WorldWideScience

Sample records for area north demolition

  1. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  2. Report: treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste in North Rhine-Westphalia: policy-making and operation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavezyris, Vassilios

    2007-04-01

    This paper summarizes a long-term-investigation of the mechanical treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste materials in North Rhine-Westphalia in the light of applied operation standards and a disposal ban on untreated waste. It is shown how both the allocation of output materials from mechanical treatment plants and the subsequent treatment channels have changed since enforcement of the ban in 2005. Based on the findings of the investigation, two waste management scenarios offering alternative policies have been defined and are discussed. It is suggested that consistent enforcement of the ban affects both the diversion of waste to incineration and the recovery of materials on a regional scale. On the other hand, potential energy recovery may be fully exploited only insofar as operators of mechanical treatment plants concentrate their business on the production of refuse-derived fuel. PMID:17439054

  3. 78 FR 29648 - Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, Between Prospect and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking RNA Regulated Navigation..., Bucksport, ME, in the Federal Register (77 FR 41717). No comments were received. This TFR is the outgrowth... Demolition, Penobscot River, Between Prospect and Verona, ME AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION:...

  4. Demolition work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Because of demolition work inside Bldg. 251, two containers will be placed on the route Démocrite. For security reasons, the part of this road in front of barrack 553 will be closed to circulation from 5 to 12 November. Thank you, in advance for your understanding. PH-SMI

  5. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  6. Impact of Earthquake Demolition Debris on the Quality of Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Benmenni; K. Benrachedi

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Debris from construction or demolition/deconstruction processes have no significant impact on the environment as they are res-usable and inert. This has been also long admitted for solid waste generated by the demolition of damaged cities following violent earthquakes. Approach: This study is a contribution to the assessment of actual impact on the quality of groundwater of buried demolition debris from the city of Boumerdes, in the North of Algeria 5 years after the May 21...

  7. Retail Trade Area Analysis Garrison North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Bangsund, Dean A.; Leistritz, F. Larry; Wanzek, Janet K.; Zetocha, Dale F.; Bastow-Shoop, Holly E.

    1991-01-01

    This report is intended to provide an indepth trade area analysis of Garrison, North Dakota. Specific analyses included determining Garrison's main and greater trade areas, identifying the demographic profile of Garrison shoppers, examining important and less important services for patron shoppers of Garrison, identifying neighboring cities that area shoppers patronize, determining distances area shoppers traveled to Garrison, and listing popular newspapers and radio stations among area resid...

  8. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  9. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  10. K-25 Structural Separation and Demolition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K-25 building is a former gaseous diffusion plant, built in 1944-1945 as part of the United States Manhattan Project. The structure was the largest structure under one roof, surpassed only by the Pentagon. Together the three wings represent about 17.8 hectare (44 acres) under roof and are generally about 18.3 meters (60 ft.) high on the outside face and approximately 12.2 meters (40 ft.) high on the inside face. The entire structure was built in the shape of a 'U', with a lateral distance of approximately one mile. It was constructed in individual building units with each unit connected using expansion joint-type connection. A single unit is approximately 24.4 meters (80 ft.) across and 122 meters (400 ft.) deep. The northern structure is connected to the eastern and western structures at the upper level floors. The four-level, U-shaped building is a steel-frame structure with corrugated cement-asbestos siding. The cell level is an elevated concrete structure supported by reinforced concrete columns located in the basement, or vault area. The vault area can be accessed at grade level from the outside perimeter. Inside the courtyard, the grade level has been raised to provide entry to the second or cell floor level. An engineering evaluation of the structure was performed to determine the condition of the structure and possibility of unplanned collapse of any portion of the structure. The evaluation included physical inspections, calculations for wind, pre-demolition loads, and evaluation of failure modes. The results of the evaluation have provided guidance for the demolition plan and the development of criteria for protection of personnel performing pre-demolition activities. Challenges include degradation of the structure that necessitated repair, dealing with changes in the code revisions from both the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), access to areas of the structure that were not necessarily designed

  11. Education challenges in the North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the North Sea as a fast evolving coastal ecosystem. The variability of natural conditions relates to the global climatic change and to human disturbances, which originate regionally. Education is an integral part of the strategy to improve environmental awareness. Considering contemporary challenges for educating the wider public about the main issues of environmental concern, attention is paid to various plans, which are being developed in North-Western Europe from primary schools to universities. "Learning for life" relies on an opening of the vocation of traditional universities and on the creation of a European university. Sharing resources in a competitive environment is one response given by British universities in the framework of a Discipline Network in Coastal Sciences and Management in 1996-2000. Networking is truly the key to a fast evolving teaching and learning context, notably in relation to ever developing information and communication technologies. The dissemination of scientific information is primordial in this context; a case study relating to the European project "Marine biodiversity in Europe" (BIOMARE) demonstrates the need for an elaborated strategy leading to socio-economic considerations. Empowering communities and governance are the main possible outcomes of such an enlarged approach to education, involving teachers, students, researchers, professionals, and volunteers. Proposals are made for amplifying the involvement of non-scientists into scientific research and its applications to management. Finally, a case is made for facilitating the mobility of all concerned, with a view to annihilate language and cultural barriers.

