milky white. Silicified pelitic schist is mainly composed of fine-grained quartz and minor muscovite and biotite. The silicified pelitic schist forms layers or lenticular bodies several to fifty meters in thickness. The boundary between silicified rock layer and underlying pelitic schist is fairly distinct but that between the overlying pelitic schist is gradual. Quartz veins crossing high angles with schistosity were preferentially developed in the silicified rock layers, while schistosity-parallel quartz veins, which underwent plastic flow, were observed in the pelitic schist. En echelon quartz vein and fishnet-like quartz veins are characteristic of silicified rock layers. This mode of occurrence of quartz veins indicates competence of silicified rock layers relative to pelitic schist. Rock boundary with high competence contrast is probably a good reflector of seismic waves. Bright-layer reflections would arise from silicified rock layers if those are distributed in the deep crust to a considerable extent.

  15. Sea Urchin Embryogenesis as Bioindicators of Marine Pollution in Impact Areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanova, Olga N; Zhuravel, Elena V; Chulchekov, Denis N; Mazur, Andrey A

    2017-08-01

    The embryogenesis of the sea urchin sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis was used as bioindicators of seawater quality from the impact areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea (Peter the Great Bay) and the Sea of Okhotsk (northwestern shelf of Sakhalin Island and western shelf of Kamchatka Peninsula). Fertilization membrane formation, first cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation, and 2-armed and 4-armed pluteus formation have been analyzed and a number of abnormalities were calculated. Number of embryogenesis anomalies in sand dollar larvae exposed to sea water from different stations in Peter the Great Bay corresponds to pollution level at each area. The Sea of Okhotsk is the main fishing area for Russia. Anthropogenic impact on the marine ecosystem is caused by fishing and transport vessels mainly. But two shelf areas are considered as "hot spots" due to oil and gas drilling. Offshore oil exploitation on the northeastern Sakhalin Island has been started and at present time oil is being drill on oil-extracting platforms continuously. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are prospected on western Kamchatka shelf, and exploitation drilling in this area was intensified in 2014. A higher number of abnormalities at gastrula and pluteus stages (19-36%) were detected for the stations around oil platforms near Sakhalin Island. On the western Kamchatka shelf number of abnormalities was 7-21%. Such anomalies as exogastrula, incomplete development of pairs of arms were not observed at all; only the delay of development was registered. Eggs, embryos, and larvae of sea urchins are the suitable bioindicators of early disturbances caused by marine pollution in impact ecosystems.

  16. Rearming Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  17. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate...

  18. 40 CFR 81.139 - Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.139 Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Arkansas Intrastate...

  19. Source process of the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohuko Japan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO JinLai; WANG WeiMin; YAO ZhenXing

    2011-01-01

    On March 11,2011,a magnitude Mw9.0 earthquake occurred near the east coast of Honshu,Japan,at 13:46 (Beijing time),with an epicenter at 38.321°N,142.369°E and a source depth of 24 km,as determined by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/).A great tsunami then battered the northeast coast of Japan after the earthquake.The wave reached a maximum height of 23.6 m in some areas (http://news.sina.com.cn/w/2011-03-24/082322172726.shtml).The earthquake also resulted in damage to a nuclear power plant in Fukushima that generated nuclear leakage.The earthquake,tsunami and nuclear leakage have brought about huge economic losses and casualties.

  20. Genetic changes of p53, K-ras, and microsatellite instability in gallbladder carcinoma in high-incidence areas of Japan and Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayuki Nagahashi; Toshifumi Wakai; Yoshio Shirai; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama; Masaharu Yamamoto; Yoichi Ajioka; Istvan Lang; Zoltan Szentirmay; Miklos Kasler; Hiroto Nakadaira; Naoyuki Yokoyama; Gen Watanabe; Ken Nishikura

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To disclose geographic differences in genetic changes involved in gallbladder carcinogenesis between two distinct high-incidence areas of Japan and Hungary. METHODS: We examined 42 cases of gallbladder carcinoma: 22 Japanese and 20 Hungarian cases, p53 mutations at exons 5 to 8 and K-ras mutations at codon 12 were tested by direct sequencing. Microsatellite instability was determined from fluorescent dye-labeled PCR amplifications of five-microsatellite markers (BAT-25, BAT-25, D2S123, D5S346, and D17S250).RESULTS: Mutations of p53 were detected in 11 of 22 Japanese cases and 6 of 18 Hungarian cases (11/22 vs 6/18, P = 0.348). Transition at CpG sites was found in none of 11 Japanese cases and 2 of 6 Hungarian cases; the difference was marginally significant (0/11 vs 2/6,P = 0.110). K-ras mutations were detected in only one of the Hungarian cases. Eight of 19 (42.1%) Japanese cases were MSI-high (presence of novel peaks in more than one of the five loci analyzed), whereas only 1 of 15 (6.7%) Hungarian cases was HSI-high (P = 0.047). CONCLUSION: It appears that the p53 mutations and MSI differ in patients with gallbladder carcinoma between two distinct high-incidence areas. Geographic variation might exist in the process of gallbladder carcinogenesis.

  1. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kagawa; Furuno, K; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artifi...

  2. A numerical study of summer ozone concentration over the Kanto area of Japan using the MM5/CMAQ model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Khiem; Ryozo Ooka; Hong Huang; Hiroshi Hayami

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the ability of the MM5/CMAQ model to predict ozone (O3) air quality over the Kanto area and to investigate the factors that affect simulation of O3. We find that the coupled MM5/CMAQ model is a useful tool for the analysis of urban environmental problems. The simulation results were compared with observational data and were found to accurately replicate most of the important observed characteristics. The initial and boundary conditions were found to have a significant effect on simulated O3 concentrations.The results show that on hot and dry days with high O3 concentration, the CMAQ model provides a poor simulation of O3 maxima when using initial and boundary conditions derived from the CMAQ default data. The simulation of peak O3 concentrations is improved with the JCAP initial and boundary conditions. On mild days, the default CMAQ initial and boundary conditions provide a more realistic simulation. Meteorological conditions also have a strong impact on the simulated distribution and accumulation of O3 concentrations in this area. Low O3 concentrations are simulated during mild weather conditions, and high concentrations are predicted during hot and dry weather. By investigating the effects of different meteorological conditions on each model process, we find that advection and diffusion differ the most between the two meteorological regimes. Thus, differences in the winds that govern the transport of O3 and its precursors are likely the most important meteorological drivers of ozone concentration over the central Kanto area.

  3. [Geographical distribution of medical expenditure for the aged insured by National Health Insurance in secondary medical care areas in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Tanihara, S; Yanagawa, H

    1998-06-01

    To determine what factors affect medical expenditure for the aged insured by the National Health Insurance among secondary medical care areas. The original data of municipalities were combined and converted into the data of secondary medical areas. The original data included medical expenditure of the aged in 1994, medical supply factors per 100,000 population (numbers of doctors, numbers of general beds in hospitals, numbers of clinics, etc.) and socio-economic factors (income, proportion of employees for three sectors of industries, population density, average size of family, etc.). Medical expenditures for inpatients and outpatients were used separately as independent variables. The medical supply and socio-economic factors have been used as dependent variables. Multiple regression models were applied to clarify the differences in the contributing factors between inpatient and outpatient. 1. The maximum inpatient and outpatient medical expenditures for the aged are respectively 4 times and 2.6 times more expensive than minimum expenditures among secondary medical care areas. 2. The numbers of beds, income per capita, numbers of doctor, average size of family, proportion of employees for third level industry and income accounted for 57.4% of variance in inpatient medical expenditure of the aged. 3. The proportion of employees for first level industry, the numbers of beds and average members of family accounted for 21.4% of variance in outpatient medical expenditure of the aged. 4. Medical expenditure for inpatients related with medical supply and socioeconomic factors differently from that of outpatients.

  4. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  5. Freeing up Transport In Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A"golden triangle"of logistics is taking shape in Northeast Asia,particularly in the Tumenjiang Area A 50-km expressway will soon link two ports in North Korea.The inves- tor,Hunchun Donglin Economy and Trade Co.Ltd.,comes from the

  6. Biogeochemistry of plant-soil system in a limestone area: A case study of Mt. Kinsho-zan, Gifu prefecture, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S.; Sugitani, K.; Ono, M.

    2010-12-01

    Limestone contains few of the nutrients essential for plant growth, such as Si, K, and P. Owing to its high concentrations of alkali earth elements and the resulting high pH, P and Fe tend to be sparingly available for plants in soils developed in limestone areas. Because of this limited availability of nutrients in calcareous soils, certain typical calcareous plants are known to occasionally dominate. On Mt. Kinsho-zan, a limestone mountain in Gifu prefecture, central Japan, however, typical calcareous plants are not seen; various non-calcareous plants appear and do not seem to be malnourished. In addition to the nutrients supplied by precipitation and eolian dusts, litter decomposition may supply nutrients, which could circulate in the plant-soil system. In this study, the soil properties (water content, loss on ignition, and pH) and the chemical compositions of soils, plant leaves (Chamaecyparis obtusa), and parental rocks (limestone) were analyzed to clarify the biogeochemical cycle of the plant-soil system on Mt. Kinsho-zan. A mountain composed of sandstone and mudstone, which lies near the main research area, was chosen for comparison. Chemical compositions were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Spectris Co., Ltd Panalytical Division Axios-N system). Ten major elements were analyzed in all samples, and 13 and 4 trace elements were analyzed for soils and plants and for limestones, respectively. In the limestone samples, the concentrations were as follows: SiO2 = 0.12-0.22wt%, Al2O3 = 0.054-0.13wt%, Fe2O3 = 0.021-0.057wt%, CaO = 55.12-55.33wt%, K2O = 40-55 ppm, TiO2 = 29-48 ppm, and Zr = 12-14 ppm. In soils developed in the limestone area, SiO2 = 43.48-55.46wt%, Al2O3 = 25.47-34.92wt%, Fe2O3 = 10.75-13.64wt%, CaO = 0.46-5.61wt%, K2O = 1.30-1.72wt%, TiO2 = 1.02-1.36wt%, and Zr = 240-319 ppm. Concentrations of Fe2O3, MnO, and P2O5 in soils from the limestone area are two times higher than those in soils from the sandstone-mudstone area; the

  7. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  8. Technical potential for proliferation in Northeast Asian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.; Kramer, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Directorate for Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and International Security

    1994-10-14

    This paper is intended to review the technical capabilities of the states in Northeast Asia--principally Japan, South Korea, and North Korea--to develop nuclear weapons. All three nonnuclear weapons states in Northeast Asia have the technical capability to develop nuclear weapons. Japan and South Korea have intrusive safeguards and inspection arrangements on their nuclear programs, which allow their neighbors and the rest of the world to verify that they have not changed that status, and that they are living up to their NPT commitments. Despite its original commitment to the NPT, North Korea has yet to establish similar arrangements. it is ironic that the country with the smallest and technically least sophisticated nuclear program is the one creating the greatest concern about nuclear proliferation in the region. This irony illustrates the point made in the introduction, however. Nuclear proliferation is more a function of political decisionmaking than of technical capability.

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF REMOTE SENSING IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF CHOTTS AND SEBKHAS: CASE OF THE ENDOREIC AREA OF GADAIN (NORTHEAST OF ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUHATA Rabah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highlands of Eastern Algeria are characterized by an endorheism namely a local base level that does not allow the water system to get to the sea. The Area of chotts and sabkhas of Gadain region can be considered as an area of degradation lands due to the dynamics of sabkhas and chotts that are localized and installed on large areas on one hand and accelerated anthropogenic pressure on the other hand. This dynamic often presents special large extension, this study requires accurate and geo localized information's. The analysis of the dynamics of chotts and sabkhas based on medium resolution satellite images on two different dates (Landsat TM 1987 and TM 2009 specializes (mapping and evaluates this dynamic. The comparison of the results provides an overview of the affected areas by the dynamics of sabkhas and chotts and their direction for 22 years.

  10. Preliminary Research on Risk Evaluation of Gully Erosion in Typical Black Soil Area of Northeast China%东北典型黑土区沟蚀发生风险评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟; 邓荣鑫; 张树文

    2014-01-01

    选择黑龙江省乌裕尔河和讷谟尔河两流域所涉及的东北典型黑土区作为研究区,以SPOT 5影像为基础数据源,获取了研究区2005年的侵蚀沟分布数据,并且利用该数据对研究区沟蚀现状进行了评估.同时基于1:50 000地形图数据插值求取的DEM,提取了与沟蚀形成相关的11个地形因子.最后基于沟蚀数据和无共线性的8个地形因子构建了Logistic模型,据此模型对研究区沟蚀发生风险进行了评价,进而进行了沟蚀发生风险分级评价研究.结果表明研究区当前侵蚀沟共有14 184条,密度为322.11m/km2,吞噬耕地约100.36 km2;基于Logistic模型获取的沟蚀发生风险空间分布图与研究区沟蚀分布现状较为吻合,以0.4分界时,研究区73%的侵蚀沟都发生在具有高危发生风险地区,评价结果能够反映研究区的沟蚀发生风险分布状况;通过风险分级图表可以评估研究区不同发生风险等级的沟蚀分布面积、分布特征和空间分布格局,便于管理者找出较为严重的侵蚀区,为有针对性地进行沟蚀防治提供依据.%Black soil area of Northeast China is one of the most important marketable grain bases in China,but serious soil loss resulted in crucial challenge to the marketable grain production.This paper,supported by Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System,chose typical black soil area of Northeast China which is located in the scope of Wuyuer and Nemoer river basins as a study case and took SPOT 5 as data source,obtained gully distribution data in 2005.Based on the gully distribution data,the gully erosion status of the study area was evaluated.Using 1:50000 relief maps as data source,DEM was obtained by interpolation and then 11 topographic factors related with the gully formation were extracted.Based on gully data and eight no multi-colinearity topographic factors,the Logistic regression model was built.With the model,the risk of the gully erosion was evaluated

  11. 中国东北漫岗黑土区切沟侵蚀发育特征%The characteristics of gully erosion over rolling hilly black soil areas of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡刚; 伍永秋; 刘宝元; 张永光; 游智敏; 于章涛

    2009-01-01

    In this study, short-term gully retreat was monitored from the active gullies selected in representative black soil area, using differential global positioning system (GPS). With the support of geographic information system (GIS), multi-temporal digital elevation models (DEM) were constructed from the data collected by GPS and used for further analysis. Based on the analysis of multi-temporal DEM, we discussed the erosion-deposition characteristics within gully and a developing model for black soil gully area of Northeast China was proposed. The results are: (1) The analysis of the monitored gully data in 2004 indicated that the retreat of gully head reached more than 10 m, gully area extended 170-400 m2, net gully eroded mature gully the initial gully grows rapidly, and its erosion parameters are relatively large. The erosion parameters have not only to do with flow energy, but also with the growth phase. (3) There are significant seasonal differences in gully erosion parameters. The extension of gully area and width dominates in winter and spring without marked net erosion while changes mainly occur in gully head and net erosion in rainy season. (4) It is remarkable for freeze-thaw erosion in the black soil area of NE China. The gully wall of SG2 extended 0.45 m under freeze-thaw effect in 2004, and the distance of gully head retreated maximally 6.4 m. (5) Due to freeze-thaw action and snowrnelt, gully is primarily in the interior adjustment process in winter and early spring. There are much more depositions compared with that during rainy season, which can almost happen throughout the gully, while erosion mostly occurs near head, esp. For gullies having a relatively long history of development. On the other hand, the process of energy exchange with exterior dominates in rainy season. It is considered that this cyclic process is an important mechanism for gully growth in high latitude or/and high attitude regions.

  12. 东北寒冷地区城市环境色彩控制与规划理念%The Color Control and Planning of Urban Environment in Northeast Cold Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐伟民; 王晓辉; 高月秋

    2012-01-01

    本文立足东北寒冷地区城市视觉环境与色彩规划的研究视角,从色彩控制的角度为寒地城市环境的发展开拓新的思路,促进色彩理论研究与城市建设实践相结合,充分利用寒地资源,塑造富有特色的寒地城市色彩形象,以进一步提升城市品位.%This paper based on the northeast cold area visual environment and city color planning research, it aims at developing the new concept from the perspective of color control for cold city environment, promoting the combina-tion of color theory and the practice of city construction, making full use of the resources in the cold area, and build-ing characteristic city image with vivid color, as a result to enhance the taste of the city.

  13. New approach to monitor transboundary particulate pollution over northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI. The area studied is northeast Asia including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan, where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite through Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for surface-level PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117–265% compared to background average AOD at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. The paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  14. New Approach to Monitor Transboundary Particulate Pollution over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. E.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, J.; Lee, S.; Woo, J. H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Eck, Thomas F.; Holben, Brent N.; Lee, S. S.; Song, C. K.; Hong, Y. D.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM) pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). The area studied is Northeast Asia (including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan), where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite) through the Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May, 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117-265% compared to background average AOD (aerosol optical depth) at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. This paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  15. Relation Between Chlorophyll-A Concentration and Red Tide in the Intensive Study Area of the Ariake Sea, Japan in Winter Seasons by using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Relation between chlorophyll-a concentration and red tide in the intensive study area of the back of Ariake Sea, Japan in the recent winter seasons is investigated by using MODIS data. Mechanism of red tide appearance is not so clarified. On the other hand, chlorophyll-a concentration can be estimated with satellite remote sensing data. An attempt is made for estimation of the location and size of red tide appearance. In particular, severe damage due to red tide is suspected in the winter seasons now a day. Therefore, 6 years (winter 2010 to winter 2015 data of MODIS data derived chlorophyll-a concentration and truth data of red tide appearance (the location and the volume which are provided by Saga Prefectural Fishery Promotion Center: SPFPC (once/10 days of shipment data have been investigated. As the results of the investigation, it is found that a strong correlation between the chlorophyll-a concentration and red tide appearance together with the possible sources of the red tide.

  16. New Technologies and Systems for High Quality Citrus Fruit Production, Labor-saving and Orchard Construction in Mountain Areas of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunihisa MORINAGA; Osamu SUMIKAWA; Osamu KAWAMOTO; Hiroyasu YOSHIKAWA; Seiji NAKAO; Masahiko SHIMAZAKI; Shin-no-suke KUSABA; Norihiro HOSHI

    2005-01-01

    Novel technologies have been necessary for improving fruit quality and productivity of citrus,labor-saving and orchard conservation on steep slope lands since aging of growers and decrease in the number of successors is remarkable in mountain areas of southwestern Japan. The purpose of this paper is to introduce new technologies for improving citrus production that have been developed in recent years. A new fruit quality control system using drip irrigation and liquid fertilization technique combined with year-round plastic mulching was developed, and it enables high quality and stable citrus fruit production. Water and/or nutrient solution is automatically supplied through drip tubes that are laid under the mulching sheets to give adequate water stress, so as to improve sugar and acid content of fruit. A new transportation system for steep sloping citrus orchards, which is a combination of the monorail system and contour narrow paths, was suggested. A small walking cultivator was developed to explain the procedure of narrow path excavation. After introducing the narrow path, working hours for fertilizer and chemical herbicide application were reduced. Disaster prevention mapping of citrus orchards on slope lands was developed based on computer-aided seepage estimation and topographic data. The mapping can show zones of both ascending flow and descending flow of underground water during heavy rains in citrus orchards. The mapping is considered to be effective for the management of orchards and prevention of erosion on slope lands.

  17. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  18. Vertical Seismic Profiling at riser drilling site in the rupture area of the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake, Japan (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, R.; Kinoshita, M.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T. B.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D. M.; Eguchi, N. O.; Takahashi, K.; Toczko, S.

    2009-12-01

    A series of scientific drilling expeditions is in operation in the Nankai Trough to reveal the faulting mechanism of the magathrust earthquakes, through clarifying composition, fine structure, mechanical behavior, and environmental variables of the seismogenic faults. In the studied area, extensive seismic surveys for site characterization have been made to image detailed geometry of the fault complex in the accretionary prism as well as Vp distribution around the faults. Although these previous surveys provided invaluable information for understanding seismotectonic processes in this subduction zone, more complete knowledge is needed to be acquired to predict dynamic behavior of the faults, such as geometrical irregularities in short wavelength, Vs and seismic attenuation which are sensitive to fluid distribution in and around fault zones. It is expected that estimation of these parameters would be improved considerably by a seismic exploration using a vertical array of seismographs installed in a deep borehole (VSP: vertical seismic profiling). In July 2009, we made a VSP at one of the drilling sites located just above the rupture area of the 1994 Tonankai Earthquake (M 8.1), during the IODP Exp.319. The well site of our VSP was made by the riser drilling of D/V Chikyu. The seismic array, lowered from Chikyu into the hole, was composed of a three-component accelerometer and vertical separation of the array elements was 15.12 m. The VSP was composed of offset VSP and zero-offset VSP. In the offset VSP, a tuned airgun array towed by R/V Kairei was shot along one straight line (walk-away VSP) and another circular line (walk-around VSP) and seismic signals were recorded by an array consisting of 16 elements installed from 907 to 1,135 m in depth from seafloor. The object of the walk-away VSP is to obtain fine image of the faults using reflection arrivals with less attenuation. It is also expected to obtain spatial variation of Vs from arrival time tomography of

  19. 东北地区校园雪地足球运动的普及和开展%Popularization and Development of Campus Snow Football in Northeast Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大同

    2015-01-01

    Snow football is a unique geographical winter sports event in northeast area, developing campus snow football in northeast colleges and universities is conducive to the cultivation of students' life-long sports consciousness and habits. By the study on snow football, this paper summed up that campus snow football has the significance and value of enhancing the physical fitness of students, cultivating life-long sports consciousness and habits of students, releasing psychological pressure of students, getting happiness and successful experience, developing good morality of students, cultivating the spirit of collectivism, enriching the cultural life of the campus, promoting the development of public fitness programs and competitive sports. And put forward that the functional departments of the government should pay more attention to the development of snow football, schools should give a strong support on venues and teachers, society, family, business should increase the investment of sponsorship to snow football, students should have good exercise habits, preventing the occurrence of sports injuries and related measures and strategies, providing a theorical reference for the healthy development of campus snow football in northeast area.%雪地足球运动是东北地区独具地域特色的冬季体育锻炼项目,东北地区高校大力开发校园雪地足球运动,有利于学生终身体育意识和习惯的养成.通过对雪地足球项目的研究,总结出校园开展雪地足球运动具有增强学生体质,培养学生终身体育意识和习惯;释放学生心理压力,获得快乐、成功体验;养成学生良好道德风尚,培养集体主义精神;丰富校园文化生活,推动全民健身和竞技体育的发展等意义和价值.并提出政府职能部门要高度重视雪地足球运动的开展;学校应从场地和师资等方面给与大力支持;社会、家庭、商家应加大对雪地足球运动的赞助力度;学生应养

  20. Legal-Ease Beijing & Northeast China Investment Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming areas of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of major cities including the capital itself and other regional centers, and consider the options for setting up business in this area. While east and south China have developed primarily as export-based manufacturing centers, Beijing and northeast China represent two quite different aspects of China's macro economy. The capital is of course China's brain, with the greatest

  1. Musterland Japan?

    OpenAIRE

    Weidner, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    Im Gegensatz zu Japan ist in den westeuro­päischen Ländern die Umweltpolitik erst seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre in heftige Bewe­gung geraten. Den Anstoß hierzu gaben wie in Japan in den sechziger Jahren vor allem Umweltschadensfälle größeren Ausmaßes, wodurch Regierungen, Verwaltungen und umweltbelastende Betriebe unter starken Handlungsdruck gesetzt wurden. Seitdem gehören Umweltfragen in nahezu allen Indu­strieländern zu den zentralen politischen Themen. Trotz teilweise beeindrucken...

