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Sample records for area north final

  1. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  2. kaduna area, north ce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Similarly, the relative variation of depth to the water table inferred from the spectral analysis was used to deduce .... All the image processing and map preparations were done on a .... investigations in shallow basement areas of. Zaria, Kaduna ...

  3. Phase III (final) evaluation report : national evaluation of the FY01 earmark, area transportation authority of North Central Pennsylvania--regional GIS/ITS initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-31

    This report presents the results of the United States Department of Transportation evaluation of a federally funded earmark project implemented by the Area Transportation Authority of North Central Pennsylvania (ATA). The project implemented a suite ...

  4. NORTH END ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Harald; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted in the North End Roadless Area, Arizona indicate probable or substantiated metallic mineral-resource potential in about one-fifth of the area. The area has potential for disseminated or stockwork-type molybdenum mineralization, copper-lead-zinc-silver veins, lead-zinc-silver limestone replacement deposits, and tungsten-bearing contact metamorphic skarn deposits. The area also contains cement rock and marble dimension stone, but has only slight promise for the occurrence of petroleum and natural gas.

  5. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preteft Emiliani, Antonio

    1993-01-01

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  6. North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  7. North Central regional environmental characterization report: executive summary - final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the States within the North Central Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): North Hollywood/Burbank Well Field Area 1, San Fernando Valley Site, California (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-24

    The North Hollywood - Burbank Well Field (NHBWF) is located within the San Fernando Valley Ground Water basin, which can provide drinking water for approximately 500,000 people residing in the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles. In 1980 TCE and PCE were discovered in 25% of DWP's wells. In July 1981, DWP and the Southern California Association of Governments began a two-year study funded by EPA. The study revealed the occurrence of ground-water contamination plume patterns that are spreading toward the southeast. The primary contaminant of concern to the ground-water is TCE with PCE and other VOCs present. The selected remedial action for the site is ground-water pump and treatment using aeration and granular-activated-carbon - air-filtering units, with discharge to the DWP Pumping Station for chlorination and distribution. Spent carbon will be removed and replaced with fresh carbon, with the spent carbon scheduled either for disposal or regeneration. The estimated capital cost for this remedial action is $2,192,895 with present worth OandM of $2,284,105.

  9. R/V Endeavor cruise EN-024. Seabed Disposal Program: North Atlantic study area MPG-III 35030'N 61000'W, June 30--July 11, 1978. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Laine, E.P.

    1978-09-01

    During 7 days in the vicinity of 35 0 30'N, 61 0 00'W (Seabed Disposal Program mid-late, mid-gyre study area MPG-III) we carried out 1830 km of subbottom acoustic profiling and 2 camera lowerings, and took 7 standard piston cores, 3 large diameter piston cores, 9 large diameter gravity cores and 2 dredge hauls of surface sediment. Pore fluids were extracted from 3 gravity cores and 1 piston core and on-board physical property measurements were made on 2 large diameter piston cores and 1 large diameter gravity core. These data and samples will be used to assess the lateral homogeneity and recent geologic history of the area, as well as to compare the sorption and physical barrier properties of the sediments with deposits from the MPG I and II areas in the Pacific

  10. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  11. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  12. N Area Final Project Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.S.; Duncan, G.M; Trent, S.J.

    1998-07-01

    The N Area Final Project Program Plan is issued for information and use by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) for the Hanford Site, and other parties that require workscope knowledge for the deactivation of N Reactor facilities and remediation of the 100-N Area. This revision to the program plan contains the updated critical path schedule to deactivate N Reactor and its supporting facilities, cleanout of the N Reactor Fuel Storage Basin (105-N Basin), and remediate the 100-N Area. This document reflects notable changes in the deactivation plan for N Reactor, including changes in deactivation status, the N Basin cleanout task, and 100-N Area remediation

  13. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  14. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  15. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report,Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific surveys that monitor and evaluate contaminant ...

  16. Final environmental impact statement supplement for wastewater management systems, North Jefferson County, Kentucky wastewater facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement (FEISS) serves to update the wastewater treatment alternatives presented in the original EIS (The North County Area Environmental Impact Statement, Jefferson County, KY, July 1984), determine the best alternative, and compare that alternative to the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District's North County Action Plan (NCAP). The NCAP was determined to have the greatest cost effectiveness, lowest environmental impact, and best implementability and reliability and so is the preferred alternative in the FEISS. Significant environmental impacts of the alternative are described and mitigative measures discussed

  17. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Devils Lake quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Devil's Lake map area of North Dakota. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  18. Hydrothermal alteration in Dumoga Barat, Bolaang Mongondow area North Sulawesi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Harjanto' Sutanto; Sutarto; Achmad Subandrio; I Made Suasta; Juanito Salamat; Giri Hartono; Putu Suputra; I Gde Basten; Muhammad Fauzi; Rosdiana

    2016-01-01

    Bolaang Mongondow is located in central north Sulawesi arm, which is composed of Neogen magmatic arc and potentially contain economic minerals. This condition is behind the research purpose to study the mineral resources potencies. Research aim is to study alteration caused by hydrothermal process and its relation with gold (Au) deposit based on field study and laboratory analysis. Methodologies used for the research are literature study, geological survey, rocks sampling, laboratory analysis, and data processing. Research area is a multiply diorite intrusion complex. Andesite, volcaniclastic rocks, and dacite, the older rocks, were intruded by this complex. Later, dacitic tuff, volcanic sandstone, and alluvium deposited above them. There are three measured and mapped major faults heading NE-SW crossed by E-W fault and NW-SE fault lately crossed all the older faults. Early stage hydrothermal alteration related to the existence of young quartz diorite, showing alteration stage from the potassic center to distal prophylatic. Final stage hydrothermal alteration consist of argilic, advanced argilic, and silica-clay mineral±magnetite±chlorite alteration overlapping the earlier alteration. Mineralization of Cu-Au±Ag in central part of research area or Tayap-Kinomaligan area is mostly associated with potassic altered young quartz diorite and crossed by parallel and stock worked quartz-magnetite-chalcopyrite±bornite vein. (author)

  19. North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, components of national forest lands, existing state-protected lands, proximity to state-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas or to 1-mile square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and state forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered spcies, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  20. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Closure plan for the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Van Brunt, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, and history of the units are described, and their current status is discussed. The units will be closed by treating remaining waste in storage, followed by thorough decontamination of the systems. Sufficient sampling and analysis, and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure

  2. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  3. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  4. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed

  5. 78 FR 45152 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas; North Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... North Carolina SIP meets the requirements of section 182(b)(5) applicable for purposes of redesignation...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas; North Carolina; Redesignation... supplemented on March 28, 2013, the State of North Carolina, through the North Carolina Department of...

  6. Geochemical interpretation of Kings Mountain, North Carolina, orientation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    An orientation study has been made of uranium occurrences in the area of Kings Mountain, North Carolina. This is one of the orientation studies of known uranium occurrences that are being conducted in several geologic provinces and under various climatic (weathering) conditions to provide the technical basis for design and interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance programs. The Kings Mountain area was chosen for study primarily because of the reported presence of high-uranium monazite. This 750-mi 2 area is in the deeply weathered southern Appalachian Piedmont and spans portions of the Inner Piedmont, Kings Mountain, and Charlotte geologic belts. Uranium concentration maps for ground and surface water samples clearly outline the outcrop area of the Cherryville Quartz Monzonite with highs up to 10 ppb uranium near the reported uraninite. Several surface water samples appear to be anomalous because of trace industrial contamination. Uranium concentration maps for -100 to +200 mesh stream sediments indicate the area of monazite abundance. Several samples with >100 ppM uranium content appear to be high in uranium-rich resistate minerals. When the uranium content of sediment samples is ratioed to the sum of Hf, Dy, and Th, the anomaly pattern shifts to coincide with uranium highs in ground and surface water samples. False anomalies from concentrations of monazite (Ce,ThPO 4 ), xenotime (Y,DyPO 4 ), and zircon (Zr,HfSiO 4 ) in stream sediment samples can thus be eliminated. Residual anomalies should be related to unusual uranium enrichment of these common minerals or to the presence of an uncommon uranium-rich mineral. Tantalum, beryllium, and tin in stream sediments correspond to high concentrations of uranium in stream and ground water but not to uranium in sediments. In an initial reconnaissance, several media should be sampled, and it is essential to correct uranium in sediments for the sample mineralogy

  7. 76 FR 6561 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... December 31, 1984 (49 FR 48694) to implement its base hazardous waste management program. EPA granted... XV are from the North Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Rules 15A NCAC 13A, effective April 23...

  8. Andisols from Tondano Area, North Sulawesi: Properties and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three pedons of Andisol (TN-1, TN-2 and TN-3 developed from young volcanic materials of the Lokon, Soputan, and Lengkoan volcanoes respectively in the Tondano area, North Sulawesi, were studied in the field, and 18 soil samples were analysed in the laboratory for physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, and they were classified according to Keys to Soil Taxonomy 2003. The results indicated that all the pedons meet the requirements of the andic soil properties, and thus classified into Andisol order. Pedon TN-1 meets bulk density 85%, and (Alo + 0.5Feo content extracted by ammonium oxalate > 2.0%, while pedons TN-2 and TN-3 meet the requirements of P retention > 25%, (Alo + 0.5Feo content > 0.4%, volcanic glass content > 5%, and value of [%(Alo+0.5Feo x 15.625 + (% volcanic glass] is > 36.25. Composition of sand mineral fraction indicate that pedon TN-1 and TN-3 show andesitic to basaltic volcanic materials, whereas pedon TN-2 with high olivin content belongs to basaltic volcanic materials. Clay minerals of all the pedons was dominated by hydrated-halloysite with few of disordered-kaolinite, which indicated a little weathering of the pedons. The pedons were classified at family level as Typic Hapludand, medial, amorphic, isothermic (TN-1, Humic Udivitrand, ashy, amorphic, isothermic (TN-2, and Alfic Hapludand, medial, glassy, isothermic (TN-3.

  9. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as open-quotes commercial fuelsclose quotes except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative

  10. Social survey of Three Mile Island area residents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunn, S.D.; Johnson, J.H. Jr; Zeigler, D.J.

    1979-08-01

    Recognizing that there is concern among government officials, utility company officials, engineers, physical, social, and behavioral scientists, and the general public about the consequences of the Three Mile Island accident, the overall objective of this report is to examine how the accident affected TMI area residents. This final report is a detailed analysis and description of the summary results published previously. A questionnaire was mailed to a sample of residents in the Three Mile Island area within one month of the accident. The survey instrument and sampling design are discussed in a subsequent chapter. Because of the nature of the accident and individual memories about dates, places, and events, it was necessary to conduct a survey as soon as possible after the accident. Area residents were asked a variety of questions including: (1) when and how they learned about the accident; (2) where they evacuated and why; (3) what confidence they placed in reports by the government and utility companies; (4) how their attitudes toward nuclear power have changed as a result of the accident; and (5) what impact the accident is likely to have on themselves and the Three Mile Island area. These questions and others are examined in this report. The results are analyzed in light of a number of social, economic, and political characteristics. Both statistical tests and a graphical presentation of the results are included

  11. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota AGENCY... personal property on undeveloped public lands managed by the BLM in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota... public lands throughout Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. These final supplementary rules will...

  12. Review of DOE's proposal for Crystalline bedrock disposal of radioactive waste, north-central area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE's Region-to-Area Screening Methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-1), the Final North-Central Region Geologic Characterization Report (DOE/CH-8(1)), and the Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-15), with the associated maps, were reviewed. The review has focused on all general information regarding geologic topics and all site-specific data for DOE sites NC-10 and NC-3. This report contains two parts: (1) a point-by-point critique of perceived errors, omissions, or other shortcomings in each of the three documents; and (2) a discussion of the feasibility of crystalline bedrock as a suitable host medium for high-level radioactive waste

  13. The Institute for Sustained Performance, Energy, and Resilience, University of North Carolina, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Robert [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2018-01-20

    This is the final report for the UNC component of the SciDAD Institute for Sustained Performance, Energy, and Resilience. In this report, we describe activities on the SUPER project at RENCI at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While we focus particularly on UNC, we touch on project-wide activities as well as, on interactions with, and impacts on, other projects.

  14. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft 2 and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available

  15. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  16. Finally Underway: Implementation of the Port Hope Area Initiative - 13151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, Christine A.; Palmeter, Tim; Blanchette, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct yet closely related waste remediation projects are finally underway in Canada under the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) which aims to clean up 1.7 million cubic metres (m 3 ) of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) arising from 60 years of uranium and radium operations. Under the PHAI, the Port Hope Project and the smaller Port Granby Project will result in the consolidation of the LLRW within two highly engineered, above-ground mounds, to be constructed within the municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington. These projects will fulfill the federal government commitment to the safe, long-term management of the LLRW, as set out in the legal agreement signed by the government and the host municipalities in 2001. The federal authorization to commence PHAI Remediation and Construction Phase 2 was received in late 2011 and several enabling infrastructure construction and radiological survey contracts were awarded in 2012. The contracts to remediate the waste sites and construct the new engineered mounds will be tendered in 2013. At the end of Phase 2, environmental risks will be substantially mitigated, land development restrictions lifted, and an honourable legacy left for future generations. (authors)

  17. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahantesh V Parande; Subarna Roy; B G Mantur; Aisha M Parande; Rupali S Shinde

    2017-01-01

    Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of dipht...

  18. Leaching tendencies of uranium and regulated trace metals from the Hanford Site 300 Area North Process Pond sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented that address the leaching tendencies and the total chemical composition of metals in feed materials and soil-washed fines generated by Alternative Remediation Technology, Inc. during a pilot-scale soil physical separation test performed at the 300 Area North Process Pond (Facility 316-2) on the Hanford Site in the spring of 1994. Four 300 Area North Process Pond sediments and one sediment from outside the pond's fenced area were leach-tested using the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) and other modified US Environmental Protection Agency and American Society for Testing and Materials protocols. Finally, leachate from the most contaminated sediment was used to load the Hanford sediment obtained outside the facility to evaluate the potential for contaminant adsorption onto natural sediments. The sediment characterization, leach, and adsorption results will be used in the evaluation of remedial alternatives in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study

  19. Estuarine and Riverine Areas Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-25

    flushing, wet screening, gravity separation, pneumatic separation, phytoremediation , and vacuuming. Reclamation may be self-performed or contracted...range is along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from North Carolina to Mexico and into the Bahamas and West Indies (USFWS, 1996). Piping plovers are

  20. The Secret Life of Quarks, Final Report for the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Robert J. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2012-12-10

    This final report summarizes activities and results at the University of North Carolina as part of the the SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics. The overall objective of the project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromo- dynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of subatomic physics, and similar strongly coupled gauge theories anticipated to be of importance in the LHC era. It built upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lat- tice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. In the SciDAC-2 project, optimized versions of the QCD API were being created for the IBM Blue- Gene/L (BG/L) and BlueGene/P (BG/P), the Cray XT3/XT4 and its successors, and clusters based on multi-core processors and Infiniband communications networks. The QCD API is being used to enhance the performance of the major QCD community codes and to create new applications. Software libraries of physics tools have been expanded to contain sharable building blocks for inclusion in application codes, performance analysis and visualization tools, and software for au- tomation of physics work flow. New software tools were designed for managing the large data sets generated in lattice QCD simulations, and for sharing them through the International Lattice Data Grid consortium. As part of the overall project, researchers at UNC were funded through ASCR to work in three general areas. The main thrust has been performance instrumentation and analysis in support of the SciDAC QCD code base as it evolved and as it moved to new computation platforms. In support of the performance activities, performance data was to be collected in a database for the purpose of broader analysis. Third, the UNC

  1. Seasonal Management Areas for North Atlantic Right Whales GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent Seasonal Mangagement Area locations where regulations implement speed restrictions in shipping areas at certain times of the year along the...

  2. Final Oahe Dam/Lake Oahe Master Plan Missouri River, South Dakota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    silty loams with moderate erosion and poor permeability. Normally used for pastureland. Sansarc- Opal : clays with minor erosion and permeability...One active sand and gravel mining area is located on Oahe project lands at Fort Yates, North Dakota. There is also a small amount of sand and...consist of sand and gravel deposits and Pierre Shale. The sand and gravel deposits are mined for road construction materials and concrete aggregate

  3. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, New Rockford Quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the New Rockford map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1397 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States

  4. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parande, Mahantesh V; Roy, Subarna; Mantur, B G; Parande, Aisha M; Shinde, Rupali S

    2017-01-01

    A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur) district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) in North Karnataka since then. A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012-2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB) was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Thirty-eight (8.79%) out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26%) were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84%) were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP).

  5. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh V Parande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012–2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Results: Thirty-eight (8.79% out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26% were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84% were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Conclusion and Discussion: Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme

  6. Dynamics and Morphology of Saturn’s North Polar Region During Cassini’s Final Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, John J.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn; McCabe, Ryan M.; Gunnarson, Jacob; Garland, Justin; Gallego, Angelina

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of Saturn’s north polar region utilizing Cassini ISS images captured in visible and near-infrared wavelengths during late 2016 and 2017, including images captured during Cassini’s Grand Finale orbits. To measure the wind field in the region, we utilize the two-dimensional correlation imaging velocimetry (CIV) technique. We also calculate the relative vorticity and divergence from the wind field. To detect changes in the dynamics, we compare measurements of the wind, relative vorticity, and divergence in 2012 and 2013 with those from 2016/2017. We also compare cloud reflectivity between 2012/2013 and 2016/2017 in images that show the north pole under similar illumination conditions. To detect changes in cloud reflectivity, we utilize a Minnaert correction to calculate the zonal mean reflectivity as a function of latitude. Furthermore, we compare the winds and cloud reflectivity at several wavelengths in order to look for changes occurring at different altitudes. Our results indicate that while the dynamics of the north polar region have remained relatively stable, there have been significant morphology changes that have resulted in dramatic color changes. We hypothesize that these changes are a result of the seasonal cycle and linked to the increased production of photochemical hazes in the atmosphere. Our work has been supported by NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NSF AAG 1212216, and NASA NESSF NNX15AQ70H.

  7. The North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative. Initial Findings. Final Report. Working Group 1 - Grid Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    This report focuses on the tasks and results from Working Group 1 (WG1), grid configuration and integration, chaired jointly by representatives from Denmark and the Netherlands. The methodology, assumptions concerning generation portfolio, load situation, available technology and results are presented. This report presents the WG1 Offshore Grid Study that supports the North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative (NSCOGI) final report. The information contained in this report aims to evaluate the long-term development of an offshore grid structure in the North Seas by providing a view on how such a grid may possibly develop in the future, based on the assumptions made for this study. The report aims to compare and evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of the long term development of an optimised, integrated (or meshed) offshore grid in the North Seas by providing a view of how that possible grid might develop in the future against changes to the electricity energy requirements. To evaluate basic variants, different transmission design topologies (radial and meshed) were compared and analysed with respect to various aspects, such as cost/benefits, import and export levels and the systems' CO2 emissions.

  8. Study renewable energy - sugarcane ethanol. Traditional areas. Final report; Estudo energias renovaveis - etanol de cana. Areas tradicionais. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report presents the mapping of areas with potential for ethanol production in traditional areas of the Brazil. In the traditional areas, with clear emphasis in the Northeast region of Brazil, was selected ten areas in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara. In the Southeast region two areas, between the Norte Fluminense, Southern of the Espirito Santo and eastern of the Minas Gerais.

  9. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. TL studies of calcareous rocks of Danta area, North Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, M.A.; Desai, S.J.; Murthy, K.V.R.; Joshi, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The lithounits exposed around Danta in Banaskantha district of North Gujarat belong to Ajabgarh Group, the upper division of the Delhi super group. These rocks are intruded by syn to late kinematic basic rocks and by Erinpura granites of post Delhi age. The Ajabgarh group consists of pelitic and calcareous components. Mineralogically the pelitic rocks comprise cordierite, almandine garnet, k-feldspar, sillimanite, quartz and mica in variable proportions. The calcareous rocks are seen to contain dominantly calcite, scapolite, forsterite, sphene, k-feldspar. These mineral assemblages correspond to upper Amphibolite to lower Granulite facies of regional metamorphism. The chemistry of the calcareous rocks show predominance of CaO over MgO. The glow curves obtained from virgin samples (NTL) as well as artificial beta irradiated indicate glow peaks at 140 o C, 290 o C, 310 o C and 390 o C. The TL glow peak temperatures are in general agreement with those reported by Borsi and Rinaldi and Medlin. The pronounced peak at 390 o C and 290 o C are suggestive of their high irradiation sensitivity and also probably reflect variation in the Mn content of the rocks. (author). 9 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, I.; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  12. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: north/south tieline. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted along the 99 0 longitude meridian from the Canadian border southward to the Mexican border. A total of 1555 line miles of geophysical data were acquired and, subsequently, compiled. The north-south tieline was flown as part of the National Uranium Resources Evaluation. NURE is a program of the US Department of Energy's Grand Junction, Colorado, office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States

  13. Hanford 100-N Area Tracer Study Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Bedi, G.S.; Martinez, P.; Ervin, K.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides an engineering tracer study final report for the determination of contact time for the disinfection process at Group A Nontransient Noncommunity water treatment plant for the 100- N Water Plant (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington). The purpose of this study is to determine the actual detention time within the plant clearwell, and the disinfection contact time at several clearwell effluent flow rates

  14. Air quality impacts analysis for area G. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewsky, K.; Eklund, B.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of fugitive radioactive emissions from the disposal site, Area G, was evaluated in support of site characterization for the Performance Assessment and for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program. Fugitive emissions of tritiated water and contaminated windblown dust were considered. Data from an extensive field measurement program were used to estimate annual emissions of tritiated water. Fugitive dust models were used to calculate estimates of the annual emissions of windblown dust. These estimates were combined with data on contamination levels in surface soils to develop annual emission rates for specific radionuclides: tritium, uranium-238, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,240, and strontium-90. The CAP-88 atmospheric transport model was used to predict areas potentially affected by long-term dust deposition and atmospheric concentrations. The annual emission rate of tritiated water was estimated from the field data to be 14.0 Ci/yr. The emission rate of soil-borne radionuclides from open areas and from soils handling operations totaled less than 1x10 -4 Ci/yr. The CAP-88 results were used to develop effective dose equivalents (EDEs) for receptor locations downwind of Area G. All EDEs were several orders of magnitude below the national standard of 10 mrem/yr. Fugitive air emissions from Area G were found not to pose a health threat to persons living or working downwind of the facility

  15. Recent metalliferous sediment in the North Pacific manganese nodule area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Quaternary sediments cored in the northeast Pacific nodule area (DOMES site C, 14??N, 126??W) contain a significant amount of hydrothermal metalliferous mud. Water content, color, mineralogy, and chemical composition are analogous to metalliferous sediments of the subequatorial East Pacific Rise. Correction for contribution of pelagic clay indicates the metalliferous fraction to be about 40% of the sediment. SiO2 and Mg are major components in the corrected composition, as they are for other metalliferous sediments similarly corrected from a variety of East Pacific Rise and DSDP metalliferous sediments. A correlation between Mg and SiO2 for these corrected sediments could indicate a hydrothermal origin for a significant portion of the SiO2. Results from DSDP in the nodule area suggest that metalliferous globules are a ubiquitous minor component of the Clipperton Oceanic Formation, which underlies much of the Pacific ferromanganese nodule belt. This indicates that deposition of hydrothermal precipitates is not confined to spreading centers. ?? 1977.

  16. Timber resource statistics for the North Coast resource area of California 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State-wide multi-resource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National...

  17. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided...

  18. Evaluation of parking management strategies for urban areas : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art of parking management in urban areas in the United States was established using an extensive review of the literature and a nationwide questionnaire survey that was distributed to 458 city officials, 173 of whom responded. Based ...

  19. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, and during certain conditions, there is more demand for power in the Puget Sound area than the transmission system and existing generation can reliably supply. This high demand, called peak demand occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both.

  20. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  1. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT 'dark current' background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or 'Back' detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the 'Front' scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as implemented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors

  2. Active system area networks for data intensive computations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    The goal of the Active System Area Networks (ASAN) project is to develop hardware and software technologies for the implementation of active system area networks (ASANs). The use of the term ''active'' refers to the ability of the network interfaces to perform application-specific as well as system level computations in addition to their traditional role of data transfer. This project adopts the view that the network infrastructure should be an active computational entity capable of supporting certain classes of computations that would otherwise be performed on the host CPUs. The result is a unique network-wide programming model where computations are dynamically placed within the host CPUs or the NIs depending upon the quality of service demands and network/CPU resource availability. The projects seeks to demonstrate that such an approach is a better match for data intensive network-based applications and that the advent of low-cost powerful embedded processors and configurable hardware makes such an approach economically viable and desirable.

  3. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although

  4. Satellite versus ground-based estimates of burned area: A comparison between MODIS based burned area and fire agency reports over North America in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane Mangeon; Robert Field; Michael Fromm; Charles McHugh; Apostolos Voulgarakis

    2015-01-01

    North American wildfire management teams routinely assess burned area on site during firefighting campaigns; meanwhile, satellite observations provide systematic and global burned-area data. Here we compare satellite and ground-based daily burned area for wildfire events for selected large fires across North America in 2007 on daily timescales. In a sample of 26 fires...

  5. Visual effects of test drilling for natural gas in the Waddenzee and the North Sea coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    The potential hindrance of the view, caused by offshore platforms, has been investigated as part of the environmental impact reports for test drilling for natural gas in the North Sea area, on the island Ameland and in the Wadden Sea. The hindrance is determined by calculating the weighed numbers of inhabitants and vacationers within 10 km of 26 drilling sites, divided over 12 drilling areas. For each drilling area the preferred location was determined. The hindrance of the view is the lowest when drilling tests are carried out in the winter. Also digital photo paste-ups were made by which it can be shown how drilling installations look like in a landscape. Finally, measures are given by which the visual effects of drilling installations and burn off can be reduced. 34 figs., 33 tabs., 2 appendices, 35 refs

  6. 76 FR 64085 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Final Power Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, General Eligibility Criteria. The resource pool for capacity and... transmission in Kansas. Final allocation of the Post-2014 Resource Pool; Loveland Area Projects, is contingent...

  7. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Lake Washington to the east, which limits transportation options. This dense urban area comprises one... and activity centers located in the North Corridor and the other urban centers in the Central Puget... elevated or at-grade profiles or station locations and layouts. Potential SR 99 Light Rail Alternatives A...

  9. Eleven bones: More fossil remains of Cave Lions and Cave Hyaenas from the North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Six fossil Cave Lion bones and five fossil Cave Hyaena bones are described. One lion bone and one hyaena bone were dredged from the Westerschelde ( = Western Scheldt, southwestern part of the Netherlands). The other specimens were recovered from the bottom of the North Sea, in the area West and

  10. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  11. Bedrock geologic map of the Jay and North Troy area, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG97-04C Stanley, RS, and Roy, D, 1997,�Bedrock geologic map of the Jay and North Troy area, Vermont: VGS Open-File Report VG97-04c, scale 1:24000....

  12. Climatic freshening of the deep North Atlantic (north of 500N) over the past 20 years. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Jenkins, W.J.; Rhines, P.B.; Rooth, C.G.; Swift, J.H.; Takahashi, T.; Williams, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    The Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) program was initiated as a multi-institution, multi-year effort to study ocean transport processes by measuring the distributions of man-made trace substances as they penetrate into the oceans. During the first major field effort of the TTO program, we carried out a seven leg cruise in 1981, occupying 250 geochemical stations covering the North Atlantic from 15 0 N to Spitsbergen. Samples were taken for the measurement of tracers such as tritium (and its daughter 3 He) and 14 C which were produced by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, and tracers that are byproducts of industrial activities, e.g. 85 Kr and trichlorofluoromethane. In addition, a series of precise measurements of nutrients, dissolved oxygen and hydrographic properties were made. We report here preliminary hydrographic results from the three most northerly legs, which show a temperature-salinity relationship throughout a large portion of the water volume north of 50 0 N systematically different from previously obtained (IGY) data. We contend that this difference is a result of a climatic variation in atmospheric and cryospheric conditions which manifest itself in a net change in the temperature and salinity characteristics of the overflow waters which supply the North Atlantic Deep Water masses. 11 references, 3 figures

  13. Geologic and operational summary, COST No. 1 well, Georges Bank area, North Atlantic OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Roger V.; Bebout, John W.

    1980-01-01

    The first Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well on the U.S. North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) was drilled by Ocean Production Company between April 6 and July 26, 1976, and designated the COST No. G-l. Geological and engineering data obtained from this deep well in the Georges Bank Basin were used by the 31 participating companies and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluating the petroleum potential and possible drilling problems in the U.S. North Atlantic OCS area in preparation for Lease Sale 42 held on December 18, 1979.

  14. Living in an oasis: Rapid transformations, resilience, and resistance in the North Water Area societies and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Erik; Appelt, Martin; Hastrup, Kirsten; Grønnow, Bjarne; Mosbech, Anders; Smol, John P; Davidson, Thomas A

    2018-04-01

    Based on lake sediment data, archaeological findings, and historical records, we describe rapid transformations, resilience and resistance in societies and ecosystems, and their interactions in the past in the North Water area related to changes in climate and historical events. Examples are the formation of the polynya itself and the early arrival of people, ca. 4500 years ago, and later major human immigrations (different societies, cultural encounters, or abandonment) from other regions in the Arctic. While the early immigrations had relatively modest and localised effect on the ecosystem, the later-incoming culture in the early thirteenth century was marked by extensive migrations into and out of the area and abrupt shifts in hunting technologies. This has had long-lasting consequences for the local lake ecosystems. Large natural transformations in the ecosystems have also occurred over relatively short time periods related to changes in the polynya. Finally, we discuss the future perspectives for the North Water area given the many threats, but also opportunities.

  15. A survey for elevated levels of uranium north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1990-04-01

    A comprehensive survey of soil uranium (U) concentrations in a study area due north of the 300 Area on the Hanford site has been conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the study was to determine the spatial distribution of uranium in the study area and to ascertain if background levels of uranium have been increased by Hanford operations. Based on the spatial distribution of 238 U, the highest concentrations of uranium are located in the southern portion of the study area adjacent to the 300 Area complex and in the most eastern zone of the study site bordering the Columbia River. Uranium-236, an isotopic marker of fuel processing activities in the 300 Area, was detected in all eight samples selected from the study. A significant and positive regression was demonstrated between the ratios of 236 U/ 238 U in these eight samples and proximity to the 300 Area. 9 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  16. A Monte Carlo-tuned model of the flow in the NorthGRIP area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) drill site was chosen in order to obtain a good Eemian record. At the present depth, 3001m, the Eemian interstadial has yet to be seen. Clearly the flow in this area is poorly understood and needs further investigation. After a review of specific...... no Eemian is observed is a high basal melt rate (2.7mm/a). The melting is a consequence of a higher geothermal heat flux than the expected 51mW/m^2 of the Precambrian shield. From our analyses it is concluded that the geothermal heat flux at NorthGRIP is 98mW/m^2.The high basalmelt rate also gives rise...

  17. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  18. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  19. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resource area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, John E.; Price, Don

    1981-01-01

    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1,000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Perron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. Probable peak discharges (100-year flood) for the ephemeral streams draining North Horn Mountain are estimated to range from 200 to 380 cubic feet per second.The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Annual sediment yield in most of the area ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 acre-foot per square mile but locally is as high as 1.0 acre-foot per square mile. Most of the sediment is eroded during cloudbursts.Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. The principal source of recharge is precipitation that probably moves to aquifers along faults, joints, or fractures. This movement is apparently quite rapid. The dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the North Horn Mountain area range from less than 500 to about 1,000 milligrams per liter.Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor "effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than U percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to

  20. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L)

  1. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L).

  2. North Putrajaya Catchment Area Putrajaya, Malaysia-Challenges in Water Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zamri Daud; Pereira, J.J.; Mazlin Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH 3 -N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH 3 -N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH 3 -N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH 3 -N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and

  3. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations.

  4. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  5. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  6. Floodplain Assessment for the North Ancho Canyon Aggregate Area Cleanup in Technical Area 39 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-26

    This floodplain assessment was prepared in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1022 Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements, which was promulgated to implement the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements under Executive Order 11988 Floodplain Management and Executive Order 11990 Wetlands Protection. According to 10 CFR 1022, a 100-year floodplain is defined as “the lowlands adjoining inland and coastal waters and relatively flat areas and flood prone areas of offshore islands.” In this action, DOE is proposing to collect soil investigation samples and remove contaminated soil within and around selected solid waste management units (SWMUs) near and within the 100-year floodplain (hereafter “floodplain”) in north Ancho Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The work is being performed to comply with corrective action requirements under the 2016 Compliance Order on Consent.

  7. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: New Rockford quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    Volume II contains the flight path, radiometric multi-parameter stacked profiles, magnetic and ancillary parameter stacked profiles, histograms, and anomaly maps for the New Rockford Quadrangle in North Dakota

  8. 78 FR 70093 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ..., Bonner Bridge Replacement Project along NC 12, from Rodanthe to Bodie Island in Dare County, North... Rodanthe to Bodie Island. The TMP is guiding the implementation of future phases of the project through...

  9. 76 FR 1663 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ..., Bonner Bridge Replacement Project along NC 12, from Rodanthe to Bodie Island in Dare County, North... Bonner Bridge Replacement Project along Highway NC 12, from Rodanthe to Bodie Island, in Dare County...

  10. 78 FR 35837 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... the docket are listed in the www.regulations.gov index. Although listed in the index, some information... Natural Resources, 217 West Jones Street, Raleigh, North Carolina 27603; telephone number (919) 707-8219...

  11. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  12. Impact of Quota System and Catchment Area Policy on the University Admissions in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Chinweike Omeje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quota system and the catchment areas are federal government policies formulated to bridge the gap between the educationally developed states and the educationally less developed states. Sequel to the enactment of these policies, government established several universities across the country to create equal opportunity for all candidates. In spite of the astronomical growth of the universities in Nigeria, both the federal and the state governments have not been able to contend with the surging demand for the university education, hence the adoption of the quota system and catchment area policies. Serious concerns were expressed by relevant stakeholders on their perceived impact of the quota system and the catchment area on admissions into the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. This study therefore examined the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admissions in North Central Nigeria. A research question and a null hypothesis guided the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 14,347 staff in the federal and state universities in North Central Nigeria. A sample of 1,435 was drawn through stratified proportionate sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire and interviews. Mean scores and standard deviations were used to answer the research question, whereas t-test statistics were used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the results showed, among others, that the impact of the quota system and catchment area policies on students’ admission was to a high extent.

  13. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  14. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  15. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across...... the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence...... of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area...

  16. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V; Kundel, H; Raetsep, A [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  17. TA-60-1 Heavy Equipment Shop Areas SWPPP Rev 2 Jan 2017-Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    The primary activities and equipment areas at the facility that are potential stormwater pollution sources include; The storage of vehicles and heavy equipment awaiting repair; or repaired vehicles waiting to be picked up; The storage and handling of oils, anti-freeze, solvents, degreasers, batteries and other chemicals for the maintenance of vehicles and heavy equipment; and Equipment cleaning operations including exterior vehicle wash-down. Steam cleaning is only done on the steam cleaning pad area located at the north east end of Building 60-0001.

  18. Effort allocation of the Dutch beam trawl fleet in response to a temporarily closed area in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Piet, G.J.; Poos, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The spawning stock of North Sea cod is at a historic low level and immediate management measures are needed to improve this situation. As a first step, the European Commission in 2001 closed a large area in the North Sea between February 15 and April 30 to all cod related fishing fleets in order to

  19. 78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-31-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 230--Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard), Winston-Salem, North Carolina On March 25, 2013, the Piedmont Triad Partnership...

  20. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Montrose detail Area 5, Colorado. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Montrose Detail Area No. 5 consists of a 180 square mile area covering portions of the West Elk Mountains, the Ruby Range, and associated mountainous regions of the Southern Rocky Mountains. The area's geology is dominated by Tertiary intrusive and extrusive rocks related to the West Elk Mountains Volcanic Province. Some exposures of underlying Tertiary and Cretaceous material are present. The Irwin Mining District (Anthracite) lies within the detail area, as well as several small prospects for zinc, lead, and silver. No uranium occurrences are known to be associated with these mineralized areas. A total of 26 groups of samples in the uranium window constitute anomalies as defined in Volume I. These anomalies lie over the highest uranium count rate areas in the Ruby Range, the Anthracite Range, and the East Beckwith Mountain area. The highest count rates appear associated with dikes of granodiorite and/or white quartz porphyry. Magnetic data outline the major intrusive and extrusive bodies in the south, but only partially define the intrusive complex to the north. Little correlation with the radiometric data was expected or observed. Despite a wide range in the count rates of the three radioisotopes, the area appeared to be geochemically homogeneous according to the criteria set forth in Volume I. Other methods of separating geochemically distinctive areas may be more successful. Multivariate analysis showed a high degree of correleation between the three isotopes

  1. 77 FR 48203 - Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ..., from I-277 (Brookshire Freeway) to West Catawba Avenue (Exit 28), Mecklenburg County, North Carolina...) lanes, Federal Aid No. NHF-077-1(209)9, from I-277 (Brookshire Freeway) to West Catawba Avenue (Exit 28... southbound HOT lanes from their northern terminus to West Catawba Avenue (Exit 28). (3) Inclusion of a second...

  2. 40 CFR 272.1751 - North Dakota State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EPA effective on October 19, 1984. Subsequent program revision applications were approved effective on... program. However, EPA retains the authority to exercise its inspection and enforcement authorities in... “Department of Health” Section 23-01-04.1, (except (6)). (iii) North Dakota Century Code, Volume 4A, 2002...

