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Sample records for area north tan

  1. Petrography, age, and paleomagnetism of basaltic lava flows in coreholes at Test Area North (TAN), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrography, age, and paleomagnetism were determined on basalt from 21 lava flows comprising about 1,700 feet of core from two coreholes (TAN CH No. 1 and TAN CH No. 2) in the Test Area North (TAN) area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Paleomagnetic studies were made on two additional cores from shallow coreholes in the TAN area. K-Ar ages and paleomagnetism also were determined on nearby surface outcrops of Circular Butte. Paleomagnetic measurements were made on 416 samples from four coreholes and on a single site in surface lava flows of Circular Butte. K-Ar ages were measured on 9 basalt samples from TAN CH No. 1 and TAN CH No. 2 and one sample from Circular Butte. K-Ar ages ranged from 1.044 Ma to 2.56 Ma. All of the samples have reversed magnetic polarity and were erupted during the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Epoch. The purpose of investigations was to develop a three-dimensional stratigraphic framework for geologic and hydrologic studies including potential volcanic hazards to facilities at the INEL and movement of radionuclides in the Snake River Plain aquifer

  2. Action Memorandum for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Pinzel

    2007-05-01

    The Department of Energy is documenting the selection of an alternative for the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area using a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA). The scope of the removal action is limited to TAN-607 Hot Shop Area. An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has assisted the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in identifuomg the most effective method for performing the decommissioning of this structure whose mission has ended. TAN-607 Hot Shop Area is located at Test Area North Technical Support Facility within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The selected alternative consists of demolishing the TAN-607 aboveground structures and components, removing belowground noninert components (e.g. wood products), and removing the radiologically contaminated debris that does not meet remedial action objectives (RAOs), as defined in the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-10.

  3. Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip section navigation (navigation may have changed) Section navigation Body: Understanding your body Your reproductive health Puberty ... that tan is dangerous both outside and inside. Indoor tanning salons use light bulbs in the beds ...

  4. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Floerke

    2007-02-05

    Test Area North (TAN) -607, the Technical Support Facility, is located at the north end of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to decommission the northern section of the TAN-607 facility, hereinafter referred to as TAN-607 Hot Shop Area, under a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA). Despite significant efforts by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) to secure new business, no future mission has been identified for the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area. Its disposition has been agreed to by the Idaho State Historical Preservation Office documented in the Memorandum of Agreement signed October 2005 and it is therefore considered a surplus facility. A key element in DOE's strategy for surplus facilities is decommissioning to the maximum extent possible to ensure risk and building footprint reduction and thereby eliminating operations and maintenance cost. In addition, the DOE's 2006 Strategic Plan is ''complete cleanup of the contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and testing sites across the United States. DOE is responsible for the risk reduction and cleanup of the environmental legacy of the Nation's nuclear weapons program, one of the largest, most diverse, and technically complex environmental programs in the world. The Department will successfully achieve this strategic goal by ensuring the safety of the DOE employees and U.S. citizens, acquiring the best resources to complete the complex tasks, and managing projects throughout the United States in the most efficient and effective manner.'' TAN-607 is designated as a historical Signature Property by DOE Headquarters Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and, as such, public participation is required to determine the final disposition of the facility. The decommissioning action will place the TAN-607 Hot Shop

  5. North American Magazine Coverage of Skin Cancer and Recreational Tanning Before and After the WHO/IARC 2009 Classification of Indoor Tanning Devices as Carcinogenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    The mass media is an influential source of skin cancer information for the public. In 2009, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer classified UV radiation from tanning devices as carcinogenic. Our objective was to determine if media coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning increased in volume or changed in nature after this classification. We conducted a directed content analysis on 29 North American popular magazines (2007-2012) to investigate the overall volume of articles on skin cancer and recreational tanning and, more specifically, the presence of skin cancer risk factors, UV behaviors, and early detection information in article text (n = 410) and images (n = 714). The volume of coverage on skin cancer and recreational tanning did not increase significantly after the 2009 classification of tanning beds as carcinogenic. Key-related messages, including that UV exposure is a risk factor for skin cancer and that indoor tanning should be avoided, were not reported more frequently after the classification, but the promotion of the tanned look as attractive was conveyed more often in images afterwards (p < .01). Content promoting high-SPF sunscreen use increased after the classification (p < .01), but there were no significant positive changes in the frequency of coverage of skin cancer risk factors, other UV behaviors, or early detection information over time. The classification of indoor tanning beds as carcinogenic had no significant impact on the volume or nature of skin cancer and recreational tanning coverage in magazines. PMID:25189799

  6. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as open-quotes commercial fuelsclose quotes except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative

  7. An assessment of TanDEM-X GlobalDEM over rural and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudogbo, Fifamè N.; Duro, Javier; Huber, Martin; Rudari, Roberto; Eddy, Andrew; Lucas, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a key input for the development of risk management systems. Main limitation of the current available DEM is the low level of resolution. DEMs such as STRM 90m or ASTER are globally available free of charge, but offer limited use, for example, to flood modelers in most geographic areas. TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement), the first bistatic SAR can fulfil this gap. The mission objective is the generation of a consistent global digital elevation model with an unprecedented accuracy according to the HRTI-3 (High Resolution Terrain Information) specifications. The mission opens a new era in risk assessment. In the framework of ALTAMIRA INFORMATION research activities, the DIAPASON (Differential Interferometric Automated Process Applied to Survey Of Nature) processing chain has been successfully adapted to TanDEM-X CoSSC (Coregistered Slant Range Single Look Complex) data processing. In this study the capability of CoSSC data for DEM generation is investigated. Within the on-going FP7 RASOR project (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation and Of Risk), the generated DEM are compared with Intermediate DEM derived from the TanDEM-X first global coverage. The results are presented and discussed.

  8. Tangaroa TAN0607 cruise report : gas hydrate exploration on the East Coast, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R/V Tangaroa's voyage TAN0607, 20 June to 2 July 2006, Wellington/Wellington, was the first-ever research campaign dedicated to studying gas hydrates on the Hikurangi margin. The cruise was a collaboration between GNS Science, the US Naval Research Laboratory, the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, the Universities of Otago, Hawaii, and Rochester (New York), as well as individual scientists from the University of Auckland and the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. We collected high-resolution seismic data, EM 300 swath bathymetry, 3.5 kHz sub-bottom, as well as 12, 38 and 120 kHz water column echosounder data. Piston cores were recovered for pore water chemistry, microbiology, core description, and paleoceanographic analyses. We acquired heatflow data using a violin-bow type probe rented from the Geological Survey of Canada. We also retrieved three dredge samples from the seafloor. Finally, Niskin bottles attached to CTDs were used to collect seawater for water-column chemistry. The cruise focused on two study areas, the Porangahau Ridge offshore of the Wairarapa and the Rock Garden off Hawke's Bay. Seismic data from 2005 showed an amplitude anomaly beneath the Porangahau Ridge that appears to be caused by gas within the regional gas hydrate stability zone and may indicate the presence of highly concentrated gas hydrates in the vicinity. We acquired nine seismic lines across the ridge to constrain the lateral extent of this anomaly. The anomaly seems to develop with folding and may be linked to enhanced fluid flow through the gas hydrate stability field, which in turn may lead to elevated gas hydrate concentration. Pore water chemistry shows a shoaling of the base of the sulfate reduction zone across this feature, indicative of elevated methane flux through the hydrate stability field. There is a distinct thermal anomaly across the Porangahau Ridge, albeit with a complex signature. On the other hand, there are no indications of methane expulsion into

  9. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  10. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  11. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  12. Retail Trade Area Analysis Garrison North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Bangsund, Dean A.; Leistritz, F. Larry; Wanzek, Janet K.; Zetocha, Dale F.; Bastow-Shoop, Holly E.

    1991-01-01

    This report is intended to provide an indepth trade area analysis of Garrison, North Dakota. Specific analyses included determining Garrison's main and greater trade areas, identifying the demographic profile of Garrison shoppers, examining important and less important services for patron shoppers of Garrison, identifying neighboring cities that area shoppers patronize, determining distances area shoppers traveled to Garrison, and listing popular newspapers and radio stations among area resid...

  13. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  14. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  15. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  16. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  17. Investigation On Natural Background Radioactivity At TanLong, Lagi, BinhThuan Residential Area On Ilmenite Deposit Location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Ilmenite deposit zone located at TanLong, Lagi, Binh Thuan province. After the year of 2000, a new village of population has set up at this place. To estimate the effect on the human health of radioactivity accompanying with the deposit, the sand samples were collected and natural radioactive analyzed at center for nuclear techniques. The average year doses Dannual, hazard radiation exposed index Hex and Radium equivalence Raeq were calculated based on the natural radioactivities. The results show that these factors are overcome the international average as well as southern Vietnam values. (author)

  18. Determination of concentrations of chromium and other elements in soil and plant samples from leather tanning area by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromium, one of the toxic elements, along with other elements has been determined in samples of soil and plant (leaves and seeds) from Jajmau Area, Kanpur district, India, which is irrigated with effluent waste water from leather tanning industries. Soil and plant samples were collected from these areas and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using high flux reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Concentrations of fifteen elements in soil and five elements in plant samples were determined by relative method. Chromium concentrations were found to be in range of 45-3,900 mg kg-1in soil samples and 14-83 mg kg-1 in plant samples. This study showed that Cr is present in significant amounts, in the soil as well as in the plant samples, near to the leather tanning area. As a part of quality control work, IAEA reference material (RM) SL-3 and NIST standard reference material (SRM) 1645 were analyzed and the quality of the results has been evaluated by calculating % deviations from recommended/literature/certified values. (author)

  19. One of the Helium Liquifiers in the North Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Several Helium Liquifiers were installed in the North Area to cool superconducting magnets used in the experiments. At center top is M.Dykes, at bottom right J.Dozio. See CERN Annual Report 1979 p.82.

  20. Estimating Digital Terrain Model in forest areas from TanDEM-X and Stereo-photogrammetric technique by means of Random Volume over Ground model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. K.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lagomasino, D.; Osmanoglu, B.; Feliciano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Digital Terrain Model (DTM) in forest areas is invaluable information for various environmental, hydrological and ecological studies, for example, watershed delineation, vegetation canopy height, water dynamic modeling, forest biomass and carbon estimations. There are few solutions to extract bare-earth Digital Elevation Model information. Airborne lidar systems are widely and successfully used for estimating bare-earth DEMs with centimeter-order accuracy and high spatial resolution. However, expensive cost of operation and small image coverage prevent the use of airborne lidar sensors for large- or global-scale. Although IceSAT/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) lidar data sets have been available for global DTM estimate with relatively lower cost, the large footprint size of 70 m and the interval of 172 m are insufficient for various applications. In this study we propose to extract higher resolution bare-earth DEM over vegetated areas from the combination of interferometric complex coherence from single-pass TanDEM-X (TDX) data at HH polarization and Digital Surface Model (DSM) derived from high-resolution WorldView (WV) images by means of random volume over ground (RVoG) model. The RVoG model is a widely and successfully used model for polarimetric SAR interferometry (Pol-InSAR) forest canopy height inversion. The bare-earth DEM is obtained by complex volume decorrelation in the RVoG model with the DSM estimated by stereo-photogrammetric technique. Forest canopy height can be estimated by subtracting the estimated bare-earth model from the DSM. Finally, the DTM from airborne lidar system was used to validate the bare-earth DEM and forest canopy height estimates.

  1. Closure plan for the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, and history of the units are described, and their current status is discussed. The units will be closed by treating remaining waste in storage, followed by thorough decontamination of the systems. Sufficient sampling and analysis, and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  3. Assessing Environmental Sensitivity Areas to Desertification in North of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Sobhani; Hassan Khosravi

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity map to desertification of Chehel-chai basin (North of Iran) has been elaborated by the crossing of fives criteria including climate, water erosion, soil, vegetation, and management, which have the main impact on the evolutionary process of desertification. The methodology is resulted from the desertification model of MEDALUS, which use qualitative index to define the land sensitive area to desertification. According to the factorial scaling technique, score-ranging from 1(good...

  4. Traffic simulation of Beijing west railway station north area

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochun Lu; Zhanping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years the problem of traffic congestion and its management has become increasingly prominent. It is a hot research about how to make full use of computer simulation technology to make transportation more rational and more organized. In this paper, we focus on traffic of Beijing West Railway Station north area, and try to find a way to reduce traffic congestion in this area. Approach: In this paper, we studied the traffic flow by survey. We also built a traffic simulation mo...

  5. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  6. Demansda Tanı

    OpenAIRE

    AYGÜN, D.; CENGİZ, N.; KILIÇ, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Diagnosis of Dementia Dementia is charecterized by progressive intellectual deterioration. Differential diagnosis of dementia is important. Metabolic and structural causes must be examined. In the diagnosis of dementia a detailed history and clinical examination are needed. Then laboratory tests must be performed. In this study the diagnosis of dementia is discussed with the previous literature. Kognitif alanlarda foksiyonel bozulmayı ifade eden demansın ayırıcı tanısında, met...

  7. Uranium mining and hydrogeology in the north Bohemian Cretaceous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The north Bohemian Cretaceous area is the location of the most recent uranium ore production in the Czech Republic. It is also the area where the exploration, production and processing of uranium ores has had the greatest impact on the environment, predominantly due to extensive changes in the groundwater flow regime and quality caused by an incompatible combination of in situ leaching (ISL) technology and classical deep mining. The ISL technology involved using sulphuric acid as the prime leaching agent as well as other chemical agents in the leaching process. This in turn has led to the presence of huge amounts of contaminated groundwater in the sedimentary aquifers of the north Bohemian Cretaceous, forming a potential menace to the high-quality drinking water resources of the area. The paper describes the pollution mechanisms resulting from the mining methods and details the different approaches used for remedying the groundwater and for protecting those parts of the aquifers that are not yet polluted. It also gives information about the regulations and legal aspects concerning the closure and dismantling of the uranium mines. (authors)

  8. 长株潭地区耕地压力的时空变化及驱动因素分析%Spatial-temporal change and driving factors of cultivated land pressure in the Chang-Zhu-Tan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜峰; 张合平

    2015-01-01

    利用1997-2010年长株潭地区的土地利用现状数据和社会经济数据,运用耕地压力指数模型和主成分分析法分析了长株潭地区耕地压力的时空分布及驱动因素。结果表明:(1)长株潭地区耕地总量总体呈阶梯减少趋势;(2)整体看,长株潭地区耕地压力指数小于1,耕地压力不明显,但耕地压力指数呈上升-下降-上升走势,耕地压力呈上升势头。(3)具体看,长株潭地区耕地压力:长沙市>株洲市>湘潭市;并且县域空间差异明显,尤其是城区耕地压力指数远大于1,表明城区耕地压力非常大,其他县市压力相对较小。(4)人口快速增长、经济跨越式快速发展、农业机械化普及与农业投入的增加等4个方面是长株潭地区耕地压力变化的主要驱动因素。研究成果有利于提高人们对长株潭地区的耕地保护意识,为促进区域土地合理利用规划,实现两型发展提供科学依据。%Based on the survey data on land use and social-economic statistical data from 1 997 to 2010,this paper analyzes the spatial-temporal change and driving factors of cultivated land pressure in the Chang-Zhu-Tan area using the index model of cultivated land pressure and principal component analysis.The results show that the Chang-Zhu-Tan regional cultivated land tends to reduce overall in a step-like manner.As a whole,the cultivated land pressure index of the Chang-Zhu-Tan area is less than 1,implying the cultivated land pressure is not obvious.But the cultivated land pressure index exhibits an up-down-up process,with a rising tendency.Specifically,the cultivated land pressure of Changsha city is larger than Zhuzhou city,and that of Zhuzhou larger than Xiangtan city.And there are obvious differences among counties,especially in urban areas.The cultivated land pressure index of urban areas is much greater than 1,showing that the cul-tivated land pressure of urban areas is very big.Other counties have relatively

  9. Assessing Environmental Sensitivity Areas to Desertification in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sobhani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity map to desertification of Chehel-chai basin (North of Iran has been elaborated by the crossing of fives criteria including climate, water erosion, soil, vegetation, and management, which have the main impact on the evolutionary process of desertification. The methodology is resulted from the desertification model of MEDALUS, which use qualitative index to define the land sensitive area to desertification. According to the factorial scaling technique, score-ranging from 1(good condition to 2(deteriorated condition is assigned to each indicator. Each index was assessed based on selected indicators, which resulted in qualitative mapping of each index based on geometric average of the indicators. Thematic databases, with a 1:50000 scale resolution, were integrated and elaborated in GIS software based on arc view3.2, Ilwis3.1 and ArcGIS9.3. The obtained results indicate that 39.39% of Chehel-chai basin is highly sensitive to desertification, 2.13 % has moderate sensitivity, only 2.43% has low sensitivity and 56.05% is non-sensitive. Studying the mean weight of numerical value, it is distinguished that the intensity of desertification for the total area is 1.32 which is classified as fragile (2.

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume One - Main Text and Appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter were monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Four - Appendix G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix G. Appendix G is a presentation of VOC chromatography data collected during the study. Information on the calibration curves and calibration checks used as well as the sample GC reports themselves are included here. The concentration values presented on the GC reports are calculation using the data from the applicable calibration curve and any necessary dilutions which were made.

  12. INNOVATIVE ORGANIC TANNING FOR LEATHER

    OpenAIRE

    Deselnicu, V.; M. Crudu; Ioannidis, I; D.C. Deselnicu

    2012-01-01

    Even the optimization of common chromium tannage, and combined tannage with chromium and other tanning materials have led to outstanding results related to the lowered pollution level in effluents and sludge, the problem has not been solved wholly. The single solution for this problem is finding out an environmentally friendly alternative to chromium tannage. This work also is within the above line, aiming to obtain wet-white leather by an organic tanning process.

  13. Salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay during 1956. Study areas include Kuskokwim river, Yukon river, Unalakleet River, Nome,...

  14. Environmental effects of a nitrogen emission control area on the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions in the North Sea of air pollutants from maritime transport has decreased. The question is whether the setting up of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea is a cost-effective next step to improve air quality. And what does it mean for the maritime sector? For answers to these questions an environmental and economic impact study is conducted on behalf of eight North Sea countries.

  15. Harm minimization in tan seekers: an exploration of tanning behaviour and the potential for substitutional use of sunless tanning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine L; Paras, Lorraine; Harper, Ainsley; Coppa, Kay

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or solaria is a major contributor to high rates of skin cancer. The study aimed to explore the intentions of active tan seekers in relation to the substitutional use of sunless tanning products. Participants were reluctant to reduce UV exposure in favour of using sunless tanning products, which were considered to be another tanning method rather than an avenue for reducing skin cancer risk. The 'sunless tan' approach is unlikely to reduce UV exposure in the majority of tan seekers, but may be valuable in targeting women with fairer skin. PMID:21441364

  16. Marginal field development in mature areas of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the North Sea a comprehensive infrastructure of production, installations and pipelines have been installed in the last 20 years. As the existing oil and gas fields start to decline, it is cost effective to use the spare capacity on these existing production installations for marginal fields. To ensure economy in the marginal field development the facilities on the outlying fields must be reduced to a minimum. The facilities needed are very dependant on the product being processed and the distance to the existing production installation. However, experience has shown that the modifications necessary on the existing installations can be extensive, difficult to estimate and normally has had significant cost escalation. This paper will outline the North Sea infrastructure, indicate the types of minimum facilities and installations used on the satellite fields, and briefly discuss the problems with modifications on existing installations

  17. Seasonal Management Areas for North Atlantic Right Whales GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent Seasonal Mangagement Area locations where regulations implement speed restrictions in shipping areas at certain times of the year along the...

  18. Volcanic geomorphology using TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Kubanek, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Topography is perhaps the most fundamental dataset for any volcano, yet is surprisingly difficult to collect, especially during the course of an eruption. For example, photogrammetry and lidar are time-intensive and often expensive, and they cannot be employed when the surface is obscured by clouds. Ground-based surveys can operate in poor weather but have poor spatial resolution and may expose personnel to hazardous conditions. Repeat passes of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data provide excellent spatial resolution, but topography in areas of surface change (from vegetation swaying in the wind to physical changes in the landscape) between radar passes cannot be imaged. The German Space Agency's TanDEM-X satellite system, however, solves this issue by simultaneously acquiring SAR data of the surface using a pair of orbiting satellites, thereby removing temporal change as a complicating factor in SAR-based topographic mapping. TanDEM-X measurements have demonstrated exceptional value in mapping the topography of volcanic environments in as-yet limited applications. The data provide excellent resolution (down to ~3-m pixel size) and are useful for updating topographic data at volcanoes where surface change has occurred since the most recent topographic dataset was collected. Such data can be used for applications ranging from correcting radar interferograms for topography, to modeling flow pathways in support of hazards mitigation. The most valuable contributions, however, relate to calculating volume changes related to eruptive activity. For example, limited datasets have provided critical measurements of lava dome growth and collapse at volcanoes including Merapi (Indonesia), Colima (Mexico), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), and of basaltic lava flow emplacement at Tolbachik (Kamchatka), Etna (Italy), and Kīlauea (Hawai`i). With topographic data spanning an eruption, it is possible to calculate eruption rates - information that might not otherwise be available

  19. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the weather, latitude, altitude, and more. Statistics Studies have shown consistently that indoor tanning increases a person’s risk of getting skin cancer, including melanoma. A meta-analysis (a research study that looks at data from other studies) by ...

  20. Tan and thin? Associations between attitudes toward thinness, motives to tan and tanning behaviors in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Susan D; Heckman, Carolyn J; Munshi, Teja

    2016-07-01

    Tanning during adolescence increases skin cancer risk. Relatively few studies have examined the association between thinness attitudes and tanning attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to examine psychosocial predictors of sunbathing and tanning bed use, specifically thin ideal internalization (TII) and motives for tanning among high school girls. Adolescent girls (N = 229) completed a 10-minute questionnaire designed to assess sunbathing and indoor tanning, TII and motives to tan (appearance, social and well-being). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that TII, β = .05, p motives, β = .11, p motives, β = .11, p motives were negatively associated with sunbathing, β = -.07, p motives on indoor tanning, in that appearance and well-being motives interacted to increase indoor tanning levels, especially among those who strongly endorsed social motives for tanning, β = .22, p Motives for tanning, specifically those associated with appearance and well-being, can interact to increase tanning bed use. When designing tailored interventions for skin cancer prevention in young people, researchers should consider tailoring based on motivation. Researchers and healthcare professionals who work with adolescents should attend to tanners who are motivated for both appearance and mood-related reasons, as they may be most at risk for tanning dependence and skin cancer. PMID:26448364

  1. Ultraviolet radiation, sun and tanning salons

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The pamphlet gives some information about ultraviolet radiation (UV), UV-sources and health effects, tanning in artificial and natural sun. It also includes some sun protection advice. It is intended mainly for persons inspecting artificial tanning units and for the owners of tanning salons. (Author)

  2. TL studies of calcareous rocks of Danta area, North Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithounits exposed around Danta in Banaskantha district of North Gujarat belong to Ajabgarh Group, the upper division of the Delhi super group. These rocks are intruded by syn to late kinematic basic rocks and by Erinpura granites of post Delhi age. The Ajabgarh group consists of pelitic and calcareous components. Mineralogically the pelitic rocks comprise cordierite, almandine garnet, k-feldspar, sillimanite, quartz and mica in variable proportions. The calcareous rocks are seen to contain dominantly calcite, scapolite, forsterite, sphene, k-feldspar. These mineral assemblages correspond to upper Amphibolite to lower Granulite facies of regional metamorphism. The chemistry of the calcareous rocks show predominance of CaO over MgO. The glow curves obtained from virgin samples (NTL) as well as artificial beta irradiated indicate glow peaks at 140oC, 290oC, 310oC and 390oC. The TL glow peak temperatures are in general agreement with those reported by Borsi and Rinaldi and Medlin. The pronounced peak at 390oC and 290oC are suggestive of their high irradiation sensitivity and also probably reflect variation in the Mn content of the rocks. (author). 9 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Lithosphere-asthenosphere system in shield areas of North America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pierri

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous papers surface dispersion data have been combined with the results of deep seismic refraction data to derive a regionalization of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system and to investigate the presence of significant heterogeneity down to depths of 350 km along two profiles in the North European Fennoscandian area; a regionalized upper mantle model for the whole area down to more than 400 km is given as cross sections. We have extended that approach to North America. The older part of the shield shows lid thickness up to more than 100 km with, if any, weak shear velocity contrast to the underlying layer. The surrounding areas are characterized by a thinner lid; a stronger low-velocity zone to lid contrast may be found in peripheral areas. A map of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system has been derived, permitting a better regional resolution of the shear-wave velocity distribution with depth beneath different regions of North America. The correlation between the lithosphere-asthenosphere system structure and other geophysical data is commented as well as the results for North America and those obtained for the corresponding North European area, in order to outline the geophysical characteristics of shield areas that might give useful constraints for the geodynamic behaviour of the plates to which they belong.

  4. Discussion on the dynamic mechanism of Great North China area based on the observed stress data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯向东; 魏东平; 陈棋福

    2005-01-01

    Based on the constrained data from the observed stress orientation and the observed stress regime, the tectonic stress fields of the Great North China area has been simulated by using the pseudo-3D finite element method. The results indicate that the stress fields in this area are basically controlled by the push forces coming from the Pacific Plate and from the Tibet Plateau, and the WNW-ward action from the Pacific Plate play a more important role in North China plain block. In addition to that, the stress field in this area is also partly formed by the extension action from the mantle upwelling in perpendicular at the basin margins.

  5. How the Location of Roads and Protected Areas Affects Deforestation in North Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Cropper, Maureen; Puri, Jyotsna; Griffiths, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Using plot-level data, the authors estimate a bi-variate probit model to explain land clearing, and the siting of protected areas in North Thailand in 1986. Their model suggests that protected areas (national parks, together with wildlife sanctuaries) did not reduce the likelihood of forest clearing, but wildlife sanctuaries may have reduced the probability of deforestation. Road building,...

  6. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cilliers, S.S.; Van Wyk, E; G.J. Bredenkamp

    1999-01-01

    This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN) as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in...

  7. Artificial tanning and suntan salons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A B

    1982-05-15

    Many individuals will seek artificial skin-tanning methods despite recognition of their hazards. The long-wave ultraviolet light (UVA) sources provide a deeper tan and are potentially safer than the short-wave (UVB) sources for most people, hence the use of UVB should be confined to therapeutic purposes. However, there should be adequate warning that UVA is not harmless and, like UVB, will not tan some people's skin effectively. At this moment, there are insufficient data to predict what will be the long-term effect of selective use of UVA both on skin and on eyes. The dosage for a given exposure time will vary from one UVA apparatus to the next and cannot be assessed on the basis of redness, as is with UVB. This is a particularly serious potential hazard for people who purchase UVA units for private use. Adequate eye protection should be mandatory, until proved otherwise. Rigid safety standards are needed for the operation of UVA solaria. PMID:7099071

  8. Photobiological implications of melanin photoprotection after UVB-induced tanning of human skin but not UVA-induced tanning

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Sergio G.; Yin, Lanlan; Smuda, Christoph; Mahns, Andre; Kolbe, Ludger; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive suberythemal UVA and/or UVB exposures were used to generate comparable UV-induced tans in human skin over the course of 2 weeks. In order to evaluate the potential photoprotective values of those UVA- and/or UVB- induced tans and to avoid the confounding issue of residual UV-induced DNA damage, we waited 1 week before challenging those areas with a 1.5 MED dose of UVA+UVB after which we measure DNA damage. The results show that the type of UV used to induce skin pigmentation affect...

  9. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. PMID:27400670

  10. Using species-area relationships to inform baseline conservation targets for the deep North East Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nicola L; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L

    2013-01-01

    Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic's deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

  11. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko;

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  12. Adolescent tanning, disordered eating, and risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C

    2014-04-01

    Indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors are both significant adolescent public health risks. Recent results by Amrock and Weitzman provocatively suggest a link between the two, perhaps because of a shared cause of dysfunctional cognition about body image. This commentary discusses a possible model to explain the association between indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors among teenagers. It also presents various strategies to prevent the negative outcomes, with a focus on preventing adolescent tanning behavior. Prevention strategies worth consideration include counseling by pediatricians or other health professionals, improved parental supervision and monitoring, and policy change to prohibit adolescent use of tanning facilities. PMID:24695120

  13. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez‐Moreno, Heidi; Martínez‐Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas‐Soto, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long‐distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North...

  14. Landslide susceptibility assessment considering landslide typology. A case study in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Zêzere, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study is to confirm the importance of discriminate different types of slope movements for a better landslide susceptibility evaluation. The study was applied to the sample area of Calhandriz (11.3 km2) in the area North of Lisbon. Sixty shallow translational slides, 23 deeper translational movements and 19 rotational movements were selected for statistical analysis. Landslide susceptibility assessment was achieved u...

  15. Degraded Ecosystem and its Rehabilitating Measures in Sandy Areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGFengchun; LUQi

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem degradation occurs in parallel with desertification process in sandy areas of North China. The vast sandy areas in North China are characterized with flexible environments and fragile ecosystems as well as intensive human activities. Due to the annual precipitation gradient decreases from east to west in North China, the whole sandy region falls into 3 main climatic zones: add, semi-add and dry sub-humid zones.The ecosystems in each type of climatic zones are different in climatic conditions, human activities,cultural dimensions, vegetation covers, landscapes, and causes and processes of ecosystem degradation.Therefore, the most effective rehabilitation measures of degraded ecosystems in different types of the climatic zones are also different. For the arid sandy areas, vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems needs to be completely closed, assisting with artificial measures, such as plantation, irrigation or others. For semi-add sandy areas, the effective measures of vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems include increasing of proportion of forests and rangelands and limitation of reclamation; reducing the carrying capacity of livestock on unit area of rangelands and growth of fodder plants; and plantation on the lowlands betweens and dunes. For the dry sub-humid areas, the most effective measure is enclosure of degraded ecosystems combined with plantation, and in some cases, just stop uses by grazing or reclamation.

  16. [Skin tanning and light protection-theory, agents and analytic aspects. 1. Skin tanning and skin tanning agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matissek, R

    1984-10-01

    The different approaches to achieving skin tanning with emphasis on natural tanning, due to UV radiation of the sun or solaria, and artificial tanning through tannings agents are described. In contrast to the artificial tan the natural tan is a protection against UV radiation and is caused by pigmentation (melanin formation). The artificial tanning is based on a chemical reaction usually by means of dihydroxy acetone (melanoidin formation). Reaction mechanisms by both agents are reported. The determination of dihydroxy acetone in cosmetic tanning preparations by TLC, GC, HPLC, enzymatic tests and by a new method for capillary GC including sample preparation is described. When exceeding the natural protection mechanisms the skin should be protected by physico-chemical measures. The active principles in sunscreens are the UV filtering substances. UV filters permitted in the EG are listed. 2-Hydroxy benzophenone is used as an example to explain the mechanism of UV filtering substances. Analysis of UV filtering substances in cosmetic sunscreens by TLC, GC, HPLC is described as well as a fast and simple method for separation of lipophilic UV filters followed by capillary GC determination. PMID:6506884

  17. Tectonic and thermal reconstruction by joint inversion of many wells in the North Sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.B.

    2003-12-01

    This report develops and applies a method for joint inverse tectonic and thermal analysis of many wells in the central and Easten North Sea area. The model simultaneously considers the thermal and topographic effects from a number of processes on widely differing length and time scales. The processes are: 1) changing asthenospheric temperatures coupled with changing rates of material up- or down-welling in asthenosphere and lithosphere, 2) tectonic processes in the form of pure shear extension or compression, 3) sediment compaction, 4) halokinetics, 5) all loading effects, 6) global sea level variations, 7) surface temperature variations and 8) lateral variations of the crustal contribution to heat flow. Data for the model were obtained from compilation of many North Sea wells, 40 of which were used in the present study. The model results give for the first time a quantitative indication of the relationship between the general geological evolution of the North Sea over 300 Ma and the regional and more localised geodynamic processes, which set the scene for this evolution. Thus the Permo-Triassic post-rift sequence is accommodated by thermal relaxation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system, enhanced by a decreasing rate of material upwelling and a falling asthenospheric temperature. The rise of the Middle Jurassic dome, which led to the North Sea wide mid-Kimmerian inconformity, is related to an increasing rate of material upwelling and increasing asthenospheric temperature. The demise of the dome and the associated reduction in upwelling rate and cooling of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system provided accommodation space for the post-mid Cretaceous sedimentary succession. It cannot be explained in terms of Late Jurassic lithospheric extension. Heat flow shows a smooth decline over 300 Ma. Neither rifting nor doming episodes appear to have influenced the overall heat flow significantly in the study area. In the case of rifting this is partly due to thermal

  18. Tanning and beauty: Mother and teenage daughters in discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Schoenhammer, Maria; Gordon, Mallorie; Bishop, Marilyn; Shuk, Elyse; Oliveria, Susan; Halpern, Allan C

    2016-07-01

    Tanning increases dramatically through the teenage years, but the family context of this health risk behavior is relatively unstudied. We conducted videotaped conversations between teenage girls (10th and 11th grade) and their mothers. We developed a coding system for discussion content and highlight findings including inadequate knowledge concerning the harms of tanning and positive views of outdoor tanning over indoor tanning, yet agreement that all tans are attractive. Many teens believed that indoor tanning is sometimes necessary to achieve the tanned look. These findings can usefully guide intervention development regarding the harms of all tanning, rather than indoor or outdoor tanning specifically. PMID:25318997

  19. A survey for elevated levels of uranium north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive survey of soil uranium (U) concentrations in a study area due north of the 300 Area on the Hanford site has been conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the study was to determine the spatial distribution of uranium in the study area and to ascertain if background levels of uranium have been increased by Hanford operations. Based on the spatial distribution of 238U, the highest concentrations of uranium are located in the southern portion of the study area adjacent to the 300 Area complex and in the most eastern zone of the study site bordering the Columbia River. Uranium-236, an isotopic marker of fuel processing activities in the 300 Area, was detected in all eight samples selected from the study. A significant and positive regression was demonstrated between the ratios of 236U/238U in these eight samples and proximity to the 300 Area. 9 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Chronology and geochemistry of Mesozoic granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Bin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Qing-Hai; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    We performed zircon U-Pb dating and analyses of major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes for granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China, with the aim of constraining the magma sources and tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). The analyzed zircons show typical fine-scale oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals granitoids of two ages: Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous ( 206Pb/ 238U ages of 160 Ma and 130-110 Ma, respectively). The Late Jurassic rocks (Jingshan intrusion) consist of biotite-syenogranite, whereas the Early Cretaceous rocks (Huaiguang, Xilushan, Nushan, and Caoshan intrusions) are granodiorite, syenogranite, and monzogranite. The Late Jurassic biotite-syenogranites and Early Cretaceous granitoids have the following common geochemical characteristics: SiO 2 = 70.35-74.56 wt.%, K 2O/Na 2O = 0.66-1.27 (mainly Nushan and Xilushan granitoids, suggests that the primary magmas were derived from partial melting of the Yangtze Craton (YC) basement. In contrast, the occurrence of Paleoproterozoic and Paleoarchean inherited zircons within the Huaiguang granitoids indicates that their primary magmas mainly originated from partial melting of the NCC basement. The occurrence of YC basement within the lower continental crust of the eastern NCC indicates that the YC was subducted to the northwest beneath the NCC, along the Tan-Lu fault zone, during the early Mesozoic.

  1. A Monte Carlo-tuned model of the flow in the NorthGRIP area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) drill site was chosen in order to obtain a good Eemian record. At the present depth, 3001m, the Eemian interstadial has yet to be seen. Clearly the flow in this area is poorly understood and needs further investigation. After a review of specific...... Eemian is observed is a high basal melt rate (2.7mm/a). The melting is a consequence of a higher geothermal heat flux than the expected 51mW/m^2 of the Precambrian shield. From our analyses it is concluded that the geothermal heat flux at NorthGRIP is 98mW/m^2.The high basalmelt rate also gives rise to...

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  3. 7 CFR 29.3066 - Tan color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tan color. 29.3066 Section 29.3066 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Tan color. A light red-yellow....

  4. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdered hide samples for this initial study of vegetable tanning were prepared from hides that were dehaired by a typical sulfide or oxidative process, and carried through the delime/bate step of a tanning process. In this study, we report on interactions of the vegetable tannin, quebracho with th...

  5. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  6. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The... occurring within the active military security zone/s and offering navigational advice to ensure the...

  7. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L)

  8. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L).

  9. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary. PMID:12201151

  10. North Putrajaya Catchment Area Putrajaya, Malaysia-Challenges in Water Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH3-N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH3-N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH3-N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH3-N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and control of

  11. Indoor tanning promotions on social media in six US cities #UVTanning #tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Christine A; Asdigian, Nancy L; Kalra, Heidi L; Mayer, Joni A; Dellavalle, Robert P; Holman, Dawn M; Crane, Lori A

    2016-06-01

    There is no research investigating indoor tanning advertising on social media. We assessed the use of social media to promote indoor tanning. We subscribed to social media platforms in six US cities and content-analyzed promotional messages received. We captured 662 messages on Twitter and Facebook, through salon emails, and in daily deal coupons. Salon postings were most frequent on Twitter and Facebook, with an average of 2-3 postings per week. National chains posted more frequently than local businesses. Forty percent of messages were devoid of tanning content and included photos, jokes, or popular references. Thirty percent mentioned price reductions, and 28 % referenced an upcoming holiday. Sunless tanning (17 %) was promoted more often than ultraviolet tanning (9 %). Tanning salons actively use social media as a strategy for maintaining relationships with customers and offer pricing deals that promote loyalty and high-frequency tanning. PMID:27356996

  12. Forecasting petroleum discoveries in sparsely drilled areas: Nigeria and the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Decline function methods for projecting future discoveries generally capture the crowding effects of wildcat wells on the discovery rate. However, these methods do not accommodate easily situations where exploration areas and horizons are expanding. In this paper, a method is presented that uses a mapping algorithm for separating these often countervailing influences. The method is applied to Nigeria and the North Sea. For an amount of future drilling equivalent to past drilling (825 wildcat wells), future discoveries (in resources found) for Nigeria are expected to decline by 68% per well but still amount to 8.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). Similarly, for the total North Sea for an equivalent amount and mix among areas of past drilling (1322 wildcat wells), future discoveries are expected to amount to 17.9 billion BOE, whereas the average discovery rate per well is expected to decline by 71%. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  13. Evidence for Badenian local sea level changes in the proximal area of the North Croatian Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Bakrač, Koraljka; Hajek-Tadesse, Valentina; MIKNIĆ, Mirjana; Grizelj, Anita; Hećimović, Ivan; Kovačić, Marijan

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of palynomorphs, foraminifera and ostracods enabled the recognition of biotic events and the reconstruction of environmental change in the Badenian sediments from the Vrhovčak section of Mt. Samoborsko gorje (NW Croatia). During the Middle Miocene the investigated area of Mt. Samoborska gora was located at the south-western margin of the North Croatian Basin, which represents the south-western edge of the Pannonian Basin System and the Central Paratethys Basin. This marg...

  14. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  15. Diabetes screening and the distribution of blood glucose levels in rural areas of North India

    OpenAIRE

    Tomi Thomas; Shalini Prabhata; Sameer Valsangkar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Genetics and environment have both been implicated in the exponential rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus that affects 65.1 million people, and leads to a mortality of 1 million people every year in India. This study was devised to obtain the trends of the distribution of blood glucose, and sociodemographic characteristics in rural areas of a North Indian state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at eight centers in five districts. ...

  16. Are tanning beds “safe”? Human studies of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Berwick, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Controversy continues over the carcinogenic properties of tanning beds. The tanning industry “sells” tanning beds as a safe alternative to UV exposure for both tanning as well as vitamin D biosynthesis. But, how safe are tanning beds? Epidemiologic data – incomplete and unsatisfactory – suggests that tanning beds are not safer than solar ultraviolet radiation and that they may have independent effects from solar exposure that increase risk for melanoma.

  17. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning. PMID:24601904

  18. Diminishing Chromium Use on Combined Chromium-Gambier Tanning Process Upon the Characteristics of Tanned Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kasim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to investigate the influence of minimizing chromium use on combined chromium-gambier process upon the characteristics of tanned leather. At the first stage of tanning process, chromium was used and in the second stage it was replaced by gambier. The raw material used was dried saline-preserved goat skin. The treatments applied on the tanning process were the different concentrations of chromium ranging from the highest level of 6% to the lowest level of 1% which was then re-tanned by using 8% concentration of gambier. The examination parameters included chemical and physical properties as well as visual investigation on the tanned leather in accordance with SNI-06-0463-1989-A. The result showed that the tanning process by using 2% chromium in the first step and 8% gambier in the second step was a treatment combination producing tanned leather that met the standard. The examination on tanned leather resulted from such treatment showed 56.33% rawhide, 17.45% of bound tannin, 31.22% of tanning level, tensile strength 386.30 kg/cm2, flexibility 31.91%, leather width 1.3 mm, density 0.75 g/cm3, the leather was quite elastic with light brownish color. In conclusion, minimizing the use of chromium in the combined tanning process of chromium and gambier can be implemented to the lowest of 2% chromium concentration and 8% gambier in the first and second step, respectively.

  19. Status of TanDEM-X DEM Calibration and Mosaicking towards the TanDEM-X DEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Birgit; Gruber, Astrid; Huber, Martin; Breunig, Markus; Wagenbrenner, Susanne; Roth, Achim

    2014-01-01

    With begin of 2013 DEM production started with the generation of the Intermediate TanDEM-X DEM (IDEM) for selected science and commercial test sites. This paper gives an overview of the Intermediate DEM production that took place from end of 2012 until July 2013. It describes the DEM production process and the lessons learnt by the IDEM phase. Since autumn 2013 the final DEM generation has begun in flat areas.