  2. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  3. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas.

  4. Biomphalaria species distribution and its effect on human Schistosoma mansoni infection in an irrigated area used for rice cultivation in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmany Moitinho Barboza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources.

  5. Flash floods and debris flow in the city area of Messina, north-east part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009: the case of the Giampilieri catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Aronica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the analysis of the 1 October 2009 flash flood and debris flow event caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino, with 38 casualties and significant damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 550 million Euro. The main focus of this work is to perform a post event analysis, putting together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture conditions and the consequent flash flood in the Giampilieri catchment. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modelling were used to estimate soil moisture conditions, to analyse the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood hydrograph. With the help of GIS technology and particularly spatial analysis, the volume of debris which has gone down into the Giampilieri village was also calculated. GIS maps with landslide and material deposit areas were produced and analysed.

  6. Ice-wedge Pseudomorphs Showing Climatic Change Since the Late Pleistocene in the Source Area of the Yellow River, Northeast Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jie; ZHANG Xujiao; TIAN Mingzhong; YU Wenyang; YU Jiangkuan; TANG Dexiang; YUE Jianwei

    2005-01-01

    The source area of the Yellow River is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, and is a high-elevation region with the annual mean temperature of-3.9℃. The ice-wedge pseudomorphs discovered in this region are recognized as two types.One was found in sandy gravel beds of the second terrace of the Yellow River. This ice-wedge pseudomorph is characterized by higher ratio of breadth/depth, and are 1~1.4 m wide and about 1 m deep. The bottom border of the ice-wedge pseudomorph is round arc in section. Another discovered in the pedestal of the second terrace has lower ratio of width/depth, and is 0.3~1.0 m wide and 1~2 m deep. Its bottom border is sharp. Based on the TL dating, the former was formed at the middle Holocene (5.69±0.43 ka BP and 5.43±0.41 ka BP),that is, the Megathermal, and the latter was formed at the late Last Glacial Maximum (13.49± 1.43 ka BP).Additionally, the thawing-freezing folders discovered in the late Late Pleistocene proluvium are 39.83±3.84 ka BP in age. The study on the ice-wedge pseudomorphs showed that the air temperature was lowered by up to 6~7 ℃ in the source area of the Yellow River when the ice-wedge pseudomorphs and thawing-freezing folds developed.

  7. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  8. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  9. 东北自然保护区压力威胁影响因子及趋势%Preliminary Assessment on Pressure and Threat of Protected Area in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾晓峰; 习妍; 陈晨; 姚莉; 李迪强; 朱春权

    2011-01-01

    The methodology of Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Areas Management (RAPPAM) recommended by World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) was used in investigating and analyzing pressures, threats and trends of the protected areas in Northeast China. The results showed that the following six factors had broader sphere of influence, affecting at higher degree and lasting a longer time in the 14 threatening factors: fires, deforestation, poaching, non-timber forest products ( NTFP), tourism and grazing. Protected areas should focus on control of these threatening factors. Therefore, the future management of protected areas should strengthen monitoring of fires, deforestation, poaching, NTFP, etc. Meanwhile, protected areas should develop relevant policies and take appropriate measures to effectively control and reduce the negative impact of eco-tourism to improve the effectiveness of management.%论文运用世界自然保护区委员会(WCPA)和世界自然基金会(WWF)推荐的自然保护区管理快速评估和优先性确定方法(RAPPAM),对东北地区部分自然保护区面临的压力和威胁及其发展趋势进行了调查分析.结果显示,在保护区所面临的14种威胁因子中,火灾、林木砍伐、偷猎、非林木产品采集(NTFP)、旅游、放牧6个因子的影响范围较广、影响程度较高、影响时间较长,是保护区应重点控制的威胁因子.因此,今后的保护区管理应加强对火灾、林木砍伐和非木质林产品采集等因素的监控,同时通过制定相关政策、采取适当措施有效控制并减少保护区生态旅游对保护对象产生的负面影响,提高保护区管理的有效性.

  10. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  11. Efficacy and safety of indacaterol 150 and 300 µg in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from six Asian areas including Japan: a 12-week, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masaharu; Lee, Sang Haak; Hang, Liang-Wen; Ichinose, Masakazu; Hosoe, Motoi; Okino, Naoko; Prasad, Niyati; Kramer, Benjamin; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of indacaterol, a novel inhaled once daily ultra long-acting β(2) -agonist was evaluated in COPD patients in six Asian countries/areas. This study was primarily designed to obtain the regulatory approval of indacaterol in Japan. Moderate-to-severe COPD patients were randomized to indacaterol 150 µg, indacaterol 300 µg or placebo once daily. Efficacy variables: trough FEV(1) (average of 23 h 10 min and 23 h 45 min post-dose values), health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire) and transition dyspnoea index at week 12. Safety/tolerability was evaluated. A total of 347 patients were randomized (96.5% male, mean (SD) age 66.7 (8.38) years, post-bronchodilator FEV(1) % predicted: 53.7 (12.50)); 88.8% completed. The least squares means (LSM) trough FEV(1) at week 12 for indacaterol 150 µg, indacaterol 300 µg and placebo were 1.34 L, 1.37 L and 1.17 L, respectively, with differences versus placebo exceeding the prespecified minimal clinically important difference of 0.12 L (0.17 L and 0.20 L for indacaterol 150 µg and 300 µg, respectively, both P indacaterol doses versus placebo (differences of 1.30 and 1.26, P indacaterol doses provided statistically significant (P ≤ 0.005) and clinically meaningful (≥4 units) improvements in LSM St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score versus placebo (differences: -4.8 and -5.7 units). Adverse events for indacaterol (49.1%, both doses) were lower than placebo (59.0%) and were mostly mild/moderate in severity; no deaths were reported. Indacaterol provided clinically significant bronchodilation and improvements in dyspnoea and health status in Asian COPD patients. © 2011 Novartis Pharma AG (Basel, Switzerland).

  12. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  13. Multiple personality disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse.

  14. Iodine intake by adult residents of a farming area in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and the accuracy of estimated iodine intake calculated using the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Haruo; Chiba, Keiko; Watanabe, Takao; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Seki, Takako

    2016-11-01

    Iodine intake by adults in farming districts in Northeastern Japan was evaluated by two methods: (1) government-approved food composition tables based calculation and (2) instrumental measurement. The correlation between these two values and a regression model for the calibration of calculated values was presented. Iodine intake was calculated, using the values in the Japan Standard Tables of Food Composition (FCT), through the analysis of duplicate samples of complete 24-h food consumption for 90 adult subjects. In cases where the value for iodine content was not available in the FCT, it was assumed to be zero for that food item (calculated values). Iodine content was also measured by ICP-MS (measured values). Calculated and measured values rendered geometric means (GM) of 336 and 279 μg/day, respectively. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference between calculated and measured values. The correlation coefficient was 0.646 (p < 0.05). With this high correlation coefficient, a simple regression line can be applied to estimate measured value from calculated value. A survey of the literature suggests that the values in this study were similar to values that have been reported to date for Japan, and higher than those for other countries in Asia. Iodine intake of Japanese adults was 336 μg/day (GM, calculated) and 279 μg/day (GM, measured). Both values correlated so well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.646, that a regression model (Y = 130.8 + 1.9479X, where X and Y are measured and calculated values, respectively) could be used to calibrate calculated values.

  15. More Trade with Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ To establish a long-term platform where China and other Northeast Asian countries could enjoy mutual benefits, interchange and communica-tion, NAITE faithfully plays its role. This Sep-tember 2 to 6, Changchun International Confer-ence & Exhibition Center welcomes again the NAITE, China Jilin-Northeast Asia Investment and Trade Expo, and it was the fourth session in Changchun, Jilin Province in the northeast of China. The impact is accumulating.

  16. 东北流亡文学与沦陷区文学比较研究(1931-1945年)%A Comparative Study on the Northeast Exile Literature and Northeast Enemy-occupied Area Literature (1931-1945)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范庆超; 于静

    2014-01-01

    During the Anti-Japanese War (1931-1945), there are two main literature branches in the Northeast-exile literature and enemy-occupied area literature .While China being treaded on , the exile writers and those in enemy-occupied areas expressed their common anti-imperialist appeal .But there are differences in their appeal because of their different political environment , one in straightforward expressions while the other in veiled and roundabout expressions .Toward the theme of anti-feudalism in May Forth Lit-erature, they still hold different opinions as well .In their works, based on their different writing context , experiences, mindset, incli-nation and political understanding , they depicted the subjects from various perspectives about war , homeland , brigands , workers and intellectuals .%抗战时期(1931-1945年)的东北作家文学,存在着“流亡文学”和“沦陷区文学”两支流脉。面对中华民族被欺凌的历史事实,东北流亡作家和沦陷区作家表现出共同的反帝诉求,但由于他们分别身处不同的政治环境,其反帝表达又有直抒胸臆和隐晦曲折之别。对于五四文学的另一大传统---反封建主题,东北流亡作家和沦陷区作家的开掘路径也并非一致。在作品的题材处理上,东北流亡作家和沦陷区作家基于各自的创作语境、阅历心态、政治理解等因素,对于战争、乡土、胡子、工人和知识分子进行了角度不同的书写。

  17. Asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring in East Asia (Toward interdisciplinary education on the climate systems and the "seasonal feeling" such as around the Japan Islands area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kato, Haruko; Sato, Sari; Akagi, Rikako; Haga, Yuichi; Miyake, Shoji

    2014-05-01

    There are many steps of seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling" around the Japan Islands. For example, the "wintertime pressure pattern" begins to prevail already from November due to the seasonal development of the Siberian Air mass and the Siberian High, although the air temperature around the Japan Islands is still rather higher than in midwinter. On the other hand, since the southward retreat of the warm moist air mass in the western Pacific area delays rather greatly to the advances of those northern systems. Thus it would be interesting to re-examine the whole seasonal cycle around the Japan Islands at the view point of how the phase differences among seasonal marches of the Asian monsoon subsystems affect the variety of the seasonal cycle there, together with their effects on the "seasonal feeling". As such, the present study will examine the asymmetric seasonal march from autumn to the next spring through midwinter around the Japan Islands as an interesting example, and will also report the joint activity with music, and so on, toward the development of an interdisciplinary study plan on such topics for the students in junior high school, high school and the faculty of education of the university. The wintertime weather pattern, i.e., precipitation in the Japan Sea side and clear day in the Pacific side of the Japan Islands, prevails from early November to early March, reflected by the seasonal cycle of the Siberian Air Mass and the Siberian High. However, the air temperature shows the minimum from late January to early February around the Japan Islands. In other words, although the dominant weather patterns around November and in early March are nearly the same as each other, air temperature is still lower in early March (early spring). In spite of that, the solar radiation is rather stronger in early

  18. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-09

    its warers unless Japan withdraws its objections to the IWC by April i. Abe pointed to the strong American influence on world-wide support of a...squadron of five SH-3 Sea King antisubmarine helicopters which it carries for a squadron of six model H [helicopters] equipped with radar for monitoring ...which appeared in the American newspaper The CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR on 3 May 1983, introduced a statement by Commander (Holcomb) to the effect that

  19. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    said Monday. In return, Japan has obtained the right to extend its air service beyond Kuala Lumpur to any further point of its choosing, the...System (MAS) and Northwest Orient Airlines will be dropped, the sources said. JAL and MAS will be allowed to begin new services via Kuala Lumpur and...secondary wood manufacturing and tourism , the leader of a state investment mission said Monday. James M. Root, leader of the 19-member mission, said

  20. Japan Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Japan Socialist Party General Secretary Tsuruo Yamaguchi: "The Deceptiveness of Breaking Through the Defense - Spending Limit of 1 Percent of GNP...Agency Budget Proposal 22 Defense Facilities Administration Agency Budget Proposal 41 Breaking of Defense - Spending Limit Criticized (Tsuruo...such as the high yen and decline in the price of oil. (1) Total Amount Fiscal 1987 defense related expenditures are 3,517.4 billion yen, an

  1. Legal-Ease Beijing & Northeast China Investment Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming areas of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of cities in northeast China and consider the options for setting up business in the capital. Beijing investment zones identified China’s development zones generally offer foreign investors better infrastructure, lower tax and other incentives, and much higher levels of service support than elsewhere in the country. The table here lists the main investment zones in Beijing itself.

  2. O serviço de referência online nas bibliotecas virtuais da região nordeste Service of reference online in the libraries online of the Northeast area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Karla Araújo da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifica as bibliotecas virtuais da Região Nordeste do Brasil diagnosticando o serviço de referência online e sua estrutura. Destaca os tipos de bibliotecas e o papel da biblioteca virtual omo guia e orientador dos usuários remotos da Internet, através do atendimento pelo correio eletrônico. Ressalta o Serviço de Referência Virtual como um serviço que permite a interação entre informação-bibliotecário-usuário no ambiente virtual. Tem como abordagem metodológica um estudo qualitativo, realizado através da observação dos sites da Biblioteca Central Reitor Macedo Costa (Bahia, Biblioteca Temática do Empreendedor–SEBRAE (Paraíba, Sistema de Bibliotecas da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (Paraíba e Biblioteca da Universidade de Fortaleza – Unifor (Ceará e das informações coletadas a partir de um questionário respondido pelos responsáveis por essas bibliotecas. Os resultados apontam a presença do serviço de referência e do bibliotecário nas duas primeiras bibliotecas virtuais e apenas do bibliotecário nas duas últimas. Confirma o fato de que nas bibliotecas virtuais da Região Nordeste os serviços de referência online estão ganhando espaço e utilizando as ferramentas tecnológicas, com destaque para o correio eletrônico. Fortalece a afirmação de que essas bibliotecas precisam do uso das novas tecnologias, a fim de atender as solicitações dos usuários remotos com eficiência e precisão. Contribui para a análise e futuras implantações de serviços de referência online e para o repensar do papel do serviço nas bibliotecas virtuais.It identifies the libraries online of the Northeast Area of Brazil diagnosing the service of reference online and its operation structure. It highlights the types of libraries and the paper of librarie online as guide the remote users' of the Internet, through the attendance by mail electronic. It stands out the Service of Reference Online as a service that allows the

  3. 渝东北区地中海贫血常见基因类型的调查研究%Survey and research of common thalassemia genotypes in northeast area of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良琼; 熊见; 王长本; 周正; 陈丙龙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the gene carrying rate ,gene mutation types and distribution characteristics of thalassemia in the northeast area of Chongqing .Methods 28 633 specimens collected from the patients and individuals with physical examina‐tion in our hospital from January to December 2013 were performed the RBC parameters detection and hemoglobin electrophoresis screening .The specimens with phenotype positive were definitely verified the thalassemia type by using Gap‐PCR and reverse dot blot(RDB) .Results Among 28 633 specimens ,1 358 specimens were finally diagnosed as thalassemia with the thalassemia carrying rate of 4 .74% ,including 589 cases(2 .06% ) of α‐thalassemia and 741 cases (2 .59% ) of β‐thalassemia cases .Among the α‐thalasse‐mia genotypes ,‐αα/‐‐SEA genotype(1 .38% ) was most common ,the next was ‐αα/‐α3 .7 genotype (0 .37% ) and αα/‐α4 .2 genotype (0 .20% ) .Among the β‐thalassemia genotypes ,CD41‐42 genotype (1 .27% ) had the highest constituent ratio ,followed by IVS‐2‐654 genotype(1 .27% ) and CD17 genotype(0 .30% ) .28 cases were found to be the double heterozygote with α‐thalassemia and β‐thalassemia .Conclusion The northeast area of Chongqing is a region with the high incidence rate of thalassemia and complicated heredity .Therefore this research provides the reference information for the prevention of thalassemia ,genetic counseling and prena‐tal diagnosis .%目的:了解渝东北区人群地中海贫血(简称地贫)基因携带率、基因突变类型及分布特征。方法对2013年1~12月来该院就诊及体检共计28633例样本进行红细胞参数及血红蛋白电泳过筛,表型阳性的标本再用 Gap‐PCR 和反向斑点杂交(RDB)基因检测方法确诊地贫类型。结果28633例样本中,检出α和β地贫共1358例,地贫总携带率为4.74%。其中589例(2.06%)α地贫以αα/‐‐SEA (1.38%)型最常见

  4. Harvesting wind energy from the sea breeze in peri-urban coastal areas by means of small scale wind turbines - Case study: Viladecans, Llobregat Delta, northeast of Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Cabrera, Barbara; Mazon, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Wind speed data recorded during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula) were used to assess the wind energy generated by off-grid small scale wind turbines (the IT-PE-100 and the HP-600W) for the whole year and for the sea breeze period. The computations were made using QBlade, FAST and AeroDyn simulation tools and manufacturer power curves. Using manufacturer data, the HP-600W with hub-height 8 m would deliver 157 kWh during the whole year (78 kWh during the sea breeze period), with an average power of 18 W (37 W). In this work, the results of the simulations are compared with power and energy production data measured in an HP-600W turbine installed in situ from December 2014 to April 2016. Also, the measured power is compared to the power obtained by applying the measured wind in the period 2014-2016 to the manufacturer power curve and the power curve obtained with the simulations. The results of the computations agree with the experimental data, thus validating the proposed approach for wind resource estimation. The feasibility of using a vertical axis wind turbine for obtaining wind energy from the local, thermal wind regimes is also studied. This research confirms that the sea-breeze is an interesting wind energy resource for micro-generation in peri-urban coastal areas where large-scale wind farms cannot be implemented.

  5. Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter : seismic and GPS observations near the active summit area of Sakurajima and Kirishima volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Iguchi, M.; Honda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are very important from various viewpoints such as understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit. It is, however, highly difficult to install observation sensors near active vents because of the risk of sudden eruptions. We have been developing a safe volcano observation system based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). As an UAV, we adopted an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. We have also developed earthquake observation modules and GPS receiver modules that are exclusively designed for UAV installation at summit areas of active volcanoes. These modules are light weight, compact size, and solar powered. For data transmission, a commercial cellular-phone network is used. Our first application of the sensor installation by the UAV is Sakurajima, one of the most active volcanos in Japan. In November 2009, 2010, and 2011, we installed up to four seismic sensors within 2km from the active summit crater. In the 2010 and 2011 operations, we succeeded in pulling up and collecting the sensor modules by using the UAV. In the 2011 experiment, we installed two GPS receivers near the summit area of Sakurajima volcano. We also applied the UAV installation to another active volcano, Shinmoedake in Kirishima volcano group. Since the sub-plinian eruption in February 2011, entering the area 3km from the summit of Shinmoe-dake has been prohibited. In May and November 2011, we installed seismic sensors and GPS receivers in the off-limit zone. Although the ground coupling of the seismic modules is not perfect due to the way they are installed, the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic signals recorded by these modules is fairly good. Despite the low antenna height of 50 cm from the ground surface, the location errors in horizontal and vertical GPS components are 1cm and 3cm, respectively. For seismic signals associated with eruptions at Sakurajima from November 2010 to

  6. Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukui Hiromichi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report, published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS and geo-statistical techniques. Results Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical, that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion. Conclusion In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

  7. The Second International Conference on Northeast Asia Natural Gas Pipeline Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ying

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Second International Conference on Northeast Asia Natural Gas Pipeline co-sponsored by the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan, the Korea Pan-Asia Natural Gas Pipeline Association and China National Petroleum Corporation was held in Beijing, during September 23-24,1996. The 145 participants were from 13 countries, i.e.,Japan, South Korea, China, Russia, Mongolia, North Korea,Thailand, the USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Germany and Italy. The Conference mainly aimed at providing an opportunity for making a discussion on the Northeast Asia Pipeline and acted as a preparatory meeting to establish an organization for joint study on an international natural gas pipeline network in the Northeast Asia region.

  8. A new approach towards the enhancement of northeast Asian economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jae Lee

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the formation of the Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation Council (NAECC to discuss comprehensive economic cooperation and major economic issues between Korea, Japan and China. In order to meet the challenge of risign regionalism and to prevent another Asian economic crisis, it is imperative for the central governments of the region to involve themselves more actively in Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation. Given the diversity of Northeast Asian countries, it seems to be more realistic to vegin with the central governments of the three major countries in terms of economic size. However, even amongst these three countries, the prospects for reaching a regional trade agreement such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, let alone a more advanced economic integration type like the EU, are quite dim in the foreseeable future. Thus, Korea, Japan and China must try to get as many benefits of economic integration as possible through a non-traditional approach.

  9. NORTHEAST LAKE ZIWAY AREA, ETHIOPIAN RIFT,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    units, namely: 1. the lower series of pyroclastic deposit, 2. the basaltic series, ... possibility of further treatment of the data in such a way that it fulfils the required sense of .... number values (brighter pixels) in one of the bands will have lower values ... information contained in individual transformed canals are recognised as.

