WorldWideScience

Sample records for area north tan

  1. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    pumping well of 1.96 ft and 1.14 ft, respectively. The transmissivity estimates for wells tested were within the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests in other wells near Test Area North.Groundwater samples were collected from both wells and were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Groundwater samples for most of the inorganic constituents showed similar water chemistry in both wells. Groundwater samples for strontium-90, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride exceeded maximum contaminant levels for public drinking water supplies in one or both wells.

  2. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole TAN-2271 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole TAN-2272 was partially cored between 210 and 282 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) then drilled and constructed as a monitor well. Boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 are separated by about 63 ft and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geologic, geophysical, and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 required 10-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 9.9-in. diameter open-hole completion below the casing to total depths of 282 and 287 ft BLS, respectively. Depth to water is measured near 228 ft BLS in both boreholes. Following construction and data collection, temporary submersible pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels.Borehole TAN-2271 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 33 ft BLS) to a depth of 284 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole TAN-2271 was better than 98 percent. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 33 to 211ft BLS primarily consists of two massive basalt flows that are about 78 and 50 ft in thickness and three sediment layers near 122, 197, and 201 ft BLS. Between 211 and 284 ft BLS, geophysical data and core material suggest a high occurrence of fractured and vesicular basalt. For the section of aquifer tested, there are two primary fractured aquifer intervals: the first between 235 and

  3. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  4. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Floerke

    2007-02-05

    Test Area North (TAN) -607, the Technical Support Facility, is located at the north end of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to decommission the northern section of the TAN-607 facility, hereinafter referred to as TAN-607 Hot Shop Area, under a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA). Despite significant efforts by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) to secure new business, no future mission has been identified for the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area. Its disposition has been agreed to by the Idaho State Historical Preservation Office documented in the Memorandum of Agreement signed October 2005 and it is therefore considered a surplus facility. A key element in DOE's strategy for surplus facilities is decommissioning to the maximum extent possible to ensure risk and building footprint reduction and thereby eliminating operations and maintenance cost. In addition, the DOE's 2006 Strategic Plan is ''complete cleanup of the contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and testing sites across the United States. DOE is responsible for the risk reduction and cleanup of the environmental legacy of the Nation's nuclear weapons program, one of the largest, most diverse, and technically complex environmental programs in the world. The Department will successfully achieve this strategic goal by ensuring the safety of the DOE employees and U.S. citizens, acquiring the best resources to complete the complex tasks, and managing projects throughout the United States in the most efficient and effective manner.'' TAN-607 is designated as a historical Signature Property by DOE Headquarters Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and, as such, public participation is required to determine the final disposition of the facility. The decommissioning action will place the TAN-607 Hot Shop

  5. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  6. An assessment of TanDEM-X GlobalDEM over rural and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudogbo, Fifamè N.; Duro, Javier; Huber, Martin; Rudari, Roberto; Eddy, Andrew; Lucas, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a key input for the development of risk management systems. Main limitation of the current available DEM is the low level of resolution. DEMs such as STRM 90m or ASTER are globally available free of charge, but offer limited use, for example, to flood modelers in most geographic areas. TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement), the first bistatic SAR can fulfil this gap. The mission objective is the generation of a consistent global digital elevation model with an unprecedented accuracy according to the HRTI-3 (High Resolution Terrain Information) specifications. The mission opens a new era in risk assessment. In the framework of ALTAMIRA INFORMATION research activities, the DIAPASON (Differential Interferometric Automated Process Applied to Survey Of Nature) processing chain has been successfully adapted to TanDEM-X CoSSC (Coregistered Slant Range Single Look Complex) data processing. In this study the capability of CoSSC data for DEM generation is investigated. Within the on-going FP7 RASOR project (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation and Of Risk), the generated DEM are compared with Intermediate DEM derived from the TanDEM-X first global coverage. The results are presented and discussed.

  7. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures.

  8. Tangaroa TAN0607 cruise report : gas hydrate exploration on the East Coast, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R/V Tangaroa's voyage TAN0607, 20 June to 2 July 2006, Wellington/Wellington, was the first-ever research campaign dedicated to studying gas hydrates on the Hikurangi margin. The cruise was a collaboration between GNS Science, the US Naval Research Laboratory, the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, the Universities of Otago, Hawaii, and Rochester (New York), as well as individual scientists from the University of Auckland and the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. We collected high-resolution seismic data, EM 300 swath bathymetry, 3.5 kHz sub-bottom, as well as 12, 38 and 120 kHz water column echosounder data. Piston cores were recovered for pore water chemistry, microbiology, core description, and paleoceanographic analyses. We acquired heatflow data using a violin-bow type probe rented from the Geological Survey of Canada. We also retrieved three dredge samples from the seafloor. Finally, Niskin bottles attached to CTDs were used to collect seawater for water-column chemistry. The cruise focused on two study areas, the Porangahau Ridge offshore of the Wairarapa and the Rock Garden off Hawke's Bay. Seismic data from 2005 showed an amplitude anomaly beneath the Porangahau Ridge that appears to be caused by gas within the regional gas hydrate stability zone and may indicate the presence of highly concentrated gas hydrates in the vicinity. We acquired nine seismic lines across the ridge to constrain the lateral extent of this anomaly. The anomaly seems to develop with folding and may be linked to enhanced fluid flow through the gas hydrate stability field, which in turn may lead to elevated gas hydrate concentration. Pore water chemistry shows a shoaling of the base of the sulfate reduction zone across this feature, indicative of elevated methane flux through the hydrate stability field. There is a distinct thermal anomaly across the Porangahau Ridge, albeit with a complex signature. On the other hand, there are no indications of methane expulsion into

  9. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  10. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  11. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  12. Retail Trade Area Analysis Garrison North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Bangsund, Dean A.; Leistritz, F. Larry; Wanzek, Janet K.; Zetocha, Dale F.; Bastow-Shoop, Holly E.

    1991-01-01

    This report is intended to provide an indepth trade area analysis of Garrison, North Dakota. Specific analyses included determining Garrison's main and greater trade areas, identifying the demographic profile of Garrison shoppers, examining important and less important services for patron shoppers of Garrison, identifying neighboring cities that area shoppers patronize, determining distances area shoppers traveled to Garrison, and listing popular newspapers and radio stations among area resid...

  13. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  14. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  15. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  16. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  17. Determination of concentrations of chromium and other elements in soil and plant samples from leather tanning area by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromium, one of the toxic elements, along with other elements has been determined in samples of soil and plant (leaves and seeds) from Jajmau Area, Kanpur district, India, which is irrigated with effluent waste water from leather tanning industries. Soil and plant samples were collected from these areas and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using high flux reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Concentrations of fifteen elements in soil and five elements in plant samples were determined by relative method. Chromium concentrations were found to be in range of 45-3,900 mg kg-1in soil samples and 14-83 mg kg-1 in plant samples. This study showed that Cr is present in significant amounts, in the soil as well as in the plant samples, near to the leather tanning area. As a part of quality control work, IAEA reference material (RM) SL-3 and NIST standard reference material (SRM) 1645 were analyzed and the quality of the results has been evaluated by calculating % deviations from recommended/literature/certified values. (author)

  18. Education challenges in the North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the North Sea as a fast evolving coastal ecosystem. The variability of natural conditions relates to the global climatic change and to human disturbances, which originate regionally. Education is an integral part of the strategy to improve environmental awareness. Considering contemporary challenges for educating the wider public about the main issues of environmental concern, attention is paid to various plans, which are being developed in North-Western Europe from primary schools to universities. "Learning for life" relies on an opening of the vocation of traditional universities and on the creation of a European university. Sharing resources in a competitive environment is one response given by British universities in the framework of a Discipline Network in Coastal Sciences and Management in 1996-2000. Networking is truly the key to a fast evolving teaching and learning context, notably in relation to ever developing information and communication technologies. The dissemination of scientific information is primordial in this context; a case study relating to the European project "Marine biodiversity in Europe" (BIOMARE) demonstrates the need for an elaborated strategy leading to socio-economic considerations. Empowering communities and governance are the main possible outcomes of such an enlarged approach to education, involving teachers, students, researchers, professionals, and volunteers. Proposals are made for amplifying the involvement of non-scientists into scientific research and its applications to management. Finally, a case is made for facilitating the mobility of all concerned, with a view to annihilate language and cultural barriers.

  19. Education challenges in the North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the North Sea as a fast evolving coastal ecosystem. The variability of natural conditions relates to the global climatic change and to human disturbances, which originate regionally. Education is an integral part of the strategy to improve environmental awareness. Considering contemporary challenges for educating the wider public about the main issues of environmental concern, attention is paid to various plans, which are being developed in North-Western Europe from primary schools to universities. "Learning for life" relies on an opening of the vocation of traditional universities and on the creation of a European university. Sharing resources in a competitive environment is one response given by British universities in the framework of a Discipline Network in Coastal Sciences and Management in 1996-2000. Networking is truly the key to a fast evolving teaching and learning context, notably in relation to ever developing information and communication technologies. The dissemination of scientific information is primordial in this context; a case study relating to the European project "Marine biodiversity in Europe" (BIOMARE) demonstrates the need for an elaborated strategy leading to socio-economic considerations. Empowering communities and governance are the main possible outcomes of such an enlarged approach to education, involving teachers, students, researchers, professionals, and volunteers. Proposals are made for amplifying the involvement of non-scientists into scientific research and its applications to management. Finally, a case is made for facilitating the mobility of all concerned, with a view to annihilate language and cultural barriers. PMID:12787627

  20. Magazine Exposure, Tanned Women Stereotypes, and Tanning Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hyunyi; Lee, Seungyoon; Wilson, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether magazine exposure is related to stereotypical beliefs about tanned women. A survey of White college women (n = 205) assessed their exposure to beauty/fashion and health/fitness magazines. Outcome variables were the beliefs that tanned women are fashionable, fit, and shallow. Attention to the tanned women’s images in health magazines positively predicted the belief that tanned women are fit and that tanned women are shallow; in contrast, attention to the images ...

  1. Closure plan for the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, and history of the units are described, and their current status is discussed. The units will be closed by treating remaining waste in storage, followed by thorough decontamination of the systems. Sufficient sampling and analysis, and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure

  2. Estimating Digital Terrain Model in forest areas from TanDEM-X and Stereo-photogrammetric technique by means of Random Volume over Ground model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. K.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lagomasino, D.; Osmanoglu, B.; Feliciano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Digital Terrain Model (DTM) in forest areas is invaluable information for various environmental, hydrological and ecological studies, for example, watershed delineation, vegetation canopy height, water dynamic modeling, forest biomass and carbon estimations. There are few solutions to extract bare-earth Digital Elevation Model information. Airborne lidar systems are widely and successfully used for estimating bare-earth DEMs with centimeter-order accuracy and high spatial resolution. However, expensive cost of operation and small image coverage prevent the use of airborne lidar sensors for large- or global-scale. Although IceSAT/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) lidar data sets have been available for global DTM estimate with relatively lower cost, the large footprint size of 70 m and the interval of 172 m are insufficient for various applications. In this study we propose to extract higher resolution bare-earth DEM over vegetated areas from the combination of interferometric complex coherence from single-pass TanDEM-X (TDX) data at HH polarization and Digital Surface Model (DSM) derived from high-resolution WorldView (WV) images by means of random volume over ground (RVoG) model. The RVoG model is a widely and successfully used model for polarimetric SAR interferometry (Pol-InSAR) forest canopy height inversion. The bare-earth DEM is obtained by complex volume decorrelation in the RVoG model with the DSM estimated by stereo-photogrammetric technique. Forest canopy height can be estimated by subtracting the estimated bare-earth model from the DSM. Finally, the DTM from airborne lidar system was used to validate the bare-earth DEM and forest canopy height estimates.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  4. Traffic simulation of Beijing west railway station north area

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochun Lu; Zhanping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years the problem of traffic congestion and its management has become increasingly prominent. It is a hot research about how to make full use of computer simulation technology to make transportation more rational and more organized. In this paper, we focus on traffic of Beijing West Railway Station north area, and try to find a way to reduce traffic congestion in this area. Approach: In this paper, we studied the traffic flow by survey. We also built a traffic simulation mo...

  5. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the North Polar Area. 135.98... Operations § 135.98 Operations in the North Polar Area. After August 13, 2008, no certificate holder may operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than...

  6. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  7. Geology of the Plumtree area, Spruce Pine district, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1953-01-01

    This report describes the results of study and geologic mapping (1:12,000) in the 70-square-mile Plumtree area in the northeastern part of the Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine and includes parts of Mitchell and Avery Counties shown on the portions of the 7.5-minute Spruce Pine, Linville Falls, Newland, North Carolina, and Carvers Gap, North Carolina and Tennessee quadrangle. The topography varies from rugged mountains to rounded or flat topped hills near the entrenched, meandering master streams. Old erosion surfaces are approximately 600,1,100, 1,500, and 2,500 feet above the present master stream level. The area is in late youth or early maturity after rejuvenation.. The regionally metamorphosed rocks of the amophibolite facies form three mappable units: mica gneiss, mica schist, and hornblende rock. These rocks, perhaps of Precambrian age, are intimately interlayered with thicknesses of the individual layers ranging from less than one inch to several tons of feet. Field relationships and chemical data suggest that the mica (Carolina-type) rocks were derived from sandstones, graywackes, and shales and that the hornblende-rich (Roan-type) layers were derived from impure carbonate rocks. The igneous rocks include alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age (?), dunite and associated soapstone of a prepegmatite age, and a few diabasic

  8. Distribution and area of mangrove forest in Pising Bay coastal area North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salam Tarigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available esearched of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi was carried out on April 2006. Data digital Landsat 7ETM+ parth/raw 113/064 was used for mangrove mapping. Classification method was done is multispectral supervised with artificial neural networks algortms. Analysis and data validation from field survey, it is estimated that distribution and areas of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi is 152.128 Ha. Mangrove in Pising Bay dominated by rhizophora apiculata, rhizophora mucronata; and the forest is relatively in good condition.

  9. 长株潭地区耕地压力的时空变化及驱动因素分析%Spatial-temporal change and driving factors of cultivated land pressure in the Chang-Zhu-Tan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜峰; 张合平

    2015-01-01

    利用1997-2010年长株潭地区的土地利用现状数据和社会经济数据,运用耕地压力指数模型和主成分分析法分析了长株潭地区耕地压力的时空分布及驱动因素。结果表明:(1)长株潭地区耕地总量总体呈阶梯减少趋势;(2)整体看,长株潭地区耕地压力指数小于1,耕地压力不明显,但耕地压力指数呈上升-下降-上升走势,耕地压力呈上升势头。(3)具体看,长株潭地区耕地压力:长沙市>株洲市>湘潭市;并且县域空间差异明显,尤其是城区耕地压力指数远大于1,表明城区耕地压力非常大,其他县市压力相对较小。(4)人口快速增长、经济跨越式快速发展、农业机械化普及与农业投入的增加等4个方面是长株潭地区耕地压力变化的主要驱动因素。研究成果有利于提高人们对长株潭地区的耕地保护意识,为促进区域土地合理利用规划,实现两型发展提供科学依据。%Based on the survey data on land use and social-economic statistical data from 1 997 to 2010,this paper analyzes the spatial-temporal change and driving factors of cultivated land pressure in the Chang-Zhu-Tan area using the index model of cultivated land pressure and principal component analysis.The results show that the Chang-Zhu-Tan regional cultivated land tends to reduce overall in a step-like manner.As a whole,the cultivated land pressure index of the Chang-Zhu-Tan area is less than 1,implying the cultivated land pressure is not obvious.But the cultivated land pressure index exhibits an up-down-up process,with a rising tendency.Specifically,the cultivated land pressure of Changsha city is larger than Zhuzhou city,and that of Zhuzhou larger than Xiangtan city.And there are obvious differences among counties,especially in urban areas.The cultivated land pressure index of urban areas is much greater than 1,showing that the cul-tivated land pressure of urban areas is very big.Other counties have relatively

  10. Assessing Environmental Sensitivity Areas to Desertification in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sobhani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity map to desertification of Chehel-chai basin (North of Iran has been elaborated by the crossing of fives criteria including climate, water erosion, soil, vegetation, and management, which have the main impact on the evolutionary process of desertification. The methodology is resulted from the desertification model of MEDALUS, which use qualitative index to define the land sensitive area to desertification. According to the factorial scaling technique, score-ranging from 1(good condition to 2(deteriorated condition is assigned to each indicator. Each index was assessed based on selected indicators, which resulted in qualitative mapping of each index based on geometric average of the indicators. Thematic databases, with a 1:50000 scale resolution, were integrated and elaborated in GIS software based on arc view3.2, Ilwis3.1 and ArcGIS9.3. The obtained results indicate that 39.39% of Chehel-chai basin is highly sensitive to desertification, 2.13 % has moderate sensitivity, only 2.43% has low sensitivity and 56.05% is non-sensitive. Studying the mean weight of numerical value, it is distinguished that the intensity of desertification for the total area is 1.32 which is classified as fragile (2.

  11. Connotation of Core Competence of Culture Industry of Chang-Zhu-Tan Area%论长株潭区域文化产业核心竞争力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢文涛; 李树德

    2011-01-01

    The connotation of the core competence of culture industry of Chang-Zhu-Tan is discussed.Three ways are proposed,namely strengthening the function of the culture industry association,integrating the cultural materials and innovating the culture brand for developing the core competence of the culture industry of Chang-Zhu-Tan area.%长株潭区域文化产业的核心竞争力是指长株潭文化产业在长期的发展和竞争形势中所应具备的综合素质和战略管理模式,是长株潭文化产业在国际竞争中所应具备的核心专长或关键能力。通过发挥文化产业行业协会功能,扩大文化企业自主权;整合文化资源,打造特色文化产业;适应市场需求,创新文化产品三种基本途径来培育长株潭区域文化产业的核心竞争力。

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Four - Appendix G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix G. Appendix G is a presentation of VOC chromatography data collected during the study. Information on the calibration curves and calibration checks used as well as the sample GC reports themselves are included here. The concentration values presented on the GC reports are calculation using the data from the applicable calibration curve and any necessary dilutions which were made.

  13. Salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay during 1956. Study areas include Kuskokwim river, Yukon river, Unalakleet River, Nome,...

  14. Seasonal Management Areas for North Atlantic Right Whales GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent Seasonal Mangagement Area locations where regulations implement speed restrictions in shipping areas at certain times of the year along the...

  15. Volcanic geomorphology using TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Kubanek, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Topography is perhaps the most fundamental dataset for any volcano, yet is surprisingly difficult to collect, especially during the course of an eruption. For example, photogrammetry and lidar are time-intensive and often expensive, and they cannot be employed when the surface is obscured by clouds. Ground-based surveys can operate in poor weather but have poor spatial resolution and may expose personnel to hazardous conditions. Repeat passes of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data provide excellent spatial resolution, but topography in areas of surface change (from vegetation swaying in the wind to physical changes in the landscape) between radar passes cannot be imaged. The German Space Agency's TanDEM-X satellite system, however, solves this issue by simultaneously acquiring SAR data of the surface using a pair of orbiting satellites, thereby removing temporal change as a complicating factor in SAR-based topographic mapping. TanDEM-X measurements have demonstrated exceptional value in mapping the topography of volcanic environments in as-yet limited applications. The data provide excellent resolution (down to ~3-m pixel size) and are useful for updating topographic data at volcanoes where surface change has occurred since the most recent topographic dataset was collected. Such data can be used for applications ranging from correcting radar interferograms for topography, to modeling flow pathways in support of hazards mitigation. The most valuable contributions, however, relate to calculating volume changes related to eruptive activity. For example, limited datasets have provided critical measurements of lava dome growth and collapse at volcanoes including Merapi (Indonesia), Colima (Mexico), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), and of basaltic lava flow emplacement at Tolbachik (Kamchatka), Etna (Italy), and Kīlauea (Hawai`i). With topographic data spanning an eruption, it is possible to calculate eruption rates - information that might not otherwise be available

  16. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the weather, latitude, altitude, and more. Statistics Studies have shown consistently that indoor tanning increases a person’s risk of getting skin cancer, including melanoma. A meta-analysis (a research study that looks at data from other studies) by ...

  17. Tan and thin? Associations between attitudes toward thinness, motives to tan and tanning behaviors in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Susan D; Heckman, Carolyn J; Munshi, Teja

    2016-07-01

    Tanning during adolescence increases skin cancer risk. Relatively few studies have examined the association between thinness attitudes and tanning attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to examine psychosocial predictors of sunbathing and tanning bed use, specifically thin ideal internalization (TII) and motives for tanning among high school girls. Adolescent girls (N = 229) completed a 10-minute questionnaire designed to assess sunbathing and indoor tanning, TII and motives to tan (appearance, social and well-being). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that TII, β = .05, p motives, β = .11, p motives, β = .11, p motives were negatively associated with sunbathing, β = -.07, p motives on indoor tanning, in that appearance and well-being motives interacted to increase indoor tanning levels, especially among those who strongly endorsed social motives for tanning, β = .22, p Motives for tanning, specifically those associated with appearance and well-being, can interact to increase tanning bed use. When designing tailored interventions for skin cancer prevention in young people, researchers should consider tailoring based on motivation. Researchers and healthcare professionals who work with adolescents should attend to tanners who are motivated for both appearance and mood-related reasons, as they may be most at risk for tanning dependence and skin cancer. PMID:26448364

  18. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  19. Deglaciation of the Wijdefjorden-Austfjorden area, north Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, Matthias; Vorren, Tore O.; Hass, H. Christian; Vogt, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Swath-bathymetry, high-resolution seismics and lithological data from the Wijdefjorden-Austfjorden fjord system, the largest fjord system on northern Spitsbergen, have been analysed. The data indicate that multiple halts and/or readvances during the deglaciation of the study area at the end of the last glacial occurred. However, even though the study area and several west Spitsbergen fjords are fed by the same glacier source (the ice field Lomonosovfonna), the final deglaciation of Wijdefjorden-Austfjorden took place after 9300 cal. years BP, i.e. at least approx. 2000 years later than in the west. It is suggested that the retarded deglaciation of the study area is mainly related to the fjord bathymetry, i.e. a more than 35 km wide and up to 60 m high plateau in the central parts of the study area (approx. 45 km beyond the present fjord head). Multiple, relatively large and partly stacked moraine ridges and sediment wedges are suggested to reflect that the ice front retreated slowly across this shallow area and that repeated readvances occurred. The absence of larger sediment wedges in the deeper parts between the shallow area and the fjord head may indicate that the final retreat occurred rapidly.

  20. TL studies of calcareous rocks of Danta area, North Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithounits exposed around Danta in Banaskantha district of North Gujarat belong to Ajabgarh Group, the upper division of the Delhi super group. These rocks are intruded by syn to late kinematic basic rocks and by Erinpura granites of post Delhi age. The Ajabgarh group consists of pelitic and calcareous components. Mineralogically the pelitic rocks comprise cordierite, almandine garnet, k-feldspar, sillimanite, quartz and mica in variable proportions. The calcareous rocks are seen to contain dominantly calcite, scapolite, forsterite, sphene, k-feldspar. These mineral assemblages correspond to upper Amphibolite to lower Granulite facies of regional metamorphism. The chemistry of the calcareous rocks show predominance of CaO over MgO. The glow curves obtained from virgin samples (NTL) as well as artificial beta irradiated indicate glow peaks at 140oC, 290oC, 310oC and 390oC. The TL glow peak temperatures are in general agreement with those reported by Borsi and Rinaldi and Medlin. The pronounced peak at 390oC and 290oC are suggestive of their high irradiation sensitivity and also probably reflect variation in the Mn content of the rocks. (author). 9 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Ultraviolet radiation, sun and tanning salons

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The pamphlet gives some information about ultraviolet radiation (UV), UV-sources and health effects, tanning in artificial and natural sun. It also includes some sun protection advice. It is intended mainly for persons inspecting artificial tanning units and for the owners of tanning salons. (Author)

  2. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... Scoping Meetings MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND Sleep... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  3. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND. Sleep Inn--Inn... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  4. Research on Leisure Sports Resource Allocation of Xiangjiang Scenery Belt in Chang-Zhu-Tan Area%长株潭湘江风光带休闲体育资源配置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳红

    2014-01-01

    The Xiangjiang scenery belt,which is possessed with the facilities of the sporting area include ball courts,fitness facilities,bicycles and sand beach,is an important place of citizens who live in the city group of Chang-Zhu-Tan area for playing sports and recreation.The major motives of citizens’participating in sports are improving their health,amusing and entertaining,losing weight and adjusting their moods.The major factors that affect their activities are spots field utensils,weather and time.The major forms for the citizens to participate in sports are exercising with friends,classmates and colleagues,exercising with family members,or exercising by joining organizations or exercising alone.The items of exercising include long-running or walking,all kinds of sports balls,all kinds of dances,exercising with categories of fitness equipment and roller skating.However, some problems still exist,such as lacking of sporting facilities,unreasonable construction structures,lower utiliza-tion rate and insufficient exploitation of the sport area.Naturally,actions need to be done to reuse,exploit and in-tegrate the resources of leisure sports,so as to accelerate the construction of sports facilities of the Xiangjiang scenery belt and allocate the sports resources more reasonably and promote the sustainable development of leisure sports in Chang-Zhu-Tan area.%湘江风光带是长株潭城市群市民体育休闲的重要场所,分布有球场、健身设备、自行车、沙滩浴场等体育场地和设施;市民参加休闲体育锻炼的动机主要在于增进健康、娱乐消遣、减肥美体、调节心情等;影响长株潭湘江风光市民参与休闲体育锻炼的因素主要有场地器材、天气、时间等;其形式主要与朋友同学同事、家人,或团体组织、独自一人参加锻炼;体育锻炼的项目包括长跑(走)、球类、舞蹈、健身器械、轮滑等。尚存在场地设施不足、建设结构不合理、利

  5. Discussion on the dynamic mechanism of Great North China area based on the observed stress data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯向东; 魏东平; 陈棋福

    2005-01-01

    Based on the constrained data from the observed stress orientation and the observed stress regime, the tectonic stress fields of the Great North China area has been simulated by using the pseudo-3D finite element method. The results indicate that the stress fields in this area are basically controlled by the push forces coming from the Pacific Plate and from the Tibet Plateau, and the WNW-ward action from the Pacific Plate play a more important role in North China plain block. In addition to that, the stress field in this area is also partly formed by the extension action from the mantle upwelling in perpendicular at the basin margins.

  6. How the Location of Roads and Protected Areas Affects Deforestation in North Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Cropper, Maureen; Puri, Jyotsna; Griffiths, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Using plot-level data, the authors estimate a bi-variate probit model to explain land clearing, and the siting of protected areas in North Thailand in 1986. Their model suggests that protected areas (national parks, together with wildlife sanctuaries) did not reduce the likelihood of forest clearing, but wildlife sanctuaries may have reduced the probability of deforestation. Road building,...

  7. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cilliers, S.S.; Van Wyk, E; G.J. Bredenkamp

    1999-01-01

    This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN) as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in...

  8. TCC2, the target hall of the SPS North Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    In the foreground can be seen the three proton beam branches leading to the targets enclosed in an assembly of iron blocks with the positioning mechanism on top. In the background, the six secondary beams lead off towards the experimental areas, H2/P2, H4/E4/P4 (from T2 via TT81) and H6, H8 (from T4 via TT82) towards the hall EHN1, M2 from T6 via TT83 towards the hall EHN2. The development proton beam line P0 leads off from T4 via TT83 towards TCC8 and hall ECN3 (NAHIF).

  9. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  10. Photobiological implications of melanin photoprotection after UVB-induced tanning of human skin but not UVA-induced tanning

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Sergio G.; Yin, Lanlan; Smuda, Christoph; Mahns, Andre; Kolbe, Ludger; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive suberythemal UVA and/or UVB exposures were used to generate comparable UV-induced tans in human skin over the course of 2 weeks. In order to evaluate the potential photoprotective values of those UVA- and/or UVB- induced tans and to avoid the confounding issue of residual UV-induced DNA damage, we waited 1 week before challenging those areas with a 1.5 MED dose of UVA+UVB after which we measure DNA damage. The results show that the type of UV used to induce skin pigmentation affect...

  11. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. PMID:27400670

  12. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko;

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI...

  13. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez‐Moreno, Heidi; Martínez‐Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas‐Soto, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long‐distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North...

  14. Carbon isotope ratios of C4 plants in loess areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of 89 C4 plant samples were determined from the loess area in North China. δ13C values vary between -10.5‰ and -14.6‰ with a mean of -12.6‰. Along a precipitation gradient from the semi-moist area to the semiarid area, then to the arid area, the δ13C values of C4 plants show a slight decreasing trend. The δ13C values of C4 plants in the dry season are found lower than those in the wet season. These trends are opposite to those observed for C3 species.

  15. Adolescent tanning, disordered eating, and risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C

    2014-04-01

    Indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors are both significant adolescent public health risks. Recent results by Amrock and Weitzman provocatively suggest a link between the two, perhaps because of a shared cause of dysfunctional cognition about body image. This commentary discusses a possible model to explain the association between indoor tanning and eating disorder behaviors among teenagers. It also presents various strategies to prevent the negative outcomes, with a focus on preventing adolescent tanning behavior. Prevention strategies worth consideration include counseling by pediatricians or other health professionals, improved parental supervision and monitoring, and policy change to prohibit adolescent use of tanning facilities. PMID:24695120

  16. Degraded Ecosystem and its Rehabilitating Measures in Sandy Areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGFengchun; LUQi

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem degradation occurs in parallel with desertification process in sandy areas of North China. The vast sandy areas in North China are characterized with flexible environments and fragile ecosystems as well as intensive human activities. Due to the annual precipitation gradient decreases from east to west in North China, the whole sandy region falls into 3 main climatic zones: add, semi-add and dry sub-humid zones.The ecosystems in each type of climatic zones are different in climatic conditions, human activities,cultural dimensions, vegetation covers, landscapes, and causes and processes of ecosystem degradation.Therefore, the most effective rehabilitation measures of degraded ecosystems in different types of the climatic zones are also different. For the arid sandy areas, vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems needs to be completely closed, assisting with artificial measures, such as plantation, irrigation or others. For semi-add sandy areas, the effective measures of vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems include increasing of proportion of forests and rangelands and limitation of reclamation; reducing the carrying capacity of livestock on unit area of rangelands and growth of fodder plants; and plantation on the lowlands betweens and dunes. For the dry sub-humid areas, the most effective measure is enclosure of degraded ecosystems combined with plantation, and in some cases, just stop uses by grazing or reclamation.

  17. Chronology and geochemistry of Mesozoic granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Bin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Qing-Hai; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    We performed zircon U-Pb dating and analyses of major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes for granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China, with the aim of constraining the magma sources and tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). The analyzed zircons show typical fine-scale oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals granitoids of two ages: Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous ( 206Pb/ 238U ages of 160 Ma and 130-110 Ma, respectively). The Late Jurassic rocks (Jingshan intrusion) consist of biotite-syenogranite, whereas the Early Cretaceous rocks (Huaiguang, Xilushan, Nushan, and Caoshan intrusions) are granodiorite, syenogranite, and monzogranite. The Late Jurassic biotite-syenogranites and Early Cretaceous granitoids have the following common geochemical characteristics: SiO 2 = 70.35-74.56 wt.%, K 2O/Na 2O = 0.66-1.27 (mainly Nushan and Xilushan granitoids, suggests that the primary magmas were derived from partial melting of the Yangtze Craton (YC) basement. In contrast, the occurrence of Paleoproterozoic and Paleoarchean inherited zircons within the Huaiguang granitoids indicates that their primary magmas mainly originated from partial melting of the NCC basement. The occurrence of YC basement within the lower continental crust of the eastern NCC indicates that the YC was subducted to the northwest beneath the NCC, along the Tan-Lu fault zone, during the early Mesozoic.

  18. Tanning and beauty: Mother and teenage daughters in discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Schoenhammer, Maria; Gordon, Mallorie; Bishop, Marilyn; Shuk, Elyse; Oliveria, Susan; Halpern, Allan C

    2016-07-01

    Tanning increases dramatically through the teenage years, but the family context of this health risk behavior is relatively unstudied. We conducted videotaped conversations between teenage girls (10th and 11th grade) and their mothers. We developed a coding system for discussion content and highlight findings including inadequate knowledge concerning the harms of tanning and positive views of outdoor tanning over indoor tanning, yet agreement that all tans are attractive. Many teens believed that indoor tanning is sometimes necessary to achieve the tanned look. These findings can usefully guide intervention development regarding the harms of all tanning, rather than indoor or outdoor tanning specifically. PMID:25318997

  19. Tanning and beauty: Mother and teenage daughters in discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Schoenhammer, Maria; Gordon, Mallorie; Bishop, Marilyn; Shuk, Elyse; Oliveria, Susan; Halpern, Allan C

    2016-07-01

    Tanning increases dramatically through the teenage years, but the family context of this health risk behavior is relatively unstudied. We conducted videotaped conversations between teenage girls (10th and 11th grade) and their mothers. We developed a coding system for discussion content and highlight findings including inadequate knowledge concerning the harms of tanning and positive views of outdoor tanning over indoor tanning, yet agreement that all tans are attractive. Many teens believed that indoor tanning is sometimes necessary to achieve the tanned look. These findings can usefully guide intervention development regarding the harms of all tanning, rather than indoor or outdoor tanning specifically.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  1. A Monte Carlo-tuned model of the flow in the NorthGRIP area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) drill site was chosen in order to obtain a good Eemian record. At the present depth, 3001m, the Eemian interstadial has yet to be seen. Clearly the flow in this area is poorly understood and needs further investigation. After a review of specific...... Eemian is observed is a high basal melt rate (2.7mm/a). The melting is a consequence of a higher geothermal heat flux than the expected 51mW/m^2 of the Precambrian shield. From our analyses it is concluded that the geothermal heat flux at NorthGRIP is 98mW/m^2.The high basalmelt rate also gives rise to...

  2. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  3. 7 CFR 29.3066 - Tan color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tan color. 29.3066 Section 29.3066 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Tan color. A light red-yellow....

  4. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com; Afifi, S.Y.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Salman, A.B.; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (R{sub eq}) and the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  5. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary. PMID:12201151

  6. North Putrajaya Catchment Area Putrajaya, Malaysia-Challenges in Water Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH3-N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH3-N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH3-N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH3-N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and control of

  7. Indoor tanning promotions on social media in six US cities #UVTanning #tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Christine A; Asdigian, Nancy L; Kalra, Heidi L; Mayer, Joni A; Dellavalle, Robert P; Holman, Dawn M; Crane, Lori A

    2016-06-01

    There is no research investigating indoor tanning advertising on social media. We assessed the use of social media to promote indoor tanning. We subscribed to social media platforms in six US cities and content-analyzed promotional messages received. We captured 662 messages on Twitter and Facebook, through salon emails, and in daily deal coupons. Salon postings were most frequent on Twitter and Facebook, with an average of 2-3 postings per week. National chains posted more frequently than local businesses. Forty percent of messages were devoid of tanning content and included photos, jokes, or popular references. Thirty percent mentioned price reductions, and 28 % referenced an upcoming holiday. Sunless tanning (17 %) was promoted more often than ultraviolet tanning (9 %). Tanning salons actively use social media as a strategy for maintaining relationships with customers and offer pricing deals that promote loyalty and high-frequency tanning.

  8. Indoor tanning promotions on social media in six US cities #UVTanning #tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Christine A; Asdigian, Nancy L; Kalra, Heidi L; Mayer, Joni A; Dellavalle, Robert P; Holman, Dawn M; Crane, Lori A

    2016-06-01

    There is no research investigating indoor tanning advertising on social media. We assessed the use of social media to promote indoor tanning. We subscribed to social media platforms in six US cities and content-analyzed promotional messages received. We captured 662 messages on Twitter and Facebook, through salon emails, and in daily deal coupons. Salon postings were most frequent on Twitter and Facebook, with an average of 2-3 postings per week. National chains posted more frequently than local businesses. Forty percent of messages were devoid of tanning content and included photos, jokes, or popular references. Thirty percent mentioned price reductions, and 28 % referenced an upcoming holiday. Sunless tanning (17 %) was promoted more often than ultraviolet tanning (9 %). Tanning salons actively use social media as a strategy for maintaining relationships with customers and offer pricing deals that promote loyalty and high-frequency tanning. PMID:27356996

  9. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  10. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  11. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning. PMID:24601904

  12. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  13. Diminishing Chromium Use on Combined Chromium-Gambier Tanning Process Upon the Characteristics of Tanned Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kasim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to investigate the influence of minimizing chromium use on combined chromium-gambier process upon the characteristics of tanned leather. At the first stage of tanning process, chromium was used and in the second stage it was replaced by gambier. The raw material used was dried saline-preserved goat skin. The treatments applied on the tanning process were the different concentrations of chromium ranging from the highest level of 6% to the lowest level of 1% which was then re-tanned by using 8% concentration of gambier. The examination parameters included chemical and physical properties as well as visual investigation on the tanned leather in accordance with SNI-06-0463-1989-A. The result showed that the tanning process by using 2% chromium in the first step and 8% gambier in the second step was a treatment combination producing tanned leather that met the standard. The examination on tanned leather resulted from such treatment showed 56.33% rawhide, 17.45% of bound tannin, 31.22% of tanning level, tensile strength 386.30 kg/cm2, flexibility 31.91%, leather width 1.3 mm, density 0.75 g/cm3, the leather was quite elastic with light brownish color. In conclusion, minimizing the use of chromium in the combined tanning process of chromium and gambier can be implemented to the lowest of 2% chromium concentration and 8% gambier in the first and second step, respectively.

  14. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  15. Analysis on Variations of the Temperature and Precipitation in North Slope Area of the Western Tianshan in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze variation characteristics of the temperature and precipitation in north slope area of the Western Tianshan in recent 50 years.[Method] According to temperature and rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 at three meteorological stations in north slope area of the Western Tianshan,climate change in the zone in recent 50 years was analyzed by using linear trend analysis method and 5-year sliding average method.[Result] The temperature in north slope area of the Western Tiansha...

  16. Status of TanDEM-X DEM Calibration and Mosaicking towards the TanDEM-X DEM

    OpenAIRE

    Wessel, Birgit; Gruber, Astrid; Huber, Martin; Breunig, Markus; Wagenbrenner, Susanne; Roth, Achim

    2014-01-01

    With begin of 2013 DEM production started with the generation of the Intermediate TanDEM-X DEM (IDEM) for selected science and commercial test sites. This paper gives an overview of the Intermediate DEM production that took place from end of 2012 until July 2013. It describes the DEM production process and the lessons learnt by the IDEM phase. Since autumn 2013 the final DEM generation has begun in flat areas.

  17. An oilspill risk analysis for the North Atlantic outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Allmon; Slack, James Richard; Davis, Robert K.