  20. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  1. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  2. Analysis on Variations of the Temperature and Precipitation in North Slope Area of the Western Tianshan in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze variation characteristics of the temperature and precipitation in north slope area of the Western Tianshan in recent 50 years.[Method] According to temperature and rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 at three meteorological stations in north slope area of the Western Tianshan,climate change in the zone in recent 50 years was analyzed by using linear trend analysis method and 5-year sliding average method.[Result] The temperature in north slope area of the Western Tiansha...

  3. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment......This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located...... recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the...

  4. An oilspill risk analysis for the North Atlantic outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Allmon; Slack, James Richard; Davis, Robert K.

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to lease 1,172,795 acres of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands on Georges Bank off the New England Coast for oil and gas development. Estimated recoverable petroleum resources for the proposed 206 tract sale area range from 180 to 650 million barrels. Contingent upon actual discovery of this quantity of oil, production is expected to span a period of about 20 years. An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine relative environmental hazards of developing oil in the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed probability of spill occurrence, likely path of pollutants from spills, and locations in space and time of recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results are combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the lease area. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Oil geologic anomaly in the north edge of the Middle and Lower Yangtze areas based on the evidence weight method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwu HU; Jianping CHEN; Pengfei ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The study of oil geologic anomalies is a new area of petroleum geology.Using the evidence weight method,we selected tectonic,hydrocarbon abundance of source rock,thickness of source rock,level of reservoir,complexity of reservoir,degree of mineralization of formation water as the evidence layer to evaluate the favorable zones of pool forming in the Lower Paleozoic in the north edge of the Middle and Lower Yangtze areas.Finally,we integrated our results with the petroleum geology of this area and concluded that the North Sichuan basin,the western area of Hubei and the eastern area of Chongqing and parts of the Lower Yangtze are the most profitable areas for exploration in the north edge of the Lower and Middle Yangtze areas.

  6. Waterspout outbreaks over areas of Europe and North America: Environment and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutas, Michalis; Szilagyi, Wade; Keul, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Waterspout outbreak occurrences are examined for the areas of the Aegean and Ionian Seas, Eastern Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe and the Great Lakes of North America. Notable outbreaks included a series of 13 waterspouts on September 5, 2002, and 25 plus waterspouts on September 21, 2006 off the Cretan north coast in the Aegean Sea. Two outbreak days with 10 waterspouts each, occurred on August 11 and 13, 2006 over the Baltic Sea. During the fall of 2003 an outbreak produced about 66 waterspouts during a week over the Great Lakes of North America. A preliminary climatology of waterspout outbreak occurrences showed August as the most active month for the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes and September for the Aegean and Ionian Seas; a feature primary related to the warmest sea surface temperatures during these months. Synoptic data indicated that a closed low (CLOSED) type pattern prevailed during waterspout outbreaks over the Baltic and the Aegean and Ionian Seas and a longwave (LW) type over the Great Lakes. Thermodynamic, wind and moisture data indicated a marginally unstable environment for most waterspout outbreaks. A steep thermal gradient between the water surface and lowest layers proved to be a primary factor for Great Lakes waterspout outbreak occurrences. For the Baltic Sea, the primary factors were balanced between the thermal contrast in the lowest layers and the total positive buoyancy. For the Aegean and Ionian Seas, positive buoyancy was the dominant factor. Selected waterspout outbreak case studies are investigated in order to present specific synoptic, thermodynamic features and predictability for the three areas. The Szilagyi waterspout nomogram, which is used as a forecasting tool, was applied together with the Szilagyi waterspout index (SWI) and found to be strongly correlated with outbreak occurrences for the three geographical areas.

  7. Dispersion behaviour of mobile uranium in sedimentary rock area of aek simamak Sibolga North-Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispersion behaviour of mobile uranium in sedimentary rock area of aek simamak sibolga North-Sumatra. The analysis of mobile uranium on 76 stream sediments, 38 water and 40 vegetation samples have been done. The dispersion of mobile uranium on stream sediment and vegetation has reflected the rather significant uranium occurrences. The analysis of Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO2/3-, pH and Eh in water samples have been done too. A good correlation was found between uranium and Na+ and HCO3- with a correlation coefficient of 0,37. (author). 8 refs.; 8 figs

  8. Discrete fracture modeling-ESF north portal area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of fluid flow in partially saturated fractured rock. The Exploratory Studies Facility north portal area (east of Yucca Mountain) was chosen to develop the initial conceptual and flow models. The project will develop statistical parameters from the three-dimensional fracture network and hydraulic parameters that will be used in site scale models. The approach will use geometric fracture models and assess their impact on flow characteristics and parameters. Laboratory and field testing data will be integrated to calibrate the flow models and to determine sensitivities of the system

  9. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Heidi; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas-Soto, Octavio

    2016-04-01

    Long-distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North America present climatic preferences during arrival to and departure from their wintering areas. We used ecological niche modeling to generate monthly potential climatic distributions for 13 migratory bird species during the winter season by combining the locations recorded per month with four environmental layers. We calculated monthly coefficients of climate variation and then compared two GLM (generalized linear models), evaluated with the AIC (Akaike information criterion), to describe how these coefficients varied over the course of the season, as a measure of the patterns of establishment in the wintering areas. For 11 species, the sites show nonlinear patterns of variation in climatic preferences, with low coefficients of variation at the beginning and end of the season and higher values found in the intermediate months. The remaining two species analyzed showed a different climatic pattern of selective establishment of wintering areas, probably due to taxonomic discrepancy, which would affect their modeled winter distribution. Patterns of establishment of wintering areas in the species showed a climatic preference at the macroscale, suggesting that individuals of several species actively select wintering areas that meet specific climatic conditions. This probably gives them an advantage over the winter and during the return to breeding areas. As these areas become full of migrants, alternative suboptimal sites are occupied. Nonrandom winter area selection may also have

  10. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  11. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  12. Solar wind tans young asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    A new study published in Nature this week reveals that asteroid surfaces age and redden much faster than previously thought -- in less than a million years, the blink of an eye for an asteroid. This study has finally confirmed that the solar wind is the most likely cause of very rapid space weathering in asteroids. This fundamental result will help astronomers relate the appearance of an asteroid to its actual history and identify any after effects of a catastrophic impact with another asteroid. ESO PR Photo 16a/09 Young Asteroids Look Old "Asteroids seem to get a ‘sun tan' very quickly," says lead author Pierre Vernazza. "But not, as for people, from an overdose of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, but from the effects of its powerful wind." It has long been known that asteroid surfaces alter in appearance with time -- the observed asteroids are much redder than the interior of meteorites found on Earth [1] -- but the actual processes of this "space weathering" and the timescales involved were controversial. Thanks to observations of different families of asteroids [2] using ESO's New Technology Telescope at La Silla and the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, as well as telescopes in Spain and Hawaii, Vernazza's team have now solved the puzzle. When two asteroids collide, they create a family of fragments with "fresh" surfaces. The astronomers found that these newly exposed surfaces are quickly altered and change colour in less than a million years -- a very short time compared to the age of the Solar System. "The charged, fast moving particles in the solar wind damage the asteroid's surface at an amazing rate [3]", says Vernazza. Unlike human skin, which is damaged and aged by repeated overexposure to sunlight, it is, perhaps rather surprisingly, the first moments of exposure (on the timescale considered) -- the first million years -- that causes most of the aging in asteroids. By studying different families of asteroids, the team has also shown that an asteroid

  13. Monitorization of the waste incinerator effects in an industrial area in the north of Lisbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a sequence of a heavy metal monitoring contract made with IDAD/ValorSul, who is responsible for an urban waste incinerator placed in an industrial area in the north of Lisbon. The area for monitorization involves a 10 km circle around the incinerator. Two collecting procedures were followed: Gent collectors and biomonitorization. Gent collectors have been used since 25th January 1999, in order to sample air particulate matter in three stations situated in the North of Lisbon - Bobadela, S. Joao da Talha and Quinta da Piedade. These collectors allow the separation between fine and coarse particles. The sampling is made twice a week: one weekend day and one midweek day. For biomonitorization two sampling sites were chosen: one at 2 km northwest (upstream) from the incinerator and the other close to the incinerator (a few meters down river). The biomonitors (two different species) were chosen from the local vegetation (in situ). This procedure was started in April 1999. The filters and the plants are analysed by the multielemental nuclear technique Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). A comparison between results obtained by both collecting procedures is presented. (author)

  14. Review of DOE's proposal for Crystalline bedrock disposal of radioactive waste, north-central area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE's Region-to-Area Screening Methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-1), the Final North-Central Region Geologic Characterization Report (DOE/CH-8(1)), and the Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-15), with the associated maps, were reviewed. The review has focused on all general information regarding geologic topics and all site-specific data for DOE sites NC-10 and NC-3. This report contains two parts: (1) a point-by-point critique of perceived errors, omissions, or other shortcomings in each of the three documents; and (2) a discussion of the feasibility of crystalline bedrock as a suitable host medium for high-level radioactive waste

  15. Geoenvironmental profile of squares: north area of the city of Londrina-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the concern to the quality and amount of the squares of the north area of the city of Londrina, state of Paraná. The square is a leisure, walk and rest place, besides favoring a closer contact of the population with the nature. The physical aspects of the furniture, presence and type of area of infantile and sporting recreation were analyzed, and also the identification and quantification of the species of trees. The results demonstrated absence of area of infantile recreation, 53% of the squares without furniture and sporting areas in 38% of the places. The amount of trees belonged to 340 individuals, divided in 35 species, with prevalence of 5 species that represents 64% of the total. Such results suggest the improvement of the amount and quality of the furniture, and a better distribution of the species of trees, giving preference for native species. The creation of a GIS, indicating the place of occurrence of the squares and its situation, is important because it facilitates the analysis of the green areas, as well as in the decisions for the urban development.

  16. Occurrence and abundance of fruit bats in selected conservation areas of North Cotabato, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion John Michael M. Achondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence and abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae was done in two conservation areas in North Cotabato, Philippines: Portion of the Mt. Apo National Park ; Balabag, Kidapawan City and Cotabato Provincial Forest and Ecotourism Park (CPFEP, Amas, Kidapawan City. Seven species were recorded in CPFEP and six were noted in Balabag area identified from 449 individuals captured. Two species (Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus were unique to CPFEP while one (Ptenochirus minor was found only in Balabag area. A total of eight species were recorded when accounting the species found in two areas in which, three are endemic to the country namely Haplonycteris fischeri, Ptenochirus jagori, and P. minor. Of these endemics, the first two were noted in CPFEP while all were found in Balabag area. More than half of the bats captured were Cynopterus brachyotis hence, considered as the most common species. Remarkable finding was the presence of Megaerops wetmorei, a threatened species, to have found in a new altitudinal record. Considering the importance of fruit bats in regenerating forest, urgent conservation measures are highly recommended.

  17. Studies on quality of sub-surface water around tanneries in some areas of north west frontier province (NWFP) Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is a part of our investigations comprising (a) characterization of the tannery/leather industry effluents, (b) assessment of the pollution caused by these effluents to the environment, and (c) development of a simple but economical procedure for the pre-treatment and recycling of these effluents, to recover some valuable materials. In NWFP, the tanning industry has shown a rapid development in the late seventies, during which large-size industrial units were established at Peshawar, Charsadda and Jehangira. Since no pollution control measures are being adopted by these units, the hazards to the environment caused by the effluents and emissions from tanneries pose an acute problem in the country. The studies narrated below indicate that the under-ground water samples around tanneries have high concentrations of TDS, phenols, chromium and sulfides, which render the well-water in the area unsuitable for drinking and domestic uses. (author)

  18. Lupus cerebritis after visiting a tanning salon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geara, Abdallah S; Torbey, Estelle; El-imad, Badiaa

    2009-01-01

    A 53-year-old female was admitted to the intensive care unit for lupus cerebritis; she had a 15-year history of stable lupus. Over the prior 1 to 2 months, the patient visited a tanning salon and this triggered the exacerbation of lupus. Her initial symptoms were cutaneous in the form of an erythematous rash. Within 2 weeks she started to have headaches and was admitted for seizure and psychosis. Ultraviolet A exposure in the tanning salon is known to exacerbate lupus by modulation of the immune system at the level of the skin. It has also been found that ultraviolet light can lead to the formation of antinuclear antibodies. This case illustrates the need to emphasize the danger of the tanning salon to patients with systemic lupus erythematous; the risk is not only cutaneous, it can also be systemic. PMID:20001946

  19. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  20. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  1. Applicative chemistry of tanning metallic heterocomplexes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaidau, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of heterocomplex compounds is a fascinating field for experts in chemical synthesis and structural analysis, and for technologists specializing in leather processing. This volume describes the vast theoretical and practical possibilities of exploiting the action synergism of metals with different collagen cross-linking capacity. The possibility of reducing chromium content from leather tanning agents by replacing it with other tanning metals has significant environmental implications and minimum changes in terms of quality and production costs of natural leather, and is a viable

  2. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  3. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded

  4. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  5. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Multimedia

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Pinget, B

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processors modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a\

  6. Landslide susceptibility assessment considering landslide typology. A case study in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zêzere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to confirm the importance of discriminate different types of slope movements for a better landslide susceptibility evaluation. The study was applied to the sample area of Calhandriz (11.3 km2 in the area North of Lisbon. Sixty shallow translational slides, 23 deeper translational movements and 19 rotational movements were selected for statistical analysis. Landslide susceptibility assessment was achieved using a data-driven approach: the Information Value Method (Yin and Yan, 1988. The method was applied both to the total set of considered landslides and to each type of slope movement, and the obtained success rates for the highest susceptibility classes are higher in the latter case. The different types of landslides are not equally conditioned by the considered instability factors. Information scores are higher for lithology, concordance between slope aspect and dip of the strata, and slope angle, respectively, for rotational movements, translational movements and shallow translational slides. The information value of the variables "presence of artificial cut (roads" and "presence of fluvial channel" is systematically high for the three types of slope movement, pointing out the importance of both anthropogenic influence and bank erosion on slope instability in the study area. Different types of landslides have neither the same magnitude nor equal damaging potential. Furthermore, technical strategies to mitigate landsliding also depend on landslide typology. These are additional reasons to discriminate between different types of slope movements when assessing landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  7. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  8. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(regsign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  9. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336...

  10. Ban on Indoor Tanning by Minors Not Working: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160182.html Ban on Indoor Tanning by Minors Not Working: Study Tanning salon use showed little change after 2013 ban, and rose among N.J. high school boys ...

  11. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  12. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  13. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF OXAZOLIDINE-TANNED LEATHER

    OpenAIRE

    V. Segarra; Martínez, M A; Roig, M; Ferrer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chrome tanning is the most widely used technique for leather production, accounting for more than 90% of leather tanned worldwide. This process gives leather excellent physical properties but maypose an impact on the environment. At present, the leather industry is looking for chrome-free tanning processes, more environmentally friendly.The Centre for Technology and Innovation (INESCOP) is researching into the feasibility of oxazolidine tanning in the framework of the project titled ...

  14. Human-Modified Permafrost Complexes in Urbanized Areas of the Russian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    ) are formed in the urban territories, which are characterized by modified permafrost characteristics, by the new set of cryogenic processes, and by modified temperature trends. NTGC classification depends on initial natural settings and on type, intensity and duration of technogenic pressure. For instance, field reconnaissance of permafrost and geological conditions resulted in characterization of 17 NTGC types in Norilsk industrial area, 11 types in Yamburg Gas Condensate Field, Tazovsky Peninsula, and 32 types along gas and oil pipelines in the north of Western Siberia. Particular interest presents the dynamics of NTGC depending on the scale of urban system, on the set of its elements and on duration of technogenic impacts on permafrost. Important aspect is assessment of climate change impacts on structures and environment in various areas on permafrost

  15. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Eaton

    2007-01-18

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) applies to the remedial actions performed under the Final Record of Decision for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (DOE-ID 1999) as amended by the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2003), the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks (TSF-09 and TSF-18) and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks (TSF-26) and TSF-06, Area IO, at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0 (DOE-ID 2004a), and the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2005). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10; and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare-now identified as the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)-signed the Record of Decision (ROD) in December 1999, the 2003 ESD in April 2003, the ROD Amendment/ESD in February 2004, and the 2005 ESD in January 2005. The EPA and DEQ support the need for this ESD.

  16. Seasonal prediction of typhoon genesis frequency and track patterns in the North West Pacific area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyoun, Yoosun; Kang, Kiryong; Shin, Do-Shick

    2014-05-01

    This study is to investigate the performance of the typhoon seasonal predictability using a dynamical model. The check items are the monthly statistics for total number of typhoon genesis in Western North Pacific (WNP) area and possible threat to Korean peninsula among them, and the probability of each categorized track pattern. As the dynamical model the Florida State University/Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (FSU/COAPS) was used, and it uses five ensemble members including control run are generated using time-lagged methods and the resolution of T126L27 (a Gaussian grid spacing of 0.94º). The model initial conditions are obtained from the National Center for Enviromental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP GFS) and the SST from Climate Forecast System with bias correction was used for ocean surface boundary condition. The summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) season prediction is made one month prior to target season. The detection of tropical cyclone used in this system is based on six criteria. First, the isolated vortex type minimum sea level pressure should be below 1008hPa. Second, the maximum wind speed is larger than 17m s-1. Third, the magnitude of the maximum relative vorticity at 850hPa exceeds 3.5x10-5s-1. Fourth, the average temperature difference from the area mean of surrounding region at 300hPa, 500hPa, 700hPa exceeds 2.5K. Fifth, the maximum wind speed at 850hPa is larger than that at 300hPa. Sixth, this identified vortex should last more than two days. These criteria were chosen after close examination from model-observation comparison. In this study, we will focus on performance of the system typhoon frequency and track pattern in the WNP area during 2004-2013.

  17. Structural and Metamorphic Evolution of the Archaean High-pressure Granulite in Datong-Huaian Area, North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Archaean granulite terrain in the Datong-Huaian area, north China, comprises a basement complex of fe lsic and mafic granulite (TTG gneiss), overlain by a sedimentary sequence dominated by metapelite and metapsammite (khondalite series). Both lithological associations are separated by a tectonic

  18. Stratified and nonstratified areas in the North Sea: Long-term variability and biological and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Sonja; Tett, Paul; Mills, David; van der Molen, Johan

    2015-07-01

    The European Unions' Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to limit anthropogenic influences in the marine environment. But marine ecosystems are characterized by high variability, and it is not trivial to define its natural state. Here, we use the physical environment as a basis for marine classification, as it determines the conditions in which organisms must operate to survive and thrive locally. We present a delineation of the North Sea into five distinct regimes, based on multidecadal stratification characteristics. Results are based on a 51 year simulation of the region using the coupled hydrobiogeochemical model GETM-ERSEM-BFM. The five identified regimes are: permanently stratified, seasonally stratified, intermittently stratified, permanently mixed, and Region Of Freshwater Influence (ROFI). The areas characterized by these regimes show some interannual variation in geographical coverage, but are overall remarkable stable features within the North Sea. Results also show that 29% of North Sea waters fail to classify as one of the defined stratification regimes, due to high interannual variability. Biological characteristics of these regimes differ from diatom-based food webs in areas with prolonged stratification to Phaeocystis-dominated food webs in areas experiencing short-lived or no stratification. The spatial stability of the identified regimes indicates that carefully selected monitoring locations can be used to represent a substantive area of the North Sea.

  19. Pleistocene pollen stratigraphy from borehole 81/34, devil's hole area, central north sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Sten R.

    1998-09-01

    Twelve pollen assemblage zones are identified in a 229 m deep borehole (BH 81/34) from the Devil's Hole area in the central North Sea (British sector). The sediment from this borehole is Early to Late Pleistocene in age and the observation of massulae from Azolla filiculoides in sediment with reversed polarity indicates an age younger than the Olduvai geomagnetic event for the entire sequence. The Early Pleistocene sediments were at least partly deposited in the vicinity of a river outlet and can be correlated either with the Eburonian or the Menapian cold stage and with the Bavel interglacial and the Linge glacial within the Bavelian stage in the Dutch stratigraphy. The Middle Pleistocene sequence contains an interval rich in Abies, Picea and Pinus, probably deposited during the end of either Cromerian Complex interglacial IV (Noordbergum) or possibly the Holsteinian. The uppermost 80 m of the core contains high frequencies of pre-Quaternary and deteriorated palynomorphs indicating extensive glacial or glaciofluvially reworked sediment.

  20. Survey of otomycosis in north- western area of Iran(1447- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Otomycosis(Otitis externa is an acute, subacte or chronic fungal infection that has exogenous or endogenous origin. The present study was carried out to investigate the etiologic agents and determine risk factore and epidemiological aspects of otomycosis in north- West area of Iran.Materials and methods : Clinical samples of suspected patients were studied in direct microscopy and cultured in specific medium for determining the causative fungi.Results : 89 patients; 64 male and 25 female were recruited and studies. The disease were more prevalent in 20- 40 years in both sexes.Identified etiologic agents with direct examination and culture of samples in numerous series were: Aspergillus niger(51 cases, A. terreus(9 cases, A. flavus(7 cases, A Fuminagatus(6 cases, Eurotium( prefect stage of A. glaucus(2 cases, penicillium Sp.(2 cases, Candida albicans(8 cases, Epicoccum Sp.(1 case, Mucor Sp. (1 case, Rhizopus Sp.(1 case and Microsporum canis(1 case.Conclusion : Saprophytic moulds were the main etiologic agent of Otomycosis and Aspergillus niger was the prime causaltive agent. Infection in 20 –40 year age group was the most prevalent and Otomycosis among females was determined more than male. This report has provided useful information on the prevalence, causative agents and health implications of Otomycosis, as an infection grossly neglected in enviroment.

  1. Legacy data for a northern prairie grassland: Woodworth Study Area, North Dakota, 1963-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shelby H.; Austin, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data commonly become more valuable through time. Such legacy data provide baseline records of past biological, physical, and social information that provide historical perspective and are necessary for assessment of stasis or change. Legacy data collected at the Woodworth Study Area (WSA), a contiguous block of grasslands, croplands, and wetlands covering more than 1,000 hectares of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, are cataloged and summarized in this study. The WSA is one of the longest researched grassland sites in the Upper Midwest. It has an extensive history of settlement, land use, and management that provides a deeper context for future research. The WSA data include long-term vegetation transect records, land use history, habitat management records, geologic information, wetland hydrology and chemistry information, and spatial images. Substantial parts of these data have not been previously reported. The WSA is representative of many other lands purchased by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Prairie Pothole Region from the 1930s to the 1970s; therefore, synthesized data from the WSA are broadly applicable to topics of concern in northern grasslands, such as increases in non-native plants, managing for biodiversity, and long-term effects of habitat management. New techniques are also described that were used to preserve these data for future analyses. The data preservation techniques are applicable to any project with data that should be preserved for 100 years or more.

  2. Telecommunication (GSM and Urban Spatial Structure in Ibadan North Local Governmnet Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role and impact of novel telephone technology in shaping urban structure has produced two schools of thought. The first is evolutionary, which believe in the continuing primary of physical movements and the second, is revolutionary which elevates the importance of non-physical information flows. The revolutionaries believes that new telecommunication innovations will create a flexible electronic environment that will enable people to inhabit attractive amenity environments, remote from declining urban centers thereby influencing people’s choice as regards location in urban setting. In this study an analysis of the effect of mobile communication through the use of GSM phone on intra-urban movements and location decision was considered. Study revealed that mobile communication does not have much effect on important trips such as trips to work, to market place, shopping centers and recreational locations. It is concluded that most of the trips eliminated through the use of mobile phone are discretionary trips. The study also discovered that income rather than communication largely determines the location of households in Ibadan North. It is therefore concluded that communication has not inverted the existing spatial pattern since it has not withdrawn trip away from important centers or changed the location pattern of activities in the study area.

  3. Trace elements in mussels (Mytilus Edulis) from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of the mussel Mytilus edulis were collected from different sites of estuarine and coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic. One gram of the dry substance was filled in quartz ampoules which were closed by melting. Irradiation times of three days in a neutron flux of about 5x1013 n cm-2sec-1 were used. Waiting times of 15-35 days ensured sufficient elimination of interference from the decay of Na-24. The counting period was about 12 hours. The following elements were determined by INAA: Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Cs, Ba, Ta, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Au, Hg, Th. Multielement correlation analysis was used for the evaluation of the data. Differences in trace element patterns are found and described calculating trace element ratios. Regional differences in trace element concentrations are superimposed by typical seasonal variations, with highest concentration levels found in late winter and spring, and lowest in summer and autumn. Several hundred tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  4. Activities related to the prevention of climatic change in some major urban areas of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a perspective on the need for action to prevent and prepare for global warming, and the potential consequences of inaction on North American communities, local and regional government perspectives are presented on the response to global warming in Chicago, Los Angeles, Montreal, New York, and Toronto. It is seen that local government and its agencies in these urban areas are little touched by the profound dangers to human existence posed by the continued release into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases. Explanations are offered for the apparent unwillingness to act, including ignorance and confusion about the greenhouse effect and global warming, unpalatable socio-economic and political costs of remedial action, a perception that global warming is not the responsibility of local governments, and a perception that cities are sources of environmental degradation rather than solutions to it. It is suggested that city living results in less overall atmospheric degradation than a suburban sprawl scenario, notably with regard to transportation. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Field Features And Mode Of Emplacement Of Pegmatites Of Keffi Area North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Keffi area of North Central Nigeria hosts numerous pegmatite bodies which are related to the surrounding granitic intrusions islocated about 45 km east of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja Nigeria. Petrological investigation of the pegmatites and surrounding host rocks aimed at characterising and understanding field relations and mode of emplacement of the rocks with a view to assess their mineralisation potentials were carried out. From the field observations the pegmatites were characterised into 1 Pelitic schist-amphibolite hosted pegmatites and 2 Granitoids orthogneisses hosted pegmatites and the granites into 1 the Bakin Ayini biotite granites 2 the Angwan Madugu biotite-muscovite granites and 3 the Sabongida biotite-muscovite granites. It is clear that those discordantly emplaced in pelitic schists varied in shape and size with length and width ranging from 400-2000m and 2-20m respectively some are huge isolated sill-like and flat-lying whilst those hosted in orthogneisses are narrow ranging in length 40-1000m and width 1-4m crosscutting and vertically oriented along shear zones which suggest passive emplacement

  6. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Fowler, T; Pinget, B

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processor modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a state where rapid degradation would occur. Above this level an interlock is raised and the high voltage is switched off. Additionally, all spark si...

  7. Biodegradation of leather tanned with inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of leather tanned with inorganic salts. The samples of leather were exposed during eight months to outdoor weathering, and then their properties were evaluated. The results indicate that biodegration starts with dehydration, a partial scission of the protein chain of the collagen, detanning and a loss of oils due to volatilization and/or decomposition.

  8. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. PMID:25897728

  9. Diabetes screening and the distribution of blood glucose levels in rural areas of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Genetics and environment have both been implicated in the exponential rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus that affects 65.1 million people, and leads to a mortality of 1 million people every year in India. This study was devised to obtain the trends of the distribution of blood glucose, and sociodemographic characteristics in rural areas of a North Indian state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at eight centers in five districts. A camp-based approach was followed in the diabetes screening conducted in rural areas. Blood glucose measurements were obtained after informed consent by trained staff using a reflectance photometer instrument. Descriptive statistics, distribution curves, log transformations, and tests for bimodality were obtained. Results: 45,318 participants consisting of 44.4% males and 55.6% females were screened. Ages ranged from 18 to 98 years with the mean age of 39.9 ± 14.44 years. 86.5% were normal (random blood sugar [RBS] 200 mg/dl. The median blood glucose level steadily rose with increasing age. The prediabetic to diabetic ratio was 4:1. The distribution curve of RBS was right skewed. A log transformation was applied, and bimodality was tested using the Hartigan′s dip test. The dip statistic (D was 0.0162 with a simulated P < 0.001. Conclusion: Mass screening for diabetes provides benefits from a clinical standpoint by helping to estimate the prevalence (diabetes and the hidden burden of the disease (prediabetes. Screening programs can strengthen healthcare system initiatives and reduce the growing burden of diabetes in India.

  10. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  11. Ultrasound assisted chrome tanning: Towards a clean leather production technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Embialle; Smets, Ilse; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for a cleaner, but still effective alternative for production processes like in the leather industry. Ultrasound (US) assisted processing of leather might be promising in this sense. In the present paper, the use of US in the conventional chrome tanning process has been studied at different pH, temperature, tanning time, chrome dose and US exposure time by exposing the skin before tanning and during tanning operation. Both prior exposure of the skin to US and US during tanning improves the chrome uptake and reduces the shrinkage significantly. Prior exposure of the skin to US increase the chrome uptake by 13.8% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 5% (% based on skin weight) and shorten the process time by half while US during tanning increases the chrome uptake by 28.5% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 4% (half) and the tanning time to one third compared to the control without US. Concomitantly, the resulting leather quality (measured as skin shrinkage) improved from 5.2% to 3.2% shrinkage in the skin exposed to US prior tanning and to 1.3% in the skin exposed to US during the tanning experiment. This study confirms that US chrome tanning is an effective and eco-friendly tanning process which can produce a better quality leather product in a shorter process time with a lower chromium dose. PMID:27150762

  12. Methane emission and consumption at a North Sea gas seep (Tommeliten area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The North Sea hosts large coal, oil and gas reservoirs of commercial value. Natural leakage pathways of subsurface gas to the hydrosphere have been recognized during geological surveys (Hovland and Judd, 1988. The Tommeliten seepage area is part of the Greater Ekofisk area, which is situated above the Tommeliten Delta salt diapir in the central North Sea. In this study, we report of an active seep site (56°29.90'N, 2°59.80'E located in the Tommeliten area, Norwegian Block 1/9, at 75 m water depth. Here, cracks in a buried marl horizon allow methane to migrate into overlying clay-silt and sandy sediments. Hydroacoustic sediment echosounding showed several venting spots coinciding with the apex of marl domes where methane is released into the water column and potentially to the atmosphere during deep mixing situations. In the vicinity of the gas seeps, sea floor observations showed small mats of giant sulphide-oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments and carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDACs contain 13C-depleted, archaeal lipids indicating previous gas seepage and AOM activity. High amounts of sn2-hydroxyarchaeol relative to archaeol and low abundances of biphytanes in the crusts give evidence that ANaerobic MEthane-oxidising archaea (ANME of the phylogenetic cluster ANME-2 were the potential mediators of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM at the time of carbonate formation. Small pieces of MDACs were also found subsurface at about 1.7 m sediment depth, associated with the Sulphate-Methane Transition Zone (SMTZ. The SMTZ of Tommeliten is characterized by elevated AOM and Sulphate Reduction (SR rates, increased concentrations of 13C-depleted tetraether derived biphytanes, and specific bacterial Fatty Acids (FA. Further biomarker and 16S rDNA based analyses give evidence that AOM at the Tommeliten SMTZ

  13. Pollution and energy management in tanning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanning industry uses a number of chemicals such as Common Salt, Lime (Calcium Hydroxide), Sodium Sulfide and Basic Chromium Sulfate etc. During process, only a part of the chemical is consumed and the rest ends up in the effluent as pollutant. This paper deals with the techniques, locally developed or published in literature to recycle these chemicals and also discusses some energy saving techniques which can be used in tanning industry. Basic Chromium Sulfate (BCS) is one of the expensive chemicals used in 'Chrome Tanning'. By precipitating d filtering basic chromium sulfate, the recovery is nearly complete and the effluent obtained contains less than 1ppm Chromium. Dried raw hides contain up to 15% sodium chloride (w/w) and this can be removed in solid form by using mechanical brushes and can be re-used. The recovered salt contains foreign matter as impurities. After dissolution in water, the salt solution is filtered through cartridge filters and can be used in pickle bath. Liming slurry containing sodium sulfide is wasted as it contains fleshing and hair etc. A self cleaning 'J' type screen has no moving parts and removes fleshing and hair from the lime suspension. 'Counter Current Washing Technique,' reduces the wash water quantity by a factor of five to six. Air born pollution generated during buffing and dyeing can be captured by properly designed air filters. The solvents released in atmosphere during dyeing and finishing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, gelatin and protein can be recovered from waste fleshing. In tanning industry, drying of hides is the major consumer of thermal energy. Hot air can be produced by steam, hot water or solar energy. Advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed. Wastage of thermal energy in dryers can be reduced by improving the existing designs. Hot water for tanning purposes can be generated by recovering waste heat present in the boiler flue gases. Boiler efficiency can also be improved by cycling heat

  14. The Finding and Phylogenetic Evolution Analysis of Bovine Piroplasms in the Rasŏn Area of North Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-jun; ZHANG Shou-fa; CAO Shi-nuo; QIAN Nian-chao; YU Long-zheng; XUAN Xue-nan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of bovine Piroplasms infections in the Rasŏn area of North Korea. The survey was carried out by light microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and phylogenetic evolution analysis of 128 blood samples collected from the Rasŏn area. The results showed that the infection rates of the small and large parasites were about 2.5 and 1.5% on average, respectively, in all Theileria sergenti and Babesia ovata-positive blood smears by microscopic examination of blood smears. The detection rate of T. sergenti Giemsa-stained smears was 43.75%, while that with PCR was 67.97%. The detection rate of B. ovata Giemsa-stained smears was 49.21%, while that with PCR was 71.88%. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA showed 98.84%homology between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. sergenti isolates from North Korean and that of Yanbian state from China, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. Moreover, 100%homology was shown between the 18S rRNA gene sequence of B. ovata isolates from North Korea and the published sequence AY081192 of GenBank, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. This survey confirmed that Rasŏn is the endemic area of T. sergenti and B. ovata in North Korea.

  15. Accumulation of Cr by plants in tanning sludge storage sites: opportunities for contamination bioindication and phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of appropriate disposal strategies of tanning sludge (e.g., uncontrolled landfills and disposing sludge to open areas) has led to severe Cr pollution in waters and soils in many developing countries. Excessive Cr can be highly toxic to many living organisms and may damage the ecosystem. In ...

  16. Color Shaded-relief TIFF Image of High-resolution Bathymetry, North Carolina, Pamlico Sound Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  17. Methane emission and consumption at a North Sea gas seep (Tommeliten area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tommeliten seepage area is part of the Greater Ekofisk area, which is situated above the Tommeliten Delta salt diapir in the central North Sea (56°29.90' N, 2°59.80' E, Norwegian Block 1/9, 75 m water depth. Here, cracks in a buried marl horizon allow methane to migrate into overlying clay-silt and sandy sediments. Hydroacoustic sediment echosounding showed several venting spots coinciding with the apex of marl domes where methane is released into the water column and potentially to the atmosphere. In the vicinity of the gas seeps, sea floor observations showed small mats of giant sulphide-oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments as well as carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDACs contain 13C-depleted, archaeal lipids indicating previous gas seepage and AOM activity. High amounts of sn2-hydroxyarchaeol relative to archaeol and low abundances of biphytanes in the crusts give evidence that ANaerobic MEthane-oxidising archaea (ANME of the phylogenetic cluster ANME-2 were the potential mediators of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM at the time of carbonate formation. Small pieces of MDACs were also found subsurface at about 1.7 m sediment depth, associated with the AOM zone. This zone is characterized by elevated AOM and Sulphate Reduction (SR rates, increased concentrations of 13C-depleted tetraether derived biphytanes, and specific bacterial Fatty Acids (FA. Further biomarker and 16S rDNA based analyses of this horizon give evidence that AOM is mediated by archaea belonging to the ANME-1b group and Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB most likely belonging to the Seep-SRB1 cluster. The zone of active methane consumption was restricted to a distinct horizon of about 20 cm. Concentrations of 13C-depleted lipid biomarkers (e.g. 500 ng g-dw−1 biphythanes, 140 ng g-dw−1 fatty acid ai-C15:0, cell numbers (1.5×108 cells cm−3, AOM and SR

  18. Agricultural impacts on ecosystem functioning in temperate areas of North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerschman, Juan Pablo; Paruelo, José María

    2005-07-01

    Land use has a large impact on ecosystem functioning, though evidences of these impacts at the regional scale are scarce. The objective of this paper was to analyze the impacts of agricultural land use on ecosystem functioning (radiation interception and carbon uptake) in temperate areas of North and South America. From land cover maps generated using high-resolution satellite images we selected sites dominated by row crops (RC), small grain crops (SG), pastures (PA), and rangelands (RA) in the Central Plains of USA and the Pampas of Argentina. These two regions share climatic characteristics and the agricultural conditions (crop types) are also very similar. Both areas were originally dominated by temperate grasslands. In these sites we extracted the temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA satellites for the period 1989-1998 and calculated the mean seasonal NDVI curve for each site. Additionally, we calculated the mean annual NDVI, the maximum NDVI, the date of the year when the max NDVI was recorded and the interannual variability of these three attributes. We compared the mean values of each NDVI-derived attribute between land cover types and between continents. The NDVI seasonal patterns for each land cover type were roughly similar between the Central Plains and the Pampas during the growing season. The largest differences were observed during the winter and spring, when the NDVI of all land cover types in the Central Plains remained at lower values than in the Pampas. This was probably caused by the high annual thermal amplitude in the Central Plains that results in a much more restricted growing season. As a result of these differences in the shape of the NDVI curve, the mean annual NDVI in the Central Plains was lower than in the Pampas for all land cover types but the maximum NDVI did not differ importantly. In both regions, row crops delayed the date of the NDVI peak, small grain crops advanced it and pastures

  19. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  20. Sulphides balance in tanning leather district in Tuscany: evaluation of H{sub 2}S emissions and estimation of their impact on the air quality of the area; Bilancio dei solfuri nel comprensorio del cuoio: valutazione delle emissioni di dirogeno solforato e del loro impatto sulla qualita' dell'aria della zona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campi, B.; De Blasi, E.; Vanni, D.; Scali, C. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali; Spinazzola, A. [ARPAT-Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale della Toscana, Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione Ambientale, Sez. locale di San Romano

    2000-09-01

    The paper deals with an evaluation of hydrogen sulphide emissions from leather tanning industries and water purification plants in the leather district in Tuscany. The aim of the work is to correlate different sources emissions of the area with pollutant concentrations recorded by the monitoring network. Global quantities of treated substances, different plants typologies and operating mode, have been considered, following the indications of the ARPAT's archives. This analysis, updated to 1998, gives interesting information about the trend of emissions and their weight on air quality: the effect of tanning leather industries emissions during the 'pickel' operation results greater than the average purification plants contribution to air quality, even if, cause of the high quantity of treated sulphides, the weight of purification plants remains important. The trend of measured concentration of pollutant in air shows a clear improvement of air quality during last three years (1997-199). [Italian] L'articolo presenta una valutazione delle emissioni di idrogeno sulforato da aziende conciarie e da impianti di trattamento delle acque reflue industriali nel comprensorio del cuoio. in Toscano. Lo scopo dell'indagine e' quello di valutare la possibilita' di correlare le emissioni delle diverse sorgenti della zona con i valori di concentrazione di inquinante al suolo rilevati dlla rete di monitoraggio. La valutazione tiene conto delle quantita' complessive di sostanze lavorate, delle diverse tipologie degli impianti e del loro stato di funzionamento, secondo quanto risulta dai dati contenuti nell'archivio dell'ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale della Toscana). L'analisi aggiornata al 1998, fornisce indicazioni circa l'andamento dei fenomeni emissivi ed il loro peso sulla qualita' dell'aria. In particolare si evidenzia come l'effetto delle emissioni dalle aziende conciarie durante l

  1. Spectral Mixture Analysis for Monitoring and Mapping Desertification Processes in Semi-arid Areas in North Kordofan State, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Khiry, Manal Awad

    2007-01-01

    Multi-temporal remotely sensed data (MSS, TM and ETM+)were used for monitoring and mapping the desertification processes in North Kordofan State, Sudan.A liear mixture model (LMM) was adopted to analyse and the desertification proccesses by using the image endmembers. interpretation of ancillary data and field observation was adopted to verfiy the role of human impacts in the temporal changes in the study area. The findings of the study proved the powerfull of remotely sensed data in monitori...

  2. Effects of terrace construction on runoff and erosion in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.S. Martins; D. Serpa; A.I. Machado; R.F.H. de Lenne; A.G.v.d. Linden; S.R. Faria; R.S.V. Ferreira; I. Skulska; S.A. Prats; M.E.T. Varela; J.J. Keizer

    2013-01-01

    In present-day Portugal, wildfires are a common phenomenon that, on average, affects some 100.000 ha of forest lands each year. Fires can markedly increase runoff generation and the associated sediment transport, nevertheless the magnitude of these impacts strongly depends on post-fire forestry management practices. This study evaluates the effect of terrace construction on runoff and erosion at micro-plot and catchment scale, six months after a wildfire in a forest area in north central Port...

  3. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  4. Evaluation and Intercomparison of MODIS and GEOV1 Global Leaf Area Index Products over Four Sites in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenwang Li; Huan Tang; Baohui Zhang; Guixia Yang; Xiaoping Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and GEOLAND2 Version 1 (GEOV1) Leaf Area Index (LAI) products using ground measurements and LAI reference maps over four sites in North China for 2011–2013. The Terra + Aqua MODIS and Terra MODIS LAI retrieved by the main algorithm and GEOV1 LAI within the valid range were evaluated and intercompared using LAI reference maps to assess their uncertainty and seasonal variability The results sho...