  3. A 3D gravity and magnetic model for the Entenschnabel area (German North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Ingo; Barckhausen, Udo; Heyde, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we focus on structural configuration of the Entenschnabel area, a part of the German exclusive economic zone within the North Sea, by means of gravity and magnetic modelling. The starting point of the 3D modelling approach is published information on subseafloor structures for shallow depths, acquired by wells and seismic surveys. Subsequent gravity and magnetic modelling of the structures of the deeper subsurface builds on this geophysical and geological information and on gravity and magnetic data acquired during a research cruise to the Entenschnabel area. On the one hand, our 3D model shows the density and susceptibility distribution of the sediments and the crust. In addition, the potential field modelling provides evidence for a differentiation between lower and upper crust. The thickness distribution of the crust is also discussed with respect to the tectonic framework. Furthermore, gravity as well as magnetic modelling points to an intrusive complex beneath the Central Graben within the Entenschnabel area. On the other hand, this work provides a geological-geophysical consistent 3D gravity and magnetic model that can be used as a starting point for further investigation of this part of the German North Sea.

  4. Flora, life form and chorology of plants in Jozak – Chaminbid area, North Khorassan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHABAT NADAF

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic study of a region is of great importance as the list of plants represents the genetic resources of the area. The intended region (Jozak-Chaminbid with an area of ca. 3637.81 ha. is located in the western part of North Khorassan Province in the Maneh and Semelghan counties. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh floristic province of the Irano-Turanian region. The mean altitude is 1415 meter and mean annual precipitation of the area is 559 mm. The plant species of the area were collected and identified according to the Floras. The floristic list of the area and its life forms and endemic species were presented. The results showed the presence of 53 families, 205 genera and 308 species. Among them 13 species were endemic to Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Province. The largest plant family was Asteraceae with 28 genera and 40 species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form categories, the identified species are categorized as hemicryptophytes 35.38%, therophytes 34.74%, cryptophytes (geophytes 12.33%, chamaephytes 11.03% and phanerophytes 6.49%. The high percentage of hemicryptophytes indicated that the area had a cold mountain climate. The chorotype of species was obtained on the basis of the available sources. Irano-Turanian plants were the most frequent chorotype of the area with 59%.

  5. Measurement of Nuclear Interaction Rates in Crystal Using the CERN-SPS North Area Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Losito, R; Taratin, A

    2010-01-01

    A number of tests were performed in the North area of the SPS in view of investigating crystal-particles interactions for future application in hadron colliders. The rate of nuclear interactions was measured with 400 GeV proton beams directed into a silicon bent crystal. In this way the background induced by the crystal either in amorphous or in channeling orientation was revealed. The results provide fundamental information to put in perspective the use of silicon crystals to assist halo collimation in hadron colliders, whilst minimizing the induced loss.

  6. Annex D 200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report Volume 5 (FSAR) (Section 1 and 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft 2 and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped offsite to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the FFTF SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF)TRIGA--One Rad-Vault container stores two DOT-6M 3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-1 cask with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, are used for storing commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available

  7. Environmental studies of the proposed North Coast Nuclear Plant Unit No. 1 site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The physical parameters used in hydrology studies were tides, currents, bathymetry, temperature, salinity, and density structure of the water column. Terrestrial ecological studies were carried out in five vegetational zones: beach, sand dune, north facing slopes parallel to the coast, south facing slopes, and lowlands. Studies on phytoplankton and zooplankton included determination of standing crop, diversity, seasonal variations, and species composition. Similar studies were carried out on benthos and intertidal invertebrates. Fish populations were studied with regard to species distribution and abundance

  8. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  9. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin

    2016-01-01

    in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic were investigated to (i) determine long-term trends and variability in advective transport of larvae from spawning grounds to juvenile nursery areas, (ii) estimate the degree of exchange between different management areas, and (iii) compare the results...

  10. Pigment transformation and vertical flux in an area of convergence in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, E. J. H.; Horne, E. P. W.

    Particulate samples from the water column, to depths of 80-120 m, were collected over a 10-day period during a bloom in the North Atlantic, near 37°N, 40°W, between 12 and 22 April 1990. These samples were analysed by HPLC for their chlorin and carotenoid content. The same analysis was carried out for samples of faecal pellets collected from copepods from depths of 0-100 m, which had fed in situ, and for material from sediment traps in the 100-500 m depth range. Water column pigment compositions were consistent with observations that diatoms and Phaeocystis were major components of the bloom. They also sometimes showed high concentrations of chlorophyllide a and a phaephorbide a-like pigment, which may be due to algal die-off and cell autolysis. Faecal pellets contained high concentrations of pyrophaeophorbide a lower amounts of unidentified phaeophorbides and some chlorophyll a, but none of the phaeophorbide a-like pigment found in the water column. Sediment traps contained high concentrations of the phaeophorbides characteristics of copepod faecal pellets and lower, approximately equal amounts of the water column phaeophorbide a-like pigment and chlorophyll a. The sampling area appeared to be in a jet of current, which was moving southwesterly along a front between Eastern Basin Water (to the north) and North Atlantic Central Water (to the south) and which seemed to be drawing in water from both these water masses. Areas of downwelling, thought to be associated with these convergent currents, may have accelerated the sedimentation of dead and dying phytoplankton cells.

  11. Livelihood and Rural Tourism Development in Coastal Area North Maluku Province Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrianto Singgalen, Yerik; Maxwell Simange, Silvanus

    2018-05-01

    The livelihood of the people who live in the villages in coastal and remote areas can be developed into tourism area based on local wisdom to achieve sustainable tourism. Tunuo village is a village that has a wealth of Natural Resources and the Cultural Resources to support tourism. Nevertheless, Tunuo Village has problems related to Human Resources to support tourism. Meanwhile, the livelihood of Tunuo Village as producers of copra have constraints, namely access to economic capital. The gain from copra sale is erratic and prone to change, it encourages people to seek income from other options to meet their needs. These economic pressures encourage the development of environmentally damaging activities, such as fishing using homemade bombs so that reefs may be damaged. There are also other activities, such as the production, distribution, and consumption of traditional liquor made from palm tree sap, locally known as Saguer. Therefore, the present tourism as a sector that could provide opportunities for the villagers of Tunuo to earn extra income as well as efforts to preserve the environment, and culture. This research was conducted in the village of Tunuo, North Kao District, North Halmahera Regency, North Maluku province, Indonesia. The method is qualitative Participatory Action Research (PAR). The results indicate that people have a desire and a strong motivation to develop, so that the process of forming the Tourism Awareness Group (Pokdarwis) and its seven charms (saptapesona) can take place properly. As of the socialization of tourism awareness, as well as capacity building seminar for Pokdarwiswould be able to mobilize the community to clean up trash on the beach and to encourage communities to develop local knowledge into a leading tourism product.

  12. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  13. HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND SEAWATER AT TOTOK BAY AREA, NORTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyuzar Ilahude

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in north-eastern part of Tomini Bay, approximately 80 km south of Manado city, North Sulawesi. This area is closed to submarine tailing disposal system in Buyat Bay. Five marine sediment samples and four water samples from seawater and dig wells have been used for heavy metals (Hg, As, CN analyses by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. This study is a part of research conducted by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia on morphological changes of seabed in the Totok Bay. The result shows that concentration of mercury (Hg in water samples taken from Ratatotok estuary is higher than standards stipulated Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah/PP No. 82/2001. Meanwhile, concentration of arsenic (As is almost reaching its standard threshold, and conversely cyanide (CN concentration is low. This value of mercury (Hg concentration taken from Ratatotok estuary is much higher than water samples from of Buyat Bay estuary. Significant concentration of mercury (Hg analysed from those particular sampling sites indicated high mercury contamination. Therefore, further examination on ground water of dig wells is necessary, especially for mercury analysis (Hg. Furthermore, comparing the formerly obtained data of mercury concentration in the sediment, this particular study concludes that the sediments in the Totok Bay had contaminated by mercury from gold-processing of illegal mining.

  14. Landscape pattern evolution of the north of Hangzhou bay coastal area in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Shuai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s in Shanghai,fast economic development,rapid urbanization,population explosion,all of these phenomena are driving radical changes in landscape pattern of coastal area.The landscape pattern evolution at the coastal regions of the north of the Hangzhou bay is analysed based on the landscape ecology theory and method by using Fragstats 3.3 software.3S technology is utilized to interpretate the sensing images at three phase in 1994,2003,2007,and selected two landscape index of the landscape level to study six town from time and space on the contrast analysis.The results show that farmland landscape is the dominant landscape in research area,landscape diversity is high and shows ascendant trend;For 13 years,six towns’(street fragmentation degree increase,the Luchaogang town has the highest degree of fragmentation.

  15. A survey on draught animal technology (DAT) in EN-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Elsamawal Khalil; Musa, Ezdehar Omer Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Draught animal technology (DAT) can potentially play a central role in agriculture transformation for traditional farmers. This study surveyed the state of DAT in En-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan in an attempt to have a clear view of the changes brought about by introducing the technology. The study followed the cross-sectional survey design. Farmers were selected from ten clusters (villages) and data were collected using questionnaires and face to face interviews with farmers in addition to group discussions with them and the different actors in the field. The results showed that farmers appreciate the role played by DAT, but they highlighted the need for further capacity building and technical backup. Harnessing issues are not well understood and applied by the farmers. The different actors involved in DAT in the area lack networking and coordination, and this reflected on the many problems and constraints faced by the farmers.

  16. The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS): the final band-merged catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Lari, C.; Perez-Fournon, I.

    2004-01-01

    We present the final band-merged European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) Catalogue at 6.7, 15, 90 and 175 mum, and the associated data at U, g', r', i', Z, J, H, K and 20 cm. The origin of the survey, infrared and radio observations, data-reduction and optical identifications are briefly reviewed...

  17. Geoenvironmental profile of squares: north area of the city of Londrina-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the concern to the quality and amount of the squares of the north area of the city of Londrina, state of Paraná. The square is a leisure, walk and rest place, besides favoring a closer contact of the population with the nature. The physical aspects of the furniture, presence and type of area of infantile and sporting recreation were analyzed, and also the identification and quantification of the species of trees. The results demonstrated absence of area of infantile recreation, 53% of the squares without furniture and sporting areas in 38% of the places. The amount of trees belonged to 340 individuals, divided in 35 species, with prevalence of 5 species that represents 64% of the total. Such results suggest the improvement of the amount and quality of the furniture, and a better distribution of the species of trees, giving preference for native species. The creation of a GIS, indicating the place of occurrence of the squares and its situation, is important because it facilitates the analysis of the green areas, as well as in the decisions for the urban development.

  18. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Montrose detail Area 2, Colorado. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Montrose Detail Area No. 2 covers 315 square miles of area along the western edge of the Sawatch Mountains. Precambrian crystalline rocks and Paleozoic sediments share dominance in the area. The Paleozoic section deepens toward the north. Some Tertiary intrusive and extrusive rocks that may relate to the nearby igneous activity in the San Juan Mountains are present in the area. Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments also have limited exposure. The Whitepine Mining District (Zn-Pb) lies in the southern end of the detail area. Mineralization occurs in shear zones along the contact between Early Paleozoics and Precambrian rocks. Two uranium deposits occur nearby in a similar geologic setting. One other known uranium deposit occurs in the northern end of the detail area. The geologic characteristics of this deposit are not known. A total of 37 groups of samples in the uranium window constitute anomalies as defined in Volume I. These anomalies cluster over the high uranium count rate areas in the Fossil Ridge-Taylor River and Canyon Creek areas. Highest count rates appear to be associated with faulted Early Paleozoics and adjacent Precambrian rocks. Some high count rate localities appear to overlie isolated Tertiary intrusive bodies. Magnetic data do not outline structural features as mapped by Tweto and others (1976). Some areas mapped as Precambrian and others mapped as Tertiary intrusives have associated high magnetic gradients. Other areas mapped similarly do not have high magnetic gradients. Little correlation with the radiometric data was expected or observed. Three geochemical subdivisions were made on the basis of radiometric data according to the criteria set forth in Volume I, only two of which appeared to have any apparent geologic meaning. Multivariate analysis lends support to this conclusion

  19. Final report of the Conference on Forging North American Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This paper discussed the main themes of the Forging American Energy Security Forum. The factors that may contribute to a potential energy crisis were identified as being the major blackout affecting the American Northeast and Ontario, political tensions in the Middle East, the volatility of oil and natural gas prices, fear of terrorist attacks on energy infrastructures and attempts to reform the Mexican energy sector. The conference addressed issues such as the reliability and physical integrity of the North American power supply grids, supply of energy at a stable and competitive price, growth of energy autonomy through increasing North American power supply and energy efficiency and the development of interconnections between power grids in the three countries. Diversification of energy supply sources was discussed, with particular reference to the increased use of renewable energies. Improvements in efficiency were suggested for how different levels of government interact on issues concerning energy development. It was recommended that the energy sector could serve as a springboard to implement a North American investment fund, and that Mexico should take advantage of its energy resources to attract foreign investors in order to finance an increase in Mexican energy production. It was suggested that a trilateral strategy aiming for energy security would accelerate national objectives. The fact that Mexico imports energy from the United States even though it already has the energy resources was also examined. Lack of capital in Mexico was seen as an impediment to development. It was concluded that relaxing regulations would facilitate in the management of the energy sector. The challenges of using clean energy sources were highlighted, as well the difficulties associated with establishing an integrated market for tradable renewable energy certificates. refs., figs

  20. Final report of the Conference on Forging North American Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This paper discussed the main themes of the Forging American Energy Security Forum. The factors that may contribute to a potential energy crisis were identified as being the major blackout affecting the American Northeast and Ontario, political tensions in the Middle East, the volatility of oil and natural gas prices, fear of terrorist attacks on energy infrastructures and attempts to reform the Mexican energy sector. The conference addressed issues such as the reliability and physical integrity of the North American power supply grids, supply of energy at a stable and competitive price, growth of energy autonomy through increasing North American power supply and energy efficiency and the development of interconnections between power grids in the three countries. Diversification of energy supply sources was discussed, with particular reference to the increased use of renewable energies. Improvements in efficiency were suggested for how different levels of government interact on issues concerning energy development. It was recommended that the energy sector could serve as a springboard to implement a North American investment fund, and that Mexico should take advantage of its energy resources to attract foreign investors in order to finance an increase in Mexican energy production. It was suggested that a trilateral strategy aiming for energy security would accelerate national objectives. The fact that Mexico imports energy from the United States even though it already has the energy resources was also examined. Lack of capital in Mexico was seen as an impediment to development. It was concluded that relaxing regulations would facilitate in the management of the energy sector. The challenges of using clean energy sources were highlighted, as well the difficulties associated with establishing an integrated market for tradable renewable energy certificates. refs., figs.

  1. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. North Dakota. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the state of North Dakota

  2. The North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative. Initial Findings. Final Report. Working Group 1 - Grid Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    This report focuses on the tasks and results from Working Group 1 (WG1), grid configuration and integration, chaired jointly by representatives from Denmark and the Netherlands. The methodology, assumptions concerning generation portfolio, load situation, available technology and results are presented. This report presents the WG1 Offshore Grid Study that supports the North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative (NSCOGI) final report. The information contained in this report aims to evaluate the long-term development of an offshore grid structure in the North Seas by providing a view on how such a grid may possibly develop in the future, based on the assumptions made for this study. The report aims to compare and evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of the long term development of an optimised, integrated (or meshed) offshore grid in the North Seas by providing a view of how that possible grid might develop in the future against changes to the electricity energy requirements. To evaluate basic variants, different transmission design topologies (radial and meshed) were compared and analysed with respect to various aspects, such as cost/benefits, import and export levels and the systems' CO2 emissions.

  3. Derivation of travel demand forecasting models for low population areas: the case of Port Said Governorate, North East Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Semeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, there has been substantial development in modeling techniques of travel demand estimation. For low population areas the external trip estimation is important but usually neglected in travel demand modeling process. In Egypt, the researches in this field are scarce due to lack of data. Accordingly, this paper aims to identify and estimate the main variables that affect the travel demand in low population areas, and to develop models to predict them. The study focused on the Port Said Governorate in North East Egypt. A special questionnaire had been prepared in 2010 depending on interviews of passengers at basic taxi terminals in Port Said. And 2211 filled questionnaires were offering for research. To analyze the data, two modeling procedures were used. One is the multiple linear regression and the other is the generalized linear modeling (GLM applying normal distributions. It is found that GLM procedure offers more suitable and accurate approach than the linear regression for developing number of trips. The final demand models have statistics within the acceptable regions and, also, they are conceptually reasonable. These results are so important for Egyptian highway authorities to improve the efficiency of highway transportation system in Egypt.

  4. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  5. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  6. Siting study for Test Area North potable water deep well project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1993-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various locations for a new potable ground water well at Test Area North (TAN). The new well is proposed to replace two existing wells located within a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume. Several locations were evaluated using computer simulations based on the hydrogeology of the site. The modeling effort involved: (1) producing a water table map, (2) superimposing the effects of pumping the proposed new production well on the water table map using the model CAPZONE, and (3) calculating the capture zone for these wells using the GWPATH model. A three dimensional contaminant transport model was used to evaluate siting a well in a deeper horizon of the aquifer. The following scenarios were investigated: (1) placing a new well 500 ft north of the existing wells; (2) locating a well 3,000 ft northwest of the existing wells; (3) deepening one of the existing wells 100 to 150 ft to produce water from beneath an interbed that acts as a hydraulic barrier; and (4) drilling a new well about 500 ft northwest of the existing wells to produce water from beneath the interbed. The recommended new well site (fourth scenario) is northwest of the existing wells, with the well completed from 500 to 600 ft below land surface to produce water from beneath the Q-R interbed. Locating the well northwest of the existing wells places the new well out of the TCE plume and reduces the possibility of transporting contaminated water across the interbed

  7. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  8. 76 FR 6594 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act... Section, RCRA Programs and Materials Management Branch, RCRA Division, U.S. Environmental Protection...

  9. Where to Go Next? Identifying Target Areas in the North Atlantic for Future Seafloor Mapping Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfl, A. C.; Jencks, J.; Johnston, G.; Varner, J. D.; Devey, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Human activities are rapidly expanding into the oceans, yet detailed bathymetric maps do not exist for most of the seafloor that would permit governments to formulate sensible usage rules. Changing this situation will require an enormous international mapping effort. To ensure that this effort is directed towards the regions most in need of mapping, we need to know which areas have already been mapped and which areas are potentially most interesting. Despite various mapping efforts in recent years, large parts of the Atlantic still lack detailed bathymetric information. To successfully plan for future mapping efforts to fill these gaps, knowledge of current data coverage is imperative to avoid duplication of effort. While certain datasets are publically available online (e.g. NOAA's NCEI, EMODnet, IHO-DCDB, LDEO's GMRT), many are not. However, with the limited information we do have at hand, the question remains, where should we map next? And what criteria should we take into account? In 2016, a study was taken on as part of the efforts of the International Atlantic Seabed Mapping Working Group (ASMIWG). The ASMIWG, established by the Tri-Partite Galway Statement Implementation Committee, was tasked to develop a cohesive seabed mapping strategy for the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of our study was to develop a reproducible process for identifying and evaluating potential target areas within the North Atlantic that represent suitable sites for future bathymetric surveys. The sites were selected by applying a GIS-based suitability analysis that included specific user group-based parameters of the marine environment. Furthermore, information regarding current data coverage were gathered to take into account in the selection process. The results reveal the suitability of sites within the North Atlantic based on the selected criteria. Three potential target sites should be seen as flexible suggestions for future mapping initiatives rather than a rigid, defined set of areas

  10. Aging and Mobility in Rural and Small Urban Areas: A Survey of North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Jeremy W

    2011-12-01

    To investigate issues of aging and mobility in rural and small urban areas, this study analyzes the results from a survey AARP conducted of its North Dakota members. Specific objectives are to estimate the impact of age and other demographic and geographic characteristics on various measures of mobility, including ability to drive, use of public transportation, trip frequency for both discretionary and nondiscretionary travel, unmet travel demand, barriers to using public transportation, and satisfaction with available transportation options. Although most surveyed still drive, results show decreased mobility with increases in age and for people with disabilities due to decreases in driving and an increased likelihood of lack of transportation limiting the number of trips taken. People with disabilities were also significantly more likely to experience problems with public transportation. Women were found to be less likely to drive and more likely to use public transportation.

  11. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Multimedia

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Pinget, B

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processors modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a\

  12. Assessment of groundwater contamination risk in an agricultural area in north Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Bartzas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a specific approach is followed, considering the Pesticide DRASTIC and Susceptibility index (SI methods and a GIS framework, to assess groundwater vulnerability in the agricultural area of Albenga, in north Italy. The results indicate “high” to “very high” vulnerability to groundwater contamination along the coastline and the middle part of the Albenga plain, for almost 49% and 56% of the total study area for Pesticide DRASTIC and SI methods, respectively. These sensitive regions depict characteristics such as shallow depth to groundwater, extensive deposits of alluvial silty clays, flat topography and intensive agricultural activities. The distribution of nitrates concentration in groundwater in the study area is slightly better correlated with the SI (0.728 compared to Pesticide DRASTIC (0.693, thus indicating that both methods are characterized by quite good accuracy. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to acknowledge statistical uncertainty in the estimation of each parameter used, assess its impact and thus identify the most critical parameters that require further investigation in the future. Depth to water is the parameter that exhibited the largest impact on the Pesticide DRASTIC vulnerability index followed by the impact of the vadose zone and topography. On the other hand, the SI method is more sensitive to the removal of the topography parameter followed by the aquifer media and the depth to water parameters.

  13. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  14. Interpretation of reflection seismics in the area North of Laegeren - Zurich Weinland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naef, H.; Birkhaeuser, P.; Roth, P.

    1995-05-01

    The investigations of potential siting areas for a repository for high-level radioactive waste which are concentrated in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland have been expanded since the late 1980s to include suitable sedimentary units. After extensive desk study evaluation, the approximately 100 m thick Opalinus Clay of the Tabular Jura east of the Aare river was chosen as the most promising sedimentary option. In this area not only the Opalinus Clay but also the over- and underlying units are clay-rich, in contrast to the tabular Jura west of the Aare river. In the area North of Laegeren - Zurich Weinland, where the Opalinus Clay is situated in the optimum depth range of 400 to 1000 m below surface, approximately 220 km of new high-resolution seismic profiles were recorded and interpreted together with existing seismic lines. Due to thorough field work and data processing, a very good quality of seismic lines was obtained. This allowed precise mapping of the marker horizons in general and the Opalinus Clay in detail. The goal of this study was to determine and delineate the most important tectonic units as well as to describe the potential host rocks in these units. By way of interactive interpretation of all available seismic lines, borehole data and surface data from the investigation area, depth maps of the most prominent marker horizons have been calculated and geological cross-sections constructed along the new seismic lines. The regional seismic character of the Middle Mesozoic units was modelled using borehole data from Weiach and Herdern. From this model the thickness of the Opalinus Clay along the new seismic lines was determined. The results indicate a relatively constant thickness of 95 to 120 m in the investigation area. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(reg s ign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  16. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  17. City of North Vancouver greenhouse gas local action plan : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, I.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presented details of a greenhouse gas (GHG) local action plan developed as a result of the City of North Vancouver's participation in the Partners for Climate Protection Program (PCPP). The plan is intended to better manage the impacts of urban development related to GHG and air quality, while also achieving community objectives related to affordable housing, transportation management, job creation and economic development. The report reviewed the local emissions inventory in addition to various programs, plans, policies and by-laws relating to energy management. Potential policies and programs were identified to achieve GHG emissions reductions in accordance with the PCPP. A plan for emissions reductions was also presented. A situation analysis was presented with details of population, transportation, residential and commercial building and industry. Solid waste management and transportation plans were outlined. A GHG emissions profile and forecast was presented. An outline of a GHG management framework included information on initiatives in the city as well as details of public consultation feedback. A program implementation plan includes forecasts of the program's impact, as well as details of program delivery and a performance measurement framework. Proposed initiatives in the plan included new building guidelines; fuel switching for light and heavy duty vehicles; driver training and enhanced vehicle maintenance programs; and, an environmental procurement policy. Community programs include residential and commercial building retrofits; land use planning; support for community energy systems; green building design guidelines; transportation demand management; and, public engagement and outreach programs. 21 tabs., 9 figs

  18. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  19. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off

  20. Spatial Distribution Of Local Markets In Ife North Local Government Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMOTOYE-OMISORE Oyelola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out in the past by several authors concerning agricultural marketing without the use of geospatial techniques. This research therefore is meant to show the efficacy of Geographical Information System GIS in local market distribution. The role of market place as a man-made feature where goods and services are exchanged for the purpose of satisfying human needs cannot be overemphasized especially in the general development of villages and towns. This study shows the effectiveness of GIS without the use of metrics method to determine the agricultural market locations and closeness of the markets in Ife North Local Government area. Different kinds of people bring their goods from far and near villages for sale and sustainability in this research both primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data includes the use of Global Positioning System GPS receiver to collect coordinate points of the existing markets. It also involves verbal interview with market women. While secondary data were sourced from administrative maps and satellite images of the area of study it was geo-referenced and digitized. Arc Map was used to run average nearest neighbor analysis. Base on the analysis performed the major constraint facing the market people is poor road network which affect majority of the farmers in transporting their goods from remote villages as indicated in this study. As a result new markets sites were proposed with the use of geospatial techniques for easy accessibility.

  1. Geologic and operational summary, COST No. G-2 well, Georges Bank area, North Atlantic OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Roger V.; Simonis, Edvardas K.

    1980-01-01

    The Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) No. G-2 well is the second deep well to be drilled in the Georges Bank Basin and the third in a series of COST wells on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The G-2 was drilled by Ocean Production Company, acting as the operator for 19 participating companies between January 6 and August 30, 1977. The semisubmersible rig Ocean Victory was used to drill the well to a depth of 21,874 feet at a location 132 statute miles east-southeast of Nantucket Island in 272 feet of water. An earlier deep Stratigraphic test, the COST No. G-l well, was drilled 42 statute miles west of the G-2 well, to a depth of 16,071 feet in 1976 (fig. 1). Geological and engineering data obtained from the well were used by companies and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluating the petroleum potential and possible drilling problems in the U.S. North Atlantic OCS area in preparation for lease sale 42 held on December 18, 1979. The Stratigraphic test was intentionally drilled away from any potential petroleum-bearing feature, but in a block bordering several tracts that were included in the sale area.

  2. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaohui; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Li Jun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g -1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  3. Flower colour variation and chromosome numbers in the north western distributional area of Turners sidoides (Turneraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana G. Solís Neffa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the evolutionary studies that are being carried out in Turners sidoides autopolyploid complex (x= 7, a systematic survey was made in the northwestern area (Bolivia of its distribution. Six populations with salmon flowers and thirty five with yellow ones of the subsp. pinnatifida were found. The distribution of these populations is associated with climatic and spatial variables. The populations with salmon flowers live in the dry forests (Chaco Boreal Biogeographical Province, while yellow flowered populations occur in the inter-andean valleys (Boliviano-Tucumana Biogeographical Province. All the population studied are diploid. The results obtained support the allopatric diversification model of populations with yellow and salmon flowers at the diploid level, probably favoured by the orographic barriers and climatic changes that have arisen during the Andes development and Quaternary glaciations. Moreover, our analysis evidences that the north western area of T. sidoides constitutes an important centre of variation of the subsp. pinnatifida and the major centre of diploids hitherto detected

  4. Finally

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Broadband in Rural India is not just about connectivity. Broadband in Rural India is not just about connectivity. It is about transforming rural areas of S. Asia.

  5. Public health assessment for Munisport landfill, North Miami, Dade County, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD084535442. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Munisport Landfill site is an inactive landfill in, and owned by, the City of North Miami, Florida. The site is an urban area adjacent to the Oleta River Recreational Area, a state mangrove preserve, and Biscayne Bay. Soil, sediments, surface water, and ground water are contaminated. The authors selected ammonia, benzene, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, carbon disulfide, chloromethane, coliform bacteria, dieldrin, lead, methylene chloride, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), styrene, vanadium, and zinc as contaminants of concern. Accidentally ingesting contaminated soil and surface water, and breathing contaminated smoke are completed human exposure pathways. Children who swam in the landfill lakes risked bacterial and viral infections. Based on the available data, the authors categorize the Munisport Landfill site as an indeterminate public health hazard

  6. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ruilan; Li Jianhui; Wang Xiaoqing; Huang Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  7. Human-Modified Permafrost Complexes in Urbanized Areas of the Russian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    ) are formed in the urban territories, which are characterized by modified permafrost characteristics, by the new set of cryogenic processes, and by modified temperature trends. NTGC classification depends on initial natural settings and on type, intensity and duration of technogenic pressure. For instance, field reconnaissance of permafrost and geological conditions resulted in characterization of 17 NTGC types in Norilsk industrial area, 11 types in Yamburg Gas Condensate Field, Tazovsky Peninsula, and 32 types along gas and oil pipelines in the north of Western Siberia. Particular interest presents the dynamics of NTGC depending on the scale of urban system, on the set of its elements and on duration of technogenic impacts on permafrost. Important aspect is assessment of climate change impacts on structures and environment in various areas on permafrost

  8. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  9. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  10. Radiological Survey Results for Areas A1 North, A5A, A6, and B2 at the Molycorp Washington Remediation Project, Washington, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.C. Adams

    2007-01-01

    Perform radiological surveys of the Molycorp Washington Remediation Project (MWRP) facility in Washington, Pennsylvania. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to provide limited training pertaining to ORISE radiological soil scanning and sampling procedures to the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) personnel. In addition, the NRC also requested that ORISE perform radiological surveys of the Molycorp Washington Remediation Project (MWRP) facility in Washington, Pennsylvania (Figure 1). ORISE has and will continue to interface with PADEP personnel in a joint effort to perform confirmatory radiological surveys, consisting of gamma scans and soil sampling, at the MWRP facility. PADEP personnel will continue to submit soil samples that they collect to ORISE for analyses. PADEP sample results, along with ORISE results, will be provided to the NRC and PADEP so that decisions regarding the radiological status of the surveyed areas can be determined. ORISE performed radiological surveys during the period of November 28 and 29, 2006. The survey unit (SU) available for ORISE radiological survey activities was Area A1 North. The MWRP final status survey (FSS) results for Area A1 North were reviewed prior to these survey activities. Prior to ORISE's survey activities, PADEP personnel had performed radiological surveys and collected soil samples from SU Areas A5A and A6. These samples were provided to ORISE for analyses while on site. After the ORISE radiological surveys, PADEP personnel collected soil samples from SU Areas A2 and B2 and these samples were shipped to ORISE for analyses in January 2007. Figure 2 depicts the MWRP Areas A through D; ORISE and PADEP personnel performed survey activities in portions of Areas A and B. For interlaboratory comparison analyses with MWRP's site contractor, Malcolm Pirnie (MP), ORISE requested soil samples from the Area A1 soil stockpiles

  11. Beaufort Sea planning area oil and gas Lease Sale 170. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) assesses Lease Sale 170 proposed for August 1998 and comprised of 363 lease blocks in the Beaufort Sea planning area. The analysis addresses the significant environmental and socioeconomic concerns identified in the scoping process. Scoping consisted of input from State and Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, Native groups, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. The potential effects expected from the interaction between environmental resources and OCS-related activities were determined with respect to available scientific information and traditional knowledge. This EIS incorporates information from the Final EIS for the Beaufort Sea OCS Sale 144 (USD01, MMS, 1996a)

  12. Profile of Skin Disorders in Unreached Hilly Areas of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dimri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (>18 years constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6% followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%, and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%. Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients’ needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs.

  13. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Fowler, T; Pinget, B

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processor modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a state where rapid degradation would occur. Above this level an interlock is raised and the high voltage is switched off. Additionally, all spark si...

  14. Karst water control and management in the Hanxing mining area of North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanfang, Z. [P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Hanxing mining area of North China includes three coalfields: Fengfeng, Handan and Xingtai. Six or seven coal seams can be commercially mined in Permo-Carboniferous strata, among which the lower three, accounting for 37% of the total reserves, are threatened with karst water from the underlain Ordovician limestone. Hundreds of water inrush accidents have occurred and over 30 mines have been flooded, resulting in heavy economic losses and casualties. In order to avoid water inrushes and keep the mines safely operational, dewatering in the karst aquifer was considered an essential measure. Unfortunately, this practice has caused serious environmental problems such as surface subsidence (sinkhole), dry spring, and water supply shortage. On the basis of a series of investigations and tests in the last 20 years, an alternative method, mining with water pressure, has been proposed and is the main focus of this paper. By using this method, the karst water in the limestone can be preserved to some extent and the coals can be mined in a relatively safe way. (orig.)

  15. Metabolic Syndrome. Diagnosis in women of five doctor's office. North Area. November 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneisy Triana Toledo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The morbility for Metabolic-Syndrome in five doctor's office of the north health area in the municipality Accomplished a descriptive transverse cut investigation in 151 adult women's probabilistic sign to characterize itself Sancti - Spíritus, among 1ro of Noviembre of the 2007 and the November 30 the 2008. Morbility, the antecedent factors personnels of risk and of chronic illnesses were variables gone into no transmissible, they gathered data in a fill-out form, statistical analysis included percentages calculation, parameters esteem and tests them of proportions difference (x2. The main things aftermaths were Metabolic Syndrome prevalence of 33,3 % In the patients with metabolic syndrome the risk factor of chronic illnesses no transmissible that predominate was in order not to accomplish physical activity (96,1 %, her hiperlipidemia (27,3 %, as well as the obesity (24,4 % in this entity's bearers. The antecedent pathological personals for chronic illnesses no transmissible registered hypertension went with 64,7 %.

  16. Activities related to the prevention of climatic change in some major urban areas of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    1990-12-01

    After a perspective on the need for action to prevent and prepare for global warming, and the potential consequences of inaction on North American communities, local and regional government perspectives are presented on the response to global warming in Chicago, Los Angeles, Montreal, New York, and Toronto. It is seen that local government and its agencies in these urban areas are little touched by the profound dangers to human existence posed by the continued release into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases. Explanations are offered for the apparent unwillingness to act, including ignorance and confusion about the greenhouse effect and global warming, unpalatable socio-economic and political costs of remedial action, a perception that global warming is not the responsibility of local governments, and a perception that cities are sources of environmental degradation rather than solutions to it. It is suggested that city living results in less overall atmospheric degradation than a suburban sprawl scenario, notably with regard to transportation. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Use of isotopic tools to delimit areas of harnessing for drinking water supply - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourcy, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2011-03-01

    Within the frame of an action of the ONEMA-BRGM convention (Methodological approaches and tools for the protection of drinking water harnessing against diffuse pollutions), this study aims at developing a synthesis of isotopic geochemical tools to obtain the information required for the delimitation of harnessing supply areas. The report first describes the conventional tools: water molecule steady isotopes, radioactive isotopes, water dating tools, tools developed for another use, and artificial tracers. It presents the possible uses of natural and artificial tracers to determine parameters like flow directions, water residence duration, exchanges between aquifers and water sheet-river interactions. It gives an overview of knowledge on the use of isotopic methods to determine the origin of contaminants. It proposes a brief overview of a previous study of water sheets-rivers relationships. It finally discusses the use of geochemical and isotopic tools when delimiting supply areas for harnessing aimed at drinking water supply

  18. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  19. Final Remediation Report for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganstern, M.

    2002-01-01

    The K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (K BPOP) Building Number 643-1G, is situated immediately south and outside the K-Reactor fence line and is approximately 400 feet in length and 60 feet in width. For the K BPOP operable unit, the Land Use Control (LUC) objectives are to prevent contact, removal, or excavation of buried waste in the area and to preclude residential use of the area

  20. Towards an improved lithostratigraphic subdivision of the chalk group in the Netherlands North Sea area - A seismic stratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.S. van der; Wong, Th.E.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands North Sea area, the Chalk Group has thus far been subdivided into the Cenomanian Texel Formation, the Turonian to Maastrichtian Ommelanden Formation and the Danian Ekofisk Formation. This paper describes the attempt to arrive at a more detailed lithostratigraphic subdivision for

  1. Towards an improved lithostratigraphic subdivision of the Chalk Group in the Netherlands North Sea area – A seismic stratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.S. van der; Wong, Th.E.

    In the Netherlands North Sea area, the Chalk Group has thus far been subdivided into the Cenomanian Texel Formation, the Turonian to MaastrichtianOmmelanden Formation and the Danian Ekofisk Formation. This paper describes the attempt to arrive at a more detailed lithostratigraphicsubdivision for

  2. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ...-backed paperboard and to laminate plastic film (the laminating activity is not ``production'' activity...--Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Oracle Flexible..., grantee of FTZ 230, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of Oracle Flexible...

  3. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriese, L.I.; van der Meulen, M.D.; Maes, T.; Bekaert, K.; Paul-Pont, I.; Frère, L.; Robbens, J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North

  4. Red Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, Ontario-2004 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech

    2006-01-01

    In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, Ontario using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active Northern...

  5. Mangifera indica as Bioindicator of Mercury Atmospheric Contamination in an ASGM Area in North Gorontalo Regency, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hendra Prasetia; Masayuki Sakakibara; Koji Omori; Jamie S. Laird; Koichiro Sera; Idham A. Kurniawan

    2018-01-01

    We report the atmospheric Hg contamination in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area in North Gorontalo, Indonesia. It is well known that atmospheric Hg contaminates the air, water, soil, and living organisms, including trees. In this study, we calculated total weight of heavy metals, especially Hg, and quantitatively measure the concentrations of heavy metals, especially Hg, in tree bark from an ASGM area. Tree bark can be used for the environmental assessment of atmospheric co...