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to lease 1,172,795 acres of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands on Georges Bank off the New England Coast for oil and gas development. Estimated recoverable petroleum resources for the proposed 206 tract sale area range from 180 to 650 million barrels. Contingent upon actual discovery of this quantity of oil, production is expected to span a period of about 20 years. An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine relative environmental hazards of developing oil in the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed probability of spill occurrence, likely path of pollutants from spills, and locations in space and time of recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results are combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the lease area. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Oil geologic anomaly in the north edge of the Middle and Lower Yangtze areas based on the evidence weight method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwu HU; Jianping CHEN; Pengfei ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The study of oil geologic anomalies is a new area of petroleum geology.Using the evidence weight method,we selected tectonic,hydrocarbon abundance of source rock,thickness of source rock,level of reservoir,complexity of reservoir,degree of mineralization of formation water as the evidence layer to evaluate the favorable zones of pool forming in the Lower Paleozoic in the north edge of the Middle and Lower Yangtze areas.Finally,we integrated our results with the petroleum geology of this area and concluded that the North Sichuan basin,the western area of Hubei and the eastern area of Chongqing and parts of the Lower Yangtze are the most profitable areas for exploration in the north edge of the Lower and Middle Yangtze areas.

  19. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  20. Waterspout outbreaks over areas of Europe and North America: Environment and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutas, Michalis; Szilagyi, Wade; Keul, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Waterspout outbreak occurrences are examined for the areas of the Aegean and Ionian Seas, Eastern Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe and the Great Lakes of North America. Notable outbreaks included a series of 13 waterspouts on September 5, 2002, and 25 plus waterspouts on September 21, 2006 off the Cretan north coast in the Aegean Sea. Two outbreak days with 10 waterspouts each, occurred on August 11 and 13, 2006 over the Baltic Sea. During the fall of 2003 an outbreak produced about 66 waterspouts during a week over the Great Lakes of North America. A preliminary climatology of waterspout outbreak occurrences showed August as the most active month for the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes and September for the Aegean and Ionian Seas; a feature primary related to the warmest sea surface temperatures during these months. Synoptic data indicated that a closed low (CLOSED) type pattern prevailed during waterspout outbreaks over the Baltic and the Aegean and Ionian Seas and a longwave (LW) type over the Great Lakes. Thermodynamic, wind and moisture data indicated a marginally unstable environment for most waterspout outbreaks. A steep thermal gradient between the water surface and lowest layers proved to be a primary factor for Great Lakes waterspout outbreak occurrences. For the Baltic Sea, the primary factors were balanced between the thermal contrast in the lowest layers and the total positive buoyancy. For the Aegean and Ionian Seas, positive buoyancy was the dominant factor. Selected waterspout outbreak case studies are investigated in order to present specific synoptic, thermodynamic features and predictability for the three areas. The Szilagyi waterspout nomogram, which is used as a forecasting tool, was applied together with the Szilagyi waterspout index (SWI) and found to be strongly correlated with outbreak occurrences for the three geographical areas.

  1. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Heidi; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas-Soto, Octavio

    2016-04-01

    Long-distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North America present climatic preferences during arrival to and departure from their wintering areas. We used ecological niche modeling to generate monthly potential climatic distributions for 13 migratory bird species during the winter season by combining the locations recorded per month with four environmental layers. We calculated monthly coefficients of climate variation and then compared two GLM (generalized linear models), evaluated with the AIC (Akaike information criterion), to describe how these coefficients varied over the course of the season, as a measure of the patterns of establishment in the wintering areas. For 11 species, the sites show nonlinear patterns of variation in climatic preferences, with low coefficients of variation at the beginning and end of the season and higher values found in the intermediate months. The remaining two species analyzed showed a different climatic pattern of selective establishment of wintering areas, probably due to taxonomic discrepancy, which would affect their modeled winter distribution. Patterns of establishment of wintering areas in the species showed a climatic preference at the macroscale, suggesting that individuals of several species actively select wintering areas that meet specific climatic conditions. This probably gives them an advantage over the winter and during the return to breeding areas. As these areas become full of migrants, alternative suboptimal sites are occupied. Nonrandom winter area selection may also have

  2. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  3. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  4. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAHYU ASTIKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Astiko W, Fauzi MT, Sukartono. 2016. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 66-70. Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on maize in sandy soil is expected to have positive implications for the improvement of AMF population and nutrient uptake. However, how many increases in the AMF population and nutrient uptake in the second cycle of a certain cropping system commonly cultivated by the farmers after growing their corn crop have not been examined. Since different cropping systems would indicate different increases in the populations of AMF and nutrient uptake. This study aimed to determine the population AMF and nutrient uptake on the second cropping cycle of corn-based cropping systems which utilized indigenous mycorrhizal fungi on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. For that purpose, an experiment was conducted at the Akar-Akar Village in Bayan Sub-district of North Lombok, designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design, with four replications and six treatments of cropping cycles (P0 = corn-soybean as a control, in which the corn plants were not inoculated with AMF; P1 = corn-soybean, P2 = corn-peanut, P3 = corn-upland rice, P4 = corn-sorghum, and P5 = corn-corn, in which the first cycle corn plants were inoculated with AMF. The results indicated that the mycorrhizal populations (spore number and infection percentage were highest in the second cycle sorghum, achieving 335% and 226% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control. Increased uptake of N, P, K and Ca the sorghum plants at 60 DAS of the second cropping cycle reached 200%; 550%; 120% and 490% higher than in the control. The soil used in this experiment is rough-textured (sandy loam, so it is relatively low in water holding capacity and high porosity.

  5. Monitorization of the waste incinerator effects in an industrial area in the north of Lisbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a sequence of a heavy metal monitoring contract made with IDAD/ValorSul, who is responsible for an urban waste incinerator placed in an industrial area in the north of Lisbon. The area for monitorization involves a 10 km circle around the incinerator. Two collecting procedures were followed: Gent collectors and biomonitorization. Gent collectors have been used since 25th January 1999, in order to sample air particulate matter in three stations situated in the North of Lisbon - Bobadela, S. Joao da Talha and Quinta da Piedade. These collectors allow the separation between fine and coarse particles. The sampling is made twice a week: one weekend day and one midweek day. For biomonitorization two sampling sites were chosen: one at 2 km northwest (upstream) from the incinerator and the other close to the incinerator (a few meters down river). The biomonitors (two different species) were chosen from the local vegetation (in situ). This procedure was started in April 1999. The filters and the plants are analysed by the multielemental nuclear technique Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). A comparison between results obtained by both collecting procedures is presented. (author)

  6. Studies on quality of sub-surface water around tanneries in some areas of north west frontier province (NWFP) Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is a part of our investigations comprising (a) characterization of the tannery/leather industry effluents, (b) assessment of the pollution caused by these effluents to the environment, and (c) development of a simple but economical procedure for the pre-treatment and recycling of these effluents, to recover some valuable materials. In NWFP, the tanning industry has shown a rapid development in the late seventies, during which large-size industrial units were established at Peshawar, Charsadda and Jehangira. Since no pollution control measures are being adopted by these units, the hazards to the environment caused by the effluents and emissions from tanneries pose an acute problem in the country. The studies narrated below indicate that the under-ground water samples around tanneries have high concentrations of TDS, phenols, chromium and sulfides, which render the well-water in the area unsuitable for drinking and domestic uses. (author)

  7. Occurrence and abundance of fruit bats in selected conservation areas of North Cotabato, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion John Michael M. Achondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence and abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae was done in two conservation areas in North Cotabato, Philippines: Portion of the Mt. Apo National Park ; Balabag, Kidapawan City and Cotabato Provincial Forest and Ecotourism Park (CPFEP, Amas, Kidapawan City. Seven species were recorded in CPFEP and six were noted in Balabag area identified from 449 individuals captured. Two species (Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus were unique to CPFEP while one (Ptenochirus minor was found only in Balabag area. A total of eight species were recorded when accounting the species found in two areas in which, three are endemic to the country namely Haplonycteris fischeri, Ptenochirus jagori, and P. minor. Of these endemics, the first two were noted in CPFEP while all were found in Balabag area. More than half of the bats captured were Cynopterus brachyotis hence, considered as the most common species. Remarkable finding was the presence of Megaerops wetmorei, a threatened species, to have found in a new altitudinal record. Considering the importance of fruit bats in regenerating forest, urgent conservation measures are highly recommended.

  8. Solar wind tans young asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    A new study published in Nature this week reveals that asteroid surfaces age and redden much faster than previously thought -- in less than a million years, the blink of an eye for an asteroid. This study has finally confirmed that the solar wind is the most likely cause of very rapid space weathering in asteroids. This fundamental result will help astronomers relate the appearance of an asteroid to its actual history and identify any after effects of a catastrophic impact with another asteroid. ESO PR Photo 16a/09 Young Asteroids Look Old "Asteroids seem to get a ‘sun tan' very quickly," says lead author Pierre Vernazza. "But not, as for people, from an overdose of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, but from the effects of its powerful wind." It has long been known that asteroid surfaces alter in appearance with time -- the observed asteroids are much redder than the interior of meteorites found on Earth [1] -- but the actual processes of this "space weathering" and the timescales involved were controversial. Thanks to observations of different families of asteroids [2] using ESO's New Technology Telescope at La Silla and the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, as well as telescopes in Spain and Hawaii, Vernazza's team have now solved the puzzle. When two asteroids collide, they create a family of fragments with "fresh" surfaces. The astronomers found that these newly exposed surfaces are quickly altered and change colour in less than a million years -- a very short time compared to the age of the Solar System. "The charged, fast moving particles in the solar wind damage the asteroid's surface at an amazing rate [3]", says Vernazza. Unlike human skin, which is damaged and aged by repeated overexposure to sunlight, it is, perhaps rather surprisingly, the first moments of exposure (on the timescale considered) -- the first million years -- that causes most of the aging in asteroids. By studying different families of asteroids, the team has also shown that an asteroid

  9. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  10. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  11. 构建长株潭高校体育专业战略联盟的研究%Research on the Establishment of University Physical Education Major Strategic Alliance in Chang-Zhu-Tan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳红; 刘斌

    2011-01-01

    Establishing strategic alliance of universities can develop the best effect of the resources and improve the core competitiveness of alliance universities.The establishment of the P.E.Major strategic alliance of universities in district of Chang-Zhu-Tan has the advantages of geography,economy and policy as well as the feasible condition of the foreign successful practice,and the development of the information technology and the rules of the exchange of credits.The measurements are given as the following: constructing shared education resources,establishing unified organization and administration,implementing co-approval credit system and building modern net information platform.%构建高校战略联盟可提升联盟院校的核心竞争力,发挥资源的最佳效应。长株潭高校体育专业战略联盟的构建,具备区位与经济优势、政策优势、国内外成功经验的可借鉴性、信息技术的发展、学分互换制度等可行条件,其构建措施有:共建共享教育资源,组建统一的组织管理机构,实施学分互认制,加强建设现代化网络信息平台等。

  12. Lupus cerebritis after visiting a tanning salon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geara, Abdallah S; Torbey, Estelle; El-imad, Badiaa

    2009-01-01

    A 53-year-old female was admitted to the intensive care unit for lupus cerebritis; she had a 15-year history of stable lupus. Over the prior 1 to 2 months, the patient visited a tanning salon and this triggered the exacerbation of lupus. Her initial symptoms were cutaneous in the form of an erythematous rash. Within 2 weeks she started to have headaches and was admitted for seizure and psychosis. Ultraviolet A exposure in the tanning salon is known to exacerbate lupus by modulation of the immune system at the level of the skin. It has also been found that ultraviolet light can lead to the formation of antinuclear antibodies. This case illustrates the need to emphasize the danger of the tanning salon to patients with systemic lupus erythematous; the risk is not only cutaneous, it can also be systemic. PMID:20001946

  13. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  14. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  15. Applicative chemistry of tanning metallic heterocomplexes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaidau, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of heterocomplex compounds is a fascinating field for experts in chemical synthesis and structural analysis, and for technologists specializing in leather processing. This volume describes the vast theoretical and practical possibilities of exploiting the action synergism of metals with different collagen cross-linking capacity. The possibility of reducing chromium content from leather tanning agents by replacing it with other tanning metals has significant environmental implications and minimum changes in terms of quality and production costs of natural leather, and is a viable

  16. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Multimedia

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Pinget, B

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processors modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a\

  17. Mapping Spatial and Temporal Variations of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Peng; WU Wen-bin; TANG Hua-jun; ZHOU Qing-bo; ZOU Jin-qiu; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Leaf area index(LAI)is an important parameter in a number of models related to ecosystem functioning,carbon budgets,climate,hydrology,and crop growth simulation.Mapping and monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of LAI are necessary for understanding crop growth and development at regional level.In this study.the relationships between LAI of winter wheat and Landsat TM spectral vegetation indices(SVIs)were analyzed by using the curve estimation procedure in North China Plain.The series of LAI maps retrieved by the best regression model were used to assess the spatial and temporal Variations of winter wheat LAI.The results indicated that the general relationships between LAI and SVIs were curvilinear,and that the exponential model gave a better fit than the linear model or other nonlinear models for most SVIs.The best regression model was constructed using an exponential model between surface-reflectance-derived difference vegetation index(DVI)and LAI,with the adjusted R2(0.82)and the RMSE(0.77).The TM LAI maps retrieved from DVILAI model showed the significant spatial and temporal variations.The mean TMLAI value(30m)for winter wheat of the study area increased from 1.29(March 7,2004)to 3.43(April 8,2004),with standard deviations of 0.22 and 1.17,respectively.In conclusion,spectral vegetation indices from multi-temporal Landsat TM images can be used to produce fine-resolution LAI maps for winter wheat in North China Plain.

  18. Diversity and conservation status of the herpetofauna for an area from north of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Badillo-Saldaña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation measures currently lack adequate information to assign some species of amphibians and reptiles in the categories of protection. In this study we analyzed and compared the herpetofauna of mountain cloud forest (MCF and tropical evergreen forest (TEF in an area north of Hidalgo. For this study, we conducted fieldwork (24 sites and a literature review. In addition, the conservation status of species was analyzed. The herpetofauna of the municipality of Tepehuacan de Guerrero, Hidalgo, Mexico consists of 70 species (20 amphibians and 50 reptiles, nine of which are historical records that were not found in the present study. Cloud forest was more diverse (39 species than TEF (37 species. There are discrepancies between national and international agencies of conservation regarding the threatened status of these species. The high biodiversity recorded in MCF and TEF in the study area indicates the importance of this area for conservation. In this study, we propose to reassess the conservation category of Hidalgo state herpetofauna.

  19. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Liu

    Full Text Available Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  20. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  1. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(regsign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  2. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336...

  3. Ban on Indoor Tanning by Minors Not Working: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160182.html Ban on Indoor Tanning by Minors Not Working: Study Tanning salon use showed little change after 2013 ban, and rose among N.J. high school boys ...

  4. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Xiaohui [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tang Jianhui, E-mail: jhtang@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Chen Yingjun [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li Jun; Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-12-15

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g{sup -1} dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g{sup -1} dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: > We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. > PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. > Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. > PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. > In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  5. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  6. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  7. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF OXAZOLIDINE-TANNED LEATHER

    OpenAIRE

    V. Segarra; Martínez, M A; Roig, M; Ferrer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chrome tanning is the most widely used technique for leather production, accounting for more than 90% of leather tanned worldwide. This process gives leather excellent physical properties but maypose an impact on the environment. At present, the leather industry is looking for chrome-free tanning processes, more environmentally friendly.The Centre for Technology and Innovation (INESCOP) is researching into the feasibility of oxazolidine tanning in the framework of the project titled ...

  8. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Eaton

    2007-01-18

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) applies to the remedial actions performed under the Final Record of Decision for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (DOE-ID 1999) as amended by the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2003), the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks (TSF-09 and TSF-18) and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks (TSF-26) and TSF-06, Area IO, at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0 (DOE-ID 2004a), and the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2005). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10; and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare-now identified as the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)-signed the Record of Decision (ROD) in December 1999, the 2003 ESD in April 2003, the ROD Amendment/ESD in February 2004, and the 2005 ESD in January 2005. The EPA and DEQ support the need for this ESD.

  9. Modeling four occurred debris flow events in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino

    2016-04-01

    Four occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) are modeled by back-analysis. The four debris flows events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006, at Rovina di Cancia (Belluno) on the 18th of July 2009 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. In all the events, runoff entrained sediments present on natural channels and formed a solid-liquid wave that routed downstream. The first event concerns the routing of debris flow on an inhabited fan. The second event the deviation of debris flow from the usual path due to an obstruction with the excavation of a channel in the scree and the downstream spreading in a wood. The third event concerns the routing of debris flow in a channel with an ending the reservoir, its overtopping and final spreading in the inhabited area. The fourth event concerns the routing of debris flow along the main channel downstream the initiation area until spreading just upstream a village. All the four occurred debris flows are simulated by modeling runoff that entrained debris flow for determining the solid-liquid hydrograph. The routing of the solid-liquid hydrograph is simulated by a bi-phase cell model based on the kinematic approach. The comparison between simulated and measured erosion and deposition depths is satisfactory. Nearly the same parameters for computing erosion and deposition were used for all the four occurred events. The maps of erosion and deposition depths are obtained by comparing the results of post-event surveys with the pre-event DEM. The post-event surveys were conducted by using different instruments (LiDAR and GPS) or the combination photos-single points depth measurements (in this last case it is possible obtaining the deposition/erosion depths by means of stereoscopy techniques).

  10. Structural and Metamorphic Evolution of the Archaean High-pressure Granulite in Datong-Huaian Area, North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Archaean granulite terrain in the Datong-Huaian area, north China, comprises a basement complex of fe lsic and mafic granulite (TTG gneiss), overlain by a sedimentary sequence dominated by metapelite and metapsammite (khondalite series). Both lithological associations are separated by a tectonic

  11. Pleistocene pollen stratigraphy from borehole 81/34, devil's hole area, central north sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Sten R.

    1998-09-01

    Twelve pollen assemblage zones are identified in a 229 m deep borehole (BH 81/34) from the Devil's Hole area in the central North Sea (British sector). The sediment from this borehole is Early to Late Pleistocene in age and the observation of massulae from Azolla filiculoides in sediment with reversed polarity indicates an age younger than the Olduvai geomagnetic event for the entire sequence. The Early Pleistocene sediments were at least partly deposited in the vicinity of a river outlet and can be correlated either with the Eburonian or the Menapian cold stage and with the Bavel interglacial and the Linge glacial within the Bavelian stage in the Dutch stratigraphy. The Middle Pleistocene sequence contains an interval rich in Abies, Picea and Pinus, probably deposited during the end of either Cromerian Complex interglacial IV (Noordbergum) or possibly the Holsteinian. The uppermost 80 m of the core contains high frequencies of pre-Quaternary and deteriorated palynomorphs indicating extensive glacial or glaciofluvially reworked sediment.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome. Diagnosis in women of five doctor's office. North Area. November 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneisy Triana Toledo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The morbility for Metabolic-Syndrome in five doctor's office of the north health area in the municipality Accomplished a descriptive transverse cut investigation in 151 adult women's probabilistic sign to characterize itself Sancti - Spíritus, among 1ro of Noviembre of the 2007 and the November 30 the 2008. Morbility, the antecedent factors personnels of risk and of chronic illnesses were variables gone into no transmissible, they gathered data in a fill-out form, statistical analysis included percentages calculation, parameters esteem and tests them of proportions difference (x2. The main things aftermaths were Metabolic Syndrome prevalence of 33,3 % In the patients with metabolic syndrome the risk factor of chronic illnesses no transmissible that predominate was in order not to accomplish physical activity (96,1 %, her hiperlipidemia (27,3 %, as well as the obesity (24,4 % in this entity's bearers. The antecedent pathological personals for chronic illnesses no transmissible registered hypertension went with 64,7 %.

  13. Profile of Skin Disorders in Unreached Hilly Areas of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dimri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (>18 years constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6% followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%, and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%. Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients’ needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs.

  14. Survey of otomycosis in north- western area of Iran(1447- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Otomycosis(Otitis externa is an acute, subacte or chronic fungal infection that has exogenous or endogenous origin. The present study was carried out to investigate the etiologic agents and determine risk factore and epidemiological aspects of otomycosis in north- West area of Iran.Materials and methods : Clinical samples of suspected patients were studied in direct microscopy and cultured in specific medium for determining the causative fungi.Results : 89 patients; 64 male and 25 female were recruited and studies. The disease were more prevalent in 20- 40 years in both sexes.Identified etiologic agents with direct examination and culture of samples in numerous series were: Aspergillus niger(51 cases, A. terreus(9 cases, A. flavus(7 cases, A Fuminagatus(6 cases, Eurotium( prefect stage of A. glaucus(2 cases, penicillium Sp.(2 cases, Candida albicans(8 cases, Epicoccum Sp.(1 case, Mucor Sp. (1 case, Rhizopus Sp.(1 case and Microsporum canis(1 case.Conclusion : Saprophytic moulds were the main etiologic agent of Otomycosis and Aspergillus niger was the prime causaltive agent. Infection in 20 –40 year age group was the most prevalent and Otomycosis among females was determined more than male. This report has provided useful information on the prevalence, causative agents and health implications of Otomycosis, as an infection grossly neglected in enviroment.

  15. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Fowler, T; Pinget, B

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processor modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a state where rapid degradation would occur. Above this level an interlock is raised and the high voltage is switched off. Additionally, all spark si...

  16. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. PMID:25897728

  17. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  18. Ultrasound assisted chrome tanning: Towards a clean leather production technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Embialle; Smets, Ilse; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for a cleaner, but still effective alternative for production processes like in the leather industry. Ultrasound (US) assisted processing of leather might be promising in this sense. In the present paper, the use of US in the conventional chrome tanning process has been studied at different pH, temperature, tanning time, chrome dose and US exposure time by exposing the skin before tanning and during tanning operation. Both prior exposure of the skin to US and US during tanning improves the chrome uptake and reduces the shrinkage significantly. Prior exposure of the skin to US increase the chrome uptake by 13.8% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 5% (% based on skin weight) and shorten the process time by half while US during tanning increases the chrome uptake by 28.5% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 4% (half) and the tanning time to one third compared to the control without US. Concomitantly, the resulting leather quality (measured as skin shrinkage) improved from 5.2% to 3.2% shrinkage in the skin exposed to US prior tanning and to 1.3% in the skin exposed to US during the tanning experiment. This study confirms that US chrome tanning is an effective and eco-friendly tanning process which can produce a better quality leather product in a shorter process time with a lower chromium dose. PMID:27150762

  19. Ultrasound assisted chrome tanning: Towards a clean leather production technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Embialle; Smets, Ilse; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for a cleaner, but still effective alternative for production processes like in the leather industry. Ultrasound (US) assisted processing of leather might be promising in this sense. In the present paper, the use of US in the conventional chrome tanning process has been studied at different pH, temperature, tanning time, chrome dose and US exposure time by exposing the skin before tanning and during tanning operation. Both prior exposure of the skin to US and US during tanning improves the chrome uptake and reduces the shrinkage significantly. Prior exposure of the skin to US increase the chrome uptake by 13.8% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 5% (% based on skin weight) and shorten the process time by half while US during tanning increases the chrome uptake by 28.5% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 4% (half) and the tanning time to one third compared to the control without US. Concomitantly, the resulting leather quality (measured as skin shrinkage) improved from 5.2% to 3.2% shrinkage in the skin exposed to US prior tanning and to 1.3% in the skin exposed to US during the tanning experiment. This study confirms that US chrome tanning is an effective and eco-friendly tanning process which can produce a better quality leather product in a shorter process time with a lower chromium dose.

  20. Biodegradation of leather tanned with inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of leather tanned with inorganic salts. The samples of leather were exposed during eight months to outdoor weathering, and then their properties were evaluated. The results indicate that biodegration starts with dehydration, a partial scission of the protein chain of the collagen, detanning and a loss of oils due to volatilization and/or decomposition.

  1. Methane emission and consumption at a North Sea gas seep (Tommeliten area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The North Sea hosts large coal, oil and gas reservoirs of commercial value. Natural leakage pathways of subsurface gas to the hydrosphere have been recognized during geological surveys (Hovland and Judd, 1988. The Tommeliten seepage area is part of the Greater Ekofisk area, which is situated above the Tommeliten Delta salt diapir in the central North Sea. In this study, we report of an active seep site (56°29.90'N, 2°59.80'E located in the Tommeliten area, Norwegian Block 1/9, at 75 m water depth. Here, cracks in a buried marl horizon allow methane to migrate into overlying clay-silt and sandy sediments. Hydroacoustic sediment echosounding showed several venting spots coinciding with the apex of marl domes where methane is released into the water column and potentially to the atmosphere during deep mixing situations. In the vicinity of the gas seeps, sea floor observations showed small mats of giant sulphide-oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments and carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDACs contain 13C-depleted, archaeal lipids indicating previous gas seepage and AOM activity. High amounts of sn2-hydroxyarchaeol relative to archaeol and low abundances of biphytanes in the crusts give evidence that ANaerobic MEthane-oxidising archaea (ANME of the phylogenetic cluster ANME-2 were the potential mediators of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM at the time of carbonate formation. Small pieces of MDACs were also found subsurface at about 1.7 m sediment depth, associated with the Sulphate-Methane Transition Zone (SMTZ. The SMTZ of Tommeliten is characterized by elevated AOM and Sulphate Reduction (SR rates, increased concentrations of 13C-depleted tetraether derived biphytanes, and specific bacterial Fatty Acids (FA. Further biomarker and 16S rDNA based analyses give evidence that AOM at the Tommeliten SMTZ

  2. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure. This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established. Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man?s activities may play a role in faulting as well. Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  3. The Finding and Phylogenetic Evolution Analysis of Bovine Piroplasms in the Rasŏn Area of North Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-jun; ZHANG Shou-fa; CAO Shi-nuo; QIAN Nian-chao; YU Long-zheng; XUAN Xue-nan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of bovine Piroplasms infections in the Rasŏn area of North Korea. The survey was carried out by light microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and phylogenetic evolution analysis of 128 blood samples collected from the Rasŏn area. The results showed that the infection rates of the small and large parasites were about 2.5 and 1.5% on average, respectively, in all Theileria sergenti and Babesia ovata-positive blood smears by microscopic examination of blood smears. The detection rate of T. sergenti Giemsa-stained smears was 43.75%, while that with PCR was 67.97%. The detection rate of B. ovata Giemsa-stained smears was 49.21%, while that with PCR was 71.88%. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA showed 98.84%homology between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. sergenti isolates from North Korean and that of Yanbian state from China, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. Moreover, 100%homology was shown between the 18S rRNA gene sequence of B. ovata isolates from North Korea and the published sequence AY081192 of GenBank, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. This survey confirmed that Rasŏn is the endemic area of T. sergenti and B. ovata in North Korea.

  4. Pollution and energy management in tanning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanning industry uses a number of chemicals such as Common Salt, Lime (Calcium Hydroxide), Sodium Sulfide and Basic Chromium Sulfate etc. During process, only a part of the chemical is consumed and the rest ends up in the effluent as pollutant. This paper deals with the techniques, locally developed or published in literature to recycle these chemicals and also discusses some energy saving techniques which can be used in tanning industry. Basic Chromium Sulfate (BCS) is one of the expensive chemicals used in 'Chrome Tanning'. By precipitating d filtering basic chromium sulfate, the recovery is nearly complete and the effluent obtained contains less than 1ppm Chromium. Dried raw hides contain up to 15% sodium chloride (w/w) and this can be removed in solid form by using mechanical brushes and can be re-used. The recovered salt contains foreign matter as impurities. After dissolution in water, the salt solution is filtered through cartridge filters and can be used in pickle bath. Liming slurry containing sodium sulfide is wasted as it contains fleshing and hair etc. A self cleaning 'J' type screen has no moving parts and removes fleshing and hair from the lime suspension. 'Counter Current Washing Technique,' reduces the wash water quantity by a factor of five to six. Air born pollution generated during buffing and dyeing can be captured by properly designed air filters. The solvents released in atmosphere during dyeing and finishing can be recovered by absorption. Fat, gelatin and protein can be recovered from waste fleshing. In tanning industry, drying of hides is the major consumer of thermal energy. Hot air can be produced by steam, hot water or solar energy. Advantages and disadvantages of these options are discussed. Wastage of thermal energy in dryers can be reduced by improving the existing designs. Hot water for tanning purposes can be generated by recovering waste heat present in the boiler flue gases. Boiler efficiency can also be improved by cycling heat

  5. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  6. Accumulation of Cr by plants in tanning sludge storage sites: opportunities for contamination bioindication and phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of appropriate disposal strategies of tanning sludge (e.g., uncontrolled landfills and disposing sludge to open areas) has led to severe Cr pollution in waters and soils in many developing countries. Excessive Cr can be highly toxic to many living organisms and may damage the ecosystem. In ...

  7. Color Shaded-relief TIFF Image of High-resolution Bathymetry, North Carolina, Pamlico Sound Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  8. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  9. Evaluation and Intercomparison of MODIS and GEOV1 Global Leaf Area Index Products over Four Sites in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenwang Li; Huan Tang; Baohui Zhang; Guixia Yang; Xiaoping Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and GEOLAND2 Version 1 (GEOV1) Leaf Area Index (LAI) products using ground measurements and LAI reference maps over four sites in North China for 2011–2013. The Terra + Aqua MODIS and Terra MODIS LAI retrieved by the main algorithm and GEOV1 LAI within the valid range were evaluated and intercompared using LAI reference maps to assess their uncertainty and seasonal variability The results sho...

  10. Sulphides balance in tanning leather district in Tuscany: evaluation of H{sub 2}S emissions and estimation of their impact on the air quality of the area; Bilancio dei solfuri nel comprensorio del cuoio: valutazione delle emissioni di dirogeno solforato e del loro impatto sulla qualita' dell'aria della zona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campi, B.; De Blasi, E.; Vanni, D.; Scali, C. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali; Spinazzola, A. [ARPAT-Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale della Toscana, Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione Ambientale, Sez. locale di San Romano

    2000-09-01

    The paper deals with an evaluation of hydrogen sulphide emissions from leather tanning industries and water purification plants in the leather district in Tuscany. The aim of the work is to correlate different sources emissions of the area with pollutant concentrations recorded by the monitoring network. Global quantities of treated substances, different plants typologies and operating mode, have been considered, following the indications of the ARPAT's archives. This analysis, updated to 1998, gives interesting information about the trend of emissions and their weight on air quality: the effect of tanning leather industries emissions during the 'pickel' operation results greater than the average purification plants contribution to air quality, even if, cause of the high quantity of treated sulphides, the weight of purification plants remains important. The trend of measured concentration of pollutant in air shows a clear improvement of air quality during last three years (1997-199). [Italian] L'articolo presenta una valutazione delle emissioni di idrogeno sulforato da aziende conciarie e da impianti di trattamento delle acque reflue industriali nel comprensorio del cuoio. in Toscano. Lo scopo dell'indagine e' quello di valutare la possibilita' di correlare le emissioni delle diverse sorgenti della zona con i valori di concentrazione di inquinante al suolo rilevati dlla rete di monitoraggio. La valutazione tiene conto delle quantita' complessive di sostanze lavorate, delle diverse tipologie degli impianti e del loro stato di funzionamento, secondo quanto risulta dai dati contenuti nell'archivio dell'ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale della Toscana). L'analisi aggiornata al 1998, fornisce indicazioni circa l'andamento dei fenomeni emissivi ed il loro peso sulla qualita' dell'aria. In particolare si evidenzia come l'effetto delle emissioni dalle aziende conciarie durante l

  11. Reaction of the nitroxyl radical TAN with glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence for a stoichiometric reaction between 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl (TAN) and glutathione (GSH) in vitro has been provided by the results of e.s.r., spectrophotometric and enzymatic measurements. The addition of TAN to a suspension of isolated hepatocytes resulted in a rapid reduction in cellular GSH. Possible mechanisms are discussed. The results are in accordance with the rapid in vivo degradation of TAN. (U.K.)

  12. Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical...... systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA...

  13. "Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Tavakoli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.37-40, 2003 Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran *HR Tavakoli 1,V Razavilar 2 1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Hygiene,School of public health, Baghyatollah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Dept. of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University , Iran Clostridium botulinum has long been recognized as an etiological agent of food borne botulism and has been reported as an important food safety hazard. The aim of this study was to obtain information about C. botulinum distribution in north areas sediments of Iran in order to ascertain the risks associated with consumption and processing of fish from these waters. Two hundred and seventy samples of sediments from coastal areas of "Gilan" and "Mazandaran" provinas of Iran were collected and analyzed. The supernatants were inoculated into cooked meat media and then , grown specimens were stained and cheked microscopically. After centrifuge ,the supernatants were divided into three (untreated ,heated , and tripsinised and toxicity of them were tested by mouse bioassay. All mice controlled for 4 days for symptoms of botulism. Monovalent standard antitoxins were used for detection of toxin type. The present study revealed that the prevalence of C. botulinum (types A, B and E in sediments from different areas of Gillan and Mazandaran was 3.6% and 4.6% respectively, Mean prevalence of C. botulinum in sediments from north regions of Iran was 4.1%. It is also demonstrated that C. botulinum type E is predominant type seen in aquatic environments of the coastal areas of Iran. This is the first report of C. botulinum distribution in the sediments coastal areas of Iran. Introduction *Corresponding author: +98 21 4811483

  14. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  15. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices.

  16. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. PMID:23683987

  17. Indoor tanning by adolescents: prevalence, practices and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovich, DeAnn; Forster, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Despite known acute and chronic health effects from the use of indoor tanning, including the potential for all forms of skin cancer, the practice is popular in the United States (US) and Europe. A review of the scientific literature that examines adolescents and indoor tanning use was undertaken, summarising what is known about prevalence and practices among adolescents, characteristics associated with adolescent use, and policies that regulate adolescent access to indoor tanning facilities. The prevalence of indoor tanning is consistently found to be higher among girls than boys and to increase with age in both Europe and the US. An examination of other demographic characteristics, skin cancer risk factors, knowledge, attitudes and social factors points to higher prevalence of the behaviour among adolescents with positive attitudes towards tans and whose friends or parents also tan indoors. Adolescent access to indoor tanning is rarely regulated in the US or Europe, and where regulations exist, business compliance is low. In addition, businesses actively market their product to adolescents as they organise to limit further regulations prohibiting adolescent access. Pricing, licensure, advertising restrictions and media campaigns, in combination with adolescent-targeted interventions, are possible strategies that could be tested for their effectiveness to reduce adolescent indoor tanning use. Harm reduction policies, such as eye protection, that reduce risk for adolescents who choose to tan indoors, are also important.

  18. Open-Country Poverty in a Relatively Affluent Area - The East North Central States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwilliams, Jeanette

    Poverty among open-country households in the East North Central States (11%) was slightly above the incidence found among U.S. whites in general. Incidence of poverty was greatest among the aged, disabled, and small farmers of all ages who made farming their major source of earnings. Of the respondent households in this 1967 survey, 87% had…

  19. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Puget Sound to the west and Lake Washington to the east, which limits transportation options. This dense... Lynnwood in Snohomish County, Washington. The EIS will also be prepared in accordance with Washington's... major north-south route through Washington State and serves a large commuter market traveling...

  20. Energy and mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the area of winter polynya to the north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Boris; Wesman, Anna; Sviashchennikov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The warm inflow of the West Spitsbergen Current keeps waters ice-free in winter to the north of Svalbard, an area also called the Whalers Bay. Here we present results of the winter expedition in the Arctic Ocean to the north of Svalbard on board a research vessel «Helmer Hanssen» in January 2012. The characteristics of the turbulent energy and mass exchange are calculated using an algorithm, which is based on semi-empirical theory of "Monin-Obukhov", adapted to the conditions of marine meteorological observations. The results are compared with the data obtained in this area in February 1986 on board Russian research icebreaker "Otto Schmidt". The features of energy-mass exchange are explained by synoptic and ice conditions in the study area. Intense heat and mass exchange in the area leads to enhanced convective mixing and, thus, upwelling of nutrients to surface waters that can contribute to higher biological activity in the area throughout the food web.

  1. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  2. Middle Holocene warm period and sea level high in coastal areas,North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guanglan; HAN Yousong; WANG Shaoqing

    2005-01-01

    Relevant geological, geographical, archaeological data were collected to study the characteristics of middle Holocene warm period and sea level high on North China coast. Middle Holocene climate and sea level change on North China coast were correlated to warm marine environment events in about 8-3 ka B.P. The sea level in about 8 ka B.P. was higher than present mean sea level, then fluctuated for 5 000 years and after that it became even in 3 ka B.P. The highest sea level occurred in about 6-5 ka B.P.; the maximum was about 2-3 m and minimum was about 1-2 m.

  3. The source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoil in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, North of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Le; Wang, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Dong, Yi-Hui; Du, Bin; Liao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-12-01

    31 topsoil samples were collected by grid method in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan City, North of China. The concentrations of 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrum. Generally speaking, the distribution order of PAHs in the area is: those with five and six rings > those with four rings > those with two and three rings. Source apportionment shows a significant zonation of the source of PAHs: the civil coal pollution occurred in the north part, the local and far factory pollution happened in the middle area and the mixed pollution sources from coal and wood combustion, automotive emission, presented in the south area. The distribution of PAHs has a definite relationship with the sewage water flow and soil adsorption. The related coefficient between PAHs and physicochemical property showed there was a negative correlation between pH, silt, clay and PAHs while there was a positive correlation between total organic carbon, sand and PAHs. PMID:25139034

  4. Leisure and tourism behaviour in rural areas in the North West Province / Victor S. Mogajane

    OpenAIRE

    Mogajane, Victor Solomon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine ways in which the accessibility of leisure and tourism behaviour patterns can be improved to ultimately improve the quality of life of people in rural communities in the North West Province. In order to achieve this it was necessary to indicate the holistic perspective of the tourism industry, with special reference to rural tourism and also the holistic perspective on leisure provision in South Africa. This study is important to addre...

  5. EEG CHARACTERISTICS AND THYROID PROFILE RATIO IN ADOLESCENTS OF SUBPOLAR AND POLAR EUROPEAN NORTH AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    D. B. Demin; L. V. Poskotinova; Ye. V. Krivonogova

    2013-01-01

    Features of brain bioelectric activity and thyroid system in adolescents living in Subpolar andPolar regionsof the North are considered. Hyperactivity of subcortical diencephalic brain structures in adolescents of the Polar region is revealed. Adolescents of Subpolar region have more intensive age optimization of neurodynamic processes. There are noted latitude distinctions of thyroid hormones role for age formation of brain bioelectric activity in adolescents.

  6. EEG CHARACTERISTICS AND THYROID PROFILE RATIO IN ADOLESCENTS OF SUBPOLAR AND POLAR EUROPEAN NORTH AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Demin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of brain bioelectric activity and thyroid system in adolescents living in Subpolar andPolar regionsof the North are considered. Hyperactivity of subcortical diencephalic brain structures in adolescents of the Polar region is revealed. Adolescents of Subpolar region have more intensive age optimization of neurodynamic processes. There are noted latitude distinctions of thyroid hormones role for age formation of brain bioelectric activity in adolescents.

  7. Knowledge and psychomotor skills of nursing students in North Cyprus in the area of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dal, Umran; Sarpkaya, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Objective : The aim of the study was to determine the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skill levels of nursing students in North Cyprus. Methods : The study design was quasi-experimental and longitudinal. A questionnaire was applied to the students before the CPR lecture. Then the students were informed about adult CPR by the researchers and all of the students practiced CPR on a Resusci-Anne manikin. One and six months after this training the same questionnaire and skills ch...