  5. Parasite threshold associated with clinical malaria in areas of different transmission intensities in north eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestergaard Lasse S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of ill health. Evaluation of malaria interventions, such as drugs and vaccines depends on clinical definition of the disease, which is still a challenge due to lack of distinct malaria specific clinical features. Parasite threshold is used in definition of clinical malaria in evaluation of interventions. This however, is likely to be influenced by other factors such as transmission intensity as well as individual level of immunity against malaria. Methods This paper describes step function and dose response model with threshold parameter as a tool for estimation of parasite threshold for onset of malaria fever in highlands (low transmission and lowlands (high transmission intensity strata. These models were fitted using logistic regression stratified by strata and age groups (0-1, 2-3, 4-5, 6-9, and 10-19 years. Dose response model was further extended to fit all age groups combined in each stratum. Sub-sampling bootstrap was used to compute confidence intervals. Cross-sectional and passive case detection data from Korogwe district, north eastern Tanzania were used. Results Dose response model was better in the estimation of parasite thresholds. Parasite thresholds (scale = log parasite/μL were high in lowlands than in highlands. In the lowlands, children in age group 4-5 years had the highest parasite threshold (8.73 while individuals aged 10-19 years had the lowest (6.81. In the highlands, children aged 0-1 years had the highest threshold (7.12 and those aged 10-19 years had the lowest (4.62. Regression analysis with all ages combined showed similar pattern of thresholds in both strata, whereby, in the lowlands the threshold was highest in age group 2-5 years and lowest in older individuals, while in the highlands was highest in age group 0-1 and decreased with increased age. The sensitivity of parasite threshold by age group ranged from 64

  6. Reaction of the nitroxyl radical TAN with glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence for a stoichiometric reaction between 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl (TAN) and glutathione (GSH) in vitro has been provided by the results of e.s.r., spectrophotometric and enzymatic measurements. The addition of TAN to a suspension of isolated hepatocytes resulted in a rapid reduction in cellular GSH. Possible mechanisms are discussed. The results are in accordance with the rapid in vivo degradation of TAN. (U.K.)

  7. Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical...... systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA in...

  8. "Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Tavakoli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.37-40, 2003 Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran *HR Tavakoli 1,V Razavilar 2 1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Hygiene,School of public health, Baghyatollah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Dept. of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University , Iran Clostridium botulinum has long been recognized as an etiological agent of food borne botulism and has been reported as an important food safety hazard. The aim of this study was to obtain information about C. botulinum distribution in north areas sediments of Iran in order to ascertain the risks associated with consumption and processing of fish from these waters. Two hundred and seventy samples of sediments from coastal areas of "Gilan" and "Mazandaran" provinas of Iran were collected and analyzed. The supernatants were inoculated into cooked meat media and then , grown specimens were stained and cheked microscopically. After centrifuge ,the supernatants were divided into three (untreated ,heated , and tripsinised and toxicity of them were tested by mouse bioassay. All mice controlled for 4 days for symptoms of botulism. Monovalent standard antitoxins were used for detection of toxin type. The present study revealed that the prevalence of C. botulinum (types A, B and E in sediments from different areas of Gillan and Mazandaran was 3.6% and 4.6% respectively, Mean prevalence of C. botulinum in sediments from north regions of Iran was 4.1%. It is also demonstrated that C. botulinum type E is predominant type seen in aquatic environments of the coastal areas of Iran. This is the first report of C. botulinum distribution in the sediments coastal areas of Iran. Introduction *Corresponding author: +98 21 4811483

  9. Open-Country Poverty in a Relatively Affluent Area - The East North Central States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwilliams, Jeanette

    Poverty among open-country households in the East North Central States (11%) was slightly above the incidence found among U.S. whites in general. Incidence of poverty was greatest among the aged, disabled, and small farmers of all ages who made farming their major source of earnings. Of the respondent households in this 1967 survey, 87% had…

  10. Energy and mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the area of winter polynya to the north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Boris; Wesman, Anna; Sviashchennikov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The warm inflow of the West Spitsbergen Current keeps waters ice-free in winter to the north of Svalbard, an area also called the Whalers Bay. Here we present results of the winter expedition in the Arctic Ocean to the north of Svalbard on board a research vessel «Helmer Hanssen» in January 2012. The characteristics of the turbulent energy and mass exchange are calculated using an algorithm, which is based on semi-empirical theory of "Monin-Obukhov", adapted to the conditions of marine meteorological observations. The results are compared with the data obtained in this area in February 1986 on board Russian research icebreaker "Otto Schmidt". The features of energy-mass exchange are explained by synoptic and ice conditions in the study area. Intense heat and mass exchange in the area leads to enhanced convective mixing and, thus, upwelling of nutrients to surface waters that can contribute to higher biological activity in the area throughout the food web.

  11. New data on geodynamic process in anomaly area of north Tien Shan: possible preparation of a strong earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data on geodynamic process in the area of North Tien Shan, revealed earlier based in anomaly absorption of seismic waves, is being analyzed. It was established that here for last 5-7 years (since 1999 till 2005) features of S-wave absorption field in earth crust and upper mantle within anomaly area had been significantly changed - new elliptic structure had been formed, generated by focuses of relatively deep earthquakes. Within the boundaries of this area in 2005, earthquakes with mechanism of normal faulting and oblique normal prevailed. Amount of the obtained data indicate active increase of juvenile fluids in earth crust and in upper mantle within anomaly area that may testify preparation of a strong earthquake ( ∼6.5). (author)

  12. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  13. Middle Holocene warm period and sea level high in coastal areas,North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guanglan; HAN Yousong; WANG Shaoqing

    2005-01-01

    Relevant geological, geographical, archaeological data were collected to study the characteristics of middle Holocene warm period and sea level high on North China coast. Middle Holocene climate and sea level change on North China coast were correlated to warm marine environment events in about 8-3 ka B.P. The sea level in about 8 ka B.P. was higher than present mean sea level, then fluctuated for 5 000 years and after that it became even in 3 ka B.P. The highest sea level occurred in about 6-5 ka B.P.; the maximum was about 2-3 m and minimum was about 1-2 m.

  14. The source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoil in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, North of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Le; Wang, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Dong, Yi-Hui; Du, Bin; Liao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-12-01

    31 topsoil samples were collected by grid method in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan City, North of China. The concentrations of 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrum. Generally speaking, the distribution order of PAHs in the area is: those with five and six rings > those with four rings > those with two and three rings. Source apportionment shows a significant zonation of the source of PAHs: the civil coal pollution occurred in the north part, the local and far factory pollution happened in the middle area and the mixed pollution sources from coal and wood combustion, automotive emission, presented in the south area. The distribution of PAHs has a definite relationship with the sewage water flow and soil adsorption. The related coefficient between PAHs and physicochemical property showed there was a negative correlation between pH, silt, clay and PAHs while there was a positive correlation between total organic carbon, sand and PAHs. PMID:25139034

  15. EEG CHARACTERISTICS AND THYROID PROFILE RATIO IN ADOLESCENTS OF SUBPOLAR AND POLAR EUROPEAN NORTH AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    D. B. Demin; L. V. Poskotinova; Ye. V. Krivonogova

    2013-01-01

    Features of brain bioelectric activity and thyroid system in adolescents living in Subpolar andPolar regionsof the North are considered. Hyperactivity of subcortical diencephalic brain structures in adolescents of the Polar region is revealed. Adolescents of Subpolar region have more intensive age optimization of neurodynamic processes. There are noted latitude distinctions of thyroid hormones role for age formation of brain bioelectric activity in adolescents.

  16. EEG CHARACTERISTICS AND THYROID PROFILE RATIO IN ADOLESCENTS OF SUBPOLAR AND POLAR EUROPEAN NORTH AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Demin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of brain bioelectric activity and thyroid system in adolescents living in Subpolar andPolar regionsof the North are considered. Hyperactivity of subcortical diencephalic brain structures in adolescents of the Polar region is revealed. Adolescents of Subpolar region have more intensive age optimization of neurodynamic processes. There are noted latitude distinctions of thyroid hormones role for age formation of brain bioelectric activity in adolescents.

  17. Knowledge and psychomotor skills of nursing students in North Cyprus in the area of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dal, Umran; Sarpkaya, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Objective : The aim of the study was to determine the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skill levels of nursing students in North Cyprus. Methods : The study design was quasi-experimental and longitudinal. A questionnaire was applied to the students before the CPR lecture. Then the students were informed about adult CPR by the researchers and all of the students practiced CPR on a Resusci-Anne manikin. One and six months after this training the same questionnaire and skills ch...

  18. Leisure and tourism behaviour in rural areas in the North West Province / Victor S. Mogajane

    OpenAIRE

    Mogajane, Victor Solomon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine ways in which the accessibility of leisure and tourism behaviour patterns can be improved to ultimately improve the quality of life of people in rural communities in the North West Province. In order to achieve this it was necessary to indicate the holistic perspective of the tourism industry, with special reference to rural tourism and also the holistic perspective on leisure provision in South Africa. This study is important to addre...

  19. Dynamics of Drying in Phenolically Tanned Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F. V. Vincent

    2004-01-01

    The cuticle of a maggot goes through a mechanical transition when it dries, increasing in stiffness by about an order of magnitude (e. g. from 0.5 GPa to 5 GPa) as the water content drops from about 1 g/g (weight of water per unit dry weight) to 0.4 g/g. Thus stiffness represents the loss of freezable water and is more or less diagnostic of a material stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Further loss in water results in a smaller increase in stiffness. In natural systems the water content is controlled by the addition of phenolic residues, resulting in tanning or sclerotisation, which drives the matrix components towards co-operative interaction and makes the material permanently waterproof.

  20. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  1. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on... providing guidance on the indoor tanning services excise tax imposed by the Patient Protection...

  2. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking by... tanning services excise tax imposed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These...

  3. Definition of $\\tan\\beta$ beyond tree-level

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Youichi

    1996-01-01

    We study the relation between different renormalization schemes for the parameter $\\tan\\beta$ in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. The contributions of the third-generation quark-squark loops to the differences between $\\tan\\beta$'s in several schemes are discussed. Their numerical differences are typically within several %.

  4. Wet skins tanning with chromium in dense CO2 under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ancestral gesture steadily improved through the centuries, the transformation of skins into leather includes several stages of which the principal one is tanning. Today, 90 % of the world's leather products are tanned with chromium. However, this stage is an environmental liability, and reducing the volume and chromium content of the waste has become a major issue. A first study on skin degreasing by dense CO2 helped sharply reduce the volume of the fatty effluents. To replace water by dense CO2 as the tanning medium was the logical next step. The present study was carried out in cooperation with three tanneries in the Rhone-Alpes-Auvergne area of France and a manufacturer of tanning materials. The difficulty of the study was the chemically opposed character of the two media involved. CO2 is a non-polar and lipophilic solvent while inorganic chromium is insoluble. The water present in the treated skin is a polar and ionic reaction medium and one of the reagents in tanning chemistry. The mixture of these two partially miscible compounds gives a pH 3 by carbonic acid formation. Tanning is based on the reactivity of collagen, the main component of the skin, with hydroxylated complexes of chromium. Collagen is a protein containing some chemical functions, amines (R-NH2) and carboxylic (R-COOH) for example. These functions impart an amphoteric character to the compound. The WERNER theory of complex salts explains the formation of hydroxylated complexes of chromium and their fixing on the carboxylic functions of collagen by oxolation. pH is the key parameter in tanning. The success of the process demands chromium impregnation without fixing it at a pH lower than 5, and then to fix it by increasing the pH. This opened two alternatives for transferring chromium in the skin: solubilize chromium in CO2 via soluble organometallic complexes; or put the chromium salt into suspension without solubilizing it. The best results were obtained with the second option, which is

  5. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  6. PS2-26: Development of Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Use of Indoor Tanning: The Talking Tanning and Teens Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rolnick, Cheri J; Jackson, Jody; Lazovich, DeAnn; Choi, Kelvin; Southwell, Brian; Forster, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Background: Use of indoor tanning devices has been associated with a range of adverse effects including burns, corneal damage, premature wrinkling, as well as melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Indoor tanning is a common behavior among females and many begin use during adolescence. Interventions that target teens and parents to decrease use are lacking.

  7. Correlations between radon in soil gas and the activity of seismogenic faults in the Tangshan area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial variation of soil gas radon values were correlated with the seismogenic faults and earthquakes in the Tangshan area (north China). Radon concentrations were measured at 756 sites in an area about 2500 km2 from April to May 2010. The background and anomaly threshold values calculated were 4730.4 Bq/m3 and 8294.1 Bq/m3, respectively. Radon concentrations highlight a decreasing gradient from NE to SW in the area. Higher values mostly distributed in the NE sector of the Tangshan fault and the Luanxian fault where the Tangshan (Ms 7.8), and Luanxian (MS 7.1) earthquakes occurred in 1976 and 17 earthquakes with MS = 3.0 occurred in this area since 2005. Radon values illustrated a close relation with the shallow fault trace and earthquake activity in the area. The active fault zones and the associated fractures formed by the larger earthquakes, act as paths for radon migration. - Highlights: • Radon concentrations at 756 sites were attained in the Tangshan area. • The background value and anomaly threshold of Rn were calculated out. • Radon concentration decreasing from NE to SW in the study area. • Rn value has a close relation with the fault and earthquake activity

  8. Managing droughts in the low-rainfall areas of the Middle East and North Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Hazell, P.B.R.; Oram, Peter A.; Chaherli, Nabil

    2001-01-01

    Drought is a recurrent and often devastating threat to the welfare of countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where three-quarters of the arable land has less than 400 mm of annual rainfall, and the natural grazings, which support a majority of the 290 million ruminant livestock, have less than 200 mm. Its impact has been exacerbated in the last half century by the human population increasing yearly at over 3%, while livestock numbers have risen by 50% over the quinquennium. Virt...

  9. Factors affecting accuracy of slope-area discharge determination of the September 1992 flood in Raven Fork, Western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, W. Harold; Zembrzuski, Thomas J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    For the flood of September 10, 1992, in Raven Fork, Swain County, North Carolina, a peak discharge of 460 cubic meters per second was computed by using the slope-area method. Accuracy of this determination depends on suitability of the selected reach and, in particular, selection of Manning's roughness coefficients, interpretation of the high-water marks, number and placement of cross sections, presence of large expansions or contractions, state-of-flow transitions, and magnitude of the change in water-surface elevation. Some of these factors can contribute to greater uncertainties for measurements in steep mountain streams than for measurements in streams with flatter gradients.

  10. Geochemical Signature of Mesozoic Volcanic and Granitic Rocks in Madina Regency Area, North Sumatra, Indonesia, and its Tectonic Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no2.20094Five samples consisting of two Permian-Triassic basalts, two Triassic-Jurassic granitic rocks, and a Miocene andesite were collected from the Madina Regency area in North Sumatra that is regionally situated on the West Sumatra Block. Previous authors have proposed three different scenarios for the geological setting of West Sumatra Permian Plutonic-Volcanic Belt, namely an island-arc, subduction related continental margin arc, and continental break...

  11. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SEASONAL SLEEP CHANGE AND INDOOR TANNING1,2

    OpenAIRE

    CULNAN, ELIZABETH; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Darlow, Susan; Heckman, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for indoor tanning may ultimately aid the development of better indoor tanning prevention strategies, which is pertinent given the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. This study aimed to examine the relationship between seasonal sleep change and indoor tanning. Women tanners (N= 139) completed self-report measures including items relating to seasonal sleep changes, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), reasons for tanning, tanning during the winter ...

  12. Research Status of Chrome-free Tanning%铬鞣剂的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亮亮; 李鹏; 侯宏波; 李宁宁; 陈磊; 李琛

    2011-01-01

    介绍了无铬金属鞣剂、植物鞣剂、改性戊二醛鞣剂、嗯唑烷鞣剂、有机膦鞣剂、纳米鞣剂等无铬鞣剂的研究现状和应用前景。%The chrome-free tanning agents, such as inorganic compounds tanning agent, vegetable tanning agent, modified glutaraldehyde tanning agent, oxzaolidine tanning agent, organic phosphonium tanning agents and nano-tanning agents, were introduced in this paper. And, the current research and application prospect of chrome-free tanning agent were discussed.

  13. Late Quaternary pollen records from the Lower Cobb Valley and adjacent areas, north-west Nelson, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten pollen records from the Cobb Valley and adjacent areas in North-West Nelson are described. Collectively they provide a vegetation record extending from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day. During the Last Glacial Maximum the uplands of North-West Nelson were glaciated. By about 17,000 radiocarbon years BP ice had retreated some distance up the Cobb River Valley and a podocarp heath and tussockland vegetation covered non-glaciated areas. By 14,000 radiocarbon years BP, the valley floor and adjacent lower ridges were occupied by montane podocarp forest dominated by Phyllocladus and Halocarpus. Beech forest expanded into some sites as early as 13,000 yr BP but the modern beech cover was not established until the Holocene. Forest cover has fluctuated in response to disturbance over the Holocene, but the most significant recent change, which is related to clearing for pastoralism in the last two centuries, has had surprisingly little impact on the pollen records. (author). 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  14. Dengue fever Potential Area at Pademangan Barat Sub District, North Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri E. B. Soesilo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease that contagious by Aedes aegypti mosquito’s bites. Anybody could infectious by this illness, without differentiate their sex, age, social status, and economic status as well. Nevertheless, at slum area, where mosquito’s larva is easy to find, the number of infectious people is presuming high. By using primary data and analyze with geography information system (GIS, the study found that the number of infectious people of dengue fever do not have any positive correlation with larva amount, that was monitored through clean water in the surrounding neighborhood area. The number of infectious people have correlation with the dirty areas that caused by the piling of used articles and inundate area. Gender and age do not have any influence with the number of infectious people.

  15. Wind power in the North Netherlands area. Windenergie in de Noord-Nederlandse regio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Heemstra, W.; de Vries, B.

    1983-01-01

    Supply and demand evaluations of wind power are made for the northern area of the Netherlands. Results of calculations are given for an average dairy farm. More elaborate calculations are made for the province of Friesland.

  16. Appendix P: analysis of geological and geophysical data in selected areas of the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1979 we initiated a comprehensive assessment of existing marine geological and geophysical data for the northwest Pacific (PAC 1; 200 to 500N; 1450 to 1800E). The purpose of these studies is to locate, if possible, several 10 x 10 (latitude x longitude) areas which may qualify as candidate waste-disposal sites. Some of these 10 x 10 sites will then be surveyed in detail on future cruises. We have examined all 3.5 and 12 kHz echogram data through the PAC 1 area contained in the Lamont-Doherty, Scripps, and Univ. of Hawaii echogram libraries. These data comprise the vast majority of data that exist for the northwest Pacific. Using these data we were able to classify and map the distribution of various types of microtopography and acoustic reflectivity (echo character) throughout the PAC 1 area. These studies revealed (1) the nature of stratification in the upper 25 to 100 m of the sea floor; (2) nature of the microtopography of the sea floor and areal distribution of basement outcrops; (3) locations of areas affected by bottom currents and mass-wasting process. We have also compiled and evaluated all D.S.D.P. drilling information and L-DGO piston core, bottom camera, heat-flow, sonobuoy, and low frequency seismic-reflection data for the PAC 1 area. We are continuing to compile additional acoustic and station data from other sources including US Navy, NOAA, Japan, and N.G.S.D.C., DMA. Our studies in the PAC 1 area to date have enabled us to locate at least 10 10 x 10 areas which appear to be potentially suitable sites for further waste disposal studies. Three of these potential sites will be surveyed in detail on an upcoming VEMA cruise in spring 1980. Remaining areas will be surveyed during future cruises

  17. Possible volcanic structures near Olympia Undae, North circumpolar area of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bayton, M.; Tréguier, E.; Herraiz, M.; Martin, P.; Schmidt, F.; Witasse, O.

    2011-10-01

    The work presented here is a study of structures encountered in the area bordering the Olympia Undae dune sea (Fig. 1). Various structures have been observed in this area, such as cones and domes [6] (whose origin may be volcanic), impact craters, etc. These structures are particularly difficult to characterize because of their relatively small size and the occasional occurrence of a sediment cover. This study is mainly based on data from Mars Express (HRSC imagery) and Mars Global Surveyor (MOLA altimetry data).

  18. Electrifying reviews of the central North Sea area; Elektrisifiseringsvurderinger for midtre Nordsjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husdal, Geir

    2012-06-15

    We conducted a site evaluation of power from land to several fields in the central North Sea. The findings are included Dagny, Edvard Grieg, Draupne and Johan Sverdrup. In addition, an unidentified future field is included in the evaluation. Unclassified cost estimates have been prepared and measures cost is calculated for a main concept based on a set of assumptions and suppositions. To check the robustness of the results and to identify which parameters the results are most sensitive to, we conducted sensitivity analyzes in which key assumptions are changed. The study shows a cost of Nok 412 Nok / tonne reduction in Co2 emissions. This is slightly higher than the sum of the current Co2 tax and quota price, but lower than the Co2 cost proposed in the white paper. Sensitivity calculations show that the cost of measures is very sensitive to investment costs, future energy demand and the price difference between gas sold on the continent and electricity from the grid in Norway. (eb)

  19. Health Status of Elderly in A Rural Area of North East Region of India

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Ghosh, Arun Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health status of elderly people is neglected in different parts of the Country. This study will reflect the condition of health status of elderly people of rural areas of remote hilly state like Tripura. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study of elderly people having the age 60 years. The study was carried out among the elderly people of a Bridya Ashram, named “Sandhyanir” at Gandhigram Village in a rural area of West Tripura district, 10 km from Agartala Cit...

  20. Morphological changes at Mt. Etna detected by TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmuller, Urs; Bonforte, Alessandro; De Beni, Emanuela; Guglielmino, Francesco; Strozzi, Tazio

    2014-05-01

    We produced a DEM of the Mt. Etna volcano using TanDEM-X data collected on October 9, 2012. The TanDEM-X data were acquired in bistatic mode with TSX as master sensor and TDX as receive only sensor. The pre-existing SRTM DEM was used for geometrical reference (geocoding, initial height model, large scale reference). The interferogram was computed with 4 looks in range and 4 looks in azimuth. After compensation of the SRTM heights, the differential TanDEM-X interferogram looked overall quite flat but showed local deviations related to noise (e.g. over the sea), topographic effects related to the low resolution of the SRTM DEM, and deviations related to actual changes of the topography, as observed in the Mount Etna peak region. After phase unwrapping, addressed with a minimum-cost flow algorithm and slight spatial filtering, the unwrapped phases were converted to relative heights. In order to move to absolute heights the SRTM height reference was used under the assumption that the deviation from the SRTM DEM is zero at large scale and without any linear trend. Finally, the height model was resampled into geographical coordinates. In the framework of the MED-SUV project, and thanks to the availability of a dense GPS network of more than 100 benchmarks periodically measured by INGV_OE, the TanDEM-X model has been validated. By computing the difference of the elevations provided by TanDEM-X with those measured by GPS we obtained a mean difference of 0.7 m and a standard deviation of 5.2 m. These values are biased by a few GPS benchmarks located in steep areas unfavorable illuminated by the radar. Without considerations of the two more unfavorable GPS stations, the height mean difference and a standard deviation are 0.6 m and 4.3 m respectively. We also performed correlation analyses of the height differences with respect to topography, latitude and longitude and we could exclude any elevation-related errors or geometrical ramp distortions. In the following, we compared

  1. Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang Meets Chinese Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yiyi

    2013-01-01

    <正>The visiting Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang had a cordial meeting with Chinese personages friendly to Vietnam in the Vietnamese Embassy in China on June 20.The meeting was jointly arranged by

  2. Sunlamps and Sunlamp Products (Tanning Beds/Booths)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Sunlamps and Sunlamp Products (Tanning Beds/Booths) Share ... PDF - 71KB) [ARCHIVED] More in Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Reducing Exposure: Hands-free ...

  3. Tanning May Limit Skin's Ability to Produce Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Tanning May Limit Skin's Ability to Produce Vitamin D: Study Even those with significant sun exposure can have low levels of this essential vitamin, research shows To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  5. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  6. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  7. An analysis of the North Rainier Elk Herd area, Washington: Change detection and habitat modeling with remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Joshua J.

    The North Rainier Elk Herd (NREH) is one of ten designated herds in Washington State, all managed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To aid in the management of the herd, the WDFW has decided to implement a spatial ecosystem analysis. This thesis partially undertakes this analysis through the use of a suite of software tools, the Westside Elk Nutrition and Habitat Use Models (WENHUM). This model analyzes four covariates that have a strong correlation to elk habitat selection: dietary digestible energy (DDE); distance to roads open to the public; mean slope; and distance to cover-forage edge and returns areas of likely elk habitation or use. This thesis includes an update of the base vegetation layer from 2006 data to 2011, a series of clear cuts were identified as areas of change and fed into the WENHUM models. The addition of these clear cuts created improvements in the higher quality DDE levels and when the updated data is compared to the original, predictions of elk use are higher. The presence of open or closed roads was simulated by creating an area of possible closures, selecting candidate roads within that area and then modeling them as either "all open" or "all closed". The simulation of the road closures produced increases in the higher levels of predicted use.

  8. Seismic tomography of the area of the 2010 Beni-Ilmane earthquake sequence, north-central Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacha, Issam; Koulakov, Ivan; Semmane, Fethi; Yelles-Chaouche, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    The region of Beni-Ilmane (District of M'sila, north-central Algeria) was the site of an earthquake sequence that started on 14 May 2010. This sequence, which lasted several months, was triggered by conjugate E-W reverse and N-S dextral faulting. To image the crustal structure of these active faults, we used a set of 1406 well located aftershocks events and applied the local tomography software (LOTOS) algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the initial 1D velocity model, and iterative tomographic inversion for 3D seismic P- and S-wave velocities (and the Vp/Vs ratio), and source parameters. The patterns of P-wave low-velocity anomalies correspond to the alignments of faults determined from geological evidence, and the P-wave high-velocity anomalies may represent rigid blocks of the upper crust that are not deformed by regional stresses. The S-wave low-velocity anomalies coincide with the aftershock area, where relatively high values of Vp/Vs ratio (1.78) are observed compared with values in the surrounding areas (1.62-1.66). These high values may indicate high fluid contents in the aftershock area. These fluids could have been released from deeper levels by fault movements during earthquakes and migrated rapidly upwards. This hypothesis is supported by vertical sections across the study area show that the major Vp/Vs anomalies are located above the seismicity clusters. PMID:25485193

  9. Update of data on decision making of test drills in the North Sea coastal area. Outlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For activities that will have environmental impacts there exists a legal commitment in the Netherlands to draw up a so-called Environmental Effect Report (MER, abbreviated in Dutch). In this publication supplementary information is given on a previous MER with respect to exploratory drillings for natural gas in the title area. 8 refs

  10. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  11. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  12. Adapting to Climate Change: Reconsidering the Role of Protected Areas and Protected Organisms in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumlich, L. J.; Cross, M. S.; Hilty, J.; Berger, J.

    2007-12-01

    With the recent publication of the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), little doubt remains among scientists that the global climate system is changing due to human influence and that climate change will have far-reaching and fundamental impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity. Arguably the best-documented evidence linking 20th Century warming trends to changes in physical and biological systems comes from the mountains of western North America (e.g., Figure SPM1 in Summary of Working Group 11 Report). In the West, ecosystem impacts include changes in the distribution of species as well as changing functional linkages between species such as the synchrony between flower emergence and pollinating insects. These climate impacts, when combined with other environmental stressors (e.g., altered disturbance regimes, land-use change and habitat fragmentation) portend an amplification of species extinction rates. One of the great challenges in adapting to climate change is developing and implementing policies that enhance ecological resilience in the face of these change. Clearly, the current system of nature reserves in Western North America is a fundamental asset for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the fixed- boundary nature of these protected areas presents a problem as species' ranges shift with future climate change. The loss of species whose ranges move outside of fixed park boundaries and the arrival of other species that move into protected areas could lead to significant turnover of species diversity, new species assemblages, and altered functionality. In short, reserves that were designed to protect particular species or communities may no longer serve their intended purpose under a changing climate. In this talk, we use case studies from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and the Sonoran Desert Ecosystem to define strategies for enhancing ecological resilience to climate change at

  13. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jinghui

    2001-01-01

    -pressure granulites and amphibolite from Sanggan area, North China craton, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(2): 106-110.[10]Guo. J. H, Zhai M. G., Li, Y. G. et al., Isotopic ages and their tectonic significance of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the early Precambrian granulite belt, North China craton, in Geological Evolution of the Granulite Terrane in North Part of the North China Craton (eds. Qian, X., Wang, R.), Beijing: Seismolgical Press, 1994, 130-144.[11]Wang, J., Lu, S. N., Li, H. M., Isotope ages of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the Inner Mongolia, Bulletin of Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (in Chinese with English abstract), 1995, 29: 1-76.[12]Wu, C. H., Li, H. M., Zhong, C. T. et al,, The ages of zircon and rutile (cooling) from Khondalite in Huangtuyao, Inner Mongolia, Geological Review (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 44(6): 618-626.[13]Zhao, Z. P et al., Precambrian Crustal Evolution of Sino-Korean Paraplateform (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1994,444.[14]Dirks, P. H. G. M., Zhang, J. S., Passchier, C. W., Exhumation of high-pressure granulites and the role of lower crustal advection in the North China craton near Datong, J. Struct. Geol., 1997, 19: 1343-1358.[15]Zhang, J. Sh., Dirks, P. H, G., Passchier, C. W., Extensional collapse and uplift in a polymetamorphic granulite terrain in the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic of north China, Precambrian Res., 1994, 67: 37-57.[16]Li. J. H.. Zhai, M. G., Qian, X. L. et al., The geological occurrence, regional tectonic setting and exhumation of late Archaean high-pressure granulite with the high-grade metamorphic terranes, north to central portion of North China craton.Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 14: 176-189.[17]Lu, L. Z., Xu, X. C., Liu, F. L., Early Precambrian Khondalite Series in North China (in Chinese with English abstract),Changchun: Changchun Press, 1996, 276.[18]Yan, Y. H.. Liu, W. J., Discussion

  14. Notes on hydrocarbon trapping mechanism in the Aru area, North Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinoadi; Mulhadiono

    1977-01-01

    The improvements of source-rock analyses show that samples of Lower Baong and Pre-Baong are the most favorable source rocks. Vertical migration seems to play a very important role in the trapping mechanism of hydrocarbon in the Aru area, N. Sumatra, due to the fact that the producing oil zones are mostly the Lower Keutapang and partly the Middle Baong sands which are located above the source rock. This migration may be controlled by faults, fractures, and overpressured zones. By using seismic reflection and well data, the position of faults and overpressured zones can be recognized. Further understanding of the trapping mechanism may encourage exploration efforts in the Aru area. 15 references.

  15. Effect of Ecotourism on Plant Biodiversity in Cherlagh Protected Area North-Eastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hossein Zarghi; Sayed Mohsen Hosseini; Hamid Ejtehadi

    2015-01-01

    Due to importance of considerable effects of ecotourism on environment, the effect of ecotourism on plant biodiversity in Cherlagh zone was investigated .To acquire the aim of the article, the sampling area was selected under the condition that the ecotourism is solely the variable factor and the slope, direction and height are considered constant factor after evaluation of the ecological land unit drawings. Two zones of high pressured and low pressured ecotourism were considered after evalua...

  16. Inventory of uranium prospect area Rantau Prapat North Sumatra: general prospection stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research has been carried out to gain knowledge of geology, radiometry, geochemistry to bound U prospect area scale 1:50.000. Based on investigation result of preliminary prospection was obtained indication of uranium mineralization as stream sediment anomalies in meta sandstone (Perm-Carboniferous) 0.86-28.00 ppm, sandstone (Middle-Upper Miosen) 1.192-7.20 ppm, granite (Upper Permian) 10.71-12.00 ppm; The total U content in sandstone until 10.29 ppm, granite 33.24 ppm, and radiometry of stand stone 25-150 cps, granite 200-500 cps. Lithology of the prospect area consist of quartzite, phyllitte, sandstone, siltstone, clay stone, conglomerate, granite, quartz feldspatic veins, andesite, tufaceous. Strike slip fault, normal fault, foliation and folding has been obtained in these area. Uranium anomalies of stream sediments were found in Conglomerate-Stand stone (1.04-4.80) ppm, Quartzite-Phyllite (0.91-1.90) ppm and Granite units (9.81-13.20) ppm. Uranium content of Conglomerate-stand stone (2.5-5) ppm, quartzite-phyllite (3.0-46.0) ppm, tuffaceous (9.0-22.0) ppm and granite (biotite muscovite) (23.5-40.0) ppm. Granite in these area is as uranium source. Based on anomaly of stream sediments on Conglomerate-Stand stone unit only about 7.64 km2, Quartzite-Phyllite 12.04 km2, Granite 10.20 km2 and no supported by heavy mineral anomalies, radiometry and U rock content, so it was advised to not investigate follow up. (author)

  17. Regional geochemical and geophysical surveys in the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas, north Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, D. C.; Rollin, K.; Cornwell, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes stream sediment and gravity surveys carried out across the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas. The gravity survey confirmed the presence of a broad regional Bouguer anomaly low in the central part of the Dome, on which is superimposed several smaller irregular highs and lows. Some of these local anomalies possibly reflect small igneous bodies but more detailed gravity surveys would be needed to determine their form. Near Corwen the Bryneglwys Fault co...

  18. Geology and Uranium, Thorium Distributions of Gabal Humr Ar-Raha Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Humr ar-Raha area, about 150 km2 of crystalline basement rocks, is delineated by Lat. 27° 18’ and 27° 26' N and Long. 32° 42' and 32° 48’ E. It is covered by Dokhan volcanics (oldest), younger granites (syenogranite) and post granitic dykes (youngest). Dokhan volcanics are represented by a thick sequence of stratified lava flows of intermediate (andesites) and acidic (rhyolites) composition. The main rock type of Gabal Humr ar-Raha granitoid rocks are classified as syenogranites; their emplacement were structurally controlled by pre-existing fractures trending NNE- SSW and NE-SW. The acidic Dokhan volcanics and younger granites show the highest equivalent uranium and equivalent thorium contents in the study area. The younger granites can be considered as uraniferous granites as revealed from their radiometric studies. They are originated from highly fractionated U-rich magma that trapping high concentrations of uranium in the accessory minerals. These granites host an interesting radioactive anomalies which are essentially exhibited by a strongly altered granites occupying at the intersection zone of two major strike-slip faults striking NNW-SSE and NE-SW. The sheared granites show dark brown spots of iron oxides at this zone. Thus the enrichment of uranium in the study area is controlled by structural elements

  19. Splash erosion in recently-burnt area in North-West Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María

    2013-04-01

    Splash erosion is generally acknowledged as the main erosive agent, because it represents the first step in water erosion (Ellison, 1944, Sempere Torres et al., 1994). The impact of raindrops not only modifies the structure of the earth's surface, (Moss, 1991) but also breaks down and emits soil fragments which are later transported over long distances in the case of additional surface runoff processes (Moss and Green, 1983). In the whole process we need to take into account not only the specific kinetic energy associated to each rain event, but also the type of soil and the size of the particles released (Sharma et al 1991), as well as the characteristics of the layer of water formed on the surface (Moss and Green, 1983, Kinnell, 1991, Leguédois et al., 2005). The erosion process is more obvious when it affects vulnerable areas that have recently been devastated by a wildfire. This study has computed the raindrop size, its volume, the fall velocity, and its kinetic energy by means of an optical disdrometer. The data have subsequently been compared with the mass of soil that was splashed and collected in a particular area devastated by an important wildfire on the 17th of May 2012. The splash erosion produced in 6 months has been analyzed. 2. Study Site The data were gathered in the period between the 29th May and the 30th November 2012, in the area of Congosto, in the province of León, Spain. The study zone is part of a transition area between the plain and the mountainous regions. The dominant climate is the continentalized Mediterranean climate, although with more moderate temperatures. In general, in this area we find a wide temperature range (from 12 to 20°C), long and cold winters, short springs and autumns, and short and warm summers. Precipitation is irregularly scattered along the year, and may reach, depending on the area, up to 1,500 mm per year. Intense precipitation events may occur. The area presents a coarse-grained siliceous lithology, that is

  20. Regional Evaluation of ERA-40 Reanalysis Data with Marine Atmospheric Observations in the North Sea Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils H. Schade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important task of the departmental research programme KLIWAS is the evaluation and assessment of climate model results by means of a comprehensive reference data set. For validation purposes, and to create a North Sea wide maritime atmospheric and oceanographic reference database, in-situ observations of the Centre for Global Marine Meteorological Observations (GZS of the National Meteorological Service DWD have been compared to the ERA-40 reanalysis. ERA-40 is used as forcing for the hindcast runs of the ENSEMBLES regional climate models, which is used within the KLIWAS model chain. The GZS hosts a regularly updated, quality controlled, world-wide data bank of weather observations from the oceans. It includes data from all sorts of observation platforms as Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS, drifting and moored buoys, light vessels, and offshore platforms, either from real-time (RT via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS or from international exchange in delayed-mode (DM. In addition to the automated set of programs applied for high quality control, erroneous data are also manually corrected to a certain extent, if possible. To assure reliable statistics for the evaluation, the corrected observations are gridded to a resolution of 2.25 degree, so each grid box includes four ERA-40 reanalysis grid points. The temporal coverage of the grid boxes depends on shipping routes and the positions of automated systems. Observed air temperatures, covering a period of 40 years (1961?2000, show noticeable differences to the reanalysis data for all land influenced boxes, specifically in the winter months. The same differences can be found if ERA-40 data alone are compared between land- and sea facing boxes. They can not be found in GZS data. It can be assumed that the differences are not resulting from measurement errors or uncertain fraction variabilities, since they are small during the winter months. A comparison of the differences basing on the 1981

  1. Effects of terrace construction on runoff and erosion in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S. Martins

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In present-day Portugal, wildfires are a common phenomenon that, on average, affects some 100.000 ha of forest lands each year. Fires can markedly increase runoff generation and the associated sediment transport, nevertheless the magnitude of these impacts strongly depends on post-fire forestry management practices. This study evaluates the effect of terrace construction on runoff and erosion at micro-plot and catchment scale, six months after a wildfire in a forest area in north central Portugal. At the micro-plot scale, there was a clear trend for greater runoff volumes and sediment losses after the construction of terraces. In addition, pre-terracing sediment losses showed a visible relationship with rainfall amounts unlike post-terracing losses. At the catchment scale, an increase in sediment losses was observed after terracing consistently with micro-plot data.

  2. Ecologically least vulnerable sites for exploration drilling in the Wadden Sea and the North Sea coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch Oil Company (NAM, abbreviated in Dutch) applied for a number of exploration drilling in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea and the North Sea coastal area. NAM is obliged to draft a so-called MER (environmental impact report) to indicate the most environment-friendly alternative for the test drilling. By order of NAM, NIOZ and the IBN-DLO (Institute for Research on Forests and Nature) analyzed samples of the animal life in all the potential sites. Based on the results of the analyses, literature and expert knowledge the ecologically least vulnerable sites and the ecologically least vulnerable season were selected during a workshop. In this report the results are given of the workshop, the field sample analyses and a sailing trip along the sites

  3. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    D. van der Merwe; G.E. Swan; C. J. Botha

    2001-01-01

    Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guid...

  4. Assessment of the impact of moving fluids on the regional thermal field for the area of Brandenburg (North German Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, V.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cacace, M.; Lewerenz, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the 3D thermal field for the area of Brandenburg in the North German Basin. The study area encompasses a part of the basin centre in the north, whereas to the south the basin margin is enclosed. Starting with Permocarboniferous volcanic rocks the basin fill is represented by Permian to Cenozoic sediments. A thick layer of mobilized salt (Zechstein, Upper Permian) generated elevated structures such as salt pillows and diapirs. Especially where diapirs pierce their overburden, the overlying deposits are strongly influenced in their thickness and distribution. This special configuration of the Zechstein salt is relevant for the thermal calculations due to the fact that salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than the surrounding sediments and is impermeable to fluid flow. Therefore, the Zechstein salt acts as a conductive chimney for heat and a hydraulic decoupling horizon between the Pre-Permian and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata. The latter are characterized by two further quasi-impervious sediment complexes, the Rupelian-clay and the Muschelkalk. These two divide the Post-Permian strata in three main aquifer systems: the Buntsandstein, Keuper to Pre-Rupelian and the Post-Rupelian complex. Based on results from purely conductive modelling we additionally analyse the influence of moving fluids on the shallow temperature field above the Zechstein salt. Therefore coupled fluid flow and heat transfer numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydrothermal field. The 3D simulations for the heat transport processes are based on the finite element method. The results indicate that the distribution of thermal conductivities in the basin fill controls the short-wavelength pattern of the temperature distribution whereas the long wavelength pattern results from interaction between the highly conductive crust and low conductive sediments. Furthermore, the results reveal that the shallow temperature field

  5. MAPPING OF MARINE PLANTS DISTRIBUTIONS IN NORTH COASTAL AREA OF SUMBAWA REGENCY USING ALOS/AVNIR-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Astuti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation and management of water resource be more beneficial, if preceded by study which includes biological aspect besides physics and chemical parameter of waters. The biological aspects study can be conducted by monitoring the change of ecosystem (biomonitoring. One of study that entangles biomonitoring is the research concerning change of marine plants. Marine plants consists of seagrasses and seaweeds. Using ALOS/AVNIR-2 data in this research because it has 3 visible bands (blue, green, and red with 10 meter spacial resolutions can penetrate into water column. Aims of research were (1 to know combinations of bands in ALOS/AVNIR-2 data was better in Lyzenga method applying to mapping marine plants, (2 to know the general species of marine plants in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency. Lyzenga method was used in image processing process to know the combination of bands which have better for mapping marine plants. Preliminary steps of image processing were image cropping, geometric correction and radiometric correction. Water column effect was reduced by Lyzenga algorithm. Six classes were determined by multispectral classification process i.e. seagrass, seaweeds, coral, hard sand and rubble of coral, and substratum. Field surveys has done to identify the accuracy level. The accuracy method by Lillesand and Kiefer (1990 was used in this research.The result of accuracy test show for image band 1 and band 2 combination given better visual object benthic than another combinations of bands, with overall accuracy was 86.67%. Seagrass found in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency consist of four species there were Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Halophila ovalis with width equal to 835.37 ha, while seaweeds were found equal to five species there were Euchema cottoni, Euchema cottoni ssp sakul, Halimeda sp, Padina sp, and Sargasum duplicatum with width equal to 269,16 ha.