  10. Identification of a new mutagen, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dichloro-5-nitrobiphenyl, in river water flowing through an industrial area in Wakayama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Takeshi; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Nonouchi, Yuki; Hasei, Tomohiro; Agou, Yukiko; Tani, Mayumi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (DCB), which has been assigned as a possible carcinogen to humans (Group 2B) by IARC, is produced as a raw material in the manufacture of polymers and dye intermediates. In our previous paper, we identified DCB as an indirect-acting mutagenic constituent in the water concentrates from the Waka River, which flows through an industrial area in Wakayama, Japan. In this study, we have identified a novel mutagen in the water samples from the Waka River. Organic chemicals in the river water were adsorbed to blue rayon at the site where effluents from chemical plants and a sewage plant were discharged into the river. The adsorbate was highly mutagenic in Salmonella YG1024 in the presence and absence of S9 mix, inducing 440,000 and 170,000 revertants/g blue rayon equivalent, respectively. Two mutagenic fractions, which accounted for 18% and 12% of the total mutagenicity of the water concentrate in YG1024 with S9 mix, were separated by HPLC with a reversed-phase column following Sephadex LH20 column chromatography. Both fractions were further separated by HPLC using reversed-phase columns. On the basis of spectral analysis and co-chromatography using an authentic chemical standard, one mutagen in the former fraction was identified as DCB and one mutagen in the latter fraction was deduced to be a novel chemical, a 5-nitro derivative of DCB (5-nitro-DCB; 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dichloro-5-nitrobiphenyl). 5-Nitro-DCB showed strong mutagenicity in YG1024 especially with S9 mix, inducing 24,200 revertants/microg. 5-Nitro-DCB was detected in water concentrates in the range from less than detection limit to 6.9 microg/g of blue rayon. DCB was also detected in the range from 13.2 to 104 micro/g of blue rayon. These results demonstrate that Waka River water might be continually contaminated with the indirect-acting mutagens DCB and 5-nitro-DCB as major mutagenic constituents of the river water.

  11. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerun, S Khodijah; Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2004-09-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed the inside building and the outside building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  12. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaerun, S. Khodijah [Kanazawa Univ., Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa (Japan); Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji [Kanazawa Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa (Japan); Kogure, Kazuhiro [Tokyo Univ., Ocean Research Inst., Nakano, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon- degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed inside the building and outside the building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  13. The Formation of Forced Cultural Assimilation in the Occupied Area of Northeast China%东北沦陷区殖民统治下的强权文化机制论说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云球; 王巨川

    2014-01-01

    日本侵略者在其14年的殖民统治中,虽然完成了政治、经济方面的再疆域化,但文化的再疆域化并非那么容易。由于日本族群地理形态的影响及其对单一身份的认同观念,使日本军国主义向外扩张、侵略他族时,也企图用其暴力文化观念和单一身份认同,以及制定一系列的强权文化机制改变其统治下的中华民族多元文化系统,这就必然会在殖民/被殖民、统治/被统治之间产生极大的偏差与对抗。在侵略者对东北沦陷区文化再疆域化过程中,中华民族多元共生的文化传统和兼容并蓄的文化精神,为东北沦陷区的广大民众抵抗日本侵略者的强权文化机制提供了强大的支持力量,使侵略者的文化殖民最终以失败告终。%The foundation of Manchukuo on March 3rd, 1932 made Northeast China a Japanese colony.During colonial rule, the Japanese colonists carried out policies of comprehensive deterritorialization and redeterritorialization in this area in politics , economics and culture.In culture, they held an idea of cultural identification typified by single identity , which had been formed under the influ-ence of their own geographical environment and cultural traditions .The Japanese colonists attempted to convert the aboriginal multicul-tural system of the colonized area with this idea .They achieved their aim of redeterritorialization in fields like politics and economics , but failed in cultural reform.On the contrary, because of the power of Chinese traditional culture and the aboriginal appeal for spiritu-al freedom, the implement of forced cultural assimilation triggered fierce resistance from aborigines in Manchukuo and even masses of the whole nation.

  14. Satellite tracking of the migration of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hijikata, N.; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Go; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Sato, F.; Kurechi, Masayuki; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We satellite-tracked Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in northern Japan to document their migration routes and timing, and to identify breeding areas. From 47 swans that we marked at Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, and at Lake Kussharo, east Hokkaido, we observed 57 spring and 33 autumn migrations from 2009-2012. In spring, swans migrated north along Sakhalin Island from eastern Hokkaido using stopovers in Sakhalin, at the mouth of the Amur River and in northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk. They ultimately reached molting/breedmg areas along the Indigirka River and the lower Kolyma River in northern Russia. In autumn, the swans basically reversed the spring migration routes. We identified northern Honshu, eastern Hokkaido, coastal areas in Sakhalin, the lower Amur River and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk as the most frequent stopover sites, and the middle reaches of the Indigirka and the lower Kolyma River as presumed breeding sites. Our results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the breeding and stopover sites of Whooper Swans wintering in Japan and in identifying their major migration habitats. Our findings contribute to understanding the potential transmission process of avian influenza viruses potentially carried by swans, and provide information necessary to conserve Whooper Swans in East Asia.

  15. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  16. The great East Japan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-06-15

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this

  17. Relationship between urinary cadmium and mortality in habitants of a cadmium-polluted area: a 22-year follow-up study in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; Muneko Nishijo; Hideaki Nakagawa; Yuko Morikawa; Masaru Sakurai; Koshi Nakamura; Teruhiko Kido; Koji Nogawa; DAI Min

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested that the exposure to cadmium (Cd) increased mortalities from renal diseases,cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasm,including lung cancer and prostate cancer among inhabitants living in Cd-polluted areas and factory workers.This study aimed to assess the influence of environmental exposure to Cd on long term outcome of inhabitants living in an area polluted by Cd.Methods A 22-year follow-up study was conducted with 3119 inhabitants (1403 men and 1716 women) living in the Cd polluted Kakehashi River basin in Japan.The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the amount of urinary Cd level (<3.0 μg/g creatinine (Cr),3.0-4.9 μg/g Cr,5.0-9.9 μg/g Cr,and ≥10.0 μg/g Cr).Mortality was calculated by the person-years method.Hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (C/) were assessed by the Cox's proportional hazard model.Results Compared with urinary Cd <3.0 μg/g Cr group,the HR of 5.0-9.9 μg/g Cr and >10.0 μg/g Cr groups were significantly increased after adjustment for age in both sexes:1.24 (95% CI 1.01-1.51) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.17-1.90) for men; 1.64 (95% C/ 1.17-2.28) and 1.78 (95% C/ 1.27-2.50) for women.The most frequent cause of death was malignant neoplasm in men and cardiovascular diseases in women.The significant increase in mortality risk for cardiovascular diseases was observed in the subjects with ≥10 μg/g Cr in both sexes:1.79 for men (95% Cl 1.02-3.12) and 2.38 for women (95% CI 1.11-5.07).When the subjects were divided into 2 categories (<20 μg/g Cr and >20 μg/g Cr),the HR of the urinary Cd ≥20 μg/g Cr group for nephritis and nephrosis were 4.82 (95% CI 1.07-21.61) in men and 7.92 (95% Cl 1.77-35.33) in women,respectively.The significant increase was not observed for malignant neoplasm.Conclusion These results suggest a dose-response relationship between Cd body burden and mortality for cardiovascular diseases,cerebrovascular diseases and nephritis

  18. Aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source area of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake (Mw 6.2) , central Japan, revealed by dense seismic array observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashimo, E.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Sakai, S.; Obara, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow earthquake (Mw 6.2) occurred on November 22 in the northern Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Aftershock area is located near the Kamishiro fault, which is a part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL). ISTL is one of the major tectonic boundaries in Japan. Precise aftershock distribution and heterogeneous structure in and around the source region of this earthquake is important to constrain the process of earthquake occurrence. We conducted a high-density seismic array observation in and around source area to investigate aftershock distribution and crustal structure. One hundred sixty-three seismic stations, approximately 1 km apart, were deployed during the period from December 3, 2014 to December 21, 2014. Each seismograph consisted of a 4.5 Hz 3-component seismometer and a digital data recorder (GSX-3). Furthermore, the seismic data at 40 permanent stations were incorporated in our analysis. During the seismic array observation, the Japan Meteorological Agency located 977 earthquakes in a latitude range of 35.5°-37.1°N and a longitude range of 136.7°-139.0°E, from which we selected 500 local events distributed uniformly in the study area. To investigate the aftershock distribution and the crustal structure, the double-difference tomography method [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was applied to the P- and S-wave arrival time data obtained from 500 local earthquakes. The relocated aftershock distribution shows a concentration on a plane dipping eastward in the vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The large slip region (asperity) estimated from InSAR analysis [GSI, 2014] corresponds to the low-activity region of the aftershocks. The depth section of Vp structure shows that the high Vp zone corresponds to the large slip region. These results suggest that structural heterogeneities in and around the fault plane may have controlled the rupture process of the 2014 northern Nagano Prefecture earthquake.

  19. Geothermal Field Developments in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, Seiichi

    1983-12-15

    The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

  20. Design of the Nationwide Nursery School Survey on Child Health Throughout the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted severe damage on the Pacific coastal areas of northeast Japan. Although possible health impacts on aged or handicapped populations have been highlighted, little is known about how the serious disaster affected preschool children's health. We conducted a nationwide nursery school survey to investigate preschool children's physical development and health status throughout the disaster. The survey was conducted from September to December 2012. We mailed three kinds of questionnaires to nursery schools in all 47 prefectures in Japan. Questionnaire "A" addressed nursery school information, and questionnaires "B1" and "B2" addressed individuals' data. Our targets were children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005 (those who did not experience the disaster during their preschool days) and children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007 (those who experienced the disaster during their preschool days). The questionnaire inquired about disaster experiences, anthropometric measurements, and presence of diseases. In total, 3624 nursery schools from all 47 prefectures participated in the survey. We established two nationwide retrospective cohorts of preschool children; 53,747 children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005, and 69,004 children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007. Among the latter cohort, 1003 were reported to have specific personal experiences with the disaster. With the large dataset, we expect to yield comprehensive study results about preschool children's physical development and health status throughout the disaster.

  1. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  2. Impressions of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Fangyuan

    2013-01-01

    <正>The eight-day visit to Japan seemed to be a beautiful dream that ended before I woke up. However, in the dream I saw the future of China-Japan friendship. On March 4, flying to Japan, I thought all the way: "What kind of a country is Japan? Is it really as orderly and

  3. US Japan Alliance Confronts the Anti Access and Area Denial Challenge: Toward Building Capacity, Cooperation and Information Sharing in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    U.S. allies in the Pacific to bolster their side. Aaron Friedberg , a proponent of ASB, writes that frontline states in the Asia-Pacific such as Japan...Taiwan and the Philippines may not be reassured by a distant blockade. Friedberg argues that, “if China conquered Taiwan, or seized disputed islands... Friedberg , Beyond Air-Sea Battle: The Debate over US Military Strategy in Asia. April 2014 (New York, NY: Routledge, 2014), pp.15-21. iii Mark A. Stokes

  4. Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — While the Fujita and Saffir-Simpson Scales characterize tornadoes and hurricanes respectively, there is no widely used scale to classify snowstorms. The Northeast...

  5. Maternal knowledge on child survival in the poorest areas of North and Northeast Brazil: o caso de áreas pobres nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil Conhecimento materno em sobrevivência infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate knowledge on child survival among mothers of children under five years of age living in nine municipalities in North and Northeast Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was used for home interviews of mothers visited by volunteers from the Pastorate of the Child and mothers not visited by the program (control areas. The association between independent variables and the outcome (visited versus not visited by the Pastorate of the Child was evaluated using the chi-square test. Among the 752 mothers studied, 386 were visited by Pastorate of the Child volunteers and 366 were not visited. Mothers visited by the Pastorate of the Child, although poorer, showed better knowledge on monitoring child growth and identifying child development difficulties as compared to mothers from the control areas. Despite the better performance of mothers visited by the Pastorate of the Child volunteers, maternal knowledge on child survival in both groups was less than desirable. This hinders the identification of more serious cases, delays seeking medical care, and reduces the impact on child morbidity and mortality.Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o conhecimento em sobrevivência infantil entre mães de menores de cinco anos residentes em nove municípios das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário padronizado no domicílio para mães acompanhadas pelos líderes da Pastoral da Criança e não acompanhadas (áreas-controle. A associação entre as variáveis independentes e o desfecho (receber ou não visita dos líderes da Pastoral da Criança foi avaliada pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Dentre as 752 mães estudadas, 386 eram visitadas pelos líderes da Pastoral da Criança e 366 não eram visitadas. Mães visitadas pelos líderes da Pastoral da Criança, apesar de mais pobres, apresentaram melhor conhecimento sobre monitoração do crescimento infantil, identificação de pneumonia e dificuldade no desenvolvimento em

  6. A Rearmed Japan: Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  7. Saúde infantil em áreas pobres das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil: comparando indicadores básicos em áreas atendidas pela Pastoral da Criança e áreas-controle Child health in poor areas of North and Northeast Brazil: a comparison of areas covered by the Children's Mission and control areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os diagnósticos comunitários de saúde são essenciais para o conhecimento de indicadores locais de saúde, avaliação de programas e implementação de ações em saúde. Em meados de 2002, realizou-se diagnóstico de saúde infantil em 18 áreas de nove municípios pobres nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Nove dessas áreas eram visitadas pelos líderes da Pastoral da Criança (LPC e as outras não. Por meio de questionários padronizados, entrevistadores previamente treinados coletaram informações no domicílio sobre 1.528 crianças menores de cinco anos, sendo 782 visitadas pelas LPC e 772 não visitadas. Essas crianças e suas famílias viviam em situação de extrema pobreza; 40,0% dos seus pais não eram alfabetizados, a renda per capita diária era de US$ 0,30, as condições de moradia, muito ruins. No entanto, a maioria dessas crianças vivia a menos de 1km de algum serviço público de saúde, e praticamente todas aquelas levadas à consulta médica conseguiram atendimento. O pré-natal foi inadequado em termos quantitativos e qualitativos. Crianças visitadas pelas LPC apresentaram melhor monitoração do crescimento, suas mães fizeram mais consultas de pré-natal e receberam mais freqüentemente sulfato ferroso.Community surveys are essential to estimate health indicators, evaluate health programs, and define health interventions. In 2002, a cross-sectional survey of children under five was conducted in 18 areas of the poorest counties in North and Northeast Brazil. Nine areas were visited by volunteer community health workers (CHW under the Children's Mission, and the others were not visited. Using a standard questionnaire, trained interviewers collected information at the household level for 1,528 children, 782 of whom were visited monthly by CHWs and 772 were not. All the children and their families were living below the poverty line; 40.0% of the parents were illiterate, per capita daily income was about US$0

  8. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  9. REE in cretaceous to tertiary granitoids of Chugoku and Shikoku district, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Harada, Michiru

    1998-01-01

    `Niho plutonic composite rocks` distributed in Niho Kamigo area in the northeast of Yamaguchi-city in Japan. It is small plutonic composite rocks, of about 2 km in long length and 1 km of short length. The rocks were studied by the geological survey. Many kinds of rock and rare earth elements were determined. The constitution process is estimated by these results. It consists of gabbro-quartz diorite-tonalite{center_dot}granodiorite-granito. The more inside of rock existed, the more felsic rock are discovered. Chemical compositions were TiO{sub 2}, FeO, MnO and K{sub 2}O. It is estimated that intrusion of tonalite and successive intrusion of granodiorite generated and then formed in situ crystallization differentiation. (S.Y.)

  10. 东北地区春播期土壤水分预测方法研究%Research on forecasting method for soil moisture during spring sowing period in Northeast Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨鸿; 孙倩倩; 李辑; 李晶; 刘维; 李琳琳; 陶苏林

    2015-01-01

    According to the related relationship between soil relative moisture with climate factors and circular fac-tors in spring sowing period of five soil moisture regions in Northeast Area,selected the major impact factor for soil rela-tive moisture,constructed the multiple linear regression models to predict the soil relative moisture during April and May. The results indicated that:(1)The soil relative moisture with freezing rain and precipitation were shown positive correla-tion in five regions,while negative correlation with the date of soaking rain,temperature and sunshine hours.Moreover the relativity of soil relative moisture with freezing rain and the date of soaking rain in April were more remarkable than in May.(2)The soil relative moisture in spring sowing period for each region was rather close relation with multiple circular factors,the absolute values of correlation coefficients was more than 0.4 and passed the significant test at 0.05 level,al-so these impact factors were major concentrated in November and December of the previous year.(3)Based on key cli-mate factors and circular index to construct the multiple linear regression models for the soil relative moisture during April and May were total passed the F test and the multiple correlation coefficients were larger than 0.5,also the forecasting precision of model was basically more than 80% with rather high accuracy.%根据东北五个土壤湿度分区春播期土壤相对湿度与气象因子、环流因子相关关系,甄选土壤相对湿度主要影响因子,构建多元线性回归模型以预测4、5月土壤相对湿度。结果表明:(1)五个分区土壤相对湿度与封冻雨、降水量呈正相关,与透雨日期、气温及日照时数呈负相关,且4月份土壤相对湿度与封冻雨及透雨日期的相关性较5月更显著;(2)各分区春播期土壤相对湿度与多项环流因子关系较密切,相关系数绝对值大于0.4且通过信度为0.05的

  11. Slab stagnation and detachment under northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Results of tomography models around the Japanese Islands show the existence of a gap between the horizontally lying (stagnant) slab extending under northeastern China and the fast seismic velocity anomaly in the lower mantle. A simple conversion from the fast velocity anomaly to the low-temperature anomaly shows a similar feature. This feature appears to be inconsistent with the results of numerical simulations on the interaction between the slab and phase transitions with temperature-dependent viscosity. Such numerical models predict a continuous slab throughout the mantle. I extend previous analyses of the tomography model and model calculations to infer the origins of the gap beneath northeastern China. Results of numerical simulations that take the geologic history of the subduction zone into account suggest two possible origins for the gap: (1) the opening of the Japan Sea led to a breaking off of the otherwise continuous subducting slab, or (2) the western edge of the stagnant slab is the previous subducted ridge, which was the plate boundary between the extinct Izanagi and the Pacific plates. Origin (2) suggesting the present horizontally lying slab has accumulated since the ridge subduction, is preferable for explaining the present length of the horizontally lying slab in the upper mantle. Numerical models of origin (1) predict a stagnant slab in the upper mantle that is too short, and a narrow or non-existent gap. Preferred models require rather stronger flow resistance of the 660-km phase change than expected from current estimates of the phase transition property. Future detailed estimates of the amount of the subducted Izanagi plate and the present stagnant slab would be useful to constrain models. A systematic along-arc variation of the slab morphology from the northeast Japan to Kurile arcs is also recognized, and its understanding may constrain the 3D mantle flow there.

  12. Appendix B: Description of Map Units for Northeast Asia Summary Geodynamics Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan

    2009-01-01

    tectonics of Northeast Asia that have been led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These studies have produced two broad types of publications (1) a series of regional geologic, mineral-deposit, and metallogenic-belt maps, with companion descriptions of the region, and (2) a suite of metallogenic and tectonic analyses of the same region. The study area consists of eastern Russia (most of eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East), Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, Japan, and adjacent offshore areas. The major cooperative agencies are the Russian Academy of Sciences; the Academy of Sciences of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia); VNIIOkeangeologia and Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation; the Mongolian Academy of Sciences; the Mongolian University of Science and Technology; the Mongolian National University; Jilin University, Changchun, People?s Republic of China, the China Geological Survey; the Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources; the Geological Survey of Japan/AIST; the University of Texas, Arlington, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This study builds on and extends the data and interpretations from a previous project on the Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera conducted by the USGS, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, and the Geological Survey of Canada. The major products of this project were summarized by Naumova and others (2006) and are described in appendix A.

  13. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  14. Speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, Japan, from the viewpoint of the contradictory phylogenetic trees generated from chloroplast and nuclear DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmono; Okada, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    To understand the speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to a special environment (serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, central Honshu, Japan), chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) were employed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of S. isensis with related species in Japan. Allozymic polymorphisms were also used to analyze genetic relationships among Salvia species. A contradiction in the phylogenetic positions of species studied was detected when phylogenetic trees were constructed using cpDNA or nrDNA, i.e., S. isensis was a sister to the other species in phylogenetic trees generated from cpDNA, while S. japonica was a sister to the other species in the case of nrDNA. Genetic relationships between Salvia species estimated from allozymic polymorphisms did not contradict to the topology for nrDNA. Using the present results, the speciation process of S. isensis is discussed with regard to introgressive gene exchanges between related species.

  15. Business. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William E.; And Others

    The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida areas technical occupations in business. A three-phase approach was…

  16. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9-50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years.

  17. 东北地区军人肠易激综合征患者心理应激因素以及焦虑、抑郁情况调查%Psychological Stress Factor,Anxiety and Depression in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients among Soldiers in Northeast Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洪波; 戴林; 周琳; 彭海英; 李爱萍; 陈慧群; 刘亚萍; 张旭艳; 刘云

    2015-01-01

    Background:The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome(IBS)is not fully known,social psychological factor is the important factor of IBS,especially the relationship with anxiety and depression. Aims:To investigate psychological stress factor,anxiety and depression in IBS patients among soldiers in northeast area. Methods:A total of 11 400 soldiers in northeast area were enrolled by multistage,stratified,cluster random sampling method asking to fulfill a questionnaire on IBS. Zung self-rating anxiety scale(SAS)and Zung self-rating depression scale(SDS)were assessed,and the relationship with anxiety,depression and stress was analyzed. Results:The incidence of IBS was 15. 9% . Prevalences of anxiety and depression in IBS group were significantly higher than those in non-IBS group(22. 9% vs. 9. 6% ,26. 6% vs. 12. 4% ,P< 0. 05). Score of SAS and SDS in IBS group were significantly higher than those in non-IBS group(50. 86 ± 7. 27 vs. 36. 54 ± 6. 97,53. 47 ± 7. 86 vs. 38. 25 ± 9. 83,P < 0. 05). Positive correlation was found between score of SAS and SDS and stress factors such as feeling lonely,depression,intensive training,working pressure,poor relationship with colleagues,solving emergency event or participating in military exercises in IBS group(P < 0. 05). Conclusions:IBS in soldiers is related with stress and psychological factors.

  18. An Estimation of Potentials for the Hatchobaru Geothermal Area, Northern Kyushu, Japan and Geo-Electrical Indications at the Otake Geothermal Field in the Western Part of the Kujyu Volcano Group, Kyushu, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, S.

    1974-01-01

    In the estimation of the output in kW/h produced by the geothermal power generation, it is required to know the well characteristics, the heat cycle in the power plant, the output characteristics and the efficiency. Of these three in the latter are seemed to be constant in the present power plant, while only the well characteristics varies in the wide range. One of great importance in the measurement of well characteristics is the determination of the steam flow rate from a well at a given well head pressure. it is, at present, well-known that the corresponding output in kW based on the steam flow rate is defined as the potential for the geothermal area involved. Specifically, in the case of hydrothermal systems the separate system must be equipped in order to know the steam flow rate.