  8. Tracing back nutrients from Southern North Sea eutrophicated areas up to the watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulière, Valérie; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Luyten, Patrick; Lacroix, Geneviève

    2015-04-01

    The Southern North Sea faces eutrophication problems. They result from growing anthropogenic pressure in the river watersheds, and subsequent increase in nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) loading to the sea. Establishing the link between human activities and eutrophication problems requires the identification of the major nutrient sources and the ecological response of the coastal ecosystem to these nutrient alterations. This information is crucial to mitigate eutrophication in coastal zones by applying appropriate dual-nutrient reduction strategies, therefore achieving the Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020. The marine biogeochemical model (MIRO&CO) has been coupled to a newly developed generic watershed model (PyNuts) based on Riverstrahler model. A nutrient tracking approach has been adapted and implemented in MIRO&CO. The transboundary nutrient transport method has been used to track the nutrients in the sea, and trace back their sources (river, ocean, and atmosphere). Here, the relative contributions of the different nutrient sources will be presented. Results show that the nitrogen contribution from atmospheric deposition is not negligible and that the nutrients released by French rivers reach the Southern North Sea in significant proportions. This work has done in the framework of the EMoSEM EU project (http://www.odnature.be/emosem/) that aims at providing support to eutrophication management in the North Atlantic Ocean, using state-of-the-art modelling tools.

  9. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  10. Wet skins tanning with chromium in dense CO2 under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ancestral gesture steadily improved through the centuries, the transformation of skins into leather includes several stages of which the principal one is tanning. Today, 90 % of the world's leather products are tanned with chromium. However, this stage is an environmental liability, and reducing the volume and chromium content of the waste has become a major issue. A first study on skin degreasing by dense CO2 helped sharply reduce the volume of the fatty effluents. To replace water by dense CO2 as the tanning medium was the logical next step. The present study was carried out in cooperation with three tanneries in the Rhone-Alpes-Auvergne area of France and a manufacturer of tanning materials. The difficulty of the study was the chemically opposed character of the two media involved. CO2 is a non-polar and lipophilic solvent while inorganic chromium is insoluble. The water present in the treated skin is a polar and ionic reaction medium and one of the reagents in tanning chemistry. The mixture of these two partially miscible compounds gives a pH 3 by carbonic acid formation. Tanning is based on the reactivity of collagen, the main component of the skin, with hydroxylated complexes of chromium. Collagen is a protein containing some chemical functions, amines (R-NH2) and carboxylic (R-COOH) for example. These functions impart an amphoteric character to the compound. The WERNER theory of complex salts explains the formation of hydroxylated complexes of chromium and their fixing on the carboxylic functions of collagen by oxolation. pH is the key parameter in tanning. The success of the process demands chromium impregnation without fixing it at a pH lower than 5, and then to fix it by increasing the pH. This opened two alternatives for transferring chromium in the skin: solubilize chromium in CO2 via soluble organometallic complexes; or put the chromium salt into suspension without solubilizing it. The best results were obtained with the second option, which is

  11. Definition of $\\tan\\beta$ beyond tree-level

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Youichi

    1996-01-01

    We study the relation between different renormalization schemes for the parameter $\\tan\\beta$ in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. The contributions of the third-generation quark-squark loops to the differences between $\\tan\\beta$'s in several schemes are discussed. Their numerical differences are typically within several %.

  12. Tan's distributions and Fermi-Huang pseudopotential in momentum space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    form of the Fourier-transformed pseudopotential remains very simple. Operator forms for the so-called Tan's selectors, which, together with Fermi-Huang pseudopotential, largely simplify the derivation of Tan's universal relations for the Fermi gas, are here derived and are also very simple. A momentum...

  13. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on... providing guidance on the indoor tanning services excise tax imposed by the Patient Protection...

  14. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking by... tanning services excise tax imposed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These...

  15. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  16. Dynamics of Drying in Phenolically Tanned Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F. V. Vincent

    2004-01-01

    The cuticle of a maggot goes through a mechanical transition when it dries, increasing in stiffness by about an order of magnitude (e. g. from 0.5 GPa to 5 GPa) as the water content drops from about 1 g/g (weight of water per unit dry weight) to 0.4 g/g. Thus stiffness represents the loss of freezable water and is more or less diagnostic of a material stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Further loss in water results in a smaller increase in stiffness. In natural systems the water content is controlled by the addition of phenolic residues, resulting in tanning or sclerotisation, which drives the matrix components towards co-operative interaction and makes the material permanently waterproof.

  17. Tanning beds: Impact on health, and recent regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Lauren M; Lim, Henry W

    2016-01-01

    As the use of indoor tanning beds gained popularity in the decades after their appearance in the market in the early 1970s, concerns arose regarding their use. Clinical research has revealed an association between indoor tanning and several health risks, including the subsequent occurrence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers, the development of psychologic dependence, and a tendency toward other high-risk health behaviors. In the face of mounting evidence, legislation has been passed, which includes the restriction of access to tanning beds by minors in 42 states and the District of Columbia, and the recent reclassification by the Food and Drug Administration, which now categorizes tanning beds as class II devices and worthy of restrictions and oversight. Early evidence suggests that these labors are resulting in cultural change, although continued efforts are necessary to limit further exposure and better inform the public of the dangers associated with indoor tanning use. PMID:27638445

  18. PS2-26: Development of Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Use of Indoor Tanning: The Talking Tanning and Teens Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rolnick, Cheri J; Jackson, Jody; Lazovich, DeAnn; Choi, Kelvin; Southwell, Brian; Forster, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Background: Use of indoor tanning devices has been associated with a range of adverse effects including burns, corneal damage, premature wrinkling, as well as melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Indoor tanning is a common behavior among females and many begin use during adolescence. Interventions that target teens and parents to decrease use are lacking.

  19. Does the Portrayal of Tanning in Australian Women's Magazines Relate to Real Women's Tanning Beliefs and Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen G.; Warne, Charles D.; Scully, Maree L.; Wakefield, Melanie A.; Dobbinson, Suzanne J.

    2011-01-01

    Content analysis data on the tans of 4,422 female Caucasian models sampled from spring and summer magazine issues were combined with readership data to generate indices of potential exposure to social modeling of tanning via popular women's magazines over a 15-year period (1987 to 2002). Associations between these indices and cross-sectional…

  20. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SEASONAL SLEEP CHANGE AND INDOOR TANNING1,2

    OpenAIRE

    CULNAN, ELIZABETH; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Darlow, Susan; Heckman, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for indoor tanning may ultimately aid the development of better indoor tanning prevention strategies, which is pertinent given the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. This study aimed to examine the relationship between seasonal sleep change and indoor tanning. Women tanners (N= 139) completed self-report measures including items relating to seasonal sleep changes, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), reasons for tanning, tanning during the winter ...

  1. Research Status of Chrome-free Tanning%铬鞣剂的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亮亮; 李鹏; 侯宏波; 李宁宁; 陈磊; 李琛

    2011-01-01

    介绍了无铬金属鞣剂、植物鞣剂、改性戊二醛鞣剂、嗯唑烷鞣剂、有机膦鞣剂、纳米鞣剂等无铬鞣剂的研究现状和应用前景。%The chrome-free tanning agents, such as inorganic compounds tanning agent, vegetable tanning agent, modified glutaraldehyde tanning agent, oxzaolidine tanning agent, organic phosphonium tanning agents and nano-tanning agents, were introduced in this paper. And, the current research and application prospect of chrome-free tanning agent were discussed.

  2. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jinghui

    2001-01-01

    -pressure granulites and amphibolite from Sanggan area, North China craton, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(2): 106-110.[10]Guo. J. H, Zhai M. G., Li, Y. G. et al., Isotopic ages and their tectonic significance of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the early Precambrian granulite belt, North China craton, in Geological Evolution of the Granulite Terrane in North Part of the North China Craton (eds. Qian, X., Wang, R.), Beijing: Seismolgical Press, 1994, 130-144.[11]Wang, J., Lu, S. N., Li, H. M., Isotope ages of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the Inner Mongolia, Bulletin of Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (in Chinese with English abstract), 1995, 29: 1-76.[12]Wu, C. H., Li, H. M., Zhong, C. T. et al,, The ages of zircon and rutile (cooling) from Khondalite in Huangtuyao, Inner Mongolia, Geological Review (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 44(6): 618-626.[13]Zhao, Z. P et al., Precambrian Crustal Evolution of Sino-Korean Paraplateform (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1994,444.[14]Dirks, P. H. G. M., Zhang, J. S., Passchier, C. W., Exhumation of high-pressure granulites and the role of lower crustal advection in the North China craton near Datong, J. Struct. Geol., 1997, 19: 1343-1358.[15]Zhang, J. Sh., Dirks, P. H, G., Passchier, C. W., Extensional collapse and uplift in a polymetamorphic granulite terrain in the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic of north China, Precambrian Res., 1994, 67: 37-57.[16]Li. J. H.. Zhai, M. G., Qian, X. L. et al., The geological occurrence, regional tectonic setting and exhumation of late Archaean high-pressure granulite with the high-grade metamorphic terranes, north to central portion of North China craton.Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 14: 176-189.[17]Lu, L. Z., Xu, X. C., Liu, F. L., Early Precambrian Khondalite Series in North China (in Chinese with English abstract),Changchun: Changchun Press, 1996, 276.[18]Yan, Y. H.. Liu, W. J., Discussion

  3. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  4. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200μm up to 1000μm size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.68±0.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.23±0.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20μm are not able to translocate into the tissues. PMID:26456303

  5. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages are reported for three samples of intrusive rocks in Khondalite series in the Sanggan area, North China craton. The age of meta-granite is dated as 2005±9 Ma, implying that the sedimentary sequences in Khondalites series formed before 2.0Ga. The age of 1921 ±1Ma for the meta-diorite constrain the age of granulite facies metamorphism younger than this date. The age of 1892±10 Ma for garnet granite is obtained, but the granite crystallization age seems a little younger than the date considering the morphology of zircons. On the basis of these dates and of a concise review of previous age data, it is inferred that the Khondalite series was subjected to granulite facies metamorphism at about 1.87Ga together with tonalitic granulites and HP basic granulites in the Sanggan area.

  6. Dengue fever Potential Area at Pademangan Barat Sub District, North Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri E. B. Soesilo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease that contagious by Aedes aegypti mosquito’s bites. Anybody could infectious by this illness, without differentiate their sex, age, social status, and economic status as well. Nevertheless, at slum area, where mosquito’s larva is easy to find, the number of infectious people is presuming high. By using primary data and analyze with geography information system (GIS, the study found that the number of infectious people of dengue fever do not have any positive correlation with larva amount, that was monitored through clean water in the surrounding neighborhood area. The number of infectious people have correlation with the dirty areas that caused by the piling of used articles and inundate area. Gender and age do not have any influence with the number of infectious people.

  7. Possible volcanic structures near Olympia Undae, North circumpolar area of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bayton, M.; Tréguier, E.; Herraiz, M.; Martin, P.; Schmidt, F.; Witasse, O.

    2011-10-01

    The work presented here is a study of structures encountered in the area bordering the Olympia Undae dune sea (Fig. 1). Various structures have been observed in this area, such as cones and domes [6] (whose origin may be volcanic), impact craters, etc. These structures are particularly difficult to characterize because of their relatively small size and the occasional occurrence of a sediment cover. This study is mainly based on data from Mars Express (HRSC imagery) and Mars Global Surveyor (MOLA altimetry data).

  8. Water-quality trends for streams and reservoirs in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, 1983-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, C.J.; Bathala, Neeti

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data, collected from 1983 to 1995, were analyzed for 34 stream and reservoir sites in a seven- county region within the upper Neuse and upper Cape Fear River Basins. Early data (1983-88) were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey water- quality studies and from the ambient water-quality monitoring network of the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, metals, trace elements, and synthetic organic compounds were compiled from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1988 to 1995 as part of a continuing project to monitor the water quality of surface-water supplies in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, and from the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources ambient water-quality monitoring network. This report presents the results of analysis of consistently increasing or decreasing trends in concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species, suspended sediment, suspended solids, sodium, chloride, iron, manganese, zinc, and chlorophyll a from seasonal Kendall trend analysis on flow-adjusted concentrations for streams and concentrations in lakes. Total phosphorus concentrations also were tested for a step decrease in concentration (step trend) associated with the North Carolina phosphate-detergent ban of 1988. For some other constituents, insufficient data or values below laboratory detection limits precluded trend analysis. A regionwide decrease in total phosphorus, ranging from 25 to 81 percent was observed that coincided with increased phosphorus removal efforts at municipal wastewater-treatment facilities in the region and the statewide phosphate-detergent ban. Most sites had stable or decreasing trends in nitrogen concentrations; however, increasing trends occurred in the Neuse River near Clayton and at Smithfield, both of which are downstream from the developing Raleigh-Durham area. Chlorophyll a

  9. Electrifying reviews of the central North Sea area; Elektrisifiseringsvurderinger for midtre Nordsjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husdal, Geir

    2012-06-15

    We conducted a site evaluation of power from land to several fields in the central North Sea. The findings are included Dagny, Edvard Grieg, Draupne and Johan Sverdrup. In addition, an unidentified future field is included in the evaluation. Unclassified cost estimates have been prepared and measures cost is calculated for a main concept based on a set of assumptions and suppositions. To check the robustness of the results and to identify which parameters the results are most sensitive to, we conducted sensitivity analyzes in which key assumptions are changed. The study shows a cost of Nok 412 Nok / tonne reduction in Co2 emissions. This is slightly higher than the sum of the current Co2 tax and quota price, but lower than the Co2 cost proposed in the white paper. Sensitivity calculations show that the cost of measures is very sensitive to investment costs, future energy demand and the price difference between gas sold on the continent and electricity from the grid in Norway. (eb)

  10. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  11. The impact of indoor tanning legislation: newspaper coverage of the risks of indoor tanning before and after the California indoor tanning ban for minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jonathan E; Swetter, Susan M; Guild, Samantha; Geller, Alan C

    2015-03-01

    On June 1, 2011, the California Senate passed a bill banning minors from indoor tanning. We aimed to determine whether the bill's passage was associated with longer-term media coverage regarding skin protection and the risks associated with indoor tanning. Articles from 31 English-language California newspapers between June 2010-May 2011 (PRE) and June 2011-May 2012 (POST) were searched using terms related to skin protection. Ninety articles were found for in-depth coding and analysis. There were more skin protection articles in the POST period than in the PRE period (57 vs 33; p < .05). In addition, there were more POST articles mentioning the risks of indoor tanning (33 vs 10; p < .001), and a POST article was more likely to mention the risks (58 vs 30%; p < .05). The higher number of POST articles mentioning the risks persisted throughout all quarters. Therefore, the California indoor tanning ban was associated with increased longer-term news coverage of skin protection and the risks associated with indoor tanning. This finding has potential influence on the many states that are considering comparable legislation.

  12. Historical aphasia cases: "Tan-tan", "Vot-vot", and "Cré nom!"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe three cases of aphasia in patients who were internationally famous historical personalities, such as the case of Mr. Leborgne ("Tan" published by Paul Broca in 1861, which became a reference for the study of aphasias. The other cases described here are those of the Russian revolutionary and politician Vladimir Ilyitch Ulianov (Lenin ("Vot-vot" and the French poet Charles Baudelaire ("Cré nom!". Besides their historical relevance and the clinical picture of aphasia, these three cases share as a common feature the occurrence of speech automatisms or stereotypes.

  13. Historical aphasia cases: "Tan-tan", "Vot-vot", and "Cré nom!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; Caramelli, Paulo

    2011-06-01

    We describe three cases of aphasia in patients who were internationally famous historical personalities, such as the case of Mr. Leborgne ("Tan") published by Paul Broca in 1861, which became a reference for the study of aphasias. The other cases described here are those of the Russian revolutionary and politician Vladimir Ilyitch Ulianov (Lenin) ("Vot-vot") and the French poet Charles Baudelaire ("Cré nom!"). Besides their historical relevance and the clinical picture of aphasia, these three cases share as a common feature the occurrence of speech automatisms or stereotypes.

  14. Morphological changes at Mt. Etna detected by TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmuller, Urs; Bonforte, Alessandro; De Beni, Emanuela; Guglielmino, Francesco; Strozzi, Tazio

    2014-05-01

    We produced a DEM of the Mt. Etna volcano using TanDEM-X data collected on October 9, 2012. The TanDEM-X data were acquired in bistatic mode with TSX as master sensor and TDX as receive only sensor. The pre-existing SRTM DEM was used for geometrical reference (geocoding, initial height model, large scale reference). The interferogram was computed with 4 looks in range and 4 looks in azimuth. After compensation of the SRTM heights, the differential TanDEM-X interferogram looked overall quite flat but showed local deviations related to noise (e.g. over the sea), topographic effects related to the low resolution of the SRTM DEM, and deviations related to actual changes of the topography, as observed in the Mount Etna peak region. After phase unwrapping, addressed with a minimum-cost flow algorithm and slight spatial filtering, the unwrapped phases were converted to relative heights. In order to move to absolute heights the SRTM height reference was used under the assumption that the deviation from the SRTM DEM is zero at large scale and without any linear trend. Finally, the height model was resampled into geographical coordinates. In the framework of the MED-SUV project, and thanks to the availability of a dense GPS network of more than 100 benchmarks periodically measured by INGV_OE, the TanDEM-X model has been validated. By computing the difference of the elevations provided by TanDEM-X with those measured by GPS we obtained a mean difference of 0.7 m and a standard deviation of 5.2 m. These values are biased by a few GPS benchmarks located in steep areas unfavorable illuminated by the radar. Without considerations of the two more unfavorable GPS stations, the height mean difference and a standard deviation are 0.6 m and 4.3 m respectively. We also performed correlation analyses of the height differences with respect to topography, latitude and longitude and we could exclude any elevation-related errors or geometrical ramp distortions. In the following, we compared

  15. Seismic tomography of the area of the 2010 Beni-Ilmane earthquake sequence, north-central Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacha, Issam; Koulakov, Ivan; Semmane, Fethi; Yelles-Chaouche, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    The region of Beni-Ilmane (District of M'sila, north-central Algeria) was the site of an earthquake sequence that started on 14 May 2010. This sequence, which lasted several months, was triggered by conjugate E-W reverse and N-S dextral faulting. To image the crustal structure of these active faults, we used a set of 1406 well located aftershocks events and applied the local tomography software (LOTOS) algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the initial 1D velocity model, and iterative tomographic inversion for 3D seismic P- and S-wave velocities (and the Vp/Vs ratio), and source parameters. The patterns of P-wave low-velocity anomalies correspond to the alignments of faults determined from geological evidence, and the P-wave high-velocity anomalies may represent rigid blocks of the upper crust that are not deformed by regional stresses. The S-wave low-velocity anomalies coincide with the aftershock area, where relatively high values of Vp/Vs ratio (1.78) are observed compared with values in the surrounding areas (1.62-1.66). These high values may indicate high fluid contents in the aftershock area. These fluids could have been released from deeper levels by fault movements during earthquakes and migrated rapidly upwards. This hypothesis is supported by vertical sections across the study area show that the major Vp/Vs anomalies are located above the seismicity clusters. PMID:25485193

  16. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  17. An analysis of the North Rainier Elk Herd area, Washington: Change detection and habitat modeling with remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Joshua J.

    The North Rainier Elk Herd (NREH) is one of ten designated herds in Washington State, all managed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To aid in the management of the herd, the WDFW has decided to implement a spatial ecosystem analysis. This thesis partially undertakes this analysis through the use of a suite of software tools, the Westside Elk Nutrition and Habitat Use Models (WENHUM). This model analyzes four covariates that have a strong correlation to elk habitat selection: dietary digestible energy (DDE); distance to roads open to the public; mean slope; and distance to cover-forage edge and returns areas of likely elk habitation or use. This thesis includes an update of the base vegetation layer from 2006 data to 2011, a series of clear cuts were identified as areas of change and fed into the WENHUM models. The addition of these clear cuts created improvements in the higher quality DDE levels and when the updated data is compared to the original, predictions of elk use are higher. The presence of open or closed roads was simulated by creating an area of possible closures, selecting candidate roads within that area and then modeling them as either "all open" or "all closed". The simulation of the road closures produced increases in the higher levels of predicted use.

  18. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  19. Update of data on decision making of test drills in the North Sea coastal area. Outlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For activities that will have environmental impacts there exists a legal commitment in the Netherlands to draw up a so-called Environmental Effect Report (MER, abbreviated in Dutch). In this publication supplementary information is given on a previous MER with respect to exploratory drillings for natural gas in the title area. 8 refs

  20. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  1. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  2. Sunlamps and Sunlamp Products (Tanning Beds/Booths)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Sunlamps and Sunlamp Products (Tanning Beds/Booths) Share ... PDF - 71KB) [ARCHIVED] More in Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Reducing Exposure: Hands-free ...

  3. Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang Meets Chinese Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yiyi

    2013-01-01

    <正>The visiting Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang had a cordial meeting with Chinese personages friendly to Vietnam in the Vietnamese Embassy in China on June 20.The meeting was jointly arranged by

  4. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jinghui

    2001-01-01

    -pressure granulites and amphibolite from Sanggan area, North China craton, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(2): 106-110.[10]Guo. J. H, Zhai M. G., Li, Y. G. et al., Isotopic ages and their tectonic significance of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the early Precambrian granulite belt, North China craton, in Geological Evolution of the Granulite Terrane in North Part of the North China Craton (eds. Qian, X., Wang, R.), Beijing: Seismolgical Press, 1994, 130-144.[11]Wang, J., Lu, S. N., Li, H. M., Isotope ages of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the Inner Mongolia, Bulletin of Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (in Chinese with English abstract), 1995, 29: 1-76.[12]Wu, C. H., Li, H. M., Zhong, C. T. et al,, The ages of zircon and rutile (cooling) from Khondalite in Huangtuyao, Inner Mongolia, Geological Review (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 44(6): 618-626.[13]Zhao, Z. P et al., Precambrian Crustal Evolution of Sino-Korean Paraplateform (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1994,444.[14]Dirks, P. H. G. M., Zhang, J. S., Passchier, C. W., Exhumation of high-pressure granulites and the role of lower crustal advection in the North China craton near Datong, J. Struct. Geol., 1997, 19: 1343-1358.[15]Zhang, J. Sh., Dirks, P. H, G., Passchier, C. W., Extensional collapse and uplift in a polymetamorphic granulite terrain in the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic of north China, Precambrian Res., 1994, 67: 37-57.[16]Li. J. H.. Zhai, M. G., Qian, X. L. et al., The geological occurrence, regional tectonic setting and exhumation of late Archaean high-pressure granulite with the high-grade metamorphic terranes, north to central portion of North China craton.Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 14: 176-189.[17]Lu, L. Z., Xu, X. C., Liu, F. L., Early Precambrian Khondalite Series in North China (in Chinese with English abstract),Changchun: Changchun Press, 1996, 276.[18]Yan, Y. H.. Liu, W. J., Discussion

  5. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  6. Effect of Ecotourism on Plant Biodiversity in Cherlagh Protected Area North-Eastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hossein Zarghi; Sayed Mohsen Hosseini; Hamid Ejtehadi

    2015-01-01

    Due to importance of considerable effects of ecotourism on environment, the effect of ecotourism on plant biodiversity in Cherlagh zone was investigated .To acquire the aim of the article, the sampling area was selected under the condition that the ecotourism is solely the variable factor and the slope, direction and height are considered constant factor after evaluation of the ecological land unit drawings. Two zones of high pressured and low pressured ecotourism were considered after evalua...

  7. Regional geochemical and geophysical surveys in the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas, north Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, D. C.; Rollin, K.; Cornwell, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes stream sediment and gravity surveys carried out across the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas. The gravity survey confirmed the presence of a broad regional Bouguer anomaly low in the central part of the Dome, on which is superimposed several smaller irregular highs and lows. Some of these local anomalies possibly reflect small igneous bodies but more detailed gravity surveys would be needed to determine their form. Near Corwen the Bryneglwys Fault co...

  8. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  9. Geology and Uranium, Thorium Distributions of Gabal Humr Ar-Raha Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Humr ar-Raha area, about 150 km2 of crystalline basement rocks, is delineated by Lat. 27° 18’ and 27° 26' N and Long. 32° 42' and 32° 48’ E. It is covered by Dokhan volcanics (oldest), younger granites (syenogranite) and post granitic dykes (youngest). Dokhan volcanics are represented by a thick sequence of stratified lava flows of intermediate (andesites) and acidic (rhyolites) composition. The main rock type of Gabal Humr ar-Raha granitoid rocks are classified as syenogranites; their emplacement were structurally controlled by pre-existing fractures trending NNE- SSW and NE-SW. The acidic Dokhan volcanics and younger granites show the highest equivalent uranium and equivalent thorium contents in the study area. The younger granites can be considered as uraniferous granites as revealed from their radiometric studies. They are originated from highly fractionated U-rich magma that trapping high concentrations of uranium in the accessory minerals. These granites host an interesting radioactive anomalies which are essentially exhibited by a strongly altered granites occupying at the intersection zone of two major strike-slip faults striking NNW-SSE and NE-SW. The sheared granites show dark brown spots of iron oxides at this zone. Thus the enrichment of uranium in the study area is controlled by structural elements

  10. ESTIMATION OF THE POPULATION EXPOSURE DOSES FROM DRINKING-WATER CONSUMPTION FOR THE INHABITANTS OF NORTH-EASTERN AREA OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kaduka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on natural radionuclides content in drinking-water of North-Eastern area of Russian Federation obtained in long-term investigations is presented; population internal exposure doses estimation from the drinking-water consumption is carried out for the inhabitants of the area.

  11. Splash erosion in recently-burnt area in North-West Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María

    2013-04-01

    Splash erosion is generally acknowledged as the main erosive agent, because it represents the first step in water erosion (Ellison, 1944, Sempere Torres et al., 1994). The impact of raindrops not only modifies the structure of the earth's surface, (Moss, 1991) but also breaks down and emits soil fragments which are later transported over long distances in the case of additional surface runoff processes (Moss and Green, 1983). In the whole process we need to take into account not only the specific kinetic energy associated to each rain event, but also the type of soil and the size of the particles released (Sharma et al 1991), as well as the characteristics of the layer of water formed on the surface (Moss and Green, 1983, Kinnell, 1991, Leguédois et al., 2005). The erosion process is more obvious when it affects vulnerable areas that have recently been devastated by a wildfire. This study has computed the raindrop size, its volume, the fall velocity, and its kinetic energy by means of an optical disdrometer. The data have subsequently been compared with the mass of soil that was splashed and collected in a particular area devastated by an important wildfire on the 17th of May 2012. The splash erosion produced in 6 months has been analyzed. 2. Study Site The data were gathered in the period between the 29th May and the 30th November 2012, in the area of Congosto, in the province of León, Spain. The study zone is part of a transition area between the plain and the mountainous regions. The dominant climate is the continentalized Mediterranean climate, although with more moderate temperatures. In general, in this area we find a wide temperature range (from 12 to 20°C), long and cold winters, short springs and autumns, and short and warm summers. Precipitation is irregularly scattered along the year, and may reach, depending on the area, up to 1,500 mm per year. Intense precipitation events may occur. The area presents a coarse-grained siliceous lithology, that is

  12. Regional Evaluation of ERA-40 Reanalysis Data with Marine Atmospheric Observations in the North Sea Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils H. Schade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important task of the departmental research programme KLIWAS is the evaluation and assessment of climate model results by means of a comprehensive reference data set. For validation purposes, and to create a North Sea wide maritime atmospheric and oceanographic reference database, in-situ observations of the Centre for Global Marine Meteorological Observations (GZS of the National Meteorological Service DWD have been compared to the ERA-40 reanalysis. ERA-40 is used as forcing for the hindcast runs of the ENSEMBLES regional climate models, which is used within the KLIWAS model chain. The GZS hosts a regularly updated, quality controlled, world-wide data bank of weather observations from the oceans. It includes data from all sorts of observation platforms as Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS, drifting and moored buoys, light vessels, and offshore platforms, either from real-time (RT via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS or from international exchange in delayed-mode (DM. In addition to the automated set of programs applied for high quality control, erroneous data are also manually corrected to a certain extent, if possible. To assure reliable statistics for the evaluation, the corrected observations are gridded to a resolution of 2.25 degree, so each grid box includes four ERA-40 reanalysis grid points. The temporal coverage of the grid boxes depends on shipping routes and the positions of automated systems. Observed air temperatures, covering a period of 40 years (1961?2000, show noticeable differences to the reanalysis data for all land influenced boxes, specifically in the winter months. The same differences can be found if ERA-40 data alone are compared between land- and sea facing boxes. They can not be found in GZS data. It can be assumed that the differences are not resulting from measurement errors or uncertain fraction variabilities, since they are small during the winter months. A comparison of the differences basing on the 1981

  13. MAPPING OF MARINE PLANTS DISTRIBUTIONS IN NORTH COASTAL AREA OF SUMBAWA REGENCY USING ALOS/AVNIR-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Astuti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation and management of water resource be more beneficial, if preceded by study which includes biological aspect besides physics and chemical parameter of waters. The biological aspects study can be conducted by monitoring the change of ecosystem (biomonitoring. One of study that entangles biomonitoring is the research concerning change of marine plants. Marine plants consists of seagrasses and seaweeds. Using ALOS/AVNIR-2 data in this research because it has 3 visible bands (blue, green, and red with 10 meter spacial resolutions can penetrate into water column. Aims of research were (1 to know combinations of bands in ALOS/AVNIR-2 data was better in Lyzenga method applying to mapping marine plants, (2 to know the general species of marine plants in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency. Lyzenga method was used in image processing process to know the combination of bands which have better for mapping marine plants. Preliminary steps of image processing were image cropping, geometric correction and radiometric correction. Water column effect was reduced by Lyzenga algorithm. Six classes were determined by multispectral classification process i.e. seagrass, seaweeds, coral, hard sand and rubble of coral, and substratum. Field surveys has done to identify the accuracy level. The accuracy method by Lillesand and Kiefer (1990 was used in this research.The result of accuracy test show for image band 1 and band 2 combination given better visual object benthic than another combinations of bands, with overall accuracy was 86.67%. Seagrass found in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency consist of four species there were Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Halophila ovalis with width equal to 835.37 ha, while seaweeds were found equal to five species there were Euchema cottoni, Euchema cottoni ssp sakul, Halimeda sp, Padina sp, and Sargasum duplicatum with width equal to 269,16 ha.

  14. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina, water years 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-09-07

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2011 through September 2012 (water year 2012) and October 2012 through September 2013 (water year 2013). Major findings for this period include:Annual precipitation was approximately 2 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2012 and approximately 3 percent below the long-term mean in 2013.In water year 2012, streamflow was generally below the long-term mean during most of the period for the 10 project streamflow gaging stations. Streamflow was near or above the long-term mean at the same streamflow gaging stations during the 2013 water year.More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 17 sites—6 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-three water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality standards exist for 23 of these.All observations met State water-quality standards for pH, temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium.North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, turbidity, chlorophyll a, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at all 17 sites.Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 19 water-quality constituents relative to non-storm events.

  15. Assessment of the impact of moving fluids on the regional thermal field for the area of Brandenburg (North German Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, V.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cacace, M.; Lewerenz, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the 3D thermal field for the area of Brandenburg in the North German Basin. The study area encompasses a part of the basin centre in the north, whereas to the south the basin margin is enclosed. Starting with Permocarboniferous volcanic rocks the basin fill is represented by Permian to Cenozoic sediments. A thick layer of mobilized salt (Zechstein, Upper Permian) generated elevated structures such as salt pillows and diapirs. Especially where diapirs pierce their overburden, the overlying deposits are strongly influenced in their thickness and distribution. This special configuration of the Zechstein salt is relevant for the thermal calculations due to the fact that salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than the surrounding sediments and is impermeable to fluid flow. Therefore, the Zechstein salt acts as a conductive chimney for heat and a hydraulic decoupling horizon between the Pre-Permian and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata. The latter are characterized by two further quasi-impervious sediment complexes, the Rupelian-clay and the Muschelkalk. These two divide the Post-Permian strata in three main aquifer systems: the Buntsandstein, Keuper to Pre-Rupelian and the Post-Rupelian complex. Based on results from purely conductive modelling we additionally analyse the influence of moving fluids on the shallow temperature field above the Zechstein salt. Therefore coupled fluid flow and heat transfer numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydrothermal field. The 3D simulations for the heat transport processes are based on the finite element method. The results indicate that the distribution of thermal conductivities in the basin fill controls the short-wavelength pattern of the temperature distribution whereas the long wavelength pattern results from interaction between the highly conductive crust and low conductive sediments. Furthermore, the results reveal that the shallow temperature field

  16. Complex gravity zones and the extension of labour catchment areas in North Transdanubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study are the identification of the centres of gravity of the Northern-Transdanubian cities, including Győr, by using a gravitation model and, based on empirical examination, the definition of manpower catchment areas. Then, we are going to analyze the impact fields determined by two methods and seek explanations for the overlaps and differences of the two delineations, which are also going to be analyzed with the consideration of geographic, social and economic factors. Both examinations were carried out at two dates, covering a timeframe of 10 years.

  17. Costs of urban area retrofit to district heating and cooling systems: north-central cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D J; Davis, A A; Marder, S M

    1978-03-01

    This study considers the major urbanized areas of six U.S. cities (Washington, D.C.; St. Louis; Cleveland; Milwaukee; Detroit; Chicago) to arrive at reasonably accurate estimates of costs required to retrofit them with district heating and cooling systems. Only costs associated with heating and hot water are addressed here. Demand estimates and energy-supply analyses are made, and component capital costs are estimated to arrive at annualized system costs. Finally, a comparison of alternative energy-delivery options is made, and estimates of scarce-fuel savings are derived. 39 refs., 12 figs., 14 tables.

  18. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The sediment source controls the distribution of the heavy metals. • There is no Cu, Pb, Zn and As pollution instead of slight Cd pollution. • Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic while Cd and As are mixed in origin. • Cd in polluted stations showed obvious anthropogenic origin. - Abstract: Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, 210Pbexcess and 137Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin

  19. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S; Allen, Lee R; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K-P

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  20. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts. PMID:26964762

  1. Study of Landcover Change in Yelwa-Heipang Area of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria: A Geoinformatics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study is a research programme carried out to detect the change in land use/land cover of Yelwa-Heipang area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. It lies within the South-Eastern part of the Jos-Plateau. It is about 40 km South of Jos city. It is located between latitude 9°35'16.65" N, longitude 8°52'29.91" E and Latitude 9°38'38.92" N, longitude 8°57'03.87" E (Naraguta topomap, sheet 168S.E). Two sets of Landsat images of 1975, 1986 and NigeriaSat-X image of 2012 were subjected to various image processing techniques and a supervised classification was carried out on the various images using ILWIS (Integrated land and water information system) software. The classification scheme used are bare-surface, built-up, farmland and vegetation. A follow up field work was carried out to confirm the results of the classification. The results were subjected to various statistical analyses and it shows natural vegetated area coverage increased from 5.80 sqkm in 1975 to 18.47 sqkm in 1986 and later reduced to 16.85 sqkm in 2012. Non-vegetated area which comprised built-up area, farmlands and bare surface, decreased from 42.2 sqkm in 1975 to 33.82 sqkm in 1986, then to 35.86 sqkm in 2012.The rate of change of natural vegetation between 1975 and 1986 was 1.152 sqkm per annum, while that of 1986 and 2012 was 0.108 sqkm per annum. Loss of naturally vegetated area in Yelwa-Heipang Barkin-Ladi is mainly as a result of urban growth and expansion, farming and gully erosion. Another important issue in the study area is the problem of soil erosion. In the past mining activity had led to accelerated gully erosion which has stripped substantial areas of lands of their vegetations. This has led to the formation of bare surface. Land cover of the study area during the period between 1975 and 2012 changed from a forested area to other land uses as a result of increase in population, demand for land for agricultural purposes and increase in the demand for firewood.

  2. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program. PMID:25421712

  3. Tannin fingerprinting in vegetable tanned leather by solid state NMR spectroscopy and comparison with leathers tanned by other processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Frederik H; Underwood, Andrew P; Senekal, Nadine D; Bonnet, Susan L; Duer, Melinda J; Reid, David G; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2011-01-28

    Solid state ¹³C-NMR spectra of pure tannin powders from four different sources--mimosa, quebracho, chestnut and tara--are readily distinguishable from each other, both in pure commercial powder form, and in leather which they have been used to tan. Groups of signals indicative of the source, and type (condensed vs. hydrolyzable) of tannin used in the manufacture are well resolved in the spectra of the finished leathers. These fingerprints are compared with those arising from leathers tanned with other common tanning agents. Paramagnetic chromium (III) tanning causes widespread but selective disappearance of signals from the spectrum of leather collagen, including resonances from acidic aspartyl and glutamyl residues, likely bound to Cr (III) structures. Aluminium (III) and glutaraldehyde tanning both cause considerable leather collagen signal sharpening suggesting some increase in molecular structural ordering. The ²⁷Al-NMR signal from the former material is consistent with an octahedral coordination by oxygen ligands. Solid state NMR thus provides easily recognisable reagent specific spectral fingerprints of the products of vegetable and some other common tanning processes. Because spectra are related to molecular properties, NMR is potentially a powerful tool in leather process enhancement and quality or provenance assurance.

  4. Tannin Fingerprinting in Vegetable Tanned Leather by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy and Comparison with Leathers Tanned by Other Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. van der Westhuizen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state 13C-NMR spectra of pure tannin powders from four different sources – mimosa, quebracho, chestnut and tara – are readily distinguishable from each other, both in pure commercial powder form, and in leather which they have been used to tan.  Groups of signals indicative of the source, and type (condensed vs. hydrolyzable of tannin used in the manufacture are well resolved in the spectra of the finished leathers.  These fingerprints are compared with those arising from leathers tanned with other common tanning agents.  Paramagnetic chromium (III tanning causes widespread but selective disappearance of signals from the spectrum of leather collagen, including resonances from acidic aspartyl and glutamyl residues, likely bound to Cr (III structures. Aluminium (III and glutaraldehyde tanning both cause considerable leather collagen signal sharpening suggesting some increase in molecular structural ordering. The 27Al-NMR signal from the former material is consistent with an octahedral coordination by oxygen ligands. Solid state NMR thus provides easily recognisable reagent specific spectral fingerprints of the products of vegetable and some other common tanning processes. Because spectra are related to molecular properties, NMR is potentially a powerful tool in leather process enhancement and quality or provenance assurance.

  5. Effect of Ecotourism on Plant Biodiversity in Cherlagh Protected Area North-Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zarghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to importance of considerable effects of ecotourism on environment, the effect of ecotourism on plant biodiversity in Cherlagh zone was investigated .To acquire the aim of the article, the sampling area was selected under the condition that the ecotourism is solely the variable factor and the slope, direction and height are considered constant factor after evaluation of the ecological land unit drawings. Two zones of high pressured and low pressured ecotourism were considered after evaluation of related drawings. Samples were taken in spring 2010. For evaluation of the plant biodiversity 60 samples of 1 m2 (30 samples in each zone were taken randomly and then the list of flora and the cover percentage of vegetation were recorded and then the percentage of vegetation data were analyzed in PAST software individual , the biodiversity (Shanon, Simpson richness (Menhinick, Margalef evenness (Dominance, Berger parker, indices were calculated. The mentioned indices were inserted in SPSS II software and the data normality was tested through Kolomogrov-Smirnov test also the homogeneity of variances was tested using Leven test. Due to data normality, non-paired T test was used in order to compare diversity analysis. The results indicate that the richness and individual indices show significant effects of ecotourism on biodiversity indices.