  6. Mineralogical investigations of the area to the North-West of Qattara Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrophysical and mineralogical investigations are given for subsurface samples from this area. The paper deals with mineralogical investigations of Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. It includes thin section examinations for 14 samples of sandstone, siltstone and carbonates, and x-ray powder diffraction analyses of some argillaceous samples, untreated and glycolated. It was found that the kaolinite group is the main clay mineral recorded in the argillaceous sandstone and siltstone samples. Illite and montmorillonite are identified in the shale sample representing the Kharita Formation. Siderite was also recorded in the sample. Illite and montmorillonite were recorded as well as kaolinite in two siltstone samples. (Author)

  7. Complex gravity zones and the extension of labour catchment areas in North Transdanubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study are the identification of the centres of gravity of the Northern-Transdanubian cities, including Győr, by using a gravitation model and, based on empirical examination, the definition of manpower catchment areas. Then, we are going to analyze the impact fields determined by two methods and seek explanations for the overlaps and differences of the two delineations, which are also going to be analyzed with the consideration of geographic, social and economic factors. Both examinations were carried out at two dates, covering a timeframe of 10 years.

  8. An epidemiological study of overweight and obesity among women in an Urban area of North India

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Girdhar; Sarit Sharma; Anurag Chaudhary; Priya Bansal; Mahesh Satija

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a complex, multi-factorial chronic disease. Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk for global deaths. Objectives: To find the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in women aged 20-60 years in Ludhiana city. Methods: The present study is a community based cross sectional study carried out in an urban area of Ludhiana among women aged 20-60 years. Among the study population of 324 women, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to record the soci...

  9. Geology, Geochemistry and Radioactivity of Gabal Hamrat Al Jirjab area, Esh El Melaha range, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Hamrat Al Jirjab area is located in the northern part of Esh El Melaha range, north Eastern Desert. The area is covered mainly by Dokhan volcanic rocks (andesite, dacite and their pyroclastics) intruded by alkali feldspar granites of G. Hamrat A1 Jiijab with some dyke swarms of various composition, felsic dykes (granophyres and rhyolite), intermediate dykes (andesite) and basic dykes (dolerite). The studied Dokhan volcanics are considered as medium-K rocks originated from calc-alkaline magma in island arc to active continental margin environment. On the other hand, the studied granites are classified as alkali feldspar granites and considered as I-type, originated from peraluminous calc-alkaline highly fractionated magma. They are post-orogenic and formed under an extensional regime suggesting crystallization during relaxation stage that following collision. They-are intruded in a crust of thickness> 30 Km and crystallized at temperature < 800°C. Alkali feldspar granites of G. Hamrat A1 Jiijab can be described as uraniferous granite. The average values (16 ppm eU and 32 ppm eTh) are attributed to the presence of U and Th bearing accessory minerals namely; thorite, uranothorite, monazite, zircon, fluorite and allanite. Stream sediments of G. Hamrat A1 Jiijab area exhibit mixture of detritus components, represented by pebble, granules, sand and sizes less than very coarse silt. These sediments are considered the natural trap for the accessory and some radioactive minerals for the surrounding country rocks.

  10. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts. PMID:26964762

  11. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The sediment source controls the distribution of the heavy metals. • There is no Cu, Pb, Zn and As pollution instead of slight Cd pollution. • Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic while Cd and As are mixed in origin. • Cd in polluted stations showed obvious anthropogenic origin. - Abstract: Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, 210Pbexcess and 137Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin

  12. Study of Landcover Change in Yelwa-Heipang Area of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria: A Geoinformatics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study is a research programme carried out to detect the change in land use/land cover of Yelwa-Heipang area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. It lies within the South-Eastern part of the Jos-Plateau. It is about 40 km South of Jos city. It is located between latitude 9°35'16.65" N, longitude 8°52'29.91" E and Latitude 9°38'38.92" N, longitude 8°57'03.87" E (Naraguta topomap, sheet 168S.E). Two sets of Landsat images of 1975, 1986 and NigeriaSat-X image of 2012 were subjected to various image processing techniques and a supervised classification was carried out on the various images using ILWIS (Integrated land and water information system) software. The classification scheme used are bare-surface, built-up, farmland and vegetation. A follow up field work was carried out to confirm the results of the classification. The results were subjected to various statistical analyses and it shows natural vegetated area coverage increased from 5.80 sqkm in 1975 to 18.47 sqkm in 1986 and later reduced to 16.85 sqkm in 2012. Non-vegetated area which comprised built-up area, farmlands and bare surface, decreased from 42.2 sqkm in 1975 to 33.82 sqkm in 1986, then to 35.86 sqkm in 2012.The rate of change of natural vegetation between 1975 and 1986 was 1.152 sqkm per annum, while that of 1986 and 2012 was 0.108 sqkm per annum. Loss of naturally vegetated area in Yelwa-Heipang Barkin-Ladi is mainly as a result of urban growth and expansion, farming and gully erosion. Another important issue in the study area is the problem of soil erosion. In the past mining activity had led to accelerated gully erosion which has stripped substantial areas of lands of their vegetations. This has led to the formation of bare surface. Land cover of the study area during the period between 1975 and 2012 changed from a forested area to other land uses as a result of increase in population, demand for land for agricultural purposes and increase in the demand for firewood.

  13. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  14. Tannin Fingerprinting in Vegetable Tanned Leather by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy and Comparison with Leathers Tanned by Other Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. van der Westhuizen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state 13C-NMR spectra of pure tannin powders from four different sources – mimosa, quebracho, chestnut and tara – are readily distinguishable from each other, both in pure commercial powder form, and in leather which they have been used to tan.  Groups of signals indicative of the source, and type (condensed vs. hydrolyzable of tannin used in the manufacture are well resolved in the spectra of the finished leathers.  These fingerprints are compared with those arising from leathers tanned with other common tanning agents.  Paramagnetic chromium (III tanning causes widespread but selective disappearance of signals from the spectrum of leather collagen, including resonances from acidic aspartyl and glutamyl residues, likely bound to Cr (III structures. Aluminium (III and glutaraldehyde tanning both cause considerable leather collagen signal sharpening suggesting some increase in molecular structural ordering. The 27Al-NMR signal from the former material is consistent with an octahedral coordination by oxygen ligands. Solid state NMR thus provides easily recognisable reagent specific spectral fingerprints of the products of vegetable and some other common tanning processes. Because spectra are related to molecular properties, NMR is potentially a powerful tool in leather process enhancement and quality or provenance assurance.

  15. Tannin fingerprinting in vegetable tanned leather by solid state NMR spectroscopy and comparison with leathers tanned by other processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Frederik H; Underwood, Andrew P; Senekal, Nadine D; Bonnet, Susan L; Duer, Melinda J; Reid, David G; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2011-01-01

    Solid state ¹³C-NMR spectra of pure tannin powders from four different sources--mimosa, quebracho, chestnut and tara--are readily distinguishable from each other, both in pure commercial powder form, and in leather which they have been used to tan. Groups of signals indicative of the source, and type (condensed vs. hydrolyzable) of tannin used in the manufacture are well resolved in the spectra of the finished leathers. These fingerprints are compared with those arising from leathers tanned with other common tanning agents. Paramagnetic chromium (III) tanning causes widespread but selective disappearance of signals from the spectrum of leather collagen, including resonances from acidic aspartyl and glutamyl residues, likely bound to Cr (III) structures. Aluminium (III) and glutaraldehyde tanning both cause considerable leather collagen signal sharpening suggesting some increase in molecular structural ordering. The ²⁷Al-NMR signal from the former material is consistent with an octahedral coordination by oxygen ligands. Solid state NMR thus provides easily recognisable reagent specific spectral fingerprints of the products of vegetable and some other common tanning processes. Because spectra are related to molecular properties, NMR is potentially a powerful tool in leather process enhancement and quality or provenance assurance. PMID:21278677

  16. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program. PMID:25421712

  17. Epidemiology of malaria in an area prepared for clinical trials in Korogwe, north-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Filbert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Site preparation is a pre-requesite in conducting malaria vaccines trials. This study was conducted in 12 villages to determine malariometric indices and associated risk factors, during long and short rainy seasons, in an area with varying malaria transmission intensities in Korogwe district, Tanzania. Four villages had passive case detection (PCD of fever system using village health workers. Methods Four malariometric cross-sectional surveys were conducted between November 2005 and May 2007 among individuals aged 0–19 years, living in lowland urban, lowland rural and highland strata. A total of 10,766 blood samples were collected for malaria parasite diagnosis and anaemia estimation. Blood smears were stained with Giemsa while haemoglobin level was measured by HaemoCue. Socio-economic data were collected between Jan-Apr 2006. Results Adjusting for the effect of age, the risk of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia was significantly lower in both lowland urban, (OR = 0.26; 95%CI: 0.23–0.29, p Conclusion Higher SES and use of bed nets in the lowland urban could be the important factors for low malaria infections in this stratum. Results obtained here were used together with those from PCD and DSS in selecting a village for Phase 1b MSP3 vaccine trial, which was conducted in the study area in year 2008.

  18. Effect of Ecotourism on Plant Biodiversity in Cherlagh Protected Area North-Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zarghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to importance of considerable effects of ecotourism on environment, the effect of ecotourism on plant biodiversity in Cherlagh zone was investigated .To acquire the aim of the article, the sampling area was selected under the condition that the ecotourism is solely the variable factor and the slope, direction and height are considered constant factor after evaluation of the ecological land unit drawings. Two zones of high pressured and low pressured ecotourism were considered after evaluation of related drawings. Samples were taken in spring 2010. For evaluation of the plant biodiversity 60 samples of 1 m2 (30 samples in each zone were taken randomly and then the list of flora and the cover percentage of vegetation were recorded and then the percentage of vegetation data were analyzed in PAST software individual , the biodiversity (Shanon, Simpson richness (Menhinick, Margalef evenness (Dominance, Berger parker, indices were calculated. The mentioned indices were inserted in SPSS II software and the data normality was tested through Kolomogrov-Smirnov test also the homogeneity of variances was tested using Leven test. Due to data normality, non-paired T test was used in order to compare diversity analysis. The results indicate that the richness and individual indices show significant effects of ecotourism on biodiversity indices.

  19. Bimodal Distribution of Area-Weighted Latitude of Sunspots And Solar North-South Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2011-01-01

    We study the latitudinal distribution of sunspots observed from 1874 to 2009 using the center-of-latitude (COL). We calculate COL by taking the area-weighted mean latitude of sunspots for each calendar month. We then form the latitudinal distribution of COL for the sunspots appearing in the northern and southern hemispheres separately, and in both hemispheres with unsigned and signed latitudes, respectively. We repeat the analysis with subsets which are divided based on the criterion of which hemisphere is dominant for a given solar cycle. Our primary findings are as follows: (1) COL is not monotonically decreasing with time in each cycle. Small humps can be seen (or short plateaus) around every solar maxima. (2) The distribution of COL resulting from each hemisphere is bimodal, which can well be represented by the double Gaussian function. (3) As far as the primary component of the double Gaussian function is concerned, for a given data subset, the distributions due to the sunspots appearing in two different...

  20. Mapping and Monitoring of Dynamic Seafloor Features with Hydroacoustic Devices in Sandy Coastal Areas (German Bight, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenmeier, S.; Mielck, F.; Hass, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand marine ecosystems and to provide basic data for a sustainable management in these vulnerable areas, seafloor mapping has become increasingly important. Since the knowledge regarding the seabed environments and their dynamics are still sparse, new mapping techniques have evolved in the last years and hydroacoustic devices became an important tool for quick and reliable mapping. In 2007 we started a monitoring program in the German Bight (North Sea) using sidescan sonar (Imagenex YellowFin, 330 kHz) in a study site comprising approximately 1,500 km2. In subsequent years, the area was mapped repeatedly with a resolution of ~25 cm. For ground truthing, several hundred sediment samples were taken. The investigations reveal that the area is mainly characterized by fine to coarse sand which is arranged in different seafloor features such as subaquatic dunes or relicts of Pleistocene moraines. While the alignment and position of the moraines was stable throughout the years, the dunes can be highly dynamic. Their migration indicates the amount of sediment transport in these areas. Some seafloor features could be identified as so-called sorted bedforms, which are spatially-grain-size-sorted patterns on the seafloor consisting of small rippled medium sand surrounded by smooth fine sand. These flow-transverse features are morphological linked to ridges and depressions and are further maintained by ebb and flood currents of almost equal strengths. The medium sand is separated from the fine sand by sharp boundaries in all directions which were generated by the bidirectional flow field. The extend and alignment of the sorted bedforms seem to be relatively stable in a time frame of 6 years, however small-scale variabilities up to serveral meters could be detected. We suppose that these processes mainly occur during storm surges while the fine-sand layers are winnowed away and hence the shapes of the bedforms changes.

  1. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area. PMID:25072718

  2. Derivation of travel demand forecasting models for low population areas: the case of Port Said Governorate, North East Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Semeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, there has been substantial development in modeling techniques of travel demand estimation. For low population areas the external trip estimation is important but usually neglected in travel demand modeling process. In Egypt, the researches in this field are scarce due to lack of data. Accordingly, this paper aims to identify and estimate the main variables that affect the travel demand in low population areas, and to develop models to predict them. The study focused on the Port Said Governorate in North East Egypt. A special questionnaire had been prepared in 2010 depending on interviews of passengers at basic taxi terminals in Port Said. And 2211 filled questionnaires were offering for research. To analyze the data, two modeling procedures were used. One is the multiple linear regression and the other is the generalized linear modeling (GLM applying normal distributions. It is found that GLM procedure offers more suitable and accurate approach than the linear regression for developing number of trips. The final demand models have statistics within the acceptable regions and, also, they are conceptually reasonable. These results are so important for Egyptian highway authorities to improve the efficiency of highway transportation system in Egypt.

  3. Soil radon concentration, CO2 and CH4 flux measurements around the Jwalamukhi area of North-West Himalayas, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil radon concentration, CO2 and CH4 flux measurements were conducted using the soil-gas method and flux surveying around the Jwalamukhi area of North-West Himalayas, India. During this study, around 37 soil gas points and flux measurements were taken with the aim to assure the suitability of this method in the study of fault zones. For this purpose RAD7 (Durridge USA) was used to monitor radon concentrations, whereas portable diffuse flux meter (West system Italy) was used for the CO2 and CH4 flux measurements. The recorded radon concentration varies from 6.1 kBq/m3 to 34.5 kBq/m3 with an average value of 16.5 kBq/m3. The anomalous value of radon concentrations was recorded between Jwalamukhi thrust and Burser thrust. The recorded average CO2 and CH4 flux were 11.8 g/m2/day and 2.7 g/m2/day respectively. The good correlation between CO2 flux and radon concentrations has been observed in the study area, suggesting that radon migration is dependent on CO2. (author)

  4. Communal visual histories to detect environmental change in northern areas: Examples of emerging North American and Eurasian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Tero

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed. PMID:26008615

  5. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern. PMID:26318969

  6. The inner circulation mechanism in sinking column formation in North China coal field——A case study in Fengfeng mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-ming; LIU Xian-wei; LIU Wen-sheng; GUAN Yong-qiang; WANG Jun-xian

    2007-01-01

    Sinking columns are one of the most hazardous geological structures in north Chine typed coal fields.To understand the sinking column formation,to judge if the columns are hazardous or not,the inner circle mechanism of groundwater in forming sinking columns in the relatively isolated areas was proposed according to the investigation on formation or distribution of sinking columns in some north China typed coal fields.such as Fengfeng,Xiangtai,Huaibei,Yangquan and so on.The heat generated by magma energized groundwater circulation and developed limestone karst in the relatively isolated areas.The CaCO3 solution accelerated by geothermal abnormality,the effect of high content of CO2 on dissolution and saturation of CaCO3 were discussed.Compared the forming conditions of the sinking columns developed in other coal mining areas in north China coal field,the paper deduced that the above factors collude karst development and sinking column formation,the columns in current geothermaI areas are permeable and those in high coal rank areas or in paleo abnormally geothermal areas.The paper suggested that the sinking columns in the current abnormally geothermal areas were permeable,but those in the areas with high coal rank were not on contract.

  7. Microstructural and weldability evaluation of 310TaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Excellent weldability and good microstructural stability of 310TaN, in terms of the formation and growth of secondary phases at elevated temperature, was revealed in this investigation. The interganular stress corrosion resistance of 310TaN is superior to modified 800H and 310HCbN evaluated previously due to the fact that TaC, TaN and Ta(C,N) particles are more stable compared to Nb-rich or Ti-rich carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides presented in the other advanced alloys. Using resistance spot welding technique for which extremely fast cooling is a characteristic, it was found that a very minor amount of gain boundary liquation takes place during welding thermal cycling. The limited grain boundary liquation is of the eutectic type i.e., a low tendency to weld HAZ hot cracking.

  8. Effective ultraviolet irradiance measurements from artificial tanning devices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Aspasia; Karabetsos, Efthymios

    2015-12-01

    Artificial tanning remains very popular worldwide, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunbeds as 'carcinogenic to humans'. Greek Atomic Energy Commission has initiated a surveillance action of the artificial tanning devices in Greece in order to record the effective irradiance levels from the sunbeds and to inform and synchronise the domestic artificial tanning business sector with the requirements of the European Standard EN 60335-2-27:2010. In this direction, in situ measurements of UV emissions from sunbeds in solaria businesses all over Greece were performed from October 2013 until July 2014, with a radiometer and a portable single-monochromator spectrophotometer. Analysis of the measurements' results revealed that effective irradiance in ∼60 % of the measured sunbeds exceeded the 0.3 W m(-2) limit value set by EN 60335-2-27:2010 and only 20 % of the devices could be categorised as UV type 3. PMID:25468991

  9. Tanning lamps ultraviolet emissions and compliance with technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the compliance of tanning lamps with technical standards EN 60335-2-27 'Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety. Part 2: Particular requirements for appliances for skin exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation' was analysed. Results of this analysis showed that none of the examined technical documentation produced by the lamps manufacturers is fully compliant with the standard technique. Furthermore data reported in the same manuals, such as effective radiant exposure or irradiance, would indicate that these sources may be the cause of undue exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. For this reason a measurement campaign on UV lamps used in tanning salons was organised. The first results of these measurements seem to confirm the doubts raised from the analysis of the lamp manuals: the use of a tanning lamp can lead to UV radiation exposure levels higher than reference maximum values recommended by EN 60335-2-27. (authors)

  10. Indoor Tanning within UK Young Adults: An Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Lorna J; Forshaw, Mark J; Williams, Stella

    2013-01-01

    The indoor tanning industry poses a long-term public health risk. Despite the adverse health effects, indoor tanning seems to be gaining considerable popularity. The study examined indoor tanning intentions and behaviour within UK young adults using an extended theory of planned behaviour model, which included variables on "appearance reasons to tan," "perceived susceptibility to damaging appearance," "perceived susceptibility to health consequences," and "tanning knowledge." The model was successful in predicting indoor tanning intentions and behaviour (explained 17% and 71%, resp.). An interesting outcome was the magnitude of the variable "appearance reasons to tan." A current tanned appearance therefore seemed to outweigh any adverse future appearance or health consequences caused by indoor tanning. Appearance-focused interventions to reduce such behaviour may now prove to be efficacious within a UK sample. PMID:24967136

  11. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-01

    The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning. PMID:24507977

  12. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  13. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    Tellander, Felix

    2016-01-01

    H2 beam line of SPS North Area is a high energy, high resolution and multipurpose particle beam line. It is able to transport secondary hadron and pure electron beams with momenta between 10 and 400 GeV/c to be exploited by several different experiments. In this work, tertiary particle production from a secondary target placed in the line is studied. The introduction of this “filter” target enhances the middle to low momentum hadron (20 - 60 GeV/c) and electron production. In this work, a systematic Monte Carlo simulation study using a GEANT 4 based package, G4beamline, has been performed in order to investigate the tertiary particle production from several different targets. More specifically, Cu, W and polyethylene targets with different thicknesses have been studied. The proton over pi+ ratio is of particular interest, as well as the optimal electron production for several momenta. The present work will act as a reference to be used by the future test-beam users of the line as an indication of the expe...

  14. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ''clean'' fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into ≤10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release ≥90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving

  15. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137Cs and 241Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h-1, below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h-1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h-1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  16. Dental care knowledge and practices among secondary school adolescents in Ibadan North Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Joshua Ogunrinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental care knowledge, and practice of secondary school adolescents in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Methodology: Four hundred and twelve secondary school adolescents were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data on dental care knowledge and practice obtained through the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with level of significance set at 5%. Result: Consumption of sticky, sugary and chocolaty food items was perceived by a majority (81.8% as unhealthy to dental health and 66.3% perceived consumption of fruits and vegetables as healthy to the teeth. Vertical brushing technique was mentioned by 69.7% of respondents as the best method of brushing the teeth, and 89.6% stated that teeth should be brushed twice daily. Majority 57.0% of respondents open caps of soft drink bottles with their teeth and 74.3% used toothpicks to remove food trapped in between teeth. Majority (82.8% perceived that dentist should be visited for check-up once in 6 months, however, only 31.6% of respondents had visited dentists before. There was a statistically significant relationship between tooth brushing technique and type of school attended by the respondents (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents have good oral health knowledge but poor dental health practice.

  17. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  18. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of ∼323+/-5Bqm-3 was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of ∼13+/-6Bqm-3 was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm-3) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm-3 was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of ∼25+/-7Bqm-3 was measured in Mardan and maximum of ∼210+/-5Bqm-3 was measured in Charsadda District

  19. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: matiullah@pieas.edu.pk; Rahman, Z. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mati, N. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ghauri, B.M. [SPAS Division, Sparcent, SUPARCO Karachi (Pakistan)

    2007-02-15

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of {approx}323+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of {approx}13+/-6Bqm{sup -3} was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm{sup -3}) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm{sup -3} was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of {approx}25+/-7Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Mardan and maximum of {approx}210+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Charsadda District.

  20. The Netherlands and the designation of marine protected areas in the North Sea Implementing international and European law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Dotinga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that representative and ecologically coherent networks of marine protected areas (MPAs should be created to maintain biodiversity and to conserve specific species, habitats and ecological processes. This article addresses the contribution that is made by the Netherlands to the North Sea MPA network. It reviews the applicable legal obligations with regard to the designation of MPAs contained in global and regional treaties and EU law, and provides a critical assessment of the actions that have thus far been taken by the Netherlands to implement these obligations. The article concludes that significant steps have been taken towards a solid Dutch contribution to the global and regional goals of representative MPA networks. There are, however, a number of shortcomings. To a large degree, these are the result of the policy of the Netherlands Government to go no further in the designation of MPAs than what is strictly required by the EU Birds and Habitats Directives. On account of the widely acknowledged ‘marine deficiencies’ of the Habitats Directive, this policy stands in the way of achieving the target of a representative MPA network. Moreover, it is rather doubtful whether the same minimalist approach is sufficient to meet the relevant obligations of the Netherlands under global and regional treaties, in particular the OSPAR Convention. These shortcomings can be remedied by the designation of additional MPAs and, in some cases, by extending the list of species and habitats for which current MPAs have been selected.

  1. Dynamics and structure of natural regeneration in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraruf L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration structures and spatial patterns of European larch (Larix decidua Miller, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst., were analyzed in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps. Larch and spruce regeneration is mainly affected by dense forest cover and grasses competition whereas stone pine is mostly sensitive to late snow melting, fungal diseases and wild ungulate damages. The current stand and regeneration structure suggests that larch has been highly fostered in the past due to silvo-pastoral management practices. All species show a clear tendency to spatial intraspecific aggregation especially at short-distances. The spatial patterns of larch regeneration are more complex than the other two species, more heavily affected by a main factor such as the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes L. seed dispersal for stone pine or presence of canopy gaps for spruce. However, spatial patterns of all species depend on the number of the available microsites, that often match at small distance driving the formation of small mixed and unevenaged patches. Combining the age structure and spatial pattern information we were able to better understand the small-scale patterns and processes and the role of the past disturbances on the regeneration dynamics in space and time.

  2. Adoption of Improved Processing Technologies by Fish Farmers in Akure North and South Local Government Areas, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIX OLAYINKA OLADIPO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the adoption of improved processing technologies by fish farmers in Akure North and South LGAs, Ondo state, Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was employed to select 150 fish farmers interviewed for the study, data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Tobit regression model. Results showed that majority of the farmers (68.0% were males with mean age of 38.5 years old. Majority (80.7% of respondents were married while (90% had various degree of formal education, oil drum, smoking kiln and mud oven were the improved fish processing technologies available in the study area. Furthermore, cooperatives (92.7% was ranked 1st as the most preferred source of information by the farmers, majority of respondents (94.7% were aware of oil drum. The mean levels of adoption was 2.50, values below and above the mean were regarded as low and high respectively, the use of oil drum (2.58, smoking kiln (1.47 and mud oven (1.33 were the adoption scores of the respondents in the study area. Moreover, age (4.201, education level (2.105, household size (1.791, income (3.021, gender (1.781, pond size (2.511 and other income generating activities (2.256 were factors that were statistically significant thus affecting the rate of adoption of improved fish processing technologies. The study concludes that respondents were aware of some of the improved technologies but low adoption, the study therefore recommends the need for capacity building and advisory services by extension agents and other stakeholders for fish processors.

  3. Bacteriuria among primary and secondary school pupils in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluyemi Ebenezer; Akharaiyi, Fred Coolborn; Lawal, Opeyemi Zaynab

    2012-09-01

    Bacteriuria in urinary tract infection is severe and associated with considerable morbidity if left untreated. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of bacteriuria among primary and secondary school pupils in Akure North Local Government Area. The study included subjects from the highly populated schools in this local government area. The samples analyzed were exclusively collected from volunteer pupils whose age and sex were documented by the questionnaire distributed to them. Urine samples were collected randomly under aseptic conditions from 250 pupils aged 5-20 attending primary and secondary schools. Urine samples were subjected to microbiological analysis by culturing 1 mL each on nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar, plate count agar and chocolate agar for possible isolation of any bacteria. Bacterial colonies were enumerated and identified to the species level. Analytical indices revealed bacteriuria to be more common in female (41.2%) than male (3.2%) subjects. The highest bacterial count in female urine samples was 281 x 10(3) against 149 x 10(3) in male samples. A higher infection rate was recorded in secondary school pupils aged 11-20. Escherichia coli predominated among isolated bacteria species with 48.8%. Laboratory results confirmed urinary tract infection in some of the study pupils. As only volunteer pupils submitted their samples for analysis, this small population was represented in the study, predominated by female subjects. None of the pupils showed signs of infection, therefore routine laboratory checkup is important among children in order to limit damage to some of their vital tissues. PMID:23330403

  4. Radon ((222)Rn) concentration in indoor air near the coal mining area of Nui Beo, North of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Dang Duc; Fernando, Carvalho P; Thu Ha, Nguyen Thi; Long, Nguyen Quang; Thuan, Dao Dinh; Fonseca, Heloisa

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of radioactive radon gas ((222)Rn) were measured using passive monitors based on LR115 solid state track detectors during June-July 2010 in indoor air of dwellings in the Nui Beo coal mining area, mostly in Cam Pha and Ha Long coastal towns, Quang Ninh province, in the North of Vietnam. Global results of (222)Rn concentrations indoors varied from ≤6 to 145 Bq m(-3) averaging 46 ± 26 Bq m(-3) (n = 37), with a median value of 47 Bq m(-3). This was similar to outdoor (222)Rn concentrations in the region, averaging 43 ± 19 Bq m(-3) (n = 10), with a median value of 44 Bq m(-3). Indoor (222)Rn concentrations in the coastal town dwellings only were in average lower although not significantly different from indoor (222)Rn concentrations measured at the coal storage field near the harbor, 67 ± 4 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the average (222)Rn concentration in indoor air measured in the coastal towns region and those at the touristic Tuan Chau Island located about 45 km south of the coal mine, in the Ha Long Bay. The indoor (222)Rn concentration in a floating house at the Bai Tu Long Bay, and assumed as the best estimate of the baseline (222)Rn in surface air, was 27 ± 3 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Indoor average concentration of (222)Rn in dwellings at the Ha Noi city, inland and outside the coal mining area, was determined at 30 Bq m(-3). These results suggest that (222)Rn exhalation from the ground at the Nui Beo coal mining area may have contributed to generally increase (222)Rn concentration in the surface air of that region up to 1.7 times above the baseline value measured at the Bai Tu Long Bay and Ha Noi. The average indoor concentration of (222)Rn in Cam Pha-Ha Long area is about one-third of the value of the so-called Action Level set up by the US EPA of 148 Bq m(-3). Results suggest that there is no significant public health risk from (222)Rn exposure in the study region. PMID

  5. Radon (222Rn) concentration in indoor air near the coal mining area of Nui Beo, North of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of radioactive radon gas (222Rn) were measured using passive monitors based on LR115 solid state track detectors during June-July 2010 in indoor air of dwellings in the Nui Beo coal mining area, mostly in Cam Pha and Ha long coastal towns, Quang Ninh province, in the north of Vietnam. Global results of 222Rn concentrations indoors varied from ≤6 to 145 Bq m-3, averaging 46 ± 26 Bq m-3 (n = 37), with a median value of 47 Bq m-3. This was similar to outdoor 222Rn concentrations in the region, averaging 43 ± 19 Bq m-3 (n = 10), with a median value of 44 Bq m-3. Indoor 222Rn concentrations in the coastal town dwellings only were in average lower although not significantly different from indoor 222Rn concentrations measured at the coal storage field near the harbor, 67 ± 4 Bq m-3 (n = 3). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the average 222Rn concentration in indoor air measured in the coastal towns region and those at the tourist Tuan Chau Island located about 45 km south of the coal mine, in the Ha Long Bay. The indoor 222Rn concentration in a floating house at the Bai Tu Long Bay, and assumed as the best estimate of the baseline 222Rn in surface air, was 27 ± 3 Bq m-3 (n = 3). Indoor average concentration of 222Rn in dwellings at the Ha Noi city, inland and outside the coal mining area, was determined at 30 Bq m-3. These results suggest that 222Rn exhalation from the ground at the Nui Beo coal mining area may have contributed to generally increase 222Rn concentration in the surface air of that region up to 1.7 times above the baseline value measured at the Bai Tu Long Bay and Ha Noi. The average indoor concentration of 222Rn in Cam Pha-Ha Long area is about one-third of the value of the so-called Action Level set up by the US EPA of 148 Bq m-3. Results suggest that there is no significant public health risk from 222Rn exposure in the study region. (author)

  6. Integration of geological and geophysical data: a guide to exploration for uranium in Raghunathgarh area, North Delhi fold belt, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralization associated with sulphide bearing sheared/brecciated quartzite in North Delhi Fold Belt is known from Raghunathgarh area of Sikar district, Rajasthan. Here, the surface mineralisation occurs intermittently over 1.5 km with samples (n=21) analysing 0.014-0.710% U3O8 (Av. 0.162%) with negligible thorium. Uraninite, along with other secondary minerals, occurs as fine sized grains along fracture planes, around grain boundaries and also as fine sized grains forming small clusters. The sulfides include pyrite, pyrhotite, and chalcopyrite. Magnetite is also present. Considering the promising surface indications, structural control and association of uranium mineralisation with sulfides, magnetic, IP/resistivity and EM surveys were carried out to delineate subsurface structural features and conductors in the area. A sizeable part of the area is covered with sand dunes and soil. The magnetic survey revealed two sub-surface faults, one of which is parallel to a shear and the mineralized zone. EM conductor axis, as marked by the EM survey, extends over a strike length of about 800m and again for 400m with a lateral shift. A prominent NE-SW trending high chargeability and corresponding low resistivity zone and a magnetic low depicting a fracture zone was identified in the NW part of the explored area. Based on the geological and geophysical data and the surface indications, sub-surface exploration was taken up at Raghunathgarh and a total of 42 boreholes have been completed so far. It is observed that the EM conductor axis and one of the faults delineated from the magnetic survey broadly coincide with the mineralization bands intercepted in some of the boreholes. A few boreholes were also drilled to test the NE-SW trending high chargeability/low resistivity zone corresponding to carbonaceous phyllite, clay, disseminated sulphides and the fracture zone marked by a magnetic low in the NW part. Core examination indicated the presence of varied lithounits

  7. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy): Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani; Anna Rita Di Cerbo; Alessia Libera Gazzonis; Marco Genchi; Laura Rinaldi; Vincenzo Musella; Giuseppe Cringoli; Maria Teresa Manfredi

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS...

  8. Challenges facing small, micro and medium enterprises (SMMEs) in the Mafikeng and Mmabatho area of the North West Province / Gladys Serumaga-Zake

    OpenAIRE

    Serumaga-Zake, Gladys

    2005-01-01

    This research study investigates some of the problems or challenges faced by SMMEs in the Mafikeng and Mmabatho area of the North West province. It strives to find out the extent as to which these problems occur and the impact they have on these businesses. The research focuses on two major problems considered to be hindering the growth of SMMEs in this area, namely the lack of entrepreneurial management and financial skills. The lack of these skills in the running of small bus...

  9. Regional Kinematics of the Cocos-Caribbean-North American Plates Triple Junction Area, Constrained by GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon-Caen, H.; Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Amaya-Zelaya, W.; Barrier, E.; Chiquin, L.; Figueroa, C.; Flores, O.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Kostoglodov, V.; Molina, E.; Robles, V.; Jorge, R.

    2006-12-01

    Northern Central America is located in a complex zone of interraction between three major tectonic plates: The North American (NA), the Caribbean (CA) and the Cocos (CO) plates. While the CO plate is subducting under the NA and CA plates along the Mid-American trench, the on-land relative motion between the NA and CA plates is mainly accomodated by the east-west-trending left-lateral Polochic-Motagua fault system. The relative contributions of the Polochic and Motagua left-lateral faults, of a series of north-south grabens on the CA plate, and of the Mid-American Volcanic Arc (MAVA) in the accomodation of the deformation related to the CO-NA-CA triple junction remain poorly constrained. To adress these issues, we have analyzed GPS campaign data from geodetic networks in Guatemala (24 sites measured in 1999, 2003 and 2006), Salvador (3 sites measured in 2003 and 2006), and Chiapas in Mexico (8 sites measured in 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005). These data were combined with GPS data from 14 permanent stations (including 11 stations in Mexico and 3 in Guatemala) and selected IGS stations. They were processed using the GAMIT and GLOBK softwares. Preliminary results computing the 1999-2003 data from the Guatemalan GPS network show that the relative velocity between the NA and CA plates is about 20 mm/yr. The obtained velocity field can be fitted using simple elastic models with a single fault centered on the Motagua fault, locked at a depth of 20 km with a slip-rate decreasing from eastern (20 mm/yr) to central Guatemala (12 mm/yr) towards the CO-NA-CA triple junction. This decrease seems to be accomodated by a 8 mm/yr east-west extension across the grabens south of the Motagua fault. We also observe about 10 mm/yr of dextral slip across MAVA. We will present a new regional velocity field, combining all the available Guatemalan, Salvadorian and Mexican GPS data set in order to better quantify the deformation of northern Central America at a regional scale, and to present a

  10. CoPant 97222 – A High Yielding Mid Late Maturing Sugarcane Variety for North West Zone Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Tyagi, K.A. Khan and A.Q. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety CoPant 97222 was developed from open pollinated cross on cultivar CoPant 84212 at Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore. It was evaluated against the check varieties Co 1148, CoS 767 and CoS 8436 for its performance under AICRP yield trials of North Western Zone from 2000-01 to 2003-04 in two plants and one ratoon crops at G. B. Pant Univ. of Agri.& Technology, Pantnagar. The clone CoPant 97222, recorded an average cane yield of 88.16 t/ha and sugar yield of 11.14 t/ha and thus found superior to the checks CoS 767 (72.70 and 8.81 t/ha and (Co 1148 (78.27 and 9.23 t/ha and CoS 8436 (71.33 and 8.88 t/ha for cane and sugar yields respectively. The percent increase for cane yield t/ha of CoPant 97222 over checks CoS767, Co 1148 and CoS 8436 was 21.12, 12.78 and 23.80 respectively. The percent increase for sugar yield over checks also ranged from 21.17 to 26.00. Juice sucrose percent at harvest in CoPant 97222 was on par with CoS 767 and CoS 8436 but superior to Co 1148. The number of millable canes in CoPant 97222 were on par with CoS 8436 but cane length, cane diameter and cane weight were high in variety CoPant 97222 over the checks. This variety was resistant to Red rot under natural and artificial inoculated conditions. This variety CoPant had tall medium thick canes with erect growing habit and non lodging . It was released for cultivation in North Western Zone comprising of five states viz., Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, UP and Uttarakhand by Central Variety Release Committee, Government in the year 2006. This variety is performing excellent in the notified areas.

  11. Assessment of Biodegradability of Synthetic Tanning Agents Used in Leather Tanning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaniendra.A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to assess the biodegradability of two synthetic tanning agents (syntans, Phenol condensation product and Nitrogen containing resin using Respirometry. The evaluation involved the analysis of oxygen uptake rate (OUR, profiles by respirometry. The study was conducted with different syntan concentrations of 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 150mg/L and 200mg/L. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR of mixed liquid is 60 mg/L h with 50mg/L phenol condensation product and is found to be higher than with the concentrations 100, 150 and 200 mg/L h. The percent chemical oxygen demand (%COD removal was decreased with increased syntan concentration indicating high rates ofbiodegradation at low concentration and toxicity impacts or low rates of biodegradation at higher concentrations. Whereas the Nitrogen Containing Resin showed complete inhibition on oxygen uptake rate of mixed liquor at all concentrations and very low % COD removals as well showing less biodegradability or potential toxic impact on the activated sludge.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of indoor tanning and sunless tanning product use among female teens in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Quinn; Arsham Alamian; Joel Hillhouse; Colleen Scott; Rob Turrisi; Katie Baker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor tanning (IT) before the age of 35 increases melanoma risk by 75%. Nevertheless, IT and sunless tanning product (STP) use have gained popularity among youth. However, there are limited data on the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of both IT and STP use in a representative sample of American teens. Methods: Teenage females (N = 778) aged 12–18 years were recruited as part of an on-going longitudinal study conducted between May 2011 and May 2013. Descriptive stati...

  13. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning

  14. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crudu, Marian, E-mail: mariancrudu@yahoo.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Viorica, E-mail: viorica.deselnicu@icpi.ro [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Dana Corina, E-mail: d_deselnicu@yahoo.com [University Politehnica Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei Nr. 313, Sector 6, RO-060042 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Luminita, E-mail: luminita.albu@gmail.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  15. LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING WASTE MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviewed herein is the waste management research and development program for the leather tanning and finishing industry. Emphasis is placed on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) role, both past and present, and major developments over the past few years outside EPA, incl...

  16. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi S; Kesavachandran C; Mahdi Farzana; Pandey Amit

    2007-01-01

    Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned.

  17. 75 FR 33683 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... means a service employing any electronic product designed to incorporate one or more ultraviolet lamps... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40, 49, and 602 RIN 1545-BJ41 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and...

  18. 78 FR 34874 - Indoor Tanning Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... published in the Federal Register (TD 9486, 75 FR 33683; REG-112841-10, 75 FR 33740) (2010 regulations... indoor tanning services that are obtained by redemption of ``bonus points'' through a loyalty program or... redemption of benefits such as ``bonus points'' under a loyalty program or similar program or promotion...

  19. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned.

  20. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning II. hydrolyzable tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable tannages employ both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. As part of our exploration of tanning mechanisms, we reported last year on interactions of the condensed tannin, quebracho, with powdered hide. In this study, the interactions of chestnut extract, a hydrolyzable tannin, with powdere...

  1. Geoarchaeology of the karstic area of Mirambello, North-East Crete (Greece): palaeoenvironmental investigations and human settlement implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M.; Kunesch, S.; Robert, V.; Farnoux, A.; Wurmser, H.

    2009-04-01

    The present work aims to detail the preliminary researches dealing with the geomorphologic, topographic and archaeological setting from two major settlements located in north east Crete. The project undertook by the French school of Archaeology in Athens aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the whole area during the last millennia. Fieldworks, including coring, had already been done in August 2006, April 2007 and September 2008; we propose to present the main results. The settlements of Latô and Dreros belong to the area of Mirambello characterized by its spectacular karstic processes and landforms, different karstic depressions with different size can be identified and classified into Dolines and Poljés. As far as the archaeological interest is concerned, villages and cities were occupied during the hellenestic period; several remains are still present around and inside these depressions. Using a G.I.S., the first step consisted in establishing a local geomorphological mapping, taking into account the geological background and the historical occupation of the area. The second step consisted in establishing topographic cross sections of the doline, where the ancient settlement of Latô is located, based on various DGPS surveys. Several questions concerning the occupation of this depression arose : how and for which reasons people decided to leave close to this specific landform ? Which type of activities (farming, grazing, cultivation…) existed and did they were related with natural resources exploitation ? A project associating the local greek archaeological services (Ephoria of Aghios Nikolaos, Director Ms. Apostolakou), the mayor of Nea Polis, the University of Paris 12 (GEONAT EA 435) and the French School of Athens tries to depict the historical evolution of the landscape. Four boreholes (up to a maximum depth of 5 meters) had been drilled in the poljé of Dreros and in a doline situated 1 km away from the ancient settlement of Lat

  2. Distribution of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific in relation to oceanic fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Hiroto; Hakamada, Takashi; Matsuoka, Koji; Nishiwaki, Shigetoshi; Inagake, Denzo; Okazaki, Makoto; Tojo, Naoki; Kitakado, Toshihide

    2014-09-01

    The subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific is an important summer feeding grounds of sei whales. The oceanographic structure and circulation of this area are largely determined by strong oceanic fronts and associated geostrophic currents, namely the Polar Front (PF), Subarctic Front (SAF) and Kuroshio Extension Front (KEF). The relationship between the distribution of sei whales and oceanographic fronts was investigated using a generalized additive model (GAM), and the cetacean sighting survey data and oceanographic observations in July from 2000 to 2007 were used in the analysis. The number of individual sei whales was used as the response variable while the distances from the PF, SAF, and KEF to the whales were used as explanatory variables along with the longitude values. Sei whales were concentrated north and south of the SAF and the areas from 250 to 300 km north and from 100 to 200 km south of the SAF were estimated as high-density areas of sei whales. The entire inter-frontal zone between the PF and SAF featured an elevated concentration of sei whales, and the area south of the PF and along the SAF was identified as an important feeding ground of sei whales in July from 2000 to 2007.