  19. Effects of Different Light Cultivation on Rice Growth, Yields and Economic Benefits in Northeast Area of Jiangxi Province%赣东北双季水稻轻型种植和耕作模式评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金花; 秦江涛; 张斌; 夏桂龙; 陆金贵; 甘三芽; 余瑞新

    2012-01-01

    Rice cultivation technology has been developed rapidly in recent years, but its comparison with traditional artificial transplantation is still scarce, which leads to an argument whether the light cultural technique can produce high yields. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of three planting patterns (direct seeding (DS), throwing seeding (TS) and transplantation (TP)) and mechanized deep tillage and shallow tillage with straw returning on the performance of two year early and late rice growth, yields and economic benefits at Yujiang in the northeast of Jiangxi province. The results showed that, compared with TP, DS shortened the rice growth period: both DS and TS reduced the tiller numbers per hill, the aboveground total biomass per hill, the percentage of productive tillers and the grain number per spike, but enhanced leaf area index (LAI) and panicle per unit area. Except TS increased the late rice yields in 2009 year significantly, compared with DS and TP, the yields of the other three seasons were not significantly different in the three cultivation methods. Compared with the traditional deep tillage, the shallow tillage significantly increased the tiller numbers per hill and the aboveground total biomass per hill during the growth stage, but it decreased LAI at the late growth and the percentage of productive tillers which therefore caused the lower production. Compared with straw output, rice straw mechanical returning increase the spike rate and the accumulation of dry matter, thus improved rice yields in the four seasons, and the rice yield significantly increased along with the time. According to comprehensive analysis, the highest yield of the early rice was from the treatment with deep tillage, direct seeding and straw retuning, and that of the late rice from the treatment with deep tillage, throwing seeding and straw retiming simultaneously. While form the economic efficiency point of view, compared with the combination patterns of

  20. Changes in the frequency and clinical features of suicide attempts in the midwestern area of Kanagawa after the great East Japan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Koji; Mikami, Katsunaka; Kimoto, Keitaro; Kimoto, Kousuke; Takahashi, Yuki; Sato, Reiko; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the clinical features of suicide attempts and the Great East Japan earthquake in Kanagawa. We enrolled 592 patients who attempted suicide and were hospitalized for inpatient treatment. Clinical features were compared between before the earthquake (A) and after the earthquake (B) groups. The number of suicide attempts increased from 286 to 306. The rate of increase in suicide attempts in men was the highest in the age group of 40-59 years. The frequency of joblessness, family psychiatric histories, precipitating event, and alcohol intake at suicide attempt was significantly higher in the B group than in the A group. The number of patients in serious condition in the B group was significantly higher than that in the A group. Other clinical features related to suicide in people who were indirectly affected by the earthquake disaster should be investigated to develop targeted prevention strategies. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  2. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  3. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  4. Get Oriented: Study Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  5. Trend Analysis of Relatively Large Diatoms Which Appear in the Intensive Study Area of the Ariake Sea, Japan in Winter (2011-2015 based on Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of relatively large size of diatoms which appear in the Ariake Sea areas, Japan in winter based on remote sensing satellite data is clarified. Through experiments with Terra and AQUA MODIS data derived chlorophyll-a concentration and truth data of chlorophyll-a concentration together with meteorological data and tidal data which are acquired for 5 years (winter 2011 to winter 2015, it is found that strong correlation between the chlorophyll-a concentration and tidal height changes. Also it is found that the relations between ocean wind speed and chlorophyll-a concentration. Meanwhile, there is a relatively high correlation between sunshine duration a day and chlorophyll-a concentration.

  6. Assessment of nonlinear site response at ocean bottom seismograph sites based on S-wave horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios: a study at the Sagami Bay area K-NET sites in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Yadab P.; Aoi, Shin; Kunugi, Takashi; Suzuki, Wataru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    We analyzed S-wave horizontal-to-vertical (S-H/V) spectral ratios at six ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) sites of K-NET located in the Sagami Bay area of Japan for nonlinear site responses. The degree of nonlinearity was computed by comparing the S-H/V spectral ratios for strong motions (PGA ≥ 20 cm/s2) with those for weak motions (PGA offshore earthquakes with a large magnitude. However, frequencies lower than about 2 Hz are not affected by the nonlinear site response in the analyzed data ranges (PGA < 467 cm/s2). These results indicate the need for careful utilization of recorded strong motions at OBS sites for applications such as real-time ground motion predictions as front detections.

  7. Northeast MPA Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The design of marine protected areas (MPAs) generates much discussion among marine scientists. Ecological studies have suggested that protecting 10 to 40% of...

  8. Influences of the variation in inflow to East Asia on surface ozone over Japan during 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chatani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Air quality simulations in which the global chemical transport model CHASER and the regional chemical transport model WRF/chem are coupled have been developed to consider the dynamic transport of chemical species across the boundaries of the domain of the regional chemical transport model. The simulation captures the overall seasonal variations of surface ozone, but overestimates its concentration over Japanese populated areas by approximately 20 ppb from summer to early winter. It is deduced that ozone formation around Northeast China and Japan in summer is overestimated in the simulation. On the other hand, the simulation well reproduces the interannual variability and the long-term trend of observed surface ozone over Japan. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to investigate the influence of the variation in inflow to East Asia on the interannual variability and the long-term trend of surface ozone over Japan during 1996–2005. The inflow defined in this paper includes the recirculation of species with sources within the East Asian region as well as the transport of species with sources out of the East Asian region. Results of sensitivity experiments suggest that inflow to East Asia accounts for approximately 30 % of the increasing trend of surface ozone, whereas it has much less influence on the interannual variability of observed surface ozone compared to meteorological processes within East Asia.

  9. CENOZOIC VOLCANISM AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on Cenozoic volcanism and geothermal resources in Northeast China. There are a lot of Cenozoic volcanoes, a large area of volcanic rocks, a large number of active faults and rich geothermal resources in Northeast China. The time and space characteristics of Cenozoic volcanism and the space distribution characters of hot springs and high geothermal flux regions in Northeast China are described and discussed on the basis of geological, geothermal, drilling and volcanological data. It is revealed that the hot springs and high geothermal flux regions are re lated to the Cenozoic volcanism, rifting and faulting in Northeast China. It is especially emphasized that the hot springs and high geothermal anomaly areas are controlled by active deep faults. It is proposed that the Cenozoic volcanism re gions, rift basins, active fault belts, activated plate suture zones and large earthquake occurrence points are the best areas for prospecting geothermal resources. The geothermal resources in younger volcanic zones are richer than those in older volcanic belts. The hot springs and active or activated faults might be a very good clue for looking for geothermal resources.

  10. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  11. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  12. New insights into the tectonic evolution of the Andaman basin, northeast Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Rao, P.S.; Rao, B.R.; Varghese, J.

    Multibeam swath bathymetry data acquired over an area of about 30 000 km 2 ,together with magnetic and single channel seismic data, have been analyzed to understand the tectonic evolution of the Andaman basin,northeast Indian Ocean. Swath bathymetry...

  13. Investigation of Urbanization Effects on Land Surface Phenology in Northeast China during 2001–2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yao, Rui; Wang, Lunche; Huang, Xin; Guo, Xian; Niu, Zigeng; Liu, Hongfu

    2017-01-01

    ...) and urbanization effects on LSP in Northeast China during 2001-2015. LST and phenology differences between urban and rural areas represented the urban heat island intensity and urbanization effects on LSP, respectively...

  14. Paleo-latitude and paleo-azimuth of northeast Africa during the Cretaceous- Paleogene: A paleomagnetic study on the Lower Cretaceous alkaline ring complexes in Mishbeh area [142 Ma] and the late Oligocene basalt [25 Ma] in Shelatin area along the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    lotfy, hamza

    2016-04-01

    The progressive thermal demagnetization of the acquired three-axis isothermal remenant magnetization [IRM] revealed that most sites are, reasonably, fresh with magnetite being the main remanence carrier with little contribution of goethite and/or hematite. The progressive stepwise thermal demagnetization of the natural remanence of the magnetite-dominated sites was, overwhelmingly, bivectorial. After the early decay of a goethite-residing present-day field overprint, a characteristic higher blocking temperature [Tb <590°C] magnetite-residing anchored component decays. The characteristic remanence direction [N=19 sites] of the Lower Cretaceous [141-143 Ma] Mishbeh area ring complexes [22.7°N/34.75°E] was bipolar and passed the reversal test at 95% confidence. The mean paleomagnetic north pole was at 46°N/258°E [A95=6.3°]. On the other hand, the characteristic remanence [N=13 sites] of the late Oligocene [25Ma] Shelatin basalt [23°N/35°E] was reversed. The mean north pole was at 81.6°N/173°E [A95=8.6°] in the tilt- corrected coordinates. These paleopoles are in general accordance with their coeval poles rotated from the North American and European Cratons as well as those from South America, Australia and Africa. According to the Mishbeh ring complexes pole, in the Lower Cretaceous [142Ma], northeast Africa was just south of the Equator, as Cairo [now at 30°N] was at 3°S. Africa was, also, about 30° clockwise with respect to its present azimuth. By the late Oligocene [25Ma], Africa moved about 26° of latitude, as Cairo became at paleo-latitude 23°N, that is 7° south to its present-day latitude. Synchronously, Africa rotated anticlockwise about 35° to become about 5° anticlockwise to its present azimuth.

  15. Research on the Phenomenon of Bannerman Engaged in Commercial Activities in Northeast Area during The Qing Dynasty%清代东北旗人经商现象探赜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付永正; 刁书仁

    2014-01-01

    The Jurchen had been keeping a traditional business in history .The Qing government never banned the ordi-nary bannerman to engage in commercial activities , but the northeast bannerman′s commercial activities maintained in bringing the agricultural and sideline products fishing and hunting products to market to sell and so on .Farming liveli-hood was more easy than business , and the Banners bureaucratic′s control, these adverse factors dampened the enthusi-asm of the banner business .Since the age of emperor Tongzhi , the Qing government relaxed the bannerman′s personal restrictions , the northeast bannerman′s commercial activities had a rapid development in scale , the commercial activities were more and more concentrated in the cities and towns during this period , and trafficking of ginseng , operating hotel to provide accommodation and simple food for passengers and horses , transportation of goods , operating various types of stores, all of them were the main advanced ways of doing business .%女真人在历史上素有经商传统,清廷也未明令禁止普通旗人经商,但东北旗人在驰禁前参与商贸活动多以农副产品、渔猎品等的兜售为主。由于务农比经商更易维持生计,八旗旗署的管控也挫伤了东北旗人经商的积极性。在弛禁后,清廷放松了对旗人的人身控制,东北旗人的经商规模有了较快发展,经商地点愈发集中于城镇,贩卖人参、开设车店、揽运货物、开设商铺是主要的经商方式。

  16. Determining Ionospheric Irregularity Spectral Density Function from Japan GEONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, E. H.; Light, M. E.; Parker, P. A.; Carrano, C. S.; Haaser, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Japan's GEONET GPS network is the densest GPS monitoring network in the world, with 1200+ receivers over the area of Japan. Measuring and calibrating the integrated total electron content (TEC) from each station has been done in many cases to provide detailed maps of ionospheric disturbances over Japan. We use TEC measurements from Japan's GEONET array to determine an empirically derived description of the 2-dimensional scale sizes of spatial irregularities above Japan. The contributions from various scale sizes will be included in a statistical description for the irregularity spectral density (ISD) function. We will compare the statistics of the spatial irregularities between calm and moderately scintillated conditions.

  17. Japan's BSE program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, N.; Matsushita, M.; Kajikawa, M.

    1982-12-01

    An overview of the program for Japan's Medium-scale Broadcasting Satellite for Experimental Purpose (BSE), placed in orbit in 1978, is presented. The BSE was developed in order to provide useful technical data for establishing the fundamental technology of satellite broadcasting systems, the controlling and operational techniques of the broadcasting satellite, and the reception of broadcasting satellite radio waves. The satellite system and the ground facilities are discussed, and tables are included which list the system parameters and subsystems of the BSE. In addition, an outline is presented of the various experiments conducted utilizing the BSE, including the evaluation of the broadcasting service area, the transmission methods and their characteristics, controlling technique of the satellite, multiple access from different stations, and the improvement of receiving systems

  18. Borehole geophysics for delineating the geological structure in the Sakonishi prospect, the Hida area, Japan; Hida chiiki Sako nishi chiku ni okeru boring ko riyo butsuri tansa ni yoru chishitsu kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, H.; Hishida, H.; Yoshioka, K. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In order to discuss effectiveness of physical exploration in the Sakonishi prospect in the Hida area, physical exploration was carried out by utilizing bored wells. This area contains the Kamioka mine, one of the major base metal mines in Japan, where electrical exploration has been attempted several times in the past. No effective results have been obtained, however, because specific resistance contrast between mine beds and base rocks is too small, and the topography is too steep making site workability inferior. As part of the investigations on geological structures over wide areas, electrical logging (specific resistance and natural potential) was performed in fiscal 1995 and 1996 by utilizing the boreholes. Induced polarization logging was also conducted on the same boreholes. A traverse line on the ground with a length of 600 m and boreholes were used to execute specific resistance tomography. Clear extraction was possible on a fault structure which is thought related with limestone distribution and mine bed creation. However, it was not possible to identify upward continuity of zinc ores expected in the exploration. Because of not large a specific resistance contrast between zinc ores and base rocks, it is difficult to find mine bed locations only from the information on the specific resistance. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    BROADBENT, Kaye

    2005-01-01

    Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development ...

  20. FORMATIVE MECHANISM OF AKAISHI MOUNTAINS AND ENREI BASIN IN CENTRAL JAPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi KUBOTA; Takao YANO

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).

  1. FORMATIVE MECHANISM OF AKAISHI MOUNTAINS AND ENREI BASIN IN CENTRAL JAPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi; KUBOTA; Takao; YANO

    2001-01-01

    1 Introduction  It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).……

  2. Temporal trends and geographic clusters of mortality from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Japan, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuriko; Yokoyama, Testuji; Tango, Toshiro; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Fujimoto, Kenichi; Nakano, Imaharu

    2010-11-15

    The present study examined temporal trends and geographic clustering of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality in Japan, during 1995-2004, using vital statistics based on death certificates. ALS was usually diagnosed by neurologists according to clinical guidelines that complied with the El Escorial Criteria. The underlying cause of death for ALS was coded as G12.2A. Regression analysis was used to examine temporal trends. Spatial scan statistic was used to detect any area of elevated risk as a cluster. A total of 12,173 (6864 male and 5309 female) ALS deaths were reported. Annual crude mortality rate per 100,000 population was 1.07 (1.26 for males and 0.89 for females) in 2004. Although the overall temporal trend was stable, the trend increased in the 70+ years age group (p for trend, <0.001 in males and <0.05 in females), while it declined in the under 70 years age group (p for trend, <0.01 for both sexes). Male preponderance and M/F ratio remained nearly constant over time. Three clusters were detected: two (p<0.005 in males and p<0.05 in females) in northeast and one (p<0.05 in males) in west-central Japan. Further research is needed to clarify contributing factors for the observed trends and clusters in ALS mortality.

  3. Detailed Distribution Map of Absorbed Dose Rate in Air in Tokatsu Area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, Constructed by Car-Borne Survey 4 Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Arai, Moeko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Saito, Kyouko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    A car-borne survey was carried out in the northwestern, or Tokatsu, area of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, to make a detailed distribution map of absorbed dose rate in air four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This area was chosen because it was the most heavily radionuclide contaminated part of Chiba Prefecture and it neighbors metropolitan Tokyo. Measurements were performed using a 3-in × 3-in NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in June 2015. The survey route covered the whole Tokatsu area which includes six cities. A heterogeneous distribution of absorbed dose rate in air was observed on the dose distribution map. Especially, higher absorbed dose rates in air exceeding 80 nGy h-1 were observed along national roads constructed using high porosity asphalt, whereas lower absorbed dose rates in air were observed along local roads constructed using low porosity asphalt. The difference between these asphalt types resulted in a heterogeneous dose distribution in the Tokatsu area. The mean of the contribution ratio of artificial radionuclides to absorbed dose rate in air measured 4 years after the accident was 29% (9–50%) in the Tokatsu area. The maximum absorbed dose rate in air, 201 nGy h-1 was observed at Kashiwa City. Radiocesium was deposited in the upper 1 cm surface layer of the high porosity asphalt which was collected in Kashiwa City and the environmental half-life of the absorbed dose rate in air was estimated to be 1.7 years. PMID:28129382

  4. Japan and China in Southeast Asia: Political Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Martynova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the research of the policy of Japan and China in Southeast Asia at the present stage. The paper analyses the process of establishment and subsequent development of the “ASEAN Plus Three” (APT framework, which includes ten countries of ASEAN and the three Northeast Asian states of China, Japan and South Korea. “ASEAN Plus Three” might serve as catalyst for the processes of economic and political integration in East Asia. The rivalry of China and Japan is a major constraint to the development of integration structures. Our analysis suggests that China is the regional leader in East and Southeast Asia at the moment.

  5. Characterizing long-term radon concentration changes in a geothermal area for correlation with volcanic earthquakes and reservoir temperatures: A case study from Mt. Aso, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Katsuaki; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Asaue, Hisafumi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize in detail the temporal changes in Rn (radon-222) concentration in soil gases near fumaroles and clarify its correlation with volcanic earthquakes and temperatures in two geothermal reservoirs. Mt. Aso crater in southwest Japan, which has two reservoirs on its western side estimated by magnetotelluric survey to be at about 2 km in depth, was selected for this study. For the long-term survey, the α scintillation counter method was used weekly for 12.5 years at the three hot springs within a 2-km range. Rn concentrations were calculated using the CRAS method, a calculation method that considers radioactive equilibrium or nonequilibrium state of the soil gas. Rn concentrations generally showed similar fluctuation patterns among the sites. CRAS was used as a new indicator for evaluating the age of the soil gas. This age corresponds to the elapsed time determined from the generation of Rn based on the measurement of the numbers of atoms of Rn and its daughter 218Po at the start of measurement. In comparing the Rn data with the history of earthquakes in the Aso caldera, volcanic seismicity was identified as a major controlling factor in the sudden increase and decrease in Rn concentration as a function of age. For more precise detections of change, Rn concentrations were measured continuously at one site by pumping soil gas from a borehole and using an ionization chamber over 2.5 years. Five chemical components (He, H2, N2, CH4, and CO2) were then measured by gas chromatography at 1-week intervals. Because Rn concentrations are affected strongly by atmospheric temperatures, the residual components were obtained by subtracting the trend of the components from the original data. Chemical component data were used to estimate the temperature and pressure in the reservoir at the site; temperatures ranged from 229 to 280 °C, (average 265 °C, average pressure 80 MPa). Residual Rn concentrations showed a clear correlation with

  6. 31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

    CERN Multimedia

    Raphaël Piguet

    2011-01-01

    31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

  7. Fundamental structure model of island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, T.; Sato, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Shinohara, M.; Hashima, A.

    2015-12-01

    The eastern margin of the Asian continent is a well-known subduction zone, where the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates are being subducted. In this region, several island arcs (Kuril, Northeast Japan, Southwest Japan, Izu-Bonin and Ryukyu arcs) meet one another to form a very complicated tectonic environment. At 2014, we started to construct fundamental structure models for island arcs and subducted plates in and around Japan. Our research is composed of 6 items of (1) topography, (2) plate geometry, (3) fault models, (4) the Moho and brittle-ductile transition zone, (5) the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and (6) petrological/rheological models. Such information is basic but inevitably important in qualitative understanding not only for short-term crustal activities in the subduction zone (particularly caused by megathrust earthquakes) but also for long-term cumulative deformation of the arcs as a result of strong plate-arc/arc-arc interactions. This paper is the first presentation of our research, mainly presenting the results of items (1) and (2). The area of our modelling is 12o-54o N and 118o-164o E to cover almost the entire part of Japanese Islands together with Kuril, Ryukyu and Izu-Bonin trenches. The topography model was constructed from the 500-m mesh data provided from GSJ, JODC, GINA and Alaska University. Plate geometry models are being constructed through the two steps. In the first step, we modelled very smooth plate boundaries of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates in our whole model area using 42,000 earthquake data from JMA, USGS and ISC. For 7,800 cross sections taken with several directions to the trench axes, 2D plate boundaries were defined by fitting to the earthquake distribution (the Wadati-Benioff zone), from which we obtained equi-depth points of the plate boundary. These equi-depth points were then approximated by spline interpolation technique to eliminate shorter wave length undulation (plate geometry with longer

  8. The Northeast Climate Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaswamy, M. J.; Palmer, R. N.; Morelli, T.; Staudinger, M.; Holland, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center (NE CSC) is part of a federal network of eight Climate Science Centers created to provide scientific information, tools, and techniques that managers and other parties interested in land, water, wildlife and cultural resources can use to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. Recognizing the critical threats, unique climate challenges, and expansive and diverse nature of the northeast region, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, College of Menominee Nation, Columbia University, Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Minnesota, University of Missouri Columbia, and University of Wisconsin-Madison have formed a consortium to host the NE CSC. This partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey climate science center network provides wide-reaching expertise, resources, and established professional collaborations in both climate science and natural and cultural resources management. This interdisciplinary approach is needed for successfully meeting the regional needs for climate impact assessment, adaptive management, education, and stakeholder outreach throughout the northeast region. Thus, the NE CSC conducts research, both through its general funds and its annual competitive award process, that responds to the needs of natural resource management partners that exist, in part or whole, within the NE CSC bounds. This domain includes the North Atlantic, Upper Midwest and Great Lakes, Eastern Tallgrass and Big Rivers, and Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), among other management stakeholders. For example, researchers are developing techniques to monitor tree range dynamics as affected by natural disturbances which can enable adaptation of projected climate impacts; conducting a Designing Sustainable Landscapes project to assess the capability of current and potential future landscapes in the Northeast to provide integral ecosystems and suitable habitat for a suite of

  9. Doing Business in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Istarted doing business with people from Northeast China in 1991. At that time, some large state-owned enterprises there needed to import precision machinery equipment from our company. It was an easy place to do business before 1993, as the central government’s favorable policies for SOEs, such as allocating foreign currency and providing technology innovation loans, were an aspect of the then planned economy. At that time, our sales vol-

  10. Retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from inhabitants of the Minamata area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Miyamoto, Kenichiro; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the historical time-course changes and regional distribution of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from Minamata-area inhabitants born between 1947 and 1989. The data from Miyazaki, Tottori, Akita, Tsushima (Nagasaki), Fukuoka and Tokyo were used as controls. A total of 325 data were analyzed to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of methylmercury among inhabitants born in the Minamata area. Elevated methylmercury concentrations (>or=1 microg/g) were mainly observed in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968. That peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. The methylmercury concentrations started to decrease in keeping with the decline of acetaldehyde production, which ceased in 1968, and thereafter the methylmercury levels gradually decreased to the control levels. Elevated methylmercury concentrations were first observed in the districts of Minamata, followed by Izumi, Tsunagi and Ashikita, indicating the time-course-dependent regional distributions of methylmercury pollution.