  6. Bimodal Distribution of Area-Weighted Latitude of Sunspots And Solar North-South Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2011-01-01

    We study the latitudinal distribution of sunspots observed from 1874 to 2009 using the center-of-latitude (COL). We calculate COL by taking the area-weighted mean latitude of sunspots for each calendar month. We then form the latitudinal distribution of COL for the sunspots appearing in the northern and southern hemispheres separately, and in both hemispheres with unsigned and signed latitudes, respectively. We repeat the analysis with subsets which are divided based on the criterion of which hemisphere is dominant for a given solar cycle. Our primary findings are as follows: (1) COL is not monotonically decreasing with time in each cycle. Small humps can be seen (or short plateaus) around every solar maxima. (2) The distribution of COL resulting from each hemisphere is bimodal, which can well be represented by the double Gaussian function. (3) As far as the primary component of the double Gaussian function is concerned, for a given data subset, the distributions due to the sunspots appearing in two different...

  7. Outbreak of Salmonella Typhi enteric fever in sub-urban area of North India:A public health perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nidhi Singla; Neha Bansal; Varsha Gupta; Jagdish Chander

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of enteric fever are a major health concern not only due to significant human morbidity and mortality but also fear of spread of multidrug resistant strains.We report an outbreak of enteric fever caused bySalmonella enterica serotypeTyphi in a suburban area, in cityChandigarh ofNorthIndia.Twenty-seven strains ofS. typhi were isolated from blood cultures over a period of two weeks with18 of these27 patients residing in the same area.Maximum cases were in the age group5-14 years(10 patients,55.5%) while4(22.2%) cases were children under5 years.All the strains showed similar resistogram being resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, intermediate to ciprofloxacin and sensitive to chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cotrimoxazole and azithromycin on disc diffusion testing.Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method and was found to be raised(≥2 μg/mL).This nalidixic acid resistant S. typhioutbreak report warrants the necessity of implementing stringent sanitation practices in public health interest.

  8. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern.

  9. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area. PMID:25072718

  10. Communal visual histories to detect environmental change in northern areas: Examples of emerging North American and Eurasian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Tero

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed. PMID:26008615

  11. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern. PMID:26318969

  12. Fishes associated with North Carolina shelf-edge hardbottoms and initial assessment of a proposed marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, A.M.; Ross, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Fish community data are limited from deeper shelf-edge hardbottoms along the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. This lack of data Hampers the design of recently proposed marine protected areas (MPAs) on the outer shelf of the southeastern U.S. During 2001-2004, sampling was conducted (57-25 m) to describe habitats and fish communities within and outside of the North Carolina proposed MPA (p-MPA) using the JOHNSON-SEA-LINK submersible, remotely operated vehicles, otter trawls, and hook and line. Habitats observed included soft substrate or non-hardbottom (NH), a shipwreck ("Snowy Wreck"), low relief hardbottoms (LRH), boulder fields (BF), and high relief ledges (HRL), the latter of which were divided into three mi-crohabitats. Non-metric, multi-dimensional scaling indicated that hardbottom fish assemblages were distinct from NH, and fish assemblages among microhabitats on HRL were different. In total, 152 fish species were documented. Thirty-five species were observed only on NH and 117 were observed or hardbottoms and the Snowy Wreck. Several species of anthiines were the most abundant fishes on most hardbottoms, whereas triglids, synodontids, and Seriola spp. were abundant on NH. Species richness was highest on HRL, and species composition was unique at the Snowy Wreck (238-253 m) and on BF. Future shelf-edge hardbottom research should include more standardized surveys using direct observations. Further, we recommend that the boundaries of the North Carolina p-MPA be redrawn to include more hardbottom habitat. ?? 2006 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

  13. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    geomagnetic activity leads to a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones in residing at high latitudes area healthy individuals, indicating that they revealed the type of adaptive stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  14. Ultraviolet exposure from indoor tanning devices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, L T N; Hannevik, M; Veierød, M B

    2016-04-01

    Use of indoor tanning devices increases the risk of cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Indoor tanning devices have become important sources of ultraviolet (UV) exposure, both UVB and UVA. This systematic review assessed UV measurements performed in indoor tanning devices related to irradiance level, wavelength distribution and similarities to natural sun. The study was performed in accordance with the MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from inception to May 2015, and also examined the reference lists of the retrieved studies. Eighteen studies were included. Twelve studies examined the erythema-weighted UV irradiances of indoor tanning devices, 11 studies examined UVB and 13 studies studied UVA. Compliance with irradiance limits was reported in nine studies. Erythema-weighted irradiances were highest in the most recent studies. Most studies had mean values higher than from natural sun and with large variations between devices. All studies except two had mean unweighted UVB irradiances lower than from natural summer sun (at latitudes from 37°S to 35°N), while mean unweighted UVA irradiances were, with one exception, substantially higher than from natural sun. The high values of UVA exposure from modern tanning devices are alarming in light of the increased focus on UVA irradiance as a carcinogen, and as UVA exposure confers little protection against subsequent UV exposure. PMID:26749382

  15. The inner circulation mechanism in sinking column formation in North China coal field——A case study in Fengfeng mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-ming; LIU Xian-wei; LIU Wen-sheng; GUAN Yong-qiang; WANG Jun-xian

    2007-01-01

    Sinking columns are one of the most hazardous geological structures in north Chine typed coal fields.To understand the sinking column formation,to judge if the columns are hazardous or not,the inner circle mechanism of groundwater in forming sinking columns in the relatively isolated areas was proposed according to the investigation on formation or distribution of sinking columns in some north China typed coal fields.such as Fengfeng,Xiangtai,Huaibei,Yangquan and so on.The heat generated by magma energized groundwater circulation and developed limestone karst in the relatively isolated areas.The CaCO3 solution accelerated by geothermal abnormality,the effect of high content of CO2 on dissolution and saturation of CaCO3 were discussed.Compared the forming conditions of the sinking columns developed in other coal mining areas in north China coal field,the paper deduced that the above factors collude karst development and sinking column formation,the columns in current geothermaI areas are permeable and those in high coal rank areas or in paleo abnormally geothermal areas.The paper suggested that the sinking columns in the current abnormally geothermal areas were permeable,but those in the areas with high coal rank were not on contract.

  16. Indoor Tanning within UK Young Adults: An Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Lorna J; Forshaw, Mark J; Williams, Stella

    2013-01-01

    The indoor tanning industry poses a long-term public health risk. Despite the adverse health effects, indoor tanning seems to be gaining considerable popularity. The study examined indoor tanning intentions and behaviour within UK young adults using an extended theory of planned behaviour model, which included variables on "appearance reasons to tan," "perceived susceptibility to damaging appearance," "perceived susceptibility to health consequences," and "tanning knowledge." The model was successful in predicting indoor tanning intentions and behaviour (explained 17% and 71%, resp.). An interesting outcome was the magnitude of the variable "appearance reasons to tan." A current tanned appearance therefore seemed to outweigh any adverse future appearance or health consequences caused by indoor tanning. Appearance-focused interventions to reduce such behaviour may now prove to be efficacious within a UK sample. PMID:24967136

  17. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-01

    The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  18. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-01

    The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning. PMID:24507977

  19. Preparation and Characterization of TaN ALD Precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delong Zhang; Tracy Yund; Cynthia A.Hoover

    2004-01-01

    High purity organic-tantalum precursors for thin film ALD TaN were synthesized and characterized.Vapor pressure and thermal stability of these precursors were studied.From the vapor pressure analysis,it was found that TBTEMT has a higher vapor pressure than any other published liquid TaN precursor,including TBTDET,TAITMATA,and IPTDET.Thermal stability of the alkyl groups on the precursors was investigated using a 1H NMR technique.The results indicated that the tertbutylimino group is the most stable group on TBTDET and TBTEMT as compared to the dialkylamido groups.Thermal stability of TaN precursors decreased in the following order:TBTDET > PDMAT > TBTEMT.In conclusion,precursor vapor pressure and thermal stability were tuned by making slight variations in the ligand sphere around the metal center.

  20. Microstructural and weldability evaluation of 310TaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Excellent weldability and good microstructural stability of 310TaN, in terms of the formation and growth of secondary phases at elevated temperature, was revealed in this investigation. The interganular stress corrosion resistance of 310TaN is superior to modified 800H and 310HCbN evaluated previously due to the fact that TaC, TaN and Ta(C,N) particles are more stable compared to Nb-rich or Ti-rich carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides presented in the other advanced alloys. Using resistance spot welding technique for which extremely fast cooling is a characteristic, it was found that a very minor amount of gain boundary liquation takes place during welding thermal cycling. The limited grain boundary liquation is of the eutectic type i.e., a low tendency to weld HAZ hot cracking.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of the underground Geoheritage in karst areas: The Picos de Europa National Park, North Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuestra, María; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica

    2014-05-01

    Karst areas show a lot of kilometers of cave conduits with a hidden Geoheritage poorly investigated in previous works that concerning with their cultural, scientific and education values. The evaluation of cave Geoheritage is complex due to methodological constrains. One of the most important karst areas in the World is the Picos de Europa National Park (North Spain) that was declared as a Global Geosite in 2007 and includes 14 % of the World's Deepest Caves. The GEOCAVE research project is being developed in several caves from the Picos de Europa National Park since 2012 in order to characterize geomorphology and geochronology of the cavities, proposing and validating new methodologies adapted to these environments. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Geoheritage of the Picos de Europa caves based on the studies made in nine selected caves. The methodology includes: 1) elaboration of geomorphological maps of the nine selected caves, projecting geomorphological, geological, hydrogeological, paleontological and cultural forms on the caves surveys; and 2) definition and calculation of three indexes useful to evaluate the Geoheritage of the caves. The indexes are: a) Cave Geoheritage Extension Index (CGhEI), defined as the percentage of the area occupied by the entire features divided by the cave area (excluding the forms that represent the conduits themselves), b) Feature Extension Index (FEI), defined as the area occupied by each group of form divided by the cave area, and c) Cave Geodiversity Index (CGdI), defined as the number of forms divided by the cave area. The nine cave geomorphological maps cover 178,639 m2 of caves and include a whole of 14.9 km of karst conduits, representing these caves the 4.1 % of the conduits of the Picos de Europa. The values of the Cave Geoheritage Extension Index range from 22 to 82 %, while the values of the Feature Extension Indexes for each group of features reach the following values: Geomorphological FEI take values of 20

  2. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  3. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-02-18

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ``clean`` fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into {le}10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release {ge}90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving.

  4. Dental care knowledge and practices among secondary school adolescents in Ibadan North Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Joshua Ogunrinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental care knowledge, and practice of secondary school adolescents in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Methodology: Four hundred and twelve secondary school adolescents were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data on dental care knowledge and practice obtained through the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with level of significance set at 5%. Result: Consumption of sticky, sugary and chocolaty food items was perceived by a majority (81.8% as unhealthy to dental health and 66.3% perceived consumption of fruits and vegetables as healthy to the teeth. Vertical brushing technique was mentioned by 69.7% of respondents as the best method of brushing the teeth, and 89.6% stated that teeth should be brushed twice daily. Majority 57.0% of respondents open caps of soft drink bottles with their teeth and 74.3% used toothpicks to remove food trapped in between teeth. Majority (82.8% perceived that dentist should be visited for check-up once in 6 months, however, only 31.6% of respondents had visited dentists before. There was a statistically significant relationship between tooth brushing technique and type of school attended by the respondents (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents have good oral health knowledge but poor dental health practice.

  5. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137Cs and 241Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h-1, below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h-1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h-1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  6. The Netherlands and the designation of marine protected areas in the North Sea Implementing international and European law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Dotinga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that representative and ecologically coherent networks of marine protected areas (MPAs should be created to maintain biodiversity and to conserve specific species, habitats and ecological processes. This article addresses the contribution that is made by the Netherlands to the North Sea MPA network. It reviews the applicable legal obligations with regard to the designation of MPAs contained in global and regional treaties and EU law, and provides a critical assessment of the actions that have thus far been taken by the Netherlands to implement these obligations. The article concludes that significant steps have been taken towards a solid Dutch contribution to the global and regional goals of representative MPA networks. There are, however, a number of shortcomings. To a large degree, these are the result of the policy of the Netherlands Government to go no further in the designation of MPAs than what is strictly required by the EU Birds and Habitats Directives. On account of the widely acknowledged ‘marine deficiencies’ of the Habitats Directive, this policy stands in the way of achieving the target of a representative MPA network. Moreover, it is rather doubtful whether the same minimalist approach is sufficient to meet the relevant obligations of the Netherlands under global and regional treaties, in particular the OSPAR Convention. These shortcomings can be remedied by the designation of additional MPAs and, in some cases, by extending the list of species and habitats for which current MPAs have been selected.

  7. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments.

  8. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sungsil; Shim, So-Hee; Park, Yon Mi; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-12-01

    In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the People's Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases.

  9. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of ∼323+/-5Bqm-3 was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of ∼13+/-6Bqm-3 was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm-3) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm-3 was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of ∼25+/-7Bqm-3 was measured in Mardan and maximum of ∼210+/-5Bqm-3 was measured in Charsadda District

  10. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: matiullah@pieas.edu.pk; Rahman, Z. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mati, N. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ghauri, B.M. [SPAS Division, Sparcent, SUPARCO Karachi (Pakistan)

    2007-02-15

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of {approx}323+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of {approx}13+/-6Bqm{sup -3} was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm{sup -3}) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm{sup -3} was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of {approx}25+/-7Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Mardan and maximum of {approx}210+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Charsadda District.

  11. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  12. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the tertiary particle yield from secondary targets of different materials placed at the ‘filter’ position of the H2 beam line of SPS North Area are presented. The production is studied for secondary beams of different momenta in the range of 50-250 GeV/c. More specifically, we studied six different targets: two copper cylinders with a radius of 40 mm and lengths of 100 and 300 mm, one solid tungsten cylinder with a radius of 40 mm and a length of 150 mm and three polyethylene cylinders with radius of 40 mm and lengths of 550, 700 and 1000 mm. Eight different momenta of the secondary beam (50, 60, 70, 100, 120, 150, 200 and 250 GeV/c) as well as two different physics lists (QGSP_BIC and FTFP_BERT) have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is (a) to optimize (using the appropriate filter target) the particle production from the secondary targets as demanded by the experiments (b) investigate the proton production (with respect to the pion production) in the produced tertiary bea...

  13. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    Tellander, Felix

    2016-01-01

    H2 beam line of SPS North Area is a high energy, high resolution and multipurpose particle beam line. It is able to transport secondary hadron and pure electron beams with momenta between 10 and 400 GeV/c to be exploited by several different experiments. In this work, tertiary particle production from a secondary target placed in the line is studied. The introduction of this “filter” target enhances the middle to low momentum hadron (20 - 60 GeV/c) and electron production. In this work, a systematic Monte Carlo simulation study using a GEANT 4 based package, G4beamline, has been performed in order to investigate the tertiary particle production from several different targets. More specifically, Cu, W and polyethylene targets with different thicknesses have been studied. The proton over pi+ ratio is of particular interest, as well as the optimal electron production for several momenta. The present work will act as a reference to be used by the future test-beam users of the line as an indication of the expe...

  14. Adoption of Improved Processing Technologies by Fish Farmers in Akure North and South Local Government Areas, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIX OLAYINKA OLADIPO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the adoption of improved processing technologies by fish farmers in Akure North and South LGAs, Ondo state, Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was employed to select 150 fish farmers interviewed for the study, data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Tobit regression model. Results showed that majority of the farmers (68.0% were males with mean age of 38.5 years old. Majority (80.7% of respondents were married while (90% had various degree of formal education, oil drum, smoking kiln and mud oven were the improved fish processing technologies available in the study area. Furthermore, cooperatives (92.7% was ranked 1st as the most preferred source of information by the farmers, majority of respondents (94.7% were aware of oil drum. The mean levels of adoption was 2.50, values below and above the mean were regarded as low and high respectively, the use of oil drum (2.58, smoking kiln (1.47 and mud oven (1.33 were the adoption scores of the respondents in the study area. Moreover, age (4.201, education level (2.105, household size (1.791, income (3.021, gender (1.781, pond size (2.511 and other income generating activities (2.256 were factors that were statistically significant thus affecting the rate of adoption of improved fish processing technologies. The study concludes that respondents were aware of some of the improved technologies but low adoption, the study therefore recommends the need for capacity building and advisory services by extension agents and other stakeholders for fish processors.

  15. Integration of geological and geophysical data: a guide to exploration for uranium in Raghunathgarh area, North Delhi fold belt, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralization associated with sulphide bearing sheared/brecciated quartzite in North Delhi Fold Belt is known from Raghunathgarh area of Sikar district, Rajasthan. Here, the surface mineralisation occurs intermittently over 1.5 km with samples (n=21) analysing 0.014-0.710% U3O8 (Av. 0.162%) with negligible thorium. Uraninite, along with other secondary minerals, occurs as fine sized grains along fracture planes, around grain boundaries and also as fine sized grains forming small clusters. The sulfides include pyrite, pyrhotite, and chalcopyrite. Magnetite is also present. Considering the promising surface indications, structural control and association of uranium mineralisation with sulfides, magnetic, IP/resistivity and EM surveys were carried out to delineate subsurface structural features and conductors in the area. A sizeable part of the area is covered with sand dunes and soil. The magnetic survey revealed two sub-surface faults, one of which is parallel to a shear and the mineralized zone. EM conductor axis, as marked by the EM survey, extends over a strike length of about 800m and again for 400m with a lateral shift. A prominent NE-SW trending high chargeability and corresponding low resistivity zone and a magnetic low depicting a fracture zone was identified in the NW part of the explored area. Based on the geological and geophysical data and the surface indications, sub-surface exploration was taken up at Raghunathgarh and a total of 42 boreholes have been completed so far. It is observed that the EM conductor axis and one of the faults delineated from the magnetic survey broadly coincide with the mineralization bands intercepted in some of the boreholes. A few boreholes were also drilled to test the NE-SW trending high chargeability/low resistivity zone corresponding to carbonaceous phyllite, clay, disseminated sulphides and the fracture zone marked by a magnetic low in the NW part. Core examination indicated the presence of varied lithounits

  16. CoPant 97222 – A High Yielding Mid Late Maturing Sugarcane Variety for North West Zone Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Tyagi, K.A. Khan and A.Q. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety CoPant 97222 was developed from open pollinated cross on cultivar CoPant 84212 at Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore. It was evaluated against the check varieties Co 1148, CoS 767 and CoS 8436 for its performance under AICRP yield trials of North Western Zone from 2000-01 to 2003-04 in two plants and one ratoon crops at G. B. Pant Univ. of Agri.& Technology, Pantnagar. The clone CoPant 97222, recorded an average cane yield of 88.16 t/ha and sugar yield of 11.14 t/ha and thus found superior to the checks CoS 767 (72.70 and 8.81 t/ha and (Co 1148 (78.27 and 9.23 t/ha and CoS 8436 (71.33 and 8.88 t/ha for cane and sugar yields respectively. The percent increase for cane yield t/ha of CoPant 97222 over checks CoS767, Co 1148 and CoS 8436 was 21.12, 12.78 and 23.80 respectively. The percent increase for sugar yield over checks also ranged from 21.17 to 26.00. Juice sucrose percent at harvest in CoPant 97222 was on par with CoS 767 and CoS 8436 but superior to Co 1148. The number of millable canes in CoPant 97222 were on par with CoS 8436 but cane length, cane diameter and cane weight were high in variety CoPant 97222 over the checks. This variety was resistant to Red rot under natural and artificial inoculated conditions. This variety CoPant had tall medium thick canes with erect growing habit and non lodging . It was released for cultivation in North Western Zone comprising of five states viz., Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, UP and Uttarakhand by Central Variety Release Committee, Government in the year 2006. This variety is performing excellent in the notified areas.

  17. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crudu, Marian, E-mail: mariancrudu@yahoo.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Viorica, E-mail: viorica.deselnicu@icpi.ro [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Dana Corina, E-mail: d_deselnicu@yahoo.com [University Politehnica Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei Nr. 313, Sector 6, RO-060042 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Luminita, E-mail: luminita.albu@gmail.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  18. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning

  19. Prevalence and correlates of indoor tanning and sunless tanning product use among female teens in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Quinn; Arsham Alamian; Joel Hillhouse; Colleen Scott; Rob Turrisi; Katie Baker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor tanning (IT) before the age of 35 increases melanoma risk by 75%. Nevertheless, IT and sunless tanning product (STP) use have gained popularity among youth. However, there are limited data on the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of both IT and STP use in a representative sample of American teens. Methods: Teenage females (N = 778) aged 12–18 years were recruited as part of an on-going longitudinal study conducted between May 2011 and May 2013. Descriptive stati...

  20. Geoarchaeology of the karstic area of Mirambello, North-East Crete (Greece): palaeoenvironmental investigations and human settlement implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M.; Kunesch, S.; Robert, V.; Farnoux, A.; Wurmser, H.

    2009-04-01

    The present work aims to detail the preliminary researches dealing with the geomorphologic, topographic and archaeological setting from two major settlements located in north east Crete. The project undertook by the French school of Archaeology in Athens aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the whole area during the last millennia. Fieldworks, including coring, had already been done in August 2006, April 2007 and September 2008; we propose to present the main results. The settlements of Latô and Dreros belong to the area of Mirambello characterized by its spectacular karstic processes and landforms, different karstic depressions with different size can be identified and classified into Dolines and Poljés. As far as the archaeological interest is concerned, villages and cities were occupied during the hellenestic period; several remains are still present around and inside these depressions. Using a G.I.S., the first step consisted in establishing a local geomorphological mapping, taking into account the geological background and the historical occupation of the area. The second step consisted in establishing topographic cross sections of the doline, where the ancient settlement of Latô is located, based on various DGPS surveys. Several questions concerning the occupation of this depression arose : how and for which reasons people decided to leave close to this specific landform ? Which type of activities (farming, grazing, cultivation…) existed and did they were related with natural resources exploitation ? A project associating the local greek archaeological services (Ephoria of Aghios Nikolaos, Director Ms. Apostolakou), the mayor of Nea Polis, the University of Paris 12 (GEONAT EA 435) and the French School of Athens tries to depict the historical evolution of the landscape. Four boreholes (up to a maximum depth of 5 meters) had been drilled in the poljé of Dreros and in a doline situated 1 km away from the ancient settlement of Lat

  1. Assessment of Biodegradability of Synthetic Tanning Agents Used in Leather Tanning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaniendra.A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to assess the biodegradability of two synthetic tanning agents (syntans, Phenol condensation product and Nitrogen containing resin using Respirometry. The evaluation involved the analysis of oxygen uptake rate (OUR, profiles by respirometry. The study was conducted with different syntan concentrations of 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 150mg/L and 200mg/L. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR of mixed liquid is 60 mg/L h with 50mg/L phenol condensation product and is found to be higher than with the concentrations 100, 150 and 200 mg/L h. The percent chemical oxygen demand (%COD removal was decreased with increased syntan concentration indicating high rates ofbiodegradation at low concentration and toxicity impacts or low rates of biodegradation at higher concentrations. Whereas the Nitrogen Containing Resin showed complete inhibition on oxygen uptake rate of mixed liquor at all concentrations and very low % COD removals as well showing less biodegradability or potential toxic impact on the activated sludge.

  2. LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING WASTE MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviewed herein is the waste management research and development program for the leather tanning and finishing industry. Emphasis is placed on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) role, both past and present, and major developments over the past few years outside EPA, incl...

  3. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi S; Kesavachandran C; Mahdi Farzana; Pandey Amit

    2007-01-01

    Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned.

  4. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned.

  5. Distribution of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific in relation to oceanic fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Hiroto; Hakamada, Takashi; Matsuoka, Koji; Nishiwaki, Shigetoshi; Inagake, Denzo; Okazaki, Makoto; Tojo, Naoki; Kitakado, Toshihide

    2014-09-01

    The subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific is an important summer feeding grounds of sei whales. The oceanographic structure and circulation of this area are largely determined by strong oceanic fronts and associated geostrophic currents, namely the Polar Front (PF), Subarctic Front (SAF) and Kuroshio Extension Front (KEF). The relationship between the distribution of sei whales and oceanographic fronts was investigated using a generalized additive model (GAM), and the cetacean sighting survey data and oceanographic observations in July from 2000 to 2007 were used in the analysis. The number of individual sei whales was used as the response variable while the distances from the PF, SAF, and KEF to the whales were used as explanatory variables along with the longitude values. Sei whales were concentrated north and south of the SAF and the areas from 250 to 300 km north and from 100 to 200 km south of the SAF were estimated as high-density areas of sei whales. The entire inter-frontal zone between the PF and SAF featured an elevated concentration of sei whales, and the area south of the PF and along the SAF was identified as an important feeding ground of sei whales in July from 2000 to 2007.

  6. 77 FR 37806 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and temporary... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  7. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  8. Limited-area atmospheric energetics: illustration on a simulation of the CRCM5 over eastern North America for December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Marilys; Laprise, René; Nikiéma, Oumarou

    2016-06-01

    The seminal work of Lorenz on global atmospheric energetics has allowed understanding much on the physical processes responsible for the general circulation, its maintenance and the development of synoptic-scale weather systems. In mid-latitudes, potential energy generated by the differential heating of the planet by the Sun is converted into kinetic energy by the weather systems and eventually dissipated by friction. While a corresponding study of atmospheric energetics over a limited region would have the advantage of focusing on the details of individual storms and the processes taking place over a domain of interest, such study has encountered several pitfalls and has been challenging. Here we build upon our earlier work on the energy cycle of inter-member variability in ensembles of limited-area model simulations to develop a regional-scale atmospheric energy cycle formulated in terms of available enthalpy and kinetic energy. The approach is then applied to study the energetics of a short simulation made with the fifth-generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) over an eastern North American domain for December 2004. The results obtained for a specific storm and monthly mean climatology confirm the current understanding that available enthalpy of the atmospheric time-mean state is mainly generated by the covariance of diabatic heating and temperature, and that the most important conversions of energy are found to correspond to baroclinic processes that take place along the storm track, where perturbations of temperature and wind are important. Finally, transient-eddy kinetic energy is mainly dissipated by friction in the boundary layer.

  9. Radioactive Accessory Minerals From Stream Sediments at Wadi Mayet EL Abd, Northern Gattar Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadi Mayet El-Abd is located in the northern part of G. Gattar, north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Significant remarks have been recorded on the heterogeneous distributions of heavy minerals content along the stream course, where they are most common in both deeper sediments and downstream sites. Moreover, these sediments appear to be slightly favorable delivery pools for thorium but not for uranium which is probably due to either the marked enrichment in the thorium-bearing minerals or the selective leaching for uranium during the supergene processes. The greater eU/U and eTh/U ratios, besides the negative values of the calculated authigenic uranium and further the markedly reverse relationships between uranium and thorium as well as uranium and Th/U ratio reveal the disequilibrium state of uranium and confirm U leaching. The available data propose that, the study sediments are potential sink for radioactive accessory minerals as well as rare metal minerals that may control the geochemical enrichment of trace elements as; U, Th, Zr, Y, Nb, REE, Ba, Zn and V. The present work adopts the ESEM/EDX- BSE as an appropriate tool for the recognition of the accessory minerals. The minerals; betafite, ishikawaite, xenotime, fluorite and zircon have been identified as the most abundant uraniferous accessory minerals; whereas monazite dominates as thorium-bearing mineral. Moreover, thorite and uranothorite have occasionally been recognized. A particular attention has been given to the contents of the rare metals in general and radionuclides in paticular in the accessory minerals, despite of their frequency in the whole stream sediments. In conclusion, the study sediments are conceivably genetically related to common sources. Actually it reflects the mineral constituent of the different rocks composing the drained area. Hence it may represent an erosional remnant either of the bordering granites and Hammamat molasses terrenes of Wadi Mayet El- Abd or drained from the further

  10. Education versus regulation: The case for regulating the indoor tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Suzeanne; Kraft, Frederic

    2016-05-01

    We examine marketing strategies for indoor tanning services that often target young adult females. Evidence of the addictive nature of indoor tanning suggests that young adults may be vulnerable to the promotion of indoor tanning and as a result deserve greater protection from the marketing of these services. As public awareness of the rising numbers of skin cancers linked to indoor tanning grows, we believe that the public will support increased regulation of this industry. PMID:26911656

  11. Sedimentary geochemistry of chert from the Middle-Upper Ordovician in Shihuigou area, North Qilian orogenic belt and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuansheng; ZHU Jie; GU Songzhu

    2007-01-01

    The North Qilian orogenic belt is an elongate tectonic unit that lies between the North China plate to the north and the Middle Qilian microplate to the south, and is formed by a collision of the two plates in the Caledonian. The Shihuigou Section from Yongdeng County, Gansu Province,is in the eastern sector of the North Qilian Mountains, span-ning the Ordovician island-arc zones. The Zhongpu Group is distributed in the Shihuigou area and composed of medium-basic volcanic rocks and volcanic clastic rocks interspersed with cherts, limestones, slates, and metamorphic sandstones.The geochemistry of chert from the Zhongpu Group reveals that all cherts coexisting with island-arc volcanic rocks formed in a continental margin basin environment. Research results of the rare earth elements reveal that these cherts formed in a relatively deep-water basin with no significant terrestrial interference. Therefore, it is inferred that the North Qilian orogenic belt was previously an archipelagic ocean in the Ordovician.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of indoor tanning and sunless tanning product use among female teens in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Quinn

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Results indicate a significant proportion of teen females engage in IT and STP use. There was evidence that in teens that have never used IT before, STP use precedes IT initiation. Given the evidence for increased IT in rural populations, research focused on rural tanning bed use is needed.

  13. Tan Silliksaar, Tõnu Ling : meie piltides ei ole mingit trikitamist ega skandaali / Tõnu Ling, Tan Silliksaar ; interv. Heli Salong

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ling, Tõnu

    2005-01-01

    Kuressaare kultuurikeskuses ja Saaremaa kunstistuudios avati Tõnu Lingi ja Tan Silliksaare fotonäitus-müük "Maameeste maastikud". Fotod on prinditud spetsiaalsele, kunsti reprodutseerimiseks mõeldud lõuendile. Autorid oma koostööst, fotodest, lõuenditehnikast

  14. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages for the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic-magmatic events in the southeast margin of the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO SuShu; LI ShuGuang

    2009-01-01

    A garnet-pyroxene bearing amphibolite as a xenolith hosted by the Mesozoic igneous rocks from Xuzhou-Suzhou area was dated by zircon SHRIMP U-Pb method, which yields a metamorphic age of Archean metamorphic complex named Wuhe group in the Bengbu uplift give a metamorphic U-Pb age Bengbu uplift give a magma crystallization U-Pb age of 2054 ± 22 Ma. Both the Xuzhou-Suzhou area and Bengbu uplift are located in the southeastern margin of the North China Craton. Therefore, these ages indicate that there is a Paleoproterozoic tectonic zone in the southeastern margin of the North China Craton, and its metamorphic and magmatic ages are consistent with those of the other three Paleoproterozoic tectonic zones in the North China Craton. In view of the large scale sinistral strike-slip movement occurred at the Mesozoic along the Tan-Lu fault zone, the position of the eastern Shandong area, which is a south section of the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, was correlated to Xuzhou-Suzhou-Bengbu area prior to movement of the Tan-Lu fault zone. This suggests that the Xuzhou-Suzhou-Bengbu Paleoproterozoic tectonic zone might be a southwest extension of the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt.

  15. The Levels of Genetic Differentiation of Small-Tailed Han Sheep and Tan Sheep Populations Using Structural Loci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-xia; CHANG Hong; JI De-jun; Tsunoda Kenji; REN Zhan-jun; REN Xiang-lian; SUN Wei; YANG Zhang-ping; CHANG Guo-bin

    2006-01-01

    Using the method of "random sampling in typical colonies of the central area of the habitat" and several electrophoresis techniques, the variations of 17 structural loci encoding blood proteins in 60 Small-Tailed Han sheep and 73 Tan sheep were examined and compared with those of 14 other sheep populations in China and other countries to investigate their levels of genetic differentiation. The average heterozygosities of Small-Tailed Han sheep and Tan sheep were 0.2360 and 0.2587, respectively. The average polymorphic information content values were 0.1974 and 0.2102, respectively. The average effective numbers of alleles were 1.5723 and 1.5751, respectively. The coefficients of gene differentiation in the four groups (including 4, 6, 13, and 16 sheep populations, respectively) were 0.049323, 0.059987, 0.1728, and 0.201256,respectively, indicating that the degree of gene differentiation at the structural loci was the least in Hu sheep, Tong sheep,Small-Tailed Han sheep, and Tan sheep; followed by the above-mentioned four sheep populations and two Mongolian sheep populations; and was the highest in sheep populations belonging to the Mongolian sheep group, South Asian sheep, and European sheep. The earlier researchers' conclusions that both Small-Tailed Han sheep and Tan sheep evolved from Mongolian sheep were further verified by the results of this study. Hu sheep, Tong sheep, Small-Tailed Han sheep, and Tan sheep were decreasingly affected by the bloodline of Mongolian sheep to different degrees. The relationships among sheep populations were not closely related to the geographical distances among sheep populations.

  16. Molecular modeling approach to vegetable tanning: preliminary results for gallotannin interactions with the collagen microfibril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanning of animal hides produces leather, a durable, flexible material that is stabilized against putrefaction. Chrome-tanned wet blue, aldehyde crosslinked wet white, and vegetable tanned hides are major contributors to current leather production. Although the chemistries involved are significant...

  17. Quality assessment of TanDEM-X DEMs using airborne LiDAR, photogrammetry and ICESat elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y. S.; Deo, R.; Nalini, J.; Pillai, A. M.; Muralikrishnan, S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    TanDEM-X mission has been acquiring InSAR data to produce high resolution global DEM with greater vertical accuracy since 2010. In this study, TanDEM-X CoSSC data were processed to produce DEMs at 6 m spatial resolution for two test areas of India. The generated DEMs were compared with DEMs available from airborne LiDAR, photogrammetry, SRTM and ICESat elevation point data. The first test site is in Bihar state of India with almost flat terrain and sparse vegetation cover and the second test site is around Godavari river in Andhra Pradesh (A.P.) state of India with flat to moderate hilly terrain. The quality of the DEMs in these two test sites has been specified in terms of most widely used accuracy measures viz. mean, standard deviation, skew and RMSE. The TanDEM-X DEM over Bihar test area gives 5.0 m RMSE by taking airborne LiDAR data as reference. With ICESat elevation data available at 9000 point locations, RMSE of 5.9 m is obtained. Similarly, TanDEM-X DEM for Godavari area was compared with high resolution aerial photogrammetric DEM and SRTM DEM and found RMSE of 5.3 m and 7.5 m respectively. When compared with ICESat elevation data at several point location and also the same point locations of photogrammetric DEM and SRTM, the RMS errors are 4.1 m, 3.5 m and 4.3 m respectively. DEMs were also compared for open-pit coal mining area where elevation changes from -147 m to 189 m. X- and Y-profiles of all DEMs were also compared to see their trend and differences.

  18. The Adaptation of Fishing Instruments by a Farmers' Community in the Thung Kula Area, in North Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Ubonlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a historical study of the ancient communities in the area of Thung Kula, it was revealed that there are important resources including rice, fish, salt and iron. Salt is used in making fermented fish (known locally as Pla Daek, a culinary culture which has been prevalent in the ethnic groups of Laos and Khmer. The availability of rice and fish in Thung Kula has continued to this day. Thung Kula farmers have extended their fishing sources from the government-owned places to their own fields or ponds. Approach: They use fishing instruments that had been developed out of folk wisdom in combination with the new technology in order to increase the fishing yields adequate for their own consumption and for commerce. The present research aimed to study the adaptation of fishing instruments of the farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Thung Luang sub-district, Suwannaphum district, Roi-Et province. The studied area was Thung Kula in the North East of Thailand. The research method was qualitative. Data were collected from relevant documents and from field studies with 25 informants. Structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with local tradesmen, consumers, fishing-instrument shop owners. Results: The results were presented descriptively below. The adaptation of fishing instruments of Ban Ta Yuak farmers began with the increased population, the changing ecological systems as a result of the government’s construction of reservoirs, canals, public ponds and the market-oriented economy which had attracted the local fishing markets across the Thung Kula area. Ban Ta Yuak farmers have then adapted their fishing instruments to fit the available kinds of fish and the ecological systems of the local water sources. With assistance from the government, the farmers have their own fishing ponds. It was found that prior to the application of the national economic and social plan of 1962 these farmers created simple fishing instruments such as Sai (a

  19. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale. PMID:24373388

  20. Interferometric SAR Coherence Models for Characterization of Hemiboreal Forests Using TanDEM-X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aire Olesk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four models describing the interferometric coherence of the forest vegetation layer are proposed and compared with the TanDEM-X data. Our focus is on developing tools for hemiboreal forest height estimation from single-pol interferometric SAR measurements, suitable for wide area forest mapping with limited a priori information. The multi-temporal set of 19 TanDEM-X interferometric pairs and the 90th percentile forest height maps are derived from Airborne LiDAR Scanning (ALS, covering an area of 2211 ha of forests over Estonia. Three semi-empirical models along with the Random Volume over Ground (RVoG model are examined for applicable parameter ranges and model performance under various conditions for over 3000 forest stands. This study shows that all four models performed well in describing the relationship between forest height and interferometric coherence. Use of an advanced model with multiple parameters is not always justified when modeling the volume decorrelation in the boreal and hemiboreal forests. The proposed set of semi-empirical models, show higher robustness compared to a more advanced RVoG model under a range of seasonal and environmental conditions during data acquisition. We also examine the dynamic range of parameters that different models can take and propose optimal conditions for forest stand height inversion for operationally-feasible scenarios.

  1. Trade openness and investment in North Africa: A CGE application to deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the EU and respectively Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    BOULANGER PIERRE; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Rau, Marie-Luise; Rutten, Martine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an impact analysis of deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the European Union (EU) and most of the North-African (NAF) countries – namely Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Scenarios are modelled with MAGNET, a general equilibrium model, and focus on trade liberalisation including non-tariff measures (NTMs) on the one hand, increases in foreign direct investments (FDIs) and capital flows on the other. They assume either broad productivity gains...

  2. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sudheendra; Hiremath; Pramod S

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic...

  3. Integrated Green Roofs System and its Role of Achieving Sustainability in Residential Buildings in Urban Area in Athens, Greece and Famagusta, North Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mehran shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics and importance of the green roof in urban area would investigate in some residential buildings in Athens, Greece and then, some strategies give to integrate green roof in residential buildings in Famagusta, north Cyprus due to the importance of energy saving and thermal comfort in residential buildings. These days, sustainable architecture is spreading around the world. Therefore, Sustainable architecture has important role in design build...

  4. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; LU, XIAOXIA

    2011-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrati...