  3. 77 FR 37806 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and temporary... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  4. Tanning behaviors and determinants of solarium use among indoor office workers in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Hirst, Nicholas G; Green, Adèle C; Neale, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Using cross-sectional survey data from Brisbane, Australia, this study identifies prevalence and factors associated with indoor tanning in office workers. Over 12-months, 72/2867 (2.5%) survey participants used solaria. Twenty-eight sunbed users (39%) tanned outdoors and used spray-tans and 42 (58%) reported burns after indoor tanning. Results from regression modelling suggests the strongest predictors of sunbed use were beliefs that tanning was safer indoors than outdoors (OR 6.1, 95%CI: 2.6-14.0) and engaging in outdoor tanning (OR 4.1, 95%CI: 1.8-9.0). We recommend that health authorities promote health gains by reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure or substituting indoor tanning with a spray-on tan. PMID:22131168

  5. Accomodation of the deformation in the Cocos-Caribbean-North America triple junction area, from GPS meaurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Molina, E.; Kostoglodov, V.; Barrier, E.; Figueroa, C.

    2008-12-01

    Northern Central America is located in a complex zone of interaction between three major tectonic plates: the North American (NA), the Caribbean (CA) and the Cocos (CO) plates. While the CO plate is subducting under the NA and CA plates along the Mid-American trench, the on-land relative motion between the NA and CA plates is mainly accommodated by the east-west trending left-lateral Polochic-Motagua fault system. We use GPS data to characterize the deformation in this CO-CA-NA triple junction area in terms of interactions and relative contributions of the different structures (Polochic and Motagua faults, a series of north-south grabens south of them and the Mid-American Volcanic Arc, MAVA), and coupling at the subduction interface. We analyse GPS-campaign data from different networks in Guatemala (24 sites measured in 1999-2003- 2006), Salvador (3 sites measured in 2003 and 2006) and Chiapas, southern Mexico (8 sites measured each year from 2002 to 2004). Data are processed and combined using the GAMIT/GLOBK softwares. The obtained velocity field is first fitted using simple elastic models. The Motagua fault seems to accomodate most of the present left-lateral motion between CA and NA, with less than 30 procent taken by the Polochic fault despite its comparable surface morphology, historical seismicity and microseismic activity (that we recorded during a 6 months experiment in 2005). This may suggest complex mechanical interactions between the Motagua and Polochic faults at the scale of several seismic cycles. A single fault model, centered on the Motagua fault, locked at a depth of 15 km, indicates a slip rate decrease from eastern (20 mm/yr) to central Guatemala (10 mm/yr) towards the CA-CO-NA triple junction (0 mm/yr?). This decrease seems to be consistent with east-west extension rates estimated across the Ipala and Guatemala city grabens south of the Motagua fault. We also observe a right-lateral movement across the MAVA: 15mm/yr in western Salvador and 10mm

  6. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  7. Radioactive Accessory Minerals From Stream Sediments at Wadi Mayet EL Abd, Northern Gattar Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadi Mayet El-Abd is located in the northern part of G. Gattar, north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Significant remarks have been recorded on the heterogeneous distributions of heavy minerals content along the stream course, where they are most common in both deeper sediments and downstream sites. Moreover, these sediments appear to be slightly favorable delivery pools for thorium but not for uranium which is probably due to either the marked enrichment in the thorium-bearing minerals or the selective leaching for uranium during the supergene processes. The greater eU/U and eTh/U ratios, besides the negative values of the calculated authigenic uranium and further the markedly reverse relationships between uranium and thorium as well as uranium and Th/U ratio reveal the disequilibrium state of uranium and confirm U leaching. The available data propose that, the study sediments are potential sink for radioactive accessory minerals as well as rare metal minerals that may control the geochemical enrichment of trace elements as; U, Th, Zr, Y, Nb, REE, Ba, Zn and V. The present work adopts the ESEM/EDX- BSE as an appropriate tool for the recognition of the accessory minerals. The minerals; betafite, ishikawaite, xenotime, fluorite and zircon have been identified as the most abundant uraniferous accessory minerals; whereas monazite dominates as thorium-bearing mineral. Moreover, thorite and uranothorite have occasionally been recognized. A particular attention has been given to the contents of the rare metals in general and radionuclides in paticular in the accessory minerals, despite of their frequency in the whole stream sediments. In conclusion, the study sediments are conceivably genetically related to common sources. Actually it reflects the mineral constituent of the different rocks composing the drained area. Hence it may represent an erosional remnant either of the bordering granites and Hammamat molasses terrenes of Wadi Mayet El- Abd or drained from the further

  8. Geochemical Signature of Mesozoic Volcanic and Granitic Rocks in Madina Regency Area, North Sumatra, Indonesia, and its Tectonic Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Zulkarnain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no2.20094Five samples consisting of two Permian-Triassic basalts, two Triassic-Jurassic granitic rocks, and a Miocene andesite were collected from the Madina Regency area in North Sumatra that is regionally situated on the West Sumatra Block. Previous authors have proposed three different scenarios for the geological setting of West Sumatra Permian Plutonic-Volcanic Belt, namely an island-arc, subduction related continental margin arc, and continental break-up. Petrographic analysis of the Mesozoic basaltic samples indicates that they are island-arcs in origin; however their trace element spider diagram patterns (Rock/MORB ratio also show the character of back-arc marginal basin, besides the island-arc. Furthermore, their REE spider diagram patterns (Rock/ Chondrite ratio clearly reveal that they were actually generated in a back-arc marginal basin tectonic setting. Meanwhile, the two Mesozoic granitic rocks and the Miocene andesite reflect the character of an active continental margin. Their spider diagram patterns show a significant enrichment on incompat- ible elements, usually derived from fluids of the subducted slab beneath the subduction zone. The high enrichment on Th makes their plots on Ta/Yb versus Th/Yb diagram are shifted to outside the active continental margin field. Although the volcanic-plutonic products represent different ages, their La/Ce ratio leads to a probability that they have been derived from the same magma sources. This study offers another different scenario for the geological setting of West Sumatra Permian Plutonic-Volcanic Belt, where the magmatic activities started in a back-arc marginal basin tectonic setting during the Permian-Triassic time and changed to an active continental margin during Triassic to Miocene. The data are collected through petrographic and chemical analyses for major, trace, and REE includ- ing literature studies.  

  9. Degradation of soil and hydrological conditions in the Peštan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Мilica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Peštan River Basin, the right tributary of the Kolubara River, a complex degradation of natural conditions has been expressed over the decades. The exploitation of lignite in the Kolubara Coal Basin, which is in large part located in the territory of this basin, as well as accompanying activities related to it, are the dominant activities that lead to the degradation of soil and hydrological conditions. If other land use types are added to this, it can be concluded that the land cover in the studied territory suffered significant negative changes. The above mentioned activities have led to land loss and deterioration of its quality, and the regulation works due to dislocation of the Kolubara watercourse into the Peštan riverbed have caused numerous degradation of landscapes, reduced the basin area and shortened its watercourse, led to morphological changes of the river network and deterioration of the surface water quality. The aim of this paper is to perform a geospatial analysis of all areas in which the degradation of soil and hydrological conditions is present, in order to prevent their further degradation and proper management of these areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: The Research on Climate Change Influences on Environment: Influence Monitoring, Adaptation and Mitigation, subproject No. 9: Torrential Floods Frequency, Soil and Water Degradation as the Consequence of Global Changes

  10. Radon (222Rn) concentration in indoor air near the coal mining area of Nui Beo, North of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of radioactive radon gas (222Rn) were measured using passive monitors based on LR115 solid state track detectors during June–July 2010 in indoor air of dwellings in the Nui Beo coal mining area, mostly in Cam Pha and Ha Long coastal towns, Quang Ninh province, in the North of Vietnam. Global results of 222Rn concentrations indoors varied from ≤6 to 145 Bq m−3 averaging 46 ± 26 Bq m−3 (n = 37), with a median value of 47 Bq m−3. This was similar to outdoor 222Rn concentrations in the region, averaging 43 ± 19 Bq m−3 (n = 10), with a median value of 44 Bq m−3. Indoor 222Rn concentrations in the coastal town dwellings only were in average lower although not significantly different from indoor 222Rn concentrations measured at the coal storage field near the harbor, 67 ± 4 Bq m−3 (n = 3). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the average 222Rn concentration in indoor air measured in the coastal towns region and those at the touristic Tuan Chau Island located about 45 km south of the coal mine, in the Ha Long Bay. The indoor 222Rn concentration in a floating house at the Bai Tu Long Bay, and assumed as the best estimate of the baseline 222Rn in surface air, was 27 ± 3 Bq m−3 (n = 3). Indoor average concentration of 222Rn in dwellings at the Ha Noi city, inland and outside the coal mining area, was determined at 30 Bq m−3. These results suggest that 222Rn exhalation from the ground at the Nui Beo coal mining area may have contributed to generally increase 222Rn concentration in the surface air of that region up to 1.7 times above the baseline value measured at the Bai Tu Long Bay and Ha Noi. The average indoor concentration of 222Rn in Cam Pha–Ha Long area is about one-third of the value of the so-called Action Level set up by the US EPA of 148 Bq m−3. Results suggest that there is no significant public health risk from 222Rn exposure in the study region. - Highlights: ► 222Rn in indoor and outdoor air was

  11. Prevalence and correlates of indoor tanning and sunless tanning product use among female teens in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Quinn

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Results indicate a significant proportion of teen females engage in IT and STP use. There was evidence that in teens that have never used IT before, STP use precedes IT initiation. Given the evidence for increased IT in rural populations, research focused on rural tanning bed use is needed.

  12. Do Australian Adolescent Female Fake Tan (Sunless Tan) Users Practice Better Sun-Protection Behaviours than Non-Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melinda; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine differences in sun-protection behaviours, and incidence of sunburn, between Australian adolescent female fake tan users and non-users. Design: Cross sectional survey. Method: 398 adolescent females aged 12 to 18 years participated in a survey at public venues, schools, and online. The main outcome measures were…

  13. Tan Silliksaar, Tõnu Ling : meie piltides ei ole mingit trikitamist ega skandaali / Tõnu Ling, Tan Silliksaar ; interv. Heli Salong

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ling, Tõnu

    2005-01-01

    Kuressaare kultuurikeskuses ja Saaremaa kunstistuudios avati Tõnu Lingi ja Tan Silliksaare fotonäitus-müük "Maameeste maastikud". Fotod on prinditud spetsiaalsele, kunsti reprodutseerimiseks mõeldud lõuendile. Autorid oma koostööst, fotodest, lõuenditehnikast

  14. Education versus regulation: The case for regulating the indoor tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Suzeanne; Kraft, Frederic

    2016-05-01

    We examine marketing strategies for indoor tanning services that often target young adult females. Evidence of the addictive nature of indoor tanning suggests that young adults may be vulnerable to the promotion of indoor tanning and as a result deserve greater protection from the marketing of these services. As public awareness of the rising numbers of skin cancers linked to indoor tanning grows, we believe that the public will support increased regulation of this industry. PMID:26911656

  15. The North Sea region taken as an example for the behaviour of artificial radioisotopes in nearshore sea areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different radioisotopes entering the sea with the waste waters from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are used as tracers to observe transport processes in the sea. It could be stated that primarily the transport of water masses occurs within narrow regions along the coast. Virtually the whole water mass leaving the Irish Sea to the North flows along the Scottish coast into the North Sea and crosses her central region to the East. The water entering the southern North Sea through the English Channel analogously moves along the coast to the North. The two water masses meet in the region of the Skagerrak. One can follow them in a narrow strip along the Norwegian coast up to the Barents Sea

  16. Molecular modeling approach to vegetable tanning: preliminary results for gallotannin interactions with the collagen microfibril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanning of animal hides produces leather, a durable, flexible material that is stabilized against putrefaction. Chrome-tanned wet blue, aldehyde crosslinked wet white, and vegetable tanned hides are major contributors to current leather production. Although the chemistries involved are significant...

  17. Quality assessment of TanDEM-X DEMs using airborne LiDAR, photogrammetry and ICESat elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y. S.; Deo, R.; Nalini, J.; Pillai, A. M.; Muralikrishnan, S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    TanDEM-X mission has been acquiring InSAR data to produce high resolution global DEM with greater vertical accuracy since 2010. In this study, TanDEM-X CoSSC data were processed to produce DEMs at 6 m spatial resolution for two test areas of India. The generated DEMs were compared with DEMs available from airborne LiDAR, photogrammetry, SRTM and ICESat elevation point data. The first test site is in Bihar state of India with almost flat terrain and sparse vegetation cover and the second test site is around Godavari river in Andhra Pradesh (A.P.) state of India with flat to moderate hilly terrain. The quality of the DEMs in these two test sites has been specified in terms of most widely used accuracy measures viz. mean, standard deviation, skew and RMSE. The TanDEM-X DEM over Bihar test area gives 5.0 m RMSE by taking airborne LiDAR data as reference. With ICESat elevation data available at 9000 point locations, RMSE of 5.9 m is obtained. Similarly, TanDEM-X DEM for Godavari area was compared with high resolution aerial photogrammetric DEM and SRTM DEM and found RMSE of 5.3 m and 7.5 m respectively. When compared with ICESat elevation data at several point location and also the same point locations of photogrammetric DEM and SRTM, the RMS errors are 4.1 m, 3.5 m and 4.3 m respectively. DEMs were also compared for open-pit coal mining area where elevation changes from -147 m to 189 m. X- and Y-profiles of all DEMs were also compared to see their trend and differences.

  18. The Adaptation of Fishing Instruments by a Farmers' Community in the Thung Kula Area, in North Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Ubonlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a historical study of the ancient communities in the area of Thung Kula, it was revealed that there are important resources including rice, fish, salt and iron. Salt is used in making fermented fish (known locally as Pla Daek, a culinary culture which has been prevalent in the ethnic groups of Laos and Khmer. The availability of rice and fish in Thung Kula has continued to this day. Thung Kula farmers have extended their fishing sources from the government-owned places to their own fields or ponds. Approach: They use fishing instruments that had been developed out of folk wisdom in combination with the new technology in order to increase the fishing yields adequate for their own consumption and for commerce. The present research aimed to study the adaptation of fishing instruments of the farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Thung Luang sub-district, Suwannaphum district, Roi-Et province. The studied area was Thung Kula in the North East of Thailand. The research method was qualitative. Data were collected from relevant documents and from field studies with 25 informants. Structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with local tradesmen, consumers, fishing-instrument shop owners. Results: The results were presented descriptively below. The adaptation of fishing instruments of Ban Ta Yuak farmers began with the increased population, the changing ecological systems as a result of the government’s construction of reservoirs, canals, public ponds and the market-oriented economy which had attracted the local fishing markets across the Thung Kula area. Ban Ta Yuak farmers have then adapted their fishing instruments to fit the available kinds of fish and the ecological systems of the local water sources. With assistance from the government, the farmers have their own fishing ponds. It was found that prior to the application of the national economic and social plan of 1962 these farmers created simple fishing instruments such as Sai (a

  19. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale. PMID:24373388

  20. Inter-agency comparison of TanDEM-X baseline solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, A.; Montenbruck, O.; Moon, Y.; Wermuth, M.; König, R.; Michalak, G.; Bock, H.; Bodenmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is the first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission using close formation flying for bistatic SAR interferometry. The primary goal of the mission is to generate a global digital elevation model (DEM) with 2 m height precision and 10 m ground resolution from the configurable SAR interferometer with space baselines of a few hundred meters. As a key mission requirement for the interferometric SAR processing, the relative position, or baseline vector, of the two satellites must be determined with an accuracy of 1 mm (1D RMS) from GPS measurements collected by the onboard receivers. The operational baseline products for the TanDEM-X mission are routinely generated by the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) using different software packages (EPOS/BSW, GHOST) and analysis strategies. For a further independent performance assessment, TanDEM-X baseline solutions are generated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) on a best effort basis using the Bernese Software (BSW). Dual-frequency baseline solutions are compared for a 1-month test period in January 2011. Differences of reduced-dynamic baseline solutions exhibit a representative standard deviation (STD) of 1 mm outside maneuver periods, while biases are below 1 mm in all directions. The achieved baseline determination performance is close to the mission specification, but independent SAR calibration data takes acquired over areas with a well known DEM from previous missions will be required to fully meet the 1 mm 1D RMS target. Besides the operational solutions, single-frequency baseline solutions are tested. They benefit from a more robust ambiguity fixing and show a slightly better agreement of below 1 mm STD, but are potentially affected by errors caused by an incomplete compensation of differential ionospheric path delays.

  1. Trade openness and investment in North Africa: A CGE application to deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the EU and respectively Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    BOULANGER PIERRE; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Rau, Marie-Luise; Rutten, Martine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an impact analysis of deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the European Union (EU) and most of the North-African (NAF) countries – namely Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Scenarios are modelled with MAGNET, a general equilibrium model, and focus on trade liberalisation including non-tariff measures (NTMs) on the one hand, increases in foreign direct investments (FDIs) and capital flows on the other. They assume either broad productivity gains...

  2. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sudheendra; Hiremath; Pramod S

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic...

  3. Women managers in secondary schools of Mafikeng area project office in the North West province : effective managers or tokens? / Helen Mmantsepa Mmantswalo Mahlabe

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlabe, Helen Mmantsepa Mmantswalo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether adolescent psychological well being can be significantly influenced by attributional style, general health, satisfaction with life and self esteem. A cross-sectional research design was implemented for this study. An availability sample of 130 learners from 2 high schools; namely Batloung and Kgobokwe in the Ramatlabama area in rural North West Province (RSA) were chosen to collect data. The learners were selected using the stratifi...

  4. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; LU, XIAOXIA

    2011-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrati...

  5. Integrated Green Roofs System and its Role of Achieving Sustainability in Residential Buildings in Urban Area in Athens, Greece and Famagusta, North Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mehran shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics and importance of the green roof in urban area would investigate in some residential buildings in Athens, Greece and then, some strategies give to integrate green roof in residential buildings in Famagusta, north Cyprus due to the importance of energy saving and thermal comfort in residential buildings. These days, sustainable architecture is spreading around the world. Therefore, Sustainable architecture has important role in design build...

  6. Water quality in Reedy Fork and Buffalo Creek basins in the Greensboro area, North Carolina, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from April 1986 through September 1987 at 19 sites in Guilford County and the City of Greensboro, North Carolina. Sampling locations included 13 stream sites, two lakes that supply the City of Greensboro with drinking water, two City of Greensboro finished drinking-water filtration plants, and effluent from the two municipal wastewater plants prior to outfall into receiving streams. Water sampling consisted of six surveys during various stages of steady ground-water flow at all sites and high-flow-event sampling during two storms at six sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected at three sites during two routine sampling surveys. A summary of nearly 22, 000 separate chemical or physical analyses of water samples or bottom sediment is presented and discussed as individual values, ranges of values, or median values with respect to the locations of sampling sites, streamflow conditions, or other information bearing on water-quality conditions under discussion. The results include discussions of general water-quality indicators; major ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations; acid and base/neutral extractable organic compounds; volatile organic compounds; and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides detected at each sampling site. Loadings of selected constituents are also estimated on a yearly and daily basis. The quality of the raw and finished water, municipal effluents, and streams in the Greensboro area are characterized by using State and Federal water-quality standards. Inorganic constituents most commonly found in excess of standards were iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, phosphorus, manganese, cyanide, and mercury. Relatively few organic compounds were detected; however, those consistently reported were phthalate, thihalomethane, organophosphorus pesticide, benzol, and phenolic compounds. Selected inorganic, physical, and total organic carbon data are used in a Wilcoxon test for two independent

  7. Hydro-geochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in Akoko North West local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Dare Timothy Oyedotun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A sudden geometric increase in population of Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State has led to an increase in demand for water and harnessing of subsurface water reserve. A total of twenty six water samples obtained from both boreholes and hand-dug wells were analyzed for their physico-chemical characteristics with the aim of assessing their quality, usability and also to determine the level of their contamination in the local government which is dominated by granite gneisses, charnockites, and augen gneisses as the main rock types. The following physico-chemical properties were analyzed for in the samples collected: electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total alkalinity (TA, total dissolved solids (TDS, total suspended solids (TSS, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC with major cations (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, anions (PO43-, HCO3-, SO43- and several heavy metals (Zn2+, Fe2+, As+, Ni+, Pb2+, Cd+, Cu2+. The following results were obtained from the analysis: Zn2+ (0.109 – 0.437 ppm, Fe2+ (0.216 – 0.726 ppm, As+ (0.01 – 0.03 ppm, Ni+ (0.036 – 0.074, Pb2+ (0.003 – 0.010, Cd+ (0.002 – 0.007, Cu2+ (0.086 – 0.241 with appreciable abundances of PO43-, Cd+, Fe2+and Ni+ some exceeding while some others are below the WHO acceptable level for drinking water, thereby making it a serious source of concern as it indicates varying levels of faecal contamination (from leaky septic tanks, interception with pit latrines and heavy metal liberation into the water consumed by the residents. It was also noticed that the water was fresh based on the analysis of the Total Dissolved Solids and the Pb2+ concentrations almost exceeded the standard permissible limit. Generally, it was concluded that the overall quality of the ground water is averagely good physico-chemically.

  8. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the 137Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected 137Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  9. Features and comprehensive evaluation of relative fitting anomalies of airborne gamma spectral in the south Hunan-north Guangxi area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Hunan-North Guangxi area is a main uranium metallogenetic area in South China, in which the types of uranium mineralization are mostly granite type and carbonate-siliceous-pelitic rock type, and are main types of uranium prospecting in South China. In order to break through the area by much more economically and effectively utilizing available airborne radioactive data, the main features are studied and summarized for relative fitting anomalies of airborne gamma spectral. The fitting anomalies are mostly distributed in granite areas and its exterior zones, and are closely relative to fault zones and uranium mineralization areas. By comprehensive evaluation, the anomalies of grade 1, 2, and 3 are selected according to the significance of uranium metallogenetic prospect. The mineralization zone in which uranium content is larger than 2 ‰ are discovered in the anomaly of grade 1 by trenching. (authors)

  10. Indoor Tanning within UK Young Adults: An Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Lorna J.; Forshaw, Mark J.; Williams, Stella

    2013-01-01

    The indoor tanning industry poses a long-term public health risk. Despite the adverse health effects, indoor tanning seems to be gaining considerable popularity. The study examined indoor tanning intentions and behaviour within UK young adults using an extended theory of planned behaviour model, which included variables on “appearance reasons to tan,” “perceived susceptibility to damaging appearance,” “perceived susceptibility to health consequences,” and “tanning knowledge.” The model was su...

  11. Evidence for tanning from plant and insect remains

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, A.; H. Kenward

    2003-01-01

    [FIRST PARAGRAPH] It is suggested elsewhere (Hall and Kenward forthcoming) that a bioarchaeological 'indicator group' (sensa Kenward and Hall 1997) for tanning may be recognisable. The material giving rise to this hypothesis was discovered during assessment of samples from Anglo-Scandinavian and early post- Conquest riverside deposits at Layerthorpe Bridge, York (Carrott et al. 1997). Here, large quantities of bark fragments (and the sclereids -small clumps of lignified cells characteristic o...

  12. Membrane-based treatment for tanning wastewaters 

    OpenAIRE

    Catarino, Justina; Mendonça, E.; Picado, Ana; Lança, Ana; Silva, Luís Manuel; Pinho, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Tanning wastewater was subjected to different unit operations to select the best treatment sequences. Textile membrane filtration (TMF), microfiltration (MF), and ultrafiltration (UF) were complemented by screening, flocculation or flotation operations. The general chemical characterization determined that the wastewater had a high organic load. The ecotoxicological study classified the wastewater as highly ecotoxic. The sequence of screening–TMF – UF was found to be the optimal treatment...

  13. Study of the dechroming of tanned leather wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Botić Tatjana; Ilišković Nadežda V.; Drljača Dijana

    2004-01-01

    According to European legislation, it is not possible to dump any chromium-containing waste in Europe. The minimization of wastes is a key element in that strategy. It involves the application of clean technologies: low and non-waste technologies. The tanning industry generates substantial quantities of chromium-containing solid waste in the form of shavings and trimmings. The recycling and reuse of those wastes must be the primary target in optimizing processes of the leather industry. The p...

  14. Effect of gamma radiation on chrome-tanned sheepskin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of 60 γ-radiation on chrome-tanned, blue-stock sheepskin was investigated. Radiation was applied between 0.35-10.5 Mrad and the resultant physical and mechanical changes were observed. Radiation did not change the water adsorption capability of leather but caused significant reductions in shrinkage temperature and tensile strength. The correlations between dose and radiation hazards were determined. (author)

  15. Electrweak Z-string And $\\tan\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1993-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets it is shown that the existence of the electroweak Z-string in general requires the same characteristic length for the two Higgs fields as well as a specific ratio of the two Higgs vacuum expectation values, i.e. $\\tan\\beta$. This ratio can be determined in terms of the couplings in the Higgs potential. Some remarks on the supersymmetric case are given. \

  16. Thrust augmentation nozzle (TAN) concept for rocket engine booster applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd

    2006-07-01

    Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.

  17. Effective ultraviolet irradiance measurements from artificial tanning devices in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial tanning remains very popular worldwide, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sun-beds as 'carcinogenic to humans'. Greek Atomic Energy Commission has initiated a surveillance action of the artificial tanning devices in Greece in order to record the effective irradiance levels from the sun-beds and to inform and synchronise the domestic artificial tanning business sector with the requirements of the European Standard EN 60335-2-27:2010. In this direction, in situ measurements of UV emissions from sun-beds in solaria businesses all over Greece were performed from October 2013 until July 2014, with a radiometer and a portable single-monochromator spectrophotometer. Analysis of the measurements' results revealed that effective irradiance in ∼60 % of the measured sun-beds exceeded the 0.3 W m-2 limit value set by EN 60335-2-27:2010 and only 20 % of the devices could be categorised as UV type 3. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of isotopic diagnostics for subsurface characterization and monitoring: Field experiments at the TAN and RWMC (SDA) Sites, INEL. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'This research is aimed at improving methods for characterizing underground contamination sites and for monitoring how they change with time. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying and quantifying the effects of intrinsic remediation, and verifying the efficacy of engineered remediation activities. Isotopic measurements of elements like C, O, H, He, Cl, and Sr, which are present in groundwater and soil gas, provide a quantitative measure of material balance. They can be used to identify the sites of origin of contaminants in groundwater, and to determine if contaminants are being destroyed as a result of natural processes or engineered processes. Isotope ratios can also be used to trace the migration of fluids that are pumped down wells to destroy or confine underground contaminants, such as steam and grout, and they can be used to diagnose what chemical reactions are occuring underground and what materials are reacting. For example, destruction of TCE usually produces carbon dioxide, but carbon dioxide can also come from dissolution of calcite. There are many isotopic ratios that can be measured in groundwater and vadose zone gas that could be valuable for characterizing remediation sites and monitoring remediation activities. The authors concentrate on a few that are particularly useful for the problems being addressed at the TAN (Test Area North) and RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex) sites of the Idaho National Engineering Lab.. The isotopes the authors are using are carbon-13, carbon-14, helium-3, strontium-87, chlorine-37, and oxygen-18.'

  19. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, J.M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental d

  20. Cycling and Health: An Exploratory Study of Views about Cycling in an Area of North Liverpool, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavill, Nick; Watkins, Francine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore views about cycling among members of identified community groups living near the Loop Line, a cycling and walking path in a deprived part of North Liverpool, UK. Design/methodology/approach: Following a literature review, qualitative focus group research was conducted among six groups of children,…

  1. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west Himalaya with epicentral distance and magnitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Ghosh; A K Mahajan

    2013-02-01

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation which relates the seismological data with parameters of engineering interest. In the absence of sufficient strong motion data for northwest Himalayan region, isoseismal maps of previous earthquakes were the only source of information for computing the attenuation characteristics of that region. The northwest Himalayan region had experienced major and moderate earthquakes in the past and isoseismal maps had been developed by various authors for each of these earthquakes representing intensity pattern and decay of intensity in different directions. With this information, attenuation relations of intensity with distance can be obtained. The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes ( ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the last 100 years. These are primarily Kangra (1905), Chamba-1 (1945), Chamba-2 (1995), Kinnaur (1975), Dharamsala (1986), Uttar Kashi (1991), Garhwal-1 (1996), Garhwal-2 (1996), Sundarnagar (1997) and Chamoli (1999) earthquakes. Miezoseismal zones in majority of the isoseismal maps show two major directions, i.e., either the longest axis of these isoseismal maps which are aligned in NW–SE direction following the major longitudinal features or north-northwest to south-southeast direction, following the tectonic features which are transverse to the Himalayan trend. Isoseismal maps of Kangra (1905), Chamba (1945) and Uttar Kashi (1991) earthquakes are more symmetrical and elongated in south-east direction, but compressed in north-east and north-west directions, thus indicating fast attenuation characteristics in north-east and north-west directions reflecting lithological variation. On the other hand, Sundernagar (1997) and Kinnuar (1975) earthquakes show circular pattern of intensity distribution. Combining decay patterns from different magnitude earthquakes in different directions, two attenuation relationships have been developed using regression relationship

  2. Gaseous Air Pollutants and its Environmental EffectEmittedfrom the Tanning Industry at Hazaribagh, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Hashem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has focused on gaseous air pollutants and its environmental effect-emitted from tanning industry during leather processing, especially in unhairing & liming, deliming, pickling and finishing operations in which hydrogen sulphide (H2S, ammonia (NH3, chlorine (Cl2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs are emitted respectively at Hazaribagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S gas has negative effect at atmosphere by the process of photochemical reaction; it increases the greenhouse methane gas. In atmosphere, gaseous form of ammonia (NH3 reacts with available acids and form their corresponding salts cause cloudiness and finally they return to earth surface by wet or dry deposition which effects on aquatic life. Workers in tanning industries are directly inhaled toxic chlorine gas suffers withvarious health complexities. Emission of VOCs isthe mostly formaldehyde and it is captured in photochemical oxidation by ozone as well as UV radiation. It’s an important precursor of smog formation where it reacts with oxides of nitrogen (NOx including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN; smog decreases the visibility in the urban area.

  3. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  4. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. PMID:26897362

  5. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, J. M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental data. The highest α and γ-diversities were identified in the south-eastern portion of the state, in mountain zones with a warm sub-humid climate, whereas the greatest β-diversity (multiplicative for...

  6. Adoption of Improved Processing Technologies by Fish Farmers in Akure North and South Local Government Areas, Ondo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    FELIX OLAYINKA OLADIPO; ADEGOKE ABIDEMI ADEYELU; OLUFEMI BOLARIN

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the adoption of improved processing technologies by fish farmers in Akure North and South LGAs, Ondo state, Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was employed to select 150 fish farmers interviewed for the study, data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Tobit regression model. Results showed that majority of the farmers (68.0%) were males with mean age of 38.5 years old. Majority (80.7%) of respondents were married while (90%) h...

  7. Measures for regional security and arms control in the North-East Asian Area. Report of working group I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specific topics were of utmost interest in Working Group I: the possibility of establishing some kind of multilateral security mechanism in North-East Asia; elements of Korean reconciliation; non-proliferation of weapons; openness, transparency and confidence-building measures; general principles of norms of conduct for peace and security in the region; nuclear weapons and security measures; cooperative measures for regional security and stability

  8. Development of Wet-white Leather Tanning Technology%白湿革鞣制技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛巡天; 王韬; 厉巧萍; 于凤; 罗建勋

    2014-01-01

    The tanning mechanisms and tanning characteristics of wet-white leather tanning technologies such as tanages using chromium-free metal tanning agent, silicon tanning agent, aldehyde tanning agent, vegetable tannin, were reviewed. In particular, the latest research on wet-white tanning agents at home and abroad was discussed.%综述了非铬金属鞣剂、硅鞣剂、醛鞣剂、植物鞣剂等白湿革鞣制技术的鞣制机理及鞣制特性,以及近年来国内外最新的白湿革鞣剂研究成果。

  9. An in vivo evaluation of surface polishing of TAN intermedullary nails for ease of removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Hayes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the tibia and femoral diaphysis are commonly repaired by intra-medullary (IM nailing. Currently IM nails are available in either electropolished stainless steel (SS or in Titanium-Aluminium-Niobium (TAN. After healing, removal of the nails still is common but removal of TAN IM nails often has complications whereas SS IM nails of the same design are less often associated with problems. We believe the differences in removal are due to the ability of TAN to promote strong bone on-growth. We have previously shown in vivo that polishing cortical screws reduces removal torque and the percentage of bone-implant contact. Therefore, we postulate that bony on-growth onto IM nails can be reduced by means of surface polishing, for ease of removal. Here we aim to compare the pull-out forces for removal of standard TAN (TAN-S compared to experimental paste polished TAN (TAN-PP IM nails from a bilateral non-fracture sheep tibia model after 12 months implantation. Histological analysis was also performed to assess tissue on-growth to the nails. We show that polishing significantly reduces (p=0.05 the extraction force required for TAN IM nail removal. This effect in part is attributable to the distinct tissue-material reaction produced. For TAN-S nails direct bone contact was observed while for TAN-PP nails a fibrous tissue interface was noted. Since TAN is preferred over SS for IM nailing due to superior biocompatibility and mechanical properties, we believe these findings could be used to recommend changes to current surface technologies of intramedullary nails to reduce complications seen with nail removal especially in rapidly growing bone in children.

  10. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    distributions of juvenile cod. The transport of particles showed considerable intra- and interannual variability, but also some general patterns of retention within and dispersion todifferentmanagement areas.Good spatial overlapof particle end positions, representing potential juvenile settlement areas...

  11. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alice T.; Leung, Luke K. -P.; Goullet, Mark S.; Gentle, Matthew N.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Simple summary Conflicts with dingoes and other wild dogs are becoming increasingly common in and around urban areas of Australia. A lack of basic information about wild dog movement ecology hampers efficient planning and allocation of resources to mitigate human–wild dog conflicts. We captured, collared and released 37 wild dogs in urban areas of north-eastern Australia to investigate their movement ecology. In general, wild dogs occupied small fragments of bushland within an urban matrix, were active at all times of the day, and lived within a few hundred meters of houses and humans at all times. We conclude that wild dog management strategies in urban areas should focus on the mitigation of impacts at the individual or group level, and not population-level reductions in numbers. Abstract Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo × domestic dog hybrids are common in many urban areas, and pose a variety of human health and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-eastern Australia and continuously monitored them each 30 min for 11–394 days. Most dingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas. PMID:27537916

  12. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diansari, Angga Vertika, E-mail: anggav.bmkg@gmail.com; Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri [Academy of Meteorology and Geophysics, Jalan Perhubungan I no.5 Tangerang 15221 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault.

  13. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diansari, Angga Vertika; Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri

    2015-04-01

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT's software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault.

  14. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault

  15. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility

  16. Seismic tomography of the area of the 2010 Beni-Ilmane earthquake sequence, north-central Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abacha, Issam; Koulakov, Ivan; Semmane, Fethi; Yelles-Chaouche, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    The region of Beni-Ilmane (District of M’sila, north-central Algeria) was the site of an earthquake sequence that started on 14 May 2010. This sequence, which lasted several months, was triggered by conjugate E–W reverse and N–S dextral faulting. To image the crustal structure of these active faults, we used a set of 1406 well located aftershocks events and applied the local tomography software (LOTOS) algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the initial 1D velocity...

  17. UPWELLING AND SEDIMENTATION DYNAMICS Ⅲ: COINCIDENCE OF UPWELLING AREAS WITH MUD PATCHES IN NORTH HEMISPHERE SHELF SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞重光; 胡敦欣

    2002-01-01

    The determinant role of upwelling in fine sediment patches is examined from the viewpoints of physical process and biological process respectively. It is pointed out that physical and biological processes are usually coexistent and interact with each other during the sedimentation of suspended matters. This study used available figures showing the circulation pattern and surface sediment distribution in the whole China Seas, the Gulf of Maine, the Irish Sea and the North Sea, and additional data to verify that wherever upwelling exists on the continental shelf, mud must occur; and that wherever downwelling occurs, coarse sediment substitutes for mud.

  18. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  19. Is Gray Water the Key to Unlocking Water for Resource-Poor Areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and Other Arid Regions of the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Leas, Eric C.; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2013-01-01

    Support for the use of treated gray water as an alternative water resource in the Middle East and North Africa is high, especially given the lack of religious restrictions against its use, but several obstacles have kept application of treated gray water near 1 % in some areas. The largest of obstacles include the cost of treatment and the ambiguity surrounding the health safety of gray water and treated gray water. This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices global...

  20. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  1. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  2. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  3. News reports: update on buying indoor uv tanning with university debit cards

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, Kiera L; Karimkhani, Chante; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Hernandez, Melia D; Pederson, Hannah; Royer, Eryn L; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objective: Indoor tanning by adults under 35 years of age increases the risk of developing melanoma 59% to 75%. Cost is a major barrier limiting young adults from purchasing indoor tanning services. Our recent study by Boyers et al determined that 18 of 96 major universities, all in the eastern and southern United States, had university-sponsored debit cards with indoor tanning affiliations. These debit cards, which conveniently link with student identification (ID) cards, help w...

  4. Hydrolysis of tanned leather wastes under alkaline, acidic and oxidative conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Botić Tatjana; Ilišković Nadežda

    2006-01-01

    Different wastes in large quantities are the outcome or the by-product of processes in the tanning industry. The largest part of solid wastes is collagen based and obtained in the reprocessing steps of tanned and non-tanned products. The quality collagen substance obtained from wastes of the leather industry used as a supporting material in many reprocessing industries. Hydrolysis is the basic step of collagen processing, namely the shortening of its polypeptide chain. The main goal of this i...

  5. Alkali-free method of hide preparation for tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valeika

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, beamhouse processes are carried out by varying a medium from strongly alkaline (unhairing-liming up to strongly acid (pickling. This study is designed to develop a preparation of hide for tanning via processes that avoid a sharp change of hide pH. Enzymes active in acid medium are employed for hide unhairing in a buffer system containing 2.5% acetic acid and 0.3% sodium acetate. An oxidative treatment with peracetic acid then allows the complete removal of residual hair and scud. During both processes, unhairing and oxidative treatment, the opening of the derma structure occurs: 13.3-14.6g of non-collagen proteins are removed and amount of dermatan sulphate decreases by 35%. The hide obtained can be chromed directly after the above processes and subsequent treatment with sodium chloride solution omitted conventional pickling. The pH of the hide varies in the range of 8.3-3.7 during the processes of preparation for tanning.

  6. Benchmark scenarios for low $\\tan \\beta$ in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnaschi, Emanuele; Frensch, Felix; Heinemeyer, Sven; Lee, Gabriel; Liebler, Stefan Rainer; Muhlleitner, Milada; Mc Carn, Allison Renae; Quevillon, Jeremie; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Slavich, Pietro; Spira, Michael; Wagner, Carlos; Wolf, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The run-1 data taken at the LHC in 2011 and 2012 have led to strong constraints on the allowed parameter space of the MSSM. These are imposed by the discovery of an approximately SM-like Higgs boson with a mass of $125.09\\pm0.24$~GeV and by the non-observation of SUSY particles or of additional (neutral or charged) Higgs bosons. For low values of the parameter $\\tan\\beta$, the direct bounds on the masses of the additional Higgs bosons are still relatively weak, but very heavy SUSY particles are required to reproduce the observed mass of the SM-like Higgs boson. In this document we discuss and compare two approaches for predicting the properties of the Higgs bosons in the region with low $\\tan\\beta$ and heavy SUSY. We also make recommendations for the sets of parameters to be used by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations in the analysis of such scenarios.

  7. Study of the dechroming of tanned leather wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botić Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available According to European legislation, it is not possible to dump any chromium-containing waste in Europe. The minimization of wastes is a key element in that strategy. It involves the application of clean technologies: low and non-waste technologies. The tanning industry generates substantial quantities of chromium-containing solid waste in the form of shavings and trimmings. The recycling and reuse of those wastes must be the primary target in optimizing processes of the leather industry. The problem is in a satisfying chromium separation from collagen fibers. Common hydrolysis processes-alkaline or acidic-give gelatins containing residual chromium (III. By using an oxidation agent (H2O2 before alkaline hydrolysis, in was demonstrated that chromium from chromium-containing leather wastes can be almost fully recovered by the previous oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI. This chromium can be reused in the tanning process. That would represent an economic saving. The best result of the dechroming process was a gelatin hydrolyzate with only 1.11 in respect to the initial amount.