  6. Relationship between the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and the onset of stratospheric final warming in the northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinggao; Li, Tim; Xu, Haiming

    2018-01-01

    The seasonal timing or onset date of the stratospheric final warming (SFWOD) events has a considerable interannual variability. This paper reports a statistically significant relationship between the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) and SFWOD in the Northern Hemisphere in two sub-periods (1951-1978 and 1979-2015). Specifically, in the first (second) sub-period, the NPGO is negatively (positively) linked with SFWOD. Composite analyses associated with anomalous NPGO years are conducted to diagnose the dynamic processes of the NPGO-SFWOD link. During 1951-1978, positive NPGO years tend to strengthen the Pacific-North America (PNA) pattern in the mid-troposphere in boreal winter. The strengthened PNA pattern in February leads to strong planetary wave activity in the extratropical stratosphere from late February to March and causes the early onset of SFW in early April. By contrast, a strengthened Western Pacific pattern from January to early February in negative NPGO years causes a burst of planetary waves in both the troposphere and extratropical stratosphere from late January to mid-February and results in more winter stratospheric sudden warming events, which, in turn, leads to a dormant spring and a late onset of SFW in late April. During 1979-2015, positive (negative) NPGO years strongly strengthen (weaken) the mid-tropospheric Aleutian low and the Western Pacific pattern from January to mid-March, leading to increased (decreased) planetary wavenumber-1 activity in the stratosphere from mid- to late winter and thus more (less) winter stratospheric sudden warming events and late (early) onsets of SFW in early May (mid-April).

  7. Use of X-ray computed tomography in core analysis of tight North Sea Chalk. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogensen, K.; Stenby, E.H.

    1997-12-01

    This EFP-95 final report summarizes work performed at the Engineering Research Center (IVC-SEP) on the use of CT scanning in core analysis of tight core material from the North Sea. In this work, CT scanning has been applied to chalk material from Danish North Sea oil reservoirs. Results indicate that CT is fast and reliable for prediction of porosity. Typical errors lie within 2-3%. Calculation of fluid saturations requires considerable care from the experimentalists. Saturating a core ought to be performed by pulling vacuum to avoid trapped air bubbles. These bubbles may be produced after subsequent water and gas flooding, thereby ruining the mass balance calculations. Results performed at Stanford University show that if these simple precautions are taken, fluid saturations calculated from CT scanning are generally very accurate. Moreover, it appears that contrast agents need not be added to either phase. Regarding three-phase measurements the results are somewhat disappointing. Previous work using the dual-energy technique has indicated that the accuracy is less than satisfactory, due to an increased noise level at the low-energy setting. More work needs to be done in the future to develop the necessary expertise. The image analysis of the residual oil saturation after a gas flood can be simplified if water is assumed to be immobile during the injection. In that case, the resulting prediction of residual oil saturation is in excellent agreement with measured values. The general conclusion is that CT scanning holds a great potential as an assisting tool in modern core analysis, despite its limitations and the numerous implementation-related problems encountered during this work. (au) EFP-95. 57 refs.

  8. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Darnell, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities

  9. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  10. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  11. Study on the Merger of the Market Areas GRTgaz Nord and Sud - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    As GRTgaz is investigating the merger of its North and South market areas in order to create a unique marketplace, this study looks at potential options for managing congestion by means of contractual and/or market-based arrangements. It first applies a simplified model of the French gas market in order to quantify the potential risk of congestion in terms of frequency and severity. The simulations cover three different scenarios which have been developed to represent different developments of the French, European and worldwide gas markets for the time horizon 2016 to 2020. It quantitatively assesses the considered potential mechanisms. It combines the outcomes of quantitative and qualitative analyses to assess detailed options of congestion management in the French gas market. It formulates a set of proposals for managing the different types of congestion, and assesses the costs of congestion management. Recommendations are made for a set of mechanisms which may be used to enable and facilitate the market merger. A number of steps to be taken in preparation of the merger are proposed

  12. Endangered Species and North American Waterfowl Management Plan Joint Venture Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allred, Karla

    1996-01-01

    ...) Endangered Species Recovery Plans that meet the recovery plan requirements; and the percent of Corps acreage included within North American Waterfowl Management Joint Venture Implementation Plans where proposed work has been accomplished...

  13. Methane emission and consumption at a North Sea gas seep (Tommeliten area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tommeliten seepage area is part of the Greater Ekofisk area, which is situated above the Tommeliten Delta salt diapir in the central North Sea (56°29.90' N, 2°59.80' E, Norwegian Block 1/9, 75 m water depth. Here, cracks in a buried marl horizon allow methane to migrate into overlying clay-silt and sandy sediments. Hydroacoustic sediment echosounding showed several venting spots coinciding with the apex of marl domes where methane is released into the water column and potentially to the atmosphere. In the vicinity of the gas seeps, sea floor observations showed small mats of giant sulphide-oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments as well as carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDACs contain 13C-depleted, archaeal lipids indicating previous gas seepage and AOM activity. High amounts of sn2-hydroxyarchaeol relative to archaeol and low abundances of biphytanes in the crusts give evidence that ANaerobic MEthane-oxidising archaea (ANME of the phylogenetic cluster ANME-2 were the potential mediators of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM at the time of carbonate formation. Small pieces of MDACs were also found subsurface at about 1.7 m sediment depth, associated with the AOM zone. This zone is characterized by elevated AOM and Sulphate Reduction (SR rates, increased concentrations of 13C-depleted tetraether derived biphytanes, and specific bacterial Fatty Acids (FA. Further biomarker and 16S rDNA based analyses of this horizon give evidence that AOM is mediated by archaea belonging to the ANME-1b group and Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB most likely belonging to the Seep-SRB1 cluster. The zone of active methane consumption was restricted to a distinct horizon of about 20 cm. Concentrations of 13C-depleted lipid biomarkers (e.g. 500 ng g-dw−1 biphythanes, 140 ng g-dw−1 fatty acid ai-C15:0, cell numbers (1.5×108 cells cm−3, AOM and SR

  14. Characterization of peak streamflows and flood inundation at selected areas in North Carolina following Hurricane Matthew, October 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.; Watson, Kara M.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2017-05-05

    The passage of Hurricane Matthew through central and eastern North Carolina during October 7–9, 2016, brought heavy rainfall, which resulted in major flooding. More than 15 inches of rain was recorded in some areas. More than 600 roads were closed, including Interstates 95 and 40, and nearly 99,000 structures were affected by floodwaters. Immediately following the flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey documented 267 high-water marks, of which 254 were surveyed. North Carolina Emergency Management documented and surveyed 353 high-water marks. Using a subset of these highwater marks, six flood-inundation maps were created for hard-hit communities. Digital datasets of the inundation areas, study reach boundary, and water-depth rasters are available for download. In addition, peak gage-height data, peak streamflow data, and annual exceedance probabilities (in percent) were determined for 24 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located near the heavily flooded communities.

  15. Situation in the sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Situationen i havsomraadet mellan Nordsjoen och Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybern, B.I.; Soederstroem, J.; Thorell, L.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the special topographical and hydrological features the seas surrounding Sweden are very sensitive to both natural changes and changes caused by man. The sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea has come into focus during the last few decades due to problems with pollution and its impact on the ecosystems and to overfishing of some commer- cially important species. In order to elucidate the present situation from the Swedish viewpoint, the National Board of Fisheries, the National Environment Protection Board and the County Council of the County Goeteborg and Bohyslaen arranged a Symposium on the Situation in the Sea Area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in Goeteborg, 14-16 March, 1983. This volume contains lectures given at that Symposium. In most cases there are English summaries and English translations of texts to figures and tables.

  16. Influence of land area and capital strengthening fund of rural economic enterprises toward corn production in North Sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanta

    2018-02-01

    Corn is one of the staple food crops. Corn can also be processed into various foods and also as animal feed. The need for corn will continue to increase from year to year so it is necessary to increase production. The government has targeted corn crop self-sufficiency to achieve the corn production standards required by the animal feed industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of land area and capital strengthening funds to rural economic enterprises on corn production. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Central Statistical Agency of North Sumatra Province. The research method used is panel regression method. The result shows that the area of land has a significant effect on corn production and the capital strengthening fund to the rural economy institution has an insignificant effect on corn production in North Sumatera Province.

  17. Quantifying the National Significance of Local Areas for Regional Conservation Planning: North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Travis Belote

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conservation scientists recognize that additional protected areas are needed to maintain biological diversity and ecological processes. As regional conservation planners embark on recommending additional areas for protection in formal ecological reserves, it is important to evaluate candidate lands for their role in building a resilient protected areas system of the future. Here, we evaluate North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures with respect to their (1 ecological integrity, (2 role in connecting existing core protected areas, (3 potential to diversify the ecosystem representation of reserves, and (4 role in maintaining hotspots of biologically-rich areas that are not well protected. Mountain Treasures represent a citizen inventory of roadless areas and serve as candidates for elevated levels of conservation protection on U.S. federal lands. We compared Mountain Treasures to other candidate lands throughout the country to evaluate their potential national significance. While the Mountain Treasures tended to be more impacted by human modifications than other roadless areas, they are as important as other roadless areas with respect to their role in connecting existing protected areas and diversifying representation of ecosystems in conservation reserves. However, Mountain Treasures tended to have a much higher biodiversity priority index than other roadless areas leading to an overall higher composite score compared to other roadless areas. Our analysis serves as an example of how using broad-scale datasets can help conservation planners assess the national significance of local areas.

  18. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M.; Terreros, E.; Ochoa, L.

    2008-01-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  19. PROFILE OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN A WAR-TORN AREA: CASE STUDY OF NORTH EAST SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    SELVALAMAR AYADURAI; M. SADIQ SOHAIL

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the demographic profile of "Tamil" women entrepreneurs in the North East of Sri Lanka who became entrepreneurs as a result of war. Five main areas of interest were examined, namely, (i) characteristics of these women; (ii) factors that spurred them into entrepreneurship; (iii) their challenges; (iv) their measures of success; and (v) their demographic profile. Findings indicate that a large percentage of these women were highly entrepreneurial who were motivated into busin...

  20. Lethal Area 50 in Patients with Burn Injuries in North West, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirza Aghazadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of their considerably high rates of mortality and morbidity, burns are still viewed as one of the most important health-threatening environmental hazards imposing a significant burden on the health care system in low and middle-income countries. This study seeks to determine the lethal area fifty percent (LA50 in all burn patients admitted over a period of five years and the factors influencing mortality in burn injuries. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional carried out from 2010 to 2014 in Sina Hospital of Tabriz, 1226 participant including 319 women, 346 men, 272 girls, and 289 boys were selected through stratified sampling. The demographic and clinical data of patients ( their age, gender, burn type, TBSA, the season and consequences of burning were all extracted and then analyzed, using descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and variability and inferential statistics(chi-square and linear regressionat a significance level of 0.05. The LA50 was calculated through determining the relationship between the total body surface area and mortality rate (The extent of the body burns measured and recorded based on Lando Chart in hospitals. Results: The highest (47.6% and the lowest (3.8% rates of burns were observed among those aged below 16 and above 65, respectively. The majority of the participants were residents of cities (55.4%, married (34.6%, illiterate (56.6%, and housewives (14.8%. Most burns were caused by accidents (98.4% at home (90.6%. Most patients had suffered first- and second-degree burns (68.4%, with no inhalation damages (99.5%. Hot liquids were the main culprit in most of the burns (58.7% and the upper extremities were the most frequently affected areas (34.8%. There was .99 rise in mortality for every percent increase in TBSA, and there seemed to be a significant relationship between the age level and the eventual outcome- the higher the age, the more likely for the incident to end in death

  1. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 4): North Hollywood Dump, TN. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The 70-acre North Hollywood Dump site is an inactive, privately owned landfill in Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee, in the Wolf River floodplain. Directly beneath the site is a contaminated aquifer from which ground water discharges directly to the Wolf River. From the mid-1930s until its closure in 1967, municipal and industrial refuse were disposed of at the site, which was operated by the city of Memphis. A precise description of the materials disposed of is unknown. In 1979 and 1980, EPA and State studies revealed various contaminants both onsite and offsite in soil, sediments, ground water, surface water, and fish. Commercial fishing activities in the Wolf River ceased, and EPA required removal of contaminated soil, capping of the landfill, and fencing of the site. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses all of the contaminated media by containing the source areas. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, ground water, and surface water are organics including aldrin, endrin, chlordane, and pesticides; and metals including arsenic and lead.

  3. Amphibian and reptile records from around the Betsiboka Delta area in North-Western Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Erens, Jesse; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M.; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    This study summarises amphibian and reptile records from ad hoc surveys in a series of localities in the North-West of Madagascar, largely centred on the delta of the Betsiboka River. Eleven amphibian and approximately 32 reptile species were found, with taxonomic uncertainties remaining for some

  4. 77 FR 30320 - General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Park Service Complex, Skagit and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION.... The NPS will recommend legislation to change the name of this unit to North Cascades National... State Route 20, Sedro- Woolley, WA 98284; or via telephone request at (360) 854-7200. Dated: May 4, 2012...

  5. Floc size and aspects of flocculation processes of suspended particulate matter in the North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations on the size of suspended particulate matter in the North Sea and two adjacent estuaries were carried out using an in situ technique: image analysis of photographs from an underwater camera system. The results obtained from such an in situ method gave a new knowledge on the size

  6. Assessment of pharmacists' delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists' delivery of public health services. To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists' practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking.

  7. Assessment of pharmacists’ delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M.; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists’ delivery of public health services. Objective: To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists’ practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. Methods: This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Results: Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking. PMID:28042356

  8. 75 FR 10121 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... marketing areas. The other 8 orders have no similar route disposition limit. The 3 southeastern orders... Part IV Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1000, 1001, 1005, et al. Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

  9. Factors that Affect Poverty Areas in North Sumatera Using Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, D. H.; Bangun, P.; Sitepu, H. R.

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, especially North Sumatera, the problem of poverty is one of the fundamental problems that become the focus of government both central and local government. Although the poverty rate decreased but the fact is there are many people who are poor. Poverty happens covers several aspects such as education, health, demographics, and also structural and cultural. This research will discuss about several factors such as population density, Unemployment Rate, GDP per capita ADHK, ADHB GDP per capita, economic growth and life expectancy that affect poverty in Indonesia. To determine the factors that most influence and differentiate the level of poverty of the Regency/City North Sumatra used discriminant analysis method. Discriminant analysis is one multivariate analysis technique are used to classify the data into a group based on the dependent variable and independent variable. Using discriminant analysis, it is evident that the factor affecting poverty is Unemployment Rate.

  10. Identification of Holocene millennial-scale forcing in the North Atlantic area: Ocean/atmosphere contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debret, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Christophe, C.; de Vernal, A.; Massei, N.; Eynaud, F.; Nicolle, M.; Frank, N.; Mary, Y.; Magny, M.

    2017-12-01

    Millennial (1500-year) cycles were evidenced decades ago from the advance and retreat of glaciers but many subsequent studies failed to demonstrate the unequivocal character of such oscillation from paleoclimate time series. Hence, the identification of a persistent 1500 year periodicity remains controversial both for the last glacial episode and the Holocene. Applying wavelet analysis to Holocene climate records, we have identified synchronous millennial-scale oscillations which permit to establish a North Atlantic millennial variability index (NAV-Index), maximum at 5330 ± 245, 3560 ± 190, 1810 ± 160 cal years BP and minimum at 4430 ± 250, 2640 ± 225 and 970 ± 200 years before present. This NAV-index was compared with the millennial variability of cosmogenic 10Be isotope, a proxy of solar activity. Differences between the two sets of records suggest that an internal mechanism (Ocean/atmosphere) must be at the origin of the North Atlantic millennial scale variability. Our data document an increased coherence and magnitude of the North Atlantic millennial variability since 6000 cal. years BP, with a frequency of 1780 ± 240 years. During the early Holocene, deglacial meltwater fluxes had strong regional impact and the coupling between subpolar gyre migration and Atlantic meridional oceanic circulation observed since afterward seems to be related to the end of the Laurentide and Inuitian ice sheet meltwater discharge. Hence, we may conclude that the evolution of this millennial oscillation in the future will depend upon the Greenland stability or melting.

  11. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-01-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse

  12. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for the Beddown and Flight Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    southwest border and assisted in 3,065 apprehensions and the seizure of 14,240 pounds of marijuana . Four Predator B UASs now operate out of Sierra Vista...Sustainable design concepts emphasize state-of-the-art strategies for site development, efficient water and energy use and improved indoor environmental...improved indoor environmental quality. EA for the Beddown and Flight Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at GFAFB, North Dakota Final 6-1 August

  14. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  15. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  16. Flowers culture and ecological aspects of the areas under petroleum exploitation; Aspectos floristicos e ecologicos das areas submetidas a exploracao de petroleo. Relatorio final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Ieda Leao do; Matos, Francisca Dionisia de Almeida; Lima Filho, Diogenes de Andrade

    1995-08-01

    This document represents the final report of the brazilian Amazon Research National Institute studies on the ecological aspects of the petroleum exploitation at the Urucu river - State of Amazon - Brazil. The study aimed the determination of the vegetation of the Urucu river, in the areas of PETROBRAS petroleum exploitation activities.

  17. [Near ultraviolet absorption spectral properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the north area of Yellow Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Yang, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yan-Long

    2010-12-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) near ultraviolet absorption spectra contains CDOM molecular structure, composition and other important physical and chemical information. Based on the measured data of CDOM absorption coefficient in March 2009 in the north area of Yellow Sea, the present paper analyzed near ultraviolet absorption spectral properties of CDOM. The results showed that due to the impact of near-shore terrigenous input, the composition of CDOM is quite different in the north area of Yellow Sea, and this area is a typical case II water; fitted slope with specific range of spectral band and absorption coefficient at specific band can indicate the relative size of CDOM molecular weight, correlation between spectral slope of the Sg,275-300), Sg,300-350, Sg,350-400 and Sg,250-275 and the relative size of CDOM molecular weight indicative parameter M increases in turn and the highest is up to 0.95. Correlation between a(g)(lambda) and M value increases gradually with the increase in wavelength, and the highest is up to 0.92 at 400 nm; being correlated or not between spectral slope and absorption coefficient is decided by the fitting-band wavelength range for the spectra slope and the wavelength for absorption coefficient. Correlation between Sg,275-300 and a(g)(400) is the largest, up to 0.87.

  18. Correlations between radon in soil gas and the activity of seismogenic faults in the Tangshan area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Ying; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng

    2014-01-01

    The spatial variation of soil gas radon values were correlated with the seismogenic faults and earthquakes in the Tangshan area (north China). Radon concentrations were measured at 756 sites in an area about 2500 km 2 from April to May 2010. The background and anomaly threshold values calculated were 4730.4 Bq/m 3 and 8294.1 Bq/m 3 , respectively. Radon concentrations highlight a decreasing gradient from NE to SW in the area. Higher values mostly distributed in the NE sector of the Tangshan fault and the Luanxian fault where the Tangshan (Ms 7.8), and Luanxian (MS 7.1) earthquakes occurred in 1976 and 17 earthquakes with MS = 3.0 occurred in this area since 2005. Radon values illustrated a close relation with the shallow fault trace and earthquake activity in the area. The active fault zones and the associated fractures formed by the larger earthquakes, act as paths for radon migration. - Highlights: • Radon concentrations at 756 sites were attained in the Tangshan area. • The background value and anomaly threshold of Rn were calculated out. • Radon concentration decreasing from NE to SW in the study area. • Rn value has a close relation with the fault and earthquake activity

  19. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... under conservation protection. The area's strong and vibrant rural lifestyle, of which agriculture is the dominant land use, is one of the key components to ensuring habitat integrity and wildlife... conservation area are to protect 240,000 acres of wetland and 1.7 million acres of critical grassland habitat...

  20. Study to determine the nature and extent of ozone and ozone precursor transport in selected areas of California. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.T.; Musarra, S.; Smith, T.B.; Lurmann, F.W.

    1992-04-01

    The project was designed to assess the contribution of transported pollutants to violations of the state ozone standard within the air basins covered by the report using existing data and advanced data analysis techniques. The objectives of the project were to determine the characteristics of ozone and ozone precursor transport within the California air basins covered by the report and to identify whether the contribution of transported pollutants to ozone violations in each downwind area was inconsequential, significant, or overwhelming, relative to locally-emitted pollutants. The precursor pollutants of interest were nitrogen oxides and reactive organic gases. The project evaluated transport to the following areas: The Broader Sacramento Area and the Upper Sacramento Valley; The North Central Coast Air Basin; The Southeast Desert Air Basin (SEDAB); and the Imperial County portion of the SEDAB

  1. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  2. Seismic crustal structure of the North China Craton and surrounding area: Synthesis and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, B.; Thybo, H.; Artemieva, I. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a new digital model (NCcrust) of the seismic crustal structure of the Neoarchean North China Craton (NCC) and its surrounding Paleozoic-Mesozoic orogenic belts (30°-45°N, 100°-130°E). All available seismic profiles, complemented by receiver function interpretations of crustal thickness, are used to constrain a new comprehensive crustal model NCcrust. The model, presented on a 0.25° × 0.25°grid, includes the Moho depth and the internal structure (thickness and velocity) of the crust specified for four layers (the sedimentary cover, upper, middle, and lower crust) and the Pn velocity in the uppermost mantle. The crust is thin (30-32 km) in the east, while the Moho depth in the western part of the NCC is 38-44 km. The Moho depth of the Sulu-Dabie-Qinling-Qilian orogenic belt ranges from 31 km to 51 km, with a general westward increase in crustal thickness. The sedimentary cover is 2-5 km thick in most of the region, and typical thicknesses of the upper crust, middle crust, and lower crust are 16-24 km, 6-24 km, and 0-6 km, respectively. We document a general trend of westward increase in the thickness of all crustal layers of the crystalline basement and as a consequence, the depth of the Moho. There is no systematic regional pattern in the average crustal Vp velocity and the Pn velocity. We examine correlation between the Moho depth and topography for seven tectonic provinces in the North China Craton and speculate on mechanisms of isostatic compensation.

  3. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dyslipidemia in rural areas of North China: prevalence, characteristics, and predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nannan; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhang, Haiqing; Song, Yongfeng; Zhao, Meng; Ji, Jiadong; Liu, Lu; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jiajun

    2016-09-13

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing worldwide. As a common pathogenic risk factor, dyslipidemia played a great role in the incidence and progress of these diseases. We investigated to achieve accurate and up-to-date information on the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associations with other lipid-related diseases in rural North China. Using a complex, multistage, probability sampling design, we conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study of 8528 rural participants aged over 18 years in Shandong Province. Prevalence and characteristics of dyslipidemia were demonstrated. The odds ratios between dyslipidemia types and lipid-related diseases were further analyzed by logistic regression. Among the overall population, 45.8 % suffered from dyslipidemia. The prevalence of lipid abnormality (including high and very high levels) was 18.6, 12.7, 9.8 and 12.7 % for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG), respectively. Among all participants with dyslipidemia, 23.9 % were aware, only 11.5 % were treated, 10.0 % were controlled. For subjects with dyslipidemia, the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was highest with a 3.3-fold over that of non-dyslipidmia (OR = 3.30, P Dyslipidemia has become a serious public health issue in rural North China. The rapid increase of high TC and incremental risk of high TG may contribute to the epidemic of AS, NAFLD and DM. It is imperative to develop individualized prevention and treatment guidelines according to dyslipidemia phenotypes.

  5. Discriminations of Younger Granitic Masses at Gabal Qattar Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasfi, S.A.; Lliase, E.L.; Mousa, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Gabal Qattar area is located in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt between Latitudes 26 degree 52 and 27 degree 08 N, and Longitudes 33 degree 13 and 33 degree 25 E. The exposed rock units, there, from the oldest to the youngest, are meta volcanics; granodiorites- diorite complex; Hammamat sediments and younger granites. Most of the area is densely traversed by felsic and mafic dykes. The Qattarian younger granites are divided into seven granitic areas according to their spectral characters to facilitate the studying and delineating physical characteristic differences between these areas as well as to throw a light about the best conditions of exploration for radioactive mineralizations. This study is based on brightness Digital Number values (DNs) of the granitic areas, predominant trends and densities of the structural lineaments, shape and type of weathering products. Three areas of these seven younger granite areas form Gabal (G.) Qattar, and designated Gr 1, Gr 3 and Gr 4, where the other granite areas which form the G. Urn Dissi (Gr 2), G. Thelma (Gr 5), G. Abu Samyuk (Gr 6) and G. Ayn AI Ruwayshed (Gr 7). Photo geologically, these seven granite areas show some differences in shape, texture, predominant trends and densities of structural lineaments and ability of weathering. This study shows that the seven granite areas could be gathered into three main groups according to their DNs values of Landsat ETM+ spectral bands especially of band 5, where these three main groups representing different, and mainly coincide with the three granite phases previously delineated according to chronological field relation, petrographic and geochemical studies. The Gr 1 area contains all uranium occurrences from locations I to V. This area is characterized by semi circular shape of NW trend, massive appearance with high relief peaks, and high fracture density, where the N 55 degree E, N 5 degree E, N 45 degree E and N 45 degree W are the predominant trends. Some of the N 55

  6. Geothermal assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada. Final report, April 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.

  7. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  8. Shortlist Master plan Wind Monitoring fish eggs and larvae in the southern North Sea: final report Part A en B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.; Hoek, R.; Beare, D.J.; Bolle, L.J.; Bakker, C.; Barneveld, van E.; Lohman, M.; Os-Koomen, van E.; Nijssen, P.J.M.; Pennock, I.; Tribuhl, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results of twelve monthly ichthyoplankton surveys carried out from April 2010 until March 2011 in the southern North Sea. The aim of this study was to collect data on the temporal and spatial distribution of fish eggs and larvae on the Dutch Continental Shelf (NCP). However,

  9. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  10. Late Quaternary pollen records from the Lower Cobb Valley and adjacent areas, north-west Nelson, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulmeister, J.; McLea, W.L.; Singer, C.; McKay, R.M.; Hosie, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ten pollen records from the Cobb Valley and adjacent areas in North-West Nelson are described. Collectively they provide a vegetation record extending from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day. During the Last Glacial Maximum the uplands of North-West Nelson were glaciated. By about 17,000 radiocarbon years BP ice had retreated some distance up the Cobb River Valley and a podocarp heath and tussockland vegetation covered non-glaciated areas. By 14,000 radiocarbon years BP, the valley floor and adjacent lower ridges were occupied by montane podocarp forest dominated by Phyllocladus and Halocarpus. Beech forest expanded into some sites as early as 13,000 yr BP but the modern beech cover was not established until the Holocene. Forest cover has fluctuated in response to disturbance over the Holocene, but the most significant recent change, which is related to clearing for pastoralism in the last two centuries, has had surprisingly little impact on the pollen records. (author). 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  11. Reconnaissance investigation of the alluvial gold deposits in the North Takhar Area of Interest, Takhar Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance assessment of the alluvial gold deposits of the North Takhar Area of Interest (AOI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan. Soviet and Afghan geologists collected data and calculated the gold deposit reserves in Takhar Province in the 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected borehole sampling and concentration sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the alluvial gold placer deposits in the North Takhar AOI. Through a combination of historical borehole and cross-section data and digital terrain modeling, the Samti, Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, and Kocha River placer deposits were reassessed. Resource estimates were calculated to be 20,927 kilograms (kg) for Samti, 7,626 kg for Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, 160 kg for the mouth of the Kocha, 1,047 kg for the lower Kocha, 113 kg for the middle Kocha, and 168 kg for the upper Kocha. Previous resource estimates conducted by the Soviets for the Samti and Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir deposits estimated 30,062 kg and 802 kg of gold, respectively. This difference between the new estimates and previous estimates results from the higher resolution geomorphic model and the interpretation of areas outside of the initial work zone studied by Soviet and Afghan geologists.

  12. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  13. Dengue fever Potential Area at Pademangan Barat Sub District, North Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri E. B. Soesilo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease that contagious by Aedes aegypti mosquito’s bites. Anybody could infectious by this illness, without differentiate their sex, age, social status, and economic status as well. Nevertheless, at slum area, where mosquito’s larva is easy to find, the number of infectious people is presuming high. By using primary data and analyze with geography information system (GIS, the study found that the number of infectious people of dengue fever do not have any positive correlation with larva amount, that was monitored through clean water in the surrounding neighborhood area. The number of infectious people have correlation with the dirty areas that caused by the piling of used articles and inundate area. Gender and age do not have any influence with the number of infectious people.

  14. BigFoot Leaf Area Index Surfaces for North and South American Sites, 2000-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The BigFoot project gathered leaf area index (LAI) data for nine EOS Land Validation Sites located from Alaska to Brazil from 2000 to 2003. Each site is...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, wildlife refuges, management areas, National Forests, National Parks, National Park...

  16. Appendix P: analysis of geological and geophysical data in selected areas of the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.E.; Damuth, J.E.; Jacobi, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    During 1979 we initiated a comprehensive assessment of existing marine geological and geophysical data for the northwest Pacific (PAC 1; 20 0 to 50 0 N; 145 0 to 180 0 E). The purpose of these studies is to locate, if possible, several 1 0 x 1 0 (latitude x longitude) areas which may qualify as candidate waste-disposal sites. Some of these 1 0 x 1 0 sites will then be surveyed in detail on future cruises. We have examined all 3.5 and 12 kHz echogram data through the PAC 1 area contained in the Lamont-Doherty, Scripps, and Univ. of Hawaii echogram libraries. These data comprise the vast majority of data that exist for the northwest Pacific. Using these data we were able to classify and map the distribution of various types of microtopography and acoustic reflectivity (echo character) throughout the PAC 1 area. These studies revealed (1) the nature of stratification in the upper 25 to 100 m of the sea floor; (2) nature of the microtopography of the sea floor and areal distribution of basement outcrops; (3) locations of areas affected by bottom currents and mass-wasting process. We have also compiled and evaluated all D.S.D.P. drilling information and L-DGO piston core, bottom camera, heat-flow, sonobuoy, and low frequency seismic-reflection data for the PAC 1 area. We are continuing to compile additional acoustic and station data from other sources including US Navy, NOAA, Japan, and N.G.S.D.C., DMA. Our studies in the PAC 1 area to date have enabled us to locate at least 10 1 0 x 1 0 areas which appear to be potentially suitable sites for further waste disposal studies. Three of these potential sites will be surveyed in detail on an upcoming VEMA cruise in spring 1980. Remaining areas will be surveyed during future cruises

  17. Nevada Test Site Area 25. Radiological survey and cleanup project, 1974-1983. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R.K.; Rosenberry, C.E.; Orcutt, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes radiological survey, decontamination and decommissioning of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 facilities and land areas incorporated in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS). Buildings, facilities and support systems used after 1959 for nuclear reactor and engine testing were surveyed for the presence of radioactive contamination. The cleanup was part of the Surplus Facilities Management Program funded by the Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office. The radiological survey portion of the project encompassed portable instrument surveys and removable contamination surveys (swipe) for alpha and beta plus gamma radiation contamination of facilities, equipment and land areas. Soil sampling was also accomplished. The majority of Area 25 facilities and land areas have been returned to unrestricted use. Remaining radiologically contaminated areas are posted with warning signs and barricades. 12 figures

  18. Ecologically Important Areas for Pacific Fishery Management Council's June 2005 Preferred Alternative, Groundfish EFH Final EIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict ecologically important areas that were developed through a collaborative process involving Oceana; groundfish trawl fishermen, organized by the...

  19. Description of recipient areas related to final storage of unreprocessed spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundblad, B.; Bergstroem, U.

    1983-02-01

    A comprehensive study of recipient areas in Fjaellveden, Voxnan, Gideaa and Kamlungekoelen is accomplished. Besides general conditions in Finnsjoen and Sternoe are discussed. The recipient areas are defined and their climate, hydrology, bedrock, soil, vegetation, land use and yield from arable land are described as well as the yield of fish for the surface water of interest. The potential exposure pathways and model system at the different areas are defined. Long-term variations of geology, climate, hydrology, land-use, acidification and evolution are described. The possible development of the recipient areas is also discussed. (Authors)

  20. High performance ground penetrating radar survey of TA-49/Area 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Rangel, M.J. III

    1994-09-01

    The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory's continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site

  1. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly and Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway

  2. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  3. Knowledge and psychomotor skills of nursing students in North Cyprus in the area of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, Umran; Sarpkaya, Dilek

    2013-07-01

    Objective : The aim of the study was to determine the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skill levels of nursing students in North Cyprus. Methods : The study design was quasi-experimental and longitudinal. A questionnaire was applied to the students before the CPR lecture. Then the students were informed about adult CPR by the researchers and all of the students practiced CPR on a Resusci-Anne manikin. One and six months after this training the same questionnaire and skills checklist of CPR were applied. Results : Eighty three third year students of nursing participated in the study. While the average CPR knowledge score of these students was 9.3 ± 2.9 out of 23 before the lecture, this average increased to 17.0 ± 1.8 one month after the CPR lecture and decreased by two points back to 14.9 ± 3.8 after six months. Skill score of the students one month after the CPR skills training was 18.4 out of 21, and that this average decreased to 13.8 after six months (p<0.05). Nursing students tend to forget theoretical and applied CPR training after couple of months. Hence there is a need for continuous CPR training and education and repeating the skills at regular intervals even after they have graduated to ensure sustainability in the CPR skills.

  4. Electrifying reviews of the central North Sea area; Elektrisifiseringsvurderinger for midtre Nordsjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husdal, Geir

    2012-06-15

    We conducted a site evaluation of power from land to several fields in the central North Sea. The findings are included Dagny, Edvard Grieg, Draupne and Johan Sverdrup. In addition, an unidentified future field is included in the evaluation. Unclassified cost estimates have been prepared and measures cost is calculated for a main concept based on a set of assumptions and suppositions. To check the robustness of the results and to identify which parameters the results are most sensitive to, we conducted sensitivity analyzes in which key assumptions are changed. The study shows a cost of Nok 412 Nok / tonne reduction in Co2 emissions. This is slightly higher than the sum of the current Co2 tax and quota price, but lower than the Co2 cost proposed in the white paper. Sensitivity calculations show that the cost of measures is very sensitive to investment costs, future energy demand and the price difference between gas sold on the continent and electricity from the grid in Norway. (eb)

  5. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Montrose detail Area 1, Colorado. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The Montrose Detail Area No. 1 covers a 150 square mile area near the central portion of the San Juan Volcanic Region. The areas' geology is completely dominated by Tertiary volcanic events and subsequent surficial modifications. A group of 25 groups of samples in the uranium window constitute anomalies as defined in Volume I. These anomalies lie over the highest uranium, thorium, and potassium count rate areas primarily in the La Garita Mountains and the South Fork Saquache Creek drainage. Highest count rates appear to be associated with certain tuffaceous units as mapped. High gradients completely dominate the magnetic signature of the area. Little correlation with the radiometric data was expected or observed. The region appeared geochemically homogenous on the basis of radiometric data according to the criteria set forth in Volume I

  6. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Montrose detail Area 4, Colorado. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The Montrose Detail Area No. 4 comprises approximately 215 square miles in the Central Sawatch Mountains in a region dominated by outcrops of Precambrian basement, Tertiary and Cretaceous intrusives, and glacial cover. A single uranium prospect lies in Precambrian rocks west of the Taylor Park. Other mining activity in the area appears to be limited to extensive prospecting for molybdenum in the Tertiary rocks in the Winfield area. A total of 26 groups of uranium samples constitute anomalies as defined in Volume I. the largest group of anomalies lies over the Windfield area. Other significant anomalies overlie certain Precambrian rocks, as in the Three Apostles area and over the single uranium prospect. Magnetic data outline some Precambrian and Tertiary rock units, but are largely uninterpretable in the scope of this report. There is little apparent correlation with the geology as mapped, or with the radiometric data. Three geochemical units were defined on the basis of the radiometric criteria set forth in Volume I

  7. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Grand Forks quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Grand Forks 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Seventy-eight (78) groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly in this report. None of them are considered significant

  8. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Fargo quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Fargo 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Eighty-two (82) groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly in this report. None of them are considered significant

  9. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Thief River Falls quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The Thief River Falls 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Sixty-six groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly. None of them are considered significant

  10. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall not be open to swimming, fishing, water-skiing, mooring or anchorage. (2) Dragging, seining, other fishing operations, and other activities not under the direction of the United States, which might foul... shall not be dragged along the bottom while proceeding through the area. (4) All vessels entering the...

  11. Radioactivity and uranium potentialities of wadi hammad area, north eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.B.; Shalaby, M.H.; Khamis, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Late proterozoic, pan-african rocks exposed at Wadi Hammad area are represented by metamorphosed and un metamorphosed sediments and volcanics in addition to different types of intensive rocks. Systematic radiometric survey is conducted at W.Hammad area in order to reveal the distribution of radioactivity and uranium potentialities. Statistical analysis of the field data collected indicate that, high level of δ-radioactivity is linked to the younger granites compared with the other rock types. The tree types of younger granites recorded in the area namely: porphyritic granites, biotite granites, and perthitic leucogranites differ among each other in their ground radioactivity. The increase in ground δ- radioactivity from the porphyritic to biotite granites to perthitic leucogranites corresponds to the increase in the uranium content of these granites. Four radioactive anomalies were discovered in the younger granites of the area of W.Hammad. The genetic relation between certain set of fractures and the distribution of δ- radioactivity in G. El Gulf granites indicates that the area of anomalous radioactivity are structurally controlled by joint sets trending N-S, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The presence of intensive hematitization episyenitization, red and milky silica veins, aplites and pegmatite veins indicate the presence of hydrothermal activities along these fractures. It is worth to mention that, the presence of episyentizied zone associated with radioactive anomaly, represents a good indication for the possibility of hosting uranium deposits in deeper horizon. Moreover, the presence of high back-ground of magnetic uranium in the perthitic leucogranites increases studied the possibility of concentration of uranium by leaching from the granites. 12 figs., 1 tab

  12. Radioactivity and uranium potentialities of wadi hammad area, north eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A B; Shalaby, M H; Khamis, H A [Nuclear Material Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Late proterozoic, pan-african rocks exposed at Wadi Hammad area are represented by metamorphosed and un metamorphosed sediments and volcanics in addition to different types of intensive rocks. Systematic radiometric survey is conducted at W.Hammad area in order to reveal the distribution of radioactivity and uranium potentialities. Statistical analysis of the field data collected indicate that, high level of {delta}-radioactivity is linked to the younger granites compared with the other rock types. The tree types of younger granites recorded in the area namely: porphyritic granites, biotite granites, and perthitic leucogranites differ among each other in their ground radioactivity. The increase in ground {delta}- radioactivity from the porphyritic to biotite granites to perthitic leucogranites corresponds to the increase in the uranium content of these granites. Four radioactive anomalies were discovered in the younger granites of the area of W.Hammad. The genetic relation between certain set of fractures and the distribution of {delta}- radioactivity in G. El Gulf granites indicates that the area of anomalous radioactivity are structurally controlled by joint sets trending N-S, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The presence of intensive hematitization episyenitization, red and milky silica veins, aplites and pegmatite veins indicate the presence of hydrothermal activities along these fractures. It is worth to mention that, the presence of episyentizied zone associated with radioactive anomaly, represents a good indication for the possibility of hosting uranium deposits in deeper horizon. Moreover, the presence of high back-ground of magnetic uranium in the perthitic leucogranites increases studied the possibility of concentration of uranium by leaching from the granites. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  14. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste

  15. Estimates of population distributions and tailings areas around licensed uranium mill sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M.; Hall, J.B.; Moore, W.E.