  5. Inter-agency comparison of TanDEM-X baseline solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, A.; Montenbruck, O.; Moon, Y.; Wermuth, M.; König, R.; Michalak, G.; Bock, H.; Bodenmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is the first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission using close formation flying for bistatic SAR interferometry. The primary goal of the mission is to generate a global digital elevation model (DEM) with 2 m height precision and 10 m ground resolution from the configurable SAR interferometer with space baselines of a few hundred meters. As a key mission requirement for the interferometric SAR processing, the relative position, or baseline vector, of the two satellites must be determined with an accuracy of 1 mm (1D RMS) from GPS measurements collected by the onboard receivers. The operational baseline products for the TanDEM-X mission are routinely generated by the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) using different software packages (EPOS/BSW, GHOST) and analysis strategies. For a further independent performance assessment, TanDEM-X baseline solutions are generated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) on a best effort basis using the Bernese Software (BSW). Dual-frequency baseline solutions are compared for a 1-month test period in January 2011. Differences of reduced-dynamic baseline solutions exhibit a representative standard deviation (STD) of 1 mm outside maneuver periods, while biases are below 1 mm in all directions. The achieved baseline determination performance is close to the mission specification, but independent SAR calibration data takes acquired over areas with a well known DEM from previous missions will be required to fully meet the 1 mm 1D RMS target. Besides the operational solutions, single-frequency baseline solutions are tested. They benefit from a more robust ambiguity fixing and show a slightly better agreement of below 1 mm STD, but are potentially affected by errors caused by an incomplete compensation of differential ionospheric path delays.

  6. Water quality in Reedy Fork and Buffalo Creek basins in the Greensboro area, North Carolina, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from April 1986 through September 1987 at 19 sites in Guilford County and the City of Greensboro, North Carolina. Sampling locations included 13 stream sites, two lakes that supply the City of Greensboro with drinking water, two City of Greensboro finished drinking-water filtration plants, and effluent from the two municipal wastewater plants prior to outfall into receiving streams. Water sampling consisted of six surveys during various stages of steady ground-water flow at all sites and high-flow-event sampling during two storms at six sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected at three sites during two routine sampling surveys. A summary of nearly 22, 000 separate chemical or physical analyses of water samples or bottom sediment is presented and discussed as individual values, ranges of values, or median values with respect to the locations of sampling sites, streamflow conditions, or other information bearing on water-quality conditions under discussion. The results include discussions of general water-quality indicators; major ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations; acid and base/neutral extractable organic compounds; volatile organic compounds; and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides detected at each sampling site. Loadings of selected constituents are also estimated on a yearly and daily basis. The quality of the raw and finished water, municipal effluents, and streams in the Greensboro area are characterized by using State and Federal water-quality standards. Inorganic constituents most commonly found in excess of standards were iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, phosphorus, manganese, cyanide, and mercury. Relatively few organic compounds were detected; however, those consistently reported were phthalate, thihalomethane, organophosphorus pesticide, benzol, and phenolic compounds. Selected inorganic, physical, and total organic carbon data are used in a Wilcoxon test for two independent

  7. Hydro-geochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in Akoko North West local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Dare Timothy Oyedotun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A sudden geometric increase in population of Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State has led to an increase in demand for water and harnessing of subsurface water reserve. A total of twenty six water samples obtained from both boreholes and hand-dug wells were analyzed for their physico-chemical characteristics with the aim of assessing their quality, usability and also to determine the level of their contamination in the local government which is dominated by granite gneisses, charnockites, and augen gneisses as the main rock types. The following physico-chemical properties were analyzed for in the samples collected: electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total alkalinity (TA, total dissolved solids (TDS, total suspended solids (TSS, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC with major cations (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, anions (PO43-, HCO3-, SO43- and several heavy metals (Zn2+, Fe2+, As+, Ni+, Pb2+, Cd+, Cu2+. The following results were obtained from the analysis: Zn2+ (0.109 – 0.437 ppm, Fe2+ (0.216 – 0.726 ppm, As+ (0.01 – 0.03 ppm, Ni+ (0.036 – 0.074, Pb2+ (0.003 – 0.010, Cd+ (0.002 – 0.007, Cu2+ (0.086 – 0.241 with appreciable abundances of PO43-, Cd+, Fe2+and Ni+ some exceeding while some others are below the WHO acceptable level for drinking water, thereby making it a serious source of concern as it indicates varying levels of faecal contamination (from leaky septic tanks, interception with pit latrines and heavy metal liberation into the water consumed by the residents. It was also noticed that the water was fresh based on the analysis of the Total Dissolved Solids and the Pb2+ concentrations almost exceeded the standard permissible limit. Generally, it was concluded that the overall quality of the ground water is averagely good physico-chemically.

  8. Dynamic mechanism for horizontal deformation in part of North China area-- Three-dimensional finite-element calculation and analysis of results from GPS remeasurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A deformation monitoring network that covers part of North China area and takes the Beijing region as the center was measured for two times with high-precision GPS in 1995 and 1996 respectively. The results from remeasurement indicate that present horizontal movement in the monitored area is characterized by relative motion among several main tectonic blocks. Considering the spatial distribution features obtained from geological survey and results on seismic wave and activity in the area, and stratified features of crustal medium in depth, a three dimensional finite-element medium model is designed. And under the conditions of taking and not taking the action manner of the background stress field in the studied area into account, the relative motion between tectonic blocks is calculated and modeled. Based on the results from the analysis and calculations the dynamic mechanism for the present horizontal deformation in the area is discussed.

  9. Features and comprehensive evaluation of relative fitting anomalies of airborne gamma spectral in the south Hunan-north Guangxi area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Hunan-North Guangxi area is a main uranium metallogenetic area in South China, in which the types of uranium mineralization are mostly granite type and carbonate-siliceous-pelitic rock type, and are main types of uranium prospecting in South China. In order to break through the area by much more economically and effectively utilizing available airborne radioactive data, the main features are studied and summarized for relative fitting anomalies of airborne gamma spectral. The fitting anomalies are mostly distributed in granite areas and its exterior zones, and are closely relative to fault zones and uranium mineralization areas. By comprehensive evaluation, the anomalies of grade 1, 2, and 3 are selected according to the significance of uranium metallogenetic prospect. The mineralization zone in which uranium content is larger than 2 ‰ are discovered in the anomaly of grade 1 by trenching. (authors)

  10. Indoor Tanning within UK Young Adults: An Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Lorna J.; Forshaw, Mark J.; Williams, Stella

    2013-01-01

    The indoor tanning industry poses a long-term public health risk. Despite the adverse health effects, indoor tanning seems to be gaining considerable popularity. The study examined indoor tanning intentions and behaviour within UK young adults using an extended theory of planned behaviour model, which included variables on “appearance reasons to tan,” “perceived susceptibility to damaging appearance,” “perceived susceptibility to health consequences,” and “tanning knowledge.” The model was su...

  11. Electrweak Z-string And $\\tan\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1993-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets it is shown that the existence of the electroweak Z-string in general requires the same characteristic length for the two Higgs fields as well as a specific ratio of the two Higgs vacuum expectation values, i.e. $\\tan\\beta$. This ratio can be determined in terms of the couplings in the Higgs potential. Some remarks on the supersymmetric case are given. \

  12. Membrane-based treatment for tanning wastewaters 

    OpenAIRE

    Catarino, Justina; Mendonça, E.; Picado, Ana; Lança, Ana; Silva, Luís Manuel; Pinho, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Tanning wastewater was subjected to different unit operations to select the best treatment sequences. Textile membrane filtration (TMF), microfiltration (MF), and ultrafiltration (UF) were complemented by screening, flocculation or flotation operations. The general chemical characterization determined that the wastewater had a high organic load. The ecotoxicological study classified the wastewater as highly ecotoxic. The sequence of screening–TMF – UF was found to be the optimal treatment...

  13. Evidence for tanning from plant and insect remains

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, A.; H. Kenward

    2003-01-01

    [FIRST PARAGRAPH] It is suggested elsewhere (Hall and Kenward forthcoming) that a bioarchaeological 'indicator group' (sensa Kenward and Hall 1997) for tanning may be recognisable. The material giving rise to this hypothesis was discovered during assessment of samples from Anglo-Scandinavian and early post- Conquest riverside deposits at Layerthorpe Bridge, York (Carrott et al. 1997). Here, large quantities of bark fragments (and the sclereids -small clumps of lignified cells characteristic o...

  14. Study of the dechroming of tanned leather wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Botić Tatjana; Ilišković Nadežda V.; Drljača Dijana

    2004-01-01

    According to European legislation, it is not possible to dump any chromium-containing waste in Europe. The minimization of wastes is a key element in that strategy. It involves the application of clean technologies: low and non-waste technologies. The tanning industry generates substantial quantities of chromium-containing solid waste in the form of shavings and trimmings. The recycling and reuse of those wastes must be the primary target in optimizing processes of the leather industry. The p...

  15. Evaluation of isotopic diagnostics for subsurface characterization and monitoring: Field experiments at the TAN and RWMC (SDA) Sites, INEL. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'This research is aimed at improving methods for characterizing underground contamination sites and for monitoring how they change with time. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying and quantifying the effects of intrinsic remediation, and verifying the efficacy of engineered remediation activities. Isotopic measurements of elements like C, O, H, He, Cl, and Sr, which are present in groundwater and soil gas, provide a quantitative measure of material balance. They can be used to identify the sites of origin of contaminants in groundwater, and to determine if contaminants are being destroyed as a result of natural processes or engineered processes. Isotope ratios can also be used to trace the migration of fluids that are pumped down wells to destroy or confine underground contaminants, such as steam and grout, and they can be used to diagnose what chemical reactions are occuring underground and what materials are reacting. For example, destruction of TCE usually produces carbon dioxide, but carbon dioxide can also come from dissolution of calcite. There are many isotopic ratios that can be measured in groundwater and vadose zone gas that could be valuable for characterizing remediation sites and monitoring remediation activities. The authors concentrate on a few that are particularly useful for the problems being addressed at the TAN (Test Area North) and RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Complex) sites of the Idaho National Engineering Lab.. The isotopes the authors are using are carbon-13, carbon-14, helium-3, strontium-87, chlorine-37, and oxygen-18.'

  16. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value conservative transport characteristics and relatively elevated concentrations in production waters associated with gas extraction activities. Major ions

  17. Thrust augmentation nozzle (TAN) concept for rocket engine booster applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd

    2006-07-01

    Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.

  18. Cycling and Health: An Exploratory Study of Views about Cycling in an Area of North Liverpool, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavill, Nick; Watkins, Francine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore views about cycling among members of identified community groups living near the Loop Line, a cycling and walking path in a deprived part of North Liverpool, UK. Design/methodology/approach: Following a literature review, qualitative focus group research was conducted among six groups of children,…

  19. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, J.M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental d

  20. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional

  1. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west Himalaya with epicentral distance and magnitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Ghosh; A K Mahajan

    2013-02-01

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation which relates the seismological data with parameters of engineering interest. In the absence of sufficient strong motion data for northwest Himalayan region, isoseismal maps of previous earthquakes were the only source of information for computing the attenuation characteristics of that region. The northwest Himalayan region had experienced major and moderate earthquakes in the past and isoseismal maps had been developed by various authors for each of these earthquakes representing intensity pattern and decay of intensity in different directions. With this information, attenuation relations of intensity with distance can be obtained. The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes ( ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the last 100 years. These are primarily Kangra (1905), Chamba-1 (1945), Chamba-2 (1995), Kinnaur (1975), Dharamsala (1986), Uttar Kashi (1991), Garhwal-1 (1996), Garhwal-2 (1996), Sundarnagar (1997) and Chamoli (1999) earthquakes. Miezoseismal zones in majority of the isoseismal maps show two major directions, i.e., either the longest axis of these isoseismal maps which are aligned in NW–SE direction following the major longitudinal features or north-northwest to south-southeast direction, following the tectonic features which are transverse to the Himalayan trend. Isoseismal maps of Kangra (1905), Chamba (1945) and Uttar Kashi (1991) earthquakes are more symmetrical and elongated in south-east direction, but compressed in north-east and north-west directions, thus indicating fast attenuation characteristics in north-east and north-west directions reflecting lithological variation. On the other hand, Sundernagar (1997) and Kinnuar (1975) earthquakes show circular pattern of intensity distribution. Combining decay patterns from different magnitude earthquakes in different directions, two attenuation relationships have been developed using regression relationship

  2. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  3. Gaseous Air Pollutants and its Environmental EffectEmittedfrom the Tanning Industry at Hazaribagh, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Hashem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has focused on gaseous air pollutants and its environmental effect-emitted from tanning industry during leather processing, especially in unhairing & liming, deliming, pickling and finishing operations in which hydrogen sulphide (H2S, ammonia (NH3, chlorine (Cl2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs are emitted respectively at Hazaribagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S gas has negative effect at atmosphere by the process of photochemical reaction; it increases the greenhouse methane gas. In atmosphere, gaseous form of ammonia (NH3 reacts with available acids and form their corresponding salts cause cloudiness and finally they return to earth surface by wet or dry deposition which effects on aquatic life. Workers in tanning industries are directly inhaled toxic chlorine gas suffers withvarious health complexities. Emission of VOCs isthe mostly formaldehyde and it is captured in photochemical oxidation by ozone as well as UV radiation. It’s an important precursor of smog formation where it reacts with oxides of nitrogen (NOx including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN; smog decreases the visibility in the urban area.

  4. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  5. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  6. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. PMID:26897362

  7. Development of Wet-white Leather Tanning Technology%白湿革鞣制技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛巡天; 王韬; 厉巧萍; 于凤; 罗建勋

    2014-01-01

    The tanning mechanisms and tanning characteristics of wet-white leather tanning technologies such as tanages using chromium-free metal tanning agent, silicon tanning agent, aldehyde tanning agent, vegetable tannin, were reviewed. In particular, the latest research on wet-white tanning agents at home and abroad was discussed.%综述了非铬金属鞣剂、硅鞣剂、醛鞣剂、植物鞣剂等白湿革鞣制技术的鞣制机理及鞣制特性,以及近年来国内外最新的白湿革鞣剂研究成果。

  8. Measures for regional security and arms control in the North-East Asian Area. Report of working group I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specific topics were of utmost interest in Working Group I: the possibility of establishing some kind of multilateral security mechanism in North-East Asia; elements of Korean reconciliation; non-proliferation of weapons; openness, transparency and confidence-building measures; general principles of norms of conduct for peace and security in the region; nuclear weapons and security measures; cooperative measures for regional security and stability

  9. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, J. M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental data. The highest α and γ-diversities were identified in the south-eastern portion of the state, in mountain zones with a warm sub-humid climate, whereas the greatest β-diversity (multiplicative for...

  10. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    distributions of juvenile cod. The transport of particles showed considerable intra- and interannual variability, but also some general patterns of retention within and dispersion todifferentmanagement areas.Good spatial overlapof particle end positions, representing potential juvenile settlement areas...

  11. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alice T.; Leung, Luke K. -P.; Goullet, Mark S.; Gentle, Matthew N.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Simple summary Conflicts with dingoes and other wild dogs are becoming increasingly common in and around urban areas of Australia. A lack of basic information about wild dog movement ecology hampers efficient planning and allocation of resources to mitigate human–wild dog conflicts. We captured, collared and released 37 wild dogs in urban areas of north-eastern Australia to investigate their movement ecology. In general, wild dogs occupied small fragments of bushland within an urban matrix, were active at all times of the day, and lived within a few hundred meters of houses and humans at all times. We conclude that wild dog management strategies in urban areas should focus on the mitigation of impacts at the individual or group level, and not population-level reductions in numbers. Abstract Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo × domestic dog hybrids are common in many urban areas, and pose a variety of human health and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-eastern Australia and continuously monitored them each 30 min for 11–394 days. Most dingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas. PMID:27537916

  12. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault

  13. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diansari, Angga Vertika, E-mail: anggav.bmkg@gmail.com; Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri [Academy of Meteorology and Geophysics, Jalan Perhubungan I no.5 Tangerang 15221 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault.

  14. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  15. UPWELLING AND SEDIMENTATION DYNAMICS Ⅲ: COINCIDENCE OF UPWELLING AREAS WITH MUD PATCHES IN NORTH HEMISPHERE SHELF SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞重光; 胡敦欣

    2002-01-01

    The determinant role of upwelling in fine sediment patches is examined from the viewpoints of physical process and biological process respectively. It is pointed out that physical and biological processes are usually coexistent and interact with each other during the sedimentation of suspended matters. This study used available figures showing the circulation pattern and surface sediment distribution in the whole China Seas, the Gulf of Maine, the Irish Sea and the North Sea, and additional data to verify that wherever upwelling exists on the continental shelf, mud must occur; and that wherever downwelling occurs, coarse sediment substitutes for mud.

  16. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  17. Is Gray Water the Key to Unlocking Water for Resource-Poor Areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and Other Arid Regions of the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Leas, Eric C.; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2013-01-01

    Support for the use of treated gray water as an alternative water resource in the Middle East and North Africa is high, especially given the lack of religious restrictions against its use, but several obstacles have kept application of treated gray water near 1 % in some areas. The largest of obstacles include the cost of treatment and the ambiguity surrounding the health safety of gray water and treated gray water. This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices global...

  18. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  19. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  20. Use of chitosan for chromium removal from exhausted tanning baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Raffaele; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Lanzetta, Rosa; Mancino, Anna; Naviglio, Biagio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Sartorio, Roberto; Tomaselli, Michele; Tortora, Gelsomina

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach, based on chitosan heavy-metal sequestrating ability, is proposed for chromium(III) removal from spent tanning liquor. Experimental results, obtained at lab-scale using real wastewater, are presented and discussed. Resulting efficiencies are extremely high, and strongly dependent on chitosan dose and pH value. Comparative analyses with other polysaccharides is also carried out showing that amine groups are more efficient than carboxyl and sulphate ones. Chromium recovery from sorption complexes and chitosan regeneration is finally proposed to optimize the whole process.

  1. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  2. Hydrolysis of tanned leather wastes under alkaline, acidic and oxidative conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Botić Tatjana; Ilišković Nadežda

    2006-01-01

    Different wastes in large quantities are the outcome or the by-product of processes in the tanning industry. The largest part of solid wastes is collagen based and obtained in the reprocessing steps of tanned and non-tanned products. The quality collagen substance obtained from wastes of the leather industry used as a supporting material in many reprocessing industries. Hydrolysis is the basic step of collagen processing, namely the shortening of its polypeptide chain. The main goal of this i...

  3. Mood changes after indoor tanning among college women: associations with psychiatric/addictive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor tanning (IT has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction. The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid and positive (feeling interested mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables.

  4. Lifetime history of indoor tanning in young people: a retrospective assessment of initiation, persistence, and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lostritto Karen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite educational and public health campaigns to convey the risks of indoor tanning, many individuals around the world continue to engage in this behavior. Few descriptive studies of indoor tanning have collected information pertaining to the lifetime history of indoor tanning, thereby limiting our ability to understand indoor tanning patterns and potentially target interventions for individuals who not only initiate, but continue to persistently engage in indoor tanning. Methods In-person interviews elicited detailed retrospective information on lifetime history of indoor tanning among white individuals (n = 401 under age 40 seen by a dermatologist for a minor benign skin condition. These individuals were controls in a case-control study of early-onset basal cell carcinoma. Outcomes of interest included ever indoor tanning in both males and females, as well as persistent indoor tanning in females - defined as females over age 31 who tanned indoors at least once in the last three or all four of four specified age periods (ages 11-15, 16-20, 21-30 and 31 or older. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of ever and persistent indoor tanning in females. Results Approximately three-quarters (73.3% of females and 38.3% of males ever tanned indoors, with a median age of initiation of 17.0 and 21.5, respectively. Among indoor tanners, 39.3% of females and 21.7% of males reported being burned while indoor tanning. Female ever indoor tanners were younger, had darker color eyes, and sunbathed more frequently than females who never tanned indoors. Using unique lifetime exposure data, 24.7% of female indoor tanners 31 and older persistently tanned indoors starting as teenagers. Female persistent indoor tanners drank significantly more alcohol, were less educated, had skin that tanned with prolonged sun exposure, and sunbathed outdoors more frequently than non-persistent tanners

  5. Enforcement Provisions of Indoor Tanning Bans for Minors: An Analysis of the First 6 US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Amy L; Mayer, Jonathan E; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Guild, Samantha R; Gottlieb, Mark A; Geller, Alan C

    2015-08-01

    Several states have passed legislation banning minors from indoor tanning; however, concern has been raised regarding enforcement. We explored the statutes pertaining to enforcement in the first 6 US states to pass legislation banning minors younger than 18 years from indoor tanning. The findings reflect significant variability in enforcement provisions across the 6 states. Further investigations are needed to determine whether the statutes are successful in curbing indoor tanning among youths and ultimately whether indoor tanning bans among minors help to reduce skin cancer incidence. PMID:26066916

  6. Mood Changes After Indoor Tanning Among College Women: Associations with Psychiatric/Addictive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline

    2016-06-23

    Indoor tanning (IT) has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction). The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview) via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid) and positive (feeling interested) mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables. PMID:27403462

  7. Spectroscopy of TaN in Support of Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhorter, Richard; Sharfi, David; Kim, Yongrak; Kokkin, Damian; Bouchard, Jacob; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Tantalum nitride, TaN, has been recently identified as a leading candidate for extending the study of T, P-odd effects in the nuclear realm to include proton, neutron, and quark electric dipole moments (EDM) and beyond. This is primarily due to enhancements in the interaction of electrons with the nuclear magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM) and the resulting parity-violating effects. Study of the dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from the excitation of the 17570.80 (Ω = 0+) , 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) , 19216.80 (Ω = 1), and 19396.78 (Ω = 1) bands above the X1Σ+ (v = 0) ground state of TaN near 569 nm, 543 nm, 520 nm, and 515 nm has enabled a determination of the branching ratios and transition dipole moments of all 4 states. Radiative lifetimes of 454(32) ns, 479(12) ns, 333(4) ns, and 480(17) ns respectively were measured from an analysis of the fluorescence decay curves, and potential optical pumping approaches for both populating and detecting the parity-violation sensitive 3Δ1 state are proposed. Further experiments using CW laser excitation have enabled the observation of the hyperfine structure of several bands in the gateway 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) to X1Σ+ (v = 0) transition, and analysis of these complex spectra is underway. DK, JB, and TS acknowledge support from NSF CHE-1265885, as do RM, DS, and YK from Pomona College.

  8. Alkali-free method of hide preparation for tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valeika

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, beamhouse processes are carried out by varying a medium from strongly alkaline (unhairing-liming up to strongly acid (pickling. This study is designed to develop a preparation of hide for tanning via processes that avoid a sharp change of hide pH. Enzymes active in acid medium are employed for hide unhairing in a buffer system containing 2.5% acetic acid and 0.3% sodium acetate. An oxidative treatment with peracetic acid then allows the complete removal of residual hair and scud. During both processes, unhairing and oxidative treatment, the opening of the derma structure occurs: 13.3-14.6g of non-collagen proteins are removed and amount of dermatan sulphate decreases by 35%. The hide obtained can be chromed directly after the above processes and subsequent treatment with sodium chloride solution omitted conventional pickling. The pH of the hide varies in the range of 8.3-3.7 during the processes of preparation for tanning.

  9. Study of the dechroming of tanned leather wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botić Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available According to European legislation, it is not possible to dump any chromium-containing waste in Europe. The minimization of wastes is a key element in that strategy. It involves the application of clean technologies: low and non-waste technologies. The tanning industry generates substantial quantities of chromium-containing solid waste in the form of shavings and trimmings. The recycling and reuse of those wastes must be the primary target in optimizing processes of the leather industry. The problem is in a satisfying chromium separation from collagen fibers. Common hydrolysis processes-alkaline or acidic-give gelatins containing residual chromium (III. By using an oxidation agent (H2O2 before alkaline hydrolysis, in was demonstrated that chromium from chromium-containing leather wastes can be almost fully recovered by the previous oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI. This chromium can be reused in the tanning process. That would represent an economic saving. The best result of the dechroming process was a gelatin hydrolyzate with only 1.11 in respect to the initial amount.

  10. Enhancement of chromium uptake in tanning using oxazolidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarapandiyan, S; Brutto, Patrick E; Siddhartha, G; Ramesh, R; Ramanaiah, B; Saravanan, P; Mandal, A B

    2011-06-15

    Monocyclic and bicyclic oxazolidines were offered at three different junctures of chrome tanning process viz. prior to BCS offer, along with BCS and after basification. It was found that oxazolidine when offered after basification brought about better chromium uptake and reduction of chromium load in the wastewater. Offer of oxazolidine was also varied. Increase in offer of oxazolidine from 0.25% to 1% was found to enhance the chromium uptake and decrease the chromium load in wastewater. But the increase in uptake was not proportionate to the increase in oxazolidine offer more than 0.75%. Offer of 1% Zoldine ZA 78 (monocyclic oxazolidine) and Zoldine ZE (bicyclic oxazolidine) after basification brought about 63.4% and 73.1% enhancement in chrome content in leather compared to control where oxazolidine was not offered. The tone of the wetblue was found to be altered moderately. However this did not call for any process adjustments in wet-finishing. The oxazolidine treated leathers were found to be immensely fuller and tighter. It was found experimentally that offer of 1% of oxazolidine facilitated reduction in the offer of syntans administered for filling and grain tightening by around 46%. Oxazolidine could bring about significant reduction in cost of chemicals apart from resulting environmental benefits due to enhancement of chromium uptake during tanning. PMID:21536383

  11. Diel variability of feeding activity in haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus ) larvae in the East Shetland area, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ueberschar, B.; Basford, D.;

    1999-01-01

    aeglifinus) larvae four times per day during a 10-d cruise in the northern North Sea. Feeding activity was evaluated using indices of gut fullness, prey digestive state and biochemical measurements (tryptic enzyme activity). The gut fullness and the enzyme activity indices indicated moderate to high rates...... of food consumption throughout the cruise. Time series analysis of the three indices showed significant diel variability in all indices and enabled identification of significant lags between food uptake and peak digestive enzyme activity. The typical pattern of food consumption and digestion...... was characterized by maximal ingestion of prey early in the evening (19:00 hrs) and peak digestive enzyme activity at 01:00 hrs. The time scale over which enzyme activities reacted to prey ingestion was ca. 6 h, and is consistent with expectations from controlled laboratory experiments with other larval fish...

  12. Palynology of Waikato Coal Measures (Late Eocene-Late Oligocene) from the Raglan area, North Island, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocknall, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    Spore-pollen assemblages from Waikato Coal Measures in the Kawhia-Raglan region, North Island, indicate that the coal measures, which rest on basement, are time transgressive and young to the southwest. The climate was predominantly cool to warm temperate, in accord with other climatic reconstructions for the Late Eocene-Late Oligocene period elsewhere in New Zealand, with brassi beech being the dominant component in the forests of the region. One new genus, Gemmapollis, is erected to accommodate tricolporate pollen with thickened colpi margins and gemmate/verrucate surface sculpture. Five new species are described. These are Monosulcites subverrucatus, Gemmapollis raglanensis, Rhoipites aequatorius, R. karamuensis, and Sparsipollis acuminatus. One species, Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, has been recombined, a revised description is given for Nothofagidites waipawaensis, and a new name is proposed for Rhoipites pilatus. The following taxa are recorded and/or illustrated from New Zealand for the first time - Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, Tricolpites discus, Cupanieidites reticularis, Santalumidites cainozoicus, and Corsinipollenites oculus noctis.

  13. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  14. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alice T; Leung, Luke K-P; Goullet, Mark S; Gentle, Matthew N; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo×domesticdoghybridsarecommoninmanyurbanareas,andposeavarietyofhumanhealth and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-easternAustraliaandcontinuouslymonitoredthemeach30minfor11-394days. Mostdingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas.

  15. An in-situ campaign of spectral measurements for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in Luancheng of North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Sen; Chen, Liang-Fu; Liu, Qin-Huo; Xiao, Qing

    2004-10-01

    In an attempt to support the demonstration application of "Spectral Library Of Chinese representative surface substances", an in-situ campaign of spectral measurements was carried out during the summer of 2003 for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in North China Plain. The experiment sites, based on Luancheng Agricultural ecosystem experiment station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was a 5×5 km area located just south-east of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China. The spectral instrument used is ASD FieldSpecFR with wavelength of 0.35~2.5μm. The experimental achievement includes: soil moisture, corn physiological & biochemical parameters, corn leaf water & chlorophyll-a,b contents, corn structure parameters, field farmland microclimate, aerological exploration data of atmosphere, corn spectra of component, corn crown & background spectra cross the growth period of crop. The paper details the whole experimental scheme and design and partial representation of results of data analysis.

  16. What happened to gray whales during the Pleistocene? The ecological impact of sea-level change on benthic feeding areas in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Pyenson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their

  17. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy: Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy. Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS- based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%, Toxocara canis (1.72%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%, Ancylostomatidae (0.43%, and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%, followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%. Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection.

  18. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  19. 冷杉栲胶的制取及鞣革试验%Extraction-of Fir Bark and Tanning Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武勇; 马云志; 刘波

    2001-01-01

    Abies fabri bark, collected from Heshui Forest Area of Yunnan, was extracted by water solution or sulfiting and the tanning extract with water was mooified by sulfjting or syntan. Then the four extracts were used to tan skin under the same conditions to compare their tanning properties. The results of experiments show that the extract extracted by sulfiting in thc process may decrease its combination tannin and tanring number, but it has a lower deposits in tanning solutiorm fast penetration to skin and mild astrigcnce with skin. Furthermore, the resultant leather is fullness, stiffn~s and appearance of lightness. The extract modified by syntan has almost the same tanning properties as the one extracted by sulfiting in the process. In a word, the way to extracted by sulfiting in the process is the best way to prepare tannin extract. Also, the extract modified by syntan should be another choice for its fast penetration and stronger combination.%我国冷杉蓄积量丰富,广泛分布于西南、西北广大林区,开发利用冷杉鞣料具有重要意义。本文采用几种不同的浸提方法制取冷杉栲胶:1)水浸提;2)添加亚硫酸盐,包括在浸提过程中和浸提后的溶液中加入两种方法;3)合成单宁改性。用不同方法制取的栲胶做了鞣革研究,比较其成革性能。试验结果表明,冷杉栲胶经亚硫酸盐和合成单宁处理后,沉淀减少,渗透速度加快,成革丰满坚实,颜色浅淡,鞣革性能得到较大的改善。加亚硫酸盐浸提的栲胶结合鞣质和鞣制系数虽有所下降,但渗透速度却快得多,而日.栲胶的浸提率大,因而列为首选的方法。浓胶加合成单宁的方法因渗透快和结合力较强,也可供选择。

  20. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  1. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters. PMID:26769702

  2. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  3. Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, Caitlin; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

  4. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  5. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols: Impact of biomass burning and secondary formation in summertime in a rural area of the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Li, Weijun; Sui, Xiao; Wen, Liang; Chi, Jianwei; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Xu, Caihong; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain, field measurements were conducted at Yucheng (YC) in the summers of 2013 and 2014. The concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols at YC exhibited clear diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the early morning and at night and lower concentrations during the afternoon hours. The mass-balance method designed for particulate matter smaller than 2.5μm (PM2.5) was used to calculate the organic matter (OM)/organic carbon (OC) ratio. The value obtained, 2.07±0.05, was suggested as a reference to estimate organics in PM2.5 in rural areas of the North China Plain. Biomass burning was identified to be a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols; approximately half of the samples obtained at YC were affected by biomass burning during summer 2013. Case studies revealed that biomass burning accounted for up to 52.6% of the OC and 51.1% of the elemental carbon in PM2.5 samples. The organic coatings observed on sulphur-rich and potassium-rich particles indicated the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from the oxidation of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the aging of smoke released from biomass burning. Based on the evolution of the VOCs, the contribution of VOCs oxidation to SOA concentration was 3.21 and 1.07μgm(-3)ppm(-1) CO under conditions of low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and high NOx, respectively. Aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene) made the greatest contribution to SOA concentration (88.4% in low-NOx conditions and 80.6% in high-NOx conditions). The results of the study offer novel insights into the effects of biomass burning on the carbonaceous aerosols and SOA formation in polluted rural areas. PMID:27031303

  6. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future. PMID:26910989

  7. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  8. Evaluating the Quality and Accuracy of TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Models at Archaeological Sites in the Cilician Plain, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Erasmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful instrument for mapping and monitoring traces of historical settlements and infrastructure, not only in distant areas and crisis regions. It helps archaeologists to embed their findings from field surveys into the broader context of the landscape. With the start of the TanDEM-X mission, spatially explicit 3D-information is available to researchers at an unprecedented resolution worldwide. We examined different experimental TanDEM-X digital elevation models (DEM that were processed from two different imaging modes (Stripmap/High Resolution Spotlight using the operational alternating bistatic acquisition mode. The quality and accuracy of the experimental DEM products was compared to other available DEM products and a high precision archaeological field survey. The results indicate the potential of TanDEM-X Stripmap (SM data for mapping surface elements at regional scale. For the alluvial plain of Cilicia, a suspected palaeochannel could be reconstructed. At the local scale, DEM products from TanDEM-X High Resolution Spotlight (HS mode were processed at 2 m spatial resolution using a merge of two monostatic/bistatic interferograms. The absolute and relative vertical accuracy of the outcome meet the specification of high resolution elevation data (HRE standards from the National System for Geospatial Intelligence (NSG at the HRE20 level.

  9. Wet skins tanning with chromium in dense CO{sub 2} under pressure; Tannage au chrome de peaux humides en CO{sub 2} dense sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldinari, L. [Tanneries Roux SA, 26 - Romans Sur Isere (France)]|[Tanneries du Puy (France)]|[Tanneries d' Annonay, 07 (France); Dutel, Ch. [Societe ATC (France); Perre, Ch. [CEA Centre de Pierrelatte (DCC/DTE/SLC), 26 (France)

    2000-07-01

    An ancestral gesture steadily improved through the centuries, the transformation of skins into leather includes several stages of which the principal one is tanning. Today, 90 % of the world's leather products are tanned with chromium. However, this stage is an environmental liability, and reducing the volume and chromium content of the waste has become a major issue. A first study on skin degreasing by dense CO{sub 2} helped sharply reduce the volume of the fatty effluents. To replace water by dense CO{sub 2} as the tanning medium was the logical next step. The present study was carried out in cooperation with three tanneries in the Rhone-Alpes-Auvergne area of France and a manufacturer of tanning materials. The difficulty of the study was the chemically opposed character of the two media involved. CO{sub 2} is a non-polar and lipophilic solvent while inorganic chromium is insoluble. The water present in the treated skin is a polar and ionic reaction medium and one of the reagents in tanning chemistry. The mixture of these two partially miscible compounds gives a pH 3 by carbonic acid formation. Tanning is based on the reactivity of collagen, the main component of the skin, with hydroxylated complexes of chromium. Collagen is a protein containing some chemical functions, amines (R-NH{sub 2}) and carboxylic (R-COOH) for example. These functions impart an amphoteric character to the compound. The WERNER theory of complex salts explains the formation of hydroxylated complexes of chromium and their fixing on the carboxylic functions of collagen by oxolation. pH is the key parameter in tanning. The success of the process demands chromium impregnation without fixing it at a pH lower than 5, and then to fix it by increasing the pH. This opened two alternatives for transferring chromium in the skin: solubilize chromium in CO{sub 2} via soluble organometallic complexes; or put the chromium salt into suspension without solubilizing it. The best results were obtained

  10. Exposure to the 'Dark Side of Tanning' skin cancer prevention mass media campaign and its association with tanning attitudes in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M; Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The 'Dark Side of Tanning' (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of 13- to 44-year-olds living in New South Wales in the summer months of 2007-2010 (n = 7490). Regression models were used to determine predictors of recall of DSOT and to investigate associations between exposure to the campaign and tanning attitudes. The campaign achieved consistently high recall (unprompted recall 42-53% during campaign periods; prompted recall 76-84%). Those who recalled DSOT advertisements had a higher likelihood of reporting negative tanning attitudes compared with those who reported no recall, after adjusting for other factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27 for unprompted recall; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36 for prompted recall). Being interviewed in later campaign years was also a significant predictor of negative tanning attitudes (e.g. fourth year of campaign versus first year: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). These results suggest that mass media campaigns have potential to influence tanning-related attitudes and could play an important role in skin cancer prevention.

  11. 77 FR 37838 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  12. Quest for Self—An Interpretation of Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平

    2015-01-01

    Based on the text analysis of Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club this dissertation tries to prove that Amy Tan uses this semi-autobiographical novel as attempted quests for her identity in American society and tries to understand her own relationship with her mother.

  13. On Chinese American Identity Dilemma in Amy Tan's The Bonesetter's Daughter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁福江

    2010-01-01

    In The Bonesetter's Daughter,Amy Tan explores the complexity of Chinese American identity dilemma confronted by the major charactersThis paper in-tends to examine the marginalized position of the Chinese immigrant mother Luling and the American bom daughter Ruth and reveal the ideology of Amy Tan's writing beyond the bounds of ethnicity.

  14. Sun-Tanning Perceptions of a New Zealand Urban Population (1994–2005/6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Reeder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sun-tanning perceptions are monitored to identify changes and help refine targeting of skin cancer prevention messages. Aim. To investigate associations between perceptions of sun-tanning and demographic factors among a New Zealand urban population, 1994–2006. Methods. A telephone survey series was conducted during summer in 1994, 1997, 1999/2000, 2002/2003, and 2005/2006. Demographic and personal information (sex, age group, skin sun-sensitivity, and self-defined ethnicity obtained from 6,195 respondents, 50.2% female, 15–69 years, was investigated in relation to six sun-tanning related statements. A total “positive perceptions of tanning” (ProTan score was also calculated. Regression analyses modelled each component and the ProTan score against survey year and respondent characteristics. Results. Statistically significantly higher ProTan scores were found for age group (strong reverse dose-response effect, male sex, residence (highest in Auckland, ethnicity (highest among Europeans, and sun sensitivity (an n-shaped association. There was no statistically significant change in total ProTan scores from baseline. Conclusions. The development, pretesting, and evaluation of messages for those groups most likely to endorse ProTan statements should be considered for the New Zealand skin cancer prevention program. To achieve and embed significant change, mass media campaigns may require greater intensity and reinforcement with sustained contextual support for settings-based behavioural change.

  15. Perception of Tourist towards the Potential Development of Tumpa Mountain Area as Integrated Ecotourism, Manado, North Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Irwan Towoliu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumpa is the name of mountain located at the northern part of the Manado City region which bordering The National Park of Bunaken. As a mountainous region with a height of ±623m (asl, it occupies a strategic position. In addition to being adjacent to the park, it is also part of uplands owned by the city of Manado. It serves as buffer zone (green belt of water, horticultural and agricultural areas with mangrove coastal areas. Master Plan of Tourism Development Region in Manado City used as part of ecotourism products from mountain and forest, but so far there has been no in-depth study to assess the holistic perception of tourist in the development potency of the region as an integrated tourism in Tumpa Mountain area. This study was purposed to determine the tourist perception toward the potential development as integrated ecotourism. This research involved a qualitative research approach, described by using figures on the percentage. Fieldwork was used as a questionnaire survey. The analysis measurement using Likert Scale, scoring and analysis combined with the analysis of the interest rate (level of importance. This study result shows that the average respondent answered good with the score range between 3.5 until 4.2. It means the respondents have argued that every indicator; natural, social-cultural and infrastructure that exists in the region Tumpa Mount area is still in good condition. In the level of interest the respondents answered between 3.6 until 4.6 with category important. This means respondents expect that good environmental circumstances will be always maintained and linked with the development of tourist attraction which is very suitable to be developed as ecotourism. In conclusion, the indicators are considered good and important to be developed as an integrated ecotourism area. Keywords: Ecotourism, Integrated, Perception, Tourist, Tumpa Mount.