  11. IAEA Mission on the Programme for the rehabilitation of contaminated areas in Japan; Mision del OIEA sobre el Programa de Rehabilitacion de Zonas Contaminadas en Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentijo, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    In October the International Atomic Energy Agency sent an expert mission to gain insight into and assess the rehabilitation programme implemented by the Japanese government to allow for the return of residents to certain areas affected by the accident that occurred at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The results of this mission, which was led by the CSN Director of Radiological Protection, point to the viability, suitability and seriousness of the project and include suggestions for improvement. (Author)

  12. Distribution of slope failures following the 1983 San'in Heavy Rainfall Disaster in Misumi-Kitsuka area, western Shimane, Southwest Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Pimiento, Edgar; 横田, 修一郎

    2006-01-01

    Small and shallow slope failures frequently occur in mountainous areas worldwide, due to intense rainfall. Regional hazard assessment on the occurrences of failures is thus an important subject, especially for developing countries. One method of assessing such hazard is based on statistical analysis of spatial distribution of past failures. As a case study for hazard assessment, we constructed detailed maps expressing the distribution of slope failures which occurred during the 1983 San'in he...

  13. 城市土地利用变化中邻域相互作用的特征——日本三大都市圈的比较研究%Characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes: A comparative study between three metropolitan areas of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵耀龙; 崔秉良; 村山祐司

    2011-01-01

    Local spatial interaction between neighborhood land-use categories (i.e. neighborhood interaction) is an important factor which affects urban land-use change patterns. Therefore, it is a key component in cellular automata (CA)-based urban geosimulation models towards the simulation and forecast of urban land-use changes. Purpose of this paper is to interpret the similarities and differences of the characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes of different metropolitan areas in Japan for providing empirical materials to understand the mechanism of urban land-use changes and construct urban geosimulation models. Characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes of three metropolitan areas in Japan, i.e. Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya, were compared using such aids as the neighborhood interaction model and similarity measure function. As a result, urban land-use in the three metropolitan areas was found to have had similar structure and patterns during the study period. Characteristics of neighborhood interaction in urban land-use changes are quite different from land-use categories, meaning that the mechanism of urban land-use changes comparatively differs among land-use categories. Characteristics of neighborhood interaction reveal the effect of spatial autocorrelation in the spatial process of urban land-use changes in the three metropolitan areas, which correspond with the characteristics of agglomeration of urban land-use allocation in Japan. Neighborhood interaction amidst urban land-use changes between the three metropolitan areas generally showed similar characteristics. The regressed neighborhood interaction coefficients in the models may represent the general characteristics of neighborhood effect on urban land-use changes in the cities of Japan. The results provide very significant materials for exploring the mechanism of urban land-use changes and the construction of universal urban geosimulation models which may be

  14. Climate Change Signal Analysis for Northeast Asian Surface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Byungsoo KIM; Keon-Tae SOHN; Won-Tae KOWN; Seung-Ki MIN

    2005-01-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO42-) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SOl- effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959-1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10%-21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO42- played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO24- scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  15. DIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF MAYFLIES IN NORTHEAST ASIA(INSECTA, EPHEMEROPTERA)%东北亚地区蜉蝣多样性及生物地理学初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士磊; 谢会; 陈萍; 贾艳艳; 周长发

    2009-01-01

    在标本鉴定和文献汇总的基础上,对东北亚地区(包括朝鲜半岛、日本、俄罗斯远东地区、中国东北)的蜉蝣区系做了统计分析.结果显示,截至目前该地区已报道蜉蝣18科48属237种.其中俄罗斯远东地区的蜉蝣属种多样性最高,而从地区对比来看,朝鲜半岛和中国东北地区的蜉蝣区系最为相似(属种相似度分别为83%和64%).日本群岛蜉蝣区系相对独特,这可能是由于它长期与大陆分离而造成的.%The extant mayfly fauna of Northeast Asia (geographyically including Korea Peninsula, Japan, Far East Russia and Northeast China) is thoroughly investigated based on literatures and specimens. Totally 236 species in 48 genera 18 families have been reported from this area so far known. The highest generic diversity occurs in the Far East Russia, with a correspondingly highest specific diversity. The ephemeropteran faunas of the four regions are compared on both generic and specific levels, the result shows that Korea Peninsula and Northeast China mayfly faunas are more closely related (about 64% similarity on the specific level and 83% on the generic level). Compared with other places in Northeast Asia, the mayfly fauna of the Japanese archipelago on the specific composition represents some unique, it may due to long-term isolation.

  16. Interannual variation in leaf photosynthetic capacity during summer in relation to nitrogen, leaf mass per area and climate within a Fagus crenata crown on Naeba Mountain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Takano, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Tetsurou; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-09-01

    During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.

  17. Modeling the potential distribution of shallow-seated landslides using the weights of evidence method and a logistic regression model:a case study of the Sabae Area, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Hua SONG; Daimaru HIROMU; Abe KAZUTOKI; Kurokawa USIO; Matsuura SUMIO

    2008-01-01

    A number of statistical methods are typically used to effectively predict potential landslide distributions.In this study two multivariate statistical analysis methods were used (weights of evidence and logistic regression) to predict the potential distribution of shallow-seated landslides in the Kamikawachi area of Sabae City,Fukui Prefecture,Japan.First,the dependent variable (shallow-seated landslides) was divided into presence and absence,and the independent variables (environmental factors such as slope and altitude) were categorized according to their characteristics.Then,using the weights of evidence (WE) method,the weights of pairs comprising presence (w+(i) ) or absence (w-(i) ),and the contrast values for each category of independent variable (evidence),were calculated.Using the method that integrated the weights of evidence method and a logistic regression model,score values were calculated for each category of independent variable.Based on these contrast values,three models were selected to sum the score values of every gird in the study area.According to a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC),model 2 yielded the best fit for predicting the potential distribution of shallow-seated landslide hazards,with 89% correctness and a 54.5% hit ratio when the occurrence probability (OP) of landslides was 70%.The model was tested using data from an area close to the study region,and showed 94% correctness and a hit ratio of 45.7% when the OP of landslides was 70%.Finally,the potential distribution of shallow-seated landslides,based on the OP,was mapped using a geographical information system.

  18. Marine Pollution at Northeast of Penang Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Gasim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Oceans cover large area of earth surface and it is important for humans to protect from pollution. Malaysia has large marine areas which consist of islands, coastal and sea areas which are facing pollution problem due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization. This study investigated sources of marine pollution occurred at area near a reclamation project at the northeast of Penang Island. Three locations were chosen for water sampling which included Sg. Fetes, North Tanjung Tokong and Gurney Drive. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters namely Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, the presence of Coliform and E. coli, nitrate nitrogen, Total Phosphorus (TP and turbidity. Visual observation during the site visit was also recorded. Laboratory results show that Gurney Drive is the most polluted location compared to other sampling points as it received flows from the existing island. The highest COD was 550 mg/L recorded at Gurney Drive followed by 290 mg/L at Sg. Fetes and 187 mg/L at North Tanjung Tokong. This study shows that the marine pollution was contributed from various sources with different impacts and resulted from the discharge from the existing mainland itself. Thus, pollution input should be controlled and mitigated for better water quality in the future.

  19. Seamount physiography and biology in North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Morato, T.; K. Ø. Kvile; Taranto, G. H.; F. Tempera; Narayanaswamy, B.E.; Hebbeln, D.; Menezes, G.; Wienberg, C.; SANTOS, R. S.; T. J. Pitcher

    2012-01-01

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in-situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (North-East Atlantic) and in Mediterran...

  20. Seamount physiography and biology in the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Morato, T.; K. Ø. Kvile; Taranto, G. H.; F. Tempera; Narayanaswamy, B.E.; Hebbeln, D.; Menezes, G. M.; Wienberg, C.; SANTOS, R. S.; T. J. Pitcher

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic)...

  1. Lessons From Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YAFEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the mid-to late 1980s, Japan experienced a prolonged bubble economy and entered a decadelong recession after it burst. The economy in China currently has several things in common with Japan's economy before its bubbles burst, such as a large foreign exchange reserve, an international dispute over currency revaluation, excess liquidity, and soaring asset prices.

  2. Efficiency Of Ground Water Resources In Northeast Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sewidan, A. S. [احمد صفوت سويدان

    1993-01-01

    The present study deals with actual quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the groundwater resources in El Sheikh Zuwayid-Rafah area, the northeast coast of Sinai Peninsula. The quantitative analysis is achieved by using groundwater contour maps in 1982 and 1988m while the qualitative evaluation is done using an isosalinity contour map in 1988. A resulting modulus contour map (1982-1988) is drawn to show the variations in the groundwater flow condition. An efficiency groundwater map is co...

  3. Baseline experiment of interferometric PGS at the EDM network in the south Kanto area, Japan. GPS kansho sokuiho ni yoru kisen sokuryo no kiso jikken (Minamikanto koha sokuryomo ni okeru hikaku kansoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Murata, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Hirata, Y.; Takahashi, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute); Tsuchiya, A. (National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)); Watada, S. (California Institute of Technology, California (USA)); Iga, A. (Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    The first field baseline observation using SONY GTT-4000, a GPS (Global Positioning System) interferometer was conducted at the EDM (Electromagnetic Distance Measurements) network of the Earthquake Research Institute in the southern Kanto Area, Japan. For the experiments, three GTT-4000 receivers of single frequency version were deployed at three sites which compose a triangle with side distances of about 8km, 12km, and 14km. The present paper introduces the receiver briefly, and the distances obtained by this receiver are compared with those obtained by the EDM observations. Consequently, it was shown that the results by GTT-4000 coincided well with those by EDM with less than 2ppm of accuracy. It was also shown that misclosures of the triangle which was obtained by the relative coordinate estimates were smaller than 1ppm. Furthermore, it was revealed that due to introduction of upgraded dual frequency capability, the receiver can reduce the effect of the ionospheric path delays. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Northeast Tennessee Educators' Perception of STEM Education Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kristin Beard

    A quantitative nonexperimental survey study was developed to investigate Northeast Tennessee K-8 educators' perceptions of STEM education. This study was an examination of current perceptions of STEM education. Perceived need, current implementation practices, access to STEM resources, definition of STEM, and the current condition of STEM in Northeast Tennessee were also examined. The participating school districts are located in the Northeast Region of Tennessee: Bristol City Schools, Hamblen County Schools, Johnson City Schools, Johnson County Schools, Kingsport City Schools, Sullivan County Schools, and Washington County Schools. Educational professionals including both administrators and teachers in the elementary and/or middle school setting were surveyed. The closed and open form survey consisted of 20 research items grouped by 5 core research questions. Quantitative data were analyzed using single sample t tests. A 4 point Likert scale was used to measure responses with a 2.5 point of neutrality rating. The open-ended question was summarized and recorded for frequency. Research indicated that Northeast Tennessee K-8 educators perceive a need for STEM education to a significant extent. However, many do not feel prepared for implementation. Lack of professional development opportunities and STEM assets were reported as areas of need. Teachers reported implementation of inquiry-based, problem solving activities in their classrooms. The majority of participants reported that the current condition of STEM education in Northeast Tennessee is not meeting the needs of 21st century learners. Challenges facing STEM instruction include: funding designated for STEM is too low, professional development for STEM teacher is insufficient, and STEM Education in K-8 is lacking or inadequate.

  5. Brief Introduction to Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Rich Resources and ProduceNortheast China’s crude oil output makes up 40 percent of the country’s total, and its timber output makes up exactly half of the nation’s market.Reserves of iron, boron, magnesite, talcum, diamond and jade in Liaoning Province rank first nationwide. It is also one of China’s five major coastal salt producers.Jilin Province’s reserves of diatomaceous earth, tabular spar, oil shale and scoria are the largest in China.Heilongjiang Province is rich in mineral reserves,

  6. Legal-Ease BEIJING & NORTHEAST CHINA INVESTMENT FACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming an area of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of the major cities and consider options for setting up business in this area. Changchun China’s car city Changchun means cars. The city’s most famous enterprise, First Automobile Works (FAW), created China’s very first road vehicle, the "Jiefang" truck, back in 1956. FAW now covers an enormous area stretching for several kilometers in the Changchun Auto Economic Trade Development

  7. CPC's Propositions and Actions of Resistance Against Japan in the Central Soviet Area%中央苏区时期中共抗日主张及其实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱钦胜; 陈刚

    2015-01-01

    自红军转战赣南后,苏区长期面临着国民党多次"围剿"的军事压力.随着日本悍然发动"九?一八"事变,中国局势更加复杂.在民族生死存亡面前,中共以民族大义为重,呼吁国民党停止进攻苏区,同时宣布了一系列抗日主张,并付诸实践.这些主张不仅得到工农大众支持,而且许多国民党下层军官也自动加入中共抗日大军中,甚至日本国内反战力量也积极响应号召.%Since the Red Army fought in Gannan, South Jiangxi, Soviet Area faced a sustained, enormous pressure from the KMT encirclement and suppression. As Japan launched a brutal Sept. 18th Incident, the situation in China got more complicated. At the vital moment, the CPC thought of overall national interests first, appealed the KMT to stop attacking Soviet Area, announced a series of anti-Japanese proposition, and put into practice. These claims were not only supported by workers and peasants, and many White Army grass-root officers also voluntarily joined in CPC anti-Japanese army. Even Japanese anti-war forces actively responded to CPC's call.

  8. Mt. Changbai,the Northeast Diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Changbai Mountain is located in Antu County of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in northeast China, bordering the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the south. As a dormant volcano, Changbai Mountain boasts rare animals, marvelous lakes, amazing hot springs, and forests that stretch to the horizon. It has a wholesome natural environment and ecosystem with world famous precious animals like Northeast Tigers, sables etc.

  9. Northeast Pharmaceutical from Relocation Acquires Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Northeast Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., an old state-owned company, has met a major development opportunity in its relocation. According to the municipal program made by Shenyang City, Northeast Pharmaceutical Group located in the Tiexi District of Shenyang will move to Shenyang Xihe Development Zone.

  10. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  11. Beam emittance control by changing injection painting area in a pulse-to-pulse mode in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Harada, H.; Hayashi, N.; Horino, K.; Hotchi, H.; Kinsho, M.; Takayanagi, T.; Tani, N.; Togashi, T.; Ueno, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Irie, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) simultaneously delivers high intensity beam to the Material and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) as well as to the main ring (MR) at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The RCS is designed for a beam power of 1 MW. RCS has to meet not only the need of power upgrade but also the specific requirement of each downstream facility. One of the issues, especially for high intensity operation, is to maintain two different transverse sizes of the extracted beam for MLF and MR; namely, a wider beam for MLF in order to reduce damage on the neutron production target but reversely a narrower one for the MR in order to ensure a permissible beam loss in the beam transport line of 3-GeV to MR and also in the MR. We proposed pulse-to-pulse direct control of the transverse painting area during the RCS beam injection process in order to get an extracted beam profile as desired. In addition to two existing dc septum magnets used for fixing injected beam trajectory for MLF beam, two additional dipoles named pulse steering magnets are designed for that purpose in order to control injected beam trajectory for a smaller painting area for the MR. The magnets are already installed in the injection beam transport line and successfully commissioned well in advance before they will be put in normal operation in 2014 for the 400 MeV injected beam energy upgraded from that of the present 181 MeV. Their parameters are found to be consistent to those expected in the corresponding numerical simulations. A trial one cycle user operation run for a painting area of 100πmmmrad for the MR switching from the MLF painting area of 150πmmmrad has also been successfully carried out. The extracted beam profile for the MR is measured to be sufficiently narrower as compared to that for the MLF, consistent with numerical simulation successfully demonstrating validity of the present principle.

  12. Beam emittance control by changing injection painting area in a pulse-to-pulse mode in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Saha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC simultaneously delivers high intensity beam to the Material and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF as well as to the main ring (MR at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The RCS is designed for a beam power of 1 MW. RCS has to meet not only the need of power upgrade but also the specific requirement of each downstream facility. One of the issues, especially for high intensity operation, is to maintain two different transverse sizes of the extracted beam for MLF and MR; namely, a wider beam for MLF in order to reduce damage on the neutron production target but reversely a narrower one for the MR in order to ensure a permissible beam loss in the beam transport line of 3-GeV to MR and also in the MR. We proposed pulse-to-pulse direct control of the transverse painting area during the RCS beam injection process in order to get an extracted beam profile as desired. In addition to two existing dc septum magnets used for fixing injected beam trajectory for MLF beam, two additional dipoles named pulse steering magnets are designed for that purpose in order to control injected beam trajectory for a smaller painting area for the MR. The magnets are already installed in the injection beam transport line and successfully commissioned well in advance before they will be put in normal operation in 2014 for the 400 MeV injected beam energy upgraded from that of the present 181 MeV. Their parameters are found to be consistent to those expected in the corresponding numerical simulations. A trial one cycle user operation run for a painting area of 100π  mm mrad for the MR switching from the MLF painting area of 150π  mm mrad has also been successfully carried out. The extracted beam profile for the MR is measured to be sufficiently narrower as compared to that for the MLF, consistent with numerical simulation successfully demonstrating validity of the

  13. Potential accessibility scores for hospital care in a province of Japan: GIS-based ecological study of the two-step floating catchment area method and the number of neighborhood hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Akihisa; Mukuda, Kengo; Harada, Masanori; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-26

    For achieving equity of the accessibility to primary healthcare, measuring potential geographical accessibility is essential. The provider-to-population ratio is the most frequently used measure. However, it is difficult to be used in closer region because it does not take into consideration the people and health services beyond its boundary. In order to overcome this problem, we measured the potential access to hospital, using both distance measures and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method. The aim of this study was to compare the number of hospitals in the neighborhood and the E2SFCA score with regard to the amount and equity for access to hospitals. This descriptive study used publicly available data from 2010. The E2SFCA score and number of neighborhood hospitals were obtained from Tochigi province in Japan using a geographic information system. Dataset of four measures by each census tract was obtained. The measures were E2SFCA score, number of hospitals within the 5 km range, number of hospitals within the 10 km range, and number of hospitals within the 15 km range. Correlation and disparity analyses with the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient were performed. The measures were obtained in a smaller area than municipality considering adjacent areas using a geographical approach. The E2SFCA score was 5.3 [3.2-7.3] hospitals/million (median [quantile range]), compared to 5.6 hospitals/million in total for the given district. The median number of hospitals within the 5 km, 10 km, and 15 km ranges were 1, 39, and 47, respectively. There was no hospital within the 5 km range in one third of the blocks. Both the number of hospitals within the 10 km range and those within the 15 km range were well correlated. Regional difference became smaller as the distance to count the number of hospitals increased. The gap between small number of hospitals and the high E2SFCA score indicated the location of community hospital in depopulated areas

  14. Have the tsunami and nuclear accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake affected the local distribution of hospital physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Inoue, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 near the northeast coast of the main island, 'Honshu', of Japan. It wreaked enormous damage in two main ways: a giant tsunami and an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). This disaster may have affected the distribution of physicians in the region. Here, we evaluate the effect of the disaster on the distribution of hospital physicians in the three most severely affected prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima). We obtained individual information about physicians from the Physician Census in 2010 (pre-disaster) and 2012 (post-disaster). We examined geographical distributions of physicians in two ways: (1) municipality-based analysis for demographic evaluation; and (2) hospital-based analysis for geographic evaluation. In each analysis, we calculated the rate of change in physician distributions between pre- and post-disaster years at various distances from the tsunami-affected coast, and from the restricted area due to the FDNPP accident. The change in all, hospital, and clinic physicians were 0.2%, 0.7%, and -0.7%, respectively. In the municipality-based analysis, after taking account of the decreased population, physician numbers only decreased within the restricted area. In the hospital-based analysis, hospital physician numbers did not decrease at any distance from the tsunami-affected coast. In contrast, there was a 3.3% and 2.3% decrease in hospital physicians 0-25 km and 25-50 km from the restricted area surrounding the FDNPP, respectively. Additionally, decreases were larger and increases were smaller in areas close to the FDNPP than in areas further away. Our results suggest that the tsunami did not affect the distribution of physicians in the affected regions. However, the FDNPP accident changed physician distribution in areas close to the power plant.

  15. Japan's radiant architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruairí O'Brien

    2014-01-01

    .... If Japanese architecture in the last century could be seen as an expression of fast growth, destruction, rebirth and expansion, today's Japan promises to deliver a new hybrid of high and low tech...

  16. Area Handbook Series: Japan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Tanizaki Jun’ichir6, who captured the East-West value struggle in Japanese life prior to World War II and Kawabata Yasunari , a master of psychological...34 Yasunari Kawabata (1899-1972)," World Literature Today, 62, No. 3, Summer 1988, 375-79. Carpenter, Juliet Winters. "Tawara Machi: To Create Poetry Is to...of, 325 Katsura Taro, 49, 50 juku, 143, 151-52; academic, 151; atten- Kawabata Yasunari , 190 dance, 151; educational functions of, Kawai Kanjir6, 177

  17. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  18. Japan; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    Japan has a universal public pension system. Social security spending is a key fiscal policy challenge in Japan. The 2004 pension reforms have increased the ratio of the government subsidy to the basic pension benefit. Three reform measures are necessary to improve pension finances: an increase in pension eligibility age, a reduction in the pension benefit, and an increase in contributions. Eliminating the preferential tax treatments of pension income and collecting pension contributions from...