    1986-08-01

    Population distributions and tailings areas were estimated from aerial photography for each of 21 licensed uranium millsites. Approximately 11,600 persons live within 5 kilometers of the tailings impoundments at the millsites. About 82% of these persons live near five of the millsites. No persons were found living within 5 kilometers of six of the millsites. Tailings area measurements include the surface area of tailings in impoundments, heap-leached ore, and carryover tailings in evaporation ponds. Approximately 4,000 acres of tailings surfaces were measured for the 21 millsites. About 55% of the tailings surfaces were dry, 11% wet, and the remainder ponded. The average tailings surface area for the millsites is about 200 acres and ranges from 7 to 813 acres

  16. Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Snow Camp-Saxapahaw Area, Central North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert G.; Gumiel, Pablo; Payas, Alba

    2006-01-01

    The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw study area, in the Carolina slate belt in the Southeastern United States, is notable for large zones of high-sulfidation alteration in arc-related metavolcanic rocks. The area has potential for additional significant pyrophyllite and related aluminosilicate refractory mineral deposits and may have potential for small- to medium-size gold deposits also associated with the high-sulfidation hydrothermal systems. The Carolina slate belt is an elongate zone of mostly low-grade metamorphic rocks of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic age that extends from northeastern Georgia to southern Virginia. It is dominated by volcanic rocks but locally consists of fine-grained epiclastic sedimentary rocks. Plutons and subvolcanic bodies have intruded the rocks of the Carolina slate belt in many places and have been important in controlling the metamorphism and in localizing hydrothermal alteration. The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw area is mostly underlain by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and lesser amounts of intrusive shallow plutons. The volcanic rocks range in composition from basalt to rhyolite; however andesites, dacites, and rhyodacites are the most abundant. The intrusive bodies are largely granite and quartz monzonite; gabbroic bodies also are common. It was possible to establish the relative ages of only part of these rocks. Two northeast-trending fault zones and fractures divide the map area into three structural blocks; the central block was tilted down to the southwest to form a grabenlike structure. Most of the hydrothermally altered rocks and all of the intensely altered zones are confined to the downdropped block, which we think may have been calderalike in origin. A major volcanic unit, the Reedy Branch Tuff, is limited to the southwestern part of the graben and may be the youngest volcanic rock in the area. Layered rocks record one or more strong folding events, but the diversity of rock types, lack of recognizable stratigraphic markers, and

  17. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  18. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue Miao; Zhao Jingyu; Zhang Na; Wang Rong; Cao Jun; Tao Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  19. An analysis of the North Rainier Elk Herd area, Washington: Change detection and habitat modeling with remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Joshua J.

    The North Rainier Elk Herd (NREH) is one of ten designated herds in Washington State, all managed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To aid in the management of the herd, the WDFW has decided to implement a spatial ecosystem analysis. This thesis partially undertakes this analysis through the use of a suite of software tools, the Westside Elk Nutrition and Habitat Use Models (WENHUM). This model analyzes four covariates that have a strong correlation to elk habitat selection: dietary digestible energy (DDE); distance to roads open to the public; mean slope; and distance to cover-forage edge and returns areas of likely elk habitation or use. This thesis includes an update of the base vegetation layer from 2006 data to 2011, a series of clear cuts were identified as areas of change and fed into the WENHUM models. The addition of these clear cuts created improvements in the higher quality DDE levels and when the updated data is compared to the original, predictions of elk use are higher. The presence of open or closed roads was simulated by creating an area of possible closures, selecting candidate roads within that area and then modeling them as either "all open" or "all closed". The simulation of the road closures produced increases in the higher levels of predicted use.

  20. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Montrose detail Area 3, Colorado. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Montrose Detail Area No. 3 comprises approximately 140 square miles at the extreme southern end of the Sawatch Mountains. The region's geology is apparently a complex interface between Precambrian and associated Paleozoic rocks of the Sawatch Uplift, and faulted Tertiary intrusive and extrusive rocks of the San Juan Mountains Volcanic Province. Oligocene igneous rocks dominate the surface of the area. Mining activity (Pb-Zn-Ag) is extensive in the Bonanza Area, which occupies most of the western half of the detail area. Some occurrences of uranium are known in the mines, and in a single prospect in Paleozoics to the southeast. A total of 34 groups of samples in the uranium window constitute anomalies as defined in Volume I. The majority of the anomalies lie over mine shafts or related features. Some of the other anomalies appear in close proximity to the Sheep Mountain area along the northwest border in association with faults and Tertiary igneous units. Magnetic data outline the major Tertiary intrusive bodies, as well as some heavily faulted Tertiary volcanics and portions of the Precambrian metamorphic sequence. Three geochemical units were defined on the basis of radiometric criteria set forth in Volume I. The spatial distribution of these units showed varying correlations with the geologic, magnetic, and topographic variations within the detail area

  1. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge; Ebbesen, I.; Teilmann, J.

    2003-03-01

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  2. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  3. Adapting to Climate Change: Reconsidering the Role of Protected Areas and Protected Organisms in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumlich, L. J.; Cross, M. S.; Hilty, J.; Berger, J.

    2007-12-01

    With the recent publication of the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), little doubt remains among scientists that the global climate system is changing due to human influence and that climate change will have far-reaching and fundamental impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity. Arguably the best-documented evidence linking 20th Century warming trends to changes in physical and biological systems comes from the mountains of western North America (e.g., Figure SPM1 in Summary of Working Group 11 Report). In the West, ecosystem impacts include changes in the distribution of species as well as changing functional linkages between species such as the synchrony between flower emergence and pollinating insects. These climate impacts, when combined with other environmental stressors (e.g., altered disturbance regimes, land-use change and habitat fragmentation) portend an amplification of species extinction rates. One of the great challenges in adapting to climate change is developing and implementing policies that enhance ecological resilience in the face of these change. Clearly, the current system of nature reserves in Western North America is a fundamental asset for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the fixed- boundary nature of these protected areas presents a problem as species' ranges shift with future climate change. The loss of species whose ranges move outside of fixed park boundaries and the arrival of other species that move into protected areas could lead to significant turnover of species diversity, new species assemblages, and altered functionality. In short, reserves that were designed to protect particular species or communities may no longer serve their intended purpose under a changing climate. In this talk, we use case studies from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and the Sonoran Desert Ecosystem to define strategies for enhancing ecological resilience to climate change at

  4. Inventory of uranium prospect area Rantau Prapat North Sumatra: general prospection stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wusana, Y.; Djalil, A.; Sriyono; Sutriyono, A.; Sajiyo

    2000-01-01

    The research has been carried out to gain knowledge of geology, radiometry, geochemistry to bound U prospect area scale 1:50.000. Based on investigation result of preliminary prospection was obtained indication of uranium mineralization as stream sediment anomalies in meta sandstone (Perm-Carboniferous) 0.86-28.00 ppm, sandstone (Middle-Upper Miosen) 1.192-7.20 ppm, granite (Upper Permian) 10.71-12.00 ppm; The total U content in sandstone until 10.29 ppm, granite 33.24 ppm, and radiometry of stand stone 25-150 cps, granite 200-500 cps. Lithology of the prospect area consist of quartzite, phyllitte, sandstone, siltstone, clay stone, conglomerate, granite, quartz feldspatic veins, andesite, tufaceous. Strike slip fault, normal fault, foliation and folding has been obtained in these area. Uranium anomalies of stream sediments were found in Conglomerate-Stand stone (1.04-4.80) ppm, Quartzite-Phyllite (0.91-1.90) ppm and Granite units (9.81-13.20) ppm. Uranium content of Conglomerate-stand stone (2.5-5) ppm, quartzite-phyllite (3.0-46.0) ppm, tuffaceous (9.0-22.0) ppm and granite (biotite muscovite) (23.5-40.0) ppm. Granite in these area is as uranium source. Based on anomaly of stream sediments on Conglomerate-Stand stone unit only about 7.64 km 2 , Quartzite-Phyllite 12.04 km 2 , Granite 10.20 km 2 and no supported by heavy mineral anomalies, radiometry and U rock content, so it was advised to not investigate follow up. (author)

  5. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  6. Final Record of Decision for the South Post Impact Area and Area of Contamination 41 Groundwater and Areas of Contamination 25, 26, and 27

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... This Record of Decision (ROD) addresses AOCs 25 (the Explosives Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Range), 26 (Zulu Ranges), and 27 (Hotel Range) and a subset of the groundwater within the South Post Impact Area...

  7. Regional Evaluation of ERA-40 Reanalysis Data with Marine Atmospheric Observations in the North Sea Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils H. Schade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important task of the departmental research programme KLIWAS is the evaluation and assessment of climate model results by means of a comprehensive reference data set. For validation purposes, and to create a North Sea wide maritime atmospheric and oceanographic reference database, in-situ observations of the Centre for Global Marine Meteorological Observations (GZS of the National Meteorological Service DWD have been compared to the ERA-40 reanalysis. ERA-40 is used as forcing for the hindcast runs of the ENSEMBLES regional climate models, which is used within the KLIWAS model chain. The GZS hosts a regularly updated, quality controlled, world-wide data bank of weather observations from the oceans. It includes data from all sorts of observation platforms as Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS, drifting and moored buoys, light vessels, and offshore platforms, either from real-time (RT via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS or from international exchange in delayed-mode (DM. In addition to the automated set of programs applied for high quality control, erroneous data are also manually corrected to a certain extent, if possible. To assure reliable statistics for the evaluation, the corrected observations are gridded to a resolution of 2.25 degree, so each grid box includes four ERA-40 reanalysis grid points. The temporal coverage of the grid boxes depends on shipping routes and the positions of automated systems. Observed air temperatures, covering a period of 40 years (1961?2000, show noticeable differences to the reanalysis data for all land influenced boxes, specifically in the winter months. The same differences can be found if ERA-40 data alone are compared between land- and sea facing boxes. They can not be found in GZS data. It can be assumed that the differences are not resulting from measurement errors or uncertain fraction variabilities, since they are small during the winter months. A comparison of the differences basing on the 1981

  8. Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.

  9. Air quality monitoring Edson and Hinton area September 1999 to June 2000 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Edson and Hinton areas of Alberta were the subject of a mobile, ambient air quality monitoring survey. The monitoring involved four surveys of a week each, over four seasons, for one year. This area had been selected for monitoring to meet three major objectives: the determination of concentrations of air pollutants representative of the monitored locations in the survey area, to establish a comparison of air pollutant levels to data from other locations in the province of Alberta, and to provide a comparison of air pollutant levels to Alberta's air quality guidelines. These surveys formed an integral part of the air quality monitoring program of Alberta Environment. Using the Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML), personnel from Alberta Environment appear on location unannounced. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, particulates, hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, total reduced sulphur and ammonia are the substances measured and monitored. Eighteen sites in the Edson and Hinton area were selected, as well as downwind of industrial facilities in the Edson area, and air quality was monitored using the mobile lab for twenty days. To allow comparison to the air quality guidelines, monitoring was conducted for a minimum of one hour at each location. As a result, approximately 152 hours of air quality monitoring information was obtained, providing data in the vicinity of both populated and industrial areas. The periods comprised September 13-16, 1999 (Fall), February 7-9, 2000 (Winter), April 18-19, 25-27, 2000 (Spring), and June 4-5, 13-16, 2000 (Summer). The results were provided in this report. Most results were below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Guidelines. refs., 16 tabs., 18 figs

  10. 300 Area dangerous waste tank management system: Compliance plan approach. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In its Dec. 5, 1989 letter to DOE-Richland (DOE-RL) Operations, the Washington State Dept. of Ecology requested that DOE-RL prepare ''a plant evaluating alternatives for storage and/or treatment of hazardous waste in the 300 Area...''. This document, prepared in response to that letter, presents the proposed approach to compliance of the 300 Area with the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Washington State's Chapter 173-303 WAC, Dangerous Waste Regulations. It also contains 10 appendices which were developed as bases for preparing the compliance plan approach. It refers to the Radioactive Liquid Waste System facilities and to the radioactive mixed waste

  11. Mineralogical investigations of the area to the North-West of Qattara Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosson, S.; Roshdy, H.M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrophysical and mineralogical investigations are given for subsurface samples from this area. The paper deals with mineralogical investigations of Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. It includes thin section examinations for 14 samples of sandstone, siltstone and carbonates, and x-ray powder diffraction analyses of some argillaceous samples, untreated and glycolated. It was found that the kaolinite group is the main clay mineral recorded in the argillaceous sandstone and siltstone samples. Illite and montmorillonite are identified in the shale sample representing the Kharita Formation. Siderite was also recorded in the sample. Illite and montmorillonite were recorded as well as kaolinite in two siltstone samples. (Author)

  12. Ecologically least vulnerable sites for exploration drilling in the Wadden Sea and the North Sea coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Bergman, M.J.N.; De Gee, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch Oil Company (NAM, abbreviated in Dutch) applied for a number of exploration drilling in the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea and the North Sea coastal area. NAM is obliged to draft a so-called MER (environmental impact report) to indicate the most environment-friendly alternative for the test drilling. By order of NAM, NIOZ and the IBN-DLO (Institute for Research on Forests and Nature) analyzed samples of the animal life in all the potential sites. Based on the results of the analyses, literature and expert knowledge the ecologically least vulnerable sites and the ecologically least vulnerable season were selected during a workshop. In this report the results are given of the workshop, the field sample analyses and a sailing trip along the sites

  13. Job Satisfaction and Work Performance of Public Secondary School Teachers In Akoko North West Local Government Area Of Ondo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroge Stephen Talabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between job satisfaction and work performance of secondary school teachers in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The study population consisted of all secondary school teachers, while two hundred of them were randomly selected for the study. Regular payment of salary, opportunities for promotion, rapport with school authority, in-service training, job security, career prospect and retirement benefits were the variables considered. The questionnaire titled “Workers Opinion Survey Inventory (WOSI” and the Productivity Rating Scale (PRS which was in line with Annual Performance Evaluation Report (APPER was used to obtain information for the study. The data was analyzed using Pearson Product Correlation Moment.  One of the recommendations made include the onward review of policies, remuneration and work conditions of teachers in the public secondary schools in Nigeria for optimum productivity.

  14. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    stations located in the North Adriatic coastal areas from 1989 to 2011. These data, together with the sea-level rise scenarios for the considered future timeframe, represent the input for the application of the Joint Probability method (Pugh and Vassie, 1979), which allows the evaluation of the maximum height of extreme storm surge events with different return period and the number of extreme events per year. The methodology uses Geographic Information Systems to manage, process, analyse, and visualize data and employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis to integrate stakeholders preferences and experts judgments into the analysis in order to obtain a total risk index in the considered region. The final outputs are represented by GIS-based risk maps which allow the communication of the potential consequences of extreme storm surge to decision makers and stakeholders. Moreover, they can support the establishment of relative priorities for intervention through the identification of suitable areas for human settlements, infrastructures and economic activities. Finally the produced output can represent a basis for definition of storm surge hazard and storm surge risk management plans according to the Floods Directive. The preliminary results of the RRA application in the CLIMDAT project will be here presented and discussed.

  15. Draft area recommendation report for the Crystalline Repository Project: Comments: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Mille Lacs Band conducted a review of the draft area recommendation report (ARR) and provided comments as outlined in the contract. It also had staff attending the necessary training and informational meeting established by the Department of Energy. This had met all the necessary objectives as outlined in the contract

  16. Cook Inlet Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 149: Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) discusses a proposed oil and gas lease sale in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, analyzes its potential effects on the environment, describes alternatives, presents major issues determined through the scoping process and staff analyses, and evaluates potential mitigating measures. Descriptions of the (1) leasing and scoping process are given in Section 1, (2) alternatives and mitigating measures in Section 2, and (3) description of the environment in Section 3. The potential effects of the lease sale are analyzed in Section 4. Alternative 1, the proposed action, is based on offering for lease 402 blocks (approximately 0.8 million hectares--1.98 million acres) in lower Cook Inlet that range from about 5 to 50 kilometers (3 to 25 mi) offshore. Alterative 2 (No Lease Sale) would cancel the proposed lease sale tentatively scheduled for April 1996. Alternative 2 (Delay the Sale) would delay the proposed sale for 2 years. Alternatives 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 would defer from leasing areas adjacent to the lower Cook Inlet and northwestern Shelikof Strait: the size of areas deferred ranges from about 5 to 45% of the area proposed for Alternative 1. After a thorough review, the Secretary of the Interior will decide which alternative or combination of alternatives will be included in the Notice of Sale

  17. Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Brent, J.J.

    1991-11-01

    More than 30 years of intensive and continual tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage at the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany. The Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, followed by a three-year monitoring effort, was conducted to develop and evaluate the environmental and economic effectiveness of seven revegetation and four erosion control prescriptions implemented at a 16-ha site. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and the changes in the vegetative community during three years of military use on the seven areas treated with revegetation prescriptions. Field observations were made to determine the suitability and durability of four types of erosion control structures. Soil fertility and a source of seed appeared to be the most limiting factors in establishing vegetation, while seedbed preparation had only a minor influence. Grasses appeared to be more resistant to vehicle traffic than did other types of vegetation. Because grassed waterways were used as roads by military vehicles and a system of graded terraces was expensive, these erosion control prescriptions were unsuitable and uneconomical for use on training areas. Low-cost riprap waterbars and porous check dams slowed the velocity of runoff, trapped sediments, and were durable. Recommendations were formulated to improve the environmental and economic effectiveness of future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas

  18. Identifying core habitat and connectivity for focal species in the interior cedar-hemlock forest of North America to complete a conservation area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance Craighead; Baden Cross

    2007-01-01

    To identify the remaining areas of the Interior Cedar- Hemlock Forest of North America and prioritize them for conservation planning, the Craighead Environmental Research Institute has developed a 2-scale method for mapping critical habitat utilizing 1) a broad-scale model to identify important regional locations as the basis for a Conservation Area Design (CAD), and 2...

  19. A New Insight into Shale-Gas Accumulation Conditions and Favorable Areas of the Xinkailing Formation in the Wuning Area, North-West Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangru Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In north-west Jiangxi, China, most shale-gas exploration has been focused on the Lower Cambrian Hetang and Guanyintang formations, whereas the Upper Ordovician Xinkailing formation shale has been ignored for years due to heavy weathering. This study systematically analyzed gas source conditions, reservoir conditions and gas-bearing ability in order to reveal the shale-gas accumulation conditions of the Xinkailing formation. The results show that the Xinkailing formation is characterized by thick deposition of black shale (10–80 m, high organic content (with total organic carbon between 1.18% and 3.11%, on average greater than 2%, relatively moderate thermal evolution (with vitrinite reflectance between 2.83% and 3.21%, high brittle-mineral content (greater than 40%, abundant nanopores and micro-fractures, very good adsorption ability (adsorption content between 2.12 m3/t and 3.47 m3/t, on average about 2.50 m3/t, and strong sealing ability in the underlying and overlying layers, all of which favor the generation and accumulation of shale gas. The Wuning-Lixi and Jinkou-Zhelin areas of the Xinkailing formation were selected as the most realistic and favorable targets for shale-gas exploration and exploitation. In conclusion, the Wuning area has great potential and can provide a breakthrough in shale gas with further investigation.

  20. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels of groundwater in Ife north local government area of Osun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolanle Saheed Adekunle

    Full Text Available This study determined the presence and levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs of groundwater in Moro, Edun-Abon, Yakoyo and Ipetumodu communities in Ife-North Local Government Area of Osun State. This was with a view to create public awareness about the safety of groundwater as a source for domestic purposes (e.g., drinking, cooking etc. in non-industrial area. Water samples were collected on seasonal basis, comprising of three months (August–October in the wet season and three months (December–February in the dry season. The PAHs in the water samples were extracted with n-hexane using liquid–liquid extraction method, while their qualitative identifications and quantitative estimations were carried out with the use of gas chromatography. Levels of PAHs detected showed predominance of light PAHs (less than four fused rings for both wet and the dry seasons. Higher concentrations of PAHs were recorded during the wet season than the dry season. The study concluded that the groundwater in the communities was contaminated with light PAHs and the total PAHs in this area exceeded the maximum permissible limit of 10 μg L−1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO for safety of groundwater. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Groundwater, Water quality, Seasonal variation, Health impact

  1. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  2. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  3. Ecological status of soils in petroleum mining regions of North-Eastern area of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhegaliev, A.K.; Asanbaev, I.K.; Auehzova, O.N.; Akasova, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of environment (air, water, soil) in populated area adjoining to the Kulsaryneft' deposit is carried out. Purposes of observations are warning and liquidation of petroleum leakages and emission of polluted substances in the case of maximum permissible concentration exceeding. Effectiveness of microbiological methods for liquidation of soils petroleum pollution is emphasized. Active carbon-hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms for 14 deposits are separated, petroleum in these deposits has distinguished by its content. Researched cultures have tendency to gradual growth of petroleum utilization rate during from 1 up to 7 days. Qualitative changes of petroleum under action of these micro-organisms are determined by method of infrared spectroscopy. There are most typically figures: increase of oxygen containing structures of both the acid and the ether types, and sharp decrease of long-chain paraffins

  4. Identifying Areas Suitable for the Occurrence of Rift Valley Fever in North Africa: Implications for Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsevska, E; Hellal, J; Mejri, S; Hammami, S; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2016-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has caused widespread outbreaks throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with serious consequences for livestock-based economies and public health. Although there have never been any reports of RVF in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, it is a priority disease in the Maghreb, due to the threat of introduction of the virus through transboundary livestock movements or infected mosquito vectors. However, the implementation of surveillance activities and early warning contingency plans requires better knowledge of the epidemiological situation. We conducted a multicriteria decision analysis, integrating host distribution with a combination of important ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance, to identify hotspots and suitable time periods for RVF enzootic circulation (i.e. stable transmission at a low to moderate level for an extended period of time) and an RVF epizootic event (i.e. a sudden occurrence of a large number of infected animals over a large geographic area) in the Maghreb. We also modelled vector species distribution using available information on vector presence and habitat preference. We found that the northern regions of the Maghreb were moderately suitable for RVF enzootics, but highly suitable for RVF epizootics. The vector species distribution model identified these regions as the most favourable mosquito habitats. Due to the low density of animal hosts and arid conditions, the desert region showed low RVF suitability, except in oases. However, the presence of competent vectors in putative unsuitable areas underlines the need for further assessments of mosquito habitat preference. This study produced monthly RVF suitability maps useful for animal health managers and veterinary services involved in designing risk-based surveillance programmes. The suitability maps can be further enhanced using existing country-specific sources of information and by incorporating knowledge

  5. Assessing dengue outbreak areas using vector surveillance in north east district, Penang Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohiddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the efficacy of ovitrap surveillance and its implementation on monitoring reflection upon case occurrence in relation to climate variables. Methods: We used routinely setup ovitrap surveillance to monitor the mosquito populations in previous outbreak areas. Ovitraps were installed weekly at three localities that experienced high number of dengue cases (Flat Hamna, Kampung Sungai Gelugor and Kampung Tanjung Tokong from January 2010 to February 2011. Ovitraps and paddles were brought back to the laboratory and all of the water contents were poured into an enamel pan. Aged tap water was added into the enamel pan and eggs were allowed to hatch. The hatching larvae were counted after 3 days. The hatched larvae were identified at the 3rd instar larval stage. The ovitrap indices and mean number of larvae were analyzed using student t-test and One-way ANOVA. Spearmen’s rank correlation coefficient was used to determine the relation between meteorology variables and dengue fever cases. Results: Aedes albopictus was found as dominant species followed by Aedes aegypti recorded in all three study areas. Aedes aegypti preferred to breed outdoor with larvae collection, which was higher than indoor (72.37%. There was a positive correlation between the ovitrap index with the rainfall and humidity except in Kampung Tanjung Tokong. Our result also showed negative correlation between temperature and ovitrap index in all localities. Conclusions: This study provides useful data to be adapted in dengue vector management. It is very important to understand the fluctuation of vector population according to the seasonal activity, which can help us to improve our control programs. However, other factors might also contribute to the increment of dengue outbreak such as the number of available breeding sites, behavior of the vector against environmental factors and the cleanliness of the environment.

  6. Norfolk and southern eastville 10 x 20 NTMS areas Virginia and North Carolina. Data report (abbreviated)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground water and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Norfolk 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle and the southern one-half of the Eastville 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 840 sites. Ground water samples were collected at 1008 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground water sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.); and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include: (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity); and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included. Uranium concentrations in the sediments that were above detection limits ranged from 0.60 to 40.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.61. A large area of high uranium concentrations occurs in the southwestern part of the Norfolk quadrangle. High concentrations of thorium and hafnium in the same area indicate that the uranium is associated with the resistate minerals monazite and zircon

  7. Geology, Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioactivity Studies on The Dyke Swarms of Gabal Al Aglab area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldabe, M.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal Al Aglab area is located in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt bounded by lat. 27° 14'-27° 19' N and long. 33° 00'-33° 05' E. It is covered by pan African basement rocks. The present study concern with the geology, petrography, geochemistry and radioactivity of various types of the dyke swarms in Gabal Al Aglab area. The field studies revealed that the area comprises the following litho-tectonic units ; Dokhan volcanic (oldest) and Hamammat sedimentary rocks and younger granites are represented by both Gabal Um Twier and Gabal Al Aglab syenogranites (youngest). Many dykes of acidic, intermediate and basic composition have a large extension and dissect all the mentioned rock units. The dyke swarms intruding Gabal Al Aglab area include the acidic (felsite and granite porphyry) dykes, while the intermediate comprise andesite and andesite porphyry and the basic dykes show basalt and dolerites. The chronologic relations of these dykes indicate the following sequence of emplacement beginning with the oldest acidic, followed by intermediate and then basic ones. The geochemical studies indicate that the acidic dykes were derived from a highly differentiated calc- alkaline magma, while the basic and intermediate dykes were developed from magma of subalkaline nature. The dykes were derived from separate magmas and not by magmatic differentiation of single mother magma. The radioactivity of the studied dyke rocks revealed that the high levels of radioactivity mainly linked to the acidity, differentiation and alkalinity characters. Radioactive granitic spot was observed along the contact with some basic dykes due to their thermal effect during its emplacement on the granite, at the northern part of the studied area. This radioactive spot display anomalies with higher values in U and Th contents, than the normal background value of the younger granite.

  8. Final report on evaluation of cyclocraft support of oil and gas operations in wetland areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.; Stevens, P.M.; John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Lindstedt, D.M.

    1994-10-01

    The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft, capable of VTOL, lifting heavy and bulky loads, highly controllable, having high safety characteristics and low operating costs. Mission Research Corporation (MRC), under Department of Energy sponsorship, is evaluating the potential use of cyclocraft in the transport of drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment, in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner, to support oil and gas drilling, production, and transportation operations in wetland areas. Based upon the results of an earlier parametric study, a cyclocraft design, having a payload capacity of 45 tons and designated H.1 Cyclocraft, was selected for further study, including the preparation of a preliminary design and a development plan, and the determination of operating costs. This report contains all of the results derived from the program to evaluate the use of cyclocraft in the support of oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas.

  9. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L.; Ross, W.; Nakaoka, R.; Schumacher, R.; Cunnane, J.; Singh, D.; Darnell, R.; Greenhalgh, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available

  10. Test Area C-74 Complex Final Range Environmental Assessment at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    Generally, in riparian areas the fire burns back the aboveground biomass leaving the root systems of riparian woody species such as titi and...such as dense deposits of shell , or clusters of artifacts) are encountered on the ground in the course of any mission activity, Management Practices...addition to chopping plant biomass , this practice created extensive ground disturbance that degraded plant ground cover and exposed soils. Appendix A TA

  11. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  12. Final Remedial Investigation Report Area of Contamination (AOC) 57. Volume III. Appendices E through Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from parking lot runoff. Although some residual TPHC and PAH concentrations remained in Area 1 soils after the removal...formulations and has industrial uses in tanneries, as well as the glass and wine making industries. Toxicity depends on its chemical form. Arsenic is an...nature and is an essential element. Copper deficiency is characterized by anemia and is used for medicinal purposes as an emetic and an astringent . Acute

  13. Final technology report for D-Area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test, environmental restoration support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radway, J.C.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    One method proposed for the cleanup of the D-Area Oil Seepage Basin was in situ bioremediation (bioventing), involving the introduction of air and gaseous nutrients to stimulate contaminant degradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. To test the feasibility of this approach, a bioventing system was installed at the site for use in optimization testing by the Environmental Biotechnology Section of the Savannah River Technology Center. During the interim action, two horizontal wells for a bioventing remediation system were installed eight feet below average basin grade. Nine piezometers were also installed. In September of 1996, a generator, regenerative blower, gas cylinder station, and associated piping and nutrient injection equipment were installed at the site and testing was begun. After baseline characterization of microbial activity and contaminant degradation at the site was completed, four injection campaigns were carried out. These consisted of (1) air alone, (2) air plus triethylphosphate (TEP), (3) air plus nitrous oxide, and (4) air plus methane. This report describes results of these tests, together with conclusions and recommendations for further remediation of the site. Natural biodegradation rates are high. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and methane levels in soil gas indicate substantial levels of baseline microbial activity. Oxygen is used by indigenous microbes for biodegradation of organics via respiration and hence is depleted in the soil gas and water from areas with high contamination. Carbon dioxide is elevated in contaminated areas. High concentrations of methane, which is produced by microbes via fermentation once the oxygen has been depleted, are found at the most contaminated areas of this site. Groundwater measurements also indicated that substantial levels of natural contaminant biodegradation occurred prior to air injection

  14. Area program in population genetics. Final report, November 1, 1975-August 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, E.H.Y.; Gershowitz, H.; Meisler, M.H.; Mohrenweiser, H.W.; Neel, J.V.; Rothman, E.D.; Sing, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Research results are summarized for the following task areas: (1) Amerindian mutation rates; (2) pilot study of monitoring populations for the frequency of mutation; (3) interdigitation with the biochemical genetics study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (Hiroshima, Japan); (4) intraindividual variation in erythrocyte blood group antigens as indicators of somatic mutation; (5) in vitro studies of somatic cell mutation rates; (6) development of approaches to the study of mutation rates; and (7) statistical problems associated with the study of mutation and selection

  15. Geochemical studies of the geothermal area East of the Jombo Hill intrusion Coast Province. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tole, M.P.

    1985-09-01

    Geothermal resources in Kenya can be classified into two types; (i) High temperature geothermal resources, found within the Kenyan section of Rift Valley System, and (ii) Low temperature geothermal resources found outside the main Rift Valley System (figure 1). The high temperature geothermal resources have received first priority in research and development, and this has culminated in their exploitation at the Olkaria Geothermal Field which currently generates 45 MW of electricity, representing approximately 18% of Kenya's electricity requirements. Further research is directed at opening up electricity generating plants within the Rift Valley Geothermal Systems occuring between Lake Bogoria and Lake Magadi. The low temperature geothermal resources have received less attention in Kenya. In some countries, low temperature geothermal resources have been utilised for a number of domestic and commercial undertakings (table 1), among them (a) space heating (b) recreational baths (c) sugar refining. In china, low temperature (less than 90 o C) geothermal reservoirs have been used to provide energy for electrical generating plants (Reed and Bliss, 1983). An examination of the distribution of the low temperature geothermal sites in Kenya (figure 1) indicates that most of them could be easily utilised for one or more of the domestic and commercial activities mentioned above, by virtue of their location. In order that recommendations regarding the type of use that each of these hotsprings can be put to can be made, proper evaluation of each site must be made: in particular the underground hotwater temperatures as well as the extent of the geothermal field at each site must be evaluated. Geochemical studies provide the cheapest (most cost-effective) method of geothermal energy exploration. The purpose of this project was to determine the extent of the hot zone, as well as the underground reservoir temperatures in the geothermal field North East of the Jomo Hill intrusion

  16. An epidemiological study of overweight and obesity among women in an Urban area of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Girdhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a complex, multi-factorial chronic disease. Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk for global deaths. Objectives: To find the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in women aged 20-60 years in Ludhiana city. Methods: The present study is a community based cross sectional study carried out in an urban area of Ludhiana among women aged 20-60 years. Among the study population of 324 women, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to record the socio-demographic and anthropometric profile of women. Chi square test and logistic regression was used to find the association of obesity and hypertension with socio-demographic variables. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.7% and 29.6% respectively. Obesity was found to be more common among middle-aged Punjabi housewives belonging to upper socio-economic strata. There was strong association between overweight/obesity and hypertension.

  17. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    , satellite-derived leaf area index and landscape cover. Ion exchange resin throughfall collectors and atmospheric simulation models have provided complementary data critical to better understanding of ecosystem responses to Nr in western North America. Such deposition data and maps have been used to set N deposition critical loads (CL) and to map areas of exceedance for a variety of ecosystem and biological effects. Empirical CL and exceedance areas have been established for many Western ecosystems including forest, desert, shrub, grassland, subalpine and aquatic habitats, thus providing an important management tool for protection of key ecosystems and the services they provide. An important finding is that biodiversity and community responses of sensitive elements of several Western aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems respond to relatively low levels of atmospheric N deposition (e.g., 3-6 kg N/ha/yr).

  18. A study of the usage of LPAs by the North Carolina Division of Motor Vehicles: final report - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    This final report was prepared to assist NCDMV in meeting the requirements of S.B. 402, Sec. 34.17, which mandates that NCDOT in collaboration with NCDMV shall evaluate current contractual models and compensation for license plate agency (LPA) ...

  19. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The end of the Cold War and the decision to reduce the size of the nuclear weapons production complex have created a need for DOE to deactivate, decontaminate, and decommission (D ampersand D) a large number of aging, surplus facilities. The nature and magnitude of the facility D ampersand D problems require EM to facilitate the development and application of technologies that will address these problems quickly and cost-effectively. The needed technologies can best be provided by integrating the strengths of DOE's national laboratories with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. To help focus and direct these activities toward achieving DOE's goals, the EM Office of Technology Development (OTD) devised the strategic concept of an Integrated Demonstration (ID), which involves selecting, demonstrating, testing, and evaluating an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific EM problems, such as those posed by D ampersand D. The ID approach allows optimal use of DOE's resources by avoiding duplication of effort and ensuring rapid demonstration of applicable technologies. Many technologies, including both the commercially mature and the innovative, are combined and evaluated for a cradle-to-grave solution to specific EM problems in areas such as D ampersand D. The process will involve transforming an existing problem condition to a desired end state, recycling waste materials generated, wherever feasible, and minimizing requirements for waste disposal. The D ampersand D ID Strategic Plan has been prepared by a Technical Support Group (TSG) assembled from various sites within the DOE Complex and intended to identify cross-cutting problem areas amenable to applications of the D ampersand D ID concept and to develop specific ID proposals for these problem areas

  20. Cook Inlet Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 149: Final environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This environmental impact statement discusses a proposed oil and gas lease sale in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, analyzes its potential effects on the environment, describes alternatives, presents major issues determined through the scoping process and staff analyses, and evaluates potential mitigating measures. During the Draft Environmental Impact Statement comment period, written statements and oral testimonies were provided by various governmental agencies, organizations, businesses, and individuals. This report contains a review and analysis of comments received on the above issues. Appendices are included which contain resource estimates and various issues relating to oil spills

  1. PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.E.; Donivan, S.

    1982-06-01

    The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility

  2. Final results of the Cuban program for children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Julio; García, Omar

    2016-01-01

    From 1990 till 2011, a free health care program for children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident was organized and implemented by the Cuban Government. A significant number of qualified personal in medicine and science collaborated with this program. The information gathered for more than 21 years and the conclusive results obtained in the program are presented here. During this time, 26 114 patients, 84 % children, mostly from Ukraine, Russia and Belarus were treated in the mentioned program. Other aspects of the Cuban medical assistance in Ukraine and the main results obtained in the radiological impact evaluation of the accident on the children treated in Cuba are also included. (author)

  3. Divorce in a rural north Indian area: evidence from Himachali villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M

    1996-09-01

    This study focuses on divorce patterns in 10 rural villages near Shimla town, the capital of Himachal Pradesh, India. Data were obtained from a survey conducted in 1988 among 338 ever married women. Most villagers are Hindus. Caste groups include Brahmins (13%), Rajputs (45%), and Sudras (42%). Indian divorce consists in a permanent separation without legal formalities or an informal process within the panchayat judicial system. Large national studies indicate low levels of divorce, while local anthropological studies indicate high levels in some areas. This study in 1988 indicates that over 17% of women (58 out of 338) in Himachal villages were divorced at least once. Evidence suggests that divorces by cohort were higher prior to 1960. About 30% of women who married during 1951-60, 13% of women who married during 1971-80, and 3% of women who married during 1981-88 were divorced at least once. The mean age of marriage for ever divorced women was much lower than for never divorced women. The mean age at divorce was also much lower than the mean age at marriage among never divorced women. The variables associated with divorce at the 0.05 level of significance were marriage age, level of female education, age difference of spouses, and level of education of spouse and caste. Women who married before the age of 13 years were three times more likely to divorce than women who married at ages 13-15 years. Women with at least 5 years of education were four times less likely to divorce than uneducated women. Brahmin women were less likely to divorce. Women with uneducated husbands had a 50% greater chance of being divorced than women with primary educated husbands. Women who were younger by 10 years than their spouse were six times more likely to divorce.