  16. Evaluation of TanDEM-X elevation data for geomorphological mapping and interpretation in high mountain environments - A case study from SE Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipaud, Isabel; Loibl, David; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) are a prerequisite for many different applications in the field of geomorphology. In this context, the two near-global medium resolution DEMs originating from the SRTM and ASTER missions are widely used. For detailed geomorphological studies, particularly in high mountain environments, these datasets are, however, known to have substantial disadvantages beyond their posting, i.e., data gaps and miscellaneous artifacts. The upcoming TanDEM-X DEM is a promising candidate to improve this situation by application of state-of-the-art radar technology, exhibiting a posting of 12 m and less proneness to errors. In this study, we present a DEM processed from a single TanDEM-X CoSSC scene, covering a study area in the extreme relief of the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Range, southeastern Tibet. The potential of the resulting experimental TanDEM-X DEM for geomorphological applications was evaluated by geomorphometric analyses and an assessment of landform cognoscibility and artifacts in comparison to the ASTER GDEM and the recently released SRTM 1″ DEM. Detailed geomorphological mapping was conducted for four selected core study areas in a manual approach, based exclusively on the TanDEM-X DEM and its basic derivates. The results show that the self-processed TanDEM-X DEM yields a detailed and widely consistent landscape representation. It thus fosters geomorphological analysis by visual and quantitative means, allowing delineation of landforms down to footprints of ~ 30 m. Even in this premature state, the TanDEM-X elevation data are widely superior to the ASTER and SRTM datasets, primarily owing to its significantly higher resolution and its lower susceptibility to artifacts that hamper landform interpretation. Conversely, challenges toward interferometric DEM generation were identified, including (i) triangulation facets and missing topographic information resulting from radar layover on steep slopes facing toward the radar sensor, (ii) low

  17. Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks in a High-Risk Area of the North-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Kightlinger, L.; Vincent, G.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America. Since its emergence in the western hemisphere in 1999, human WNV disease has continued to exhibit recurrent outbreaks. Perplexingly, the incidence of this tropical disease has been highest in the cold-temperate climates of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). The spatial and temporal distributions of the vector mosquitoes and bird hosts, and consequently the risk of disease in humans, are strongly influenced by temperature, precipitation, vegetation, soils, and land use. We have utilized satellite remote sensing to map these environmental factors through time and develop models of disease risk. Outbreak years in South Dakota were preceded by warm winters, and WNV cases were most likely to occur during the hottest weeks of summer. Hot spots of persistent WNV transmission within the state were associated with rural land cover as well as patterns of physiography and climate. These models are currently being integrated into the South Dakota Mosquito Early Warning system (SDMIS), an automated WNV outbreak detection system that integrates remotely-sensed environmental indicators with vector abundance and infection data from a statewide mosquito surveillance network. The major goal of this effort is to leverage global environmental monitoring datasets to provide up-to-date, locally relevant information that can improve the effectiveness of mosquito control and disease prevention activities. This system was implemented for the first time during the summer of 2015. We will review the outcomes of this implementation, including the underlying influences of temperature on WNV risk, a preliminary statewide WNV risk map, and dynamic risk predictions made during the 2015 WNV season. Lessons learned as well as plans for future years will be discussed.

  18. Mitigation of naphthenate related production upsets in high TAN (Total Acid Number) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostojic, Nik [Maersk Oil, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vijn, Pieter; Reiners, Robert [Champion Technologies Europe BV, Delden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for prediction, evaluation and mitigation of calcium naphthenate related production problems. Developing fields with acidic crude in the North Sea, West Africa, Bohai Bay (China) and Brazil is becoming more common in recent years. The high acid crude contains a considerable amount of naphthenic acids, typically having a Total Acid Number (TAN) higher than 0.5 mg KOH/g. Formation of either hard type 'calcium naphthenate precipitates' or soft type 'sodium carboxylate/emulsions' during crude oil production can lead to severe flow assurance and separation problems. In severe cases this may lead to production shutdowns to clean-up the equipment. A number of different naphthenate mitigation approaches have been published but no one particular approach is considered to be the most efficient as it depends significantly on the particular field conditions. Initially, this problem was addressed by deploying large volumes of (usually organic) acid, but more recently high efficiency low dose naphthenate inhibitors have been introduced. For predicting naphthenate scaling potential, methods were developed to determine the concentration of 1230 Dalton naphthenic tetra acid (ARN acids) in either deposit or crude oil and this information can be used to locate and potentially isolate the problem to a certain reservoir. Also, methods were developed to design suitable low dose naphthenate inhibitors. As these inhibitors are field tested, monitoring is required to ensure the product is performing most efficiently. In cases of tight emulsions however, this is less difficult as the oil dehydration and water quality is affected instantly. Methods were developed to allow monitoring of the calcium naphthenate deposition in field trails, thus allow trending and evaluation of the chemicals performance. After detailed analyses and discussions of the developed methods, a North Sea case history is presented reviewing several years of treating

  19. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Liu; Hong-Wei Kuang; Nan Peng; Huan Xu; Peng Zhang; Neng-Sheng Wang; Wei An

    2015-01-01

    complicated thrust and fold, the previous uniifed Ordos-North China Basin was separated by the northeast-oriented Great Xing’an Range and Taihang Mountain uplifted linearment. The differential evolution of basins and sedimentary palaeoge-ography between eastern and western North China was initiated, and was interpreted to result in the closure of Okhotsk Ocean and the subduction of Palaeo-Paciifc Plate (late stage 2). During the Late Jurassic (the early phase of stage 3), a variety of faulted basins occurred in the Yanshan and Yinshan areas in the northeastern North China. In Yanshan area, basins were iflled with thickened intermediate volcanic rocks and purple-red coarse-grained clastic rocks. In contrast, only thick layered sedimentary rocks with rare volcanic rocks developed in the Yinshan faulted basins, the Ordos Basin and basins in sourthern North China. XMOB was the main provenance of the Early Mesozoic basins in the North China, while the Ordos Basin and the Hefei Basin were partly supplied by the northern Qinling Orogenic Belt. During the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous (the late phase of stage 3), the north-ern and northeastern North China experienced extensional movement after the subduction of the Palaeo-Paciifc Plate, the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk Ocean and the subsequent Yanshanian orogeny. At the same time, a NE-oriented, giant rift basin system (NE Asia Rift) extended from the Yanshan to the western Great Xing’an Range, where rift basins were iflled with the regional, NE-oriented, thick coarse-grained clastic rocks and a belt of volcanic rocks. In the meantime, the eastern and northeastern China and most areas of NCC were presented as highland terrains. During the middle-late Early Cretaceous (stage 4), rift basins developed and accumulated alluvial sediments and interbedded alkaline volcanic rocks in the western and northern North China, including Yingen, Ejinaqi and Erlian regions. Basins were formed on both sides of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone

  20. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  1. Lesions in DNA of hypoxic mammalian cells irradiated in the presence of TAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TAN (triacetoneamine-N-oxyl) at a concentration of 10mM gives a dose modifying factor (DMF) of 1.45 for the surviving fraction of γ irradiated hypoxic mammalian cells. Under the same conditions, however TAN produces little or no enhancement of single strand breaks (SSB) in DNA (DMFapproximately equal to 1). In this study, enhancement of the type of DNA lesions exposed by an extract of M. luteus is reported. The DMF for this type of damage (MLS) is 1.5. TAN is known to affect the size of DNA synthesized after irradiation, presumably by causing interruptions in synthesis at TAN-DNA adduct sites. The absolute number of M. luteus extract sensitive sites detected in this work corresponds to approximately one half of the number of sites of interrupted synthesis. In its sensitizing effect on DNA, the free radical TAN is different from the electron affinic drug, misonidazole. (author)

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern.

  3. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern. PMID:26330321

  5. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R G Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  6. Summary and Trend Analysis of Water-Quality Data for the Oakes Test Area, Southeastern North Dakota, 1984-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.

    2007-01-01

    The Oakes Test Area is operated and maintained by the Garrison Diversion Conservancy District, under a cooperative agreement with the Bureau of Reclamation, to evaluate the effectiveness and environmental consequences of irrigation. As part of the evaluation, the Bureau of Reclamation collected water-quality samples from seven sites on the James River and the Oakes Test Area. The data were summarized and examined for trends in concentration. A nonparametric statistical test was used to test whether each concentration was increasing or decreasing with time for selected physical properties and constituents, and a trend slope was estimated for each constituent at each site. Trends were examined for two time periods, 1988-2004 and 1994-2004. Results varied by site and by constituent. All sites and all constituents tested had at least one statistically significant trend in the period 1988-2004. Sulfate, total dissolved solids, nitrate, and orthophosphate have significant positive trends at multiple sites with no significant negative trend at any site. Alkalinity and arsenic have single significant positive trends. Hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, potassium, and chloride have both significant positive and negative trends. Ammonia has a single significant negative trend. Fewer significant trends were identified in 1994-2004, and all but one were positive. The contribution to the James River from Oakes Test Area drainage appears to have little effect on water quality in the James River.

  7. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  8. Crustal Structure in the area of the North American Mid-Continent Rift System from P-wave Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Stein, S. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mid-continent Geophysical Anomaly (MGA) represents the largest gravity anomaly in the North American continental interior, its strongest portion stretching from Iowa to Lake Superior, and is the direct result of 1.1 Ga deposition and uplift of volcanic rocks in the Mid-continent Rift System (MRS). The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) collected broadband seismic data around this prominent portion of the MGA for 2.5 years from 82 seismic stations, simultaneously with about 30 Transportable Array (TA) stations in the region. To image crustal structure around the MGA, we analyzed the P-wave trains of 119 teleseismic earthquakes at these stations using the time-domain iterative-deconvolution method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999), the waveform-fitting method of Van der Meijde et al. (2003), and the H-κ stacking method of Zhu and
Kanamori (2000). Our aim was to resolve intra-crustal layering and Moho characteristics. Despite considerable noise related to station installation constraints, we find that outside of the MGA, the Moho is sharp and relatively flat, both beneath the Archean Superior Province as well as beneath the Proterozoic terranes to its south. This Moho produces consistent P to S converted phases in the analyzed receiver functions. Receiver functions show much more complexity along the MGA, where P to S converted phases from the Moho are much weaker and more variable with azimuth and epicentral distance. Similar results have been found in Iowa by French et al. (2009). For many stations along the MGA, multiple weak S phases arrive around the time expected for the Moho-converted phase. In addition, strong P-to-S converted phases are observed from the base of shallow sedimentary layers. The base of the sedimentary layer is fairly shallow outside of the MGA, thickens near the flanks where gravity anomalies are low and shallows again in the center where the gravity peaks. We conclude that the Moho is not a strong feature of the MRS

  9. Decrease in Self-Reported Tanning Frequency among Utah Teens following the Passage of Utah Senate Bill 41: An Analysis of the Effects of Youth-Access Restriction Laws on Tanning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca G. Simmons

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescent use of indoor tanning facilities is associated with an increased risk in later development of melanoma skin cancers. States that have imposed age restrictions on access to indoor tanning generally show lower self-reported rates of indoor tanning than states with no restrictions, but currently no studies have assessed indoor tanning use before and after such restrictions. Methods. In 2013, we compared self-reported indoor tanning data collected in the Prevention Needs Assessment (PNA survey in 2011 to PNA 2013 data. We also assessed predictors of continued tanning after passage of the bill. Results. Prior to the passage of Senate Bill 41, 12% of students reported at least one incident of indoor tanning in the past 12 months. After passage, only 7% of students reported indoor tanning in the past 12 months (P < 0.0001. Students who continued indoor tanning were more likely to be older and female and to engage in other risk behaviors, including smoking and alcohol use. Lower parental education levels were also associated with continued tanning. Conclusion. Indoor tanning restrictions showed beneficial impact on tanning rates in adolescents in Utah. Stricter restrictions may show even greater impact than restrictions that allow for parental waivers. Stronger enforcement of bans is needed to further reduce youth access.

  10. Studies on geological background and source of fluorine in drinking water in the North China Plate fluorosis areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, K.; Feng, F.; Li, H.; Chou, C.-L.; Feng, Z.; Yunshe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Endemic fluorosis in northern China is usually produced by high fluorine (F) content in drinking water. Thirty-one samples of drinking waters, mainly well waters and nearly 200 samples of rocks, loess, and coal were analyzed for F content using the combustion hydrolysis-fluoride-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. The geologic cross sections of two well-known fluorosis basins were studied. The solubility of F in different rock types collected from fluorosis areas was determined. Results showed that areas of endemic fluorosis in northern China are located in coal-bearing basins which are comprised of three stratagraphic portions. The lowest portion is Precambrian granitic rocks or Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates. The middle portion consists of Permo-Carboniferous or Jurassic coal-bearing sequences. The upper portion is 0-400 m Pleistocene loess. Flourine content in the Precambrian granite-gneiss contained (a) 1090-1460 ppm, in the Cambrian-Ordovician limestone and dolomite, (b) 52-133 ppm, in black shales and coal gob of Permo-Carboniferous coal-bearing strata, (c) 200-700 ppm, and (d) Pleistocene loess 454-542 ppm. The solubility of F in black shales of coal-bearing sequences was higher than in Precambrian granitic rocks, and both were more soluble than loess. F solubility from Precambrian granitic rocks was moderate, but Precambrian granitic rocks have high F content and thus contribute an appreciable amount of ion to the shallow groundwater (well water). Varying F content in shallow groundwater is controlled by geological conditions. The sources of F in the shallow groundwater from fluorosis areas in northern China are mainly derived from black shales of coal-bearing sequences and Precambrian granitic basement in the basins of northern China. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  11. Effects on non-human species inhabiting areas with enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Belykh, Elena S. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Majstrenko, Tatiana A. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    Results of long-term radioecological investigations in areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia are summarized. Deleterious changes within animal and plant populations inhabiting areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the Komi Republic were revealed. These changes are expressed in enhanced levels of mutagenesis, destructive processes in the tissues of animals, disturbances of reproductive functions and reduced offspring viability. Compensatory processes, resulting in animal and plant survival under extremely adverse conditions of radium and uranium-radium contamination, were observed as well. However, obvious signs of adaptation failed to be detected. The findings suggest that adverse somatic and genetic effects are possible in plants and animals in the dose range observed at sites with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. In contrast, different plant species inhabiting an area with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the taiga zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) reveal a stimulation of growth processes, photosynthesis, endogenous low molecular weight antioxidant synthesis as well as adaptive response. It is apparent from the data presented that naturally occurring differences in terrestrial radiation level could be of genetic and ecological consequence.

  12. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; F. R. Warshauer, frwvolcano@hotmail.com; Jonathan Price, jpprice@hawaii.edu

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  13. Temporal monitoring of subglacial volcanoes with TanDEM-X — Application to the 2014–2015 eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Cristian; Minet, Christian; Fritz, Thomas; Eineder, Michael; Bamler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    On August 29, 2014, a lava eruption commenced in the Holuhraun plain, north-east of the Bárðarbunga caldera in Iceland. The eruption ended on February 27, 2015, thus lasting for a period of about 6 months. During these months the magma chamber below the caldera gradually deflated, feeding the eruption and causing the rare event of a slow caldera collapse. In this scenario, TanDEM-X remote sensing data are of particular interest. By producing medium-high resolution and accurate elevation model...

  14. Evaluation of the hydrologic system in the New Leipzig coal area, Grant and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aquifers in the New Leipzig coal area consist of sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone, the Hell Creek Formation, the Cannonball and Ludlow Members of the Fort Union Formation, and the basal part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. Aquifers also occur in sandstone and lignite beds in the upper part of the Tongue River Member and Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation. Potential well yields from each of the aquifers are variable, but are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Cannonball, and Ludlow is soft and of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in basal Tongue River aquifer is either soft or very hard and generally is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in the upper Tongue River and Sentinel Butte aquifer system is very hard and generally is either of the calcium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type. There is little or no contribution of ground water to Thirty Mile Creek or the Cannonball River from the area of minable coal. Coal mining will expose sulfide minerals to oxidation, and result in an increase in dissolved solids and sulfate in water in the basal Tongue River aquifer. (USGS)

  15. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  16. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. PMID:24996353

  17. The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

  18. A Petrographic and Mineralogical Study of Volcanic Rocks from the Mayaxueshan Area, North Qilian Fold Belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐达伟; 萧炎宏

    2002-01-01

    The Ordovician volcanic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have been pervasively altered or metamorphosedand contain abundant secondary minerals such as albite, chlorite, epidote, prehnite, pumpellyite, actinolite, titanite, quartz,and/or calcite. They were denoted as spilites or spilitic rocks in terms of their petrographic features and mineral assem-blages. The metamorphic grades of the volcanic rocks are equivalent to that of the intercalated metaclastic rocks. Thisindicates that both the spilitic volcanic rocks and metaclastic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have formed as a result ofCaledonian regional metamorphism. We suggest that the previously denoted spilitic rocks or altered volcanic rocks shouldbe re-denoted as metabasalts or metabasaltic rocks. The metamorphic grade of the volcanic rocks increases with their age:prehnite-pumpellyite facies for the upper part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, prehnite-pumpellyite to lowergreenschist facies for the lower part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, and lower greenschist facies for the LowerOrdovician volcanic rocks. The P-T conditions are estimated as T = 240 - 290C and P = 1.5 - 4.5 kbar for the lower partof the Middle Ordovician rocks, and T = ~ 300~C for the Lower Ordovician rocks. The variations of mineral assemblagesoccurring at different domains of the volcanic rocks were controlled by the variations of the effective bulk composition inthose domains during metamorphism. The geochemical characteristics of Mg-Al chromite in the Mayaxueshan volcanicrocks are consistent with an origin of island arc environment.

  19. Slope runoff study in situ using rainfall simulator in mountainous area of North China%华北山区坡地产流规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静洁; 杨聪; 刘昌明; 宋献方; 胡珊珊; 李发东; 唐常源

    2009-01-01

    Simulated rainfall is a valid tool to examine the runoff generation on the slope. 13 simulated rainfall experiments with different rainfall intensities and durations are completed in a 5 m ×10 m experimental plot in mountainous area of North China. Simultaneously, rainfall, surface runoff, soil-layer flow, mantel-layer flow and soil moisture are monitored respectively. From the results, it is found that the hydrographs in all layers have the characteristics of rapid rise and fall. The recessions of surface flow and soil-layer flow are much faster than that of mantel-layer flow. Surface flow, the main contributor, makes up more than 60% of the total runoff in the study area. It even exceeds 90% in the cases of high intensity rainfall events. Runoff coefficient (ratio of total runoff to rainfall amount) is mainly influenced by rainfall amount, rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture, and the relationship can be well ex-pressed by a multiple linear regression function a = 0.002P + 0.1821 + 4.88Wa - 0.821. The relation between the rainfall intensity and the lag time of three flows (surface runoff, soil-layer flow and mantel-layer flow) is shown to be exponential. Then, the result also shows that the recession constant is 0.75 for surface runoff, is 0.94 for soil-layer and mantel-layer flow in this area. In this study area, the dominant infiltration excess runoff is simulated by Horton model. About 0.10 mm/min percolation is observed under the condition of different rainfall intensities, therefore the value is regarded as the steady infiltration rate of the study area.

  20. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the reported thermogenic composition of the Fayetteville Shale gas (δ13CCH4 = −35.4‰ to −41.9‰). Based on major element chemistry, four shallow groundwater types were identified: (1) low ( 100 mg/L and Ca–HCO3 dominated, (3) TDS > 100 mg/L and Na–HCO3dominated, and (4) slightly saline groundwater with TDS > 100 mg/L and Cl > 20 mg/L with elevated Br/Cl ratios (>0.001). The Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097

  1. Factors Influencing the Large-Scale Distribution of Hg(0) in the Mexico City Area and Over the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R.; Mao, H.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J.; Avery, M.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G.; Vay, S.; Blake, D.; Huey, G.; Fuelberg, H.

    2007-12-01

    Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data was obtained during March-May 2006 and covered 0.15-12 km altitude. The vertical distribution in all three study regions showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant mixing ratio centered around 100 ppqv. Highly concentrated pollution plumes emanating from Mexico City revealed that mixing ratios of Hg° as large as 500 ppqv were correlated with combustion tracers such as CO, but not SO2 which is presumably released from coal burning, refineries, and volcanoes. Our analysis of Mexico City plumes indicated that widespread multi-source urban/industrial emissions may have a more important influence on Hg° than specific point sources. Over the Pacific, correlations with CO, CO2, CH4, and C2Cl4 were diffuse overall, but recognizable on flights out of Anchorage and Honolulu. In distinct plumes originating from the Asian continent the Hg° - CO relationship was better defined and yielded an average value of ~0.0050 ng Hg° m-3/ppbv, in good agreement with previous findings. A prominent feature of the INTEX-B dataset was frequent total depletion of Hg° in the upper troposphere when stratospherically influenced air was encountered. When O3 mixing ratios exceeded 300 ppbv, Hg° was rarely detected. It appears that in the tropopause and stratosphere Hg° is oxidized on the order of days followed by heterogeneous transformation to particulate mercury. Our data confirm efficient chemical cycling of Hg° in the tropopause region and show that it is strongly anti-correlated with O3. These processes constitute an effective chemical sink for Hg° at the top of the troposphere, which may recycle mercury back to the gas phase as stratospheric

  2. Geology, structure and age of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area, North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Gerson A.; González, Pablo D.; González, Santiago N.; Sato, Ana M.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei; Varela, Ricardo; Llambías, Eduardo J.

    2015-10-01

    The low-grade Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area (40°50‧S-65°53‧W) shows ultramafic to felsic metaigneous rocks forming a sill swarm intercalated in the metasedimentary sequence and a polyphase deformation which permit an integrated study of the magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of this geological unit. In this paper we present a geological characterization of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area combining mapping, structural and metamorphic analysis with a SHRIMP U-Pb age and geochemical data from the metaigneous rocks. The metasedimentary sequence consists of alternating metagreywackes and phyllites, and minor metasandstones and granule metaconglomerates. The sills are pre-kinematic intrusions and yielded one SHRIMP U-Pb, zircon crystallization age of 513.6 ± 3.3 Ma. Their injection occurred after consolidation of the sedimentary sequence. A syn-sedimentary volcanic activity is interpreted by a metaandesite lava flow interlayered in the metasedimentary sequence. Sedimentary and igneous protoliths of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation would have been formed in a continental margin basin associated with active magmatic arc during the Cambrian Epoch 2. Two main low-grade tectonometamorphic events affected the Nahuel Niyeu Formation, one during the Cambrian Epoch 2-Early Ordovician and the other probably in the late Permian at ˜260 Ma. Local late folds could belong to the final stages of the late Permian deformation or be even younger. In a regional context, the Nahuel Niyeu and El Jagüelito formations and Mina Gonzalito Complex show a comparable Cambrian-Ordovician evolution related to the Terra Australis Orogen in the south Gondwana margin. This evolution is also coeval with the late and early stages of the Pampean and Famatinian orogenies of Central Argentina, respectively. The late Permian event recorded in the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in Aguada Cecilio area is identified by comparable structures affecting the Mina Gonzalito

  3. The socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors associated with leptospirosis in an urban area of north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D S C; Guimarães, M J B; Portugal, J L; Medeiros, Z

    2009-03-01

    In an ecological study based on the 18 microregions that form the city of Recife, the capital of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, associations between socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors and the incidence of leptospirosis in the city were investigated. Incidence over a 5-year period (2001-2005) and 14 variables were analysed, using central trend and dispersion measurements, Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression. Variables relating to education, income, housing type, sewage system, rubbish collection and hydrographic factors were found to be significantly correlated with leptospirosis incidence (Plegal minimum (U.S.$83.55/month), and the proportion of households from which rubbish was dumped in skips, lakes, rivers or the sea or on vacant land - explained 60% (P=0.017) of the differences in disease risk observed between the various areas of the city.

  4. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  5. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  6. Appropriate density of water and soil conservation of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia forests in loess area, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun ZHANG; Chengliang ZHANG; Wei HE; Lei NA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on a long-term monitor-ing of water cycle in the water and soil conservation forest stands of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseu-doacacia, the soil moisture deficit is calculated. Following the principles of runoff-collecting forestry and applying the forest structure investigation results, the authors developed a formula to calculate appropriate density for forests on the basis of different diameters at breast height (DBH). Using this method to manage forests, the natural water requirement of forests can be met and soil drought can be avoided. In addition, with long-term monitoring of soil moisture in stands, the authors also give an appropriate managing density specifically for the water and soil conservation forests of P.tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacacia in the loess area which is according to soil moisture content,or with the lowest soil moisture content and invalid moisture frequency as the indexes.

  7. Predictors of Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Women: Comparisons between Outdoor Tanners, Fake Tanners, and Tan Avoiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Oxlad, Melissa; Roberts, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Skin cancer incidence continues to rise as a tanned appearance remains desirable, particularly among young women. Fake tanning provides a tanned appearance without exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In order to advance our understanding of the factors that contribute to long-term behavior change, this study explores determinants…

  8. 40 CFR 425.20 - Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. 425.20 Section 425.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.20...

  9. 40 CFR 425.10 - Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory. 425.10 Section 425.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.10...

  10. Some evidences for earthquake occurrence in the shallow crust in some areas of North China and Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新亮; 刁桂苓; 高景春; 张四昌; 张学民; 李钦祖; 秦清娟; 朱振兴; 张彦清

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of hypocentral location are important fundamental data for the study of seismology and the earth interior physics; among them, the focal depth is a very important one but can hardly be measured with higher precision. With the increase of seismic stations in number, the heightening of observation quality and the improvement of determination method, such a situation has been changed much. In this paper, the results of hypocentral location and re-location by 7 small-aperture digital seismic station networks at Tangshan, Zhangbei and Huailai of Hebei Province, Datong of Shanxi Province and Jianchuan, Luquan and Yao'an of Yunnan Province are used. Using these results together with those of focal depth inversion by far-field data of some individual large shocks in corresponding areas and those re-determined by the Linfen telemetered seismic network of Shanxi Province, a comparison with the results of focal depth determination in the past earthquake catalogues is made. It is found out that the focal depths determined by the small-aperture seismic networks are basically distributed in the range from the earth surface to ten-odd kilometers underground. In contrast, the focal depths determined in the past are mostly distributed at the depth range from the earth surface to 30 km underground. Besides, there is a difference of 50% to 100% between the average values of the two cases, which is quite an obvious one. From the result of analysis, it is considered that the results determined by the small-aperture seismic networks may be closer to the reality of focal depths distribution. That is to say, earthquakes in the above-mentioned areas should be distributed in the shallow part of the crust. The causes that lead to the above situation are discussed preliminarily, and some suggestions and measures for improving the precision of focal depth determination are put forward.

  11. Use of Polar Orbiting Earth Observatories to Create a Synoptic Inventory of North American Forested Areas Affected by Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, R.; Carroll, M.; Townshend, J.; McCarty, J.

    2005-12-01

    The authors will discuss a newly developed algorithm which utilizes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites to derive an ongoing inventory of forested areas affected by wildfire. The experimental data set has been developed at a spatial resolution of 250 m and a temporal resolution of 16 days. The intent is to provide a near real-time inventory of fire-affected forested landscapes. The method allows for discrimination between those areas which were recently burned and those which were burned previously in the same or earlier fire seasons. This is an automated and repeatable method for delineating fire-affected forest at a country scale. By relying entirely on satellite observations, the product is intended to be internally consistent, avoiding potential bias and omission introduced by ground and airborne-based mapping. The data set is intended for use at a national and regional scale to update forest inventories in a rapid fashion, and to direct land management efforts. This moderate resolution product can then be used to direct detailed inventory and characterization efforts utilizing fine resolution instruments and in situ observation. Additional features of the data set provide the ability to gain a basic understanding of the spatial distribution of burn severity. Based upon user requirements, such as the need to monitor specific events of national importance, the methods presented can be adapted to provide results on a daily basis. We will present validation results using perimeter and progression maps produced for large fires in the western United States and Alaska. Special attention will be given to future operational opportunities as we move to the next generation instrument, VIIRS, which will first launch aboard the NPP platform and later on a planned series of NPOESS satellites.

  12. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources. - Highlights: • PFASs were detected in the soil of rapidly developing coastal regions in China. • PFAS concentrations ranged from LOQ to 13.97 ng/g dw, with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. • Higher concentrations of PFASs correspond to higher levels of urbanization. • Existence of fluorine industry induced PFAS pollutions dominated by PFOA and PFOS. • Intensive urbanization caused increasing emission of industrial and domestic PFASs. - Among urban, suburban and rural areas in the coasts, soils from urban area showed high degrees of PFASs contamination with the existence of industrial emissions dominated by PFOA and PFOS

  13. Tectonic and deformation history of the Gyeonggi Massif in and around the Hongcheon area, and its implications in the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengkhom, Kesorjit S.; Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Yi, Kee Wook; Kang, Ji Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The Gyeonggi Massif (GM) in South Korea is considered to be a part of the North China Craton. The Precambrian rocks of the GM in and around the Hongcheon area, South Korea, consist of the Yongduri Gneiss Complex (YGC), Euiam Group (EG) and Euiam Gneiss Complex (EGC). The YGC and EG composed mainly of partially migmatised metasedimentary rocks and the EGC is Paleoproterozoic intrusive rock that intruded the EG. At least three major folding (F1, F2 & F3), two-stage ductile shearing and three-stages of metamorphic events (M1, M2 & M3) occurred in the study area. The F1 folds are extremely drawn out, isoclinal, intrafolial folds and have Class 2 to Class 1C geometry. The F1 folds and regional S1 foliation in the YGC and EG are results of the E-W compression during the D1 deformation. Ductile shearing in the southern part of the EG is marked by the Palbongsan Shear Zone that indicates top-to-the SW sheared movement during syn to post-F1 folding. The F2 folds are open to tight, SW plunging and inclined folds, and have Class 1A to 1C geometry. The F2 folding and subsequent NNE thrusting along multiple ductile shear zones parallel to S2 planar fabrics are results of the D2 deformation due to N-S progressive shortening. The D3 deformation was coaxial with the D1 deformation, leading to the development of the F3 kink bands in the mylonite zones. The SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon ages from quartzite and banded gneisses in the EG indicate that the sedimentation in the Chunseong basins began after ca. 2094 Ma. The banded gneisses yield M1 metamorphic age of 1917-1925 Ma. However ca.1867-1883 Ma, M2 metamorphism previously reported from the YGC is absent or weakly preserved in the EG representing that the M2 metamorphism was not strong enough to form new zircon in the EG. The igneous zircons form augen gneisses in the EGC yield intrusion age of ca. 1867-1881 Ma and the geochemistries of the EGC gneisses show post-collision tectonic origin. The D1deformation observed in the YGC and

  14. Relationship between localization of gold mining areas and hair mercury levels in people from Bolivar, north of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Marrugo Negrete, Jose; Negrete-Marrugo, José

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed for T-Hg using atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 20.14 μg/g. Greatest levels were detected in La Raya (5.27 ± 0.32 μg/g), Achi (2.44 ± 0.22 μg/g), and Montecristo (2.20 ± 0.20 μg/g), places that are located near gold mines. Concentrations decreased with the distance from main mining areas. Only 0.75% of the individuals had T-Hg levels above 10 μg/g. Men had significantly higher T-Hg levels than women, and correlation analysis revealed moderately weak but significant relationships between T-Hg and weight (R = 0.111, P mining, monitoring, and educational programs are necessary to protect health of people living near Colombian rivers. PMID:21476008

  15. Trophic magnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the marine food web from coastal area of Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mihua; Tao, Ping; Wang, Man; Jia, Hongliang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Trophic transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aquatic ecosystems is an important criterion for assessing their environmental risk. This study analyzed 13 PBDEs in marine organisms collected from coastal area of Bohai Bay, China. The concentrations of total PBDEs (Σ13PBDEs) ranged from 12 ± 1.1 ng/g wet weight (ww) to 230 ± 54 ng/g ww depending on species. BDE-47 was the predominant compound, with a mean abundance of 20.21 ± 12.97% of total PBDEs. Stable isotopic ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) were analyzed to determine the food web structure and trophic level respectively. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of PBDEs were assessed as the slope of lipid equivalent concentrations regressed against trophic levels. Significant positive relationships were found for Σ13PBDEs and eight PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-49, BDE-66, BDE-85, BDE-99, BDE-100 and BDE-154). Monte-Carlo simulations showed that the probabilities of TMF >1 were 100% for Σ13PBDEs, BDE-47, BDE-85, BDE-99 and BDE-100, 99% for DE-28, BDE-49, BDE-66 and BDE-154, 94% for BDE-153, and 35% for BDE-17.

  16. Geology and uranium mineralisation around Ampulli Area, Papum-Pare District, Arunachal Pradesh, North-East India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralisation associated with Middle Proterozoic Bomdila Group (Daling equivalent) metasediments have been located intermittently over a strike length of 310 m with 0.11 to 2.0 m thickness around Ampulli area of Papum-Pare district, Arunachal Pradesh. The metasediments trend NE-SW and dip 20°- 85° due either side. The grab and trench samples assayed 0.012 - 0.36% eU3O8, 0.006 - 0.19% U3O8 (beta/gamma), 0.009 - 0.235% U3O8 (Chem.) and less than 0.010% ThO2. The host rocks have been identified as tourmaline bearing biotite-quartz schist, garnet bearing muscovite-biotite-quartz schist and muscovite-biotite schist. Uraninite, brannerite and U-Ti complex are observed with uranocircite and meta-uranocircite, the secondary uranium minerals. Replacement of uraninite by molybdenite and pyrite suggested earlier oxide and later sulphide phase. Partial chemical analysis indicated aluminous nature of the host rock and their high K2O/Na2O (3.3-10.73) ratios are suggestive of predominance of potash feldspar over sodic and effects of potash metasomatism. Both syngenetic as well as epigenetic hydrothermal origin of uranium mineralisation has been suggested. (author)

  17. Privatization of tubewells in North China: Determinants and impacts on irrigated area, productivity and the water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Huang, Qiuqiong; Rozelle, Scott

    2006-03-01

    Despite the rise in importance of the private sector in the expansion of the use of groundwater in China and the potential implications this might have for production and poverty, little has been written about the effect of these phenomena on northern China’s economy. In examining determinants of tubewell privatization and its impact on producers in northern China, data were collected using a community leader survey, carried out in 448 villages in six provinces in northern China. The results show that since 1990 collective ownership of tubewells has largely been replaced by private ownership. Increasing water scarcity, government grants and bank loans for tubewell investment and the declining investment capacity of China’s local communities have led to the observed change in tubewell ownership patterns. By far, the most important positive effect on income appears to be due to the expansion of newly irrigated area that has been fueled by the rise of private tubewells. Many newly private tubewells also have begun to replace irrigation from surface water sources. While helping increase income and productivity, the rise of private tubewells also has contributed to the fall in groundwater levels.

  18. Mapping diagenetic fluid flow within a reservoir: K-Ar dating in the Alwyn area (UK North Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, A.J.C. (Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Petroleum Geology); Hamilton, P.J.; Macintyre, R.M. (Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1993-06-01

    The Alwyn area demonstrates that variation in the timing of diagenesis on the field scale depends on the structure and the proximity to the sources of diagenetic fluids. Variation in reservoir quality within the structure is the result of facies control on fluid migration. Illite in Alwyn South formed in the Middle Palaeocene to Middle Oligocene between 60 and 38 Ma. At this time the Brent Group was at depths of between 2400 and 3000 m and reservoir temperatures ranged from 110 to 120[sup o]C. Extensive K-Ar dating shows that illitization, pre-oil emplacement, proceeded from the deepest reservoir panels along and up-structure. Fluid migration may have occurred along the deep seated Alwyn South-Ninian Fault System. Where the reservoir is lithologically homogeneous illite precipitation proceeded systematically base-upwards at rates of 5.5 m Ma[sup -1]. The duration of illite formation at any one level was between 2 and 8 Ma. In contrast, in heterolithic reservoirs fluid migration occurred initially along high permeability fairways and consequently illite ages do not vary systematically with depth. (Author)

  19. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  20. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China.

  1. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  2. Investigation of connections among physical, social and economic factors in case of optimal Land Use System Planning in the Egri-Bükkalja Foothill Area of North Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Anna; Utasi, Zoltán; Tóth, Antal; Csabai Kitti, Edina; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Hegyi, Balázs; Tamás Hegyi, Péter; Pásztor, László; Mika, János

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, detailed knowledge of landscape elements and their capabilties, furthermore the probable tendency of climate change play important role in spatial planning of optimal land use system and solving agricultural and social challeges. During our research work, we have investigated three settlements (Cserépfalu, Egerszólát, Kerecsend) based on different landscape factors in the Egri-Bükkalja Fothill Areas of North Hungary. Our aim was to point out the landscape differences along north - south direction inside this microlandscape unit and their effects on land use system, economic developments, social challenges and their changeable tendency in the future We have investigated quantitative and qualitative connections among different landscape factors in suitable GIS environment. Based on the identified relationships thematic maps were compiled. The elaborated GIS integrates digitally processed legacy data, properly selected spatial data infrastructure elements and recently collected field data originating from our geomopholgical and pedological investigations carried out in last three years. We discribed soil features in soil profiles using methods according to FAO (2006) and Novák (2013). Soils were featured by soil type, the thickness of A horizon and the rate of soil erosion. Projected climate changes have also been considered for the region. Besides collection of the available recent OAGCM outputs and outputs by four RCM run in Hungary, an empirical approach has been also included. This is based on empirical regression relationship between relevant grid-point values of the CarpatClim data base and the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. Land use maps were created based on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Military Survey Maps and aerial photographs covering a relatively long period from the 18th century till nowadays. Main social and economic factors and processes were characterized using data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, population census and

  3. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawwad Shaikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which included all 347 students (199 boys and 148 girls of classes VII to X. The students were asked to answer, by recall method, a self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behaviour by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to the statements regarding physical / verbal aggression, after taking their consent. Results: Majority of the students (58.8% were from nuclear families and 26.2% students experienced aggressive behaviour in the family. Role models for aggressive behaviour were parents (42.3% and TV / Cinema actors (39.0%. Overall, 241 (69.5% children were physically aggressive in the previous month. Physical active direct and indirect aggression was significantly more common among boys than among girls. 248 (71.5% children were verbally aggressive in the previous month. Physical aggression increased substantially from VII standard (56.9% to X standard (84.6%. Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour was common among both boys and girls, with increasing trend of physical aggression from VII standard to X standard. Classroom management, counseling and life skills education strategies are recommended for channelizing the aggressive behaviour among school children.