  19. Spatiotemporal characteristics and water budget of water cycle elements in different seasons in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 赵俊虎; 何文平; 龚志强

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitable water, precipitation, evaporation, and water–vapor flux divergence in different seasons over northeast China and the water balance of that area. The data used in this paper is provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results show that the spatial distributions of precipitable water, precipitation, and evaporation feature that the values of elements above in the southeastern area are larger than those in the northwestern area;in summer, much precipitation and evaporation occur in the Changbai Mountain region as a strong moisture convergence region;in spring and autumn, moisture divergence dominates the northeast of China;in winter, the moisture divergence and convergence are weak in this area. From 1979 to 2010, the total precipitation of summer and autumn in northeast China decreased significantly; especially from 1999 to 2010, the summer precipitation always demonstrated negative anomaly. Additionally, other elements in different seasons changed in a truly imperceptible way. In spring, the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in northeast China; in summer, the precipitation was more prominent;in autumn and winter, precipitation played a more dominating role than the evaporation in the northern part of northeast China, while the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in the southern part. The Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data have properly described the water balance of different seasons in northeast China. Based on ERA-Interim data, the moisture sinks computed through moisture convergence and moisture local variation are quite consistent with those computed through precipitation and evaporation, which proves that ERA-Interim data can be used in the research of water balance in northeast China. On a seasonal scale, the moisture convergence has a greater influence than the local moisture variation on a moisture sink, and the latter is

  20. Shirataki obsidian exploitation and circulation in prehistoric northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Yakushige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the total number of archaeological obsidian sources in Japan is more than 80, and among them, 21 are in Hokkaido, northern part of the Japanese archipelago (Izuho and Sato 2007. Obsidian was the dominant of lithic raw material in the Upper Paleolithic Hokkaido (35-10 ka cal BP. Out of 21 archaeological obsidian sources in Hokkaido, 4 sources: Shirataki, Oketo, Tokachi, and Akaigawa are the major obsidian sources and the others are minor sources. Shirataki is one of the largest obsidian sources in Northeast Asia and it is well known that Shirataki obsidian was transported outside Hokkaido to Sakhalin and the Paleo-Honshu Island from the Late Upper Paleolithic period.We compiled data of obsidian source analyses conducted to artefacts from Paleolithic sites in Hokkaido, and it became clear that the ratio of Shirataki obsidian in all analyzed materials is more than half (Sato and Yakushige in press.We examined how far Shirataki obsidian was transported in each period: the Early Upper Paleolithic (35-25 ka cal BP and the Late Upper Paleolithic (25-10 ka cal BP. The Late Upper Paleolithic is divided into three stage, the early Early Microblade Industry (Stage 1: 25-21 ka cal BP, the late Early Microblade Industry (Stage 2: 19-16 ka cal BP, and the Late Microblade Industry (Stage 3: 16-10 ka cal BP. As a result, it is revealed that the distribution areas of Shirataki obsidian did not expand gradually over time, but are different in different lithic industries. In the background of this situation lay the difference of ecological adaptation strategies adopted by the prehistoric people of the time and their movement behavioral strategies.

  1. Post-seismic displacement around the Kanto plain, Japan after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: implications for the subsurface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated three-year post-seismic displacement of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake around the Kanto plain using persistent scatterer interferometry and global positioning network. Several ground subsidence areas possibly due to groundwater extraction were observed before the earthquake. On the other hand, post-seismic displacements show overall ground uplift with both uniform and local scale. The global uplift areas were about the northeast of Japan island scale, whereas the local uplift areas were about 30 × 50 km2, and showed complex spatial distribution with irregular shape. Since the groundwater level has increased, we interpreted that the local ground uplift was associated with permeability enhancement and pore pressure increase of the aquifer system, which were induced by the mainshock vibration. The areas of local uplift are characterized by deeper sediment layer than in other areas, and the velocity response spectrum shows that the earthquake caused seismic shear waves of long period ( 1-30 sec), attributable to the thick sedimentary basin beneath the Kanto Plain. Based on the fact that low-frequency seismic wave especially increase permeability, the local structure beneath the Kanto plain would alter permeability of the aquifer structure and induce pore fluid migration.

  2. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system.

  3. Forest management in Northeast China: history, problems, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Ding, Hong; Wang, Qingwei; Wang, Yue; Wu, Xiaoqing; Dai, Limin

    2011-12-01

    Studies of the history and current status of forest resources in Northeast China have become important in discussions of sustainable forest management in the region. Prior to 1998, excessive logging and neglected cultivation led to a series of problems that left exploitable forest reserves in the region almost exhausted. A substantial decrease in the area of natural forests was accompanied by severe disruption of stand structure and serious degradation of overall forest quality and function. In 1998, China shifted the primary focus of forest management in the country from wood production to ecological sustainability, adopting ecological restoration and protection as key foci of management. In the process, China launched the Natural Forest Conversion Program and implemented a new system of Classification-based Forest Management. Since then, timber harvesting levels in Northeast China have decreased, and forest area and stocking levels have slowly increased. At present, the large area of low quality secondary forest lands, along with high levels of timber production, present researchers and government agencies in China with major challenges in deciding on management models and strategies that will best protect, restore and manage so large an area of secondary forest lands. This paper synthesizes information from a number of sources on forest area, stand characteristics and stocking levels, and forest policy changes in Northeastern China. Following a brief historical overview of forest harvesting and ecological research in Northeast China, the paper discusses the current state of forest resources and related problems in forest management in the region, concluding with key challenges in need of attention in order to meet the demands for multi-purpose forest sustainability and management in the future.

  4. Application of geoinformatics for landscape assessment and conserving forest biodiversity in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Gautam Talukdar; P.S. Roy

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we summarize our work, within forest ecosystems of Garo Hills in northeast India, on mapping vegetation and land cover conditions, delineating wildlife habitat corridors among protected areas, evaluating forest conservation values of influence zones bordering protected areas, analyzing dispersion patterns of native forests, and determining potential effects of...

  5. Post-accident response of near-surface {sup 129}I levels and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios in areas close to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaka, Tetsuya, E-mail: matsunaka@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Group, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Sasa, Kimikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Matsumura, Masumi; Satou, Yukihiko [Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Group, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kitagawa, Jun-ichi [Radiation Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kinoshita, Norikazu [Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corporation, 3-4-17 Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8530 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The deposition density and extent of subsurface infiltration of {sup 129}I were investigated within the area highly contaminated by the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Depth profiles of {sup 129}I activity and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios were measured in 5-cm-long soil cores that were collected 20–27 months after the accident from three sites (S-1, S-2, and S-3) within 10 km to the west and northwest of the FDNPP. These profiles were compared with the background levels of {sup 129}I from the same areas. The deposition densities of {sup 129}I were 2.17 Bq m{sup −2} at S-1, 0.80 Bq m{sup −2} at S-2, and 1.41 Bq m{sup −2} at S-3, which are, respectively, about 160, 60, and 100 times larger than the background level (12.8–14.8 mBq m{sup −2}). The average {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios in each soil core after the accident (S-1: 2.1 × 10{sup −6}; S-2: 4.2 × 10{sup −7}; S-3: 2.3 × 10{sup −6}) were similar to the value typically found in contaminated surface soil within 80 km of the FDNPP. Therefore, accident-derived {sup 129}I deposited at S-1 (4.3 km west of the FDNPP) was 2.7 times larger than at S-2 (8.2 km west of the FDNPP), and 1.5 times larger than at S-3 (7.5 km northwest of the FDNPP). Depth profiles showed that the {sup 129}I activity and {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios decayed exponentially with depth. ∼90% of accident-derived {sup 129}I deposited in the soil cores was concentrated in the upper 25.2–26.4 kg m{sup −2} of mass depth (2.1–3.1 cm depth). The relaxation mass depths (h{sub 0}) of {sup 129}I were 9.49–11.2 kg m{sup −2} at the three sampling sites, and these values are comparable to those of accident-derived {sup 131}I (10.4 kg m{sup −2}) at a site 40 km northwest of the FDNPP.

  6. Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROADBENT, Kaye

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development for women workers and the broader workers' movement.

  7. Strategic plan for the Northeast Waste Management Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The Northeast Waste Management Enterprise (NEWME) is a new form of partnership whose goal is to increase the economic, commercial, and environmental effectiveness of solid waste management (SWM) through implementation of new technologies. Of particular interest to NEWME are technologies that are applicable to the Northeast`s waste management problems and technologies applicable to the Department of Energy`s waste management and environmental clean-up programs. These include land reclamation using bioremediation, pyrolysis, waste stabilization/ash utilization, and landfill containment. The next step, which has already begun, is to evaluate specific technologies within these focus areas. A concurrent economic analysis will take place along with each program, which, together with technical evaluations, will form the basis for decisions relating to the ultimate commercialization of the technology. The financial plan for NEWME anticipates an evolution over time in which the Federal Government provides most of the funding in the early design phase, with some industrial participation. As the program progresses through demonstration and early commercialization, the program becomes more expensive, and a larger fraction of the costs is borne by the private sector. NEWME itself will participate financially in each commercialization vehicle in order to form the basis for the eventual self-sufficient of the program.

  8. Regional Evolution Features and Coordinated Development Strategies for Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Lin; XU Xiaopo; CHEN Mingxiu

    2006-01-01

    Northeast China, as the most important production base of agriculture, forestry, and livestock-breeding as well as the old industrial base in the whole country, has been playing a key role in the construction and development of China's economy. However, after the policy of reform and open-up was taken in China, the economic development speed and efficiency of this area have turned to be evidently lower than those of coastal area and the national average level as paper firstly reviews the spatial and temporal features of the regional evolution of this area so as to unveil the profound ploration into the status quo of this region and its forming causes by analyzing its economy gross, industrial structure,product structure, regional eco-categories, etc. At the end of the paper, the authors put forward the basic coordinated development strategies for Northeast China, namely we can revitalize this area by means of adjustment of economic structure, regional coordination, planning urban and rural areas as a whole, institutional innovation, etc.

  9. A remarkable climate warming hiatus over Northeast China since 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiubao; Ren, Guoyu; Ren, Yuyu; Fang, Yihe; Liu, Yulian; Xue, Xiaoying; Zhang, Panfeng

    2017-07-01

    Characteristics and causes of global warming hiatus (GWH) phenomenon have received much attention in recent years. Monthly mean data of land surface air maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean temperature (Tmean) of 118 national stations since 1951 in Northeast China are used in this paper to analyze the changes of land surface air temperature in recent 64 years with an emphasis on the GWH period. The results show that (1) from 1951 to 2014, the warming trends of Tmax, Tmin, and Tmean are 0.20, 0.42, and 0.34 °C/decade respectively for the whole area, with the warming rate of Tmin about two times of Tmax, and the upward trend of Tmean obviously higher than mainland China and global averages; (2) in the period 1998-2014, the annual mean temperature consistently exhibits a cooling phenomenon in Northeast China, and the trends of Tmax, Tmin, and Tmean are -0.36, -0.14, and -0.28 °C/decade respectively; (3) in the GWH period, seasonal mean cooling mainly occurs in northern winter (DJF) and spring (MAM), but northern summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) still experience a warming, implying that the annual mean temperature decrease is controlled by the remarkable cooling of winter and spring; (4) compared to the global and mainland China averages, the hiatus phenomenon is more evident in Northeast China, and the cooling trends are more obvious in the cold season; (5) the Northeast China cooling trend occurs under the circulation background of the negative phase Arctic Oscillation (AO), and it is also closely related to strengthening of the Siberia High (SH) and the East Asian Trough (EAT), and the stronger East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) over the GWH period.

  10. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  11. Northeast Economic add-on 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Northeast...

  12. Northeast Economic add-on 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Northeast...

  13. China and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bojiang; Li Baowen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Northeast Asian countries have held an important position on China's diplomatic chessboard. Their bilateral relations can be traced back to the ancient times, and they are important for China's national security strategy.

  14. Northeast Economic add-on 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Northeast...

  15. Northeast Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of expenditure surveys have been done both regionally and nationally. This data pertains to the Northeast U.S. states that was collected in 1998....

  16. [Migration and urban poverty in the Northeast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, R

    1983-01-01

    Migration and poverty in Northeast Brazil are studied using data from a survey conducted in 1974-1975 in the barrios of three cities. Information on employment and living conditions of migrants is compared with data for the native population.

  17. Northeast Migrants in Delhi : Race, Refuge and Retail

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Northeast Migrants in Delhi: Race, Refuge and Retail is an ethnographic study of migrants from India's north-east border region living and working in Delhi, the nation's capital. Northeast India borders China, the Himalayas, and Southeast Asia. Despite burgeoning interest in the region, little attention is given to the thousands of migrants leaving the region for Indian cities for refuge, work, and study. The stories of Northeast migrants reveal an everyday Northeast India rarely captured els...

  18. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  19. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  20. Report of Surrender and Occupation of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-05-09

    for the entry of the forces into Tokyo Bay. Before any units were permitted to use this channel, however, it was swept by our own minecraft (TU...Northern Japan Area became the responsibility of SCAJAP. (2) Any further minesweeping to be conducted in the area would be supervised by Commander Minecraft ...Other minecraft have fared less fortunately from operational causes. In the typhoon of 16 September, 5 YMSs were lost; and during the severe typhoon

  1. Volcanic subsidence triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan: Hot and weak material hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Youichiro; Fukushima, Yo

    2014-05-01

    With spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) analysis, we found that the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan (March 11, 2011) has triggered unprecedented subsidence of multiple volcanoes. Similar phenomenon has been reported for the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake (Pritchard et al., 2013). We used SAR data acquired before and after the mainshock by ALOS (PALSAR). By removing long wave-length phase trend from InSAR images, we obtained the localized subsidence signals at five active volcanoes: Mt. Akitakoma, Mt. Kurikoma, Mt. Zao, Mt. Azuma, and Mt. Nasu. All of them belong to the volcanic front of Northeast Japan. The subsidence areas exhibit elliptic shape elongated in the North-South direction - perpendicular to the principal axis of the extensional stress change due to the Tohoku earthquake. Major axis of the ellipse reaches 15 - 20 km, and the amount of subsidence is up to 15 cm (Mt. Azuma). GPS data from two volcanoes also indicate surface subsidence consistent with the satellite radar observations. Furthermore, the GPS data show that the subsidence occurred immediately after the earthquake. A common feature of the five volcanoes is their high geothermal activity. The areas of high geothermal gradient and high thermal water temperature are in good agreement with the area of subsidence detected by InSAR. Also, the Late Cenozoic calderas cluster around the subsidence regions, which implies that hot plutonic bodies once intruded are still hot and highly deformable even now. According to numerical modelling, the observed subsidence can be explained by the co-seismic response of fluid-filled ellipsoid beneath each volcano. We confirmed that the surface subsidence is also caused by the ellipsoid filled with elastic body of low shear strength. We further checked that an ellipsoid is more effective to cause the subsidence than a sphere when the ellipsoid is elongated perpendicular to the tension axis of the imposed stress. References: Takada, Y. and

  2. Synoptic characteristics of heavy snowfalls at Busan of Korea caused by polar lows over the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2017-02-01

    The results of the present study prove that snowfall occurred due to the polar low (PL) in the Korean Peninsula and six cases of snowfall exceeding a snow depth of 2 cm over the past 16 years in Busan, South Korea. A strong northwesterly air current with a cold outbreak at the lower level passed through the Korean Peninsula and penetrated into the East/Japan Sea causing the generation and characteristics of a PL. However, a northeasterly air current due to a synoptic low (SL) in East Japan approached the east coast via the East/Japan Sea, which generated a wind field with mesoscale cyclonic circulation. In the center of this cyclone, a strong positive vorticity region was revealed from the lower level to the upper level. The air temperature in the center of the PL was warmer than the surrounding areas at the lower level. As the PL developed and the air temperature decreased, a rapid tropopause drop followed due to the effect of the cold core along with the cutoff low at the mid-level or the higher level. As a result, the stratification became more unstable. The PL moved into Busan as the cold core at the upper level rapidly moved to the lower latitudes, which formed an unstable region around Busan. The PL decayed because the cutoff low, the cold core, and the positive vorticity region at the upper level quickly moved to the east, thereby causing the stratification to stabilize. Also, because the approach to the Japanese Archipelago caused an increase in surface friction, the original structure could no longer be maintained.

  3. 东北黑土区典型坡面耕作侵蚀定量分析%Quantitative assessment of tillage erosion on typical sloping field in black soil area of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏志; 陈祥伟; 王恩姮

    2016-01-01

    东北黑土区水土流失主要集中在坡耕地,以往研究多关注水蚀而忽略了耕作侵蚀的存在.为印证并定量描述黑土耕作侵蚀,该文采用物理示踪法,测定了典型坡耕地耕作位移量及其分布格局.结果表明:铧式犁耕作后示踪剂沿耕作方向发生扩散,上坡耕作示踪剂集中分布在0~20 cm范围,而下坡耕作示踪剂集中分布在0~20和50~150 cm.一次耕作引起的耕作位移量为32.68~134.14 kg/m,耕作迁移系数234 kg/m.坡度是影响耕作位移的重要因素,二者呈显著的正相关关系,且对上坡耕作的影响大于下坡耕作.研究区耕作年侵蚀速率0.4~11.0 Mg/(hm2·a),凸起的坡背、坡肩处及坡度较大的位置侵蚀严重.虽然黑土区坡度较小,但由于耕作深度大,速度快,耕作侵蚀严重,应引起足够重视.%Massive research on soil erosion in northeastern China has focused on quantifying the rates and patterns of water erosion. Soil transportation caused by farming equipments or tillage erosion, however, has largely been overlooked as a significant geomorphic process in the black soil region. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to 1) quantatively determine tillage translocation value due to moldboard plowing, which was the predominant implement of soil preparation in this area; 2) to examine the effect of slope gradient and tillage direction on tillage translocation; and 3) to investigate the spatial distribution of tillage erosion in a typical sloping cultivated land. Tillage translocation process was determined by labeling method in this study. White quartz gravel with 6-12 mm in diameter was used as the tracer for all the plots. A summation curve was generated to calculate mean soil movement based on tracer redistribution along the path of tillage. Tillage operations were conducted in both up and down direction of the sloping field separately, and the mean slope was 3.6° with maximum up to 7.2°. Speed and depth of tillage were

  4. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  5. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where....... It places moral education within the context of globalization and cosmopolitanism and shows, that moral education in Japan is a useful key to understanding how globalization and cosmopolitanism can work within a specific system, in this case Japanese values education. In recent years various changes...... political focus on moral education in Japan, particularly by the two Abe-administrations. Changes include for example increased emphasis on patriotism, on respect for life and the environment, on individual responsibility, on respecting differences and other countries and on a general strengthening of moral...

  6. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  7. The geological history of Northeast Syrtis Major, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Michael S.; Mustard, John F.; Salvatore, Mark R.

    2017-09-01

    As inferred from orbital spectroscopic data, Northeast Syrtis Major bears considerable mineral diversity that spans the Noachian-Hesperian boundary despite its small geographic area. In this study we use observations from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, supplemented with Context Camera imagery, to characterize and map the lateral extent of geomorphic units in Northeast Syrtis Major, and constrain the geomorphic context of the orbital-identified mineral signatures. Using recent observations, we confirm previous mineralogy identified with the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, and greatly extend the lateral extent of visible to near-infrared investigation utilizing the greater coverage. Analysis of Thermal Emission Imaging System observations reveals further physical properties and distribution of the geomorphic units. The stratigraphy, which spans the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, displays significant morphological heterogeneity at the decameter scale, but it is unifiable under five distinct geomorphic units. Our paired morphological and mineralogical analysis allows us to construct a detailed geological history of Northeast Syrtis Major. Several geological events that occurred in Northeast Syrtis Major-including the formation of the post-Isidis crust, the emplacement of an olivine-rich unit, the formation of sulfate minerals, and the emplacement of the Syrtis Major Volcanics-can be related to regional and global processes constraining the local chronology. Other mineralogical indicators, particularly the formation of Al-phyllosilicates, are difficult to place in the temporal sequence. They are observed in isolated patches on the post-Isidis crust, not as a distinct stratigraphic unit as observed elsewhere in Nili Fossae, suggesting their formation via isolated leaching or through alteration of initial compositional heterogeneities within the crust. Exposures of an olivine-rich unit are intermittently observed to form quasi

  8. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, Cristina; Guerrero, Irene; Castells, Xavier; Barón, Sergio; Castillejo, Soledad; Alcover, M Magdalena; Portús, Montserrat; Gállego, Montserrat

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus , the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled). Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category), wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park), general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR): 0.41) and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59). In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40) and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08). Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  9. Megaloblastic anemia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi,Hirokuni

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

  10. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  11. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  12. Metastable olivine wedge beneath northeast China and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    When the Pacific slab subducted into the mantle transition zone, there might exist a metastable olivine wedge (MOW) inside the slab due to the phase transition. Lots of researchers have adopted such various methods to detect the characteristics of this MOW as the forward modeling of travel times, shear wave amplitude patterns, teleseismic P wave coda, receiver function imaging, thermodynamic simulation and so on. Almost all results could be more or less affected by the source, the receiver and/or the velocity model passed through by the seismic rays. In this study, we have used 21 deep earthquakes, greater than 400 km and locating beneath northeast China, to study the velocity within the MOW. For more precisions, we have done further modifications in two ways based on our previous studies. (1) Double-difference location method is used to relocate all events with an error of 1-2 km with the data recorded by stations both at northeast China and at Japan. All relocated events locate in a zone about 30 km away from the upper boundary of Pacific slab. (2) Double residual travel times, generated by an event-pair at a common station at only Japan, are used to constrain the velocity anomaly rather than the residuals themselves. As a result, we have found that an ultra-lower velocity zone (ULVZ), averagely -7% relative to the iasp91 model, exists within the subducted Pacific slab around the deep earthquakes, which might be represented as the metastable olivine wedge. Because of the lower-velocity corresponding to the lower-density, the MOW would provide upward buoyancy forces which might prevent the slab from free subduction into the mantle transition zone. This feed-back mechanism of MOW to the slab is called ';parachute-effect', which is characterized by other researchers. In addition, the existence of the ULVZ or the MOW in the slab may supply a possible mechanism for triggering deep earthquakes, called ';phase transformation faulting', which was already proposed few

  13. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ballart

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled. Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category, wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park, general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR: 0.41 and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59. In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40 and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08. Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  14. K-Ar dating, whole-rock and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks around the Gümüşhane area: implications for post-collisional volcanism in the Eastern Pontides, Northeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Zafer; Arslan, Mehmet; Temizel, İrfan; Kaygusuz, Abdullah

    2014-04-01

    Volcanic rocks from the Gümüşhane area in the southern part of the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey) consist mainly of andesitic lava flows associated with tuffs, and rare basaltic dykes. The K-Ar whole-rock dating of these rocks range from 37.62 ± 3.33 Ma (Middle Eocene) to 30.02 ± 2.84 Ma (Early Oligocene) for the andesitic lava flows, but are 15.80 ± 1.71 Ma (Middle Miocene) for the basaltic dykes. Petrochemically, the volcanic rocks are dominantly medium-K calc-alkaline in composition and show enrichment of large ion lithophile elements, as well as depletion of high field strength elements, thus revealing that volcanic rocks evolved from a parental magmas derived from an enriched mantle source. Chondrite-normalized rare-earth element patterns of the volcanic rocks are concave upwards with low- to-medium enrichment (LaCN/LuCN = 3.39 to 12.56), thereby revealing clinopyroxene- and hornblende-dominated fractionations for andesitic-basaltic rocks and tuffs, respectively. The volcanic rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70464 to 0.70494) and ɛNd(i) values (+1.11 to +3.08), with Nd-model ages (TDM) of 0.68 to 1.02 Ga, suggesting an enriched lithospheric mantle source of Proterozoic age. Trace element and isotopic data, as well as the modelling results, show that fractional crystallization and minor assimilation played an important role in the evolution of the volcanic rocks studied. The Eocene to Miocene volcanism in the region has resulted from lithospheric delamination and the associated convective thinning of the mantle, which led to the partial melting of the subduction-metasomatized lithospheric mantle.