  4. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Frias, O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  5. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Idaho Project, Nemo Detail Area, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    During the month of August, 1979, EG and G geoMetrics collected 148 miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in western South Dakota. Data were collected on tranverse lines 1/4 mile apart and on two tie lines approximately 2 miles apart in one detail area within the Rapid City 1 0 x 2 0 sheet. All data were fully reduced and interpretated by geoMetrics and presented in two volumes. A relative dearth of geologic information seems to exist in this area. Paleozoic and Precambrian sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks appear to cover most of the region of study. Paleozoic rocks are primarily confined to the eastern side. A wide variety of Precambrian rocks are present as mapped. In addition to the standard data presentations and processing procedures, the data were examined for anomalous uranium valves and mappable geochemical subunits using the radiometric and magnetic data. Principal component analysis was performed on the radiometric data using standard deviation subunits defined by BFEC

  6. Final report for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Central Facilities Area Landfill 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doornbos, M.H.; Morgan, M.E.; Hubbell, J.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report summarize activities completed during FY-88 through FY-91 for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Central Facilities Area (CFA) Landfill 2. The objectives of this program are to demonstrate new technologies or innovative uses of existing technologies for the identification and remediation of hazardous wastes within a municipal-type landfill. The site was chosen as a candidate site because it represents a problem typical of both DOE and public landfills. The HAZWRAP Technology Demonstration Project began at the INEL CFA Landfill 2 in 1987. During characterization and identification activities, several organic ''hotspots'' or anomalies were identified. Proposals were then solicited from the private sector for innovative technologies to remediate the isolated areas. Remediation was planned to be implemented using horizontal wells installed underneath a portion of the landfill. These innovative technologies and the well installation were planned to support the current goals of the DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency to treat hazardous waste in place. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Final environmental assessment: TRU waste drum staging building, Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Much of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) research on plutonium metallurgy and plutonium processing is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL's main facility for plutonium research is the Plutonium Facility, also referred to as Technical Area 55 (TA-55). The main laboratory building for plutonium work within the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) is the Plutonium Facility Building 4, or PF-4. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if DOE were to stage sealed containers of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste in a support building at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) that is adjacent to PF-4. At present, the waste containers are staged in the basement of PF-4. The proposed project is to convert an existing support structure (Building 185), a prefabricated metal building on a concrete foundation, and operate it as a temporary staging facility for sealed containers of solid TRU and TRU mixed waste. The TRU and TRU mixed wastes would be contained in sealed 55-gallon drums and standard waste boxes as they await approval to be transported to TA-54. The containers would then be transported to a longer term TRU waste storage area at TA-54. The TRU wastes are generated from plutonium operations carried out in PF-4. The drum staging building would also be used to store and prepare for use new, empty TRU waste containers

  8. Establishing a Quantitative Functional Relationship between Capillary Pressure Saturation and Interfacial Area; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlo Montemagno

    2002-01-01

    We propose to continue our collaborative research focused on advanced technologies for subsurface contamination problems. Our approach combines new multi-phase flow theory, novel laboratory experiments, and non-traditional computational simulators to investigate practical approaches to include interfacial areas in descriptions of subsurface contaminant transport and remediation. Because all inter-phase mass transfer occurs at fluid-fluid interfaces, and it is this inter-phase mass transfer that leads to the difficult, long-term ground-water contamination problems, it is critical to include interfacial behavior in the problem description. This is currently lacking in all standard models of complex ground-water contamination problems. In our earlier project, we developed tools appropriate for inclusion of interfacial areas under equilibrium conditions. These include advanced laboratory techniques and targeted computational experiments that validated certain key theoretical conjecture s. However, it has become clear that to include interfacial behavior fully into a description of the multi-phase flow and contamination problems, the fully dynamic case must be considered. Therefore, we need to develop both experimental and computational tools that can capture the dynamic nature of interfacial movements. Development and application of such tools will allow the theory to be evaluated, and will lead to significant improvements in our understanding of complex subsurface contamination problems, thereby allowing us to develop and evaluate improved remediation technologies

  9. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  10. Final Environmental Assessment: Installation of Digital Airport Surveillance Radar at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Grand Forks AFB public web site. Notices of Availability were published in the Grand Forks Herald on 10 Mar 2011 and on the Grand Forks AFB web site from...Squadron (319th) FTA Fire Training Area GATR Ground-Air Transmit Receive GFAFB Grand Forks Air Force Base GHG Greenhouse Gas Hz Hertz IEEE Institute of...feet west of the closed/capped ERP Site FT-02, the Fire Training Area/Old Sanitary Landfill Area ( FTA /OSLA), which encompasses 28 acres, five of

  11. Ante natal care services utilization, delivery practices and factors affecting them in tribal area of North Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S Mumbare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Utilization of Ante natal care (ANC services is poor in the tribal areas, causing increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was carried out to find out ANC services utilization, delivery practices and factors affecting them in a tribal area of North Maharashtra in Nashik district. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in two tribal blocks of Nashik district. Cluster sampling technique was used. 210 mothers in the selected clusters, who had delivered within last 1 year, were interviewed. Information about the ANC services utilization and place of delivery was recorded. Relevant socio-demographic data were also collected. Results: Adequate ANC services utilization was found to be 64.76%. Home deliveries were 34.29% and home deliveries conducted by untrained persons were 15.24%. Conclusion: The utilization of ANC services and deliveries at health centers were significantly associated with education of the women and their spouses, and the socioeconomic status of the family. Main reasons for inadequate utilization of ANC services were financial, unawareness about ANC services, etc. Place of delivery was associated with the type of the family. Traditional practices were the most common reason for conducting the deliveries at home.

  12. Effect of climatic change and afforestation on water yield in the Rocky Mountain Area of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We studied effects of climatic variability and afforestation on water yield to make a quantitative assessment of the hydrological effects of afforestation on basin water yield in the Rocky Mountain Area of North China. Area of study: Seven typical forest sub-watersheds in Chaobai River watershed, located near Beijing’s Miyun Reservoir, were selected as our study object. Material and methods: Annual water yield model and Separate evaluation method were applied to quantify the respective contributions of changes in climate and different vegetation types on variations in runoff. Main results: Statistical analysis indicated precipitation did not vary significantly whereas the annual runoff decreased significantly in the past decades. Although forest increased significantly in the late 20th century, climatic variations have the strongest contribution to the reductions in runoff, with the average contribution reaching 63.24%, while the remainder caused by human activities. Afforestation has a more positive impact on the reduction in runoff, with a contribution of 65.5%, which was more than the grassland of 17.6% and the farmland of 16.9%. Research highlights: Compared to the impact of climatic change, we believe the large-scale afforestation may not be the main reason for the reductions in basin water yield.

  13. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Research on the surface water quality in mining influenced area in north-western part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smical Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the current situation of the quality of surface water in the areas influenced by mining activities in the north-western part of Romania. In this respect a series of investigations have been conducted regarding the contamination with heavy metals of the water of the Someş and Tisa hydro- graphic Basins, which cover the northern part of Maramures County and the south-western area of Maramures County, respectively. The results of the comparative research refer to the period between 1999 and 2011 and reveal the specific heavy metal ions of mining activity: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb Cd and Ni, as well as the water pH. The presented values as annual average values reveal an increase in several heavy metals after the closure of mines, which is due to the lack of effectiveness of the closure and of the conservation of the mine galleries, as well as of the impaired functioning of the mining wastewater treatment plants.

  15. Comparative distribution of the fan mussel Atrina fragilis (Bivalvia, Pinnidae in protected and trawled areas of the north Aegean Sea (Thermaikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. FRYGANIOTIS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the fan mussel Atrina fragilis was studied at two contrasting areas of the north Aegean Sea (Thermaikos Gulf: one routinely trawled and one closed to trawlers for over 25 years. Significant differences were detected between the two areas with decreased values in density and size of A. fragilis individuals at the trawled area. As habitat differences, i.e. sediment composition and bathymetry, had non-significant effect, extensive trawling activities probably explain the observed results.

  16. Effects of landscape change on fish assemblage structure in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, J.G.; Chang, M.; Tracy, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated a comprehensive set of natural and land-use attributes that represent the major facets of urban development at fish monitoring sites in the rapidly growing Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. We used principal component and correlation analysis to obtain a nonredundant subset of variables that extracted most variation in the complete set. With this subset of variables, we assessed the effect of urban growth on fish assemblage structure. We evaluated variation in fish assemblage structure with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). We used correlation analysis to identify the most important environmental and landscape variables associated with significant NMDS axes. The second NMDS axis is related to many indices of land-use/land-cover change and habitat. Significant correlations with proportion of largest forest patch to total patch size (r = -0.460, P < 0.01), diversity of patch types (r = 0.554, P < 0.001), and population density (r = 0.385, P < 0.05) helped identify NMDS axis 2 as a disturbance gradient. Positive and negative correlations between the abundance of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus and bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus, respectively, and NMDS axis 2 also were evident. The North Carolina index of biotic integrity and many of its component metrics were highly correlated with urbanization. These results indicate that aquatic ecosystem integrity would be optimized by a comprehensive integrated management strategy that includes the preservation of landscape function by maximizing the conservation of contiguous tracts of forested lands and vegetative cover in watersheds. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  17. Final characterization report for the non-process areas of the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encke, D.B.; Harris, R.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report addresses the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility characterization survey data collected from January 21, 1997 through February 3, 1997. The characterization activities evaluated the radiological status and identified the hazardous materials locations. The scope of this report is limited to the nonprocess areas in the facility, which include the special work permit (SWP) change room, toilet, equipment room, electrical cubicle, control room, and pipe gallery. A portion of the roof (excluding the roof over the process hood and viewing room) was also included. Information in this report will be used to identify waste streams, provide specific chemical and radiological data to aid in planning decontamination and demolition activities, and allow proper disposal of the demolition debris, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  18. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing -- Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  19. Radiological surveys of properties in the Middlesex, New Jersey area. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Cottrell, W.D.

    1981-03-01

    Results of the radiological surveys conducted at three properties in the Middlesex, New Jersey area as well as one additional location downstream from the Middlesex Sampling Plant (Willow Lake), are presented. The survey revealed that the yard around the church rectory on Harris Avenue is contaminated with a 226 Ra-bearing material, probably pitchblende ore from the former Middlesex Sampling Plant. The elevated 226 Ra concentrations around and, to a lesser extent, underneath the rectory are leading to elevated 222 Rn concentrations in air in the rectory and elevated alpha contamination levels (from radon daughters) on surfaces inside the rectory. External gamma radiation levels in the rectory yard are well above background levels, and beta-gamma dose rates at many points in the yard are above federal guidelines for the release of property for unrestricted use. The radiological survey of a parking lot at the Union Carbide plant in Bound Brook, New Jersey revealed that a nearly circular region of 50-ft diam in the lot showed above-background external gamma radiation levels. Two isolated spots within this region showed concentrations of uranium in soil above the licensable level stated in 10 CFR 40. Soil samples taken in the area of elevated gamma radiation levels generally showed nearly equal activities of 226 Ra and 238 U. The survey at the residences on William Street in Piscataway, revealed that the front yeard is generally contaminated from near the surface to a depth of 1.5 to 2.5 ft with 226 Ra-bearing material, possibly pitchblende ore. The remainder of the yard shows scattered contaminaion. External gamma radiation levels inside the house are above the background level near some outside walls

  20. Final construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V, Area 2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessom, W.H.

    1996-11-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) has finished construction of Area 2 of the Y-12 Plant Industrial Landfill (ILF-V), classified as a Class 2 Landfill. This final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Area 2 was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. This report applies specifically to the Area 2 excavation, compacted clay soil liner, geomembrane liner, granular leachate collection layer, protective soil cover, and the leachate collection system. An ''As-Built'' survey was performed and is included. The drawings provide horizontal and vertical information for Area 2, the anchor trench, the leachate collection pipe, the temporary access road, and cross-sections of Area 2. This report provides documentation of the following items: the excavation activities of Area 2; the maximum recompacted coefficient of hydraulic conductivity or permeability of the soil is less than 1 x 10 -7 centimeters per second (cm/sec); the total thickness of the compacted clay soil liner equals a minimum of 2 feet; a 40 mil impermeable geomembrane (polypropylene) flexible membrane liner (FML) and 16 oz. geotextile fabric was placed in direct contact with the compacted clay soil liner; a 12 inch granular leachate collection layer was installed and covered with a 8 oz. geotextile separation fabric; the installation of the leachate collection piping; and the two foot protective clay soil cover

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to that of the panchromatic image mosaic using the SPARKLE logic, which is described in Davis (2006). Each of the four-band images within the resolution-enhanced image mosaic was individually subjected to a local-area histogram stretch algorithm (described in Davis, 2007), which stretches each band's picture element based on the digital values of all picture elements within a 500-m radius. The final databases, which are provided in this DS, are three-band, color-composite images of the local-area-enhanced, natural-color data (the blue, green, and red wavelength bands) and color-infrared data (the green, red, and near-infrared wavelength bands). All image data were initially projected and maintained in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) map projection using the target area's local zone (42 for North Bamyan) and the WGS84 datum. The final image mosaics were subdivided into two overlapping tiles or quadrants because of the large size of the target area. The two image tiles (or quadrants) for the North Bamyan area are provided as embedded geotiff images, which can be read and used by most geographic information system (GIS) and image-processing software. The tiff world files (tfw) are provided, even though they are generally not needed for most software to read an embedded geotiff image.

  2. Zero plastics and the radiologically protected area low level waste lockout program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1995-11-01

    In 1993, EPRI initiated its Integrated LLW Cost and Volume Reduction Program. One key component of the project was the identification of unique or uncommon techniques and approaches to LLW management which could be transported with or without modification to other members of EPRI's Nuclear Power Business Group. Included among these unique approaches were: some nuclear stations had aggressively eliminated most of the plastic materials commonly used in radiologically protected areas (RPA), these included plastic bags, plastic sheeting and plastic sleeving; a few nuclear stations had completely eliminated from the RPA some of the disposable items routinely considered by most nuclear stations as absolutely essential, these included masking tape, duct tape and wood; a couple of leading edge plants were implementing RPA LLW lockout programs in an effort to control absolutely all materials entering or exiting the RPA and making the worker 100% responsible for managing her/his work environment. The above three approaches were so significant in their actual or potential impact that it was decided to initiate an independent research project to evaluate and demonstrate whether all three concepts could be implemented by a single nuclear station and with significant, positive results. This project reports on that research and demonstration project which was implemented at LaSalle and Zion nuclear stations, both of which are operated by Commonwealth Edison Company

  3. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program

  4. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program.

  5. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    pumping well of 1.96 ft and 1.14 ft, respectively. The transmissivity estimates for wells tested were within the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests in other wells near Test Area North.Groundwater samples were collected from both wells and were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Groundwater samples for most of the inorganic constituents showed similar water chemistry in both wells. Groundwater samples for strontium-90, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride exceeded maximum contaminant levels for public drinking water supplies in one or both wells.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the shallow groundwater quality in a typical irrigation area with reclaimed water, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yong; Yin, Shiyang; Pan, Xingyao; Niu, Yong; Shao, Jingli; Cui, Yali; Zhang, Qiulan; Hao, Qichen

    2017-09-22

    In this study, the hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater were analyzed to get insight into the factors affecting groundwater quality in a typical agricultural dominated area of the North China Plain. Forty-four shallow groundwater samples were collected for chemical analysis. The water type changes from Ca·Na-HCO 3 type in grass land to Ca·Na-Cl (+NO 3 ) type and Na (Ca)-Cl (+NO 3 +SO 4 ) type in construction and facility agricultural land, indicating the influence of human activities. The factor analysis and geostatistical analysis revealed that the two major factors contributing to the groundwater hydrochemical compositions were the water-rock interaction and contamination from sewage discharge and agricultural fertilizers. The major ions (F, HCO 3 ) and trace element (As) in the shallow groundwater represented the natural origin, while the nitrate and sulfate concentrations were related to the application of fertilizer and sewage discharge in the facility agricultural area, which was mainly affected by the human activities. The values of pH, total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, and conventional component (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Cl) in shallow groundwater increased from grass land and cultivated land, to construction land and to facility agriculture which were originated from the combination sources of natural processes (e.g., water-rock interaction) and human activities (e.g., domestic effluents). The study indicated that both natural processes and human activities had influences on the groundwater hydrochemical compositions in shallow groundwater, while anthropogenic processes had more contribution, especially in the reclaimed water irrigation area.

  7. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Jackson, J A; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy s (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that

  8. 76 FR 62821 - Notice of Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: North Fruita Desert Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ..., collect, or use live, dead, or down wood except in areas designated as open to such use by a BLM sign or... not designated as open to camping by a BLM sign or map. 12. You must not burn wood or other material...

  9. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings[direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building[direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building[direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements[indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over$11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of$0.084/kWh and$5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent. These

  10. Reassessment of Ground-Water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2002-01-01

    An estimate of ground-water availability in the Hawi area of north Kohala, Hawaii, is needed to determine whether ground-water resources are adequate to meet future demand within the area and other areas to the south. For the Hawi area, estimated average annual recharge from infiltration of rainfall, fog drip, and irrigation is 37.5 million gallons per day from a daily water budget. Low and high annual recharge estimates for the Hawi area that incorporate estimated uncertainty are 19.9 and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively. The recharge estimates from this study are lower than the recharge of 68.4 million gallons per day previously estimated from a monthly water budget. Three ground-water models, using the low, intermediate, and high recharge estimates (19.9, 37.5, and 55.4 million gallons per day, respectively), were developed for the Hawi area to simulate ground-water levels and discharges for the 1990?s. To assess potential ground-water availability, the numerical ground-water flow models were used to simulate the response of the freshwater-lens system to withdrawals at rates in excess of the average 1990?s withdrawal rates. Because of uncertainty in the recharge estimate, estimates of ground-water availability also are uncertain. Results from numerical simulations indicate that for appropriate well sites, depths, and withdrawal rates (1) for the low recharge estimate (19.9 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 10 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 160 feet near the withdrawal sites, (2) for the intermediate recharge estimate (37.5 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop an additional 15 million gallons per day of fresh ground water from the Hawi area and maintain a freshwater-lens thickness of 190 feet near the withdrawal sites, and (3) for the high recharge estimate (55.4 million gallons per day) it may be possible to develop at

  11. Impact assessment of recent climate change on rice yields in the Heilongjiang Reclamation Area of north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Dong, Guanpeng; Wu, Wenxiang

    2013-08-30

    Investigating the degree to which climate change may have impacted on rice yields can provide an insight into how to adapt to climate change in the future. Meteorological and rice yield data over the period 1960-2009 from the Heilongjiang Reclamation Area of north-east China (HRANC) were used to explore the possible impacts of climate change on rice yields at sub-regional scale. Results showed that a warming trend was obvious in the HRANC and discernible climate fluctuations and yield variations on inter-annual scale were detected to have occurred in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Statistically positive correlation was observed between growing season temperature and rice yields, with an increase rate by approximately 3.60% for each 1°C rise in the minimum temperature during growing season. Such findings are consistent with the current mainstream view that warming climate may exert positive impacts on crop yields in the middle and higher latitude regions. Our study indicated that the growing season minimum temperature was a major driver of all the climatic factors to the recent increase trends in rice yield in HRANC over the last five decades. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079540; Tellander, Felix; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the tertiary particle yield from secondary targets of different materials placed at the ‘filter’ position of the H2 beam line of SPS North Area are presented. The production is studied for secondary beams of different momenta in the range of 50-250 GeV/c. More specifically, we studied six different targets: two copper cylinders with a radius of 40 mm and lengths of 100 and 300 mm, one solid tungsten cylinder with a radius of 40 mm and a length of 150 mm and three polyethylene cylinders with radius of 40 mm and lengths of 550, 700 and 1000 mm. Eight different momenta of the secondary beam (50, 60, 70, 100, 120, 150, 200 and 250 GeV/c) as well as two different physics lists (QGSP_BIC and FTFP_BERT) have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is (a) to optimize (using the appropriate filter target) the particle production from the secondary targets as demanded by the experiments (b) investigate the proton production (with respect to the pion production) in the produced tertiary bea...

  13. Continental Environment of Triassic Alluvial Beds in the Northern North Sea Area: Core Examples from the Lunde Formation, Snorre Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystuen, Johan Petter; Bergan, Morten

    1999-07-01

    Alluvial processes transport and deposit gravel, sand and mud in a series of depositional systems such as alluvial fans, fluvial channels, floodplain and lacustrine basins. In the northernmost part of the North Sea alluvial sandstones form major reservoir rocks in several oil fields in the Tampen Spur area. In the Snorre Field, the Norian- Early Rhaetian Lunde Formation has given a great database from exploration and production wells, seismic studies, reservoir modelling, production experience and comparative analogue studies on facies distribution, alluvial architecture, heterogeneities and reservoir properties of alluvial successions. The Lunde Formation is subdivided in three members, the lower, middle and upper Lunde members, with the upper member being the main part of the Lunde reservoir rocks. The scope of presenting core samples from the upper Lunde member is to demonstrate main alluvial facies and facies associations, how facies analysis proceeds into construction of conceptual fluvial models that in turn are fundamental in evaluation of reservoir heterogeneities and reservoir modelling. The upper Lunde member consists of repeated units of red and grey sandstone and mudstone. Sandstones are dominantly medium-grained with common range from coarse- to very fine-grained. A basic building stone of the alluvial succession consists of a thick single- or multi-storey sandstone body overlain by a thick mudstone unit. Such couplets form allostratigraphic units and define the main reservoir zones.

  14. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.; Watson, S.; McDonald, P.; Copplestone, D.; Watts, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137 Cs and 241 Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h -1 , below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h -1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h -1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  15. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  16. Chemical constituents in the Peedee and Castle Hayne aquifers: Porters Neck area, New Hanover County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T.L.; Harris, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about overuse and potential contamination of major aquifers in the southeastern part of North Carolina resulted in the initiation of a subsurface water quality study in February 2001. The focus of this study was to examine variations in nutrients (NO3-, TRP, SO42- Cl-, NH4+) and total dissolved Fe in the Cretaceous Peedee and Tertiary Castle Hayne Limestone aquifers of northeastern New Hanover County. Water samples were collected monthly for one year from sixteen wells located in the Porters Neck area (west of the Intracoastal Waterway and south of Futch Creek) and four springs located on the south side of Futch Creek. Variations in selective nutrient concentrations were measured between and within each aquifer. Concentrations of NH4+ and Fe increased in the Peedee sandstone aquifer during the warmer summer and early fall months. In late summer to early fall, Fe, NO 3-, NH4+, and TRP concentrations in the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer were significantly higher than in the spring and winter months. Chloride and SO 42- concentrations for the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer both increased during the warmer months, probably as a result of saltwater intrusion. Factors considered for nutrient and Fe variance include: temperature variation, anaerobic conditions, subsurface stratigraphy/structure, recharge locations, site location and surface fertilization. The shallower Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer showed seasonal variability in the study area, whereas the Peedee sandstone aquifer showed little to no seasonal variability. Increases in NO3- and TRP lagged slightly behind periods of high fertilization and were more prevalent down-dip of a major golf course. Nutrient content and seasonal variation of Futch Creek springs indicated that they originate from the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer.

  17. An Examination of Important Competencies Necessary for Vocational Agriculture in Selected Senior Secondary Students in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onanuga, Peter Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses the relationship existing between some specified competencies important to vocational agriculture and preparation for occupation between male and female students in senior secondary schools in Ijebu-North Local Government Area, Nigeria. It adopted the classical design for change experiment (i.e. before and after measures) with…

  18. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  19. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on transportation in the border areas of the United States : with emphasis on the California-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This report identifies impacts of the North ?American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on transportation in the U.S. border areas. Emphasis is on the California-Baja California border zone. Focus is on the identification of recommendations to the Califor...

  20. The post collisional metamorphic evolution from Ultra High Temperature to Amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odesan area during the Triassic collision between the North and South China cratons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Kee Wook

    2015-04-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (OGC) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odesan collision belt in Korean Peninsula which is the extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China blocks. The OGC mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneiss with porphyritic granitoid and amphibolite. The banded gneiss can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. The highest metamorphic P/T conditions of the migmatitic and garnet-biotite banded gneiss were 760-820°C/6.3-7.2kbar and 810-840°C/7.2-7.8kbar respectively. On the other hand, the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss records 940-950°C/10.5-10.7kbar that is corresponded to UHT metamorphic condition. These data indicate that the peak UHT metamorphic condition of the study area was preserved only within the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss because its lower water content than other gneisses and UHT metamorphic mineral assemblage was completely replaced by the granulite facies metamorphism in other gneisses due to their higher water content than the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss. Finally all gneisses experienced amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism which is observed locally within rocks, such as garnet rim and surrounding area. The peak UHT metamorphism is estimated to occur at ca. 250-230 Ma using SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age dating and was caused by the heat supplied from asthenospheric mantle through the opening formed by slab break-off during early post collision stage. The calculated metamorphic conditions represent that geothermal gradient of the study area during the post collision stage was 86°C/kbar indicating the regional low-P/T metamorphic event. Besides the Triassic metamorphic age, two Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of ca. 1930 and 1886 Ma are also recognized by the SHRIMP age dating from the banded gneisses and Paleoproterozoic emplacement age of ca. 1847 Ma is identified from the porphyritic granitoid which formed in the within plate tectonic

  1. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

    2007-01-01

    Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic

  2. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: McIntosh National Topographic Map, North Dakota/South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the McIntosh National Topographic Map NL14-7 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  3. Life cycle of a geyser discharge apron: Evidence from Waikite Geyser, Whakarewarewa geothermal area, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Renaut, Robin W.; Owen, R. Bernhart

    2011-05-01

    Waikite, a geyser located in the Whakarewarewa geothermal area on the North Island, New Zealand, has a history of eruptive-dormancy cycles that have been attributed to natural and anthropogenic causes. The last cycle involved an active period from ~ 1932 to 1968/69 that was followed by a period of dormancy that continues today. Such cycles are important because they control the temporal development of the discharge apron. When the geyser is active, growth of the discharge apron is dictated by the precipitation of opal-A, which is controlled by factors such as discharge patterns, water chemistry, pH, temperature, rate of cooling, and the resident microbiota. With dormancy, conditions change radically because water no longer flows down the discharge apron. Instead, the discharge apron lapses into a phase of degradation that, on Waikite, is evident from (1) deflation of the apron surface, (2) blocks splaying off the apron margins along margin-parallel fractures, (3) tension fractures, (4) saucer-shaped collapse zones, (5) increasingly unstable surfaces resulting from subsurface opal-A dissolution, (6) fractures, from which steam and other gases emanate, and (7) incursion of native vegetation around the edge of the apron and on the distal parts of the discharge apron. When the geyser becomes active again, silica precipitation will resume and the discharge apron will once again accrete vertically and expand laterally. Analysis of the Waikite system shows that successions that develop on geyser discharge aprons are formed of unconformity-bounded packages of sinter that reflect the eruptive-dormancy history of the parent geyser.

  4. Microbial Communities and Organic Matter Composition in Surface and Subsurface Sediments of the Helgoland Mud Area, North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Oluwatobi E.; Schmidt, Frauke; Miyatake, Tetsuro; Kasten, Sabine; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    The role of microorganisms in the cycling of sedimentary organic carbon is a crucial one. To better understand relationships between molecular composition of a potentially bioavailable fraction of organic matter and microbial populations, bacterial and archaeal communities were characterized using pyrosequencing-based 16S rRNA gene analysis in surface (top 30 cm) and subsurface/deeper sediments (30–530 cm) of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea. Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize a potentially bioavailable organic matter fraction (hot-water extractable organic matter, WE-OM). Algal polymer-associated microbial populations such as members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were dominant in surface sediments while members of the Chloroflexi (Dehalococcoidales and candidate order GIF9) and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Groups (MCG), both of which are linked to degradation of more recalcitrant, aromatic compounds and detrital proteins, were dominant in subsurface sediments. Microbial populations dominant in subsurface sediments (Chloroflexi, members of MCG, and Thermoplasmata) showed strong correlations to total organic carbon (TOC) content. Changes of WE-OM with sediment depth reveal molecular transformations from oxygen-rich [high oxygen to carbon (O/C), low hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratios] aromatic compounds and highly unsaturated compounds toward compounds with lower O/C and higher H/C ratios. The observed molecular changes were most pronounced in organic compounds containing only CHO atoms. Our data thus, highlights classes of sedimentary organic compounds that may serve as microbial energy sources in methanic marine subsurface environments. PMID:26635758

  5. Carboxyhemoglobin levels of selected population segments in variously structured and polluted areas of North Rhine-Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscovanu, A.; Kraemer, U.B.; Baginski, B.; Dolgner, R.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)-content from about 13,000 inhabitants of various sites in western North Rhine-Westphalia are presented. Analyses were part of surveys on the effects of air pollution conducted between 1975 and 1980 in five designated, polluted areas. Determinations were executed in the Medical Institute for Environmental Hygiene, Duesseldorf, on behalf of the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Administration. Analysis of blood samples for CO-content was performed by gas chromatography. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were calculated by reference to the individual hemoglobin levels. These surveys have been conducted during several years and included different seasons. Before 1977, fifty years old men were investigated. Until 1978, sixty years old men were studied. In 1979 and 1980, sixty years old women and ten years old children were additionally incorporated into the survey. Statistical analysis of data included variables which influence personal CO-burden such as smoking, and in the case of non-smokers indoor air exposure through passive smoking, use of gas facilities and heating in the flat, as well as occupational exposure. Besides, the influence of age, sex and location was considered. The average COHb-level of the populations under study was expressed as the median of the distribution. The distribution-free Mann-Whitney U-test served for assessment of differences between groups. As a further parameter, the percentage of the measurements greater than 2,5% COHb was chosen, because it was thought to be more relevant to risk populations, i.e. people suffering from Angina pectoris. As expected, tobacco smoking exerted the greatest influence on COHb-level. In non-smokers a trend, indicating a relationship between indoor air pollution and COHb-content could be observed.

  6. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    completed in 2004 and 2005 addressed each of the specific objectives and this final report focuses on the biological information gathered in support of local conservation efforts. Participation in the development of the Bi-State Local Area Conservation Plan was accomplished on multiple scales. Beginning in the fall of 2002, USGS personnel began participating in meetings of local stakeholders involved in the development of a sage-grouse conservation plan for the Bi-State planning area. This included attendance at numerous local PMU group meetings and field trips as well as participating on the technical advisory committee (TAC) for the Bi-State group. Whenever appropriate, ongoing results and findings regarding sage-grouse ecology in the local area were incorporated into these working group meetings. In addition, the USGS partnered with CDFG to help reorganize one of the local PMU groups (South Mono) and edited that portion of the Bi-State plan. The USGS also worked closely with CDFG to draft a description of the state of knowledge for sage-grouse genetic information for inclusion in the Bi-State Conservation Plan. The first edition of the Bi-State Conservation Plan for Greater Sage-Grouse was completed in June 2004 (Bi-State Sage-grouse Conservation Team 2004). This report is organized primarily by PMU to facilitate the incorporation of these research findings into the individual PMU plans that compose the Bi-State plan. Information presented in this report was derived from over 7,000 radio-telemetry locations obtained on 145 individual sage-grouse during a three year period (2003-2005). In addition, we collected detailed vegetation measurements at over 590 habitat sampling plots within the study area including canopy cover, shrubs, forbs, and grasses diversity. Vegetation data collection focused on sage-grouse nests, and brood-use areas. Additionally we collected data at random sites to examine sage-grouse habitat relationships within the study area. The majori

  8. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7–13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city. PMID:27834903

  9. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-11-10

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7-13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city.

  10. EFH Conservation Areas off Washington, Oregon, and California for NMFS' Final Rule Implementing Amendment 19 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data depict Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) conservation areas off Washington, Oregon, and California. The coordinate locations are from NMFS' Final Rule to...

  11. Petrogenesis of the middle Jurassic appinite and coeval granitoids in the Eastern Hebei area of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenbo; Jiang, Neng; Xu, Xiyang; Hu, Jun; Zong, Keqing

    2017-05-01

    An integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopic compositions, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry was conducted on three lithologically diverse middle Jurassic plutons from the Eastern Hebei area of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to reveal both their petrogenesis and possible tectonic affinity. The three plutons have consistent magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 167 ± 1 Ma to 173 ± 1 Ma. The Nianziyu pluton has typical characteristics of appinite with low SiO2 (43.7-52.6%), high Ca, Mg, Fe and H2O contents. It possesses subduction-related trace element patterns, enriched Nd-Hf isotopic signatures as well as elevated zircon δ18O values (6.2-7.2‰), arguing for an enriched mantle source metasomatized by fluids related to subduction. The Shuihutong monzogranites have high silica (SiO2 = 75.4-75.9%) and alkali contents, low Ca contents and striking negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies. Samples from the pluton have more evolved Nd-Hf isotopic values and are considered to be most likely derived from anatexis of ancient lower continental crust. Hybridization between mantle- and ancient lower crust-derived magmas is proposed for the mafic microgranular enclave-bearing Baijiadian granitoids, which are characterized by variable εNd (t) and εHf(t) values. Integrated with the regional geologic history, we suggest that the formation of the three middle Jurassic plutons were related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate beneath the NCC. Their petrogenetic differences reflect complex magmatic processes in subduction settings involving melting of multiple sources, possible partly facilitated by fluid metasomatism and water-rich magma injection, accompanied with various degrees of magma mixing. The appearance of middle Jurassic appinitic rocks leads us to propose that the NCC destruction and lithosphere thinning were facilitated and controlled by the weakening of the lithospheric mantle after hydration because of the subduction of the

  12. The extent of anthelmintic Resistance on Nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goats in a Semi-Arid area of North-west Province (RSA) / Tebogo Stanely Ramotshwane

    OpenAIRE

    Ramotshwane, Tebogo Stanely

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goat herds in the Zeerust area of the North-West Province, Republic of South Africa. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECR%) tests were used to assess the sheep and goat small holder farmers. Efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and closantel was done on both the treatment and control animals. Anthelmintic efficacy of 80% was considered a threshold for ...

  13. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhifan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: chenzhf0604@163.com; Zhao Ye [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaoye@bnu.edu.cn; Qiao Jiejuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qing [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Cuihua [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the {sup 137}Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected {sup 137}Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  14. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhifan; Zhao Ye; Qiao Jiejuan; Zhang Qing; Zhu Yuen; Xu Cuihua

    2009-01-01

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the 137 Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected 137 Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  15. Implementation of vertical multistage centrifugal pump system for villages at an altitude of ± 1200m above sea level in Sipahutar - North Sumatera area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parde de, Marincan; Simangunsong, Riyanto; Hedwig, Rinda

    2017-12-01

    Clean water supply is rare in most villages at an altitude of ±1200m above the sea level in North Sumatera due to the topography of the village. The idea to help villagers fulfilling their basic needs in the situation makes this research important. Many experiments had been done previously, such as implementing drilled well but none was successful until we developed a vertical multistage centrifugal pump system. The natural water spring in the area targeted was found in 86 meters depth and would be distributed as far as 500m with area of 1.5km2 from the water tank. The main problem happened was the electric supplies which was always lower than it was expected in that area. Therefore, the successful of the system was happily accepted by the villagers and this research is highly expected to be developed and implemented to other villages, not only in Sipahutar area but also in all Tarutung area.

  16. Benthic organic matter supply and metabolism at dispositional and non-depositional areas in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, A.R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Kok, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, four stations in the southern North Sea, the German Bight and the Skagerrak were visited with the aim to get insight into spatial and temporal variation in the supply of fresh organic matter to the benthos and its subsequent metabolic reaction. Stations were chosen on the basis of

  17. Trends in Surface Water Chemistry in Acidified Areas in Europe and North America from 1990 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidification of lakes and rivers is still an environmental concern despite reduced emissions of acidifying compounds. We analyzed trends in surface water chemistry of 173 acid-sensitive sites from 12 regions in Europe and North America. In 11 of 12 regions, non-marine sulphate (...

  18. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value gas extraction activities. Major ions and trace metals additionally had lower concentrations in data gathered for this study than in the historical

  19. Gulf of Mexico Sales 139 and 141: Central and western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The report is Volume I of two volumes. The EIS is a description of the environmental aspects and impacts of oil and gas activities resulting from these lease sales or the States bordering the Gulf of Mexico. It provides a description of the areas, the affected environment, and the environmental consequences; it describes the proposed actions, issues and areas of concern, and the major differences of holding these lease sales

  20. Investigation of sediment movement in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river using natural radiotracers and INAA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunhui; Li Guiqun; Zhang Qixing, Sun Maoyi

    1996-01-01

    This is a preliminary investigation of sediment in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river, which has been made by determining the natural radioisotopes and the INAA of 30 natural sand samples. Multivariate statistical method was used to process and analyze the data obtained. It can be seen that there are tow sediment movement routes in the investigation area. The orientation of the main sediment movement is from northwest to southeast in accordance with the results obtained from the field submarine drag-monitorings after the radiotracer injection. Besides, there is also another sand movement route existed. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  2. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  3. Impact of aerosol particle sources on optical properties in urban, regional and remote areas in the north-western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealo, Marina; Alastuey, Andrés; Pérez, Noemí; Ripoll, Anna; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Further research is needed to reduce the existing uncertainties on the effect that specific aerosol particle sources have on light extinction and consequently on climate. This study presents a new approach that aims to quantify the mass scattering and absorption efficiencies (MSEs and MAEs) of different aerosol sources at urban (Barcelona - BCN), regional (Montseny - MSY) and remote (Montsec - MSA) background sites in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean. An analysis of source apportionment to the measured multi-wavelength light scattering (σsp) and absorption (σap) coefficients was performed by means of a multilinear regression (MLR) model for the periods 2009-2014, 2010-2014 and 2011-2014 at BCN, MSY and MSA respectively. The source contributions to PM10 mass concentration, identified by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, were used as dependent variables in the MLR model. With this approach we addressed both the effect that aerosol sources have on air quality and their potential effect on light extinction through the determination of their MSEs and MAEs. An advantage of the presented approach is that the calculated MSEs and MAEs take into account the internal mixing of atmospheric particles. Seven aerosol sources were identified at MSA and MSY, and eight sources at BCN. Mineral, aged marine, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate and V-Ni bearing sources were common at the three sites. Traffic, industrial/metallurgy and road dust resuspension sources were isolated at BCN, whereas mixed industrial/traffic and aged organics sources were identified at MSY and MSA. The highest MSEs were observed for secondary sulfate (4.5 and 10.7 m2 g-1, at MSY and MSA), secondary nitrate (8.8 and 7.8 m2 g-1) and V-Ni bearing source (8 and 3.5 m2 g-1). These sources dominated the scattering throughout the year with marked seasonal trends. The V-Ni bearing source, originating mainly from shipping in the area under study, simultaneously contributed to both

  4. Monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality in wadi Al-Arish downstream area, North Sinai (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Alaa A.; Meswara, Ebtesam A.; El Bouraie, Mohamed M.; Kamh, Samir Z.