  4. Integrated Green Roofs System and its Role of Achieving Sustainability in Residential Buildings in Urban Area in Athens, Greece and Famagusta, North Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehran shahidipour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the characteristics and importance of the green roof in urban area would investigate in some residential buildings in Athens, Greece and then, some strategies give to integrate green roof in residential buildings in Famagusta, north Cyprus due to the importance of energy saving and thermal comfort in residential buildings. These days, sustainable architecture is spreading around the world. Therefore, Sustainable architecture has important role in design buildings and urban design due to high amount of energy use and global warming around the world. There are different methods in sustainable design and one of them that has significant role is design green roof. Green roof integrated to the roof of the buildings to provide the suitable indoor temperature without spending high amount of budget. The methodology is qualitative type that trough the literature review and survey would be understood the importance and role of the green roof in both architecture and urban area. There are many significant architects like Wright that they understood how greenery would improve the function of the building in terms of provide thermal comfort and indoor temperature for the residences, and green roof as well. In Famagusta, there is not any green roof however, the design and integrating of green roof is inexpensive. Green roof should design properly depend on the characteristic of the climate of every place so, the location, temperature, and humidity, location, and wind have influence on the design of the green roof.

  5. [Differentiation of vegetation characteristics on slope micro-topography of fenced watershed in loess area of north Shaanxi Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Qing-Ke; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Yun, Lei; Xie, Jing; Kuang, Gao-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Based on the investigation data of the vegetations in Hegou valley in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, this paper studied the vegetation characteristics on the five typical micro-topography categories including shallow gully, gully, collapse, platform, and scarp in the loess area of north Shaanxi, with the undisturbed slope as the control. There existed distinct differences in the species composition, quantitative characteristics, and species diversity of plant communities on the five typical micro-topography categories and the undisturbed slope. After twelve years of enclosure recovery, the study area formed herbaceous plant community, with Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii as the dominant species. Among the main companion species, shrubs such as Prinsepia uniflora and Caragana korshinskii were found in scarp and gully, and hygrophyte Phragmites australis appeared in platform. The coverage, height, and biomass of the plant communities on most of the micro-topography categories, especially on the gully and collapse, were larger than those on the undisturbed slope. The Shannon index on the micro-topography categories and undisturbed slope was in the order of scarp > gully > shallow gully > undisturbed slope > platform > collapse.

  6. Soil gas radon–thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gulshan Kumar; Arvind Kumar; Vivek Walia; Jitender Kumar; Vikash Gupta; Tsanyao Frank Yang; Surinder Singh; Bikramjit Singh Bajwa

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon–thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon–thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon–thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon–thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  7. Rural population mixing and childhood leukaemia: effects of the North Sea oil industry in Scotland, including the area near Dounreay nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine if any excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was associated with certain striking examples of population mixing in rural Scotland produced by the North Sea oil industry. Details were traced for over 30 000 workers (25 yrs old) involved in the construction of the large oil terminals in the Shetland and Orkney islands in northern Scotland or employed offshore. Home addresses of the 17160 Scottish residents were postcoded, integrated with census data, and then classified as urban or rural. Rural postcode sectors, ranked by proportion of oil workers, were grouped into three categories with similar numbers of children but contrasting densities of oil workers. The incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was examined in these rural (and also in urban) categories in the periods 1974-8, 1979-83 and 1984-8. A significant excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found in 1979-83 in the group of rural home areas with the largest proportion of oil workers, following closely on large increases in the workforce. The area near the Dounreay nuclear installation, where an excess of leukaemia is already well known, was within the rural high oil category. (Author)

  8. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  9. Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  10. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between around 49°-55° N especially between 20°-30°W. An illustrative example of spatial modelling is presented. Only for 1 year (and part of the total survey area were there sufficient data to attempt to estimate abundance: 1995. The estimated abundance in the W Block of the NASS-95 Faroese survey was 273,159 (cv=0.26; 95% CI=153,392-435,104 short-beaked common dolphins. This estimate is corrected for animals missed on the trackline (g(0 and for responsive movement.

  11. SELECTION OF MODELS FOR SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING OF THE TAN-MITE Dichopelmus notus KEIFER (ACARI, ERIOPHYIDAE IN MATE-TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vieira Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research established models for the construction of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-miteDichopelmus notus Keifer (Acari, Eriophyidae in mate-tea orchards. The study was carried out in a ten years old orchard, locatedin Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. In three areas of approximately 2,500 m2, 30 plants had been selected randomly. Fortnightly,from January to December, 2004, infestation of D. notus in 18 mature leaves of ten plants in each area were evaluated. Theevaluations were executed directly in the orchard, using lenses (10x and 1 cm2 of fixed field. The lines of the sequential plans wereconstructed using the methodology based on the confidence interval of Iwao (1975, considering the models of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity, Normal Approach of Blyth (1986, Approach of Hall (1982 modified by Blyth (1986, Normal Approach ofMolenaar (1973, Normal Approach of Pratt (1968 and Leemis & Trivedi (1996 methodology. The models were evaluatedconsidering amplitude analysis of the confidence intervals. The results had evidenced that the Model of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity must preferentiably be used in the elaboration of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-mite inmate-tea orchards.

  12. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  13. Optimization of two-low salt chrome tanning processes without float

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Prat, Josep Maria; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Ollé Otero, Lluís; Costa, Jose; Banaszak, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop at pilot plant level two systems of pickle-tanning that would reduce both the amount of waste water and its content in chrome and chlorides while obtaining leathers that are commercially acceptable. In the first one, the effect of the variation of the final tanning temperature as well as the system of adding the basificant in the formulation of a chrome tanning without float were studied. A 87 percent reduction of the residual float was obtained with this ...

  14. The Global TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model and the Terrestrial Impact Crater Record

    OpenAIRE

    Gottwald, Manfred; Fritz, Thomas; Breit, Helko; Schättler, Birgit; Harris, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The German TanDEM-X mission produced a new DEM with unprecedented accuracy. From December 2010 to March 2015 the two X-band radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X have been operated in close formation as a single-pass SAR interferometer. The data acquired in bistatic mode were processed to yield a global DEM with an independent pixel spacing of 12 m and an absolute height error of < 10 m. We used this DEM to generate a TanDEM-X sample of more than 120 confirmed impact structures, all ma...

  15. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  16. Referral of epileptic patients in North East Coast of West Malaysia an area with poor MRI coverage: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Y; Alias, N N; Shuaib, I L; Tharakan, J; Abdullah, J; Munawir, A H; Naing, N N

    2006-11-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), have proved invaluable in detecting structural brain lesions in patients with epilepsy in developed countries. In Malaysia, a few electroencephalography facilities available in rural district hospitals run by trained physician assistants have Internet connections to a government neurological center in Kuala Lumpur. These facilities are more commonly available than MRI machines, which require radiological expertise and helium replacement, which may problematic in Southeast Asian countries where radiologists are found in mainly big cities or towns. We conducted a cross-sectional study over a two year period begining January 2001 on rural patients, correlating EEG reports and MRI images with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy to set guidelines for which rural patients need to be referred to a hospital with MRI facilities. The patients referred by different hospitals without neurological services were classified as having generalized, partial or unclassified seizures based on the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The clinical parameters studied were seizure type, seizure frequency, status epilepticus and duration of seizure. EEG reports were reviewed for localized and generalized abnormalities and epileptiform changes. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and area under the curve. The association between clinical and radiological abnormalities was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-six males and 18 females were evaluated. The mean age was 20.7 +/- 13.3 years. Nineteen (43.2%) had generalized seizures, 22 (50.0%) had partial seizures and 3 (6.8%) presented with unclassified seizures. The EEG was abnormal in 30 patients (20 with generalized abnormalities and 10 localized abnormalities). The MRI was abnormal in 17 patients (38.6%); the abnormalities observed were cerebral

  17. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengnian Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  18. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  19. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  20. Mildew prevention by radiation for tanned leather 'wet blue'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the chrome-tanned pig skin 'Wet Blue', it was attempted to decide the dose range for preventing mildews by gamma-ray and electron beam. With gamma-ray and 1.5 MV electron beam, in the case of the storage at 20degC and the chrome addition of 2%, it was regarded as 8 kGy, and in the case of the storage at 20degC and the chrome addition of 6%, it was regarded as 6 kGy with 1.5 MV electron beam. In this fiscal year, for the purpose of limiting the dose range for mildew prevention further, a series of the tests was performed. The preparation of samples and the observation of appearance during the storage were carried out by Metropolitan Leather Technology Center, and the irradiation and the measurement of dose were performed by Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center. The results obtained in 1989 are reported. The preparation of the samples is explained. Co-60 gamma-ray of 2∼8 kGy and the electron beam of 2∼8 kGy from a van de Graaff accelerator were irradiated. Moreover, it is desirable to carry out the reproducibility test on the samples of other production lots. (K.I.)

  1. Treatment of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) in tanning effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most common chemical used in chrome tanning is basic chromium sulphate (BCS). Manufacturing of BCS involves many steps producing liquid waste. Waste generated at every stage contains Cr (VI), which must be reduced to Cr (III) before being disposed to the environment. Different methods were studied for the reduction of toxic Cr (III). Pickle liquor (waste of electroplating industry) can also be used for the reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr (vi) along with other reducing materials / chemicals. In an electroplating process metal is treated with HCl or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to remove scales and rust, the pickled items are then washed with water, washing contains FeCl/sub 2/ or fees/sub 4/ respectively called pickle liquor. During waste treatment pH adjustment to 6.0 - 9.0 and settling the sludge, is discharged to the lagoon. The sludge obtained is dried and disposed off in landfills. Other reducing agents like sodium bisulphite and sulfur dioxide were also studied, but pickle liquor was found to be more effective and economical. (author)

  2. 无铬鞣剂研究新进展%The New Advances in Chromium-Free Tanning Agents Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 何青; 但年华; 王康建; 但卫华

    2012-01-01

    Commonly used Chromium-free tanning agent includes Chromium-free multi-metal salts, aldehydes tanning agent, synthetic organic tanning agent, vegetable tanning agent, and so on. The research reviewed the status, mechanism, and specialty of these tanning agents, and emphatically explained the characteristics of chromium-free multi-metal complex salt, oxazolidine, organic synthetic tanning agent, late-model aldehydes acid tanning agents.%常用无铬鞣剂包括:无铬金属鞣剂、醛鞣剂、合成有机鞣剂、植物鞣剂等。扼要综述了这些鞣剂的研究现状、鞣制机理以及各鞣制特点,重点介绍了锆-铝-钛多金属配合鞣剂、噁唑烷鞣剂与新型醛酸鞣剂。

  3. Research Progress of Non-metal Tanning Technology%非金属鞣研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉玲; 贺丽蓉; 石佳博; 林炜

    2011-01-01

    调研了近年制革领域研究和关注较多的植物鞣剂、醛鞣剂、噁唑烷鞣剂、有机膦鞣剂、纳米鞣剂等非金属鞣剂,对它们各自的鞣制机理、鞣革特点及研究进展情况进行了综述.%Non - metal tanning agents such as vegetable tannins, aldehyde tanning agents, oxazolidine tanning agents, organic phosphonium tanning agents, nano -tanning agents, are reviewed based on their tanning mechanisms, tanning effects, and ongoing investigations.It will be helpful for the people doing research in the related fields.

  4. A flexible system of remediation to stabilize a road affected by landslide in the area of Val di Maso (North-Eastern Italian Apls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, G.; Cioli, C.; Floris, M.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    Slope stabilization follows different design procedures and approaches finalized to reduce the driving forces or increase resisting forces or avoid the problem at all by completely or partially remove unstable materials. But often the cost of stabilization works is very high. Therefore it is necessary to find new effective solutions with low or moderate costs. In this frame, this work reports the case study of a road in the area of Val di Maso, located in the North-Eastern Italian Alps. The road is threatened by the evolution of a mass movement occurred on November 2010 due to an extreme rainfall event that hit the entire North-Eastern sector of Italy. The complex landslide consists of a debris flow involving eluvial/colluvial deposits and past landslide debris. In the upper part, clear morphological evidences indicate that the instability is rapidly retrogressing by multiple rotational slides involving volcanic deposits that can be referred to a paleo-landslide. In the crown area, unstable materials have a thickness of around 20 m. For this reason, a stabilization system using rigid structures anchored to the stable bedrock for an appropriate length would be burdensome and costly. Starting from the geological model of the unstable slope, an innovative stabilization solution is proposed, a numerical simulation to analyze the effects of the stabilization is performed and an integrated monitoring system to control and verify the slope behaviour is planned. The proposed remediation works consist of a "floating belt", placed close to the edge of the road, and some "floating anchors" some meters further down behind the main scarp of the landslide. The system allows small displacements to induce a stress re-distribution favourable to the stability of the slope. The main advantages of the proposed solution are the adaptability to different geo-environmental situations and the low cost compared to other alternatives. On the basis of field data collected, a geological

  5. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

  6. DNA damage and radiosensitizers: M. luteus sensitive sites for misonidazole-TAN combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown previously that TAN does not enhance production of single-strand breaks (SSB) in DNA of Chinese hamster cells irradiated under hypoxia. In contrast, misonidazole does enhance the yield of SSB, but this SSB enhancement by misonidazole is reduced if TAN is present with misonidazole during irradiation. It was also shown that each of these sensitizers enhances base/sugar damage, measured with the aid of bacterial enzymes (MLS). The results presented here for MLS damage in mammalian cells irradiated in the presence of the misonidazole-TAN combination indicate that the two drugs act independently in enhancing MLS damage, and hence they interact with different types of lesions to produce base/sugar damage. It is proposed that the protection by TAN in mammalian cells observed at the survival level is due to repair of some of that type of damage which would otherwise become a misonidazole-enhanced SSB

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF COMPLEX MINERAL TANNING MATERIAL ON THE BASIS OF ALUMINIUM AND ZIRCONIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Toguzbaev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Influence of acetate ion on stability of alumina-zirconium tanning to alkalization has been investigated in the paper. The investigation results have shown that at the ratio of Al3+:Zr4+:CH3COO = 1:1:1 it  is  possible  to  prepare  a  solution  of  masking   alumina-zirconium  tanning  (АЦД-М   with  high stability and low consumption of aluminum sulfate. The paper reveals that masking of alumina-zirconium tanning by natrium acetate allows to increase stability to alkalization and improve tanning properties. It has been established that for a stable increase of fatty matter viscosity and improvement of  leather water-resistant properties it is necessary to use water-insoluble aluminum and zirconium soaps of carboxylic acids.

  8. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  9. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  10. Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa): The sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Joan Carles; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Jorba, Montse; Aribau, Joaquim; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the fruit of the tara tree as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with environment and social concerns. Tara tannins have been used in retanning formulas in leather processing and its properties are well known. This work aims to optimize formulations using tara as a pre-tanning agent. Combinations with a naphthalene sulphonic syntan are used to obtain an innovative wet-white rec...

  11. A Review of the Use of Tanning Beds as a Dermatological Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Radack, Kyle P.; Farhangian, Michael E.; Anderson, Kathryn L.; Feldman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In-office phototherapy is an effective treatment for many dermatologic conditions, however, many patients are unable to adhere to the rigorous travel and time commitments sometimes needed. Tanning bed facilities are nearly ubiquitous in modern society and could represent a more convenient means to obtain ultraviolet (UV) exposure when office phototherapy is not feasible. The purpose of this study was to review available evidence on the use of tanning facilities as a treatment for...

  12. Biotechnological sequestering of chromium(III) From Post-Tanning Effluents: First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lalueza Baro, Joana; Rius Carrasco, Antoni; Puig Vidal, Rita; Martí Badia, Maria Elena; Martí Bernadas, Joan Francesc; Rodriguez, N.; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metals in waste waters and sludge may cause significant environmental problems, and it is known that conventional recovery technologies cannot always achieve satisfactory treatment. For example, they are inappropiate to completely recover the chromium in the case of waste waters from the tanning process. Chromium can be recovered (by precipitation)from effluents that contain high concentrations of this metal. However, effluents from the later stages in present day tanning process often ...

  13. Auxiliary agents with non-swelling capacity used in pickling/tanning processes. Part 3.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsal Monge, Agustín; Ramón, Palop; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Cot Cosp, Jaume; Frías, Vicente; Manich Bou, Albert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, the behaviour of the four commercial products with non-swelling capacity in the pickling/tanning processes of sheepskins is studied. The successful application of these products to thinner skins would allow us to reduce salinity and, hence, the conductivity of waste waters. The results obtained by using these products are compared with those achieved by applying a conventional pickling/tanning process.

  14. Comparison of advertising strategies between the indoor tanning and tobacco industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jennifer; Jones, David A

    2010-04-01

    The indoor tanning industry is large and continues to grow, with 2007 domestic sales in excess of $5 billion. Advertising is central to shaping the consumer's perception of indoor tanning as well as driving industry demand. This article aims to identify key drivers of consumer appeal by comparing tanning advertising strategies to those used by tobacco marketers. Tobacco advertising was selected as a reference framework because it is both well documented and designed to promote a product with known health hazards. Two thousand advertisements from 4 large tobacco advertisement databases were analyzed for type of advertisement strategy used, and 4 advertising method categories were devised to incorporate the maximum number of advertisements reviewed. Subsequently, contemporary tanning advertisements were collected from industry magazines and salon websites and evaluated relative to the identified strategy profiles. Both industries have relied on similar advertising strategies, including mitigating health concerns, appealing to a sense of social acceptance, emphasizing psychotropic effects, and targeting specific population segments. This examination is a small observational study, which was conducted without rigorous statistical analysis, and which is limited both by the number of advertisements and by advertising strategies examined. Given the strong parallels between tobacco and tanning advertising methodologies, further consumer education and investigation into the public health risks of indoor tanning is needed. PMID:20138395

  15. First-principles study of the structural stability and electronic structures of TaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, C.L.; Yuan, G. [School of Information and Engineering, Ocean University of China, QingDao 266100 (China); Hou, Z.F. [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Using the plane-wave pseudopotential method within the generalized gradient approximation, we have studied the structural stability and electronic structures for several TaN phases. Our results show CoSn is the calculated ground-state structure of TaN among the five crystallographic structures that have been studied. The order of energetic stability of phase structures of TaN from low to high is: CsClTaN in the CoSn and WC structures is due to the formation of pseudogap around the Fermi level and the stronger hybridization between N-2p states and Ta-5d states. TaN in all structures studied has a metallic nature. The calculated bulk modulus indicates that TaN in the WC structure may be a less compressible material. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Do non-melanoma skin cancer survivors use tanning beds less often than the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Lauren; Dai, Feng; Chagpar, Anees B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning is associated with an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), yet little is known about indoor tanning habits of individuals with a history of NMSC. Methods We examined self-reported history of NMSC and tanning bed use among non-Hispanic white respondents in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional population-based survey designed to be representative of the civilian US population. We computed weighted population estimates and standard errors using the Taylor series linearization method. We then evaluated chi-square tests of independence and conducted weighted logistic regression analyses to evaluate if NMSC status was a predictor of indoor tanning. Results In our analytic sample of 14,400 non-Hispanic white participants, representing 145,287,995 in the population, 543 participants (weighted proportion = 3.45%) self-reported a history of NMSC or "skin cancer type not known." In multivariate analyses, non-melanoma skin cancer survivors were no less likely to use tanning beds in the last 12 months than skin cancer free controls (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.34-1.43, p = 0.33). Conclusions Non-melanoma skin cancer survivors should be educated on their increased risk of recurrence and other skin cancers and in particular the role of indoor tanning in skin tumorigenesis. PMID:27617935

  17. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Saadia R. [Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Munir H., E-mail: munir_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shaheen, Nazia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  18. Removal of Chromium from Waste Water of Tanning Industry Using Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanning industry is considered as one of the oldest industries in the world, which produces solid and liquid wastes, where the Chromium-containing liquid wastes are considered to be as the main liquid pollutant to the environment. In this research, a new method is applied to remove the chromium from the industrial water wastes, which are produced by tanning industry using the Aleppo Bentonite.The experiments on laboratory- prepared samples and collected samples from some tanning factories in Damascus have proved that chromium removal from tanning waste water is very effective for solution of 85-98 %. Moreover, the optimal conditions for the treatment process of tanning waste water by Aleppo Bentonite have determined and found to be (pH=4, Bentonite concentration = 20 g l-1 when chromium concentration is 0.8 g l-1 , solution temperature = 30 degree centigrade, and Bentonite particle size < 90 μm). However, the proposed method can be considered to be an environmental solution for the treatment of tanning industrial wastes in Syria. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the hydrologic system and potential effects of mining in the Dickinson lignite area, eastern slope and western Stark and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Aquifer systems in the Dickinson lignite area of North Dakota are in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and lower Hell Creek Formation, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and lower Ludlow Member of the Fort Union Formation, in the upper Ludlow and lower Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation, and in the upper Tongue River and the Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation. Well yields from each of the aquifer systems generally are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer system and in the upper Hell Creek-lower Ludlow aquifer system is soft and a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 1 ,010 to 1,690 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper Ludlow-lower Tongue River aquifer system and in the upper Tongue River-Sentinel Butte aquifer system ranges from soft to very hard and generally is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 574 to 2,720 milligrams per liter. Discharges of ground water are less than 0.1 cubic foot per second to the Cannonball River and less than 1.0 cubic foot per second to the Heart River. (USGS)

  20. Low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoir conductive model --Dual water clay matrix conductive model in the north area of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘和平; 王家映; 樊政军; 马勇; 柳建华; 李明强

    2001-01-01

    Shaly sands reservoir is one of the most distributive types of the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs discovered in China, and low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs are mostly shaly sands reservoirs. Therefore, shaly sands reservoir conductive model is the key to evaluate low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs using logging information. Some defects were found when we studied the clay distribution type conductive model, dual-water conductive model, conductive rock matrix model, etc. Some models could not distinguish the conductive path and nature of microporosity water and clay water and some models did not consider the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume. So, we utilize the merits,overcome the defects of the above models, and put forward a new shaly sands conductive model-dual water clay matrix conductive model (DWCMCM) in which dual water is the free water and the microporosity water in shaly sands and the clay matrix(wet clay) is the clay grain containing water. DWCMCM is presented here, the advantages of which can tell the nature and conductive path from different water (microporosity water and freewater), in consid-eration of the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume in shaly sands. So, the results of logging interpretation in the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs in the north of Tarim Basin area, China with DWCMCM are better than those interpreted by the above models.

  1. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths.

  2. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse. PMID:27635258

  3. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  4. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse.

  5. Essential and Toxic Elements in Blood Samples of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from the Islands Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Baltic Sea): A Comparison Study with Urbanized Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuschke, Antje; Griesel, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Kattegat, Baltic Sea) are top predators within the marine food web and an indicator species of the environmental contamination. Furthermore, they are a main tourist attraction. Despite these important roles, little is known about the health and pollutant contamination of these seals. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate 18 essential and nonessential/toxic elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Sr, and Zn) in blood samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and total X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Blood concentrations of mineral nutrients, such as Ca, K, P, and S, were within the reference ranges described for harbor seals. Likewise, for the trace elements, As, Be, Rb, Se, and Sr, no significant differences were observed compared with previous studies. Interestingly, blood concentrations of nine nonessential as well as essential trace metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured significantly lower in the offshore living seals from Helgoland and Anholt compared with results obtained from animals living close to urbanized areas, such as the Wadden Sea and Elbe estuary. This suggests that industrial emissions, sewage deposition, shipping traffic and dredging tasks might be the cause of increased metal concentrations of inshore harbor seals.

  6. Clinical and Environmental Surveillance for Vibrio cholerae in Resource Constrained Areas: Application During a 1-Year Surveillance in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, Amanda K; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Ebile, Walter; Sonkoua, Isaac Tadzong; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Steinwald, Peter; Ram, Malathi; Sack, David A

    2016-03-01

    Biological confirmation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in clinical and environmental samples is often constrained due to resource- and labor-intensive gold standard methods. To develop low-cost, simple, and sustainable surveillance techniques, we modified previously published specimen sampling and culture techniques and applied the use of enriched dipstick testing in conjunction with the use of filter paper for DNA specimen preservation during clinical and environmental surveillance in the Far North of Cameroon from August 2013 to October 2014. The enriched dipstick methodology during routine use in a remote setting demonstrated a specificity of 99.8% compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The novel application of filter paper as a preservation method for cholera DNA specimens reduced the need for cold chain storage and allowed for PCR characterization and confirmation of V. cholerae. The application of basic technologies such as the enriched dipstick, the use of simplified gauze filtration for environmental sample collection, and the use of filter paper for sample preservation enabled early case identification with reduced logistics and supply cost while reporting minimal false-positive results. Simplified laboratory and epidemiological methodologies can improve the feasibility of cholera surveillance in rural and resource-constrained areas, facilitating early case detection and rapid response implementation. PMID:26755564

  7. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. PMID:24657581

  8. Occurrence and identification of risk areas of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: a cost-effectiveness analysis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capelli Gioia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus, a competent vector of several pathogens, is the tick species most frequently reported to bite humans in Europe. The majority of human cases of Lyme borreliosis (LB and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE occur in the north-eastern region of Italy. The aims of this study were to detect the occurrence of endemic and emergent pathogens in north-eastern Italy using adult tick screening, and to identify areas at risk of pathogen transmission. Based on our results, different strategies for tick collection and pathogen screening and their relative costs were evaluated and discussed. Methods From 2006 to 2008 adult ticks were collected in 31 sites and molecularly screened for the detection of pathogens previously reported in the same area (i.e., LB agents, TBE virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". Based on the results of this survey, three sampling strategies were evaluated a-posteriori, and the impact of each strategy on the final results and the overall cost reductions were analyzed. The strategies were as follows: tick collection throughout the year and testing of female ticks only (strategy A; collection from April to June and testing of all adult ticks (strategy B; collection from April to June and testing of female ticks only (strategy C. Results Eleven pathogens were detected in 77 out of 193 ticks collected in 14 sites. The most common microorganisms detected were Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (17.6%, Rickettsia helvetica (13.1%, and "Ca. N. mikurensis" (10.5%. Within the B. burgdorferi complex, four genotypes (i.e., B. valaisiana, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were found. Less prevalent pathogens included R. monacensis (3.7%, TBE virus (2.1%, A. phagocytophilum (1.5%, Bartonella spp. (1%, and Babesia EU1 (0.5%. Co-infections by more than one pathogen were diagnosed in 22% of infected ticks. The prevalences of infection

  9. Techno-economic evaluation of membrane filtration for the recovery and re-use of tanning chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, W; Lucas, M

    2003-04-01

    The majority of pollution generated from leather manufacturing can be contributed to the inefficiency of chemical use in leather processing and to organic substances derived from the hides during processing. In particular, the overall tanning processes performed in drums can be characterized by a high consumption of water and chemicals, most of which are found in the final wastewater. To ensure full penetration and reaction of chemicals with collagen, chemicals are added in excess and are only partly up-taken by the leather. Significant savings of chemicals can be achieved by recovery and recycling of chemicals and water from part streams, thus reducing environmental impacts. This research formed an integrated approach to investigate and exploit the potential of a closed loop operation for various part streams of tanneries. Each of the process streams was separately collected, treated and purified by membrane technologies to obtain a recyclable liquor which can be re-used operationally. In this way a complete recovery of process liquors can be achieved for immediate operational re-use. Membrane technology has been applied to recover chemicals from un-hairing, vegetable tanning, chrome liquors and to polish saline part streams for re-use. By applying membrane filtration up to 90% of the treated liquors can be recovered giving a remaining concentrate volume of only 10%. The permeate obtained from several process areas contained to a high extent chemicals, which were re-used for leather processing.

  10. Development of an adjoint model of GRAPES-CUACE and its application in tracking influential haze source areas in north China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xing Qin; Xian Zhai, Shi; Jin, Min; Gong, Sunling; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The aerosol adjoint module of the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES-CUACE (Global-Regional Assimilation and Prediction System coupled with the CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment) is constructed based on the adjoint theory. This includes the development and validation of the tangent linear and the adjoint models of the three parts involved in the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol module: CAM (Canadian Aerosol Module), interface programs that connect GRAPES and CUACE, and the aerosol transport processes that are embedded in GRAPES. Meanwhile, strict mathematical validation schemes for the tangent linear and the adjoint models are implemented for all input variables. After each part of the module and the assembled tangent linear and adjoint models is verified, the adjoint model of the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol is developed and used in a black carbon (BC) receptor-source sensitivity analysis to track influential haze source areas in north China. The sensitivity of the average BC concentration over Beijing at the highest concentration time point (referred to as the Objective Function) is calculated with respect to the BC amount emitted over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Four types of regions are selected based on the administrative division or the sensitivity coefficient distribution. The adjoint sensitivity results are then used to quantify the effect of reducing the emission sources at different time intervals over different regions. It is indicated that the more influential regions (with relatively larger sensitivity coefficients) do not necessarily correspond to the administrative regions. Instead, the influence per unit area of the sensitivity selected regions is greater. Therefore, controlling the most influential regions during critical time intervals based on the results of the adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative regions during an experimental time period.

  11. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheendra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic Filariasis which was neglected by the medical practitioners for past one year. A 40 - year - old male farmer visited the Primary Health Centre and BRIMS teaching hospital repeatedly during the past one year with a complaint of excretion of milky white urine with mild weight loss and physical weakness. The patient was undiagnosed for Filariasis. However , his urine examination revealed proteinuria with scanty pyuria , fat glo bules and elevated level of urinary triglyceride. Urine culture was found to be sterile. On physical examination of the patient , there was no visible swelling over the body. No enlarged lymph nodes were seen except non - tender minimal scrotal swelling. Radi ological examination of chest and pelvis had shown no calcification of lymph nodes. Overall , no abnormal findings were observed. Diagnosis revealed presence of microfilaria in peripheral blood smear after Diethylcarbamazine (DEC provocation test. The pati ent was prescribed the 12 days treatment regimen of DEC with Albendazole and asked to visit again for follow up. CONCLUSIONS: As this area is endemic for Filariasis in Karnataka state , it is a warning sign for the medical practitioners not to ignore patien ts presenting with Chyluria and to mandatorily investigate the presence of microfilaria even after mass drug administration. In this case the microbiological investigations helped prevent the patient from morbidity and disability due to Filariasis in futur e.

  12. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  13. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  14. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  15. Distinct microbial populations are tightly linked to the profile of dissolved iron in the methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatobi Emmanuel Oni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron reduction in subseafloor sulfate-depleted and methane-rich marine sediments is currently a subject of interest in subsurface geomicrobiology. While iron reduction and microorganisms involved have been well studied in marine surface sediments, little is known about microorganisms responsible for iron reduction in deep methanic sediments. Here, we used quantitative PCR (Q-PCR-based 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and pyrosequencing-based relative abundances of bacteria and archaea to investigate covariance between distinct microbial populations and specific geochemical profiles in the top 5 m of sediment cores from the Helgoland mud area, North Sea. We found that gene copy numbers of bacteria and archaea were specifically higher around the peak of dissolved iron in the methanic zone (250-350 cm. The higher copy numbers at these depths were also reflected by the relative sequence abundances of members of the candidate division JS1, methanogenic and Methanohalobium/ANME-3 related archaea. The distribution of these populations was strongly correlated to the profile of pore-water Fe2+ while that of Desulfobacteraceae corresponded to the pore-water sulfate profile. Furthermore, specific JS1 populations also strongly co-varied with the distribution of Methanosaetaceae in the methanic zone. Our data suggest that the interplay among JS1 bacteria, methanogenic archaea and Methanohalobium/ANME-3-related archaea may be important for iron reduction and methane cycling in deep methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area and perhaps in other methane-rich depositional environments.

  16. Spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, a water source area for the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (Middle Route), China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Dacong; ZHENG Lingling; SONG Lirong

    2011-01-01

    One of the water source areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is the Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR). To understand seasonal variation in phytoplankton composition, abundance and distribution in the DJKR area before water diversion, as well as to estimate potential risks of water quality after water diversion, we conducted an investigation on phytoplankton in the DJKR from August 2008 to May 2009. The investigation included 10 sampling sites, each with four depths of 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 m. In this study, 117 taxa belonging to 76 genera were identified, consisting of diatoms (39 taxa), green algae (47 taxa), blue-green algae (19 taxa), and others (12 taxa). Annual average phytoplankton abundance was 2.01xl06 ind./L, and the highest value was 14.72 x 106 ind/L (at site 3 in August 2008). Phytoplankton abundance in front of the Danjiangkou Dam (DJKD) was higher than that of the Danjiang Reservoir Basin. Phytoplankton distribution showed a vertical declining trend from 0.5 m to 20 m at most sites in August 2008 (especially at sites of 1, 2, 4 and 10), but no distinct pattern in other sampling months. In December 2008 and March 2009, Stephanodiscus sp. was the most abundant species, amounting to 55.23% and 72.34%, respectively. We propose that high abundance of Stephanodiscus sp. may have contributed greatly to the frequent occurrence of Stephanodiscus sp. blooms in middle-low reaches of the Hanjiang River during the early spring of 2009. In comparison with previous studies conducted from 1992 to 2006, annual average phytoplankton density, green algae and blue-green algae species, as well as major nutrient concentrations increased, while phytoplankton diversity indices declined. This indicates a gradual decline in water quality. More research should be conducted and countermeasures taken to prevent further deterioration of water quality in the DJKR.

  17. 'Save the North Sea' Fulmar Study 2002-2004: a regional pilot project for the Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the OSPAR area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Heubeck, M.; Fairclough, K.; Turner, D.M.; Grantham, M.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Guse, N.; Pedersen, J.; Olsen, K.O.; Andersson, P.J.; Olsen, B.

    2005-01-01

    North Sea Ministers at the Bergen Conference in 2002 decided that monitoring of marine plastic litter in stomachs of seabirds should become one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives for the North Sea (EcoQO's)'. The task of implementation was delegated to OSPAR, which covers the wider northeast Atla

  18. Sustainable Development in the Core Water Resource Area of the Central Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With continued population growth and accelerated industrialization and urbanization, water shortages and water quality deterioration have become a bottleneck restraining global socioeconomic progress. In China, water resources are unevenly distributed, with abundance in the south and scarcity in the north. Every year, a loss of nearly 100 billion yuan is incurred by water shortages in the north.

  19. The impact of the lithospheric flexure during the Elsterian glacial maximum on post-/proglacial systems in the southern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Huuse, Mads;

    Tunnel valleys have long fascinated the geoscientists by their scale and the consequent intensity of the sedimentary processes necessary to their formation. The filling of tunnel valleys in the southern and eastern North Sea is mainly made of clinoforms prograding north. A new sedimentological mo...

  20. Decontamination of water polluted with oil through the use of tanned solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammoun, A.; Azzi, M. [Hassan II Univ., Casablanca (Morocco). Faculty of Science

    2007-09-15

    The ability of chrome shavings (CS) and buffing dusts of crust leather (BDCL) to remove oily wastes from demineralized water and natural seawater was investigated. The aim of the study was to discover environmentally friendly alternatives for the disposal of solid tannery wastes. The specific surface area of the CS and the BDCL were examined to determine ash content; chromium oxide; fat; and the pH of soluble matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was then used to examine the structure and morphology of the samples. Three types of oil were used in the experiment: diesel motor oil; premium motor oil; and used motor oil. Sorbent materials were added to a beaker containing 1000 ml of water and 5.5 g of oil. The amount of residual oil in the water was then extracted with petroleum ether. The amount of oil sorbed on the wastes was calculated by subtracting the amount of residual oil in water from the initial mass of oil added to the beakers. Results suggested that the tanned solid wastes efficiently removed the oil from the water. It was concluded that the waste materials were able to absorb many times their weight in oil. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Spectrochemical Analysis of Soil around Leather Tanning Industry Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS to determine the chromium contamination of soil due to effluents from leather tanning industry in Kasur District of Punjab (+31∘6′23.21″, +74∘27′16.29″ in Pakistan. Calibration curves were constructed by indigenously prepared standard sample and fitting of curves by linear regression. The limit of detection (LOD was found to be 23.71 mg kg−1. It has been found that the concentration of chromium in the soil is up to 839 mg kg−1 in vicinity of effluent drain and 1829 mg kg−1 in the area of old stagnant pool, which is much higher than the safe limits. Qualitative detection of other elements like Na, Cl, Fe, P, and Si was done from LIBS spectra. The leaching of soil contaminants due to seepage of industrial effluents from deteriorating brick lined drains in horizontal direction has also been observed.

  2. Decontamination of water polluted with oil through the use of tanned solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of chrome shavings (CS) and buffing dusts of crust leather (BDCL) to remove oily wastes from demineralized water and natural seawater was investigated. The aim of the study was to discover environmentally friendly alternatives for the disposal of solid tannery wastes. The specific surface area of the CS and the BDCL were examined to determine ash content; chromium oxide; fat; and the pH of soluble matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was then used to examine the structure and morphology of the samples. Three types of oil were used in the experiment: diesel motor oil; premium motor oil; and used motor oil. Sorbent materials were added to a beaker containing 1000 ml of water and 5.5 g of oil. The amount of residual oil in the water was then extracted with petroleum ether. The amount of oil sorbed on the wastes was calculated by subtracting the amount of residual oil in water from the initial mass of oil added to the beakers. Results suggested that the tanned solid wastes efficiently removed the oil from the water. It was concluded that the waste materials were able to absorb many times their weight in oil. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, G; Sadulla, S; Sehgal, P K; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T(s)) and denaturation temperature (T(d)) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T(s) of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  4. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, G; Sadulla, S; Sehgal, P K; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T(s)) and denaturation temperature (T(d)) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T(s) of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning. PMID:22421341

  5. Testing a social cognitive theory-based model of indoor tanning: implications for skin cancer prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Zeitany, Alexandra; Kelley, Dannielle; Morales-Pico, Brenda; Thomas, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a theory-based understanding of indoor tanning is a major impediment to the development of effective messages to prevent or reduce this behavior. This study applied the Comprehensive Indoor Tanning Expectations (CITE) scale in an analysis of indoor tanning behavior among sorority women (total N = 775). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that CITE positive and negative expectations were robust, multidimensional factors and that a hierarchical structure fit the data well. Social cognitive theory-based structural equation models demonstrated that appearance-oriented variables were significantly associated with outcome expectations. Outcome expectations were, in turn, significantly associated with temptations to tan, intention to tan indoors, and indoor tanning behavior. The implications of these findings for the development of messages to prevent and reduce indoor tanning behavior are discussed in two domains: (a) messages that attempt to change broader societal perceptions about tan skin, and (b) messages that focus more narrowly on indoor tanning-challenging positive expectations, enhancing negative expectations, and encouraging substitution of sunless tanning products.