  8. Enhancement of chromium uptake in tanning using oxazolidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarapandiyan, S; Brutto, Patrick E; Siddhartha, G; Ramesh, R; Ramanaiah, B; Saravanan, P; Mandal, A B

    2011-06-15

    Monocyclic and bicyclic oxazolidines were offered at three different junctures of chrome tanning process viz. prior to BCS offer, along with BCS and after basification. It was found that oxazolidine when offered after basification brought about better chromium uptake and reduction of chromium load in the wastewater. Offer of oxazolidine was also varied. Increase in offer of oxazolidine from 0.25% to 1% was found to enhance the chromium uptake and decrease the chromium load in wastewater. But the increase in uptake was not proportionate to the increase in oxazolidine offer more than 0.75%. Offer of 1% Zoldine ZA 78 (monocyclic oxazolidine) and Zoldine ZE (bicyclic oxazolidine) after basification brought about 63.4% and 73.1% enhancement in chrome content in leather compared to control where oxazolidine was not offered. The tone of the wetblue was found to be altered moderately. However this did not call for any process adjustments in wet-finishing. The oxazolidine treated leathers were found to be immensely fuller and tighter. It was found experimentally that offer of 1% of oxazolidine facilitated reduction in the offer of syntans administered for filling and grain tightening by around 46%. Oxazolidine could bring about significant reduction in cost of chemicals apart from resulting environmental benefits due to enhancement of chromium uptake during tanning. PMID:21536383

  9. Spectroscopy of TaN in Support of Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhorter, Richard; Sharfi, David; Kim, Yongrak; Kokkin, Damian; Bouchard, Jacob; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Tantalum nitride, TaN, has been recently identified as a leading candidate for extending the study of T, P-odd effects in the nuclear realm to include proton, neutron, and quark electric dipole moments (EDM) and beyond. This is primarily due to enhancements in the interaction of electrons with the nuclear magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM) and the resulting parity-violating effects. Study of the dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from the excitation of the 17570.80 (Ω = 0+) , 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) , 19216.80 (Ω = 1), and 19396.78 (Ω = 1) bands above the X1Σ+ (v = 0) ground state of TaN near 569 nm, 543 nm, 520 nm, and 515 nm has enabled a determination of the branching ratios and transition dipole moments of all 4 states. Radiative lifetimes of 454(32) ns, 479(12) ns, 333(4) ns, and 480(17) ns respectively were measured from an analysis of the fluorescence decay curves, and potential optical pumping approaches for both populating and detecting the parity-violation sensitive 3Δ1 state are proposed. Further experiments using CW laser excitation have enabled the observation of the hyperfine structure of several bands in the gateway 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) to X1Σ+ (v = 0) transition, and analysis of these complex spectra is underway. DK, JB, and TS acknowledge support from NSF CHE-1265885, as do RM, DS, and YK from Pomona College.

  10. Enforcement Provisions of Indoor Tanning Bans for Minors: An Analysis of the First 6 US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Amy L; Mayer, Jonathan E; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Guild, Samantha R; Gottlieb, Mark A; Geller, Alan C

    2015-08-01

    Several states have passed legislation banning minors from indoor tanning; however, concern has been raised regarding enforcement. We explored the statutes pertaining to enforcement in the first 6 US states to pass legislation banning minors younger than 18 years from indoor tanning. The findings reflect significant variability in enforcement provisions across the 6 states. Further investigations are needed to determine whether the statutes are successful in curbing indoor tanning among youths and ultimately whether indoor tanning bans among minors help to reduce skin cancer incidence. PMID:26066916

  11. Mood changes after indoor tanning among college women: associations with psychiatric/addictive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor tanning (IT has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction. The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid and positive (feeling interested mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables.

  12. Lifetime history of indoor tanning in young people: a retrospective assessment of initiation, persistence, and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lostritto Karen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite educational and public health campaigns to convey the risks of indoor tanning, many individuals around the world continue to engage in this behavior. Few descriptive studies of indoor tanning have collected information pertaining to the lifetime history of indoor tanning, thereby limiting our ability to understand indoor tanning patterns and potentially target interventions for individuals who not only initiate, but continue to persistently engage in indoor tanning. Methods In-person interviews elicited detailed retrospective information on lifetime history of indoor tanning among white individuals (n = 401 under age 40 seen by a dermatologist for a minor benign skin condition. These individuals were controls in a case-control study of early-onset basal cell carcinoma. Outcomes of interest included ever indoor tanning in both males and females, as well as persistent indoor tanning in females - defined as females over age 31 who tanned indoors at least once in the last three or all four of four specified age periods (ages 11-15, 16-20, 21-30 and 31 or older. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of ever and persistent indoor tanning in females. Results Approximately three-quarters (73.3% of females and 38.3% of males ever tanned indoors, with a median age of initiation of 17.0 and 21.5, respectively. Among indoor tanners, 39.3% of females and 21.7% of males reported being burned while indoor tanning. Female ever indoor tanners were younger, had darker color eyes, and sunbathed more frequently than females who never tanned indoors. Using unique lifetime exposure data, 24.7% of female indoor tanners 31 and older persistently tanned indoors starting as teenagers. Female persistent indoor tanners drank significantly more alcohol, were less educated, had skin that tanned with prolonged sun exposure, and sunbathed outdoors more frequently than non-persistent tanners

  13. Mood Changes After Indoor Tanning Among College Women: Associations with Psychiatric/Addictive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline

    2016-06-23

    Indoor tanning (IT) has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction). The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview) via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid) and positive (feeling interested) mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables. PMID:27403462

  14. Alteration zone mapping for detecting potential mineralized areas in Kaladawan of north altyn tagh using ASTER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kaladawan area has been found developing intense hydrothermal altered rocks associated with mineralized area such as Kaladaban Pb-Zn deposit, A-bei Ag-Pb depositduring earlier geological investigations.Yet the sparse vegetation cover and excellent bedrock exposure make it a suitable place for the use of remote sensing methods for lithological mapping. ASTER data has been used in this study to identify alteration zones, and then to detect potential mineralized areas. Band ratio and PCA procedures were applied based on the analysis of spectral properties of typical alteration minerals. Band 4/2 and mineralogic indices proposed by Ninomiya were designed to map the distribution of Fe-oxides and alteration zones. Selected bands combinations were transformed in a PCA procedure to map the Al-OH, Mg-OH, CO32−and Fe-oxides altered minerals. The analysis focused on the spatial distribution of hydrothermal altered minerals. Band ratio result images including both Fe-oxides and mineralogic indices show high-level similarity with the PCA transform procedure. They both show intense hydrothermal alteration zone in Kaladaban,west Kaladawan and A-bei area. Hence, these areas are considered to have potential for further mineralogic exploration. The results were validated by field work in the Kaladaban and west Kaladawan area,indicating that this method can be a useful tool for detecting potential mineralization area in Kaladawan and similar areas elsewhere

  15. Canine echinococcosis in Turkana (north-western Kenya): a coproantigen survey in the previous hydatid-control area and an analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buishi, I; Njoroge, E; Zeyhle, E; Rogan, M T; Craig, P S

    2006-10-01

    A study of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs, with risk-factor analysis, was carried out in the endemic area of northern Turkana district, Kenya, using necropsy on 42 strays and a coproantigen-ELISA survey of 161 owned animals. During the post-mortem examinations, 14 (33%) of the necropsied dogs were found infected with E. granulosus, with a mean burden of 540 worms (range=two to 4080 worms). The 26 necropsied dogs that came from the north-western Lokichoggio division--an area where, from 1983 to 1997, there had been a continuous programme of hydatid control--showed a similar prevalence of infection to the other dogs (34.6%) but a significantly lower mean burden, of 53 worms (range=two to 300). Forty-two (26%) of the animals tested for Echinococcus coproantigen were found positive. Although the dogs from the Lokichoggio division were more likely to be coproantigen-positive (29%) than those from the central Kakuma division (20%) or the north-eastern division (18%), the differences were not statistically significant. In questionnaire-based interviews, the owners of the dogs tested for coproantigens were asked about possible risk factors for canine infection with E. granulosus. Women were found to have twice the level of contact with dogs as men. The results of a univariate analysis of the dog-owners' responses revealed six factors that appeared to be significantly associated with a coproantigen-positive dog: non-restraint of the dog (Pknowledge about the transmission of echinococcosis (P=0.001); the dog not receiving anthelmintic treatment (P=0.003); and dog age hydatid-control programme that ran continuously in the north-western division of Turkana between 1983 and 1997. PMID:16989686

  16. Diel variability of feeding activity in haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus ) larvae in the East Shetland area, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ueberschar, B.; Basford, D.;

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of factors affecting feeding success in fish larvae require knowledge of the scales of variability of the feeding process itself and the indices used to assess this variability. In this study, we measured short-term (diel) variability in feeding rates of wild haddock (Melanogrammus...... aeglifinus) larvae four times per day during a 10-d cruise in the northern North Sea. Feeding activity was evaluated using indices of gut fullness, prey digestive state and biochemical measurements (tryptic enzyme activity). The gut fullness and the enzyme activity indices indicated moderate to high rates of...... food consumption throughout the cruise. Time series analysis of the three indices showed significant diel variability in all indices and enabled identification of significant lags between food uptake and peak digestive enzyme activity. The typical pattern of food consumption and digestion was...

  17. Relations between red beds times and uranic mineralization at the area of north-west China, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad beds played an important role in the uranic mineralization. After analyzing the geological evolution in North-West China, Saanxi and Inner Mongolia the red beds is divided into six periods. The evolution rules at each period are studied. The authors found that the time of uranic mineralication and formation of red beds (basin) is simultaneously, the uranic deposits and red beds are accompanying minerals in all places existing deposits. Uranic mineralization is bound up with the continental red beds which was formed under dry and hot climate, but has no relations with the marine red beds. The place where the deposits exist, the red beds must exist, conversely it is not true. In the section, a big uranic deposit is generated only under or above the red beds. The relations between red beds and rich deposit are also explored. The mineralization theory and the model of uranic mineralization in red beds times are presented

  18. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  19. An in-situ campaign of spectral measurements for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in Luancheng of North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Sen; Chen, Liang-Fu; Liu, Qin-Huo; Xiao, Qing

    2004-10-01

    In an attempt to support the demonstration application of "Spectral Library Of Chinese representative surface substances", an in-situ campaign of spectral measurements was carried out during the summer of 2003 for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in North China Plain. The experiment sites, based on Luancheng Agricultural ecosystem experiment station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was a 5×5 km area located just south-east of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China. The spectral instrument used is ASD FieldSpecFR with wavelength of 0.35~2.5μm. The experimental achievement includes: soil moisture, corn physiological & biochemical parameters, corn leaf water & chlorophyll-a,b contents, corn structure parameters, field farmland microclimate, aerological exploration data of atmosphere, corn spectra of component, corn crown & background spectra cross the growth period of crop. The paper details the whole experimental scheme and design and partial representation of results of data analysis.

  20. What Happened to Gray Whales during the Pleistocene? The Ecological Impact of Sea-Level Change on Benthic Feeding Areas in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Lindberg, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how. Methodology/Principal Findings We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity. Conclusions/Significance Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf) during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their primary feeding ground

  1. What happened to gray whales during the Pleistocene? The ecological impact of sea-level change on benthic feeding areas in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Pyenson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their

  2. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy: Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy. Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS- based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%, Toxocara canis (1.72%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%, Ancylostomatidae (0.43%, and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%, followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%. Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection.

  3. Canine fecal contamination in a metropolitan area (Milan, north-western Italy): prevalence of intestinal parasites and evaluation of health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Di Cerbo, Anna Rita; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Genchi, Marco; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS-) based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas) were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%), Toxocara canis (1.72%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%), Ancylostomatidae (0.43%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%). Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%), followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%). Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection. PMID:25478583

  4. The Impacts of public transport policies on a non mobility area: French study case in the north of France

    OpenAIRE

    MAHIEUX, Aurélie; MEJIA-DORANTES, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Many regeneration projects aim at producing a benefit of the population around them. However, it may happen that the socio-economic problems and needs of the territory involved are not completely understood. This paper reports on a case study of the northern part of France, namely Bassin-Minier, which used to be a coal mining area. It is a partic ular metropolitan area with a specific geography and spatial distribution, which faces different social problems, along with a limited public transp...

  5. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  6. 冷杉栲胶的制取及鞣革试验%Extraction-of Fir Bark and Tanning Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武勇; 马云志; 刘波

    2001-01-01

    Abies fabri bark, collected from Heshui Forest Area of Yunnan, was extracted by water solution or sulfiting and the tanning extract with water was mooified by sulfjting or syntan. Then the four extracts were used to tan skin under the same conditions to compare their tanning properties. The results of experiments show that the extract extracted by sulfiting in thc process may decrease its combination tannin and tanring number, but it has a lower deposits in tanning solutiorm fast penetration to skin and mild astrigcnce with skin. Furthermore, the resultant leather is fullness, stiffn~s and appearance of lightness. The extract modified by syntan has almost the same tanning properties as the one extracted by sulfiting in the process. In a word, the way to extracted by sulfiting in the process is the best way to prepare tannin extract. Also, the extract modified by syntan should be another choice for its fast penetration and stronger combination.%我国冷杉蓄积量丰富,广泛分布于西南、西北广大林区,开发利用冷杉鞣料具有重要意义。本文采用几种不同的浸提方法制取冷杉栲胶:1)水浸提;2)添加亚硫酸盐,包括在浸提过程中和浸提后的溶液中加入两种方法;3)合成单宁改性。用不同方法制取的栲胶做了鞣革研究,比较其成革性能。试验结果表明,冷杉栲胶经亚硫酸盐和合成单宁处理后,沉淀减少,渗透速度加快,成革丰满坚实,颜色浅淡,鞣革性能得到较大的改善。加亚硫酸盐浸提的栲胶结合鞣质和鞣制系数虽有所下降,但渗透速度却快得多,而日.栲胶的浸提率大,因而列为首选的方法。浓胶加合成单宁的方法因渗透快和结合力较强,也可供选择。

  7. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters. PMID:26769702

  8. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  9. Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, Caitlin; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

  10. More skin, more sun, more tan, more melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caroline; Murzaku, Era Caterina; Penn, Lauren; Abbasi, Naheed R; Davis, Paula D; Berwick, Marianne; Polsky, David

    2014-11-01

    Although personal melanoma risk factors are well established, the contribution of socioeconomic factors, including clothing styles, social norms, medical paradigms, perceptions of tanned skin, economic trends, and travel patterns, to melanoma incidence has not been fully explored. We analyzed artwork, advertisements, fashion trends, and data regarding leisure-time activities to estimate historical changes in UV skin exposure. We used data from national cancer registries to compare melanoma incidence rates with estimated skin exposure and found that they rose in parallel. Although firm conclusions about melanoma causation cannot be made in an analysis such as this, we provide a cross-disciplinary, historical framework in which to consider public health and educational measures that may ultimately help reverse melanoma incidence trends. PMID:25211764

  11. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols: Impact of biomass burning and secondary formation in summertime in a rural area of the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Li, Weijun; Sui, Xiao; Wen, Liang; Chi, Jianwei; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Xu, Caihong; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain, field measurements were conducted at Yucheng (YC) in the summers of 2013 and 2014. The concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols at YC exhibited clear diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the early morning and at night and lower concentrations during the afternoon hours. The mass-balance method designed for particulate matter smaller than 2.5μm (PM2.5) was used to calculate the organic matter (OM)/organic carbon (OC) ratio. The value obtained, 2.07±0.05, was suggested as a reference to estimate organics in PM2.5 in rural areas of the North China Plain. Biomass burning was identified to be a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols; approximately half of the samples obtained at YC were affected by biomass burning during summer 2013. Case studies revealed that biomass burning accounted for up to 52.6% of the OC and 51.1% of the elemental carbon in PM2.5 samples. The organic coatings observed on sulphur-rich and potassium-rich particles indicated the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from the oxidation of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the aging of smoke released from biomass burning. Based on the evolution of the VOCs, the contribution of VOCs oxidation to SOA concentration was 3.21 and 1.07μgm(-3)ppm(-1) CO under conditions of low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and high NOx, respectively. Aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene) made the greatest contribution to SOA concentration (88.4% in low-NOx conditions and 80.6% in high-NOx conditions). The results of the study offer novel insights into the effects of biomass burning on the carbonaceous aerosols and SOA formation in polluted rural areas. PMID:27031303

  12. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future. PMID:26910989

  13. Evaluation of structural and geological factors in orogenic gold type mineralisation in the Kervian area, north-west Iran, using airborne geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Alireza; Jafarirad, Alireza; Kheyrollahi, Hasan; Rahimi, Mana; Afzal, Peyman

    2014-03-01

    The Piranshahr-Sardasht-Saqqez Zone (PSSZ) in the north-west of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone (SSZ) hosts some major Iranian gold deposits. In the south-east of PSSZ, there is a north-east trending orogenic gold belt which contains three gold deposits/occurrences (Qolqoleh, Kervian and Ghabaghloujeh). In this research, studies are focused on processing and analysing airborne magnetic and radiometric data in order to find applicable indicators for prospecting gold in this area. Former studies on the gold deposits/occurrences in the study area suggest three essential factors in local orogenic gold mineralisation: (1) intersecting deep bending structures/shear zones, (2) Fe-rich mafic meta-volcanic lithologies (primary source and host rocks) and (3) altered mylonitic granites (secondary host rock). Geological structures and lithological contacts can be mapped based on locating edges in the magnetic field at different depths. In this study, we extracted the structure from aeromagnetic data by reduction to the pole, upward continuation and applying a tilt derivative filter to the horizontal derivative of the upward continued data. Upward continuation was to several levels from 500 to 4000 m. Afterwards, a 3D architecture was built based on extracted subsurface lineaments in different levels. This 3D model can assist in the visualisation of the underground shape of structures that may influence gold mineralisation. Moreover, mafic meta-volcanic rocks in the study area, which contain magnetic minerals such as magnetite, titanomagnetite and ilmenite, can be mapped using aeromagnetic data. Mylonitic granites, which are the other host rock in the deposits, were mapped using airborne radiometric data.

  14. Exposure to the 'Dark Side of Tanning' skin cancer prevention mass media campaign and its association with tanning attitudes in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M; Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The 'Dark Side of Tanning' (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of 13- to 44-year-olds living in New South Wales in the summer months of 2007-2010 (n = 7490). Regression models were used to determine predictors of recall of DSOT and to investigate associations between exposure to the campaign and tanning attitudes. The campaign achieved consistently high recall (unprompted recall 42-53% during campaign periods; prompted recall 76-84%). Those who recalled DSOT advertisements had a higher likelihood of reporting negative tanning attitudes compared with those who reported no recall, after adjusting for other factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27 for unprompted recall; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36 for prompted recall). Being interviewed in later campaign years was also a significant predictor of negative tanning attitudes (e.g. fourth year of campaign versus first year: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). These results suggest that mass media campaigns have potential to influence tanning-related attitudes and could play an important role in skin cancer prevention. PMID:25697580

  15. A new process for the synthesis of naphthalene based tanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new process developed for the preparation of naphthalene catechu tanning agent consisted of sulphonation of naphthalene, condensation with formaldehyde, combining with naturally occurring catechol, followed by neutralization of the reaction mixture. The product was then dried, analyzed and tested for application on wet blue leather which showed excellent tanning properties. (author)

  16. 77 FR 37838 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  17. On Chinese American Identity Dilemma in Amy Tan's The Bonesetter's Daughter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁福江

    2010-01-01

    In The Bonesetter's Daughter,Amy Tan explores the complexity of Chinese American identity dilemma confronted by the major charactersThis paper in-tends to examine the marginalized position of the Chinese immigrant mother Luling and the American bom daughter Ruth and reveal the ideology of Amy Tan's writing beyond the bounds of ethnicity.

  18. Inter-comparison study of the population dose due to gamma radiation in the coast of north sinai between rafah and bir-el-abd areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the external dose due to the y-ray emitting radionuclides in various areas in north Sinai, Egypt. The whole area was divided into 10 regions. The average absorbed dose rates were evaluated for each region. It was found that Zaranik protected area and Al-Massaid have the highest values of 69.0 and 54.7 nGy h-1 respectively. The corresponding values of the remaining regions were below 21 nGy h-1. The mean annual effective dose equivalent for the four largest cities Rafah, El-Sheikh Zuwaied, Al-Arish and Bir El-Abd were 20.7, 16.1, 53.4 and 13.9 μSv. That is one individual at risk due to the radiation exposure of naturally occurring radionuclides in 50.8, 84.7, 8.7 and 85.3 years for these cities, respectively. The results are compared with those from different areas in Egypt and in various countries

  19. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  20. Mitigation of naphthenate related production upsets in high TAN (Total Acid Number) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostojic, Nik [Maersk Oil, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vijn, Pieter; Reiners, Robert [Champion Technologies Europe BV, Delden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for prediction, evaluation and mitigation of calcium naphthenate related production problems. Developing fields with acidic crude in the North Sea, West Africa, Bohai Bay (China) and Brazil is becoming more common in recent years. The high acid crude contains a considerable amount of naphthenic acids, typically having a Total Acid Number (TAN) higher than 0.5 mg KOH/g. Formation of either hard type 'calcium naphthenate precipitates' or soft type 'sodium carboxylate/emulsions' during crude oil production can lead to severe flow assurance and separation problems. In severe cases this may lead to production shutdowns to clean-up the equipment. A number of different naphthenate mitigation approaches have been published but no one particular approach is considered to be the most efficient as it depends significantly on the particular field conditions. Initially, this problem was addressed by deploying large volumes of (usually organic) acid, but more recently high efficiency low dose naphthenate inhibitors have been introduced. For predicting naphthenate scaling potential, methods were developed to determine the concentration of 1230 Dalton naphthenic tetra acid (ARN acids) in either deposit or crude oil and this information can be used to locate and potentially isolate the problem to a certain reservoir. Also, methods were developed to design suitable low dose naphthenate inhibitors. As these inhibitors are field tested, monitoring is required to ensure the product is performing most efficiently. In cases of tight emulsions however, this is less difficult as the oil dehydration and water quality is affected instantly. Methods were developed to allow monitoring of the calcium naphthenate deposition in field trails, thus allow trending and evaluation of the chemicals performance. After detailed analyses and discussions of the developed methods, a North Sea case history is presented reviewing several years of treating

  1. Perception of Tourist towards the Potential Development of Tumpa Mountain Area as Integrated Ecotourism, Manado, North Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Irwan Towoliu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumpa is the name of mountain located at the northern part of the Manado City region which bordering The National Park of Bunaken. As a mountainous region with a height of ±623m (asl, it occupies a strategic position. In addition to being adjacent to the park, it is also part of uplands owned by the city of Manado. It serves as buffer zone (green belt of water, horticultural and agricultural areas with mangrove coastal areas. Master Plan of Tourism Development Region in Manado City used as part of ecotourism products from mountain and forest, but so far there has been no in-depth study to assess the holistic perception of tourist in the development potency of the region as an integrated tourism in Tumpa Mountain area. This study was purposed to determine the tourist perception toward the potential development as integrated ecotourism. This research involved a qualitative research approach, described by using figures on the percentage. Fieldwork was used as a questionnaire survey. The analysis measurement using Likert Scale, scoring and analysis combined with the analysis of the interest rate (level of importance. This study result shows that the average respondent answered good with the score range between 3.5 until 4.2. It means the respondents have argued that every indicator; natural, social-cultural and infrastructure that exists in the region Tumpa Mount area is still in good condition. In the level of interest the respondents answered between 3.6 until 4.6 with category important. This means respondents expect that good environmental circumstances will be always maintained and linked with the development of tourist attraction which is very suitable to be developed as ecotourism. In conclusion, the indicators are considered good and important to be developed as an integrated ecotourism area. Keywords: Ecotourism, Integrated, Perception, Tourist, Tumpa Mount.

  2. Wet skins tanning with chromium in dense CO{sub 2} under pressure; Tannage au chrome de peaux humides en CO{sub 2} dense sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldinari, L. [Tanneries Roux SA, 26 - Romans Sur Isere (France)]|[Tanneries du Puy (France)]|[Tanneries d' Annonay, 07 (France); Dutel, Ch. [Societe ATC (France); Perre, Ch. [CEA Centre de Pierrelatte (DCC/DTE/SLC), 26 (France)

    2000-07-01

    An ancestral gesture steadily improved through the centuries, the transformation of skins into leather includes several stages of which the principal one is tanning. Today, 90 % of the world's leather products are tanned with chromium. However, this stage is an environmental liability, and reducing the volume and chromium content of the waste has become a major issue. A first study on skin degreasing by dense CO{sub 2} helped sharply reduce the volume of the fatty effluents. To replace water by dense CO{sub 2} as the tanning medium was the logical next step. The present study was carried out in cooperation with three tanneries in the Rhone-Alpes-Auvergne area of France and a manufacturer of tanning materials. The difficulty of the study was the chemically opposed character of the two media involved. CO{sub 2} is a non-polar and lipophilic solvent while inorganic chromium is insoluble. The water present in the treated skin is a polar and ionic reaction medium and one of the reagents in tanning chemistry. The mixture of these two partially miscible compounds gives a pH 3 by carbonic acid formation. Tanning is based on the reactivity of collagen, the main component of the skin, with hydroxylated complexes of chromium. Collagen is a protein containing some chemical functions, amines (R-NH{sub 2}) and carboxylic (R-COOH) for example. These functions impart an amphoteric character to the compound. The WERNER theory of complex salts explains the formation of hydroxylated complexes of chromium and their fixing on the carboxylic functions of collagen by oxolation. pH is the key parameter in tanning. The success of the process demands chromium impregnation without fixing it at a pH lower than 5, and then to fix it by increasing the pH. This opened two alternatives for transferring chromium in the skin: solubilize chromium in CO{sub 2} via soluble organometallic complexes; or put the chromium salt into suspension without solubilizing it. The best results were obtained

  3. On the use of the Pareto ArcTan distribution for describing city size in Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Déniz, Emilio; Calderín-Ojeda, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    The circular inverse of the tangent function is used to simply derive a generalization of the Pareto distribution, the Pareto ArcTan (PAT) distribution. This model includes as limiting cases Pareto and Zipf distributions. This new probabilistic family is used to describe city size data for Australia and New Zealand. Urban agglomerations of these two countries presents similar features, a few large metropolitan areas with a steadily increasing population in the last years and many small cities. The PAT distribution improves the performance of other traditionally used models in urban agglomeration economics such as the classical Pareto, lognormal and the recently proposed Pareto positive stable.

  4. Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks in a High-Risk Area of the North-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Kightlinger, L.; Vincent, G.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America. Since its emergence in the western hemisphere in 1999, human WNV disease has continued to exhibit recurrent outbreaks. Perplexingly, the incidence of this tropical disease has been highest in the cold-temperate climates of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). The spatial and temporal distributions of the vector mosquitoes and bird hosts, and consequently the risk of disease in humans, are strongly influenced by temperature, precipitation, vegetation, soils, and land use. We have utilized satellite remote sensing to map these environmental factors through time and develop models of disease risk. Outbreak years in South Dakota were preceded by warm winters, and WNV cases were most likely to occur during the hottest weeks of summer. Hot spots of persistent WNV transmission within the state were associated with rural land cover as well as patterns of physiography and climate. These models are currently being integrated into the South Dakota Mosquito Early Warning system (SDMIS), an automated WNV outbreak detection system that integrates remotely-sensed environmental indicators with vector abundance and infection data from a statewide mosquito surveillance network. The major goal of this effort is to leverage global environmental monitoring datasets to provide up-to-date, locally relevant information that can improve the effectiveness of mosquito control and disease prevention activities. This system was implemented for the first time during the summer of 2015. We will review the outcomes of this implementation, including the underlying influences of temperature on WNV risk, a preliminary statewide WNV risk map, and dynamic risk predictions made during the 2015 WNV season. Lessons learned as well as plans for future years will be discussed.

  5. Mitochondrial genome diversity at the Bering Strait area highlights prehistoric human migrations from Siberia to northern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryomov, Stanislav V; Nazhmidenova, Azhar M; Shalaurova, Sophia A; Morozov, Igor V; Tabarev, Andrei V; Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I

    2015-10-01

    The patterns of prehistoric migrations across the Bering Land Bridge are far from being completely understood: there still exists a significant gap in our knowledge of the population history of former Beringia. Here, through comprehensive survey of mitochondrial DNA genomes retained in 'relic' populations, the Maritime Chukchi, Siberian Eskimos, and Commander Aleuts, we explore genetic contribution of prehistoric Siberians/Asians to northwestern Native Americans. Overall, 201 complete mitochondrial sequences (52 new and 149 published) were selected in the reconstruction of trees encompassing mtDNA lineages that are restricted to Coastal Chukotka and Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, and the Aleutian chain. Phylogeography of the resulting mtDNA genomes (mitogenomes) considerably extends the range and intrinsic diversity of haplogroups (eg, A2a, A2b, D2a, and D4b1a2a1) that emerged and diversified in postglacial central Beringia, defining independent origins of Neo-Eskimos versus Paleo-Eskimos, Aleuts, and Tlingit (Na-Dene). Specifically, Neo-Eskimos, ancestral to modern Inuit, not only appear to be of the High Arctic origin but also to harbor Altai/Sayan-related ancestry. The occurrence of the haplogroup D2a1b haplotypes in Chukotka (Sireniki) introduces the possibility that the traces of Paleo-Eskimos have not been fully erased by spread of the Neo-Eskimos or their descendants. Our findings are consistent with the recurrent gene flow model of multiple streams of expansions to northern North America from northeastern Eurasia in late Pleistocene-early Holocene. PMID:25564040

  6. Lesions in DNA of hypoxic mammalian cells irradiated in the presence of TAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAN (triacetoneamine-N-oxyl) at a concentration of 10mM gives a dose modifying factor (DMF) of 1.45 for the surviving fraction of γ irradiated hypoxic mammalian cells. Under the same conditions, however TAN produces little or no enhancement of single strand breaks (SSB) in DNA (DMFapproximately equal to 1). In this study, enhancement of the type of DNA lesions exposed by an extract of M. luteus is reported. The DMF for this type of damage (MLS) is 1.5. TAN is known to affect the size of DNA synthesized after irradiation, presumably by causing interruptions in synthesis at TAN-DNA adduct sites. The absolute number of M. luteus extract sensitive sites detected in this work corresponds to approximately one half of the number of sites of interrupted synthesis. In its sensitizing effect on DNA, the free radical TAN is different from the electron affinic drug, misonidazole. (author)

  7. Changes in skin tanning attitudes. Fashion articles and advertisements in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jo M; Ghaferi, Jessica M; Cummins, Deborah L; Mamelak, Adam J; Schmults, Chrys D; Parikh, Mona; Speyer, Lark-Aeryn; Chuang, Alice; Richardson, Hazel V; Stein, David; Liégeois, Nanette J

    2009-12-01

    Historical reviews suggest that tanning first became fashionable in the 1920s or 1930s. To quantitatively and qualitatively examine changes in tanning attitudes portrayed in the popular women's press during the early 20th century, we reviewed summer issues of Vogue and Harper's Bazaar for the years 1920, 1927, 1928, and 1929. We examined these issues for articles and advertisements promoting skin tanning or skin bleaching and protection. We found that articles and advertisements promoting the fashionable aspects of tanned skin were more numerous in 1928 and 1929 than in 1927 and 1920, whereas those promoting pale skin (by bleaching or protection) were less numerous. These findings demonstrate a clear shift in attitudes toward tanned skin during this period. PMID:19846688

  8. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  9. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  10. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern. PMID:26330321

  12. Environmental Consequences of Solid Waste Generation in Ika North East and Ika South Local Government Areas of Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogboi, E.; Kperegbeyi, J. I.

    2010-01-01

    The survey on solid waste generation in Ika urban and rural environs was conducted to explore the environmental consequences. 240 respondents were randomly selected for the study. The data obtained were tabulated and subjected to descriptive analysis. The major causes for increased solid waste generation in these areas were identified to be increased population, earning and urbanization. It was observed that the nature of waste generated in Ika urban was mostly garbage; while in the rural are...

  13. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R G Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  14. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Liu; Hong-Wei Kuang; Nan Peng; Huan Xu; Peng Zhang; Neng-Sheng Wang; Wei An

    2015-01-01

    complicated thrust and fold, the previous uniifed Ordos-North China Basin was separated by the northeast-oriented Great Xing’an Range and Taihang Mountain uplifted linearment. The differential evolution of basins and sedimentary palaeoge-ography between eastern and western North China was initiated, and was interpreted to result in the closure of Okhotsk Ocean and the subduction of Palaeo-Paciifc Plate (late stage 2). During the Late Jurassic (the early phase of stage 3), a variety of faulted basins occurred in the Yanshan and Yinshan areas in the northeastern North China. In Yanshan area, basins were iflled with thickened intermediate volcanic rocks and purple-red coarse-grained clastic rocks. In contrast, only thick layered sedimentary rocks with rare volcanic rocks developed in the Yinshan faulted basins, the Ordos Basin and basins in sourthern North China. XMOB was the main provenance of the Early Mesozoic basins in the North China, while the Ordos Basin and the Hefei Basin were partly supplied by the northern Qinling Orogenic Belt. During the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous (the late phase of stage 3), the north-ern and northeastern North China experienced extensional movement after the subduction of the Palaeo-Paciifc Plate, the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk Ocean and the subsequent Yanshanian orogeny. At the same time, a NE-oriented, giant rift basin system (NE Asia Rift) extended from the Yanshan to the western Great Xing’an Range, where rift basins were iflled with the regional, NE-oriented, thick coarse-grained clastic rocks and a belt of volcanic rocks. In the meantime, the eastern and northeastern China and most areas of NCC were presented as highland terrains. During the middle-late Early Cretaceous (stage 4), rift basins developed and accumulated alluvial sediments and interbedded alkaline volcanic rocks in the western and northern North China, including Yingen, Ejinaqi and Erlian regions. Basins were formed on both sides of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone

  15. Crustal Structure in the area of the North American Mid-Continent Rift System from P-wave Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Stein, S. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mid-continent Geophysical Anomaly (MGA) represents the largest gravity anomaly in the North American continental interior, its strongest portion stretching from Iowa to Lake Superior, and is the direct result of 1.1 Ga deposition and uplift of volcanic rocks in the Mid-continent Rift System (MRS). The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) collected broadband seismic data around this prominent portion of the MGA for 2.5 years from 82 seismic stations, simultaneously with about 30 Transportable Array (TA) stations in the region. To image crustal structure around the MGA, we analyzed the P-wave trains of 119 teleseismic earthquakes at these stations using the time-domain iterative-deconvolution method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999), the waveform-fitting method of Van der Meijde et al. (2003), and the H-κ stacking method of Zhu and
Kanamori (2000). Our aim was to resolve intra-crustal layering and Moho characteristics. Despite considerable noise related to station installation constraints, we find that outside of the MGA, the Moho is sharp and relatively flat, both beneath the Archean Superior Province as well as beneath the Proterozoic terranes to its south. This Moho produces consistent P to S converted phases in the analyzed receiver functions. Receiver functions show much more complexity along the MGA, where P to S converted phases from the Moho are much weaker and more variable with azimuth and epicentral distance. Similar results have been found in Iowa by French et al. (2009). For many stations along the MGA, multiple weak S phases arrive around the time expected for the Moho-converted phase. In addition, strong P-to-S converted phases are observed from the base of shallow sedimentary layers. The base of the sedimentary layer is fairly shallow outside of the MGA, thickens near the flanks where gravity anomalies are low and shallows again in the center where the gravity peaks. We conclude that the Moho is not a strong feature of the MRS

  16. Trace elements total content and particle sizes distribution in the air particulate matter of a rural-residential area in north Italy investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations (ng/m3) of more than 30 trace elements have been determined in the total air particulate of a rural-residential area in north Italy. By collecting the aerosols with multistage impactors the distribution of the trace elements in the different size-fractionated particles has been also investigated. The fine 'inhalable' fraction with particles of less than 10 μm in equivalent aerodynamic diameter (PM10) as well as the subsequent finest 'respirable' fractions with particles of 0-1.1 μm (alveolar), 1.1-4.6 μm (bronchial) and 4.6-9 μm (tracheo-pharynx) have been analyzed and evaluated. Apart from Pb, Cd and, in some cases, Ni and Cu which have been determined by ETAAS (electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy), all measurements have been carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Analysis of Thematic Mapper data for studying the suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Stoessel, M.; Brockmann, C.; Grassl, H.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data were analyzed with respect to its capability for mapping the complex structure and dynamics of suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea). Three independent pieces of information were found by factor analysis of all seven TM channels: suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature. For the required atmospheric correction, the signal-to-noise ratios of Channels 5 and 7 have to be improved by averaging over 25 x 25 pixels, which also makes it possible to monitor the aerosol optical depth and aerosol type over cloud-free water surfaces. Near-surface suspended matter concentrations may be detected with an accuracy of factor less than 2 by using an algorithm derived from radiative transfer model calculation. The patchiness of suspended matter and its relation to underwater topography was analyzed with autocorrelation and cross-correlation.

  18. Decrease in Self-Reported Tanning Frequency among Utah Teens following the Passage of Utah Senate Bill 41: An Analysis of the Effects of Youth-Access Restriction Laws on Tanning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca G. Simmons

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescent use of indoor tanning facilities is associated with an increased risk in later development of melanoma skin cancers. States that have imposed age restrictions on access to indoor tanning generally show lower self-reported rates of indoor tanning than states with no restrictions, but currently no studies have assessed indoor tanning use before and after such restrictions. Methods. In 2013, we compared self-reported indoor tanning data collected in the Prevention Needs Assessment (PNA survey in 2011 to PNA 2013 data. We also assessed predictors of continued tanning after passage of the bill. Results. Prior to the passage of Senate Bill 41, 12% of students reported at least one incident of indoor tanning in the past 12 months. After passage, only 7% of students reported indoor tanning in the past 12 months (P < 0.0001. Students who continued indoor tanning were more likely to be older and female and to engage in other risk behaviors, including smoking and alcohol use. Lower parental education levels were also associated with continued tanning. Conclusion. Indoor tanning restrictions showed beneficial impact on tanning rates in adolescents in Utah. Stricter restrictions may show even greater impact than restrictions that allow for parental waivers. Stronger enforcement of bans is needed to further reduce youth access.

  19. Effects on non-human species inhabiting areas with enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Belykh, Elena S. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Majstrenko, Tatiana A. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    Results of long-term radioecological investigations in areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia are summarized. Deleterious changes within animal and plant populations inhabiting areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the Komi Republic were revealed. These changes are expressed in enhanced levels of mutagenesis, destructive processes in the tissues of animals, disturbances of reproductive functions and reduced offspring viability. Compensatory processes, resulting in animal and plant survival under extremely adverse conditions of radium and uranium-radium contamination, were observed as well. However, obvious signs of adaptation failed to be detected. The findings suggest that adverse somatic and genetic effects are possible in plants and animals in the dose range observed at sites with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. In contrast, different plant species inhabiting an area with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the taiga zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) reveal a stimulation of growth processes, photosynthesis, endogenous low molecular weight antioxidant synthesis as well as adaptive response. It is apparent from the data presented that naturally occurring differences in terrestrial radiation level could be of genetic and ecological consequence.

  20. A Petrographic and Mineralogical Study of Volcanic Rocks from the Mayaxueshan Area, North Qilian Fold Belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐达伟; 萧炎宏

    2002-01-01

    The Ordovician volcanic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have been pervasively altered or metamorphosedand contain abundant secondary minerals such as albite, chlorite, epidote, prehnite, pumpellyite, actinolite, titanite, quartz,and/or calcite. They were denoted as spilites or spilitic rocks in terms of their petrographic features and mineral assem-blages. The metamorphic grades of the volcanic rocks are equivalent to that of the intercalated metaclastic rocks. Thisindicates that both the spilitic volcanic rocks and metaclastic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have formed as a result ofCaledonian regional metamorphism. We suggest that the previously denoted spilitic rocks or altered volcanic rocks shouldbe re-denoted as metabasalts or metabasaltic rocks. The metamorphic grade of the volcanic rocks increases with their age:prehnite-pumpellyite facies for the upper part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, prehnite-pumpellyite to lowergreenschist facies for the lower part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, and lower greenschist facies for the LowerOrdovician volcanic rocks. The P-T conditions are estimated as T = 240 - 290C and P = 1.5 - 4.5 kbar for the lower partof the Middle Ordovician rocks, and T = ~ 300~C for the Lower Ordovician rocks. The variations of mineral assemblagesoccurring at different domains of the volcanic rocks were controlled by the variations of the effective bulk composition inthose domains during metamorphism. The geochemical characteristics of Mg-Al chromite in the Mayaxueshan volcanicrocks are consistent with an origin of island arc environment.

  1. Evaluation of the hydrologic system in the New Leipzig coal area, Grant and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aquifers in the New Leipzig coal area consist of sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone, the Hell Creek Formation, the Cannonball and Ludlow Members of the Fort Union Formation, and the basal part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. Aquifers also occur in sandstone and lignite beds in the upper part of the Tongue River Member and Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation. Potential well yields from each of the aquifers are variable, but are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Cannonball, and Ludlow is soft and of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in basal Tongue River aquifer is either soft or very hard and generally is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in the upper Tongue River and Sentinel Butte aquifer system is very hard and generally is either of the calcium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type. There is little or no contribution of ground water to Thirty Mile Creek or the Cannonball River from the area of minable coal. Coal mining will expose sulfide minerals to oxidation, and result in an increase in dissolved solids and sulfate in water in the basal Tongue River aquifer. (USGS)

  2. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. PMID:24996353

  3. Temporal monitoring of subglacial volcanoes with TanDEM-X — Application to the 2014–2015 eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Cristian; Minet, Christian; Fritz, Thomas; Eineder, Michael; Bamler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    On August 29, 2014, a lava eruption commenced in the Holuhraun plain, north-east of the Bárðarbunga caldera in Iceland. The eruption ended on February 27, 2015, thus lasting for a period of about 6 months. During these months the magma chamber below the caldera gradually deflated, feeding the eruption and causing the rare event of a slow caldera collapse. In this scenario, TanDEM-X remote sensing data are of particular interest. By producing medium-high resolution and accurate elevation model...