    2018-04-01

    At a rate of 3 samples a year over 7 years (2008-2014), groundwater quality indicators for 294 samples from 14 groundwater supply wells located on the delta of Wadi Al-Arish, North Sinai (Egypt) were measured and analyzed. The prime objective was to characterize significant and sustained trends in the concentrations of the pH, TDS, Total Alkalinity, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, NO3-, K+, Pb2+, Al3+, and fecal coliform (FC). Detection and estimation of trends and magnitude were carried out applying the nonparametric Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen trend statistical tests, respectively. Geostatistical kriging implemented in ArcGIS 10× was appraised for the spatial distribution of the indicators and their sustained trends. Factor analysis was applied to identify significant sources of quality variation and their loads. Average contents of all indicators exceeded the permissible limits except for Mn. Violation of groundwater quality standards clarified emergence of FC (99.6%), Pb2+ (76.8%), TDS (60.2%), Al3+ (56.6%), NO3- (46.5%), Fe2+ (37.5%), and Mn2+ (14%). Out of the 14 wells, notable upward trends (deterioration) were significant (>95% level) for Mg2+ (100%), TDS (78.5%), NO3- (71.42%), Zn2+ (42.85%), pH (14.28%), K+ (14.28%), and 7.14% for Al3+ and FC. Ranges of attenuation rates (mg/l/year) varied for TDS (52.61-37.59), Mg2+ hardness (3.81-0.14), K+ (0.58-1), pH (0.004-0.027), total alkalinity (-1.89-13.18), NO3- (1.47-0.69), Al3+ (0.002-0.011), Fe2+ (-0.001-0.016), Mn2+ (-0.00004-0.01), Pb2+ (-0.00001-0.002), Zn2+ (0.049-0.018), and FC (5.25-22) in cfu/100 ml. Out of the 14 wells, well no. 9 showed the largest increasing attenuation rates (mg/l/year) that marked NO3- (1.47), K+ (0.58), pH (0.004), and Al3+ (0.002). TDS showed the largest rates of increase of 52.61, and 28.26 for well nos. 5 and 9, respectively. FC showed the highest rate of deterioration of 5.25 in well no. 10. Zn2+ recorded strong deterioration rates of 0.049, and 0.046 for well nos. 12 and 9, respectively

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, North Perry, Ohio: Date of survey: April 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, North Perry, Ohio. The purpose of the 234-square-kilometer (91-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates increased from 0 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) over Lake Erie to 9 μR/h as the distance from Lake Erie increased. Only one anomalous area appears on the map, which is due to an excess of Bi-214 in a landfill area. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Cultural Resources Inventory of Proposed Recreation Areas, Lake Oahe: Emmons, Morton, and Sioux Counties, North Dakota. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    of field mice (Peromyscus sp.), white- tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii), cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), weasels (Mustela frenata...expeditions to locate the western sea did not detract from their importance to the Montreal-based fur trade, which would monopolize the Assiniboine... monopolize the Montreal-based trade, however, and many independent traders offered competition to the two major companies. In 1785 the North West

  8. RESULTS OF THE STUDY ORIBATIDMITEIN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE NORTH-WEST OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Grikurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim . Studied the fauna of the soil mites of coastal and island ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian sea (Bryansk spit, Strategiczne, Islands seal, Chechen and Nordby. Found 49 species and 39 genera and subgenera, and 24 families. Species composition of oribatidmite of theNorth-western part of the Caspian Sea remains not completely studied. The aim of the work was to study the species composition of oribatidmite ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea. Location. Coastal ecosystems north-western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The selection of soil samples in different habitats and MicroStation is the basis for studying the biodiversity and abundance of soil microarthropod. To extract small soil organisms method was used electoral forcing, which is based on the use of negative phototaxis soil organisms. When the definition of oribatid mites used the microscope MBI-6, Olympus CH-20.Results. As a result of studies 41 species of oribatidmites, 9 of which – new forthe fauna of the Caucasus, 17 species – new for the fauna of Dagestan, one species – new to science were identified. There sults can be used to compile regionallists, inventories and will be included in the list of directories oribatidmite of Caucasus.Main conclusions. There sults showed that for both are as of studies - 9 species, exclusively in coastal ecosystems of Bryansks pit 24 species, found only in ecosystems Staroterechnogo 9 species are common.

  9. Engineering geological conditions of the Loviisa power plant area relating to the final disposal of reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, Pekka

    1988-12-01

    The bedrock in the study area consists of Precambrian rapakivi granite with its varieties. The rock type is mostly fresh and strong. Alteration and weathering of the rock material occurs only in association with the fracturing. Fracture properties - orientation, aperture, hydraulic conductivity, filling and weathering - have been treated with respect to final disposal and siting of the repository. The results achieved have been compared with corresponding results obtained in Finland and other countries. Two vertical and one horizontal or gently dipping fracture sets typical of granitic rocks are present, the last mentioned of which are dominant. The hydraulic conductivity of the fractures varies greatly, generally between k=10 -9 and 10 -5 m/s, owing to, e.g. the state of stress in the rock, cementation and filling of the fractures. According to the sorption tests, weathering of the fracture surfaces as well as the filling material of the fractures has been found to increase remarkably the sorption capacity of the rock mass. A three-dimensional engineering geological model has been prepared of the bedrock. According to the model, three gently dipping fracture zones divide the rock mass into different zones of intact and broken rock. The zones are considered as hydraulic units, for which hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity were determined. In the fracture zones the values for these are in the order of k = 10 -6 m/s and 0 = 4 . 10 -3 average. In the intact rock zones, the corresponding values are generally one decade less. The study area has two separate groundwater zones in the bedrock. The surface parat of the groundwater is fresh, with relic seawater of the Baltic Sea below; its salinity reaches some 1% at the maximum. The main fracture zones seem to determine the groundwater level and flow. The water flow is mainly concentrated to the fresh groundwater zone, the saline groundwater being nearly stagnant. The construction properties of the bedrock have

  10. Insentif Ekonomi dalam Penggunaan Lahan (Land Use Kawasan Lindung di Kawasan Bandung Utara (Incentive of Economy for Land Use in The North Bandung Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Hernawan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available West Javanese Province Goverment has decided to provide 45% of West Java area as conservation and protection area. One of  the area is North Bandung Area (KBU: Kawasan Bandung Utara. This paper proposed the used of two economic instrument, namely PDR (purchase development right and PES (payment environment service in managing  the KBU. The paper shows that the use of PDR by  ignoring the price of the land would give a hydrological benefit to the people in urban fringe area, rural fringe area, and rural area in the netx 20 years.  Meanwhile, the use of PES intruments with incentive application to plant out tree at estate conservation (both forest and non forest land would provide benefit for minimum 24 years renting period. Further, the analysis shows that the PDR and PES implementation at 4 regencies/city government at KBU should be considered as a good prospect, even though seeing from the finances aspect of APBD, the prospect was still less than the target.  Therefore, continous finance policy support at the regencies/city government at that KBU which aimed to provide environmental protection and agricultural farm (pro-environmental budgeting policy should be considered as emergency needs.Keywords: conservation area, land use, economic incentive, PDR, PESs

  11. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Dredging work within the RNA will be conducted in five distinct areas: Ocean Bar II, Horseshoe Shoal.... (e) Description of work areas in the RNA—(1) Ocean Bar II, mouth of Cape Fear. The work area includes..., ensure that they have sufficient propulsion and directional control to safely navigate the RNA under the...

  12. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery: Southwestern North America and the Red Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator); Tubbesing, L.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The ERTS-1 imagery was utilized to study major fault and tectonic lines and their intersections in southwestern North America. A system of transverse shear faults was recognized in the California Coast Ranges, the Sierra Nevada, the Great Basin, and Mexico. They are interpreted as expressions of a major left-lateral shear which predated the San Andreas system, the opening of the Gulf of California and Basin and Range rift development. Tectonic models for Basin and Range, Coast Ranges, and Texas-Parras shears were developed. Geological structures and Precambrian metamorphic trend lines of schistosity were studied across the Red Sea rift.

  13. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis from Three Areas in Western North America; Initial Results and Conservation Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica H Craig

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026. Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97% was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  14. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from Three Areas in Western North America; Initial Results and Conservation Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P; Fuller, Mark R; Whittington, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  15. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  16. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. V. Street

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility

  17. Aerial radiological survey of the William B. McGuire Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Cowans Ford Dam, North Carolina, April 13-24, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobaugh, J.L.

    1981-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 13 to 24 April 1981 over a 235 square kilometer area centered on the William B. McGuire Nuclear Station at Cowans Ford Dam, North Carolina. All gamma-photon data were collected by flying North-South lines spaced 228 meters apart at an altitude of 122 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma-photons detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 5 and 22 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging from 5 to 9 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 μR/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  18. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sionneau, B.; Dusclaud, M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  19. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural evolution of North Oman: New insights from high-quality 3D seismic from the Lekhwair area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalgette, Loïc; Salem, Hisham

    2018-06-01

    This paper highlights the role of Triassic-Jurassic extension and late Cretaceous compression in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic (Alpine) structuring of North Oman. The syn/post-Mesozoic regional structural evolution is usually documented as a succession of two stages of deformation. The Alpine 1 phase, late Cretaceous in age, occurred in association with two ophiolite obduction stages (Semail and Masirah ophiolites). It was characterised by strike slip to extensional deformation in the North Oman foreland basin sub-surface. The Alpine 2 phase, Miocene in age, was related to the continental collision responsible for both the Zagros orogen and the uplift of the Oman Mountains. The Alpine 2 deformation was transpressional to compressional. Observation and interpretation of good quality 3D seismic in the Lekhwair High area enabled the distinction of two earlier phases. Early Mesozoic extension occurred concomitantly with the regional Triassic to Jurassic rifting, developing Jurassic-age normal faults. Late Cretaceous compression occurred prior to the main Alpine 1 phase and triggered the inversion of Jurassic-seated normal faults as well as the initiation of compressional folds in the Cretaceous overburden. These early phases have been ignored or overlooked as part of the North Oman history although they are at the origin of structures hosting major local and regional hydrocarbon accumulations.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.G.V.; Chafe, A.; Kenyon, I.

    1994-01-01

    Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers. Dark blue (cobalt-coloured) beads are readily separable from turquoise (copper-coloured) beads. Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals. (Author)

  1. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent Demonstration Program Participants... Authorities (PHAs) participating in the Small Area FMR Demonstration. SUMMARY: Section 8(c)(1) of the United... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program for those PHAs selected to participate in the Small Area FMR...

  2. Effects of changes in pumping on regional groundwater-flow paths, 2005 and 2010, and areas contributing recharge to discharging wells, 1990–2010, in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2017-06-06

    A previously developed regional groundwater flow model was used to simulate the effects of changes in pumping rates on groundwater-flow paths and extent of recharge discharging to wells for a contaminated fractured bedrock aquifer in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater in the vicinity of the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, was found to be contaminated with organic compounds, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), in 1979. At the time contamination was discovered, groundwater from the underlying fractured bedrock (shale) aquifer was the main source of supply for public drinking water and industrial use. As part of technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the Remedial Investigation of the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site from 2000 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a model of regional groundwater flow to describe changes in groundwater flow and contaminant directions as a result of changes in pumping. Subsequently, large decreases in TCE concentrations (as much as 400 micrograms per liter) were measured in groundwater samples collected by the EPA from selected wells in 2010 compared to 2005‒06 concentrations.To provide insight on the fate of potentially contaminated groundwater during the period of generally decreasing pumping rates from 1990 to 2010, steady-state simulations were run using the previously developed groundwater-flow model for two conditions prior to extensive remediation, 1990 and 2000, two conditions subsequent to some remediation 2005 and 2010, and a No Pumping case, representing pre-development or cessation of pumping conditions. The model was used to (1) quantify the amount of recharge, including potentially contaminated recharge from sources near the land surface, that discharged to wells or streams and (2) delineate the areas contributing recharge that discharged to wells or streams for the five conditions.In all simulations, groundwater divides differed from

  3. Alteration zone mapping for detecting potential mineralized areas in Kaladawan of north altyn tagh using ASTER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-gui, Zhou; Bai-lin, Chen; Xing-tong, Chen; Zheng-le, Chen

    2014-01-01

    The Kaladawan area has been found developing intense hydrothermal altered rocks associated with mineralized area such as Kaladaban Pb-Zn deposit, A-bei Ag-Pb depositduring earlier geological investigations.Yet the sparse vegetation cover and excellent bedrock exposure make it a suitable place for the use of remote sensing methods for lithological mapping. ASTER data has been used in this study to identify alteration zones, and then to detect potential mineralized areas. Band ratio and PCA procedures were applied based on the analysis of spectral properties of typical alteration minerals. Band 4/2 and mineralogic indices proposed by Ninomiya were designed to map the distribution of Fe-oxides and alteration zones. Selected bands combinations were transformed in a PCA procedure to map the Al-OH, Mg-OH, CO 3 2− and Fe-oxides altered minerals. The analysis focused on the spatial distribution of hydrothermal altered minerals. Band ratio result images including both Fe-oxides and mineralogic indices show high-level similarity with the PCA transform procedure. They both show intense hydrothermal alteration zone in Kaladaban,west Kaladawan and A-bei area. Hence, these areas are considered to have potential for further mineralogic exploration. The results were validated by field work in the Kaladaban and west Kaladawan area,indicating that this method can be a useful tool for detecting potential mineralization area in Kaladawan and similar areas elsewhere

  4. Relations between red beds times and uranic mineralization at the area of north-west China, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiaosheng; Quan Zhigao

    1989-04-01

    Rad beds played an important role in the uranic mineralization. After analyzing the geological evolution in North-West China, Saanxi and Inner Mongolia the red beds is divided into six periods. The evolution rules at each period are studied. The authors found that the time of uranic mineralication and formation of red beds (basin) is simultaneously, the uranic deposits and red beds are accompanying minerals in all places existing deposits. Uranic mineralization is bound up with the continental red beds which was formed under dry and hot climate, but has no relations with the marine red beds. The place where the deposits exist, the red beds must exist, conversely it is not true. In the section, a big uranic deposit is generated only under or above the red beds. The relations between red beds and rich deposit are also explored. The mineralization theory and the model of uranic mineralization in red beds times are presented

  5. Cancer: scenario and relationship of different geographical areas of the globe with special reference to North East-India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Kalit, Manoj; Nirmolia, Tulika; Saikia, Sidhartha Protim; Sharma, Arpita; Barman, Debanjana

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is becoming the most important public health burden around the globe. As per the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2008. The burden of cancer cases for India in the year 2020 is calculated to be 1,148,757 (male 534,353; female 614,404) compared to 979,786 in 2010. The pattern of cancer incidence is varying among geographical regions, esophageal cancer for example being high in China, lung cancer in USA, and gallbladder cancer in Chile. The question remains why? Is it due to the diversity in genome pool, food habits, risk factor association and role of genetic susceptibility or some other factors associated with it? In India, the North East (NE)-India region is seeing a marked increase in cancer incidence and deaths, with a very different cancer incidence pattern compared to mainland India. The genome pool of the region is also quite distinct from the rest of India. Northeastern tribes are quite distinct from other groups; they are more closely related to East Asians than to other Indians. In this paper an attempt was made to see whether there is any similarity among the pattern of cancer incidence cases for different sites of NE-India region to South or East-Asia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Pearson Correlation coefficient test was assessed to evaluate the linkage of North-East India region to other regions. A p value NE-India with South and East-Asian regions, which may lead to the conclusion that there might be a genetic linkage between these regions.

  6. Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, North Carolina—Summary of monitoring activities, quality assurance, and data, October 2013–September 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2017-09-27

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2013 through September 2014 (water year 2014) and October 2014 through September 2015 (water year 2015). Major findings for this period include:More than 5,500 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 15 sites—4 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Thirty water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality thresholds exist for 11 of these.All observations met State water-quality thresholds for temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate plus nitrite.North Carolina water-quality thresholds were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, pH, turbidity, and chlorophyll a.

  7. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  8. Modelling Local Sea-Breeze Flow and Associated Dispersion Patterns Over a Coastal Area in North-East Spain: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M. R.; Arasa, R.; Merino, M.; Olid, M.; Ortega, S.

    2011-07-01

    The structure and evolution of the sea breeze in the north-west part of the Mediterranean (Catalonia, north-east Spain) is studied both experimentally and, predominantly, using numerical models to increase understanding of sea-breeze structure and three-dimensional (3D) pollution distributions in coastal environments. Sea-breeze components are modelled and analyzed using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Centre for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The results show that the growth and structure of the sea-breeze circulation is modulated by the synoptic flow and especially by the complex topography of the area. 3D pollution transport in a sea breeze is modelled by coupling the MM5 to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, with results indicating that topography and synoptic flow are the main factors modulating horizontal and vertical pollutant transport in sea-breeze episodes. In this way, horizontal dispersion is limited by the complex topography of the area, whilst the sea-breeze flow is intensified by anabatic upslope winds that contribute to vertical pollutant transport. The numerical model results also indicate that the sea-breeze circulation with a weak return flow at upper levels grows due to a synoptic onshore wind component. However, such a sea-breeze circulation is capable of transporting pollutants towards the coast.

  9. Nevada Test Site Area 25, Radiological Survey and Cleanup Project, 1974-1983 (a revised final report). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the radiological survey, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 facilities and land areas incorporated in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS). Buildings, facilities and support systems used after 1959 for nuclear reactor and engine testing were surveyed for the presence of radioactive contamination. The radiological survey portion of the project encompassed portable instrument surveys and removable contamination surveys (swipe) for beta plus gamma and alpha radioactive contamination of facilities, equipment and land areas. Soil sampling was also accomplished. The majority of Area 25 facilities and land areas have been returned to unrestricted use. Remaining radiologically contaminated areas are posted with warning signs and barricades. 9 references, 23 figures

  10. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, 2010 Urban Areas (UA) within 2010 County and Equivalent for North Carolina, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  11. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, 2010 Urban Areas (UA) within 2010 County and Equivalent for North Dakota, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  12. Evaluation of potential for cogeneration of electricity and process heat in North Carolina. Final report, June 1, 1978-May 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enable North Carolina to more efficiently utilize available energy than would be possible without additional cogeneration. Effective use of cogeneration can ease the requirement for utility capital and power plant sites and, by reducing fuel usage, can lead to less environmental damage. The study used the National Emissions Data System data bank and the North Carolina Boiler Registry to identify potential candidates for cogeneration and to then ascertain the magnitude of the potential in existing, new, and expanded facilities as a function of cogeneration impediment elimination. The survey uncovered 372 MW of operable cogeneration capacity in North Carolina in 15 plants. An estimate of the potential for expansion of cogeneration by firms presently operating in North Carolina amounted to 130 MW. This estimate was based on current conditions of fuel costs, electricity rates, standby charges, and investment tax credit. Much information is provided concerning industry and utilities in North Carolina, fuel usage by industry, and barriers to cogeneration. Recommendations are summarized.

  13. What happened to gray whales during the Pleistocene? The ecological impact of sea-level change on benthic feeding areas in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Pyenson

    Full Text Available Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how.We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity.Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their primary feeding ground by employing generalist filter-feeding modes

  14. Individual tree detection in intact forest and degraded forest areas in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E. G.; Jorge, A.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Gasparini, K.

    2017-12-01

    The State of Mato Grosso - MT has the second largest area with degraded forest among the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. Land use and land cover change processes that occur in this region cause the loss of forest biomass, releasing greenhouse gases that contribute to the increase of temperature on earth. These degraded forest areas lose biomass according to the intensity and magnitude of the degradation type. The estimate of forest biomass, commonly performed by forest inventory through sample plots, shows high variance in degraded forest areas. Due to this variance and complexity of tropical forests, the aim of this work was to estimate forest biomass using LiDAR point clouds in three distinct forest areas: one degraded by fire, another by selective logging and one area of intact forest. The approach applied in these areas was the Individual Tree Detection (ITD). To isolate the trees, we generated Canopy Height Models (CHM) images, which are obtained by subtracting the Digital Elevation Model (MDE) and the Digital Terrain Model (MDT), created by the cloud of LiDAR points. The trees in the CHM images are isolated by an algorithm provided by the Quantitative Ecology research group at the School of Forestry at Northern Arizona University (SILVA, 2015). With these points, metrics were calculated for some areas, which were used in the model of biomass estimation. The methodology used in this work was expected to reduce the error in biomass estimate in the study area. The cloud points of the most representative trees were analyzed, and thus field data was correlated with the individual trees found by the proposed algorithm. In a pilot study, the proposed methodology was applied generating the individual tree metrics: total height and area of the crown. When correlating 339 isolated trees, an unsatisfactory R² was obtained, as heights found by the algorithm were lower than those obtained in the field, with an average difference of 2.43 m. This shows that the

  15. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy): Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Di Cerbo, Anna Rita; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Genchi, Marco; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS-) based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas) were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%), Toxocara canis (1.72%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%), Ancylostomatidae (0.43%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%). Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%), followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%). Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection. PMID:25478583

  16. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy: Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy. Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS- based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%, Toxocara canis (1.72%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%, Ancylostomatidae (0.43%, and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%, followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%. Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection.

  17. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  18. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  19. Autonomous Vehicles for Wave Energy Site Characterisation and monitoring in the Atlantic areas: North Scotland and Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvenny, J.; Campuzano, F.; Goddijn-Murphy, L.

    2016-02-01

    Surface autonomous marine robots allow the collection of environmental data for weeks or months at a time in difficult to reach or extreme oceanic environments. Wave glider technology has improved in recent years and is now capable of carrying instruments from different manufacturers1, such as ADCP, wave modules, and acoustic sensors2. Here we investigate the suitability of surface based robotic platforms for the collection of environmental data for the renewable energy industry. The Waveglider robotic platform was chosen for this study, representing one of the most advanced platforms in its class. Two sites were chosen: Farr point in North Scotland and Nazare in Portugal. Both study sites are potential locations for wave energy development. We present the results of two simultaneous field campaigns using Waveglider technology. Of particular importance to the study were data integrity and accuracy, platform ability, performance and durability and risk. The project's main aims were to test the platform's capabilities and collect wave data from two wave energy lease sites. The wave data from the Waveglider are compared to nearshore wave height and period data from simultaneous overhead passes by the altimeter satellite AltiKa3. In addition, Waverider buoys were also deployed and recording wave characteristics at both sites visited by the Waveglider. We present the preliminary inter-comparison between the three wave datasets at both sites and assess the performance of the Waveglider technology.

  20. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  1. Assessment of carbon dioxide sink/source in the oceanic areas: the results of 1982-84 investigation. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Chipman, D.W.; Smethie, W. Jr.; Goddard, J.; Trumbore, S.; Mathieu, G.G.; Sutherland, S.

    1985-07-01

    The oceanic CO 2 sink/source relationships over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, the eastern North and South Pacific Ocean, and the Ross Sea were investigated. The net CO 2 flux across the air-sea interface over these areas was estimated. Measurements of the Kr-85 in atmospheric samples collected over the central Pacific along the 155 0 W meridian were initiated. Based on the measurements of the difference between the pCO 2 values in the surface ocean water and the atmosphere and of the radon-222 distribution in the upper water column, we have found that the average net flux for the Atlantic equatorial belt, 10 0 N-10 0 S, is 1.3 moles CO 2 /m 2 .y out of the ocean, when our measurements were made in November 1982 through February 1983. The surface water pCO 2 data obtained over the eastern North and South Pacific during the period, October 1983 through January 1984, show that the equatorial zone between 2 0 N and 8 0 S is an intense CO 2 source area, whereas a 10 0 wide belt coinciding with the area between the Subtropical and Antarctic Convergence Zones is a strong CO 2 sink area. The temperate gyre area located north of about 5 0 N and that located between 8 0 S and 35 0 S are nearly in equilibrium with atmospheric CO 2 . The surface water pCO 2 data obtained in the Southern Ocean during the past ten or more years suggest strongly the existence of an intense CO 2 sink zone, the Circumpolar Low pCO 2 Zone, which is about 10 0 wide in latitude and centered at about 50 0 S surrounding the Antarctica Continent. The surface water of the Ross Sea is found to be a strong CO 2 sink during the period January 23 through February 12, 1984. Because of contamination problems, no reliable data for atmospheric krypton-85 have been obtained. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors for cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice in rural and urban areas of North Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Sreejata; Mandal, Sukanta

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women worldwide. A multitude of risk factors aggravate the disease. This study was conducted to: (1) determine the prevalence and (2) make a comparative analysis of the socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors of cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice between rural and urban women of North Bengal, India. Community-based cross-sectional study. A survey (first in North Bengal) was conducted among 133 women in a rural area (Kawakhali) and 88 women in an urban slum (Shaktigarh) using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. The respondents were informed of the causes (including HPV), signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer and treatment, and the procedure of the PAP test and HPV vaccination. The prevalence of risk factors like multiparity, early age of marriage, use of cloth during menstruation, use of condom and OCP, early age of first intercourse was 37.2%, 82%, 83.3%, 5.4%, 15.8% and 65.6% respectively. Awareness about the cause, signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer, PAP test and HPV vaccination was 3.6%, 6.3%, 3.6%, 9.5% and 14.5% respectively. Chi-square testing revealed that in the study population, significant differential at 5% exists between rural and urban residents with respect to number of children, use of cloth/sanitary napkins, family history of cancer and awareness regarding causes of cervical cancer. Regarding KAP, again using chi-square tests, surprisingly, level of education is found to be significant for each element of KAP in urban areas in contrast to complete absence of association between education and elements of KAP in rural areas. A large number of risk factors were present in both areas, the prevalence being higher in the rural areas. The level of awareness and role of education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban areas. This pilot study needs to be followed up by large scale programmes to re-orient awareness campaigns, especially in

  3. Determination of ocean/atmosphere carbon dioxide flux within OMP survey area. Final technical progress report, June, 1 1993--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, T.

    1995-10-17

    Determination of the net flux of atmospheric CO{sub 2} with the ocean at the continental margin is one of the three principal goals of the Ocean Margins Program. The work reported here represents the initial phase of that determination, as carried out during two cruises within the OMP survey area in 1993 and 1994. The interannual variability was addressed through the occupation of hydrographic stations of nearly identical location one year apart, while the spatial variability in the air-sea PCO{sub 2} difference (ApCO{sub 2}), representing the driving force for net CO{sub 2} flux, was addressed during a survey of much of the continental shelf between the survey area off North Carolina and Georges Bank. Not addressed by the initial cruises was the seasonal variability of the net CO{sub 2} flux, since both scoping cruises were mounted during the same season of the respective years.

  4. Evaluation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2015 final annual progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kay, Thomas J.; Pilgrim, Kristie; Schwartz, Michael K; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers (Pekania pennanti) from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008–2010, the National Park Service (NPS) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to determine the current status of fishers on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula 3–8 years after the releases and evaluate the short-term success of the restoration program. Objectives of the study are to determine the current distribution of fishers and proportion of the recovery area that is currently occupied by fishers, determine several genetic characteristics of the reintroduced population, and determine reproductive success of the founding animals through genetic studies. During 2015, we continued working with a broad coalition of cooperating agencies, tribes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to collect data on fisher distribution and genetics using noninvasive sampling methods. The primary sampling frame consisted of 157 24-km2 hexagons (hexes) distributed across all major land ownerships within the Olympic Peninsula target survey area. In 2014 we expanded the study by adding 58 more hexes to an expanded study area in response to incidental fisher observations outside of the target area obtained in 2013; 49 hexes were added south and 9 to the east of the target area. During 2015, Federal, State, Tribal and NGO biologists and volunteers established three Distributioned motion-sensing camera stations, paired with hair snaring devices, in 87 hexes; 75 in the targeted area and 12 in the expansion areas. Each paired camera/hair station was left in place for approximately 6 weeks, with three checks on 2-week intervals. We documented fisher presence in 7 of the 87 hexagons. Four fishers were identified through microsatellite DNA analyses. The 4 identified fishers included 1 of the original founding population of 90

  5. Intrinsic vulnerability map of underground waters in an area of 60 km around the Tricastin CNPE - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the updating of the non-saturated area (ZNS), and therefore of the vulnerability, by means of a recent improvement of knowledge of alluvial sheet piezometry in the south of the Tricastin nuclear power plant site, and the harmonization of this locally updated map with previous versions of the vulnerability map (2007 and 2009), in order to produce an updated vulnerability map for an area of 60 km around the Tricastin nuclear power plant. Thus, they firstly report the updating of the thickness grid of non saturated area by means of a processing of the piezometric map, and secondly a calculation of the simplified vulnerability

  6. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  7. Bird diversity and environmental heterogeneity in North America: A test of the area-heterogeneity trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Chocron; Curtis H. Flather; Ronen Kadmon

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Deterministic niche theory predicts that increasing environmental heterogeneity increases species richness. In contrast, a recent stochastic model suggests that heterogeneity has a unimodal effect on species richness since high levels of heterogeneity reduce the effective area available per species, thereby increasing the likelihood of stochastic...

  8. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  9. Report on Saginaw Bay Area Environmental Policy, Planning and Management survey. Final report, April 1991-March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.; Zhao, W.; Edens, T.C.

    1992-04-01

    An environmental policy, planning, and management survey was conducted in the Saginaw Bay area in the Fall of 1991. The survey identified unemployment, factory closure and environmental quality degradation as the major economic and environmental problems in the area. Surface water contamination, excessive nutrients and zebra mussel infestation were the most serious problems affecting water quality. Soil erosion, excessive fertilization and pesticide applications were the most important non-point sources of water pollution. Toxic chemicals, phosphorus, suspended solids, heavy metals were the major water pollutants in the area. Pollution cleanup, land use planning, and control of zebra mussels were identified as the top implementation priorities for the area. Recommendations made by the respondents for improving environmental quality are summarized in the report.

  10. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. V. Street

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility.

  11. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future.

  12. Final Range Environmental Assessment for Test Areas C-87 and D-51 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    TA C-87 consists of one septic tank and associated leach field. There are nine septic tanks and associated leach fields on TA D-51. Under...storage tank , and septic systems, and connecting the test area to the Okaloosa County water and wastewater utility lines. The existing utility systems on T...8840E Water Treatment Plan 8840F Biological/Chemical Training Area 13 (acres) 8840ST Septic Tank at 8840 8840W Well at 8840 8841 Range Support

  13. Survey of International Rules and Practices Regarding Delineation of and Access to Regulated Areas for Radiation Protection - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Crouail, P.; Beltrami, L.-A.; Reaud, C.; Lehtinen, Maaret; Stritt, Nicolas; Thomas, Gareth

    2013-06-01

    European requirements for radiological protection, especially work on transposing the new EURATOM Directive on the basic radiological protection standards, are currently being revised. The Direction generale du travail (DGT - General Directorate of Labour) and the Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN - Nuclear Safety Authority) therefore commissioned the Radiological Protection Standing Groups of experts (GPRAD and GPMED)1 to engage in a forward-looking debate on the delimitation of and access to regulated areas, within an ad hoc working group (called hereafter 'Classification of Area WG'). To fuel its debates, the 'Classification of Area WG' sought elements on international regulations and practices focusing on problem exposure situations in various areas of activity (nuclear, industrial, research, medical, transport and natural boosted). CEPN was entrusted with this study. This report presents a summary of rules applicable in seven countries in terms of delimitation of and access to regulated radiological protection areas. The countries are: Belgium, Spain, United States, Finland, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland. Detailed sheets for each country can be found in the Annex. Based on these summaries, three countries have been selected to apply their rules and practices in force to a dozen or so particular cases put together by the 'Classification of Area WG' that are representative of exposure situations. The three countries are Finland, United Kingdom and Switzerland. The case studies applied to each country are presented in the second part of this report

  14. [Multi-scenario simulation and prediction of ecosystem services as affected by urban expansion: A case study in coastal area of Tianjin, North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan-Chun; Yun, Ying-Xia; Miao, Zhan-Tang; Hao, Cui; Li, Hong-yuan

    2013-03-01

    Based on the modified Logistic-CA model, and taking the coastal area of Tianjin as a case, this paper simulated the spatial evolution patterns of ecosystem services as affected by the urban expansion in 2011-2020 under the scenarios of historical extrapolation, endogenous development, and exogenous development. Overall, the total ecosystem services of the study area under the three scenarios were generally the same, and the functional region with the lowest level ecosystem services had the identical spatial pattern. However, the spatial evolution patterns of the ecosystem services of the study area under the three scenarios had a great difference. The functional regions with lower-level ecosystem services grew in a cross-shaped pattern, with the Tanggu downtown as a center, and finally formed a full connectivity area along the Haihe River and coastal zone.

  15. Linear Transect Surveys of Abundance and Density of Cetaceans in The Area Near the Dzharylgach Island in the North-Western Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladilina E. V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The first assessment of cetacean density and abundance by linear transect survey was conducted in 2016 and 2017 in the shallowest coastal area of the Ukrainian sector of the north-western Black Sea, in the Dzharylgach Gulf and the northern Karkinit Gulf, total area up to 259 km2. Three cetacean species were found present in the area in summer, and the harbour porpoise was the most abundant species with the abundance of at least a few hundred animals (estimated as 175 individuals in the Dzharylgach Gulf, whereas the common dolphins (59 and bottlenose dolphins (31 were present in lesser numbers. Common and bottlenose dolphins showed the clearest patterns of habitat preferences, being restricted respectively to the Dzharylgach and the northern Karkinit Gulf; an unusual trait is the preference of the shallowest habitat by common dolphins. Recorded density of harbour porpoises in the Dzharylgach Gulf is among the highest in the whole Black Sea. Thus, the studied area may be an important summer habitat for cetaceans.

  16. Study Of Land Cover And Condition Catchment Area Groundwater Aquifer In Tanah Merah North Samarinda District Using Resistivity Geoelectric Sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djayus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover is a biophysical cover that maintains land conditions in water balance. The purpose of this research is to know the condition of land cover water catchment groundwater aquifer and correlation. This research begins by collecting data on land cover soil type rainfall slopes and groundwaterinformation. Field activities include observation and data collection of land cover geological conditions community wells and geoelectric sounding. Land cover data is classified according to circumstances and conditions. Geoelectric sounding data was analyzed with IP2WIN software interpretation of lithologic variation of rocks and depth based on resistivity value. Plot the position of each lithology sounding with Surfer software obtained kontour rock field boundary and 3D model of the aquifer position.The results showed that the land cover consisted of vegetated areas forests 27221 Ha 4032 and agricultural land 18336 Ha 2716 non-vegetation area 9880 Ha 1464 constructed land Open land 116.33 Ha 17.23 and water body 4.35 Ha 0.64 The condition of land cover in this water catchment area has decreased 6838 Ha 1014 from the previous condition 34059 Ha 5046 to 27221 Ha 4032. Referring to Permenhut RI No. 32 in 2009 total score catchment area 33 including the somewhat critical condition. Groundwater aquifers based on 3D sounding geolistrik modeling consist of a free aquifer for shallow groundwater depth of water level between 2-30 m with thickness 2-65 m and a distorted aquifer for groundwaterin depth of water between 75-150 m With thickness 75-125 m depth of community well 10-45 m. The transfer of land into open pit mines resulted in the destruction of the balance and water system the decreasing decreasing the discharge of the well water of the community drill the failure and the lack of new water discharge of the new wells the loss of groundwaterin several dug wells landslides and mud floods on the farmland

  17. Earthquake swarm in the non-volcanic area north of Harrat Lunayyir, western Saudi Arabia: observations and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssof, M.; Mai, P. M.; Parisi, L.; Tang, Z.; Zahran, H. M.; El-Hadidy, S. Y.; Al-Raddadi, W.; Sami, M.; El-Hadidy, M. S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    We report on an unusual earthquake swarm in a non-volcanic area of western Saudi Arabia. Since March 2017, hundreds of earthquakes were recorded, reaching magnitude Ml 3.7, which occurred within a very narrowly defined rock volume. The seismicity is shallow, mostly between 4 to 8 km depths, with some events reaching as deep as 16 km. One set of events aligns into a well-defined horizontal tube of 2 km height, 1 km width, and 4-5 km E-W extent. Other event clusters exist, but are less well-defined. The focal mechanism solutions of the largest earthquakes indicate normal faulting, which agree with the regional stress field. The earthquake swarm occurs 75 km NW of Harrat Lunayyir. However, the area of interest doesn't seem to be associated with the well-known volcanic area of Harrat Lunayyir, which experienced a magmatic dike intrusion in 2009 with intense seismic activity (including a surface rupturing Mw 5.7 earthquake). Furthermore, the study area is characterized by a complex shear system, which host gold mineralization. Therefore, the exact origin of the swarm sequence is enigmatic as it's the first of its kind in this region. By using continuous seismological data recorded by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) that operates three permanent seismic stations and a temporary network of 11 broadband sensors, we analyze the seismic patterns in space and time. For the verified detected events, we assemble the body wave arrival times that are inverted for the velocity structures along with events hypocenters to investigate possible causes of this swarm sequence, that is, whether the activity is of tectonic- or hydro-thermal origin.