  6. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Sadulla, S.; Sehgal, P.K. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India); Mandal, Asit Baran, E-mail: abmandal@hotmail.com [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unnatural D-AA assisted tanned leathers found soft and full possessing tight grain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased hydrothermal stability of collagen via intra and inter molecular crosslink. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-Ly+Ald tanned leathers revealed a properly oriented with well aligned structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-AA in collagen creates new topologies inaccessible to homo chiral molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improves conventional tanning process, and reduce the total solid and liquid wastes. - Abstract: In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T{sub s}) and denaturation temperature (T{sub d}) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T{sub s} of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  7. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Unnatural D-AA assisted tanned leathers found soft and full possessing tight grain. ► Increased hydrothermal stability of collagen via intra and inter molecular crosslink. ► D-Ly+Ald tanned leathers revealed a properly oriented with well aligned structure. ► D-AA in collagen creates new topologies inaccessible to homo chiral molecules. ► Improves conventional tanning process, and reduce the total solid and liquid wastes. - Abstract: In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (Ts) and denaturation temperature (Td) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the Ts of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  8. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  9. Monitoring of the ground surface temperature and the active layer in NorthEastern Canadian permafrost areas using remote sensing data assimilated in a climate land surface scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, N.; Royer, A.; Krinner, G.; Roy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Projected future warming is particularly strong in the Northern high latitudes where increases of temperatures are up to 2 to 6 °C. Permafrost is present on 25 % of the northern hemisphere lands and contain high quantities of « frozen » carbon, estimated at 1400 Gt (40 % of the global terrestrial carbon). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the climate evolution in arctic areas, and more specifically of land areas covered by snow. The objective is to describe the ground temperature year round including under snow cover, and to analyse the active layer thickness evolution in relation to the climate variability. We use satellite data (fusion of MODIS land surface temperature « LST » and microwave AMSR-E brightness temperature « Tb ») assimilated in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) of the Canadian climate model coupled with a simple radiative transfer model (HUT). This approach benefits from the advantages of each of the data type in order to complete two objectives : 1- build a solid methodology for retrieving the ground temperature, with and without snow cover, in taïga and tundra areas ; 2 - from those retrieved ground temperatures, derive the summer melt duration and the active layer depth. We describe the coupling of the models and the methodology that adjusts the meteorological input parameters of the CLASS model (mainly air temperature and precipitations derived from the NARR database) in order to minimise the simulated LST and Tb ouputs in comparison with satellite measurements. Using ground-based meteorological data as validation references in NorthEastern Canadian tundra, the results show that the proposed approach improves the soil temperatures estimates when using the MODIS LST and Tb at 10 and 19 GHz to constrain the model in comparison with the model outputs without satellite data. Error analysis is discussed for the summer period (2.5 - 4 K) and for the snow covered winter period (2 - 3.5 K). Further steps are

  10. ¿Qué tan bien representados están los mamíferos mexicanos en la red federal de áreas naturales protegidas del país? How well represented are Mexican mammals in the natural protected area network?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Bernardo Vázquez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron la eficiencia y eficacia de la red de áreas naturales protegidas (ANPs federales de México para representar la riqueza de especies de mamíferos terrestres. Para determinar el porcentaje de especies no protegidas, se sobrepuso una gradilla de celdas de 0.5° x 0.5° con datos de riqueza de especies en el mapa de las ANPs y se comparó con conjuntos equivalentes de áreas seleccionados al azar. Mediante optimización se estimó cuántas celdas adicionales complementarían a las ANPs y cuántas áreas bastarían para proteger todas las especies al menos una vez. Los resultados indican que cerca de la quinta parte del total de especies, un tercio de las endémicas y un tercio de las vulnerables, no están protegidas. En conjuntos de celdas elegidos al azar se representan más especies que en el total de celdas cubiertas por ANPs. En la península de Baja California, la vertiente del Pacífico, la sierra Madre Occidental y el sur del país (Oaxaca se concentra el mayor número de especies no protegidas. Para complementar las celdas con ANPs se requieren 25 celdas adicionales y bastarían conjuntos óptimos de 38 celdas para representar todas las especies al menos una vez. Nuestros resultados pueden ayudar a mejorar la selección de nuevas ANPs para ganar en eficacia y eficiencia al representar a las especies de mamíferos aún no protegidas.We evaluated the efficacy and efficiency of the federal network of natural protected areas (NPAs to represent the species richness of terrestrial mammals. We overlapped a 0.5° x 0.5° grid with data on species richness with the map of NPAs, to determine the proportion of unprotected species. We compared this with equivalent sets of cells, chosen randomly. In addition, through optimization we determined how many additional cells will complement the NPAs and how many cells will represent all species at least once. We found that nearly 1/5 of the total species, 1/3 of the endemics and 1/3 of the

  11. Health assessment for Mid-America Tanning Company, Sergeant Bluff, Woodbury County, Iowa, Region 7. CERCLIS No. IAD085824688. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-08

    The Mid-America Tanning Company (MAT) Site is proposed to be listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the National Priorities List (NPL). Mid-America Tanning, now U.S. Tanning, is an animal hide processing plant located on 98.7 acres approximately five miles south of Sergeant Bluff, Woodbury County, Iowa. From June 1978 to the present, use of chromium has been extended to the entire process, which involves the treatment of approximately 1000 hides per day. The process utilizes trivalent chromium and produces waste sludge and liquids that are treated on-site at the company wastewater treatment facility. Based on the available information, this site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater, surface water and soil. Further environmental characterization and sampling of the site and impacted off-site areas during the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) should be conducted to address the environmental and human exposure pathways discussed above and to further define the extent of contamination at the site.

  12. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  13. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqin [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Tang, Changyuan, E-mail: cytang@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Wang, Qinxue [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yuan, Ruiqiang [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University (China)

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  14. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  15. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  16. "Oh yeah, they're looking": A thematic analysis of indoor UV tanning industry advertising and articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Suzanne M; Rafuse, Lindsay P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancers are becoming more prevalent even though many can be prevented. Women are more knowledgeable than men about skin cancer, yet they are more likely to sunbathe deliberately and to use artificial tanning equipment. The purpose of this article is to examine messages that women receive about the benefits of a tan. Particularly, we focused on how the indoor UV tanning industry represents the value of a tan to women. We subjected five issues of Smart Tan Canada to thematic analysis. We examined language in advertisements and articles that promote an artificial tan to women. Four themes emerged: Be Beautiful and Sexy; Look Young; Feel Better; and Science, Health, and Nature. These themes are especially effective in a culture that routinely objectifies women and places a high degree of value on their appearance. We suggest that appearance-based interventions, media literacy training, and legislation could counteract the messages in the themes. PMID:26334105

  17. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms. PMID:27251325

  18. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

  19. Development Trend of Green and Eco-friendly Biomass Leather Tanning Agent and its Combination Tanning%生物质皮革鞣剂及其结合鞣应用的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文强; 贺亚亚; 邓丽娟

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the research progress of biomass tanning agents such as amino acids tanning a-gents and plant biomass green tanning agent was reviewed. And their utilization in combination tanning process was also introduced briefly.%综述了氨基酸类鞣剂和植物类鞣剂等生物质类皮革鞣剂的研究进展,简述了生物质鞣剂在结合鞣中的应用。

  20. Digital map of the configuration of the base of the principal aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  1. Terrestrial Riparian Arthropod Investigations In the Big Beaver Creek Research Natural Area, North Cascades National Park Service Complex,1995-1996: Part III, Arachnida:Araneae

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — Ground-dwelling spider communities of nine distinct habitat types were sampled within the riparian corridor of lower Big Beaver Creek, North Cascades National Park...

  2. Sewage Produced Characteristic of Rural Areas in North China Plain Region%华北平原地区农村生活污水产污特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 裴国霞; 张玉华; 刘东生; 李想; 谭平

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the status of rural domestic wastewater pollution in the North China Plain region, the rural domestic wastewater of 15 typical peasant households with different income levels in Jingtangpu Village,Xushui County,Baoding City was made a continuous investigating and monitoring for 12 months,including the daily produced per capita,pH,chemical oxygen demand(COD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) of rural domestic wastewater.The mean value of sewage generated was 21.03 L· d-1 ? Person-1, pH was 6.14, the sewage production coefficients of COD,TAN, TN and TP were 7.87 g·d-1 ? Person-1,0.581 g·d-1 ? Person-1, 1.31 g· d-1·person-1 and 0.066 2 g·d-1·person-1. The households with middle income levels had highest indicators,followed by high and low income level households,and the difference between high,middle and low income level households was significant,these results indicated that the amount of sewage produced per capita and sewage production coefficients were related to the income.%为了解华北平原地区农村生活污水产污特征,准确评价农村生活污染状况,本研究选取华北平原地区典型农村(保定市徐水县荆塘铺村)不同收入水平的15户典型农户,对其生活污水的产污情况进行12个月(2010年8月至2011年7月)的调查和监测,得到农户的生活污水人均日产生量、pH、COD、TAN、TN和TP的产污系数.农户生活污水人均日产生量为21.03 L·d-1·人-1,pH值为6.14,COD、TAN、TN和TP的产污系数分别为7.87、0.581、1.31 g·d-1·人-1和0.066 2g·d-1·人-1.各项指标从高到低依次为中收入水平农户,高收入水平农户和低收入水平农户,且高中收入水平农户与低收入水平农户各项指标差异性较显著.以上结果表明华北平原地区农村生活污水人均日产生量和污染物产污系数与收入水平有关.

  3. Integration of spatial and temporal data for the definition of different landslide hazard scenarios in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zêzere

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A general methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of landslide hazard is applied, taking in account both the landslide susceptibility and the instability triggering factors, mainly rainfall. The method is applied in the Fanhões-Trancão test site (north of Lisbon, Portugal where 100 shallow translational slides were mapped and integrated into a GIS database. For the landslide susceptibility assessment it is assumed that future landslides can be predicted by statistical relationships between past landslides and the spatial data set of the predisposing factors (slope angle, slope aspect, transversal slope profile, lithology, superficial deposits, geomorphology, and land use. Susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Bayesian model over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. The landslide susceptibility map is prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. In order to validate the results of the susceptibility ana- lysis, the landslide data set is divided in two parts, using a temporal criterion. The first subset is used for obtaining a prediction image and the second subset is compared with the prediction results for validation. The obtained prediction-rate curve is used for the quantitative interpretation of the initial susceptibility map. Landslides in the study area are triggered by rainfall. The integration of triggering information in hazard assessment includes (i the definition of thresholds of rainfall (quantity-duration responsible for past landslide events; (ii the calculation of the relevant return periods; (iii the assumption that the same rainfall patterns (quantity/duration which produced slope instability in the past will produce the same effects in the future (i.e. same types of landslides and same total affected area. The landslide hazard is present as the probability of each pixel to be affected by a slope movement

  4. The Variations and Trends of MODIS C5 & C6 Products’ Errors in the Recent Decade over the Background and Urban Areas of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With ten-year (2004–2013 ground-based observations of Beijing Forest (BJF and Beijing City (BJC sites in North China, we validated the high-quality MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 5 (C5 and Collection 6 (C6 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products’ precision and discussed the sensors degradation issues. The annual mean AOD and Angstrom exponent (α were 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.83 ± 0.15 in the background over the past ten years, and they were 0.59 ± 0.07 and 1.13 ± 0.08 in the urban, respectively. Ground-based AOD had both slightly declining trends, with variations of 0.023 and 0.057 over the past decade in the background and urban, respectively. There were large differences among the eight kinds of MODIS AOD products (Terra vs. Aqua, C5 vs. C6, DT (Deep Target vs. DB (Deep Blue, and DTDB in the background and urban areas, but all the products’ monthly errors had larger variations in the spring and summer, and smaller ones in the autumn and winter. In the background, more than 62% of DT matchups for C5 and C6 products were within NASA’s expected error (EE envelope. In the urban, 69%~72% of C6 DB retrievals were falling within EE envelope. The new dataset named C6 DTDB had better performance in the background, whereas it overestimated by 37%~41% in the urban caused by surface reflectivity estimation error. The range of monthly average error varied from −0.21 to 0.28 in the background and from −0.63 to 0.48 in the urban. From the background to the urban areas, the retrieval errors of Terra and Aqua had slightly increased by 0.0023~0.0158 and 0.0011~0.0124 per year, respectively, which implied that the two MODIS instruments had degraded slowly.

  5. A 125 GeV fat Higgs at large tan β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Arjun; Raj, Nirmal

    2015-12-01

    In this article we study the viability of regions of large tan β within the frame-work of Fat Higgs/λ-SUSY Models. We compute the one-loop effective potential to find the corrections to the Higgs boson mass due to the heavy non-standard Higgs bosons. As the tree level contribution to the Higgs boson mass is suppressed at large tan β, these one-loop corrections are crucial to raising the Higgs boson mass to the measured LHC value. By raising the Higgsino and singlino mass parameters, typical electroweak precision constraints can also be avoided. We illustrate these new regions of Fat Higgs/λ-SUSY parameter space by finding regions of large tan β that are consistent with all experimental constraints including direct dark matter detection experiments, relic density limits and the invisible decay width of the Z boson. We find that there exist regions around λ = 1 .25 , tan β = 50 and a uniform psuedo-scalar 4 TeV ≲ M A ≲ 8 TeV which are consistent will all present phenomenological constraints. In this region the dark matter relic abundance and direct detection limits are satisfied by a lightest neutralino that is mostly bino or singlino. As an interesting aside we also find a region of low tan β and small singlino mass parameter where a well-tempered neutralino avoids all cosmological and direct detection constraints.

  6. Supersymmetry Unification Predictions for $m_{top}, V_{cb}$ and $tan{\\beta}$

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, M A; Valle, José W F; Diaz, Marco A.; Ferrandis, Javier; Valle, Jose W.F.

    2000-01-01

    We study the predictions for M_top, tan(beta) and V_cb in a popular texture ansatze for the fermion mass matrices. We do this both for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and for the simplest model (MSSM-BRpV) where a bilinear R-Parity violating term is added to the superpotential. We find that taking the experimental values for M_top and V_cb at 99 % C.L. and the GUT relations h_b=h_tau and (V_cb)^2=h_c/h_t within 5 %, the large tan(beta) solution, characteristic in the MSSM with bottom--tau unification, becomes disallowed. In contrast the corresponding allowed region for the MSSM-BRpV is slightly larger. We also find that important modifications occur if we relax the texture conditions at the GUT scale. For example, if the GUT relations are imposed at 40 %, the large tan(beta) branch in the MSSM becomes fully allowed. In addition, in MSSM-BRpV the whole tan(beta)-M_top plane become allowed, finding unification at any value of tan(beta).

  7. UV emissions from artificial tanning devices and their compliance with the European technical standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facta, Stefania; Fusette, Stefania Saudino; Bonino, Alessandro; Anglesio, Laura; d'Amore, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Use of ultraviolet radiation-emitting tanning devices has been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Following this classification, the knowledge of typical ultraviolet emission levels from tanning devices can be of interest for evaluating their impact on health. In this work, the results of an extensive measurement campaign on artificial tanning appliances are presented. Ultraviolet emissions from 94 tanning appliances produced by 15 different manufacturers were characterized by onsite spectroradiometric measurements. The measured radiometric quantities were compared with reference values fixed in the European technical standard EN 60335-2-27 "Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety. Part 2: Particular requirements for appliances for skin exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation." Measurement results indicate that 88% of the examined appliances had ultraviolet emissions not compliant with the technical standard. Among the considered appliances, tanning devices equipped with low pressure lamps showed higher ultraviolet levels of effective irradiance and less compliance with standard requirements. In particular, UV emissions from 100% of low pressure appliances and from 78% of high pressure appliances exceeded the irradiance limit of 0.3 Wm set by the European technical standard.

  8. To the question on accuracy of forest heights’ measurements by the TanDEM-X radar interferometry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Chimitdorzhiev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the validation results of the InSAR method for determining the forest canopy height, based on TanDEM-X and ALOS PALSAR data. The research conducted on the territory of the Baikal-Kudara forest area of the Republic of Buryatia (52°10'N, 106°48'E. Forest vegetation is represented mainly by conifers – pine, and spruce, with a small admixture of deciduous trees – aspen, birch, etc. The forest vegetation height was determined by subtracting the digital elevation model (DEM of the digital terrain model (DTM. DEM is built according to the L-band (wavelength of 23.5 cm ALOS PALSAR satellite with horizontal co-polarization mode. In the investigation it was assumed that a radar signal of ALOS PALSAR passes all forest thickness and reflected from the underlying surface, made it possible to recover terrain under forest canopy. DTM has been built using the TanDEM-X data (wavelength 3 cm. In this case, it was assumed that the radar echoes scattered from a some virtual phase centers of scattering surface, which characterizes the upper limit of the continuous forest canopy. To check the accuracy of satellite definitions of forest height in study area were made high-precision geodetic measurement of trees heights using electronic total station and the coordinates of geographic control points using differential GPS receivers. The discrepancy between the satellite and ground-based measurements at 11 test sites did not exceed 2 m, which is mainly due to the difference in measurement techniques: height of individual trees by ground methods and continuous forest canopy height using radar interferometry.

  9. STUDY AND PREPARATION ON "PAIN TAN NING" AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATION AND STUDY ON BRAIN ATLAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingshun; GU Lanjie; LIU Qingrui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical effect of combined mixture of traditional chineses and western medicine "PIAN TAN NING" in treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and change of brain atlas. Methods:In 6660 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, the curative effect of "PIAN TAN NING" and brain atlas were observed and other 30 cases were compared with treatment of Dextran. Results:After treatment, patient's clinical symptoms and recovered degree of myodynamia and brain atlas improved significantly. Total effective rate was 96. 7%. But the contral group was 80. 0%. There was a significant difference between them ( p < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The "PIAN TAN NING" produced a good clinical curative effect in treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and the side effect was only a few. So it can be applied very well in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The applied value of brain atlas was very good.

  10. Hydrolysis of tanned leather wastes under alkaline, acidic and oxidative conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botić Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Different wastes in large quantities are the outcome or the by-product of processes in the tanning industry. The largest part of solid wastes is collagen based and obtained in the reprocessing steps of tanned and non-tanned products. The quality collagen substance obtained from wastes of the leather industry used as a supporting material in many reprocessing industries. Hydrolysis is the basic step of collagen processing, namely the shortening of its polypeptide chain. The main goal of this investigation was to examine the influence of the following parameters on the extent of collagen hydrolysis: type and quantity of reagent used for hydrolysis temperature of hydrolysis, pH, duration of hydrolysis as well as the dimensions of the "shavings" samples. The change of molar mass during hydrolysis was monitored by UV-spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to the dechroming process of the collagen hydrolysate.

  11. Proposing and evaluating applications for products obtained during chromium chip alkaline hydrolysis produced during leather tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some applications for products obtained by chromium chip alkaline hydrolysis produced during leather tanning were evaluated in this work, considering the concept of maximising tanneries’ solid residue reuse for different industrial applications and minimising the environmental impact so produced. When Cr(OH is transformed into Cr (OH(SO it can be used in tanning leather (i.e. as tanning salt. When compared to commercial salts, 2 4 it was determined that it could be applied to mixtures containing this salt, replacing it by up to 40%. Chromium content reduction was evaluated for collagen hydrolyzate by pH control after alkaline hydrolysis of the chips and by applying adsorbent materials such as bentonite, alfalfa and sorghum biomass and activated charcoal, a maximum 55% Cr removal being obtained when the first two adsorbent materials were used.

  12. Digitial map of geologic units forming the base of the principal aquifer and areas where the base of aquifer is not well defined, Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  13. Structure de socle, sismostratigraphie et héritage structural au cours du rifting au niveau de la marge d'Ifni/Tan-Tan (Maroc sud-occidental)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouAli, Naïma; Hafid, Mohamad; Chellaï, El Hassane; Nahim, Mohamed; Zizi, Mahmoud

    2005-10-01

    Seismic reflection profiles from the Ifni/Tan-Tan Atlantic margin of southern Morocco, interpreted in the light of well data and field geology from the Western Anti-Atlas, allowed us to establish the seismostratigraphic framework of the syn-rift series and to reveal ( i) a compressional structural style in the pre-Triassic basement similar to that established in the adjacent outcropping onshore basement but with an opposed western vergence, ( ii) the importance of inherited anterior structures in the formation of Triassic-Liassic rift structures and ( iii) an east-west propagation of these rift structures. To cite this article: N. AbouAli et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  14. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras tan pobres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ignacio López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Landes, David. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras son tan pobres?, Barcelona, Editorial Crítica, 1999, 604 páginas. ¿Porqué hay naciones pobres y naciones ricas y cuál es la contribución de la historia en la comprensión de esta cuestión? El autor entiende por cultura el espíritu de empresa, el conjunto de valores que guían la conducta de una población, el dominio de la ciencia, la tecnología y el espíritu racional.

  15. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  16. Sustainable Development in the Core Water Resource Area of the Central Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ With continued population growth and accelerated industrialization and urbanization, water shortages and water quality deterioration have become a bottleneck restraining global socioeconomic progress.In China, water resources are unevenly distributed, with abundance in the south and scarcity in the north.Every year, a loss of nearly 100 billion yuan is incurred by water shortages in the north.The Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is a key measure to optimize the spatial allocation of water resources in China.However, while giving opportunities for sound socioeconomic progress to the key headwaters region of the project, the move also poses new challenges to the region in terms of economic development, ecological balance, water quality monitoring and water quantity guarantee.

  17. EVIDENCE FOR "UNER TAN SYNDROME" AS A HUMAN MODEL FOR REVERSE EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Prof. Dr. Uner

    2006-01-01

    “Uner Tan Syndrome” was further studied in a second family. There was no cerebellar atrophy, except a mild vermial atrophy in MRI scans of the affected individuals. This is not, however, the pathogenesis of the “Uner Tan Syndrome”, since in the first and second families there were bipedal men exhibiting very similar MRI scans. The second family may also be considered a live model for reverse evolution in human beings. The present work provided evidence for a reverse evolution: (i) quadrupedal...

  18. Terrestrial Impact Craters in 3D: The global TanDEM-X Digital Eleveation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gottwald, Manfred; Fritz, Thomas; Breit, Helko; Schättler, Birgit; Harris, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades space-borne sensors have provided us with high-quality elevation data of the solid surfaces of several large bodies of the solar system. For Earth, the German TanDEM-X mission delivers a new digital elevation model (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy. From December 2010 to March 2015 the two X-band radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X have been operated in close formation as a single-pass SAR interferometer. The data acquired in bistatic mode are processed to yield a...

  19. Efficient Room-Temperature Activation of Methane by TaN(+) under C-N Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaodong; Li, Jilai; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2016-09-12

    The thermal reaction of diatomic tantalum nitride cation [TaN](+) with methane has been explored using FT-ICR mass spectrometry complemented by high-level quantum chemical calculation; based on this combined experimental/computational approach, mechanistic aspects of this novel, highly efficient C-N coupling process have been uncovered. In distinct contrast to [TaN](+) , its lighter congeners [VN](+) and [NbN](+) are inert towards methane under ambient conditions, and the origins of the remarkably variable efficiencies of the three metal nitrides are uncovered by CCSD(T) calculations. PMID:27510819

  20. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-01

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work. PMID:16942836

  1. On the Origin of One Basin-Multiple Mountain Couplings in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin-Range Area in Eastern North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shuyin; SHAO Ji'an; HOU Quanlin; WANG Baode; XU Chuanshi

    2004-01-01

    The basin-range coupling relation is a leading subject of the modern geology. In geometry, relations of this type include couplings between stretched orogenic belt and down-faulted basin, compressional orogenic belt and foreland basin, strike-slip orogenic belt and strike-slip basin and so on. Fault chains are the key for these couplings and there are typical examples for all these cases. The North China down-faulted basin is coupled west with the Tathang uplift, east with the Jiao-Liao Mountains, north with the Yanshan orogenic belt and south with the Dabie orogenic belt,that is to say, the central down-faulted basin and the surrounding orogenic belts bear a coupling relation within a uniform dynamistic system. Study shows that the central down-faulted basin and the North China mantle sub-plume structure have a close relation during their formation. Owing to intensive mantle sub-plume uplifting, the bottom of the lithosphere suffered from resistance, which caused the lithosphere of the eastern North China to be heated, thinned and fault-depressed. Meanwhile, mantle rocks that were detached outwards in the shape of mushroom was dissected by surrounding ductile shearing zones, which lead to decompression and unloading to generate hypomagmas, and a series of mantle-branch structures were formed around the down-faulted basin. There is an obvious comparability among these mantle branch structures (orogenic belts), and they have basin-range coupling relations with the central down-faulted basins.

  2. Changes in Sun Tanning Attitudes and Behaviors of U.S. College Students from 1995 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Geschke, Kaela S.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate changes in U.S. college student sun tanning attitudes and behaviors over the last decade, participants completed sun tanning attitude and behavior surveys in 1995 (n=151) and a different sample of participants completed surveys in 2005 (n=208). Consistent with predictions, results indicated that college students were more likely to…

  3. Chrome Tanning Leather of Giant Sea Perch Combined with Seed Extract Areca Nut on the Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustami - Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanning is the process of converting raw hide protein to leather, which are stable, not easily decompose, and is suitable for a variety of uses. The use of vegetable based tanning materials in the leather tanning process has not been carried out. Vegetable based materials that were used are betel nuts. This plant contains tannin which is the main agent in the process of leather tanning. The aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of snapper leather treated with betel nut extract. Soxhlet extracting method with methanol as a solvent were used to obtain tannin from betel nuts. Tanned Snapper Leather were analyzed for physical quality, elongation strength, tensile strength, tear strength, and sewing strength. The result showed that methanol extracted betel nut with 10% concentration gives the optimum physical characteristics.Keywords: areca nut, chrome, snapper, snapper

  4. Preparation of high exhaust chrome from leather shavings and hydrocarbons with its application in leather processing for green tanning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of chrome in tanning has made the remarkable advances to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of heavy metal containing solid wastes and toxic effluents. To solve the environmental issues we emphasized on the development of high exhaust chrome complex from chrome containing leather wastes that could minimize the toxic effluents up to negligible limit. Therefore in the synthetic process of chrome tanning material, the chrome shavings and the hydrocarbons have been utilized as a reductant as well as the potential masking intermediates. These chrome tanning materials have been prepared using leather shavings alone in product A, partial replacement of shavings by hydrocarbons for product B and then replacement of hydrocarbons by molasses for product C. The materials have been employed for the tanning of goat skins parallel to the commercial basic chromium sulfate (BCS). (author)

  5. 77 FR 43157 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... the Federal Register on June 25, 2012 (77 FR 37806) relating to disregarded entities (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. DATES: This correction is... Excise Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correcting...

  6. Determination of total chromium in tanned leather samples used in car industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Iva; Ujević, Darko; Steffan, Ilse

    2011-03-01

    Despite the high competition of synthetic fibers leather is nowadays still widely used for many applications. In order to ensure a sufficient stability of the skin matrix against many factors, such as microbial degradation, heat and sweat, a tanning process is indispensable. Using chromium (III) for this purpose offers a multitude of advantages, thus this way of tanning is widely applied. During the use of chromium tanned leather as clothing material as well as for decoration/covering purposes, chromium is extracted from the leather and may then cause nocuous effects to human skin, e.g. allergic reactions. Thus the knowledge of the total chromium content of leather samples expected to come into prolonged touch with human skin is very important. In car industry leather is used as cover for seats, steering wheel and gearshift lever The chromium contents often chromium tanned leather samples used in car industry were determined. First all samples were dried at 65 degrees C overnight and then cut in small pieces using a ceramic knife, weighed and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acidic microwave assisted digestion. The total chromium amounts found were in the range from 19 mg/g up to 32 mg/g. The extraction yield of chromium from leather samples in sweat is approximately 2-7%. Thus especially during long journeys in summer chromium can be extracted in amounts which may cause nocuous effects for example on the palm of the hands or on the back.

  7. The TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model and the Terrestrial Impact Crater Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, M.; Fritz, T.; Breit, H.; Schättler, B.; Harris, A.

    2016-08-01

    The German TanDEM-X mission provides a new high-quality DEM of the Earth's surface. We present the current status of this DEM, show how it compares with existing DEMs from spaceborne sensors and illustrate results of our global mapping project.

  8. 75 FR 5322 - Indoor Tanning Association; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... risk of contracting internal cancers, such as lung, kidney, or liver cancer. The complaint alleges that... decreasing the risk of contracting lung, kidney, or liver cancer. Part III prohibits respondent from making..., including indoor tanning, does not increase the risk of skin cancer. The complaint alleges that this...

  9. Preparation and annealing study of TaN x coatings on WC-Co substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-I.; Lin, Bo-Lu; Kuo, Yu-Chu; Huang, Jen-Ching; Chang, Li-Chun; Lin, Yu-Ting

    2011-05-01

    To prevent Co diffusion from cemented carbides at high temperatures, we fabricated TaN x coatings by reactive direct current (d.c.) magnetron sputtering onto 6 wt.% cobalt cemented carbide substrates, to form diffusion barrier layers. Varying the nitrogen flow ratio, N 2/(Ar + N 2), from 0.05 to 0.4 during the sputtering process had a significant effect on coating structure and content. Deposition rate reduced as the nitrogen flow ratio increased. The effects of nitrogen flow ratio on the crystalline characteristics of the TaN x coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction. The TaN x coatings annealing conditions were 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C for 4 h in air. We evaluated the performance of the diffusion barrier using both Auger electron spectroscopy depth-profiles and X-ray diffraction techniques. We also investigated oxidation resistance of the TaN x coatings annealed in air, and under a 50 ppm O 2-N 2 atmosphere, to evaluate the fabricated layers effectiveness as a protective coating for glass molding dies.

  10. Portrayal of Tanning, Clothing Fashion and Shade Use in Australian Women's Magazines, 1987-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Jamsen, Kris; McLeod, Kim

    2008-01-01

    To examine modelling of outcomes relevant to sun protection in Australian women's magazines, content analysis was performed on 538 spring and summer issues of popular women's magazines from 1987 to 2005. A total of 4949 full-colour images of Caucasian females were coded for depth of tan, extent of clothing cover, use of shade and setting. Logistic…

  11. Amy Tan, Author of "The Joy Luck Club." (People to Know).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Barbara

    This book, aimed at the young reader, explores the life and career of the Chinese-American author, Amy Tan. It follows her childhood in Oakland, California, through her struggle to accept her Chinese heritage, through her education and marriage to a non-Chinese man, to her early work as a business writer, and finally to her great success as a…

  12. Ever Searching for Better Living——Tan Sri Lee Kim Yew and his CHHB Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Visionary Entrepreneur There have been many spectacular feats and achievements by Malaysians in the last two decade,but none as uneXpected and hard-fought as the rise of Tan Sri Lee Kim Yew,Group Managing Director and Founder of CHHB.

  13. Resistance to Tan Spot and Stagonospora nodorum Blotch in Wheat-Alien Species Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan spot [caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs.] and Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) [caused by Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and Germano] are destructive fungal diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the world. Host plant resistance is thought to be an effi...

  14. Structural, electronic and optical properties of hexagonal TaN compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongjun; Yan, Jungan; Kuang, Zhong; Chen, Taihong; Li, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Structural and electronic properties of hexagonal Tantalum nitride (TaN) in CoSn and WC structures are studied using the first-principle calculations. Lattice constants and electronic band structures are in an excellent agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical values. TaN in both structures studied has a metallic nature and a strong hybridization of Ta 5d and N 2p are found from the spin density of states (DOS). Meanwhile, our LSDA+U calculations predicted a strong ferromagnetic state for CoSn-type structure and an obvious paramagnetic nature for WC-type structure. No phase transition are observed within cubic and hexagonal CoSn and WC structures under high pressures. Our results show WC-type TaN is the calculated ground-state structure among the three crystallographic structures studied under 120 GPa. Optical properties show that TaN in CoSn-type structure is a better dielectric material.

  15. A 125 GeV Fat Higgs at large $\\tan \\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    We study the viability of regions of large $\\tan \\beta$ within the framework of Fat Higgs/$\\lambda$-SUSY Models. We compute the one-loop effective potential to find the corrections to the Higgs boson mass due to the heavy non-standard Higgs bosons. As the tree level contribution to the Higgs boson mass is suppressed at large $\\tan \\beta$, these one-loop corrections are crucial to raising the Higgs boson mass to the measured LHC value. By raising the Higgsino and singlino mass parameters, typical electroweak precision constraints can also be avoided. We illustrate these new regions of Fat Higgs/$\\lambda$-SUSY parameter space by finding regions of large $\\tan \\beta$ that are consistent with all experimental constraints including direct dark matter detection experiments, relic density limits and the invisible decay width of the $Z$ boson. We find that there exist regions around $\\lambda = 1.25, \\tan \\beta = 50$ and a uniform psuedo-scalar $4~{\\rm TeV} \\lsim M_A \\lsim 8$~TeV which are consistent will all present ...

  16. Click chemistry approach to conventional vegetable tanning process: accelerated method with improved organoleptic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Ganesan; Ramamurthy, Govindaswamy; Sadulla, Sayeed; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2014-09-01

    Click chemistry approaches are tailored to generate molecular building blocks quickly and reliably by joining small units together selectively and covalently, stably and irreversibly. The vegetable tannins such as hydrolyzable and condensed tannins are capable to produce rather stable radicals or inhibit the progress of radicals and are prone to oxidations such as photo and auto-oxidation, and their anti-oxidant nature is well known. A lot remains to be done to understand the extent of the variation of leather stability, color variation (lightening and darkening reaction of leather), and poor resistance to water uptake for prolonged periods. In the present study, we have reported click chemistry approaches to accelerated vegetable tanning processes based on periodates catalyzed formation of oxidized hydrolysable and condensed tannins for high exhaustion with improved properties. The distribution of oxidized vegetable tannin, the thermal stability such as shrinkage temperature (T s) and denaturation temperature (T d), resistance to collagenolytic activities, and organoleptic properties of tanned leather as well as the evaluations of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates the cross section of tightness of the leather. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis shows that the T d of leather is more than that of vegetable tanned or equal to aldehyde tanned one. The leathers exhibited fullness, softness, good color, and general appearance when compared to non-oxidized vegetable tannin. The developed process benefits from significant reduction in total solids and better biodegradability in the effluent, compared to non-oxidized vegetable tannins. PMID:24888617

  17. Studies on 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of strike-slip time of the Tan-Lu fault zone and their tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Guang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Xu, J. W., Ma, G. E, Ten years review on studies on the Tan-Lu fault zone, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1992, 38(4):316-324.[2]Xu, J. W., The Tancheng-Lujiang Wrench Fault System, Chichester(UK): John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1993, 177-183.[3]Zhu, G., Xu, J. W., Tectonic relationships between the Tan-Lu fault zone and the Dabie-Jiaonan orogenic belt, in Research Progress in Structural Geology and Lithosphere Dynamics (ed., Ma. Z. J.) (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismological Publishing House, 1999,164-170.[4]Dou, L. R., Song, J. G., Wang, Y., Chronology of formation of the northern part of the Tan-Lu fault zone and its implications, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1996,42(6): 508-512.[5]Yin, A., Nie, S. Y., An indendation model for the North and South China collision and the development of the Tan-Lu and Honam fault system, eastern Asia, Tectonics, 1993, 12(4): 801-813.[6]Wan, T. F., Zhu, H., The maximum sinistral strike-slip displacement and formation time of the Tan-Lu fault zone, Geological Journal of China Universities (in Chinese), 1996, 2(1): 14-27.[7]Wang, X. F., Li, Z. J., Chen, B. L. et al., Formation and evolution of the Tan-Lu strike-slip fault system and its geological significance, in Proceedings of 30th International Geological Congress (ed., Zheng, Y. Z.), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1998, 14: 176-196.[8]Xu, J. W., Zhu, G., Tectonic models of the Tan-Lu fault zone,eastern China, International Geology Review, 1994,36:771-784.[9]Zhu, G., Xu, J. W., Displacement, timing and tectonic models of the Tan-Lu fault zone, in Proceedings of 30th International Geological Congress (ed., Zheng, Y. D.), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1998, 14: 167-175.[10]Zhang, Z. M., Liou, J. G., Coleman, R. G., An outline of the plate tectonics of China, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 1984, 95:295-312.[11]Watson, M. P., Hayward, A. B., Parkinson, D. N. et al., Plate tectonics history, basin development and petroleum source rock

  18. Biointervention makes leather processing greener: an integrated cleansing and tanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2003-06-01

    The do-undo methods adopted in conventional leather processing generate huge amounts of pollutants. In other words, conventional methods employed in leather processing subject the skin/hide to wide variations in pH. Pretanning and tanning processes alone contribute more than 90% of the total pollution from leather processing. Included in this is a great deal of solid wastes such as lime and chrome sludge. In the approach described here, the hair and flesh removal as well as fiber opening have been achieved using biocatalysts at pH 8.0 for cow hides. This was followed by a pickle-free chrome tanning, which does not require a basification step. Hence, this tanning technique involves primarily three steps, namely, dehairing, fiber opening, and tanning. It has been found that the extent of hair removal, opening up of fiber bundles, and penetration and distribution of chromium are comparable to that produced by traditional methods. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic, stratigraphic chrome distribution analysis, and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally processed leathers through physical and hand evaluation. Importantly, softness of the leathers is numerically proven to be comparable with that of control. The process also demonstrates reduction in chemical oxygen demand load by 80%, total solids load by 85%, and chromium load by 80% as compared to the conventional process, thereby leading toward zero discharge. The input-output audit shows that the biocatalytic three-step tanning process employs a very low amount of chemicals, thereby reducing the discharge by 90% as compared to the conventional multistep processing. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the process is technoeconomically viable.

  19. Compositional analysis and physicochemical and mechanical testing of tanned rabbit skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. R. Sousa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and physicochemical and mechanical parameters of New Zealand White rabbit tanned skin were evaluated. Skin samples from 70-d-old males, in natura and semi-finished, were collected for evaluation. The in natura treatment comprise skins without any processing, while semi-finished treatment comprise skins after soaking, fleshing, liming, de-liming, purging, degreasing, pickling, tanning, neutralising, re-tanning and dyeing, followed by oiling, drying, stretching and softening. After tanning, samples from the dorsal and flank regions were removed for tensile and physicochemical testing in the longitudinal and transverse directions. A split plot design was used with plot treatments (leather regions: R1=dorsal and R2=flank and subplots directions (S1=longitudinal and S2=transversal, using 10 examples per treatment. At the end of processing, the leather analysis revealed low moisture (31.76%, protein (46.48% and fat content (24.95%, and a high ash content (8.58%. Leather presented a pH of 4.9 and contained 2.0% chromium oxide, 25.5% extractable substances in dichloromethane, and these characteristics were coupled with a higher tensile strength (10.84 N/mm2 in the dorsal region. However, samples in the same region proved to have higher elasticity (64.57% in the longitudinal direction, although there was no difference in the progressive tearing analysis (21.07-23.50 N/mm. Overall, our analyses suggest that, in this case, the tanned leather product does not have sufficient resistance for application in clothing production.

  20. Biointervention makes leather processing greener: an integrated cleansing and tanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2003-06-01

    The do-undo methods adopted in conventional leather processing generate huge amounts of pollutants. In other words, conventional methods employed in leather processing subject the skin/hide to wide variations in pH. Pretanning and tanning processes alone contribute more than 90% of the total pollution from leather processing. Included in this is a great deal of solid wastes such as lime and chrome sludge. In the approach described here, the hair and flesh removal as well as fiber opening have been achieved using biocatalysts at pH 8.0 for cow hides. This was followed by a pickle-free chrome tanning, which does not require a basification step. Hence, this tanning technique involves primarily three steps, namely, dehairing, fiber opening, and tanning. It has been found that the extent of hair removal, opening up of fiber bundles, and penetration and distribution of chromium are comparable to that produced by traditional methods. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic, stratigraphic chrome distribution analysis, and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally processed leathers through physical and hand evaluation. Importantly, softness of the leathers is numerically proven to be comparable with that of control. The process also demonstrates reduction in chemical oxygen demand load by 80%, total solids load by 85%, and chromium load by 80% as compared to the conventional process, thereby leading toward zero discharge. The input-output audit shows that the biocatalytic three-step tanning process employs a very low amount of chemicals, thereby reducing the discharge by 90% as compared to the conventional multistep processing. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the process is technoeconomically viable. PMID:12831051