  4. Geology, structure and age of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area, North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Gerson A.; González, Pablo D.; González, Santiago N.; Sato, Ana M.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei; Varela, Ricardo; Llambías, Eduardo J.

    2015-10-01

    The low-grade Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area (40°50‧S-65°53‧W) shows ultramafic to felsic metaigneous rocks forming a sill swarm intercalated in the metasedimentary sequence and a polyphase deformation which permit an integrated study of the magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of this geological unit. In this paper we present a geological characterization of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area combining mapping, structural and metamorphic analysis with a SHRIMP U-Pb age and geochemical data from the metaigneous rocks. The metasedimentary sequence consists of alternating metagreywackes and phyllites, and minor metasandstones and granule metaconglomerates. The sills are pre-kinematic intrusions and yielded one SHRIMP U-Pb, zircon crystallization age of 513.6 ± 3.3 Ma. Their injection occurred after consolidation of the sedimentary sequence. A syn-sedimentary volcanic activity is interpreted by a metaandesite lava flow interlayered in the metasedimentary sequence. Sedimentary and igneous protoliths of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation would have been formed in a continental margin basin associated with active magmatic arc during the Cambrian Epoch 2. Two main low-grade tectonometamorphic events affected the Nahuel Niyeu Formation, one during the Cambrian Epoch 2-Early Ordovician and the other probably in the late Permian at ˜260 Ma. Local late folds could belong to the final stages of the late Permian deformation or be even younger. In a regional context, the Nahuel Niyeu and El Jagüelito formations and Mina Gonzalito Complex show a comparable Cambrian-Ordovician evolution related to the Terra Australis Orogen in the south Gondwana margin. This evolution is also coeval with the late and early stages of the Pampean and Famatinian orogenies of Central Argentina, respectively. The late Permian event recorded in the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in Aguada Cecilio area is identified by comparable structures affecting the Mina Gonzalito

  5. Appropriate density of water and soil conservation of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia forests in loess area, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun ZHANG; Chengliang ZHANG; Wei HE; Lei NA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on a long-term monitor-ing of water cycle in the water and soil conservation forest stands of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseu-doacacia, the soil moisture deficit is calculated. Following the principles of runoff-collecting forestry and applying the forest structure investigation results, the authors developed a formula to calculate appropriate density for forests on the basis of different diameters at breast height (DBH). Using this method to manage forests, the natural water requirement of forests can be met and soil drought can be avoided. In addition, with long-term monitoring of soil moisture in stands, the authors also give an appropriate managing density specifically for the water and soil conservation forests of P.tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacacia in the loess area which is according to soil moisture content,or with the lowest soil moisture content and invalid moisture frequency as the indexes.

  6. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  7. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  8. 40 CFR 425.20 - Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. 425.20 Section 425.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.20...

  9. 40 CFR 425.10 - Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory. 425.10 Section 425.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.10...

  10. Predictors of Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Women: Comparisons between Outdoor Tanners, Fake Tanners, and Tan Avoiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Oxlad, Melissa; Roberts, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Skin cancer incidence continues to rise as a tanned appearance remains desirable, particularly among young women. Fake tanning provides a tanned appearance without exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In order to advance our understanding of the factors that contribute to long-term behavior change, this study explores determinants…

  11. Some evidences for earthquake occurrence in the shallow crust in some areas of North China and Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新亮; 刁桂苓; 高景春; 张四昌; 张学民; 李钦祖; 秦清娟; 朱振兴; 张彦清

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of hypocentral location are important fundamental data for the study of seismology and the earth interior physics; among them, the focal depth is a very important one but can hardly be measured with higher precision. With the increase of seismic stations in number, the heightening of observation quality and the improvement of determination method, such a situation has been changed much. In this paper, the results of hypocentral location and re-location by 7 small-aperture digital seismic station networks at Tangshan, Zhangbei and Huailai of Hebei Province, Datong of Shanxi Province and Jianchuan, Luquan and Yao'an of Yunnan Province are used. Using these results together with those of focal depth inversion by far-field data of some individual large shocks in corresponding areas and those re-determined by the Linfen telemetered seismic network of Shanxi Province, a comparison with the results of focal depth determination in the past earthquake catalogues is made. It is found out that the focal depths determined by the small-aperture seismic networks are basically distributed in the range from the earth surface to ten-odd kilometers underground. In contrast, the focal depths determined in the past are mostly distributed at the depth range from the earth surface to 30 km underground. Besides, there is a difference of 50% to 100% between the average values of the two cases, which is quite an obvious one. From the result of analysis, it is considered that the results determined by the small-aperture seismic networks may be closer to the reality of focal depths distribution. That is to say, earthquakes in the above-mentioned areas should be distributed in the shallow part of the crust. The causes that lead to the above situation are discussed preliminarily, and some suggestions and measures for improving the precision of focal depth determination are put forward.

  12. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources. - Highlights: • PFASs were detected in the soil of rapidly developing coastal regions in China. • PFAS concentrations ranged from LOQ to 13.97 ng/g dw, with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. • Higher concentrations of PFASs correspond to higher levels of urbanization. • Existence of fluorine industry induced PFAS pollutions dominated by PFOA and PFOS. • Intensive urbanization caused increasing emission of industrial and domestic PFASs. - Among urban, suburban and rural areas in the coasts, soils from urban area showed high degrees of PFASs contamination with the existence of industrial emissions dominated by PFOA and PFOS

  13. Use of Polar Orbiting Earth Observatories to Create a Synoptic Inventory of North American Forested Areas Affected by Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, R.; Carroll, M.; Townshend, J.; McCarty, J.

    2005-12-01

    The authors will discuss a newly developed algorithm which utilizes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites to derive an ongoing inventory of forested areas affected by wildfire. The experimental data set has been developed at a spatial resolution of 250 m and a temporal resolution of 16 days. The intent is to provide a near real-time inventory of fire-affected forested landscapes. The method allows for discrimination between those areas which were recently burned and those which were burned previously in the same or earlier fire seasons. This is an automated and repeatable method for delineating fire-affected forest at a country scale. By relying entirely on satellite observations, the product is intended to be internally consistent, avoiding potential bias and omission introduced by ground and airborne-based mapping. The data set is intended for use at a national and regional scale to update forest inventories in a rapid fashion, and to direct land management efforts. This moderate resolution product can then be used to direct detailed inventory and characterization efforts utilizing fine resolution instruments and in situ observation. Additional features of the data set provide the ability to gain a basic understanding of the spatial distribution of burn severity. Based upon user requirements, such as the need to monitor specific events of national importance, the methods presented can be adapted to provide results on a daily basis. We will present validation results using perimeter and progression maps produced for large fires in the western United States and Alaska. Special attention will be given to future operational opportunities as we move to the next generation instrument, VIIRS, which will first launch aboard the NPP platform and later on a planned series of NPOESS satellites.

  14. Tectonic and deformation history of the Gyeonggi Massif in and around the Hongcheon area, and its implications in the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengkhom, Kesorjit S.; Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Yi, Kee Wook; Kang, Ji Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The Gyeonggi Massif (GM) in South Korea is considered to be a part of the North China Craton. The Precambrian rocks of the GM in and around the Hongcheon area, South Korea, consist of the Yongduri Gneiss Complex (YGC), Euiam Group (EG) and Euiam Gneiss Complex (EGC). The YGC and EG composed mainly of partially migmatised metasedimentary rocks and the EGC is Paleoproterozoic intrusive rock that intruded the EG. At least three major folding (F1, F2 & F3), two-stage ductile shearing and three-stages of metamorphic events (M1, M2 & M3) occurred in the study area. The F1 folds are extremely drawn out, isoclinal, intrafolial folds and have Class 2 to Class 1C geometry. The F1 folds and regional S1 foliation in the YGC and EG are results of the E-W compression during the D1 deformation. Ductile shearing in the southern part of the EG is marked by the Palbongsan Shear Zone that indicates top-to-the SW sheared movement during syn to post-F1 folding. The F2 folds are open to tight, SW plunging and inclined folds, and have Class 1A to 1C geometry. The F2 folding and subsequent NNE thrusting along multiple ductile shear zones parallel to S2 planar fabrics are results of the D2 deformation due to N-S progressive shortening. The D3 deformation was coaxial with the D1 deformation, leading to the development of the F3 kink bands in the mylonite zones. The SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon ages from quartzite and banded gneisses in the EG indicate that the sedimentation in the Chunseong basins began after ca. 2094 Ma. The banded gneisses yield M1 metamorphic age of 1917-1925 Ma. However ca.1867-1883 Ma, M2 metamorphism previously reported from the YGC is absent or weakly preserved in the EG representing that the M2 metamorphism was not strong enough to form new zircon in the EG. The igneous zircons form augen gneisses in the EGC yield intrusion age of ca. 1867-1881 Ma and the geochemistries of the EGC gneisses show post-collision tectonic origin. The D1deformation observed in the YGC and

  15. The potential carcinogenic risk of tanning beds: clinical guidelines and patient safety advice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a group 1 carcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice. A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers. Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior. The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers

  16. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • No evidence for shallow groundwater contamination in Fayetteville Shale, Arkansas. • Methane in groundwater is low and likely associated with shallow aquifer processes. • No relationship between methane and salinity in groundwater and shale-gas wells. • δ13CCH4 and δ13CDIC suggest biogenic origin for dissolved methane. • Water-aquifer rock interaction controls majority of water chemistry. - Abstract: Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the

  17. A narrative review of the potential for self-tanning products to substitute for solaria use among people seeking a tanned appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Turon, Heidi; Brozek, Irena; Noble, Natasha; Zucca, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancers including melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers are a high-cost and largely preventable form of cancer. While limiting exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) light via outdoor activities is a focus of public health efforts, indoor UV exposure via solaria or 'tanning booths' has also become a cause for concern. In recent decades the availability of less harmful non-UV self-tanning products such as sprays and lotions has increased. This review explores (i) the available data regarding the prevalence and behavioural factors associated with use of solaria and self-tanning products and (ii) data that may shed light on the likelihood of solaria users substituting self-tanning products as a less harmful alternative to solaria exposure. While there are insufficient data on which to draw a firm conclusion about the potential for substitution, it appears unlikely that most solaria users would readily substitute self-tanning products in place of solaria exposure. Public health advocates may need to consider whether a robust research study of the cost-effectiveness of encouraging substitutional use of self-tanners is desirable, or whether efforts to severely restrict access to solaria may be a better approach. PMID:24372781

  18. Privatization of tubewells in North China: Determinants and impacts on irrigated area, productivity and the water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Huang, Qiuqiong; Rozelle, Scott

    2006-03-01

    Despite the rise in importance of the private sector in the expansion of the use of groundwater in China and the potential implications this might have for production and poverty, little has been written about the effect of these phenomena on northern China’s economy. In examining determinants of tubewell privatization and its impact on producers in northern China, data were collected using a community leader survey, carried out in 448 villages in six provinces in northern China. The results show that since 1990 collective ownership of tubewells has largely been replaced by private ownership. Increasing water scarcity, government grants and bank loans for tubewell investment and the declining investment capacity of China’s local communities have led to the observed change in tubewell ownership patterns. By far, the most important positive effect on income appears to be due to the expansion of newly irrigated area that has been fueled by the rise of private tubewells. Many newly private tubewells also have begun to replace irrigation from surface water sources. While helping increase income and productivity, the rise of private tubewells also has contributed to the fall in groundwater levels.

  19. Geology and uranium mineralisation around Ampulli Area, Papum-Pare District, Arunachal Pradesh, North-East India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralisation associated with Middle Proterozoic Bomdila Group (Daling equivalent) metasediments have been located intermittently over a strike length of 310 m with 0.11 to 2.0 m thickness around Ampulli area of Papum-Pare district, Arunachal Pradesh. The metasediments trend NE-SW and dip 20°- 85° due either side. The grab and trench samples assayed 0.012 - 0.36% eU3O8, 0.006 - 0.19% U3O8 (beta/gamma), 0.009 - 0.235% U3O8 (Chem.) and less than 0.010% ThO2. The host rocks have been identified as tourmaline bearing biotite-quartz schist, garnet bearing muscovite-biotite-quartz schist and muscovite-biotite schist. Uraninite, brannerite and U-Ti complex are observed with uranocircite and meta-uranocircite, the secondary uranium minerals. Replacement of uraninite by molybdenite and pyrite suggested earlier oxide and later sulphide phase. Partial chemical analysis indicated aluminous nature of the host rock and their high K2O/Na2O (3.3-10.73) ratios are suggestive of predominance of potash feldspar over sodic and effects of potash metasomatism. Both syngenetic as well as epigenetic hydrothermal origin of uranium mineralisation has been suggested. (author)

  20. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  1. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. PMID:26619399

  2. Evaluation of shallow landslide triggering scenarios through a physically-based approach: an example of application in the southern Messina area (north-eastern Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Schilirò

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are a widespread phenomenon that frequently causes substantial damage to property, as well as numerous casualties. In recent years a wide range of physically-based models has been developed to analyze the triggering process of these events. Specifically, in this paper we propose an approach for the evaluation of different shallow landslide triggering scenarios by means of TRIGRS numerical model. For the calibration of the model, a back-analysis of the landslide event occurred in the study area (located SW of Messina, north-eastern Sicily, Italy on 1 October 2009 was performed, by using different methods and techniques for the definition of the input parameters. After evaluating the reliability of the model through the comparison with the 2009 landslide inventory, different triggering scenarios were defined using rainfall values derived from the rainfall probability curves, reconstructed on the basis of daily and hourly historical rainfall data. The results emphasize how these phenomena are likely to occur in the area, given that even short-duration (3–6 h rainfall events having a relatively low return period (e.g. 10 years can trigger numerous slope failures. On the contrary, for the same rainfall amount, the daily simulations overestimate the instability conditions. The tendency of shallow landslides to trigger in this area agrees with the high number of landslide/flood events occurred in the past and summarized in this paper by means of archival researches. Considering the main features of the proposed approach, the authors suggest that this methodology could be applied to different areas, even for the development of landslide early warning systems.

  3. Investigation of connections among physical, social and economic factors in case of optimal Land Use System Planning in the Egri-Bükkalja Foothill Area of North Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Anna; Utasi, Zoltán; Tóth, Antal; Csabai Kitti, Edina; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Hegyi, Balázs; Tamás Hegyi, Péter; Pásztor, László; Mika, János

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, detailed knowledge of landscape elements and their capabilties, furthermore the probable tendency of climate change play important role in spatial planning of optimal land use system and solving agricultural and social challeges. During our research work, we have investigated three settlements (Cserépfalu, Egerszólát, Kerecsend) based on different landscape factors in the Egri-Bükkalja Fothill Areas of North Hungary. Our aim was to point out the landscape differences along north - south direction inside this microlandscape unit and their effects on land use system, economic developments, social challenges and their changeable tendency in the future We have investigated quantitative and qualitative connections among different landscape factors in suitable GIS environment. Based on the identified relationships thematic maps were compiled. The elaborated GIS integrates digitally processed legacy data, properly selected spatial data infrastructure elements and recently collected field data originating from our geomopholgical and pedological investigations carried out in last three years. We discribed soil features in soil profiles using methods according to FAO (2006) and Novák (2013). Soils were featured by soil type, the thickness of A horizon and the rate of soil erosion. Projected climate changes have also been considered for the region. Besides collection of the available recent OAGCM outputs and outputs by four RCM run in Hungary, an empirical approach has been also included. This is based on empirical regression relationship between relevant grid-point values of the CarpatClim data base and the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. Land use maps were created based on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Military Survey Maps and aerial photographs covering a relatively long period from the 18th century till nowadays. Main social and economic factors and processes were characterized using data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, population census and

  4. Optimization of two-low salt chrome tanning processes without float

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Prat, Josep Maria; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Ollé Otero, Lluís; Costa, Jose; Banaszak, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop at pilot plant level two systems of pickle-tanning that would reduce both the amount of waste water and its content in chrome and chlorides while obtaining leathers that are commercially acceptable. In the first one, the effect of the variation of the final tanning temperature as well as the system of adding the basificant in the formulation of a chrome tanning without float were studied. A 87 percent reduction of the residual float was obtained with this ...

  5. The Global TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model and the Terrestrial Impact Crater Record

    OpenAIRE

    Gottwald, Manfred; Fritz, Thomas; Breit, Helko; Schättler, Birgit; Harris, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The German TanDEM-X mission produced a new DEM with unprecedented accuracy. From December 2010 to March 2015 the two X-band radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X have been operated in close formation as a single-pass SAR interferometer. The data acquired in bistatic mode were processed to yield a global DEM with an independent pixel spacing of 12 m and an absolute height error of < 10 m. We used this DEM to generate a TanDEM-X sample of more than 120 confirmed impact structures, all ma...

  6. Integrated Green Roofs System and its Role of Achieving Sustainability in Residential Buildings in Urban Area in Athens, Greece and Famagusta, North Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehran shahidipour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the characteristics and importance of the green roof in urban area would investigate in some residential buildings in Athens, Greece and then, some strategies give to integrate green roof in residential buildings in Famagusta, north Cyprus due to the importance of energy saving and thermal comfort in residential buildings. These days, sustainable architecture is spreading around the world. Therefore, Sustainable architecture has important role in design buildings and urban design due to high amount of energy use and global warming around the world. There are different methods in sustainable design and one of them that has significant role is design green roof. Green roof integrated to the roof of the buildings to provide the suitable indoor temperature without spending high amount of budget. The methodology is qualitative type that trough the literature review and survey would be understood the importance and role of the green roof in both architecture and urban area. There are many significant architects like Wright that they understood how greenery would improve the function of the building in terms of provide thermal comfort and indoor temperature for the residences, and green roof as well. In Famagusta, there is not any green roof however, the design and integrating of green roof is inexpensive. Green roof should design properly depend on the characteristic of the climate of every place so, the location, temperature, and humidity, location, and wind have influence on the design of the green roof.

  7. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  8. Soil gas radon–thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gulshan Kumar; Arvind Kumar; Vivek Walia; Jitender Kumar; Vikash Gupta; Tsanyao Frank Yang; Surinder Singh; Bikramjit Singh Bajwa

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon–thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon–thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon–thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon–thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  9. Application of X-ray diffraction technique for determining triclinicity of alkali-feldspar from the rare metal pegmatites of the Pandikimal Area, North Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The zoned rare metal pegmatites of Archaean age in the Jharsuguda district of north Orissa, eastern India, are well-known for their potentiality for Nb, Ta, and Be minerals. They also contain limited Li, Bi, Th, and U minerals. Because of the economic concentrations of the ore minerals of Nb-Ta and Be, they are being mined for recovering columbite-tantalite and beryl. In this paper, the values of triclinicity of alkali-feldspars, determined by X-ray diffraction, are presented and, based on the same data, the evolutionary history of the rare metal pegmatites is traced. The values of triclinicity range from 0.83 to 0.97 with an average of 0.92. The high values of triclinicity suggest that the investigated alkali-feldspars from the rare metal pegmatites of the Pandikimal area belong to the category of maximum microcline. It would, thus, mean that during the crystallisation of alkali-feldspar, and by implication their host rare metal pegmatites, not only was the rate of cooling slow, the temperature of crystallisation was also falling. Accordingly, it is interpreted that the rare metal pegmatites of the Pandikimal area crystallised slowly under a falling-temperature regime in deep-seated plutonic conditions. The presence of large beryl crystals in the rare metal pegmatites also supports this interpretation. (author)

  10. Rural population mixing and childhood leukaemia: effects of the North Sea oil industry in Scotland, including the area near Dounreay nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine if any excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was associated with certain striking examples of population mixing in rural Scotland produced by the North Sea oil industry. Details were traced for over 30 000 workers (25 yrs old) involved in the construction of the large oil terminals in the Shetland and Orkney islands in northern Scotland or employed offshore. Home addresses of the 17160 Scottish residents were postcoded, integrated with census data, and then classified as urban or rural. Rural postcode sectors, ranked by proportion of oil workers, were grouped into three categories with similar numbers of children but contrasting densities of oil workers. The incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was examined in these rural (and also in urban) categories in the periods 1974-8, 1979-83 and 1984-8. A significant excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found in 1979-83 in the group of rural home areas with the largest proportion of oil workers, following closely on large increases in the workforce. The area near the Dounreay nuclear installation, where an excess of leukaemia is already well known, was within the rural high oil category. (Author)

  11. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  12. Effect Of Gamma Rays in the Tanning of Hides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic ions can be oxidized by γ-rays in the presence of water and oxygen. It is also possible for reduction to take place. Such reductions produce a high yield in the presence of organic material. Solutions of chromium (VI) salts are reduced in such media to chromium (III) salts, which are well known as tanning materials. Solutions of chromium (III) salts are obtained in an enclosed system of hide, water and chromate or. bichromate salts by radiation-induced reduction. The chromium (III) salts are absorbed by the hide. The experiments described were made on calf hides. The pickled pelt was impregnated with a solution of potassium bichromate, sealed in a polyethylene bag and exposed to γ-rays. After treatment it was tested to determine whether the material had the characteristics of leather. It was found that a γ-ray dosage of 5 Mrad is required to turn hide into leather. The shrinkage temperature of the leather was about 80°C. Physical tests on the leather showed that the y-ray dosage should not be more than 10 Mrad. It is possible to combine the new treatment with retanning. (author)

  13. Mildew prevention by radiation for tanned leather 'wet blue'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the chrome-tanned pig skin 'Wet Blue', it was attempted to decide the dose range for preventing mildews by gamma-ray and electron beam. With gamma-ray and 1.5 MV electron beam, in the case of the storage at 20degC and the chrome addition of 2%, it was regarded as 8 kGy, and in the case of the storage at 20degC and the chrome addition of 6%, it was regarded as 6 kGy with 1.5 MV electron beam. In this fiscal year, for the purpose of limiting the dose range for mildew prevention further, a series of the tests was performed. The preparation of samples and the observation of appearance during the storage were carried out by Metropolitan Leather Technology Center, and the irradiation and the measurement of dose were performed by Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center. The results obtained in 1989 are reported. The preparation of the samples is explained. Co-60 gamma-ray of 2∼8 kGy and the electron beam of 2∼8 kGy from a van de Graaff accelerator were irradiated. Moreover, it is desirable to carry out the reproducibility test on the samples of other production lots. (K.I.)

  14. Treatment of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) in tanning effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most common chemical used in chrome tanning is basic chromium sulphate (BCS). Manufacturing of BCS involves many steps producing liquid waste. Waste generated at every stage contains Cr (VI), which must be reduced to Cr (III) before being disposed to the environment. Different methods were studied for the reduction of toxic Cr (III). Pickle liquor (waste of electroplating industry) can also be used for the reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr (vi) along with other reducing materials / chemicals. In an electroplating process metal is treated with HCl or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to remove scales and rust, the pickled items are then washed with water, washing contains FeCl/sub 2/ or fees/sub 4/ respectively called pickle liquor. During waste treatment pH adjustment to 6.0 - 9.0 and settling the sludge, is discharged to the lagoon. The sludge obtained is dried and disposed off in landfills. Other reducing agents like sodium bisulphite and sulfur dioxide were also studied, but pickle liquor was found to be more effective and economical. (author)

  15. "Biz Engel Tanımayız" Projesi

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Demet; Madan, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    İnsanların engellilere karşı olan önyargı ve tutumlarından dolayı, engellilerin toplumsal yaşama katılmakta zorlandıkları bilinmektedir. Bu tutum ve davranışları eğitimle değiştirmek mümkündür. Engelli bireylerin toplumsallaşma süreci, günlük yaşam becerileri ve temel sağlık kuralları eğitimi ile desteklenmelidir. Bu düşünceden yola çıkılarak “Biz Engel Tanımayız” Projesi hazırlanmıştır.AMAÇ: Projenin amacı; engelli çocukların yaşamlarını daha kolay devam ettirebilmeleri için temel sağlık bil...

  16. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  17. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between around 49°-55° N especially between 20°-30°W. An illustrative example of spatial modelling is presented. Only for 1 year (and part of the total survey area were there sufficient data to attempt to estimate abundance: 1995. The estimated abundance in the W Block of the NASS-95 Faroese survey was 273,159 (cv=0.26; 95% CI=153,392-435,104 short-beaked common dolphins. This estimate is corrected for animals missed on the trackline (g(0 and for responsive movement.

  18. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengnian Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  19. Emily Ussher and The Trail of the Black & Tans Emily Ussher et La Piste des Black & Tans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wydenbach

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie les relations historiques et littéraires pendant la guerre anglo-irlandaise à travers la publication de The Trail of the Black and Tans par “The Hurler on the Ditch”, pseudonyme de Emily Usher, propriétaire de Cappagh House dans le Comté de Waterford. The Trail of the Black and Tans est l’histoire d’une famille de fermiers catholiques et nationalistes pendant la guerre anglo-irlandaise. Le roman fut publié quelques mois après l’arrêt des hostilités. Cet article retrace l’histoire de l’auteur et de l’éditeur du roman, la Talbot Press de Dublin, et de leurs intentions respectives concernant le destin du livre. Le roman est replacé dans le contexte du lectorat visé par le roman, celui des Anglais non-conformistes, auxquels il est fait référence dans la dédicace, et de son lectorat réel en Irlande. L’article se termine par une étude de la réception du roman en Irlande et en Angleterre. Même si le roman fut accueilli favorablement sur place par les habitants du Comté de Waterford, et dans les journaux nationaux, le livre fut retiré des bibliothèques dans le Comté de Cork et boycotté par la presse britannique lors de sa parution en 1921. Cet article vise à faire découvrir un aspect ignoré de l’histoire de l’édition en Irlande, tout en donnant un aperçu de la situation dans le sud-est de l’Irlande pendant les années 1920. Il montre aussi qu’en redonnant leur place aux romancières irlandaises oubliées du début du vingtième siècle, une compréhension plus approfondie de l’Irlande devient possible.

  20. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  1. 无铬鞣剂研究新进展%The New Advances in Chromium-Free Tanning Agents Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 何青; 但年华; 王康建; 但卫华

    2012-01-01

    Commonly used Chromium-free tanning agent includes Chromium-free multi-metal salts, aldehydes tanning agent, synthetic organic tanning agent, vegetable tanning agent, and so on. The research reviewed the status, mechanism, and specialty of these tanning agents, and emphatically explained the characteristics of chromium-free multi-metal complex salt, oxazolidine, organic synthetic tanning agent, late-model aldehydes acid tanning agents.%常用无铬鞣剂包括:无铬金属鞣剂、醛鞣剂、合成有机鞣剂、植物鞣剂等。扼要综述了这些鞣剂的研究现状、鞣制机理以及各鞣制特点,重点介绍了锆-铝-钛多金属配合鞣剂、噁唑烷鞣剂与新型醛酸鞣剂。

  2. Research Progress of Non-metal Tanning Technology%非金属鞣研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉玲; 贺丽蓉; 石佳博; 林炜

    2011-01-01

    调研了近年制革领域研究和关注较多的植物鞣剂、醛鞣剂、噁唑烷鞣剂、有机膦鞣剂、纳米鞣剂等非金属鞣剂,对它们各自的鞣制机理、鞣革特点及研究进展情况进行了综述.%Non - metal tanning agents such as vegetable tannins, aldehyde tanning agents, oxazolidine tanning agents, organic phosphonium tanning agents, nano -tanning agents, are reviewed based on their tanning mechanisms, tanning effects, and ongoing investigations.It will be helpful for the people doing research in the related fields.

  3. A flexible system of remediation to stabilize a road affected by landslide in the area of Val di Maso (North-Eastern Italian Apls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, G.; Cioli, C.; Floris, M.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    Slope stabilization follows different design procedures and approaches finalized to reduce the driving forces or increase resisting forces or avoid the problem at all by completely or partially remove unstable materials. But often the cost of stabilization works is very high. Therefore it is necessary to find new effective solutions with low or moderate costs. In this frame, this work reports the case study of a road in the area of Val di Maso, located in the North-Eastern Italian Alps. The road is threatened by the evolution of a mass movement occurred on November 2010 due to an extreme rainfall event that hit the entire North-Eastern sector of Italy. The complex landslide consists of a debris flow involving eluvial/colluvial deposits and past landslide debris. In the upper part, clear morphological evidences indicate that the instability is rapidly retrogressing by multiple rotational slides involving volcanic deposits that can be referred to a paleo-landslide. In the crown area, unstable materials have a thickness of around 20 m. For this reason, a stabilization system using rigid structures anchored to the stable bedrock for an appropriate length would be burdensome and costly. Starting from the geological model of the unstable slope, an innovative stabilization solution is proposed, a numerical simulation to analyze the effects of the stabilization is performed and an integrated monitoring system to control and verify the slope behaviour is planned. The proposed remediation works consist of a "floating belt", placed close to the edge of the road, and some "floating anchors" some meters further down behind the main scarp of the landslide. The system allows small displacements to induce a stress re-distribution favourable to the stability of the slope. The main advantages of the proposed solution are the adaptability to different geo-environmental situations and the low cost compared to other alternatives. On the basis of field data collected, a geological

  4. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF COMPLEX MINERAL TANNING MATERIAL ON THE BASIS OF ALUMINIUM AND ZIRCONIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Toguzbaev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Influence of acetate ion on stability of alumina-zirconium tanning to alkalization has been investigated in the paper. The investigation results have shown that at the ratio of Al3+:Zr4+:CH3COO = 1:1:1 it  is  possible  to  prepare  a  solution  of  masking   alumina-zirconium  tanning  (АЦД-М   with  high stability and low consumption of aluminum sulfate. The paper reveals that masking of alumina-zirconium tanning by natrium acetate allows to increase stability to alkalization and improve tanning properties. It has been established that for a stable increase of fatty matter viscosity and improvement of  leather water-resistant properties it is necessary to use water-insoluble aluminum and zirconium soaps of carboxylic acids.

  6. DNA damage and radiosensitizers: M. luteus sensitive sites for misonidazole-TAN combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown previously that TAN does not enhance production of single-strand breaks (SSB) in DNA of Chinese hamster cells irradiated under hypoxia. In contrast, misonidazole does enhance the yield of SSB, but this SSB enhancement by misonidazole is reduced if TAN is present with misonidazole during irradiation. It was also shown that each of these sensitizers enhances base/sugar damage, measured with the aid of bacterial enzymes (MLS). The results presented here for MLS damage in mammalian cells irradiated in the presence of the misonidazole-TAN combination indicate that the two drugs act independently in enhancing MLS damage, and hence they interact with different types of lesions to produce base/sugar damage. It is proposed that the protection by TAN in mammalian cells observed at the survival level is due to repair of some of that type of damage which would otherwise become a misonidazole-enhanced SSB

  7. Electronic structure, Compton profiles and optical properties of TaC and TaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashora, Alpa [Department of Physics, M L Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313002 (Rajasthan) (India); Ahuja, B.L., E-mail: blahuja@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, M L Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313002 (Rajasthan) (India)

    2010-11-15

    Isotropic Compton profiles of TaC and TaN have been measured for the first time, at an intermediate resolution, using 662 keV {gamma}-radiation. Energy bands, density of states and Fermi surface topology of TaC and TaN have been computed using linear combination of atomic orbitals with density functional theory and full potential linearised augmented plane wave method. Both band structure calculations predict the metallic character of TaC and TaN. The electron momentum densities calculated using various approaches of density functional theory are compared with the present measurements. On the basis of Mulliken's population, it is also seen that TaC has more covalent bonding than TaN. The optical properties computed using full potential linearised augmented plane wave method are explained in terms of intraband transitions.

  8. North Sea update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the offshore activity in the North Sea bringing together a special update feature for the petroleum industries in the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark and the Netherlands. The total capital expenditure required for the period from 1995 to 1998 for the North Sea area which includes exploration, development projects and well abandoning, are discussed and presented. 20 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa): The sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Joan Carles; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Jorba, Montse; Aribau, Joaquim; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the fruit of the tara tree as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with environment and social concerns. Tara tannins have been used in retanning formulas in leather processing and its properties are well known. This work aims to optimize formulations using tara as a pre-tanning agent. Combinations with a naphthalene sulphonic syntan are used to obtain an innovative wet-white rec...

  10. Toward a Library Synthesis of the Natural Dipeptide Antibiotic TAN 1057 A,B

    OpenAIRE

    Jochen Krüger; Nuria Aguilar

    2002-01-01

    The natural dipeptide antibiotic TAN 1057 A,B represents a promising new antibiotic entity. In this communication we report a novel approach for the synthesis of TAN 1057 A,B analogs bearing variations in the β-arginine side chain. This approach involves a combination of liquid and solid phase methods and allows for a library synthesis of analogs of the natural product.

  11. A Review of the Use of Tanning Beds as a Dermatological Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Radack, Kyle P.; Farhangian, Michael E.; Anderson, Kathryn L.; Feldman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In-office phototherapy is an effective treatment for many dermatologic conditions, however, many patients are unable to adhere to the rigorous travel and time commitments sometimes needed. Tanning bed facilities are nearly ubiquitous in modern society and could represent a more convenient means to obtain ultraviolet (UV) exposure when office phototherapy is not feasible. The purpose of this study was to review available evidence on the use of tanning facilities as a treatment for...

  12. Bistatic System Calibration in TanDEM-X to Ensure the Global Digital Elevation Model Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hueso Gonzalez, Jaime; Walter Antony, John; Bachmann, Markus; Krieger, Gerhard; Zink, Manfred; Schrank, Dirk; Schwerdt, Marco

    2012-01-01

    TanDEM-X is an operational satellite mission with the goal of generating a high quality global digital elevation model (DEM) based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry in X-band. In order to ensure the quality of the DEM, the differential range measurements and knowledge of the interferometric baseline have to be extremely accurate. In this paper, the bistatic system calibration strategy implemented in TanDEM-X to achieve the desired DEM quality will be described, focusing on the ...

  13. Biotechnological sequestering of chromium(III) From Post-Tanning Effluents: First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lalueza Baro, Joana; Rius Carrasco, Antoni; Puig Vidal, Rita; Martí Badia, Maria Elena; Martí Bernadas, Joan Francesc; Rodriguez, N.; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metals in waste waters and sludge may cause significant environmental problems, and it is known that conventional recovery technologies cannot always achieve satisfactory treatment. For example, they are inappropiate to completely recover the chromium in the case of waste waters from the tanning process. Chromium can be recovered (by precipitation)from effluents that contain high concentrations of this metal. However, effluents from the later stages in present day tanning process often ...

  14. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  15. Effect of deposition and annealing temperature on mechanical properties of TaN film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantalum nitride films (TaN) were synthesized by microwave ECR-DC sputtering. The effects of deposition and annealing temperature on mechanical properties of TaN films were investigated. Cross-section pattern, microstructure and binding energy of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Mechanical properties were evaluated using nano-indentation and scratch tester. The results showed that the maximal hardness value of approximately 40 GPa was deposited in the TaN sample at 573 K. While the preparation temperature decreased, the hardness, modulus and adhesion of TaN film also decreased. Hardness and modulus also decreased with the increase in annealing temperature. Meanwhile the adhesion strength was also sensitive to the annealing temperature, with a maximum adhesion strength of 40 N measured in the TaN film annealed at 448 K. The results demonstrated that a desirable mechanical property of TaN films deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering can be obtained by controlling the deposition and annealing temperature.

  16. Comparison of advertising strategies between the indoor tanning and tobacco industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jennifer; Jones, David A

    2010-04-01

    The indoor tanning industry is large and continues to grow, with 2007 domestic sales in excess of $5 billion. Advertising is central to shaping the consumer's perception of indoor tanning as well as driving industry demand. This article aims to identify key drivers of consumer appeal by comparing tanning advertising strategies to those used by tobacco marketers. Tobacco advertising was selected as a reference framework because it is both well documented and designed to promote a product with known health hazards. Two thousand advertisements from 4 large tobacco advertisement databases were analyzed for type of advertisement strategy used, and 4 advertising method categories were devised to incorporate the maximum number of advertisements reviewed. Subsequently, contemporary tanning advertisements were collected from industry magazines and salon websites and evaluated relative to the identified strategy profiles. Both industries have relied on similar advertising strategies, including mitigating health concerns, appealing to a sense of social acceptance, emphasizing psychotropic effects, and targeting specific population segments. This examination is a small observational study, which was conducted without rigorous statistical analysis, and which is limited both by the number of advertisements and by advertising strategies examined. Given the strong parallels between tobacco and tanning advertising methodologies, further consumer education and investigation into the public health risks of indoor tanning is needed. PMID:20138395

  17. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Saadia R. [Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Munir H., E-mail: munir_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shaheen, Nazia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  18. Removal of Chromium from Waste Water of Tanning Industry Using Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanning industry is considered as one of the oldest industries in the world, which produces solid and liquid wastes, where the Chromium-containing liquid wastes are considered to be as the main liquid pollutant to the environment. In this research, a new method is applied to remove the chromium from the industrial water wastes, which are produced by tanning industry using the Aleppo Bentonite.The experiments on laboratory- prepared samples and collected samples from some tanning factories in Damascus have proved that chromium removal from tanning waste water is very effective for solution of 85-98 %. Moreover, the optimal conditions for the treatment process of tanning waste water by Aleppo Bentonite have determined and found to be (pH=4, Bentonite concentration = 20 g l-1 when chromium concentration is 0.8 g l-1 , solution temperature = 30 degree centigrade, and Bentonite particle size < 90 μm). However, the proposed method can be considered to be an environmental solution for the treatment of tanning industrial wastes in Syria. (author)

  19. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  20. Studying the pollution of Barada river environment with poisonous elements resulting from leather industry (i.e. tanning industry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of tanning and electroplating industry on the eastern part of Barada river environment has been evaluated. Sediment, soil and plant samples were collected from nine sites at the river near the eastern industrial complex during 1999. Results of instrumental neutron activation analysis have shown high levels of chrome in sediment collected near the tanning factories; the highest value obtained being 2692 ppm. In addition, relatively high levels of Cr were also found in the agriculture soil collected near the riverbank in the industrial complex; Cr concentrations in plant leaves grown at riverbank were found low and this due strong bounding of Cr to soil. Other trace metals such as copper was about 4000 ppm, which is much higher than the natural levels; electroplating shops are the main source of this element in the area. Furthermore, concentrations of the studied trace metals have decreased as the elements were found to be at low concentrations, but the obtained data can be used as a baseline for future monitoring. (Author)

  1. Seismic discrimination of events at the Sangwon, North Korea, area using two-dimensional grid of Pg/Lg spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S.; Che, I.; Kim, I.; Kang, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the improvements of seismic event discrimination between explosions and earthquakes. We tried to find optimal frequency range based on 2D grids of Pg/Lg spectral amplitude ratios. Seismic data from CHNAR, BRDAR and KSGAR arrays located in the middle of Korean Peninsula are used for the discrimination of events occurred at the Sangwon, North Korea, area. We have analyzed seismograms of 122 explosions and 21 earthquakes to obtain a linear discriminant function that optimally discriminates explosions from earthquakes. Before calculating Pg/Lg spectral ratios, residual spectrum is computed by subtracting Brune's source spectrum from the observed spectrum. By using the residual spectrum, difference of spectral characteristics between explosion and earthquake populations could be emphasized. Two-dimensional spectral ratios were calculated in all combinations of Pg and Lg residual spectra in frequency band of 1 ~ 15Hz with the expectation of much greater differences of spectral amplitude between explosion and earthquake populations. We have determined the optimal frequency range where Pg/Lg spectral ratios are larger than a certain threshold in 2D grids. In the optimal frequency range, we obtain a linear discriminant function of each array. We calculated the compound discriminant function with the addition of the linear discriminant function at each array to improve the discriminant power. The new compound method enhanced the results in discrimination.