  18. Design Study and Optimization of Irradiation Facilities for Detector and Accelerator Equipment Testing in the SPS North Area at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079748; Stekl, Ivan

    Due to increasing performance of LHC during the last years, the strong need of new detector and electronic equipment test areas at CERN appeared from user communities. This thesis reports on two test facilities: GIF++ and H4IRRAD. GIF++, an upgrade of GIF facility, is a combined high-intensity gamma and particle beam irradiation facility for testing detectors for LHC. It combines a high-rate 137Cs source, providing photons with energy of 662 keV, together with the high-energy secondary particle beam from SPS. H4IRRAD is a new mixed-field irradiation area, designed for testing LHC electronic equipment for radiation damage effects. In particular, large volume assemblies such as full electronic racks of high current power converters can be tested. The area uses alternatively an attenuated primary 400 GeV/c proton beam from SPS, or a secondary, mainly proton, beam of 280 GeV/c directed towards a copper target. Different shielding layers are used to reproduce a radiation field similar to the LHC “tunnel” and �...

  19. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

  20. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  1. Spatial‑temporal variability of water balance components in the North area of the Zailiisky Alatau Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Konovalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of changes in WB components (precipitation, evaporation, glacier runoff, dynamical water resources on the Northern slope of the Zailiisky Alatau was performed for the 1946–2005 time divided into two periods: 1946–1975 and 1976–2005. The territory under investigation included basins of the following rivers: Bolshaya Almatinka, Malaya Almatinka, Talgar, Turgen, Issyk, Chemolgan, Kaskelen, Kargalinka, Prohodnaya, and Uzunkargaly. Their total area down to the closing gauge points amounts to 2644 km2. Summarized glacier areas in these basins and annual runoff were equal, respectively, to: 306.6 km2 and 39.05 km3in 1946–1975, and 253.0 km2 and 38.35 km3 in 1975–2005. In 1946–2005, typical features of regional glaciation dynamics were increasing area of the moraine cover on glaciers and reducing area of bare ice that results in decreasing of the glacial runoff volume, all other factors being the same. The method to calculate the WB components consists of the following constituents: model of seasonal runoff from melted snow and ice in the areas of accumulation and ablation of glaciers; complex of formulas to calculate precipitation, air temperature and humidity, intensity of ice melting under the moraine, bare ice and evaporation within the height intervals corresponding to the main types of surfaces on the glaciers. On the basis of our method, we could reconstruct for the 1876–2015 period long‑term series of data on a runoff, separately annual values and sums for the vegetation periods. They can be used for regional scientific and applied analyses of the river stream discharges. The data on runoff in the Malaya Almatinka River basin and observational data on the meteorological station Almaty (Hydrometeorological Observatory had been quantitatively substantiated as the representative information for modeling and calculation of water resources on the Northern slope of the Zailiisky Alatau Range.

  2. Mass transit development for small urban areas; a case study: Tompkins County, N. Y. Second-year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyburg, A.H.

    1976-11-01

    This report presents the results of the second-year effort within a three-year research project to develop a transportation planning methodology for small urban areas concerned with the provision of public transportation service. This phase of the research concentrates on problems of access to health services, transportation service for the disadvantaged, potential coordination and integration of existing transportation systems, alternative systems designs and their evaluation, and suitable marketing and monitoring programs for public transportation service in small urban areas. This effort, together with elements of the first-year research will culminate in the preparation of a transit planning manual suitable for use by the transportation planner in small to medium-size urban areas.

  3. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP

  4. [Impacts of land use change on ecosystem services in the agricultural area of North China Plain: A case study of Shangqiu City, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya Ru; Wang, Cong; Yan, Li Jiao

    2018-05-01

    Under the rapid urbanization, quantitatively assessing the impacts of land use and cover change (LUCC) on ecosystem service is of great significance for regional ecological environment construction. Based on the land use maps of Shangqiu City (as the typical agricultural area of North China Plain) in the year of 1990, 2005 and 2015, the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use and ecosystem service were analyzed, and the impacts of LUCC on ecosystem services was quantified with the impact assessment model. The results showed that, from 1990 to 2015, farmland and construction land area, which covered more than 95% of the total area of the research area, changed the most in quantity as -104.38 and 201.59 km 2 respectively, while forestland, grassland and water area changed the most by 79.3%, -73.7% and -24.2%, respectively. The total value of ecosystem service continuously decreased by 1.005 billion yuan, among which the value of hydrolo-gical regulation service suffered the most. The value of ecosystem service (ESV) presented an increasing trend in the west and a decreasing trend in the east. Extending from the center of the city to the outside, the value of ecosystem services was "high-low-high" in the east to west direction. The rate of farmland and water area contributed more than 95% to the total ecosystem service value, which had the greatest impact. The main drivers for the changes of land use and ESV in Shangqiu were population pressure, economic growth, regional policy, and urban planning. In the urban and rural development planning of Shangqiu City, more attention should be paid to the protection of na-tural resources and rational adjustment of the land use structure to realize sustainable development based on the harmony of economy, society and environment.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern.

  6. Main areas of work of the German Radiation Protection Office (BfS). Final disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, U.

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) formulated twelve questions which are in principle relevant to all host rock formations and require clarification in any case. The task of the BfS was to compile a comparison of different host rock formations on the basis of the answers given to these twelve questions for the individual projects. The main focus was on whether these safety-related questions merit different answers for different host rock formations and whether this has an impact on the requirements to be placed on final disposal concepts

  7. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS INTERPRETATION FOR GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN THE COASTAL AREA, NORTH KELANTAN, MALAYSIA (Interpretasi Karakterisasi Fisika dan Kimia Untuk Penilaian Kualitas Airtanah di Area Pesisir, Kelantan Utara, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Islami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physical and chemical groundwater interpretation has been done in order to characterize and assess its associated problem in the coastal area, North Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of thirty three groundwater samples that consisted of sixteen groundwater samples were collected directly from existing well and together with seventeen groundwater data obtained from government agency, were used in this study. The depth of groundwater sample was varied from the shallow (3.5 m to the deeper (130 m aquifer. The physical groundwater characteristics were measured directly at the site just after the groundwater collected. The chemical content of the groundwater sample were analysed using Ion Chromatography (IC and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Finally the data was presented and interpreted using the bivariate and piper diagram to improve interpretation and analysis of the whole data. Analysis result of the groundwater sample indicates that the shallow aquifer can be categorized as fresh water. In the zone with marine soil deposit, chloride and sulphate concentration tend to be higher in the water sample. However, the concentration of water sample is still within the accepted limit for human consumption. In places with relatively higher usage of chemical fertilizer, the groundwater sample exhibits higher nitrate concentration more than limit of safe for human consumption (>45 mg/L. K, Ca, Mg and Na content have a positive correlation with chloride concentration in deeper aquifer, indicating that the ions are derived from the same source of saline waters. The relationship between Cl/HCO3 ratios and chloride also shows that the fresh groundwater and seawater mixing in aquifer, and the samples with lower ratios can be categorized as fresh waters. In the shallow aquifer most ions exhibit a poor correlation to chloride indicating that such ions are derived from a different source. ABSTRAK Interpretasi karakter fisika dan kimia air tanah telah dilakukan

  8. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  9. Analysis of Thematic Mapper data for studying the suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Stoessel, M.; Brockmann, C.; Grassl, H.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data were analyzed with respect to its capability for mapping the complex structure and dynamics of suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea). Three independent pieces of information were found by factor analysis of all seven TM channels: suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature. For the required atmospheric correction, the signal-to-noise ratios of Channels 5 and 7 have to be improved by averaging over 25 x 25 pixels, which also makes it possible to monitor the aerosol optical depth and aerosol type over cloud-free water surfaces. Near-surface suspended matter concentrations may be detected with an accuracy of factor less than 2 by using an algorithm derived from radiative transfer model calculation. The patchiness of suspended matter and its relation to underwater topography was analyzed with autocorrelation and cross-correlation.

  10. Improving the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse in the North-West Control Area of the Mexican Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G.; Inda-Ruiz, G.A.; Tovar, G.E. [Gerencia de Analisis de Redes, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Eleectricas

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports the application of a static approach for assessing the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the North-West Control Area (NWCA) of the Mexican Power System. The approach uses both optimal load flow (OLF) and conventional load flow (LF) solutions, and singular value decomposition of the load flow Jacobian matrix (J). Additionally, the approach allows to determine suitable locations for corrective actions such as, the addition of new equipment or load shedding. The results shows that the combination of OLF and LF resulted in a steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the NWCA 7.2% higher than the case when only conventional load flow solutions were considered. (author)

  11. 78 FR 9247 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... survey. All make allowances were adjusted for marketing costs. Nineteen proposals were published in the....0015 per pound marketing cost factor) the resulting make allowances should be: $0.1780 per pound for... manufacturing for the highest cost Federal order marketing area. The witness said that classified prices are...

  12. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango C, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Geology of Durango C detail area, radioactive mineral occurrences in Colorado, and geophysical data interpretation are included in this report. Eight appendices provide: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data

  13. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango D, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains geology of the Durango D detail area, radioactive mineral occurrences in Colorado, and geophysical data interpretation. Eight appendices provide: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, geochemical statistical tables, magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data

  14. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango B, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The geology of the Durango B detail area, the radioactive mineral occurrences in Colorado and the geophysical data interpretation are included in this report. Seven appendices contain: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, geochemical statistical tables, and test line data

  15. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango A, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains geology of the Durango A detail area, radioactive mineral occurences in Colorado, and geophysical data interpretation. Eight appendices provide the following: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, geochemical statistical tables, magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data

  16. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango D, Colorado. Final report Volume II B. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume comprises eight appendices containing the following information for the Durango D detail area: flight line maps, geology maps, explanation of geologic legend, flight line/geology maps, radiometric contour maps, magnetic contour maps, multi-variant analysis maps, and geochemical factor analysis maps

  17. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic detail survey, Lost Creek, Washington area. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Maps and the data from the aerial surveys are included in this report. The purposes of the surveys were to acquire and compile geologic and other information in order to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the USA

  18. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the reported thermogenic composition of the Fayetteville Shale gas (δ13CCH4 = −35.4‰ to −41.9‰). Based on major element chemistry, four shallow groundwater types were identified: (1) low ( 100 mg/L and Ca–HCO3 dominated, (3) TDS > 100 mg/L and Na–HCO3dominated, and (4) slightly saline groundwater with TDS > 100 mg/L and Cl > 20 mg/L with elevated Br/Cl ratios (>0.001). The Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097

  19. Effects on non-human species inhabiting areas with enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Belykh, Elena S. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Majstrenko, Tatiana A. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    Results of long-term radioecological investigations in areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia are summarized. Deleterious changes within animal and plant populations inhabiting areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the Komi Republic were revealed. These changes are expressed in enhanced levels of mutagenesis, destructive processes in the tissues of animals, disturbances of reproductive functions and reduced offspring viability. Compensatory processes, resulting in animal and plant survival under extremely adverse conditions of radium and uranium-radium contamination, were observed as well. However, obvious signs of adaptation failed to be detected. The findings suggest that adverse somatic and genetic effects are possible in plants and animals in the dose range observed at sites with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. In contrast, different plant species inhabiting an area with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the taiga zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) reveal a stimulation of growth processes, photosynthesis, endogenous low molecular weight antioxidant synthesis as well as adaptive response. It is apparent from the data presented that naturally occurring differences in terrestrial radiation level could be of genetic and ecological consequence.

  20. "I used to be as fit as a linnet" - beliefs, attitudes, and environmental supportiveness for physical activity in former mining areas in the North-East of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Studies of geographical variations in physical activity behaviours have suggested that activity levels are particularly low in areas that have undergone employment loss associated with the decline of industry. This is of concern given that affected populations are already at risk of poor health. Applying focus group methodology amongst 19 participants in four groups, this study aims to unpack how broader societal and environmental changes associated with industrial decline affect beliefs and attitudes towards physical activity in ex-mining communities in the North-East of England. Identified core themes comprise the direct impact of deindustrialisation on social and physical environments. Based on our findings, we provide evidence for mechanisms that operate via loss of occupational physical activity as well as the progressive development of environments that are not fit to support population activity levels. Particularly important was the loss of recreational facilities, public green spaces and sports facilities that were owned and organised by the miners themselves with support from the mining companies. Attitudes and beliefs directly related to the areas' industrial past were also seen to be key. We suggest that the development of interventions considering the socio-cultural history and socio-economic reality of communities could be a promising route to encourage more active lifestyles in deprived areas with particularly low levels of physical activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; Warshauer, F. R.; Price, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  2. Changes in water mass exchange between the NW shelf areas and the North Atlantic and their impact on nutrient/carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Matthias; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Segschneider, Joachim; Sein, Dimitry

    2010-05-01

    Despite their comparatively small extension on a global scale, shelf areas are of interest for several economic reasons and climatic processes related to nutrient cycling, sea food supply, and biological productivity. Moreover, they constitute an important interface for nutrients, pollutants and freshwater on their pathway from the continents to the open ocean. This modelling study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of water mass exchange between the North Atlantic and the NW European shelf and their impact on nutrient/carbon cycling and biological productivity. For this, a new modeling approach has been set up which bridges the gap between pure shelf models where water mass transports across the model domain too strongly depend on the formulation of open boundaries and global models suffering under their too coarse resolution in shelf regions. The new model consists of the global ocean and carbon cycle model MPIOM/HAMOCC with strongly increased resolution in the North Sea and the North Atlantic coupled to the regional atmosphere model REMO. The model takes the full luni-solar tides into account. It includes further a 12 layer sediment module with the relevant pore water chemistry. The main focus lies on the governing mechanisms of water mass exchange across the shelf break and the imprint on shelf biogeochemistry. For this, artificial tracers with a prescribed decay rate have been implemented to distinguish waters arriving from polar and shelf regions and those that originate from the tropics. Experiments were carried out for the years 1948 - 2007. The relationship to larger scale circulation patterns like the position and variability of the subtropical and subpolar gyres is analyzed. The water mass exchange is analyzed with respect to the nutrient concentration and productivity on the European shelf areas. The implementation of tides leads to an enhanced vertical mixing which causes lower sea surface temperatures compared to simulations

  3. Studies on quality of sub-surface water around tanneries in some areas of north west frontier province (NWFP) Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, S.

    2003-01-01

    The present study is a part of our investigations comprising (a) characterization of the tannery/leather industry effluents, (b) assessment of the pollution caused by these effluents to the environment, and (c) development of a simple but economical procedure for the pre-treatment and recycling of these effluents, to recover some valuable materials. In NWFP, the tanning industry has shown a rapid development in the late seventies, during which large-size industrial units were established at Peshawar, Charsadda and Jehangira. Since no pollution control measures are being adopted by these units, the hazards to the environment caused by the effluents and emissions from tanneries pose an acute problem in the country. The studies narrated below indicate that the under-ground water samples around tanneries have high concentrations of TDS, phenols, chromium and sulfides, which render the well-water in the area unsuitable for drinking and domestic uses. (author)

  4. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  5. Low temperature geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. Final report, July 1, 1978-August 18, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the engineering and economic feasibility of hot water geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. A generalized system design was developed and used as the basis for a series of economic case studies. Reservoir and user siting considerations were studied in light of the economic findings. Several specific potential applications were identified, including university campuses, industrial and commercial facilities, and residential buildings. Specific key technical problems relating to Albuquerque area applications were studied. These included environmental impacts, corrosion, scaling, heat losses in wells and transmission lines, heat exchangers, control systems, and system utilization and reliability. It is concluded that geothermal energy could be competitive with other energy sources for space heating and limited industrial use for moderate to large (10 million Btu/hr or more) energy using systems.

  6. Analysis of the Erosion Law of Karst Groundwater Using Hydrogeochemical Theory in Liulin Spring Area, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical model of the Liulin karstic spring area in the eastern limb of the Ordos syncline was established by a combination of chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics and hydrogeology. The study area was divided into four zones based on the saturation indices of calcite, dolomite and gypsum, which were computed by the groundwater-chemical simulation software PHREEQC (a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations, with consideration of the geological and hydrogeological conditions and hydro-geochemical reactions. The weight and volume modulus of carbonate rocks and sulphate rocks in each zone were calculated by the method of correlation analysis to evaluate the dissolution law of karst groundwater. The results showed that in the zone I (saturation index of calcite βc ≤ 1 the dissolution of calcite was the major geochemical reaction, the weight modulus of calcite was higher than that of dolomite and gypsum, and the pore space generated by the dissolution of calcite was one order of magnitude larger than that of dolomite and gypsum. In zone II (saturation index of calcite βc > 1 to saturation index of dolomite βd ≤ 1 the corrosion moduli were all smaller than that in zone I, the solubility of dolomite and gypsum increased, and calcite reached saturation. The space occupied by the calcite sediment was less than that dissolved by dolomite and gypsum. In zone III (saturation index of dolomite βd > 1 to saturation index of gypsum βg ≤ 1, calcite and dolomite had reached saturation, accompanied by dedolomitization, and the amount of gypsum dissolution increased obviously. The conclusions indicate that the hydrogeochemical environment plays an important role in mineral dissolution.

  7. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources. - Highlights: • PFASs were detected in the soil of rapidly developing coastal regions in China. • PFAS concentrations ranged from LOQ to 13.97 ng/g dw, with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. • Higher concentrations of PFASs correspond to higher levels of urbanization. • Existence of fluorine industry induced PFAS pollutions dominated by PFOA and PFOS. • Intensive urbanization caused increasing emission of industrial and domestic PFASs. - Among urban, suburban and rural areas in the coasts, soils from urban area showed high degrees of PFASs contamination with the existence of industrial emissions dominated by PFOA and PFOS

  8. Long-range air transport of dioxin from North American sources to ecologically vulnerable receptors in Nunavut, Arctic Canada. Final report to the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commoner, B.; Woods Bartlett, P.; Eisl, H.; Couchot, K. [City University of New York, Queens College, Center for Biology of Natural Systems, New York, NY (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This study was commissioned by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (NACEC). It was designed to model on a continental scale the rates of deposition of airborne dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDD/PCDF) in the Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut and to identify the major contributing North American sources. The study was commissioned in response to findings showing twice the level of dioxin concentration in the milk of Inuit mothers than that observed in southern Quebec, despite the fact that there are no significant sources of dioxin in Nunavut or within 500 kms of its boundaries. This high concentration is attributed to indigenous diet, i. e. traditional foods such as caribou, fish and marine mammals, which in turn ingest it from airborne sources through the terrestrial food chain, chiefly through lichen, mosses, shrubs and marine algae. Since these avenues of entry into the food chain cannot be protected from airborne pollutants, remedial action must be directed at the sources that emit dioxin. Results of the study show that of the total North American annual emission of airborne dioxin (4,713 grams toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ)), Canadian sources account for 364 grams TEQ, United States sources for 2,937 TEQ, Mexican sources 1.412 grams TEQ, and emissions from sources within Nunavut a total of 0.12 grams TEQ. The North American national dioxin inventories include 44,091 sources, of which 5,343 are individual facilities such as trash-burning incinerators, the rest are sources such as backyard trash-burning in the United States and Mexico, but only a handful of sources are responsible for the deposition in Nunavut. The overall conclusion of the study confirm that atmospheric and ecological processes that carry dioxin from its numerous sources through terrestrial and marine food chains to human beings is a problem of continental dimensions. The challenge is to establish analytical methods and

  9. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Robert B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • No evidence for shallow groundwater contamination in Fayetteville Shale, Arkansas. • Methane in groundwater is low and likely associated with shallow aquifer processes. • No relationship between methane and salinity in groundwater and shale-gas wells. • δ 13 C CH4 and δ 13 C DIC suggest biogenic origin for dissolved methane. • Water-aquifer rock interaction controls majority of water chemistry. - Abstract: Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH 4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ 13 C CH4 ), and select isotope tracers (δ 11 B, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, δ 2 H, δ 18 O, δ 13 C DIC ) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH 4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH 4 /L. The δ 13 C CH4 of dissolved CH 4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH 4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH 4 . The majority of

  10. Surficial Geologic Map of the Worcester North-Oxford- Wrentham-Attleboro Nine-Quadrangle Area in South- Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of nine 7.5-minute quadrangles (417 mi2 total) in south-central Massachusetts (fig. 1). Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and in resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, or organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. The mapped distribution of surficial materials that lie between the land surface and the bedrock surface is based on detailed geologic mapping of 7.5-minute topographic quadrangles, produced as part of an earlier (1938-1982) cooperative statewide mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (now Massachusetts Highway Department) (Page, 1967; Stone, 1982). Each published geologic map presents a detailed description of local geologic map units, the genesis of the deposits, and age correlations among units. Previously unpublished field compilation maps exist on paper or mylar sheets and these have been digitally rendered for the present map compilation. Regional summaries based on the Massachusetts surficial geologic mapping

  11. Retrieval of Optical Parameters From Seawifs Observations Over The Pomme Area (north-est Atlantic): Biogeochemical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, H.; Nicolas, J.-M.; Merien, D.; Claustre, H.; Sciandra, A.; Becu, G.; Deschamps, P.-Y.

    Since the success of the first ocean color instrument, the Coastal Zone Color Sen- sor (CZCS), the interpretation of ocean color in terms of phytoplankton pigment (the chlorophyll, Chl) is now well recognized. The chlorophyll data, as detected from space, are now currently used to constraint oceanic biological models. New gener- ation of biological models now integrate explicitly 2 or more species of plankton, as well as dissolved organic and particulate matter, DOC and POC, respectively. The as- sessment of such information from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor and inverse modeling will be discussed. In the frame of the POMME (Programme Océan Multidisciplinaire Méso-Echelle) project we will present the seasonal variability of the absorption, a, the backscattering, bb, and the scattering, b, coefficients as retrieved from SeaWiFS observations over the POMME area. These optical parameters will be compared with in situ measurements made during winter, spring and summer 2001, and biological information derived from these optical properties retrieved at different wavelengths will be presented.

  12. The effects of fuel reduction treatments on runoff, infiltration and erosion in two shrubland areas in the north of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A; Fonturbel, Teresa

    2012-08-30

    The immediate effects of prescribed burning, shrub clearing and shrub mastication on runoff, infiltration and erosion were evaluated in two contrasting shrubland areas in northern Spain. Rainfall simulations (67 mm h(-1) for 30 min) were conducted immediately after fuel reduction treatments in each runoff plot. Compared to shrub mastication and shrub clearing, prescribed burning generated the lowest infiltration rate and highest runoff and erosion rates at both study sites. However, sediment yields measured immediately after treatments were low in all cases, from 0.31 to 2.22 g m(-2) after shrub clearing, 0.40-1.63 g m(-2) after shrub mastication and 2.30-8.11 g m(-2) after prescribed burning. Slope, type of fuel reduction treatment and the depth and cover of the soil organic layer remaining after treatment were the most important variables determining runoff and erosion during the first rainfall event following treatment. In the rainfall simulation plots subjected to prescribed burning, the maximum temperatures reached at the organic layer/mineral soil interface during burning also had a significant effect on soil loss. The findings show that good fuel management prescriptions make fire hazard reduction and soil conservation compatible in cases where the remaining soil cover is about 70%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Knoxville 10 x 20 NTMS area, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee: data release. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baucom, E.I.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1979-05-01

    Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at 1430 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 14 square kilometers (five square miles) in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 791 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 25 square kilometers (ten square miles). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) well depth, (3) elemental analyses (U, Br, Cl, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Supplementary data include site descriptors (well age, frequency of use of well, etc.) and tabulated analytical data for Al and Dy. Key data from stream sediment sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) important elemental analyses (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, and V). Supplementary data from stream sediment sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) and additional elemental analyses

  14. [Review comments on the Draft DOE Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project]: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutch, S.I.; Stiegliltz, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    Research performed under the grant primarily involved review and comment on the Draft Area Recommendations Report (DARR). However, because data and ''recommendations'' included in the DARR are unquestionably tied to years of research and dozens of technical reports and documents, i.e., Screening Methodologies, Regional characterization Reports, etc., it is essential that consultants to the Menominee Tribe review all the relevant DOE documents, working papers, etc. Given the short period provided for technical comment and limited funds available to the Tribe, a well designed and thorough technical review was (and is) without question impossible. What review and comment that did occur on a geotechnical level is included in this report

  15. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  16. Seismic VSP and HSP surveys on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, J.; Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.

    1992-10-01

    Seismic reflection surveys in boreholes were carried out for Teollisuuden Voima Oy at five sites in Finland (Eurajoki Olkiluoto, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Kuhmo Romuvaara and Sievi Syyry). The vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) surveys were a part of the investigation programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose was to detect fractured zones, lithological contacts and other anomalies in the structure of the rockmass and to determine their position and orientation. Horizontal Seismic Profiling (HSP) was used at the Olkiluoto site, additionally to VSP. The data has been organized in profiles containing seismograms recorded from the same shotpoint (shot gathers). One of the most powerful processing methods used with this project has been the Image Space Filtering, a new technique, which has been developed (in the project) for seismic reflection studies in crystalline rock. The method can be applied with other rock types where steeply inclined or vertical anomalies are of interest. It acts like a multichannel filter, enhancing the reflected events and also as an interpretation tool, to estimate the strength and position of the reflectors. This approach has been of great help in emphasizing the weak reflections from uneven and sometimes vanishing interfaces encountered in crystalline

  17. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  18. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-term nitrogen losses by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal: A study at micro-plot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R V; Serpa, D; Machado, A I; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Santos, L F; Taboada-Castro, M T; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decades, wildfires have affected extensive areas of the Mediterranean region with negative impacts on the environment. Most of the studies on fire-affected areas have focused on sediment losses by overland flow, whereas few have addressed post-fire nutrient export. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing nitrogen (nitrate and total nitrogen) losses by overland flow in a recently burnt area in north-central Portugal. To this end, three burnt slopes were selected for their contrasting forest types (eucalypt vs. pine) and parent materials (granite vs. schist). The selected study sites were a eucalypt site on granite (BEG), a eucalypt site on schist (BES) and a maritime pine site on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire on a 1- to 2-weekly basis, after which this study had to be cancelled due to bench terracing of some of the sites. A peak in total nitrogen concentrations was observed in burnt areas immediately after the first post-fire rainfall event as a response to the erosion of the N-enriched ash layer. After this initial peak, smaller peaks were observed throughout the study period, mainly as a response to overland flow and/or erosion events. Nitrogen export differed strikingly between the two types of forests on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than at the pine site, due to the lack of a protective soil layer. Parent material did not play an important role on nitrogen export by overland flow since no significant differences were found between the eucalypt sites on granite and schist. The present study provides some insight into the differences in post-fire soil fertility losses between forest types and parent materials in the Mediterranean region, which is crucial information for defining post-fire land management measures to reduce soil degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Final environmental statement related to the operation of North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of Operating Licenses to the Virginia Electric and Power Company for the startup and operation of the North Anna Power Station, Units No. 1 and 2, located on Lake Anna in Louisa County, 40 miles east of Charlottesville, Virginia. The information in this second addendum responds to the Commission's directive that the staff address in narrative form the environmental dose commitments and health effects from fuel cycle releases, fuel cycle socioeconomic impacts, and possible cumulative impacts pending further treatment by rulemaking

  1. Investigation of connections among physical, social and economic factors in case of optimal Land Use System Planning in the Egri-Bükkalja Foothill Area of North Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Anna; Utasi, Zoltán; Tóth, Antal; Csabai Kitti, Edina; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Hegyi, Balázs; Tamás Hegyi, Péter; Pásztor, László; Mika, János

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, detailed knowledge of landscape elements and their capabilties, furthermore the probable tendency of climate change play important role in spatial planning of optimal land use system and solving agricultural and social challeges. During our research work, we have investigated three settlements (Cserépfalu, Egerszólát, Kerecsend) based on different landscape factors in the Egri-Bükkalja Fothill Areas of North Hungary. Our aim was to point out the landscape differences along north - south direction inside this microlandscape unit and their effects on land use system, economic developments, social challenges and their changeable tendency in the future We have investigated quantitative and qualitative connections among different landscape factors in suitable GIS environment. Based on the identified relationships thematic maps were compiled. The elaborated GIS integrates digitally processed legacy data, properly selected spatial data infrastructure elements and recently collected field data originating from our geomopholgical and pedological investigations carried out in last three years. We discribed soil features in soil profiles using methods according to FAO (2006) and Novák (2013). Soils were featured by soil type, the thickness of A horizon and the rate of soil erosion. Projected climate changes have also been considered for the region. Besides collection of the available recent OAGCM outputs and outputs by four RCM run in Hungary, an empirical approach has been also included. This is based on empirical regression relationship between relevant grid-point values of the CarpatClim data base and the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. Land use maps were created based on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Military Survey Maps and aerial photographs covering a relatively long period from the 18th century till nowadays. Main social and economic factors and processes were characterized using data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, population census and

  2. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials, phase 2. Final report, 9 May 1988-9 May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrigley, C.Y.; Storti, G.M.; Walter, L.; Mathews, S.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents work done under a Phase 2 SBIR contract for demonstrating large area detector planes utilizing Quantex electron trapping materials as a film medium for storing high-energy nuclide impingement information. The detector planes utilize energy dissipated by passage of the high-energy nuclides to produce localized populations of electrons stored in traps. Readout of the localized trapped electron populations is effected by scanning the ET plane with near-infrared, which frees the trapped electrons and results in optical emission at visible wavelengths. The effort involved both optimizing fabrication technology for the detector planes and developing a readout system capable of high spatial resolution for displaying the recorded nuclide passage tracks

  3. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing -- Final environmental impact statement. Volume 2: Sections 1--16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  4. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing final environmental impact statement. Volume 4: Appendixes B-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alter native

  5. The research project on technical information basis for aging management in Fukui and Kinki area. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Kimiya; Nagayama, Shigeru; Watarumi, Chikae; Toudou, Tsugihiko

    2011-01-01

    The Research Project on Technical Information Basis for Aging Management was initiated in FY2006 by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) as a five-year program effectively, to promote aging management of domestic nuclear power plants. Its main objective was to improve the technical basis on which aging nuclear power plants are regulated. Upon taking part in the technical strategy map for Aging Management and Safe Long Term Operation, the experiences and achievements of the participating organizations were taken into account and the following four topics were chosen. The regional characteristics of the Fukui and Kinki area where 15 nuclear power plants, mainly PWRs, and many nuclear related research institutes and universities are located, were also considered. 1) The improvement of pipe thinning management in nuclear power plants, 2) The development of inspection techniques to monitor the initiation and propagation of defects, 3) The development of a guideline for evaluating weld repair methods, 4) The development of a guideline for evaluating the degradation of main structures. To promote this research project, INSS has established a regional consortium (called the 'Fukui Regional Cluster' in coordination with universities, research institutes, electric utilities and venders in the Fukui and Kinki area. INSS is acting as a coordinator to make contracts, facilitate execution, and compile annual reports. In FY2010, 11 continuing research subjects were proposed for this project and all were accepted. Of these, 5 subjects were related to the first topic (pipe thinning), 4 subjects to the second topic (inspection technique) and 1 subject to each of the other two topics (weld repair and main structures). All the subjects have been completed, fulfilling the requirements and expectations. (author)

  6. SOIL 222Rn CONCENTRATION, CO2 AND CH4 FLUX MEASUREMENTS AROUND THE JWALAMUKHI AREA OF NORTH-WEST HIMALAYAS, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Fu, Ching-Chou; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Arora, Vishal

    2016-10-01

    Soil 222 Rn concentration, CO 2 and CH 4 flux measurements were conducted around the Jwalamukhi area of North-West Himalayas, India. During this study, around 37 soil gas points and flux measurements were taken with the aim to assure the suitability of this method in the study of fault zones. For this purpose, RAD 7 (Durridge, USA) was used to monitor radon concentrations, whereas portable diffuse flux meter (West Systems, Italy) was used for the CO 2 and CH 4 flux measurements. The recorded radon concentration varies from 6.1 to 34.5 kBq m -3 with an average value of 16.5 kBq m -3 The anomalous value of radon concentrations was recorded between Jwalamukhi thrust and Barsar thrust. The recorded average of CO 2 and CH 4 flux were 11.8 and 2.7 g m -2 day -1 , respectively. The good correlation between anomalous CO 2 flux and radon concentrations has been observed along the fault zone in the study area, suggesting that radon migration is dependent on CO 2 . © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Rural population mixing and childhood leukaemia: effects of the North Sea oil industry in Scotland, including the area near Dounreay nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinlen, L.J.; O'Brien, F.; Clarke, K.; Balkwill, A.; Matthews, F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was associated with certain striking examples of population mixing in rural Scotland produced by the North Sea oil industry. Details were traced for over 30 000 workers (25 yrs old) involved in the construction of the large oil terminals in the Shetland and Orkney islands in northern Scotland or employed offshore. Home addresses of the 17160 Scottish residents were postcoded, integrated with census data, and then classified as urban or rural. Rural postcode sectors, ranked by proportion of oil workers, were grouped into three categories with similar numbers of children but contrasting densities of oil workers. The incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was examined in these rural (and also in urban) categories in the periods 1974-8, 1979-83 and 1984-8. A significant excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found in 1979-83 in the group of rural home areas with the largest proportion of oil workers, following closely on large increases in the workforce. The area near the Dounreay nuclear installation, where an excess of leukaemia is already well known, was within the rural high oil category. (Author)

  8. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  9. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañadas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between around 49°-55° N especially between 20°-30°W. An illustrative example of spatial modelling is presented. Only for 1 year (and part of the total survey area were there sufficient data to attempt to estimate abundance: 1995. The estimated abundance in the W Block of the NASS-95 Faroese survey was 273,159 (cv=0.26; 95% CI=153,392-435,104 short-beaked common dolphins. This estimate is corrected for animals missed on the trackline (g(0 and for responsive movement.

  10. Final report on the sampling and analysis of sediment cores from the L-Area oil and chemical basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    Nine vibracores were collected in the L-Area oil and chemical basin (904-83G) during late March and early April 1985. These cores were collected for analysis of the sludge on the basin floor and the underlying sediment. Several different field and laboratory analyses were performed on each three inch segment of all the cores. These included: (1) Sediment characterization; (2) Percent moisture; (3) Dry weight; (4) Spectral gamma analysis; (5) Gross alpha and beta analysis. Detailed chemical analysis were measured on selected intervals of 2 cores (LBC-5 and 6) for complete chemical characterization of the sediments. This sampling program was conducted to provide information so that a closure plan for the basin could be developed. This report describes the methods employed during the project and provide a hard copy of the analytical results from the sample analyses. Included in the appendices are copies of all field and laboratory notes taken during the project and copies of the gas chromatograms for the petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. All chemical results were also submitted on a 5-inch floppy disk.

  11. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran: final results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, F.; Haeri, S.A.; Rajabpour, M.R.; Ahmadpour, M.J.; Kanda, R.; Hayata, I.; Nakamura, S.; Sugahara, T.

    2010-01-01

    The absorbed radiation dose of each individual in the HLNRA and the control area was estimated from the dose measured by an electronic pocket dosimeter (EPDTM) for one day and an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) for one month. The accumulated doses per year and whole life in all individuals were estimated by both types of dosimeters. Using chromosomal aberrations as the main endpoint to assess the dose-effect relationship in residents of HLNRA, no positive correlation was found between the frequency of dicentric and centric ring aberrations and the cumulative dose of the inhabitants. These results as well as the earlier studies clearly show that individuals residing in HLNRAS of Ramsar have an increased frequency of detectable abnormalities in unstable aberrations. Due to some difficulties, the shape of the dose response has yet to be determined. In this paper, the methodologies applied and the results obtained from the most recent chromosome aberration studies in HLNRAS of Ramsar will be reviewed and discussed in order to conclude results and better understand such effects in particular in individuals of very HLNRAS of Ramsar. (author)

  12. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the exterior land areas at the Grand Junction Projects Office facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility occupies approximately 56.4 acres (22.8 hectares) along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. The site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium-refining activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot-milling experiments conducted for the US Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC`s) domestic uranium procurement program. The GJPO facility was the collection and assay point for AEC uranium and vanadium oxide purchases until the early 1970s. The DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program sponsored the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to remediate the facility lands, site improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor, Rust Geotech, was the Remedial Action Contractor for GJPORAP. The exterior land areas of the facility assessed as contaminated have been remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unrestricted use. Restoration of the aquifer will be accomplished through the natural flushing action of the aquifer during the next 50 to 80 years. The remediation of the DOE-GJPO facility buildings is ongoing and will be described in a separate report.

  13. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, S.

    1991-05-01

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole

  14. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  15. Hair Zinc: an Index for Zinc Status in Under-Five Children from Low-Income Communities in Kanam Area of North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaryum, Kiri H; Okoye, Zebulon Sunday C; Stoecker, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of trace elements are among the top ten causes of death in Sub Saharan Africa. In Kanam Local Government Area of Nigeria, the problem is compounded by high levels of poverty and illiteracy. Abnormally low hair zinc levels are important, sensitive diagnostic biochemical indices of Zinc deficiency. The purpose of this study is to assess the zinc status of children less than 5 years in Kanam local government area, north-central Nigeria, by measuring the zinc level in hair samples collected from 44 under-5 children across the area. A household survey was made to assess the pattern and frequency of consumption of zinc-rich foods which was done by means of questionnaire. Hair samples were analysed for zinc content by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The data were analysed statistically using the Student's t test, z test, and Pearson correlation, while questionnaire-captured data were analysed by simple arithmetic. The results of the analyses showed that the average hair zinc level was 74.35 ± 48.05 μg/g. This was below the normal range of 130-140 μg/g, for children less than 5 years. Based on the results, 86.36% have hair zinc level below the lower limit of the normal range of 130 μg/g. Between the gender, boys have higher hair zinc content than girls. Data from the questionnaire showed that 53.45% of the population studied have poor/inadequate intake of zinc-rich foods of animal origin, a dietary behaviour reported to predispose to micronutrient deficiency, including zinc.