  15. Seasonal Imbalances in Natural Gas Imports in Major Northeast Asian Countries: Variations, Reasons, Outlooks and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyang Kong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal imbalances and price premiums of natural gas imports (NGIs seriously affect the sustainability of these imports in major Northeast Asian countries, namely, China, Japan, and South Korea. Research on NGI seasonality might provide new insights that may help solve these issues. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, this paper examined the seasonalities of Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean NGIs using the X-12-ARIMA model to analyze monthly and quarterly data. The results suggest that Chinese NGIs lacks identifiable monthly or quarterly seasonality, while South Korea and Japan exhibit clearly identifiable seasonality. In Japan, NGIs exceed their average levels in January, February, July, August, September, and December; that is, Japan imports more natural gas during the winter and summer. In South Korea, NGIs exceed their average levels in January, February, March and December. In other words, South Korea typically imports more natural gas during the winter. The seasonal differences in NGIs among these countries might be explained by differences in natural gas consumption characteristics, domestic natural gas production capacity, NGI capacity, price sensitivity, and means of transportation. Based on seasonal differences and their probable causes, some suggestions are provided to promote the sustainable development of NGI.

  16. Globalization and Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  17. Globalization and Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  18. Trichinella Infection in Wildlife of Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pozio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this investigation was to detect the presence of Trichinella in some carnivores of Mashhad in northeast of Iran and to identify Trichinella species circulating in this area.Methods: The present study was carried out using muscle tissue collected from 120 stray dogs, 26 wild boars, 25 rodents, two foxes and two hyenas captured in Mashhad City, province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran.Results: Trichinella larvae were detected in three stray dogs by artificial digestion and compression. All larvae were identified as T. britovi using multiplex PCR.Conclusion: This is the first report of identification of T. britovi in stray dog in Iran.

  19. MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDSTONE AND CLAY, NORTH-EAST CONSTANTINE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BENYAMINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The north-east area of Constantine has a very complex geological setting. The variety of sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and clay in abundance, represent a big importance in the industry and road infrastructure. The X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM/EDS, FTIR spectroscopy of sandstone and clay are required for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the existing phases. In addition, chemical analysis of the same samples is required to confirm the XRD, EDS (Energy Dispersive X ray Spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy results. The results of this multidisciplinary study, obtained by various analytical techniques, show a good agreement on the existing phases.

  20. Spatial distribution analysis on climatic variables in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Information ecology is a new research area of modern ecology.Here describes spatial distribution analysis methods of four sorts of climatic variables, i.e. temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and sunshine fraction on Northeast China. First,Digital terrain models was built with large-scale maps and vector data. Then trend surface analysis and interpolation method were used to analyze the spatial distribution of these four kinds of climatic variables at three temporal scale: (1) monthly data; (2)mean monthly data of thirty years, and (3) mean annual data of thirty years. Ecological information system were used for graphics analysis on the spatial distribution of these climate variables.

  1. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  2. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of japonica Rice Varied with Production Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-yu; LIN Zhao-miao; LIU Zheng-hui; Md A Alim; BI Jun-guo; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng

    2013-01-01

    Northeast of China and Jiangsu Province are major production areas of japonica rice in China. Rice from northeast of China is well-known for its good-eating and appearance quality, and that from Jiangsu Province is viewed as inferior. However, little is known concerning the difference in physicochemical and sensory properties of rice between the major two production areas. Analysis of 16 commercial rice samples showed marked differences in physicochemical properties, including chalky grain rate, contents of amylose and protein and pasting properties between the two main areas. Northeastern rice contained more short-chain amylopectin as compared with Jiangsu rice. However, Jiangsu rice is comparable to northeastern rice in terms of sensory quality including overall acceptability and textural properties of springiness, stickiness and hardness as evaluated by trained panel. Our results indicated the limitation of conventional index of physicochemical properties, and suggested the necessity of identiifcation of new factors controlling rice sensory property. In addition, the taste analyzer from Japan demonstrates limitation in distinguishing the differences between northeastern and Jiangsu rice, and therefore needs localization to ift China.

  3. [Wetlands of priority restoration in Northeast China based on spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Dian-Wei; Wang, Zong-Ming; Ren, Chun-Ying; Tang, Xu-Guang; Jia, Ming-Ming; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    By using GIS/RS technology, and from the aspects of landscape structure, river- and road densities, wetness index, geomorphology, and cultivated land productivity, a spatial analysis was made on the potentiality of wetland restoration in Northeast China, with the regions of priority and secondary priority restoration wetlands determined. Then, by using the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland as well as the landscape indices, the wetland restoration effect was verified. In Northeast China, the wetland area of priority restoration was 1.78 x 10(6) hm2, among which, farmland and grassland were the main types for restoration, accounting for 96.7% of the total, and mainly located in the Sanjiang Plain in the northeastern part and the Songnen Plain in the central part of Northeast China. The wetland area of secondary priority restoration was 1.03 x 10(6) hm2. After the restoration of the wetlands, the wetland area in Northeast China would be increased by 37.4%, compared with the present wetland area, and the value of the coordinated development index of crop production and wetland would increase from 0.539 before restoration to 0.733 after restoration. The landscape pattern would be more benefit to the performance of the ecological functions of the wetlands. This study revealed that the restoration scheme of the wetlands in Northeast China based on spatial analysis was practicable, which could provide data support for the implement of wetland restoration and the improvement of ecological environment in Northeast China.

  4. Sapovirus in Water, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters. PMID:17370528

  5. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  6. 1993 Hokkaido, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On July 12, 1993, a magnitude 7.6 Ms (7.7 Mw) (HRV) earthquake at 13:17 UT in the Sea of Japan near Hokkaido caused a back-arc tsunami that caused damage in all of...

  7. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  8. Photovoltaics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  9. [[Interregional marriage in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T

    1990-07-01

    Patterns in interregional marriage in Japan are examined by prefecture. Data are from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 National Fertility Surveys and are presented for distance between marriage site and birthplace, including the effects of arranged marriage and wife's labor force participation; prior living arrangements; and educational status of the couple. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  10. Moral Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Luhmer

    1990-01-01

    Explores how religion is a pervasive influence in moral education in both the home and school in Japan, despite an official secular policy. Points out that after 1945 nationalism was replaced by secular social studies. Finds western thought included with Buddhism and Confucianism in government decrees on the curriculum. Places newly reemerging…

  11. Teacher Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimahara, Nobuo

    A discussion is presented on the education of Japanese teachers, their roles in the schools, and proposed reforms in their education. In describing the pre-World War II background of teacher education in Japan, three ideological forces are discussed: Western thought that impacted upon early Meiji reforms, Confucianism, and nationalism. Western…

  12. Japan Hadron Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, R S

    1999-01-01

    Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is a high-intensity proton accelerator complex consisting of a 200 MeV linac, a 3 GeV booster and a 50 GeV main ring. Its status and future possibilities of realizing a versatile antiproton facility at JHF are presented.

  13. Technical Communication in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiraku Amemiya

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.Characteristics of Japanese Technical Communication(TC) The visual orientation of information characterizes Japanese technical communication.Manuals that have won Japan Manual Awards in the past have employed various designs with graphical presentations that evoke the style of popular magazines.

  14. Sapovirus in Water, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hansman, Grant S.; Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters.

  15. Political Corruption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  16. Seismic prediction of weathering crust palaeokarst reservoir:a study on the karst reservoir of the 4th Leikoupo Formation of Yuanba area in Northeast Sichuan%风化壳古岩溶储层地震预测方法--以川东北元坝地区雷口坡组四段为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 张玺华; 陈勇; 林良彪; 文龙; 林凯

    2015-01-01

    The karst reservoir of the 4th Leikoupo Formation of Yuanba area in Northeast Sichuan has the deep buried depth and the strong heterogeneity character, conventional seismic reservoir prediction method is difficult to explain the distribution of reservoir development, and the prediction of distribution of reservoir is an important exploration difficulty. Yuanba area is located in the karst paleogeomorphology karst slope area, the landscape control the karst reservoir distri-bution, the karst monadnock in high slope is most beneficial to form karst reservoiration, and the aluminum shale in the top of the karst monadnock is conducive to the preservation of gas reservoir. In this paper, the " Impression method", seismic reflection structure analysis in the study area are integrated to make 3D seismic paleogeomorphology by using the oil and gas detection technology analysis, based on the time frequency analysis, finally a complete set of paleokarst reservoir prediction method was formed, thereby reducing the risk of exploration.%川东北元坝地区雷口坡组四段古岩溶储层埋藏深、非均质性强,常规地震储层预测方法难以解释储层的分布发育情况。元坝地区位于岩溶古地貌的岩溶斜坡区,微地貌对岩溶储层分布起到控制作用,其中岩溶残丘是岩溶斜坡上最有利于岩溶储层形成的微地貌单元,且发育于岩溶残丘顶部的铝质泥岩有利于气藏的保存。运用“印模法”、地震反射结构分析等方法,利用三维地震资料进行古地貌分析,采用基于匹配追踪时频分析的低频能量增强油气检测技术,最终形成了一整套古岩溶储层地震预测方法,降低了勘探风险。

  17. Seamount physiography and biology in the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Morato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea is large with around 557 and 101 seamount-like features, respectively. Similarly, seamounts occupy large areas of about 616 000 km2 in the OSPAR region and of about 89 500 km2 in the Mediterranean Sea. The presence of seamounts in the north-east Atlantic has been known since the late 19th century, but overall knowledge regarding seamount ecology and geology is still relatively poor. Only 37 seamounts in the OSPAR area (3.5% of all seamounts in the region, 22 in the Mediterranean Sea (9.2% of all seamounts in the region and 25 in the north-east Atlantic south of the OSPAR area have in situ information. Seamounts mapped in both areas are in general very heterogeneous, showing diverse geophysical characteristics. These differences will likely affect the biological diversity and production of resident and associated organisms.

  18. Climate change in Northeast China between 1849 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Huiqing; Fan, Weihong; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Zhengfang; Dong, Weihua

    2016-11-01

    At the treeline, tree growth rate is known to be very sensitive to climate change. Width of tree rings is often used to estimate climatic conditions when direct measures of temperature and precipitation at the site are unavailable. In this study, tree ring data and available site-specific climatic data were analysed and correlated to reconstruct historical temperature changes from 1849 to 2008 at the Changbai Mountain treeline. One hundred and seventy-five Betula ermanii trees were selected from seven plots at the upper treeline area on the north-facing slopes of the Changbai Mountains. Two hundred and ninety-one tree ring cores were extracted from these trees to develop the B. ermanii chronology. The tree ring width index was found to be significantly related ( R 2 = 0.43, p < 0.01) to the mean annual temperature at the Tianchi weather station nearby during the period of 1953-2008. A transfer function was developed from the relationship to reconstruct the mean annual temperature from 1849 to 1952, for which a climatic record at Tianchi were unavailable. The results suggest a wavelike temperature increase with alternations between rapid warming and gentle cooling periods at the Changbai Mountains treeline for the 160 years. In Northeast China, the temperature has increased 0.07 °C per decade with significant fluctuation ( p < 0.05, SD = 0.64) according to the extrapolated data. The extrapolation is based on the relationship between the Tianchi station and the other 164 weather stations throughout the Northeast. Temperature increase would significantly affect the sustainability of the alpine ecosystems in the Changbai Mountains as well as the agro-ecosystem management of the Northeast China Plain, a designated farmland area for crop production by the Chinese government.

  19. LMS理论视角下高职学生就业难问题的分析和对策--以东北地区为例%Analysis and Countermeasure on Employment of Vocational College from LMS Theory Perspective---an Example of Northeast Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕营; 海滢

    2014-01-01

    Because of the influence of market and systematic factors ,the phenomenon of labor market segmentation is prevalent in the northeast area of China ,which causes many employment barriers to students of higher vocational education. However,the vocational education should be oriented to the market,so as vocational education practitioners,we must study and analyze the features of local labor market,actively respond to the segmentation to increase the interaction between school and the market,and develop the graduates’ occupation ability and social adaptability on the basis of the educational perspective by means of setting up the market awareness and curriculum reform,thus help them get employed successfully.%由于市场及体制因素的影响,我国东北地区的劳动力市场存在普遍的分割现象,使得高职学生就业面对诸多障碍。而高职教育是直面市场的教育,作为教育的实践者,我们要分析和研究当地劳动力市场的特点,积极应对劳动力市场分割现象,从教育自身角度出发,通过树立市场意识、改革课程体系、加强职业生涯规划教育等手段,增加学校与市场间的互动,提升学生的职业能力和社会适应性,帮助学生顺利就业。

  20. Regional Research Capacity-Building in Sustainability Science:Facts, Gaps, and Futures in Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jiehua

    2004-01-01

    Evidence shows that some conceptual ideas relevant to both local and global sustainability have been adopted in some official documents in northeast Asian nations, particularly China, South Korea, and Japan. This seems to be a very positive signal for the future development of sustainability science in this region. However, studyes show that there are still some major gaps there. One is the problem of how to build up the regional research capacity of sustainability science among northeast Asian research institutes across different disciplines as well as different political systems. Another is how to shift the conceptual frameworks of sustainability science into the operational policy frameworks. There are four major obstacles to the enhancement of regional research capacity-building in sustainability science. In order to build up the regional research capacity in sustainability science and to realize both local and global goals of the sustainable development in northeast Asia, this paper proposes some basic frameworks, including regional institutional innovations, establishment of a regional sustainability information network, initiatives of the regional assessment programme, and focus on the regional education and training of sustainability knowledge.

  1. Prevalence of new psychoactive substances in Northeast Asia from 2007 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junhui; Yang, Songhee; Kang, Yujin; Han, Eunyoung; Feng, Ling-Yi; Li, Jih-Heng; Chung, Heesun

    2017-03-01

    The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has been a global trend in drug abuse and its regulation has been a worldwide concern. There is no doubt that it is necessary to share information related to these emerging substances between countries and continents for the effective regulation of NPS. With efforts for the efficient regulation of NPS, many studies and information have been published for the prevalence of NPS in the United States and other countries in Europe and Oceania. However, there is lack of information available for the prevalence of NPS in Asian and African countries. Therefore, this research was focused on the investigation of legal status of certain NPS in Northeast Asian countries, including China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, in order to provide information on the prevalence and trend of emerging NPS in these countries. The results showed that a total of 940 NPS was reported in 4 Northeast Asian countries from 2007 to 2015. Among 940 NPS, 882 NPS are legally restricted in at least one country (94%) and 96 substances were not currently under control (6%) in these countries. The number of controlled NPS that are currently controlled in all 4 countries was only 25 (or 28%) out of 882 NPS. Each substance was categorized in 9 groups according to the classification proposed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). In Northeast Asia, the most commonly controlled NPS were synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and phenethylamines. It was found that Japan is the most proactive country in terms of the NPS regulation with 41% of the total number of controlled NPS in Northeast Asia, followed by South Korea (21%), China (28%), Taiwan (10%). Comparing the number of NPS newly regulated in each country every year, NPS has been broadly scheduled in 2011 and the number of scheduled NPS has dramatically increased from 2013 to 2015. It was shown that Northeast Asia is also in danger of these emerging NPS and the effective

  2. Ecohydrological optimality in the Northeast China Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhentao; Li, Qinshu; Mo, Kangle; Zhang, Lexin; Shen, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The Northeast China Transect (NECT) is one of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) terrestrial transects, where there is a significant precipitation gradient from east to west, as well as a vegetation transition of forest-grassland-desert. It is remarkable to understand vegetation distribution and dynamics under climate change in this transect. We take canopy cover (M), derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), as an index to describe the properties of vegetation distribution and dynamics in the NECT. In Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality theory, the optimal canopy cover (M*) is determined by the trade-off between water supply depending on water balance and water demand depending on canopy transpiration. We apply Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality method in the NECT based on data from 2000 to 2013 to get M*, which is compared with M from NDVI to further discuss the sensitivity of M* to vegetation properties and climate factors. The result indicates that the average M* fits the actual M well (for forest, M* = 0.822 while M = 0.826; for grassland, M* = 0.353 while M = 0.352; the correlation coefficient between M and M* is 0.81). Results of water balance also match the field-measured data in the references. The sensitivity analyses show that M* decreases with the increase of leaf area index (LAI), stem fraction and temperature, while it increases with the increase of leaf angle and precipitation amount. Eagleson's ecohydrological optimality method offers a quantitative way to understand the impacts of climate change on canopy cover and provides guidelines for ecorestoration projects.

  3. Photovoltaic applications for rural areas in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Faninger-Lund, H. [Solpros Ay, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The photovoltaic (PV) markets have grown in the EU by ca 25 % per year during the past decade. World-wide the production of photovoltaic cells has exceeded the 80 MW{sub e}/a limit. The costs of PV modules have dropped by a factor of 5 during the last ten years and is now at the level of 4-5 USD/W{sub p}. The cost reductions mean on the hand new market segments for PV in the future. The market potential of photovoltaics, the financial issues connected to this, the PV system technology, the basic system design and the examples of typical projects are discussed in the presentation

  4. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Devojit K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be

  5. 78 FR 41772 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... follows: PART 697--ATLANTIC COASTAL FISHERIES COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT 0 1. The authority citation for part... Allow Northeast Multispecies Sector Vessels Access to Year-Round Closed Areas AGENCY: National Marine..., National Marine Fisheries Service, 55 Great Republic Drive, Gloucester, MA 01930. These documents are...

  6. 78 FR 16220 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... collective fishing history of a sector's members. Currently, sectors may receive allocations of most large... stocks; the Georges Bank (GB) Seasonal Closure Area; NE multispecies days-at-sea (DAS) restrictions; the... 2012: The GB Cod Hook Sector; Northeast Fishery Sector I; the State of Maine Permit Bank Sector; the...

  7. Northeast Utilities' participation in the Kaman/NASA wind power program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotker, M.

    1975-01-01

    The role of Northeast Utilities in the Kaman/NASA large wind generator study is reviewed. The participation falls into four principal areas: (1) technical assistance; (2) economic analysis; (3) applications; and (4) institutional and legal. A model for the economic viability of wind power is presented.

  8. 75 FR 12462 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Removal of Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Removal of Gear Restriction for the U.S./Canada Management... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; removal of gear restrictions. SUMMARY: This action removes temporary gear restrictions in both the Eastern and Western U.S./Canada Areas for limited access...

  9. District, north-east Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) was 77.4 parasites/ptl of blood and median parasite density was 200 ... world malaria incidence is estimated at 300 to 500 ... In holoendemic areas, including the coastal regions ... The district has a population of approximately .... off points for areas with different altitudes.

  10. A Study on Trade Interdependence between Korea, China, Japan, the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-in Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Using an international input-output table, our study analyzes the interdependence among four countries (i.e. Korea, China, Japan and the US using empirical trade and industry data. While both China and Korea exhibit high backward linkage effects, China's - as well as Japan's - forward linkage effects are still higher than Korea's. These results imply that interdependence among the three countries in Northeast Asia is increasing. Moreover, Korea and China's dependence on Japan and the US has been augmented, whereby economic cooperation is increasingly rising among the three Northeast Asian countries (Korea, China and Japan realizing each country's comparative advantages. However, these countries need to prepare themselves for long-term negative aspects of closer cooperation, especially the negative impact of economic fluctuations in counterpart countries. In this context, Korea and China need to concentrate development of three key industries: the materials industry, parts industry, and high-technology industry. Furthermore, these countries need to establish an independent industrial system by diversifying trading partners, develop the service industry to support the manufacturing industry, and stimulate domestic demand. Finally, a sound economy structure needs to be established through improvement of productivity.

  11. DPAL activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  12. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  13. Drought in Northeast Brazil—past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Torres, Roger Rodrigues; Alves, Lincoln Muniz

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an overview of the drought situation in Northeast Brazil for the past, present, and future. Droughts affect more people than any other natural hazard owing to their large scale and long-lasting nature. They are recurrent in the region and while some measures have been taken by the governments to mitigate their impacts, there is still a perception that residents, mainly in rural areas, are not yet adapted to these hazards. The drought affecting the Northeast from 2012 to 2015, however, has had an intensity and impact not seen in several decades and has already destroyed large swaths of cropland, affecting hundreds of cities and towns across the region, and leaving ranchers struggling to feed and water cattle. Future climate projections for the area show large temperature increases and rainfall reductions, which, together with a tendency for longer periods with consecutive dry days, suggest the occurrence of more frequent/intense dry spells and droughts and a tendency toward aridification in the region. All these conditions lead to an increase in evaporation from reservoirs and lakes, affecting irrigation and agriculture as well as key water uses including hydropower and industry, and thus, the welfare of the residents. Integrating drought monitoring and seasonal forecasting provides efficient means of assessing impacts of climate variability and change, identifying vulnerabilities, and allowing for better adaptation measures not only for medium- and long-term climate change but also for extremes of the interannual climate variability, particularly droughts.

  14. Field recovery of layered tektites in northeast Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasson, J.T. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pitakpaivan, K.; Putthapiban, P. [Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

    1995-07-25

    The authors recovered Australasian tektites in place throughout a 40 X 130 km region in northeast Thailand extending from the Laotian border westward to a line connecting Na Pho Klang in the northeast through Det Udom to Nam Yun in the south. With two exceptions, in sites near the western edge of this region, all fragments are layered (muong-Nong-type) tektites. It appears that large layered tektites are mainly found by rice farmers in fields that were forested until the recent past. The presence of layered tektites in this 40 X 130 km area implies that impact melt that fell in these areas was hot enough to flow if it was deposited on a sloping surface. The absence of splash-form tektites from the region indicates that the layer was still molten when masses having shapes (teardrops, dumbbells, etc.) produced by spinning reached the ground. To account for this and to allow time for the melt to flow a few tens of centimeters requires that the atmosphere remained hot (>2300 K) for a few minutes. Tektites that are in place are almost always associated with a widespread 10-cm to meter-thick layer of laterite. In two cases (one involving layered, one involving splash-form tektites), where accurate stratigraphic control demonstrated that the tektites were still in section, they were sited on top of the laterite layer just below a layer of aeolian sand. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Drought in Northeast Brazil—past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Torres, Roger Rodrigues; Alves, Lincoln Muniz

    2017-08-01

    This study provides an overview of the drought situation in Northeast Brazil for the past, present, and future. Droughts affect more people than any other natural hazard owing to their large scale and long-lasting nature. They are recurrent in the region and while some measures have been taken by the governments to mitigate their impacts, there is still a perception that residents, mainly in rural areas, are not yet adapted to these hazards. The drought affecting the Northeast from 2012 to 2015, however, has had an intensity and impact not seen in several decades and has already destroyed large swaths of cropland, affecting hundreds of cities and towns across the region, and leaving ranchers struggling to feed and water cattle. Future climate projections for the area show large temperature increases and rainfall reductions, which, together with a tendency for longer periods with consecutive dry days, suggest the occurrence of more frequent/intense dry spells and droughts and a tendency toward aridification in the region. All these conditions lead to an increase in evaporation from reservoirs and lakes, affecting irrigation and agriculture as well as key water uses including hydropower and industry, and thus, the welfare of the residents. Integrating drought monitoring and seasonal forecasting provides efficient means of assessing impacts of climate variability and change, identifying vulnerabilities, and allowing for better adaptation measures not only for medium- and long-term climate change but also for extremes of the interannual climate variability, particularly droughts.