  2. Evaluation of the hydrologic system and potential effects of mining in the Dickinson lignite area, eastern slope and western Stark and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Aquifer systems in the Dickinson lignite area of North Dakota are in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and lower Hell Creek Formation, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and lower Ludlow Member of the Fort Union Formation, in the upper Ludlow and lower Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation, and in the upper Tongue River and the Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation. Well yields from each of the aquifer systems generally are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer system and in the upper Hell Creek-lower Ludlow aquifer system is soft and a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 1 ,010 to 1,690 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper Ludlow-lower Tongue River aquifer system and in the upper Tongue River-Sentinel Butte aquifer system ranges from soft to very hard and generally is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 574 to 2,720 milligrams per liter. Discharges of ground water are less than 0.1 cubic foot per second to the Cannonball River and less than 1.0 cubic foot per second to the Heart River. (USGS)

  3. Clinical and Environmental Surveillance for Vibrio cholerae in Resource Constrained Areas: Application During a 1-Year Surveillance in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, Amanda K; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Ebile, Walter; Sonkoua, Isaac Tadzong; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Steinwald, Peter; Ram, Malathi; Sack, David A

    2016-03-01

    Biological confirmation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in clinical and environmental samples is often constrained due to resource- and labor-intensive gold standard methods. To develop low-cost, simple, and sustainable surveillance techniques, we modified previously published specimen sampling and culture techniques and applied the use of enriched dipstick testing in conjunction with the use of filter paper for DNA specimen preservation during clinical and environmental surveillance in the Far North of Cameroon from August 2013 to October 2014. The enriched dipstick methodology during routine use in a remote setting demonstrated a specificity of 99.8% compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The novel application of filter paper as a preservation method for cholera DNA specimens reduced the need for cold chain storage and allowed for PCR characterization and confirmation of V. cholerae. The application of basic technologies such as the enriched dipstick, the use of simplified gauze filtration for environmental sample collection, and the use of filter paper for sample preservation enabled early case identification with reduced logistics and supply cost while reporting minimal false-positive results. Simplified laboratory and epidemiological methodologies can improve the feasibility of cholera surveillance in rural and resource-constrained areas, facilitating early case detection and rapid response implementation. PMID:26755564

  4. Essential and Toxic Elements in Blood Samples of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from the Islands Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Baltic Sea): A Comparison Study with Urbanized Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuschke, Antje; Griesel, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Kattegat, Baltic Sea) are top predators within the marine food web and an indicator species of the environmental contamination. Furthermore, they are a main tourist attraction. Despite these important roles, little is known about the health and pollutant contamination of these seals. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate 18 essential and nonessential/toxic elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Sr, and Zn) in blood samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and total X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Blood concentrations of mineral nutrients, such as Ca, K, P, and S, were within the reference ranges described for harbor seals. Likewise, for the trace elements, As, Be, Rb, Se, and Sr, no significant differences were observed compared with previous studies. Interestingly, blood concentrations of nine nonessential as well as essential trace metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured significantly lower in the offshore living seals from Helgoland and Anholt compared with results obtained from animals living close to urbanized areas, such as the Wadden Sea and Elbe estuary. This suggests that industrial emissions, sewage deposition, shipping traffic and dredging tasks might be the cause of increased metal concentrations of inshore harbor seals. PMID:26253942

  5. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. PMID:24657581

  6. Distinct microbial populations are tightly linked to the profile of dissolved iron in the methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatobi Emmanuel Oni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron reduction in subseafloor sulfate-depleted and methane-rich marine sediments is currently a subject of interest in subsurface geomicrobiology. While iron reduction and microorganisms involved have been well studied in marine surface sediments, little is known about microorganisms responsible for iron reduction in deep methanic sediments. Here, we used quantitative PCR (Q-PCR-based 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and pyrosequencing-based relative abundances of bacteria and archaea to investigate covariance between distinct microbial populations and specific geochemical profiles in the top 5 m of sediment cores from the Helgoland mud area, North Sea. We found that gene copy numbers of bacteria and archaea were specifically higher around the peak of dissolved iron in the methanic zone (250-350 cm. The higher copy numbers at these depths were also reflected by the relative sequence abundances of members of the candidate division JS1, methanogenic and Methanohalobium/ANME-3 related archaea. The distribution of these populations was strongly correlated to the profile of pore-water Fe2+ while that of Desulfobacteraceae corresponded to the pore-water sulfate profile. Furthermore, specific JS1 populations also strongly co-varied with the distribution of Methanosaetaceae in the methanic zone. Our data suggest that the interplay among JS1 bacteria, methanogenic archaea and Methanohalobium/ANME-3-related archaea may be important for iron reduction and methane cycling in deep methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area and perhaps in other methane-rich depositional environments.

  7. Development of an adjoint model of GRAPES-CUACE and its application in tracking influential haze source areas in north China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xing Qin; Xian Zhai, Shi; Jin, Min; Gong, Sunling; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The aerosol adjoint module of the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES-CUACE (Global-Regional Assimilation and Prediction System coupled with the CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment) is constructed based on the adjoint theory. This includes the development and validation of the tangent linear and the adjoint models of the three parts involved in the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol module: CAM (Canadian Aerosol Module), interface programs that connect GRAPES and CUACE, and the aerosol transport processes that are embedded in GRAPES. Meanwhile, strict mathematical validation schemes for the tangent linear and the adjoint models are implemented for all input variables. After each part of the module and the assembled tangent linear and adjoint models is verified, the adjoint model of the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol is developed and used in a black carbon (BC) receptor-source sensitivity analysis to track influential haze source areas in north China. The sensitivity of the average BC concentration over Beijing at the highest concentration time point (referred to as the Objective Function) is calculated with respect to the BC amount emitted over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Four types of regions are selected based on the administrative division or the sensitivity coefficient distribution. The adjoint sensitivity results are then used to quantify the effect of reducing the emission sources at different time intervals over different regions. It is indicated that the more influential regions (with relatively larger sensitivity coefficients) do not necessarily correspond to the administrative regions. Instead, the influence per unit area of the sensitivity selected regions is greater. Therefore, controlling the most influential regions during critical time intervals based on the results of the adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative regions during an experimental time period.

  8. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheendra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic Filariasis which was neglected by the medical practitioners for past one year. A 40 - year - old male farmer visited the Primary Health Centre and BRIMS teaching hospital repeatedly during the past one year with a complaint of excretion of milky white urine with mild weight loss and physical weakness. The patient was undiagnosed for Filariasis. However , his urine examination revealed proteinuria with scanty pyuria , fat glo bules and elevated level of urinary triglyceride. Urine culture was found to be sterile. On physical examination of the patient , there was no visible swelling over the body. No enlarged lymph nodes were seen except non - tender minimal scrotal swelling. Radi ological examination of chest and pelvis had shown no calcification of lymph nodes. Overall , no abnormal findings were observed. Diagnosis revealed presence of microfilaria in peripheral blood smear after Diethylcarbamazine (DEC provocation test. The pati ent was prescribed the 12 days treatment regimen of DEC with Albendazole and asked to visit again for follow up. CONCLUSIONS: As this area is endemic for Filariasis in Karnataka state , it is a warning sign for the medical practitioners not to ignore patien ts presenting with Chyluria and to mandatorily investigate the presence of microfilaria even after mass drug administration. In this case the microbiological investigations helped prevent the patient from morbidity and disability due to Filariasis in futur e.

  9. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  10. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  11. Spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, a water source area for the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (Middle Route), China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Dacong; ZHENG Lingling; SONG Lirong

    2011-01-01

    One of the water source areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is the Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR). To understand seasonal variation in phytoplankton composition, abundance and distribution in the DJKR area before water diversion, as well as to estimate potential risks of water quality after water diversion, we conducted an investigation on phytoplankton in the DJKR from August 2008 to May 2009. The investigation included 10 sampling sites, each with four depths of 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 m. In this study, 117 taxa belonging to 76 genera were identified, consisting of diatoms (39 taxa), green algae (47 taxa), blue-green algae (19 taxa), and others (12 taxa). Annual average phytoplankton abundance was 2.01xl06 ind./L, and the highest value was 14.72 x 106 ind/L (at site 3 in August 2008). Phytoplankton abundance in front of the Danjiangkou Dam (DJKD) was higher than that of the Danjiang Reservoir Basin. Phytoplankton distribution showed a vertical declining trend from 0.5 m to 20 m at most sites in August 2008 (especially at sites of 1, 2, 4 and 10), but no distinct pattern in other sampling months. In December 2008 and March 2009, Stephanodiscus sp. was the most abundant species, amounting to 55.23% and 72.34%, respectively. We propose that high abundance of Stephanodiscus sp. may have contributed greatly to the frequent occurrence of Stephanodiscus sp. blooms in middle-low reaches of the Hanjiang River during the early spring of 2009. In comparison with previous studies conducted from 1992 to 2006, annual average phytoplankton density, green algae and blue-green algae species, as well as major nutrient concentrations increased, while phytoplankton diversity indices declined. This indicates a gradual decline in water quality. More research should be conducted and countermeasures taken to prevent further deterioration of water quality in the DJKR.

  12. Radioactivity level and toxic elemental concentration in groundwater at Dei-Dei and Kubwa areas of Abuja, north-central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of uranium and toxic elements in Dei-Dei borehole, Kubwa borehole, Water Board and hand-dug well water samples in Abuja area were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system. The results obtained were used to calculate human radiological risk over lifetime consumption by the inhabitants in the area. The activity concentrations of 238U in all the water supplies for drinking ranges from 0.849 mBq L−1 to 2.699 mBq L−1 with the highest value of 2.699 mBq L−1 noted at Dei-Dei borehole whereas the lowest value of 0.849 mBq L−1 was noted in Kubwa borehole. The highest annual effective dose from natural 238U in all the water samples was found in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 8.9×10−5 mSv y−1 whereas the lowest value was noted in Kubwa borehole with a value of 2.8×10−5 mSv y−1. The radiological risks for cancer mortality were found distinctly low, with the highest value of 1.01×10−7 reported at Dei-Dei borehole compared to Kubwa borehole with a value of 3.01×10−8. The cancer morbidity risk was noted higher in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 1.55×10−7 whereas lower value of 4.88×10−9 was reported in Kubwa borehole. The chemical toxicity risk of 238U in drinking water over a lifetime consumption has a value of 0.006 μg kg−1 day−1 in Dei-Dei borehole whereas lower value of 0.002 μg kg−1 day−1 was found in Kubwa borehole. Measured lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) concentrations reported higher in Water Board compared to Dei-Dei and Kubwa borehole samples. Significantly, this study inferred that the 238U concentrations originate from granitic strata of the tectonic events in the area; thus, there was a trend of diffusion towards north to south and re-deposition towards Dei-Dei area. - Highlights: • The estimation of human radiological risk over lifetime consumption. • Determination of radiological risks. • The annual effective dose of 238U in drinking water. • Carcinogenic

  13. Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and Extension, North Carolina: Chapter in Wilderness mineral potential: assessment of mineral-resource potential in U.S. Forest Service lands studied in 1964-1984: Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Williams, Bradford B.

    1984-01-01

    Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and the adjoining Craggy Mountain Extension consist of more than 4 sq mi of steep wooded slopes on the west side of Great Craggy Mountain in the Blue Ridge of western North Carolina. A mineral-resource survey of the area done between 1976 and 1979 found no evidence fore metallic mineral resources. Kyanite, garnet, and building stone are the only mineral resources in the study area, but large quantities of similar material are available outside the study area. Natural gas may possibly be present at great depth, but until some deep drilling is done in or near no estimate of the gas potential can be made.

  14. Decontamination of water polluted with oil through the use of tanned solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammoun, A.; Azzi, M. [Hassan II Univ., Casablanca (Morocco). Faculty of Science

    2007-09-15

    The ability of chrome shavings (CS) and buffing dusts of crust leather (BDCL) to remove oily wastes from demineralized water and natural seawater was investigated. The aim of the study was to discover environmentally friendly alternatives for the disposal of solid tannery wastes. The specific surface area of the CS and the BDCL were examined to determine ash content; chromium oxide; fat; and the pH of soluble matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was then used to examine the structure and morphology of the samples. Three types of oil were used in the experiment: diesel motor oil; premium motor oil; and used motor oil. Sorbent materials were added to a beaker containing 1000 ml of water and 5.5 g of oil. The amount of residual oil in the water was then extracted with petroleum ether. The amount of oil sorbed on the wastes was calculated by subtracting the amount of residual oil in water from the initial mass of oil added to the beakers. Results suggested that the tanned solid wastes efficiently removed the oil from the water. It was concluded that the waste materials were able to absorb many times their weight in oil. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Spectrochemical Analysis of Soil around Leather Tanning Industry Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS to determine the chromium contamination of soil due to effluents from leather tanning industry in Kasur District of Punjab (+31∘6′23.21″, +74∘27′16.29″ in Pakistan. Calibration curves were constructed by indigenously prepared standard sample and fitting of curves by linear regression. The limit of detection (LOD was found to be 23.71 mg kg−1. It has been found that the concentration of chromium in the soil is up to 839 mg kg−1 in vicinity of effluent drain and 1829 mg kg−1 in the area of old stagnant pool, which is much higher than the safe limits. Qualitative detection of other elements like Na, Cl, Fe, P, and Si was done from LIBS spectra. The leaching of soil contaminants due to seepage of industrial effluents from deteriorating brick lined drains in horizontal direction has also been observed.

  16. Decontamination of water polluted with oil through the use of tanned solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of chrome shavings (CS) and buffing dusts of crust leather (BDCL) to remove oily wastes from demineralized water and natural seawater was investigated. The aim of the study was to discover environmentally friendly alternatives for the disposal of solid tannery wastes. The specific surface area of the CS and the BDCL were examined to determine ash content; chromium oxide; fat; and the pH of soluble matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was then used to examine the structure and morphology of the samples. Three types of oil were used in the experiment: diesel motor oil; premium motor oil; and used motor oil. Sorbent materials were added to a beaker containing 1000 ml of water and 5.5 g of oil. The amount of residual oil in the water was then extracted with petroleum ether. The amount of oil sorbed on the wastes was calculated by subtracting the amount of residual oil in water from the initial mass of oil added to the beakers. Results suggested that the tanned solid wastes efficiently removed the oil from the water. It was concluded that the waste materials were able to absorb many times their weight in oil. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Sustainable Development in the Core Water Resource Area of the Central Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With continued population growth and accelerated industrialization and urbanization, water shortages and water quality deterioration have become a bottleneck restraining global socioeconomic progress. In China, water resources are unevenly distributed, with abundance in the south and scarcity in the north. Every year, a loss of nearly 100 billion yuan is incurred by water shortages in the north.

  18. 'Save the North Sea' Fulmar Study 2002-2004: a regional pilot project for the Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the OSPAR area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Heubeck, M.; Fairclough, K.; Turner, D.M.; Grantham, M.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Guse, N.; Pedersen, J.; Olsen, K.O.; Andersson, P.J.; Olsen, B.

    2005-01-01

    North Sea Ministers at the Bergen Conference in 2002 decided that monitoring of marine plastic litter in stomachs of seabirds should become one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives for the North Sea (EcoQO's)'. The task of implementation was delegated to OSPAR, which covers the wider northeast Atla

  19. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, G; Sadulla, S; Sehgal, P K; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T(s)) and denaturation temperature (T(d)) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T(s) of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning. PMID:22421341

  20. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Sadulla, S.; Sehgal, P.K. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India); Mandal, Asit Baran, E-mail: abmandal@hotmail.com [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unnatural D-AA assisted tanned leathers found soft and full possessing tight grain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased hydrothermal stability of collagen via intra and inter molecular crosslink. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-Ly+Ald tanned leathers revealed a properly oriented with well aligned structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-AA in collagen creates new topologies inaccessible to homo chiral molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improves conventional tanning process, and reduce the total solid and liquid wastes. - Abstract: In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T{sub s}) and denaturation temperature (T{sub d}) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T{sub s} of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  1. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Unnatural D-AA assisted tanned leathers found soft and full possessing tight grain. ► Increased hydrothermal stability of collagen via intra and inter molecular crosslink. ► D-Ly+Ald tanned leathers revealed a properly oriented with well aligned structure. ► D-AA in collagen creates new topologies inaccessible to homo chiral molecules. ► Improves conventional tanning process, and reduce the total solid and liquid wastes. - Abstract: In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (Ts) and denaturation temperature (Td) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the Ts of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  2. ¿Qué tan bien representados están los mamíferos mexicanos en la red federal de áreas naturales protegidas del país? How well represented are Mexican mammals in the natural protected area network?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Bernardo Vázquez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron la eficiencia y eficacia de la red de áreas naturales protegidas (ANPs federales de México para representar la riqueza de especies de mamíferos terrestres. Para determinar el porcentaje de especies no protegidas, se sobrepuso una gradilla de celdas de 0.5° x 0.5° con datos de riqueza de especies en el mapa de las ANPs y se comparó con conjuntos equivalentes de áreas seleccionados al azar. Mediante optimización se estimó cuántas celdas adicionales complementarían a las ANPs y cuántas áreas bastarían para proteger todas las especies al menos una vez. Los resultados indican que cerca de la quinta parte del total de especies, un tercio de las endémicas y un tercio de las vulnerables, no están protegidas. En conjuntos de celdas elegidos al azar se representan más especies que en el total de celdas cubiertas por ANPs. En la península de Baja California, la vertiente del Pacífico, la sierra Madre Occidental y el sur del país (Oaxaca se concentra el mayor número de especies no protegidas. Para complementar las celdas con ANPs se requieren 25 celdas adicionales y bastarían conjuntos óptimos de 38 celdas para representar todas las especies al menos una vez. Nuestros resultados pueden ayudar a mejorar la selección de nuevas ANPs para ganar en eficacia y eficiencia al representar a las especies de mamíferos aún no protegidas.We evaluated the efficacy and efficiency of the federal network of natural protected areas (NPAs to represent the species richness of terrestrial mammals. We overlapped a 0.5° x 0.5° grid with data on species richness with the map of NPAs, to determine the proportion of unprotected species. We compared this with equivalent sets of cells, chosen randomly. In addition, through optimization we determined how many additional cells will complement the NPAs and how many cells will represent all species at least once. We found that nearly 1/5 of the total species, 1/3 of the endemics and 1/3 of the

  3. Irrigated agriculture is an important risk factor for West Nile virus disease in the hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld area of north central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Pape, W John; Winters, Anna M; Cheronis, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    This study focused on two West Nile virus (WNV) disease outbreak years, 2003 and 2007, and included a three-county area (Larimer, Boulder, and Weld) in North Central Colorado that is hyperendemic for WNV disease. We used epidemiological data for reported WNV disease cases at the census tract scale to: (1) elucidate whether WNV disease incidence differs between census tracts classified as having high versus lower human population density (based on a threshold value of 580 persons/km2) and (2) determine associations between WNV disease incidence and habitat types suitable as development sites for the larval stage of Culex mosquito vectors. WNV disease incidence was significantly elevated in census tracts with lower human population density, compared with those with high density of human population, in both 2003 (median per census tract of 223 and 143 cases per 100,000 population, respectively) and 2007 (median per census tract of 46 and 19 cases per 100,000 population). This is most likely related, in large part, to greater percentages of coverage in less densely populated census tracts by habitats suitable as development sites for Culex larvae (open water, developed open space, pasture/hay, cultivated crops, woody wetlands, and emergent herbaceous wetlands) and, especially, for the subset of these habitats made up by irrigated agricultural land (pasture/hay and cultivated crops) that presumably serve as major producers of the locally most important vector of WNV to humans: Culex tarsalis. A series of analyses produced significant positive associations between greater coverage of or shorter distance to irrigated agricultural land and elevated WNV disease incidence. As an exercise to produce data with potential to inform spatial implementation schemes for prevention and control measures within the study area, we mapped the spatial patterns, by census tract, of WNV disease incidence in 2003 and 2007 as well as the locations of census tracts that had either low (75th

  4. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  5. Long-term effects of climate change on the hydrological system of a lowland area at the German North Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Baroni, Gabriele; Krause, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In particular for the winter season, global sea level rise is expected to be combined with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency. During summer, due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration with an increase of groundwater intrusion has been observed. It is expected that the salinization of the surface will rise under drier conditions by upward seeping groundwater. Coastal water resource management requires a better understanding and predictions of these dynamic systems. Therefore, a long-term monitoring programme has been established at the German North Sea coast, located at the estuary of the River Ems. The research area is dominated by a dense canal system that is regulated by pumping stations and tidal gates. Landuse of the area is mainly dairy farming with 30 % of the area below sea level. The underlying aquifer is confined and brackish, and it is connected to the surface water by geological faults of old paleo-channels. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. This study investigates the effects of climate change on water balance and salt transport by applying regional climate models (RCMs) based on the IPCC emission scenarios for the period until 2100 as drivers for a hydrological and solute transport model. To investigate the impact of different meteorological scenarios, the RCM results for the climate scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 are used to cover an increase of future temperature between 1 and 3.5 K. As changes in water level and salinity are expected to influence vegetation patterns (and water management aims to guaranty agricultural use) two alternative landuse scenarios are considered. The first scenario assumes that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration

  6. Broken formations, melanges and olistostromes in Puerto Plata area (Northern Dominican Republic) as a record of subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North-American plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaiz Huerta, Pedro Pablo; Valera Fernando, Pérez; de Los Santos Manuel, Abad; Jacques, Monthel; de Neira Alberto, Díaz

    2010-05-01

    The Northern Cordillera of the Dominican Republic records the (oblique) subduction and collisional processes occurred between the Caribbean and North-American plates during Upper Cretaceous to Lower Paleogene times. The boundary between these two plates can be traced within this range disrupted by an Upper Paleogene to present intense left-lateral strike-slip tectonism, onset after collision. In the western part of the range this boundary might be defined by the Camu fault. In the coastal area of Puerto Plata, located on the northern block of the Camu fault, basement rocks belonging to the subducting plate (the Puerto Plata Basement Complex) and several related units probably formed in an accretionary prism, preserve in a large (300 km2) outcrop of chaotic formations presumably formed (and exhumed) during collision. They include from broken formations and tectonic melanges to olistostromes and other coeval sedimentary deposits. The Puerto Plata Basement Complex (PPBC) consists of highly faulted and dismembered blocks formed by discontinuous but sometimes coherent outcrops of serpentinized or massive peridotite, pods of ultramafic cumulates, massive or banded gabbros and Los Caños Fm, a thick sequence of gross bedded volcaniclastic material with interbedded basaltic (sometimes pillowed) or andesitic flows. All these rocks bear low grade metamorphism and lack a general deformation fabric apart from occasional transformation to mylonites due to localized shearing. The PPBC has been interpreted as a fragment of oceanic crust, belonging to the subducting (North-American) slab that has been exhumed as a tectonic melange or a broken complex. The Imbert Fm, of Palaeocene-Eocene age, is formed by a well bedded succession of white very fine grained porcelaneous tuffs, with eventual intercalations of cherts, limestones and marls that, towards the lower part, is interbedded with volcanic-derived graywackes and limolites, and more occasionally, thick beds of conglomerates and

  7. Health assessment for Mid-America Tanning Company, Sergeant Bluff, Woodbury County, Iowa, Region 7. CERCLIS No. IAD085824688. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-08

    The Mid-America Tanning Company (MAT) Site is proposed to be listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the National Priorities List (NPL). Mid-America Tanning, now U.S. Tanning, is an animal hide processing plant located on 98.7 acres approximately five miles south of Sergeant Bluff, Woodbury County, Iowa. From June 1978 to the present, use of chromium has been extended to the entire process, which involves the treatment of approximately 1000 hides per day. The process utilizes trivalent chromium and produces waste sludge and liquids that are treated on-site at the company wastewater treatment facility. Based on the available information, this site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater, surface water and soil. Further environmental characterization and sampling of the site and impacted off-site areas during the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) should be conducted to address the environmental and human exposure pathways discussed above and to further define the extent of contamination at the site.

  8. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  9. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  10. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqin [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Tang, Changyuan, E-mail: cytang@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Wang, Qinxue [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yuan, Ruiqiang [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University (China)

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  11. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

  12. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms. PMID:27251325

  13. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  14. Development Trend of Green and Eco-friendly Biomass Leather Tanning Agent and its Combination Tanning%生物质皮革鞣剂及其结合鞣应用的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文强; 贺亚亚; 邓丽娟

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the research progress of biomass tanning agents such as amino acids tanning a-gents and plant biomass green tanning agent was reviewed. And their utilization in combination tanning process was also introduced briefly.%综述了氨基酸类鞣剂和植物类鞣剂等生物质类皮革鞣剂的研究进展,简述了生物质鞣剂在结合鞣中的应用。

  15. Digital map of the configuration of the base of the principal aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  16. Integration of spatial and temporal data for the definition of different landslide hazard scenarios in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zêzere

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A general methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of landslide hazard is applied, taking in account both the landslide susceptibility and the instability triggering factors, mainly rainfall. The method is applied in the Fanhões-Trancão test site (north of Lisbon, Portugal where 100 shallow translational slides were mapped and integrated into a GIS database. For the landslide susceptibility assessment it is assumed that future landslides can be predicted by statistical relationships between past landslides and the spatial data set of the predisposing factors (slope angle, slope aspect, transversal slope profile, lithology, superficial deposits, geomorphology, and land use. Susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Bayesian model over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. The landslide susceptibility map is prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. In order to validate the results of the susceptibility ana- lysis, the landslide data set is divided in two parts, using a temporal criterion. The first subset is used for obtaining a prediction image and the second subset is compared with the prediction results for validation. The obtained prediction-rate curve is used for the quantitative interpretation of the initial susceptibility map. Landslides in the study area are triggered by rainfall. The integration of triggering information in hazard assessment includes (i the definition of thresholds of rainfall (quantity-duration responsible for past landslide events; (ii the calculation of the relevant return periods; (iii the assumption that the same rainfall patterns (quantity/duration which produced slope instability in the past will produce the same effects in the future (i.e. same types of landslides and same total affected area. The landslide hazard is present as the probability of each pixel to be affected by a slope movement

  17. Supersymmetry Unification Predictions for $m_{top}, V_{cb}$ and $tan{\\beta}$

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, M A; Valle, José W F; Diaz, Marco A.; Ferrandis, Javier; Valle, Jose W.F.

    2000-01-01

    We study the predictions for M_top, tan(beta) and V_cb in a popular texture ansatze for the fermion mass matrices. We do this both for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and for the simplest model (MSSM-BRpV) where a bilinear R-Parity violating term is added to the superpotential. We find that taking the experimental values for M_top and V_cb at 99 % C.L. and the GUT relations h_b=h_tau and (V_cb)^2=h_c/h_t within 5 %, the large tan(beta) solution, characteristic in the MSSM with bottom--tau unification, becomes disallowed. In contrast the corresponding allowed region for the MSSM-BRpV is slightly larger. We also find that important modifications occur if we relax the texture conditions at the GUT scale. For example, if the GUT relations are imposed at 40 %, the large tan(beta) branch in the MSSM becomes fully allowed. In addition, in MSSM-BRpV the whole tan(beta)-M_top plane become allowed, finding unification at any value of tan(beta).

  18. SEISMODYNAMICS AND DEEP INTERNAL ORIGIN OF THE NORTH CHINA ZONE OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Stepashko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Space-and-time regularities of seismicity of the North China (Tan-Lu zone are studies, and tectonic nature of strong earthquakes is analyzed. The concept of its genesis is still a matter of debate as this zone is located in the centre of the ancient SinoKorean craton, i.e. thousand kilometers away from convergent margins of Eurasia and the Pacific оcean and IndoAustralian plates (Figure 1. The information on the regional cycling dynamics [Xu, Deng, 1996] is updated. Two cycles, in which strong earthquakes (14 shocks with М≥7.0 occurred in the region under study, are distinguished, i.e. from 1500 to 1700, and from 1800 to 1980 (Figure 2. The seismodynamics of the North China zone is consistent with the Circum Pacific оcean deformation wave that occurs once in 300 years at the margin between Asia and the ocean and thus causes the strongest earthquakes (М≥8.8 and eruptions of volcanoes in the Pacific оcean belt [Vikulin et al., 2009, 2010]. This wave came to the northern regions of China in the years of 1500 and 1800 (Figure 3 and triggered seismic activity cycles. The second factor predetermining the seismicity of the Northern China is a specific structure of the region which can manifest seismic activity due to the impact of deformation waves. The genesis of the metastable structure of the region is related to tectonic restructuring of the lithosphere of the SinoKorean craton due to shear displacements in the Tan-Lu megazone. Regional variations of compositions of mantle xenoliths of the Sikhote Alin orogeny demonstrate that the latent strike of the Tan-Lu faults can be traced across the south-eastern areas of Russia to the Tatar Strait. These faults are borders of the Vshaped mantle block (400 x 1500 km (Figure 5, which composition is characterized by an anomalous content of iron and a low depletion of peridotites. The tectonic mantle block maintains its activity; being impacted by compression from the west, it is squeezed out towards

  19. Sewage Produced Characteristic of Rural Areas in North China Plain Region%华北平原地区农村生活污水产污特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 裴国霞; 张玉华; 刘东生; 李想; 谭平

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the status of rural domestic wastewater pollution in the North China Plain region, the rural domestic wastewater of 15 typical peasant households with different income levels in Jingtangpu Village,Xushui County,Baoding City was made a continuous investigating and monitoring for 12 months,including the daily produced per capita,pH,chemical oxygen demand(COD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) of rural domestic wastewater.The mean value of sewage generated was 21.03 L· d-1 ? Person-1, pH was 6.14, the sewage production coefficients of COD,TAN, TN and TP were 7.87 g·d-1 ? Person-1,0.581 g·d-1 ? Person-1, 1.31 g· d-1·person-1 and 0.066 2 g·d-1·person-1. The households with middle income levels had highest indicators,followed by high and low income level households,and the difference between high,middle and low income level households was significant,these results indicated that the amount of sewage produced per capita and sewage production coefficients were related to the income.%为了解华北平原地区农村生活污水产污特征,准确评价农村生活污染状况,本研究选取华北平原地区典型农村(保定市徐水县荆塘铺村)不同收入水平的15户典型农户,对其生活污水的产污情况进行12个月(2010年8月至2011年7月)的调查和监测,得到农户的生活污水人均日产生量、pH、COD、TAN、TN和TP的产污系数.农户生活污水人均日产生量为21.03 L·d-1·人-1,pH值为6.14,COD、TAN、TN和TP的产污系数分别为7.87、0.581、1.31 g·d-1·人-1和0.066 2g·d-1·人-1.各项指标从高到低依次为中收入水平农户,高收入水平农户和低收入水平农户,且高中收入水平农户与低收入水平农户各项指标差异性较显著.以上结果表明华北平原地区农村生活污水人均日产生量和污染物产污系数与收入水平有关.

  20. Hydrolysis of tanned leather wastes under alkaline, acidic and oxidative conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botić Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Different wastes in large quantities are the outcome or the by-product of processes in the tanning industry. The largest part of solid wastes is collagen based and obtained in the reprocessing steps of tanned and non-tanned products. The quality collagen substance obtained from wastes of the leather industry used as a supporting material in many reprocessing industries. Hydrolysis is the basic step of collagen processing, namely the shortening of its polypeptide chain. The main goal of this investigation was to examine the influence of the following parameters on the extent of collagen hydrolysis: type and quantity of reagent used for hydrolysis temperature of hydrolysis, pH, duration of hydrolysis as well as the dimensions of the "shavings" samples. The change of molar mass during hydrolysis was monitored by UV-spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to the dechroming process of the collagen hydrolysate.

  1. Proposing and evaluating applications for products obtained during chromium chip alkaline hydrolysis produced during leather tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some applications for products obtained by chromium chip alkaline hydrolysis produced during leather tanning were evaluated in this work, considering the concept of maximising tanneries’ solid residue reuse for different industrial applications and minimising the environmental impact so produced. When Cr(OH is transformed into Cr (OH(SO it can be used in tanning leather (i.e. as tanning salt. When compared to commercial salts, 2 4 it was determined that it could be applied to mixtures containing this salt, replacing it by up to 40%. Chromium content reduction was evaluated for collagen hydrolyzate by pH control after alkaline hydrolysis of the chips and by applying adsorbent materials such as bentonite, alfalfa and sorghum biomass and activated charcoal, a maximum 55% Cr removal being obtained when the first two adsorbent materials were used.

  2. Eco-leather: Chromium-free Leather Production Using Titanium, Oligomeric Melamine- Formaldehyde Resin, and Resorcinol Tanning Agents and the Properties of the Resulting Leathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Candas ADIGUZEL ZENGIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The chromium salt tanning system, which is still the most popular leather tanning procedure, is undercontinuous pressure from environmental groups and international regulations. Therefore, for many years,numerous experiments have been carried out on chromium-free leather production. In this study, newlyproduced synthetic and inorganic chemicals were used as tanning and pre-tanning agents as an alternativeto a chromium tanning agent. This new titanium based tanning agent, obtained from processing wastesfrom the industry of nonferrous metals, was used as a main tanning agent. In addition, an oligomericmelamine-formaldehyde resin and resorcinol type pre-polymer were used as pre-tanning agents for theproduction of chromium-free leathers. Physical tests and chemical analysis of the produced chromium-freeleathers gave comparable results to leathers tanned with basic chromium sulphate.

  3. Structure de socle, sismostratigraphie et héritage structural au cours du rifting au niveau de la marge d'Ifni/Tan-Tan (Maroc sud-occidental)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouAli, Naïma; Hafid, Mohamad; Chellaï, El Hassane; Nahim, Mohamed; Zizi, Mahmoud

    2005-10-01

    Seismic reflection profiles from the Ifni/Tan-Tan Atlantic margin of southern Morocco, interpreted in the light of well data and field geology from the Western Anti-Atlas, allowed us to establish the seismostratigraphic framework of the syn-rift series and to reveal ( i) a compressional structural style in the pre-Triassic basement similar to that established in the adjacent outcropping onshore basement but with an opposed western vergence, ( ii) the importance of inherited anterior structures in the formation of Triassic-Liassic rift structures and ( iii) an east-west propagation of these rift structures. To cite this article: N. AbouAli et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  4. Digitial map of geologic units forming the base of the principal aquifer and areas where the base of aquifer is not well defined, Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  5. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  6. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-01

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work. PMID:16942836

  7. EVIDENCE FOR "UNER TAN SYNDROME" AS A HUMAN MODEL FOR REVERSE EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Prof. Dr. Uner

    2006-01-01

    “Uner Tan Syndrome” was further studied in a second family. There was no cerebellar atrophy, except a mild vermial atrophy in MRI scans of the affected individuals. This is not, however, the pathogenesis of the “Uner Tan Syndrome”, since in the first and second families there were bipedal men exhibiting very similar MRI scans. The second family may also be considered a live model for reverse evolution in human beings. The present work provided evidence for a reverse evolution: (i) quadrupedal...

  8. Terrestrial Impact Craters in 3D: The global TanDEM-X Digital Eleveation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gottwald, Manfred; Fritz, Thomas; Breit, Helko; Schättler, Birgit; Harris, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades space-borne sensors have provided us with high-quality elevation data of the solid surfaces of several large bodies of the solar system. For Earth, the German TanDEM-X mission delivers a new digital elevation model (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy. From December 2010 to March 2015 the two X-band radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X have been operated in close formation as a single-pass SAR interferometer. The data acquired in bistatic mode are processed to yield a...

  9. tan\\beta\\ determination from the Higgs boson decay at the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoya, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We study the methods and their accuracies for determining tan\\beta\\ in two Higgs doublet models at future lepton colliders. In addition to the previously proposed methods using direct production of additional Higgs bosons, we propose a method using the precision measurement of the decay branching ratio of the standard-model (SM)-like Higgs boson. The method is available if there is a deviation from the SM in the coupling constants of the Higgs boson with the weak gauge bosons. We find that, depending on the type of Yukawa interactions, this method can give the best sensitivity in a wide range of tan\\beta.

  10. Sustainable Development in the Core Water Resource Area of the Central Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ With continued population growth and accelerated industrialization and urbanization, water shortages and water quality deterioration have become a bottleneck restraining global socioeconomic progress.In China, water resources are unevenly distributed, with abundance in the south and scarcity in the north.Every year, a loss of nearly 100 billion yuan is incurred by water shortages in the north.The Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is a key measure to optimize the spatial allocation of water resources in China.However, while giving opportunities for sound socioeconomic progress to the key headwaters region of the project, the move also poses new challenges to the region in terms of economic development, ecological balance, water quality monitoring and water quantity guarantee.

  11. Methane leakage during the evolution of petroleum systems in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and the Central Graben area of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, L. A.; di Primio, R.; Anka, Z.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Around 500 to 600 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) of methane enter the atmosphere every year, mainly as product of microbial processes and combustion of fossil fuels and burning biomass. The importance of another source, the geologic emissions of methane, is up to now only loosely constrained. In this study, we addressed the potential methane emissions during the geological evolution of the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB), which holds the largest oil sand accumulations in the world, and the Central Graben area of the North Sea. In the case of the WCSB, thermogenic gas generation and leakage at the sediment surface were addressed through 3D petroleum systems modeling. In this basin, the accumulated oil experienced intense biodegradation that resulted in large masses of biogenic methane. We quantified this latter mass though a two-step mass balance approach. Firstly, we estimated the rate of petroleum degradation and the magnitude of petroleum loss. After this, we calculated the mass of biogenic methane generated using a model that assumes hexadecane (C16H34) as representative of the saturated compounds (Zengler et al., 1999). Our 3D model suggests that 90000-150000 Tg of dry gas (mostly methane) could have leaked during the interval from 80 Ma to 60 Ma. Therefore, uniform leakage rates would have been in the order of 10-3-10-2 Tg yr-1. Biogenic methane generation could have taken place at rates of 10-4 to 10-2 Tg yr-1. However, the effective mass of thermogenic and biogenic methane reaching the atmosphere might have been up to 90% lower than calculated here due to methanotrophic consumption in soils (Etiope and Klusman, 2002). We addressed the thermogenic gas generation and leakage in the Central Graben through two different methods. The first is based on a previous 3D petroleum system modeling of the region (Neumann, 2006). The second consisted of calculating the mass of generated petroleum based on source rock extension and properties (Schmoker, 1994), and then

  12. Changes in Sun Tanning Attitudes and Behaviors of U.S. College Students from 1995 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Geschke, Kaela S.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate changes in U.S. college student sun tanning attitudes and behaviors over the last decade, participants completed sun tanning attitude and behavior surveys in 1995 (n=151) and a different sample of participants completed surveys in 2005 (n=208). Consistent with predictions, results indicated that college students were more likely to…

  13. On the Origin of One Basin-Multiple Mountain Couplings in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin-Range Area in Eastern North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shuyin; SHAO Ji'an; HOU Quanlin; WANG Baode; XU Chuanshi

    2004-01-01

    The basin-range coupling relation is a leading subject of the modern geology. In geometry, relations of this type include couplings between stretched orogenic belt and down-faulted basin, compressional orogenic belt and foreland basin, strike-slip orogenic belt and strike-slip basin and so on. Fault chains are the key for these couplings and there are typical examples for all these cases. The North China down-faulted basin is coupled west with the Tathang uplift, east with the Jiao-Liao Mountains, north with the Yanshan orogenic belt and south with the Dabie orogenic belt,that is to say, the central down-faulted basin and the surrounding orogenic belts bear a coupling relation within a uniform dynamistic system. Study shows that the central down-faulted basin and the North China mantle sub-plume structure have a close relation during their formation. Owing to intensive mantle sub-plume uplifting, the bottom of the lithosphere suffered from resistance, which caused the lithosphere of the eastern North China to be heated, thinned and fault-depressed. Meanwhile, mantle rocks that were detached outwards in the shape of mushroom was dissected by surrounding ductile shearing zones, which lead to decompression and unloading to generate hypomagmas, and a series of mantle-branch structures were formed around the down-faulted basin. There is an obvious comparability among these mantle branch structures (orogenic belts), and they have basin-range coupling relations with the central down-faulted basins.

  14. Preparation of high exhaust chrome from leather shavings and hydrocarbons with its application in leather processing for green tanning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of chrome in tanning has made the remarkable advances to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of heavy metal containing solid wastes and toxic effluents. To solve the environmental issues we emphasized on the development of high exhaust chrome complex from chrome containing leather wastes that could minimize the toxic effluents up to negligible limit. Therefore in the synthetic process of chrome tanning material, the chrome shavings and the hydrocarbons have been utilized as a reductant as well as the potential masking intermediates. These chrome tanning materials have been prepared using leather shavings alone in product A, partial replacement of shavings by hydrocarbons for product B and then replacement of hydrocarbons by molasses for product C. The materials have been employed for the tanning of goat skins parallel to the commercial basic chromium sulfate (BCS). (author)

  15. 75 FR 5322 - Indoor Tanning Association; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    .... The order covers representations made in connection with the manufacturing, labeling, advertising, promotion, offering for sale, sale, or distribution of any covered product or service, in or affecting... proposed order. This matter involves the advertising and promotion of indoor tanning products...

  16. Resistance to Tan Spot and Stagonospora nodorum Blotch in Wheat-Alien Species Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan spot [caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs.] and Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) [caused by Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and Germano] are destructive fungal diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the world. Host plant resistance is thought to be an effi...

  17. Amy Tan, Author of "The Joy Luck Club." (People to Know).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Barbara

    This book, aimed at the young reader, explores the life and career of the Chinese-American author, Amy Tan. It follows her childhood in Oakland, California, through her struggle to accept her Chinese heritage, through her education and marriage to a non-Chinese man, to her early work as a business writer, and finally to her great success as a…

  18. 77 FR 43157 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... the Federal Register on June 25, 2012 (77 FR 37806) relating to disregarded entities (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. DATES: This correction is... Excise Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correcting...

  19. Portrayal of Tanning, Clothing Fashion and Shade Use in Australian Women's Magazines, 1987-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Jamsen, Kris; McLeod, Kim

    2008-01-01

    To examine modelling of outcomes relevant to sun protection in Australian women's magazines, content analysis was performed on 538 spring and summer issues of popular women's magazines from 1987 to 2005. A total of 4949 full-colour images of Caucasian females were coded for depth of tan, extent of clothing cover, use of shade and setting. Logistic…

  20. In vitro/in vivo and analytical evaluation of sunless tanning formulations containing different rheology modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueva-Koganov, Olga V; Mandalia, Yamini; Brito, Juan; Rocafort, Colleen; Orofino, Steven; Vazquez, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    In vitro data suggest that different in vivo performances are expected for two dihydroxyacetone (DHA)-containing formulations with similar concentrations of DHA and excipients but different commercially available rheology modifiers: one with a cationic polymer-based rheology modifier (blend) [dimethylacrylamide/ethyltrimonium chloride methacrylate copolymer (and) propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate (and) PPG-1 trideceth-6 (and) C10-11 isoparaffin]; and the other with a polyacrylamide-based rheology modifier (blend) [polyacrylamide (and) C13-14 isoparaffin (and) laureth-7]. Both rheology modifiers (blends) contained comparable levels of polymers and were used at 3% w/w (as supplied). Differences in color development were illustrated in vitro with respect to the yellow/red and lightness/chroma parameters, which were confirmed in the followup in vivo studies. The test article with the cationic polymer-based rheology modifier produced a more natural sunless tan, comparable to a desirable sun-induced tan, for all panelists, one that was more uniform and lasted longer compared with the sunless tan generated by the test article with the polyacrylamide-based rheology modifier. A method for HPLC analysis of DHA in sunless tanning formulations was established and utilized to confirm concentrations of DHA in test articles. PMID:20447361