  16. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  17. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2014-03-24

    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  18. The identification of critical groups and its application to fish and shellfish consumers in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Hewett, C.J.; Shepherd, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Control of radioactive waste disposal to the environment, based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), necessitates an identification of the critical group of members of the public exposed from a given practice. Criteria for identification of critical groups based mainly on ICRP recommendations are discussed. Methods existing up to 1974 are briefly reviewed in the light of these criteria. Two more recent methods are described and compared on the basis of previous data; these methods, which are complementary, are based on homogeneity considerations and satisfy the criteria generally rather better than do the earlier methods. The application of the newer techniques to recent surveys of fish and shellfish consumption in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea is described, in relation to discharges from the Windscale reprocessing plant. The results of this survey are presented, and estimates are given of the effective dose equivalent to members of these critical groups in recent years, to show the effect of liquid discharges from Windscale in terms of public radiation exposure. (author)

  19. EVALUATION OF TROPHIC STATUS OF AGRAKHAN BAY (THE NORTH CASPIAN SEA AS A PART OF ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gadzhiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Hydrochemical composition of waters of Agrakhan Bay (the North Caspian Sea, degree of pollution, structure and quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos is given in the paper. Evaluation of a trophic status of the bay and seasonal trophodynamics are given as a result of study.Material and methods. The study is based on original materials from expeditions of 2012 (Autumn and 2013 (Spring and Summer in Agrakhan Bay. The complex materials are collected on stations with distance 3.5 km. Totally was made 16 marine stations, where samples of water, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthos were taken.Results. Agrakhan Bay is eutrophic by level of dissolved oxygen and its BOD. However, the oxygen deficiency is not observed. concentration of oxygen is high almost in all seasons, that has a beneficial effect on hydrobionts. Seasonal dynamics indicates that Agrakhansky bay is oligotrophic within a year, but its trophic status increases to mesotrophic and even to hypertrophic in some periods. The northern part ща the bay is eutrophic. Difference in trophic levels of different parts of the bay is the result of significant differences in depth and area of water surface.Conclusions. Anthropogenic impact on Agrakhan Bay increases its trophic status. Seasonal trophic level of Agrakhan Gulf except natural processes depends on the "purity" of the Terek River sediments, which are the main source of biogenic elements. Typically, the absolute concentration of biogenic elements in Agrakhan Bay increases with the increase of eutrophication.

  20. Seasonal variations of natural radionuclides, minor and trace elements in lake sediments and water in a lignite mining area of North-Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Fotini; Tsamos, Panagiotis

    2018-05-01

    The radiological and chemical pollution of a cluster of four lakes in a lignite mining area of North-Western Greece was investigated using a variety of analytical techniques. Alpha spectrometry was applied to measure the activity concentrations of the uranium radioisotopes (U-234, U-235, and U-238) in waters. The mass activities of U-238, Th-232, and K-40 in sediments were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the determination of the minor and trace elements was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in both water and sediments samples, respectively. Pollution levels were also evaluated by calculating enrichment factors (EFs), contamination factors (CFs) and pollution load index (PLI). The data were discussed taking into account several parameters such as the distance from the pollution source, temperature, and location and showed that the environmental impact in this region could not be considered as negligible. The deviation of the isotopic ratio of U-234/U-238 from the equilibrium value indicated waters with intensive dissolution of uranium. The activity values in both waters and sediments found to be low in cool periods and increased in warm periods. Moreover, the concentrations of the elements U, Zn, and Fe were raised in water samples indicating possible pollution as well as the CFs and PLI denoted accumulation in the sediments and moderate to severe contamination for Zn and Cr in some cases.

  1. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  2. Distinct microbial populations are tightly linked to the profile of dissolved iron in the methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatobi Emmanuel Oni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron reduction in subseafloor sulfate-depleted and methane-rich marine sediments is currently a subject of interest in subsurface geomicrobiology. While iron reduction and microorganisms involved have been well studied in marine surface sediments, little is known about microorganisms responsible for iron reduction in deep methanic sediments. Here, we used quantitative PCR (Q-PCR-based 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and pyrosequencing-based relative abundances of bacteria and archaea to investigate covariance between distinct microbial populations and specific geochemical profiles in the top 5 m of sediment cores from the Helgoland mud area, North Sea. We found that gene copy numbers of bacteria and archaea were specifically higher around the peak of dissolved iron in the methanic zone (250-350 cm. The higher copy numbers at these depths were also reflected by the relative sequence abundances of members of the candidate division JS1, methanogenic and Methanohalobium/ANME-3 related archaea. The distribution of these populations was strongly correlated to the profile of pore-water Fe2+ while that of Desulfobacteraceae corresponded to the pore-water sulfate profile. Furthermore, specific JS1 populations also strongly co-varied with the distribution of Methanosaetaceae in the methanic zone. Our data suggest that the interplay among JS1 bacteria, methanogenic archaea and Methanohalobium/ANME-3-related archaea may be important for iron reduction and methane cycling in deep methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area and perhaps in other methane-rich depositional environments.

  3. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  4. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  5. Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence studies on sediments from the methanic zone of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, B. F. O. [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Physics Department (Portugal); Blumers, M.; Shylin, S. I.; Ksenofontov, V. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Germany); Oni, O. [University of Bremen, Microbial Ecophysiology group, Faculty of Biology/Chemistry (Germany); Kasten, S.; Fischer, D. [University of Bremen, MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (Germany); Wagenknecht, L. [Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (Germany); Kulkarni, A.; Friedrich, M. W. [University of Bremen, Microbial Ecophysiology group, Faculty of Biology/Chemistry (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G., E-mail: klingel@mail.uni-mainz.de [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were used to determine the identity of iron(III) oxides in surface (top 30 cm ) and subsurface (> 30 cm – 500 cm)sediments from the Helgoland mud area in the German Bight of the North Sea. A 500 cm-long sediment core was cut in 25 cm sections while only the top 10 cm of a 30 cm-long sediment core was sampled. Using a MIMOS spectrometer, MS spectra were recorded at 293 K (RT) in backscattering geometry. At 80 K and 5.5 K, MS analysis was carried out in transmission geometry. At RT and 80 K only illite was observed, but at 5.5 K lepidocrocite was revealed in the MS spectra. The relation between Fe(III) and Fe(II) doublets of illite did not significantly vary with depth, but the relative amount of lepidocrocite increased with depth reaching about 24 % of iron phases, as revealed by MS. XRF measurements showed that the amount of Fe in the sediments varied with depth but was always less than 4 % of total elemental composition. The main component of the sediment was silica and its depth profile alternated with those of other elements, especially aluminium and iron. It was observed that elevated concentrations of dissolved iron in the subsurface sediment of the Helgoland mud area correlated with the depth-wise distribution of distinct microbial populations presumably due to microbial reduction of excess bioavailable iron minerals such as lepidocrocite. These results are thus, important in the context of microbe-mineral interactions in marine sediments as iron oxides are an electron acceptor for microbial anaerobic respiration.

  6. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m3 and 114 ng/m3, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m3. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban–rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%–77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air–soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m2/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air–soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs. PMID:21669328

  7. The application of isotope techniques to the assessment of aquifer systems in major urban areas. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    Aquifer systems in most urban areas have been impacted to varying degrees by sustained exploitation and the future availability of water is being threatened by depleting aquifers or water quality degradation. Improved methods for the assessment and management of groundwater resources in major urban areas, therefore, are issues of high priority for most countries. The IAEA has, over last four decades, co-ordinated the development, adaptation, and testing of isotope techniques for hydrological applications. A number of techniques and methodologies that are now established for water resources management are potentially useful for characterizing the short and long term changes resulting from the extensive use of aquifers in and near urban areas. The application of isotope techniques in urban hydrology was the focus of this co-ordinated research project (CRP). This report provides the final results of the CRP, and is expected to be of interest to scientists, managers and planners involved in water resources assessment in urban areas. This publication contains seven individual reports, each of them was indexed separately

  8. Radioactivity level and toxic elemental concentration in groundwater at Dei-Dei and Kubwa areas of Abuja, north-central Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, O.; Wagiran, H.; Lee, S. K.; Embong, Z.; Ugwuoke, P. E.

    2015-02-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and toxic elements in Dei-Dei borehole, Kubwa borehole, Water Board and hand-dug well water samples in Abuja area were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system. The results obtained were used to calculate human radiological risk over lifetime consumption by the inhabitants in the area. The activity concentrations of 238U in all the water supplies for drinking ranges from 0.849 mBq L-1 to 2.699 mBq L-1 with the highest value of 2.699 mBq L-1 noted at Dei-Dei borehole whereas the lowest value of 0.849 mBq L-1 was noted in Kubwa borehole. The highest annual effective dose from natural 238U in all the water samples was found in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 8.9×10-5 mSv y-1 whereas the lowest value was noted in Kubwa borehole with a value of 2.8×10-5 mSv y-1. The radiological risks for cancer mortality were found distinctly low, with the highest value of 1.01×10-7 reported at Dei-Dei borehole compared to Kubwa borehole with a value of 3.01×10-8. The cancer morbidity risk was noted higher in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 1.55×10-7 whereas lower value of 4.88×10-9 was reported in Kubwa borehole. The chemical toxicity risk of 238U in drinking water over a lifetime consumption has a value of 0.006 μg kg-1 day-1 in Dei-Dei borehole whereas lower value of 0.002 μg kg-1 day-1 was found in Kubwa borehole. Measured lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) concentrations reported higher in Water Board compared to Dei-Dei and Kubwa borehole samples. Significantly, this study inferred that the 238U concentrations originate from granitic strata of the tectonic events in the area; thus, there was a trend of diffusion towards north to south and re-deposition towards Dei-Dei area.

  9. Radioactivity level and toxic elemental concentration in groundwater at Dei-Dei and Kubwa areas of Abuja, north-central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.; Wagiran, H.; Lee, S.K.; Embong, Z.; Ugwuoke, P.E

    2015-01-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and toxic elements in Dei-Dei borehole, Kubwa borehole, Water Board and hand-dug well water samples in Abuja area were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system. The results obtained were used to calculate human radiological risk over lifetime consumption by the inhabitants in the area. The activity concentrations of 238 U in all the water supplies for drinking ranges from 0.849 mBq L −1 to 2.699 mBq L −1 with the highest value of 2.699 mBq L −1 noted at Dei-Dei borehole whereas the lowest value of 0.849 mBq L −1 was noted in Kubwa borehole. The highest annual effective dose from natural 238 U in all the water samples was found in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 8.9×10 −5 mSv y −1 whereas the lowest value was noted in Kubwa borehole with a value of 2.8×10 −5 mSv y −1 . The radiological risks for cancer mortality were found distinctly low, with the highest value of 1.01×10 −7 reported at Dei-Dei borehole compared to Kubwa borehole with a value of 3.01×10 −8 . The cancer morbidity risk was noted higher in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 1.55×10 −7 whereas lower value of 4.88×10 −9 was reported in Kubwa borehole. The chemical toxicity risk of 238 U in drinking water over a lifetime consumption has a value of 0.006 μg kg −1 day −1 in Dei-Dei borehole whereas lower value of 0.002 μg kg −1 day −1 was found in Kubwa borehole. Measured lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) concentrations reported higher in Water Board compared to Dei-Dei and Kubwa borehole samples. Significantly, this study inferred that the 238 U concentrations originate from granitic strata of the tectonic events in the area; thus, there was a trend of diffusion towards north to south and re-deposition towards Dei-Dei area. - Highlights: • The estimation of human radiological risk over lifetime consumption. • Determination of radiological risks. • The annual effective dose of 238 U in drinking

  10. 'Save the North Sea' Fulmar Study 2002-2004: a regional pilot project for the Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the OSPAR area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Heubeck, M.; Fairclough, K.; Turner, D.M.; Grantham, M.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Guse, N.; Pedersen, J.; Olsen, K.O.; Andersson, P.J.; Olsen, B.

    2005-01-01

    North Sea Ministers at the Bergen Conference in 2002 decided that monitoring of marine plastic litter in stomachs of seabirds should become one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives for the North Sea (EcoQO's)'. The task of implementation was delegated to OSPAR, which covers the wider northeast

  11. Chemical characteristics of size-resolved atmospheric aerosols in Iasi, north-eastern Romania: nitrogen-containing inorganic compounds control aerosol chemistry in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgiana Galon-Negru, Alina; Iulian Olariu, Romeo; Arsene, Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    This study assesses the effects of particle size and season on the content of the major inorganic and organic aerosol ionic components in the Iasi urban area, north-eastern Romania. Continuous measurements were carried out over 2016 using a cascade Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) performing aerosol size classification in 13 specific fractions over the 0.0276-9.94 µm size range. Fine-particulate Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, and K+ exhibited clear minima during the warm season and clear maxima over the cold season, mainly due to trends in emission sources, changes in the mixing layer depth and specific meteorological conditions. Fine-particulate SO42- did not show much variation with respect to seasons. Particulate NH4+ and NO3- ions were identified as critical parameters controlling aerosol chemistry in the area, and their measured concentrations in fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols were found to be in reasonable good agreement with modelled values for winter but not for summer. The likely reason is that NH4NO3 aerosols are lost due to volatility over the warm season. We found that NH4+ in PM2.5 is primarily associated with SO42- and NO3- but not with Cl-. Actually, indirect ISORROPIA-II estimations showed that the atmosphere in the Iasi area might be ammonia rich during both the cold and warm seasons, enabling enough NH3 to be present to neutralize H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl acidic components and to generate fine-particulate ammonium salts, in the form of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl. ISORROPIA-II runs allowed us to estimate that over the warm season ˜ 35 % of the total analysed samples had very strongly acidic pH (0-3), a fraction that rose to ˜ 43 % over the cold season. Moreover, while in the cold season the acidity is mainly accounted for by inorganic acids, in the warm ones there is an important contribution by other compounds, possibly organic. Indeed, changes in aerosol acidity would most likely impact the gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic acids. Overall, we

  12. Long-term effects of climate change on the hydrological system of a lowland area at the German North Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Baroni, Gabriele; Krause, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In particular for the winter season, global sea level rise is expected to be combined with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency. During summer, due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration with an increase of groundwater intrusion has been observed. It is expected that the salinization of the surface will rise under drier conditions by upward seeping groundwater. Coastal water resource management requires a better understanding and predictions of these dynamic systems. Therefore, a long-term monitoring programme has been established at the German North Sea coast, located at the estuary of the River Ems. The research area is dominated by a dense canal system that is regulated by pumping stations and tidal gates. Landuse of the area is mainly dairy farming with 30 % of the area below sea level. The underlying aquifer is confined and brackish, and it is connected to the surface water by geological faults of old paleo-channels. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. This study investigates the effects of climate change on water balance and salt transport by applying regional climate models (RCMs) based on the IPCC emission scenarios for the period until 2100 as drivers for a hydrological and solute transport model. To investigate the impact of different meteorological scenarios, the RCM results for the climate scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 are used to cover an increase of future temperature between 1 and 3.5 K. As changes in water level and salinity are expected to influence vegetation patterns (and water management aims to guaranty agricultural use) two alternative landuse scenarios are considered. The first scenario assumes that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration

  13. Spatial and seasonal variations of pesticide contamination in agricultural soils and crops sample from an intensive horticulture area of Hohhot, North-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujin; He, Jiang; Yao, Yiping; Hou, Dekun; Jiang, Cai; Zhang, Xinxin; Di, Caixia; Otgonbayar, Khureldavaa

    2013-08-01

    The spatial variability and temporal trend in concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), in soils and agricultural corps were investigated on an intensive horticulture area in Hohhot, North-West China, from 2008 to 2011. The most frequently found and abundant pesticides were the metabolites of DDT (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD). Total DDT concentrations ranged from ND (not detectable) to 507.41 ng/g and were higher than the concentration of total HCHs measured for the range of 4.84-281.44 ng/g. There were significantly positive correlations between the ∑DDT and ∑HCH concentrations (r (2)>0.74) in soils, but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of OCPs in soils and clay content while a relatively strong correlation was found between total OCP concentrations and total organic carbon (TOC). β-HCH was the main isomer of HCHs, and was detected in all samples; the maximum proportion of β-HCH compared to ∑HCHs (mean value 54%) was found, suggesting its persistence. The α/γ-HCH ratio was between 0.89 and 5.39, which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in N1, N3 and N9 were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs, while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) in soils do not indicate recent inputs of DDT into Hohhot farmland soil environment. Seasonal variations of OCPs featured higher concentrations in autumn and lower concentrations in spring. This was likely associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization and application of dicofol in late spring.

  14. Sources and Health Risks of Heavy Metals in PM2.5 in a Campus in a Typical Suburb Area of Taiyuan, North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate air pollution and the public health burden of heavy metals in PM2.5 in a campus with a population of approximately 40,000 in a typical suburb area of Taiyuan, North China, PM2.5 measurements were conducted during the spring and winter of 2016. The average concentrations of PM2.5 in spring and winter were 97.3 ± 35.2 µg m−3 and 205.9 ± 91.3 µg m−3, respectively. The order of concentration of heavy metals in PM2.5 was as follows: Zn > Pb > Mn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > As, in both spring and winter. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in winter and the concentrations of Cr in both spring and winter in this study were significantly higher than the corresponding air quality standard values. Road/soil dust, industrial emissions/coal combustion, and vehicle emissions/oil combustion and coal combustion/industrial emissions, road/soil dust, and vehicle emissions/oil combustion were identified by principal component analysis to be the major sources of heavy metals for spring and winter, respectively. The carcinogenic risks posed by Cr via the three exposure pathways (except for inhalation exposure to children and by Pb via ingestion exposure exceeded the acceptable level for both children and adults. The non-carcinogenic risks posed by Mn via inhalation for both children and adults, and by Cr and Pb for children via ingestion exceeded the acceptable level.

  15. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqin [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Tang, Changyuan, E-mail: cytang@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Wang, Qinxue [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yuan, Ruiqiang [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University (China)

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  16. Gender inequalities in excess adiposity and anaemia combine in a large double burden of malnutrition gap detrimental to women in an urban area in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Gartner, Agnès; Ben Gharbia, Houda; Delpeuch, Francis

    2016-06-01

    The nutrition transition has exacerbated the gender gap in health in the Middle East and North Africa region as the increase in excess adiposity has been much higher among women than men. This is not exclusive of the persistence of anaemia, generally also more prevalent among women. We assessed the magnitude and sociodemographic factors associated with gender inequality vis-à-vis the double burden of excess adiposity and anaemia. Cross-sectional study, stratified two-stage cluster sample. BMI (=weight/height2) ≥25·0 kg/m2 defined overweight and BMI≥30·0 kg/m2 obesity. Anaemia was defined as Hb Gender inequalities vis-à-vis the within-subject coexistence of excess adiposity and anaemia were assessed by women v. men relative prevalence ratios (RPR). Their variation with sociodemographic characteristics used models including gender × covariate interactions. Greater Tunis area in 2009-2010. Adults aged 20-49 years (women, n 1689; men, n 930). Gender inequalities in excess adiposity were high (e.g. overweight: women 64·9 % v. men 48·4 %; RPR=2·1; 95 % CI 1·6, 2·7) and much higher for anaemia (women 38·0 % v. men 7·2 %; RPR=8·2; 95 % CI 5·5, 12·4). They were striking for overweight and anaemia (women 24·1 % v. men 3·4 %; RPR=16·2; 95 % CI 10·3, 25·4). Gender inequalities in overweight adjusted for covariates increased with age but decreased with professional activity and household wealth score; gender inequality in anaemia or overweight and anaemia was more uniformly distributed. Women were much more at risk than men, from both over- and undernutrition perspectives. Both the underlying gender-related and sex-linked biological determinants of this remarkable double burden of malnutrition inequality must be addressed to promote gender equity in health.

  17. Preliminary study on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern related to the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratore, Patrizia; Zavatta, Emanuele; Fiocchi, Eleonora; Serafini, Emanuele; Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Bignami, Giorgia

    2017-10-20

    V. vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium, commonly found in estuarine and coastal habitats, that can infect humans through seafood consumption or wound exposure. This study represents the first attempt to correlate the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area, with their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. On the whole, 40 V. vulnificus strains, isolated from shellfish (n=20), different coastal water bodies (n=19), and the blood of a Carretta carretta turtle (n=1), were utilized. All strains were positive for the species-specific genes vvh A and hsp , with high variability for other markers: 55% (22 out of 40) resulted of the environmental (E) genotype ( vcg E, 16S rRNA type A, CPS2 or CPS0), 10% (4 out of 40) of the clinical (C) genotype ( vcg C, 16S rRNA type B, CPS1), and 35% (14 out of 40) of the mixed (M) genotype, possessing both E and C markers. The antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed by the diffusion method on agar, according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), utilizing the following commercial disks (Oxoid): ampicillin (AMP), ampicillin- sulbactam (SAM), piperacillin (PRL), cefazolin (KZ), cefotaxime(CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), amikacin (AK), gentamicin(CN), tetracycline(TE), ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LEV), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (C). 75% of the strains, (n=30) including all C strains, was sensitive to all the tested antibiotics, whereas E strains showed intermediate sensitivity to AK (2 strains), CIP and CAZ (1 strain), TE (1 strain) and resistance to KZ (1 strain), and 4 M strains showed I to AK.

  18. Applying citizen-science data and mark-recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant golden eagles in an important bird area in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Andrew J.; Duerr, Adam E.; Brandes, David; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of population abundance are important to wildlife management and conservation. However, it can be difficult to characterize the numbers of broadly distributed, low-density, and elusive bird species. Although Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare, difficult to detect, and broadly distributed, they are concentrated during their autumn migration at monitoring sites in eastern North America. We used hawk-count data collected by citizen scientists in a virtual mark–recapture modeling analysis to estimate the numbers of Golden Eagles that migrate in autumn along Kittatinny Ridge, an Important Bird Area in Pennsylvania, USA. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of our abundance estimates to variation in eagle capture histories, we applied candidate models to 8 different sets of capture histories, constructed with or without age-class information and using known mean flight speeds 6 1, 2, 4, or 6 SE for eagles to travel between hawk-count sites. Although some abundance estimates were produced by models that poorly fitted the data (ĉ > 3.0), 2 sets of population estimates were produced by acceptably performing models (cˆ less than or equal to 3.0). Application of these models to count data from November, 2002–2011, suggested a mean population abundance of 1,354 6 117 SE (range: 873–1,938). We found that Golden Eagles left the ridgeline at different rates and in different places along the route, and that typically ,50% of individuals were detected at the hawk-count sites. Our study demonstrates a useful technique for estimating population abundance that may be applicable to other migrant species that are repeatedly detected at multiple monitoring sites along a topographic diversion or leading line.

  19. Report for fiscal 1982 on comprehensive survey for nationwide geothermal resources. Preparation of lineament density maps - radar image analyses - in north-eastern area; 1982 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa hokokusho. Lineament mitsudozu sakusei (radar gazo kaiseki (Tohoku chiiki))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    Geological structure analysis maps and lineament maps were prepared on the north-eastern area and parts of the ancillary areas thereof by analyzing radar images of a 1 to 200,000 scale. With regard to the geological structures, analyses were performed by using as the original data the north look radar images for the three special geothermal areas to have prepared the geological structure analysis maps. The analysis of the radar images identified ground bed boundary lines in more detail than in the existing geological maps, and new discoveries were made available on faults. The lineament maps were compiled by implanting into respectively corresponding topographic maps the 24 N-S lineament maps made by the west look radar images for the whole surveyed areas, and the 16 E-W lineament maps made by the north look radar images for the special geothermal areas. Based on the clarity and characteristics deciphered on the images, the lineaments were classified into the major, minor, and subtle lineaments, which were indicated on the lineament maps. The lineaments were digitized by positions of the edge points, and the histograms and statistical tables were prepared by computer processing. (NEDO)

  20. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  1. Comparison of the intermediate storage periods and areas required for final storage of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in various types of host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, N.; Lerch, C.; Jobmann, M.; Filbert, W.

    2005-01-01

    The present new version of the German concept for radioactive waste and spent fuel management is based on the assumption that a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel will not be required until 2030. One reason frequently given for this date is the intermediate storage period of at least forty years to allow the very high initial heat generation to decay. However, calculations performed by the authors have shown that the minimum intermediate storage period for a repository in rock salt is only between four and nineteen years, depending on the final storage concept and the load of the waste package. In clay as a host rock, the minimum intermediate storage times were calculated to be between 31 and 142 years; the same time spans are expected to apply to final storage in magmatic rock, such as granite. The maximum permissible loads of a container holding spent fuel in salt are many times those in clay and granite, respectively. It was also seen that the area requirement for final storage of the same waste structures is roughly a factor of ten higher in clay than in salt. The differences between granite and salt are similar. The reasons for these grave differences, on the one hand, are the better thermal conductivity of salt and, on the other hand, the better heat tolerance of the crushed salt used as backfill material compared to that of bentonite used in the clay and granite concepts. While salt will allow temperatures of up to 200 C, the maximum temperature in bentonite is limited to 100 C. (orig.)

  2. The Variations and Trends of MODIS C5 & C6 Products’ Errors in the Recent Decade over the Background and Urban Areas of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With ten-year (2004–2013 ground-based observations of Beijing Forest (BJF and Beijing City (BJC sites in North China, we validated the high-quality MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 5 (C5 and Collection 6 (C6 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products’ precision and discussed the sensors degradation issues. The annual mean AOD and Angstrom exponent (α were 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.83 ± 0.15 in the background over the past ten years, and they were 0.59 ± 0.07 and 1.13 ± 0.08 in the urban, respectively. Ground-based AOD had both slightly declining trends, with variations of 0.023 and 0.057 over the past decade in the background and urban, respectively. There were large differences among the eight kinds of MODIS AOD products (Terra vs. Aqua, C5 vs. C6, DT (Deep Target vs. DB (Deep Blue, and DTDB in the background and urban areas, but all the products’ monthly errors had larger variations in the spring and summer, and smaller ones in the autumn and winter. In the background, more than 62% of DT matchups for C5 and C6 products were within NASA’s expected error (EE envelope. In the urban, 69%~72% of C6 DB retrievals were falling within EE envelope. The new dataset named C6 DTDB had better performance in the background, whereas it overestimated by 37%~41% in the urban caused by surface reflectivity estimation error. The range of monthly average error varied from −0.21 to 0.28 in the background and from −0.63 to 0.48 in the urban. From the background to the urban areas, the retrieval errors of Terra and Aqua had slightly increased by 0.0023~0.0158 and 0.0011~0.0124 per year, respectively, which implied that the two MODIS instruments had degraded slowly.

  3. Atmospheric concentrations and air-soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2011-07-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m³ and 114 ng/m³, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m³. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban-rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%-77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air-soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m²/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air-soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Integration of spatial and temporal data for the definition of different landslide hazard scenarios in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zêzere

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A general methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of landslide hazard is applied, taking in account both the landslide susceptibility and the instability triggering factors, mainly rainfall. The method is applied in the Fanhões-Trancão test site (north of Lisbon, Portugal where 100 shallow translational slides were mapped and integrated into a GIS database. For the landslide susceptibility assessment it is assumed that future landslides can be predicted by statistical relationships between past landslides and the spatial data set of the predisposing factors (slope angle, slope aspect, transversal slope profile, lithology, superficial deposits, geomorphology, and land use. Susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Bayesian model over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. The landslide susceptibility map is prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. In order to validate the results of the susceptibility ana- lysis, the landslide data set is divided in two parts, using a temporal criterion. The first subset is used for obtaining a prediction image and the second subset is compared with the prediction results for validation. The obtained prediction-rate curve is used for the quantitative interpretation of the initial susceptibility map. Landslides in the study area are triggered by rainfall. The integration of triggering information in hazard assessment includes (i the definition of thresholds of rainfall (quantity-duration responsible for past landslide events; (ii the calculation of the relevant return periods; (iii the assumption that the same rainfall patterns (quantity/duration which produced slope instability in the past will produce the same effects in the future (i.e. same types of landslides and same total affected area. The landslide hazard is present as the probability of each pixel to be affected by a slope movement

  5. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter D in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    least-squares analysis. The resolution of the multispectral image mosaic was then increased to that of the panchromatic image mosaic using the SPARKLE logic, which is described in Davis (2006). Each of the four-band images within the resolution-enhanced image mosaic was individually subjected to a local-area histogram stretch algorithm (described in Davis, 2007), which stretches each band’s picture element based on the digital values of all picture elements within a 315-m radius. The final databases, which are provided in this DS, are three-band, color-composite images of the local-area-enhanced, natural-color data (the blue, green, and red wavelength bands) and color-infrared data (the green, red, and near-infrared wavelength bands). All image data were initially projected and maintained in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) map projection using the target area’s local zone (42 for North Takhar) and the WGS84 datum. The final image mosaics were subdivided into nine overlapping tiles or quadrants because of the large size of the target area. The nine image tiles (or quadrants) for the North Takhar area are provided as embedded geotiff images, which can be read and used by most geographic information system (GIS) and image-processing software. The tiff world files (tfw) are provided, even though they are generally not needed for most software to read an embedded geotiff image.

  6. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  7. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  8. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  10. Estimating North Dakota's Economic Base

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2009-01-01

    North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities producing a product paid for by nonresidents, or products exported from the state. North Dakota’s economic base activities include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and federal government payments for construction and to individuals. Development of the North Dakota economic base data is important because it provides the information to quantify the state’s economic growth, and it creates the final demand sectors for the N...

  11. Methane leakage during the evolution of petroleum systems in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and the Central Graben area of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, L. A.; di Primio, R.; Anka, Z.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Around 500 to 600 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) of methane enter the atmosphere every year, mainly as product of microbial processes and combustion of fossil fuels and burning biomass. The importance of another source, the geologic emissions of methane, is up to now only loosely constrained. In this study, we addressed the potential methane emissions during the geological evolution of the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB), which holds the largest oil sand accumulations in the world, and the Central Graben area of the North Sea. In the case of the WCSB, thermogenic gas generation and leakage at the sediment surface were addressed through 3D petroleum systems modeling. In this basin, the accumulated oil experienced intense biodegradation that resulted in large masses of biogenic methane. We quantified this latter mass though a two-step mass balance approach. Firstly, we estimated the rate of petroleum degradation and the magnitude of petroleum loss. After this, we calculated the mass of biogenic methane generated using a model that assumes hexadecane (C16H34) as representative of the saturated compounds (Zengler et al., 1999). Our 3D model suggests that 90000-150000 Tg of dry gas (mostly methane) could have leaked during the interval from 80 Ma to 60 Ma. Therefore, uniform leakage rates would have been in the order of 10-3-10-2 Tg yr-1. Biogenic methane generation could have taken place at rates of 10-4 to 10-2 Tg yr-1. However, the effective mass of thermogenic and biogenic methane reaching the atmosphere might have been up to 90% lower than calculated here due to methanotrophic consumption in soils (Etiope and Klusman, 2002). We addressed the thermogenic gas generation and leakage in the Central Graben through two different methods. The first is based on a previous 3D petroleum system modeling of the region (Neumann, 2006). The second consisted of calculating the mass of generated petroleum based on source rock extension and properties (Schmoker, 1994), and then

  12. Sedimentary architecture and palaeogeography of lower Slochteren Aeolian cycles from the Rotliegend desert-lake margin (Permian), the Markham area, Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, F.J.G. van den; Hulten, F.F.N. van

    2011-01-01

    The Rotliegend gas play in the Southern Permian Basin has yielded over 200 gas fields in the Netherlands; they are found in an E-W fairway along the southern flank of the basin. Sandstones generally pinch out basinward, but localized, isolated sands are present north of the main fairway. The

  13. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Register the final rule governing sport fishing in area 2A. Annual management measures may be...) Flexible Inseason Management Provisions for Sport Halibut Fisheries in Area 2A. (1) The Regional... result in exceeding the catch limit for the area. (iii) If any of the sport fishery subareas north of...

  14. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Baeye, M.; Francken, F.; Lauwaert, B.; Van den Eynde, D.; Van Lancker, V.; Martens, C.; Michielsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub...

  15. The Lower Danube River-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea: A pivotal area of major interest for the past, present and future of its fish fauna--A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bănăduc, Doru; Rey, Sonia; Trichkova, Teodora; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Curtean-Bănăduc, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The complex Danube-Black Sea geoecosystem, created by a unique combination of integrated biotopes and biocoenoses related forces and counter-forces in time and space, forms a rich "ichthyosystem". The equilibrium among the fish species captured in the Danube Delta reveals its structural and functional roles in the connectivity of the Danube and Black Sea. The key role of the delta is evidenced by the fact that 57.26% of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea fish species use two or three of the subsystems in terms of habitats. Therefore, this convergence area can be considered to be a dynamic and rich "ichthyosystem", with three subsystems. All three evolved interdependently, which permits their flexibility and adaptation in an interdependent way. The habitat heterogeneity, native economic and conservation priority fish species of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea have decreased significantly, and there are no indications that this trend will be halted soon. The Danube "sub-ichtyosystem" seems to be more directly affected than the others. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea "ichthyosystem" exhibits a significant level of flexibility, resilience and adaptation over geological time, but has become much more sensitive to environmental perturbations due to the last century of human impact. This "ichthyosystem" is affected by non-native fish species. The study area represents an interdependent ecological net, without which the specific "ichthyosystem" formed over geological time will disappear. The studied ecological net fish fauna is an accurate indicator of various human pressures. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea geoecosystem, in which the Danube Delta provides the pivotal habitat element, is the matrix for a unique "ichthyosystem." However, human impacts decrease its resilience and can induce its extinction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The geology and petroleum potential of the North Afghan platform and adjacent areas (northern Afghanistan, with parts of southern Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Michael E.; Hashmat, Ajruddin

    2001-10-01

    The North Afghan platform has a pre-Jurassic basement unconformably overlain by a Jurassic to Paleogene oil- and gas-bearing sedimentary rock platform cover, unconformably overlain by Neogene syn- and post-orogenic continental clastics. The pre-Jurassic basement has four units: (1) An ?Ordovician to Lower Devonian passive margin succession developed on oceanic crust. (2) An Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous (Tournaisian) magmatic arc succession developed on the passive margin. (3) A Lower Carboniferous (?Visean) to Permian rift-passive margin succession. (4) A Triassic continental magmatic arc succession. The Mesozoic-Palaeogene cover has three units: (1) A ?Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift succession is dominated by variable continental clastics. Thick, coarse, lenticular coal-bearing clastics were deposited by braided and meandering streams in linear grabens, while bauxites formed on the adjacent horsts. (2) A Middle to Upper Jurassic transgressive-regressive succession consists of mixed continental and marine Bathonian to Lower Kimmeridgian clastics and carbonates overlain by regressive Upper Kimmeridgian-Tithonian evaporite-bearing clastics. (3) A Cretaceous succession consists of Lower Cretaceous red beds with evaporites, resting unconformably on Jurassic and older deposits, overlain (usually unconformably) by Cenomanian to Maastrichtian shallow marine limestones, which form a fairly uniform transgressive succession across most of Afghanistan. (4) A Palaeogene succession rests on the Upper Cretaceous limestones, with a minor break marked by bauxite in places. Thin Palaeocene to Upper Eocene limestones with gypsum are overlain by thin conglomerates, which pass up into shales with a restricted brackish-water ?Upper Oligocene-?Lower Miocene marine fauna. The Neogene succession consists of a variable thickness of coarse continental sediments derived from the rising Pamir mountains and adjacent ranges. Almost all the deformation of the North Afghan

  17. 40 CFR 81.335 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.335 Section 81.335... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.335 North Dakota. North Dakota—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  18. Regional cenozoic uplift and subsidence events in the southeastern North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordt, H.

    1995-12-31

    The Paleocene topography of the Fennoscandian Shield is indicated by outbuilding towards the Central Trough and the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. From Eocene until Pliocene time three events of relative vertical movements are indicated by changes in outbuilding directions and reflection termination patterns in the central North Sea. The firs event of uplift was in the Eocene and resulted in relative uplift of the Mid North Sea High and contemporary subsidence east of it, indicated by a change in outbuilding from north to west. A second event of uplift is indicated to the north of the study area at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary by renewed southward outbuilding in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In Miocene until Early Pliocene time a relatively stationary, almost east-west striking, basin margin was probably located to the north along the Tornquist Zone as indicated by the continued outbuilding towards the Ringkoebing-Fyn High. A third event of relative uplift is indicated east of the study area by changes in the Pliocene outbuilding pattern. After the first event of uplift it appears that the deepest parts of the Eocene North Sea Basin was located more easterly than the deepest part are today. Apparently the two latest uplift events north and east of the study area were related to movements of, or along the Tornquist Zone or to regional uplift of the Fennoscandian Shield finally resulting in the present-day configuration of the North Sea. (au) 11 refs.

  19. Environmental Assessment and Final Finding of No Significant Impact for Lantirn Village & Camera I Site Upgrades Fort Wainwright Yukon Training Area Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    overlying stratified sands, silts, and gravel. Depressions in the alluvial plains are often interbedded with thick peat layers and usually underlain...layers of peat typical of both north slopes and drainage bottoms/ depressions are underlain by permafrost, while south slopes are generally free of...aspen, and balsam poplar. Willows, alder, wild rose, blueberry, and highbush cranberry are common shrubs. o Upland Mixed Forest: Mixed forests

  20. Area West of the 700 fathom Depth Contour for Pacific Fishery Management Council's June 2005 Preferred Alternative, Groundfish EFH Final EIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict area within the West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that is west of the 700 fathom isobath. This area was designated by the Pacific Fishery...

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