  16. Together with the farmers: social and rural medicine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, H K

    1978-01-01

    Japan emerged from feudalism a century ago. Farmers comprise 20 percent of the population of 110 million. The agricultural cooperative movement sponsors 118 hospitals in rural areas. Of these, the Saku Central Hospital is the largest, and provides leadership to a vigorous rural health movement. Its unique outreach program and its contributions to rural health are described, together with remarks about Japan's health situation generally. There may be lessons here for America.

  17. Destabilization of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K. H.

    . Here, we reveal that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing dynamic thinning after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the GrIS is of particular interest in sea level projections, because...... the glacier flows into a large submarine basin with a negative bed slope near the grounding line. Our findings unfold the next step in mass loss of the GrIS as we show a heightened risk of rapid sustained loss from Northeast Greenland on top of the thinning in Southeast and Northwestern Greenland....

  18. CLIMATIC FEATURES OF SUMMER TEMPERATURE IN NORTHEAST CHINA UNDER WARMING BACKGROUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji; GONG Qiang; ZHAO Lian-wei

    2005-01-01

    By using, summer temperature data in 26 stations from 1951 to 2003, the variation characteristics of summer temperature in Northeast China (NET) were analyzed based on the background of climate warming. The results showed that the warming in summer was 0.15℃/10a in Northeast China, which was higher than that on the global, Northern Hemisphere or Northeast Asia scale in the recent 50 years. The responses of NET to global warming were shown in 3 aspects mainly. Firstly, it became warm and the average temperature increased in summer;secondly,the temperature variability increased, which displayed the increase of climatic instability;thirdly, the disaster of low temperature decreased and high temperature damage increased obviously, but the disaster of low temperature still existed in some areas under global warming background, which would be worthy of notice further.

  19. Study on the problem-oriented collaborative strategy mechanism for local construction of northeast countryside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoyang, Sun; Xin, Sui; Mo, Li

    2017-04-01

    Under the background of starting the new round of the revitalization of the northeast economy in China, there is a pressing need to set up new idea of the development of the innovative urban - rural integration. Regarding the form of the collaborative construction in the practice of rural construction in recent years as cutting point, through the internal order analysis, seeking problems, classification and analysis of the basic investigation data of typical villages in the countryside of the Northeast and oriented by the problems, the paper presents the applicable and feasible construction strategies suitable for the development of countryside step by step, so as to establish the collaborative mechanism of “up-down collaboration, internal-external coupling, extensive participation, rooting in rural areas and perpetual development”, which aims at providing the rule, method and idea with universal significance for the overall revitalization of the northeast countryside.

  20. Continuous evaluation of land cover restoration of tsunami struck plains in Japan by using several kinds of optical satellite image in time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, H.

    2015-09-01

    The Mw 9.0 earthquake that struck Japan in 2011 was followed by a large-scale tsunami in the Tohoku region. The damage in the coastal plane was extensively displayed through many satellite images. Furthermore, satellite imaging is requested for the ongoing evaluation of the restoration process. The reconstruction of the urban structure, farmlands, grassland, and coastal forest that collapsed under the large tsunami requires effective long-term monitoring. Moreover, the post-tsunami land cover dynamics can be effectively modeled using time-constrained satellite data to establish a prognosis method for the mitigation of future tsunami impact. However, the remote satellite capture of a long-term restoration process is compromised by accumulating spatial resolution effects and seasonal influences. Therefore, it is necessary to devise a method for data selection and dataset structure. In the present study, the restoration processes were investigated in four years following the disaster in a part of the Sendai plain, northeast Japan, from same-season satellite images acquired by different optical sensors. Coastal plains struck by the tsunami are evaluated through land-cover classification processing using the clustering method. The changes in land cover are analyzed from time-series optical images acquired by Landsat-5/TM, 7/ETM+, 8/OLI, EO-1/ALI, and ALOS-1/AVNIR-2. The study reveals several characteristics of the change in the inundation area and signs of artificial and natural restoration.

  1. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  2. Japan Report No. 173.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Also, when Mr Nikaido visited China, his statements regarding Japan’s present situation and the Nakasone cabinet were filled with polite sarcasm . In...t— o Ov ON OS UJ o cu O OS Q > X eS UJ o a. O ei a >• X cu D OS UJ O a. J < S in fN OS OS n OS < «r z UJ w Z JL1 -J -J J Ou

  3. Marital Dissolution in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Raymo; Bumpass, Larry L.; Miho Iwasawa

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about recent trends in divorce in Japan. In this paper, we use Japanese vital statistics and census data to describe trends in the experience of marital dissolution across the life course, and to examine change over time in educational differentials in divorce. Cumulative probabilities of marital dissolution have increased rapidly across successive marriage cohorts over the past twenty years, and synthetic period estimates suggest that roughly one-third of Japanese marria...

  4. Long-term change in the source contribution to surface ozone over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Tatsuya; Sudo, Kengo; Akimoto, Hajime; Kurokawa, Junichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2017-07-01

    The relative contributions of various source regions to the long-term (1980-2005) increasing trend in surface ozone (O3) over Japan were estimated by a series of tracer-tagging simulations using a global chemical transport model. The model simulated the observed increasing trend in surface O3, including its seasonal variation and geographical features, in Japan well and demonstrated the relative roles of different source regions in forming this trend. Most of the increasing trend in surface O3 over Japan ( ˜ 97 %) that was simulated was explained as the sum of trends in contributions of different regions to photochemical O3 production. The increasing trend in O3 produced in China accounted for 36 % of the total increasing trend and those in the other northeast Asian regions (the Korean Peninsula, coastal regions in East Asia, and Japan) each accounted for about 12-15 %. Furthermore, the contributions of O3 created in the entire free troposphere and in western, southern, and southeastern Asian regions also increased, and their increasing trends accounted for 16 and 7 % of the total trend, respectively. The impact of interannual variations in climate, in methane concentration, and in emission of O3 precursors from different source regions on the relative contributions of O3 created in each region estimated above was also investigated. The variation of climate and the increase in methane concentration together caused the increase of photochemical O3 production in several regions, and represented about 19 % of the total increasing trend in surface O3 over Japan. The increase in emission of O3 precursors in China caused an increase of photochemical O3 production not only in China itself but also in the other northeast Asian regions and accounted for about 46 % of the total increase in surface O3 over Japan. Similarly, the relative impact of O3 precursor emission changes in the Korean Peninsula and Japan were estimated as about 16 and 4 % of the total increasing trend

  5. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: Two new Early Pliocene species of the crab genus Hyas Leach, 1814 (Majoidea, Oregoniidae) from northeast Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, H.; Nakashima, R.; Yanagisawa, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the oregoniid crab genus Hyas are described from the Lower Pliocene of northern Japan, H. chippubetsuensis sp. nov. from the Chippubetsu Formation exposed along the Tadoshi River (Fukagawa City, central Hokkaido) and H. tentokujiensis sp. nov. from the Tentokuji Formation at Daise

  6. Assistência à gestação e ao parto: resultados de dois estudos transversais em áreas pobres das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil Health care during pregnancy and childbirth: results of two cross-sectional surveys in poor areas of North and Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aurora D. Chrestani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Em 2002 e 2005 realizou-se inquérito transversal em áreas pobres das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil visando avaliar a assistência à gestação e ao parto entre mães de menores de cinco anos. Foram estudadas 1.528 e 1.529 crianças em 2002 e 2005, respectivamente. Neste período, a escolaridade média das mães aumentou em 1,5 anos, a renda familiar em R$ 100,00 e o fornecimento de água tratada passou de 23% para 41%; a realização de seis ou mais consultas de pré-natal aumentou de 42% para 52% e a imunização contra tétano neonatal de 54% para 77%; a avaliação da altura uterina de 54% para 77% enquanto a realização de teste para HIV e sífilis duplicou, passando de cerca de 8% para aproximadamente 16% e de ultra-sonografia de 44% para 64%. No entanto, a realização de exames ginecológicos caiu de 41% para 31% e as orientações sobre amamentação de 66% para 55%. Apesar de melhorias expressivas na maioria dos indicadores estudados, verifica-se que ainda estão abaixo das regiões mais desenvolvidas do país. Esforços devem ser feitos visando reduzir estes diferenciais.In 2002 and 2005, two surveys were conducted in poor areas of North and Northeast Brazil to evaluate prenatal care received by mothers of children under five years old. The study covered 1,528 and 1,529 children in 2002 and 2005, respectively. In this three-year period, maternal schooling and monthly family income increased by 1.5 years and US$ 50.00, respectively, availability of safe drinking water increased from 23% to 41%, the proportion of pregnant woman with six or more prenatal visits increased from 42% to 52%, and immunization against neonatal tetanus increased from 54% to 77%. Coverage of uterine height evaluation increased from 54% to 77%. Testing for HIV and syphilis virtually doubled, from 8% to 16%. Meanwhile, gynecological examinations dropped from 41% to 31% and counseling for breastfeeding decreased from 66% to 55%. Despite improvements, the

  7. Economic Integration and National Identity in Northeast Asia: A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pape

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Asian Paradox” in the Northeast of the continent appears to be particularly evident if seen through European eyes. While one of the tightest networks of intra-regional trade binds the economies of China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan, their political leaders hardly ever connect with each other in substantive exchanges. Cold images of frozen faces and of an “icy lady” seem to contrast with the warm embraces that businesspeople enjoy after successful deals over borders. However, is this the view only in the eyes of the European beholder, who is used to the myriad of regular institutionalised meetings at all political and bureaucratic levels of the EU? Northeast Asia comprises two of the three biggest national economies in the world and on the basis of its interdependence flourishes economically – with the exception of Japan – with GDP growth-rates above OECD average. At the same time, in view of unresolved historical legacies their leading politicians still feel forced to keep frozen faces because of voters’ gazes of self-instilled nationalisms back home. Homogeneous cultures of Confucianism and shame rather than guilt, notably on the islands and the peninsula, maintain a very high level of national identity, in spite of a growing awareness of economic interdependence and globalisation that even conservative schoolbooks and dominant mainstream media cannot refute anymore. Nevertheless, fledgeling attempts to facilitate the flow of goods and services across national borders through bilateral and plurilateral free trade agreements seem to advance, albeit only slowly. China, Japan and South Korea have managed to institutionalise at the level of rotating ambassadors at the tri-lateral secretariat in Seoul some forms of cooperation. “Hot-lines” of emergency communications have been installed at the highest level to fend off sudden misunderstandings related to still looming territorial disputes. This paper will explore the above issues

  8. China-Japan Friendship Association Delegation in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Shorinji Kem-po Group and the Japan-China Friendship Association (JC-FA), the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA) delegation led by Vice President Jing Dun-quan visited Tokyo, Miyazaki and Fukuoka from November 2 to 9, 2007. During its stay in Japan, from November 2 to 4, the delegation attended a series of activities celebrating the 60th

  9. Radiological Consequence Analyses Following a Hypothetical Severe Accident in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a simulator which is named NANAS (Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator) for overseas nuclear accident has been developed. It is composed of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. For the source-term estimation module, the representative reactor types were selected as CPR1000, BWR5 and BWR6 for China, Japan and Taiwan, respectively. Considering the design characteristics of each reactor type, the source-term estimation module simulates the transient of design basis accident and severe accident. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials and prints out the air and ground concentration. Using the concentration result, the dose assessment module calculates effective dose and thyroid dose in the Korean Peninsula region. In this study, a hypothetical severe accident in Japan was simulated to demonstrate the function of NANAS. As a result, the radiological consequence to Korea was estimated from the accident. PC-based nuclear accident simulator, NANAS, has been developed. NANAS contains three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. The source-term estimation module simulates a nuclear accident for the representative reactor types in China, Japan and Taiwan. Since the maximum calculation speed is 16 times than real time, it is possible to estimate the source-term release swiftly in case of the emergency. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials in wide range including the Northeast Asia. Final results of the dose assessment module are a map projection and time chart of effective dose and thyroid dose. A hypothetical accident in Japan was simulated by NANAS. The radioactive materials were released during the first 24 hours and the source

  10. Northeast Electronic Reporting System (NERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NEFSC Study fleets are a subset of fishing vessels from which high quality, self-reported data on fishing effort, area fished, gear characteristics, catch,...

  11. Modeling Nitrogen Processing in Northeast US River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittinghill, K. A.; Stewart, R.; Mineau, M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Lammers, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Due to increased nitrogen (N) pollution from anthropogenic sources, the need for aquatic ecosystem services such as N removal has also increased. River networks provide a buffering mechanism that retains or removes anthropogenic N inputs. However, the effectiveness of N removal in rivers may decline with increased loading and, consequently, excess N is eventually delivered to estuaries. We used a spatially distributed river network N removal model developed within the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES) to examine the geography of N removal capacity of Northeast river systems under various land use and climate conditions. FrAMES accounts for accumulation and routing of runoff, water temperatures, and serial biogeochemical processing using reactivity derived from the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment (LINX2). Nonpoint N loading is driven by empirical relationships with land cover developed from previous research in Northeast watersheds. Point source N loading from wastewater treatment plants is estimated as a function of the population served and the volume of water discharged. We tested model results using historical USGS discharge data and N data from historical grab samples and recently initiated continuous measurements from in-situ aquatic sensors. Model results for major Northeast watersheds illustrate hot spots of ecosystem service activity (i.e. N removal) using high-resolution maps and basin profiles. As expected, N loading increases with increasing suburban or agricultural land use area. Network scale N removal is highest during summer and autumn when discharge is low and river temperatures are high. N removal as the % of N loading increases with catchment size and decreases with increasing N loading, suburban land use, or agricultural land use. Catchments experiencing the highest network scale N removal generally have N inputs (both point and non-point sources) located in lower order streams. Model results can be used to better

  12. Hepatitis viruses and risk of cholangiocarcinoma in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Honjo, Satoshi; Kittiwatanachot, Pacharin; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Miwa, Masanao

    2010-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common cancer in males in Thailand and the third in females. A high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is estimated in the northeast of Thailand. Chronic infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) is the major risk factor for development of CCA. It has been demonstrated that HCV infection is a risk factor for CCA in non - endemic area of OV infection. We examined the association of HBV and HCV and risk of CCA in the northeast Thailand. All cases of CCA were recruited between 1999 and 2001 from Nakhon Phanom provincial hospital and all community hospitals in the province. One control per case was selected, matched by sex, age (∓5 years) and residence. 106 case-control pairs were obtained. Anti-OV, HBsAg, and Anti HCV were determined by ELISA. Among 103 age-sex-place of residence matched case-control pairs, there were 7, 0, 0, 96 pairs for anti-HCV (+) case vs. (-) control, (+) case vs. (+) control, (-) case vs. (+) control and (-) case vs. (-) control combinations (OR=7/0). Among 106 matched pairs, there were 9, 2, 4, 91 pairs for the similar four combinations of HBsAg (OR=2.25 (95%CI: 0.63-10.0). If the subject had anti-HCV and/or HBsAg, the OR for CCA was 4.00 (95%CI: 1.29-16.4). Even after adjustment for anti-OV, risk for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV positive was still marginally increased with an OR of 4.69 although not reaching statistical significance (95%CI: 0.98-22.5). Hepatitis B and C virus infection may also play role in the development of CCA in northeast Thailand.

  13. Activities of the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, A.; Miyazaki, H.

    2012-07-01

    This reports a history and future prospects of the activities by the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan. For growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. Several academic communities in geoinformation fields are established by youths and play important roles of building networks over schools and institutes. The networks are expected to be innovative cooperation after the youths achieve their professions. Although academic communities are getting fixed growth particularly in Japan, youths had gotten little opportunities to make contacts with youths themselves. To promote gotten youth activities among geoinformation fields, in 1998, we started a series of programs that named the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, Geoinformation Forum Japan. The programs have provided opportunities to do presentation their studies by posters, some events, and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. From 2009, some members of our activities set additional conference in west area of Japan. Thus our activities are spread within Japan. As a result of these achievements, the number of youth dedicating to the programs keeps growing. From 2009, it's getting international gradually, however, almost all the participants are still Japanese. To keep and expand the network, we are planning to make some nodes with some Asian youth organizations in the field of geoinformation. This paper is concluded with proposals and future prospects on the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan.

  14. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Hermida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the following parasites were selected as biological tags for the identification of blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo stocks in the northeast Atlantic: Diphterostomum vividum (Digenea: Zoogonidae, Anisakis simplex s.l., A. physeteris, Anisakis sp. PB-2010 (Nematoda: Anisakidae, and Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae. These parasite species point to the existence of three blackspot seabream stocks in the northeast Atlantic: one in the Azores region (ICES Area X, one in continental Portuguese shelf/slope waters (ICES Area IXa, and one in the waters around Madeira (sub-area 1.2 of FAO 34, central-eastern Atlantic.

  15. Japan in the 21st Century Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pío García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1853, Japan was forced to come out of its feudal isolation and become a part of the worldwide business network. Its opening up did not mean surrendering to external powers, but rather becoming immersed in an imperialist struggle, from which it would come out defeated in 1945. Nevertheless, Japan’s prostration was temporary, given that in the post-war period it became an unconditional ally of the same super power that had blocked its military aspirations with two atomic bombs. The strategic agreement with the USA remained intact even after the Cold War had ended. Moreover, the verbal struggle and show of frce in the Senkaku / Diaoyutai Islands, in 2012, facilitated a return to power which was more akin to the dictates of Washington and its security plan in the Pacific political wing. Today, the confrontation in Northeast Asia presents the Korean-American-Japanese block, on one side, and the Sino-Russian-North Korean, on the other, on a fork which must be seen as a new bipolar scheme which will guarantee the regional strategic equilibrium. However, progressive changes are expected in the balance of power in both the Asian sector and the rest of the world, due to the impact of growing Chinese economic, political and military power on geopolitical agreements, including the Japanese-American one.

  16. Teacher Morale in Rural Northeast Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Brenda Dishman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the factors that influence the morale levels of teachers in the public school systems of 3 contiguous counties in rural northeast Tennessee. The level of teacher morale was measured using the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire. Data associated with the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System…

  17. K-Ar ages of igneous activity in the Amakusa area, Kumamoto prefecture: an investigation of Miocene magmatic activity in the Inner and Outer Zone of Kyushu, southwestern Japan; Kumamotoken Amakusa chiiki no kasei katsudo no K-Ar nendai to Kyushu naitai gaitai ni okeru chushinsei magma katsudo no renji no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamasaki, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-06-30

    The timing of igneous activity in the Amakusa area, the most southern part of the Inner Zone of Kyushu, was determined on two samples by K-Ar age dating (quartz porphyry: 16.7{+-}0.3 Ma, granodiorite: 14.6{+-}0.3 Ma). These and previous ages indicate that Miocene felsic igneous activity and continuous mafic igneous activity, composed of high Mg andesite, occurred between 19 and 14 Ms. Basalt activity took place at 10 and 7 Ma. The felsic and mafic igneous activity occurred intermittently at 1-3 m.y. intervals in the Amakusa area. Miocene igneous activity was protracted more than 5 m.y. in the Amakusa area and also elsewhere in the Inner Zone of Kyushu, for example, Tsushima (19-14 Ma), Goto (20-7 Ma) and Koshikijima (15-7 Ma). In contrast the ages of Miocene igneous activity in the Outer Zone of Kyushu extend for only about 2 m.y., around 15-13 Ma, which indicates that the range of Miocene magmatic activity in the Inner Zone of Kyushu was longer than that in the Outer Zone. It is possible that different styles of magmatic activity occurred during the Miocene in the Inner and Outer Zone of Kyushu, i.e. back-arc and fore-arc tectonic settings, respectively. In the back-arc area the upper lithosphere expanded, became thin and fractured as a result of being pulled by the subducted lithosphere. After that magma front the asthenosphere ascended intermittently along the cracks in the fractured upper lithosphere, which caused extensive and intermittent magmatic activity. This is one possible explanation why Miocene magmatic activity is protracted in the Inner Zone which was a back-arc area. The Miocene magmatic activity in the Tsushima and Goto area started at 20-18 Ma, which is almost the same time when the Sea of Japan opened. It maybe that a large amount of magmatic activity was associated with the opening of the Sea of Japan at about 20 Ma in the region of the Sea of Japan, Oki, Tsushima and Goto. Magmatic activity in the Goto and Koshikijima

  18. Investing in Japan? Statistics Speak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Is investing in Japan a good choice for ambitious Chinese enterprises? Xiong Lin, partner at the Beijing DaDi Law firm, reminded potential investors that understanding Sino-Japan cultural differences, local policies and the procedures concerning investment, as well as protecting intellectual property and prompt communication with local con-sulting finns are the keys to good prepa-ration. She gave this advice at the "2009 Investment in Japan Seminar" on March 5, a seminar co-hosted by CCPIT (China Council for the promotion of International Trade) and JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization) as the follow-up to a session held in 2007.

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    This is Japan Report with Science and Technology. It contains the issues with different topics on biotecnology , defense industry, nuclear engineering, Marine technology, science and technology policy.

  20. Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; ZHAO Chun-Yu; JIA Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies and research on climate change impacts on the forest ecosystems in Northeast China. The results show that in the context of global and regional warming, the growing season of coniferous forests has been increasing at an average rate of 3.9 d per decade. Regional warming favors the growth of temperate broad-leaved forests and has a detrimental effect on the growth of boreal coniferous forests. Over the past hundred years, the forest edge of the cool temperate zone in the southern Daxing’anling region has retreated 140 km northward. From 1896 to 1986, the northern boundary of broad-leaved forests in Heilongjiang province has extended northwestward about 290 km. Future climatic changes (until 2060) may lead to the northern deciduous needle forests moving out of China’s territory altogether. The occurrence cycles of pests and diseases have shortened; their distribution ranges have expanded. The life cycle of tent caterpillars (Malacosoma neustria testacea Motschulsky) has shortened from 14-15 years in the past to 8-10 years now. The pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Li