  12. Education challenges in the North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the North Sea as a fast evolving coastal ecosystem. The variability of natural conditions relates to the global climatic change and to human disturbances, which originate regionally. Education is an integral part of the strategy to improve environmental awareness. Considering contemporary challenges for educating the wider public about the main issues of environmental concern, attention is paid to various plans, which are being developed in North-Western Europe from primary schools to universities. "Learning for life" relies on an opening of the vocation of traditional universities and on the creation of a European university. Sharing resources in a competitive environment is one response given by British universities in the framework of a Discipline Network in Coastal Sciences and Management in 1996-2000. Networking is truly the key to a fast evolving teaching and learning context, notably in relation to ever developing information and communication technologies. The dissemination of scientific information is primordial in this context; a case study relating to the European project "Marine biodiversity in Europe" (BIOMARE) demonstrates the need for an elaborated strategy leading to socio-economic considerations. Empowering communities and governance are the main possible outcomes of such an enlarged approach to education, involving teachers, students, researchers, professionals, and volunteers. Proposals are made for amplifying the involvement of non-scientists into scientific research and its applications to management. Finally, a case is made for facilitating the mobility of all concerned, with a view to annihilate language and cultural barriers. PMID:12787627

  13. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  14. OPEN AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2007-05-31

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than ''hands on'' techniques.

  15. Closure plan for the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, and history of the units are described, and their current status is discussed. The units will be closed by treating remaining waste in storage, followed by thorough decontamination of the systems. Sufficient sampling and analysis, and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure

  16. Demolitions of the Savannah River Site's concentrator and finishing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has produced Special Nuclear Materials (SNMs) starting in the early 1950's to the mid 1970's for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and from the mid 1970's to the present for the Department of Energy (DOE). In that time, over 1,000 facilities have been built in the sixteen operational areas of the eight hundred square kilometer site. Over the years, many of the facilities have been dispositioned by the DOE as inactive. In FY-03, DOE identified two hundred and forty-seven (inactive or soon to be inactive) facilities that required demolition. Demolition work was scheduled to start in FY-04 and be completed in the first quarter of FY-07. Two-hundred and thirty-nine of these facilities have been demolished employing Routine demolition techniques. This presentation reviews and discusses two of the eight Non-Routine demolitions Facilities, 420-D 'The Concentrator Facility', and 421-D 'The Finishing Facility'. Facilities 420-D and 421-D were toppled by attaching rigging from the structural steel building frame to bulldozers and toppling the facilities over. The greatest advantage of this method is that it employs equipment that is on hand at SRS, saving time on locating and leasing offsite equipment as well as operator training. In addition, although the toppled structure does not land in the original facilities footprint, it does land in a contained area that is easily barricaded to prevent access during the operation. There are several disadvantages. First, there must be adequate area for the structure to topple into. Also if the wire rope size required to topple the structure is larger than two in., the ropes become extremely difficult to work with. Lastly, the yield strength of steel members is guaranteed by the manufacturer as a minimum strength, so its ultimate strength is unknown. This requires extremely conservative specifications sizing the bulldozers and any rigging equipment employed. Two hundred and forty-seven facilities have

  17. Demolition of a hospital building by controlled explosion: the impact on filamentous fungal load in internal and external air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, E; Peláez, T; Pérez-Molina, J; Marín, M; Alcalá, L; Padilla, B; Muñoz, P; Adán, P; Bové, B; Bueno, M J; Grande, F; Puente, D; Rodríguez, M P; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Vigil, D; Cuevas, O

    2002-12-01

    The demolition of a maternity building at our institution provided us with the opportunity to study the load of filamentous fungi in the air. External (nearby streets) and internal (within the hospital buildings) air was sampled with an automatic volumetric machine (MAS-100 Air Samplair) at least daily during the week before the demolition, at 10, 30, 60, 90,120, 180, 240, 420, 540 and 660 min post-demolition, daily during the week after the demolition and weekly during weeks 2, 3 and 4 after demolition. Samples were duplicated to analyse reproducibility. Three hundred and forty samples were obtained: 115 external air, 69 'non-protected' internal air and 156 protected internal air [high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered air under positive pressure]. A significant increase in the colony count of filamentous fungi occurred after the demolition. Median colony counts of external air on demolition day were significantly higher than from internal air (70.2 cfu/m(3) vs 35.8 cfu/m(3)) (P < 0.001). Mechanical demolition on day +4 also produced a significant difference between external and internal air (74.5 cfu/m(3) vs 41.7 cfu/m(3)). The counts returned to baseline levels on day +11. Most areas with a protected air supply yielded no colonies before demolition day and remained negative on demolition day. The reproducibility of the count method was good (intra-assay variance: 2.4 cfu/m(3)). No episodes of invasive filamentous mycosis were detected during the three months following the demolition. Demolition work was associated with a significant increase in the fungal colony counts of hospital external and non-protected internal air. Effective protective measures may be taken to avoid the emergence of clinical infections. PMID:12473466

  18. Traffic simulation of Beijing west railway station north area

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochun Lu; Zhanping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years the problem of traffic congestion and its management has become increasingly prominent. It is a hot research about how to make full use of computer simulation technology to make transportation more rational and more organized. In this paper, we focus on traffic of Beijing West Railway Station north area, and try to find a way to reduce traffic congestion in this area. Approach: In this paper, we studied the traffic flow by survey. We also built a traffic simulation mo...

  19. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the North Polar Area. 135.98... Operations § 135.98 Operations in the North Polar Area. After August 13, 2008, no certificate holder may operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than...

  20. Concrete decontamination and demolition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Environmental Control Technology, requested Nuclear Energy Services to prepare a handbook for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of DOE-owned and commercially-owned radioactive facilities. the objective of the handbook is to provide the nuclear industry with guidance on the state-of-the-art methods and equipment available for decommissioning and to provide the means to estimate decommissioning costs and environmental impact. The methods available for concrete decontamination and demolition are summarized to provide an overview of some of the state-of-the-art techniques to be discussed at this workshop. The pertinent information on each method will include the selection factors such as the rate of performance in terms of concrete removal per unit time (cubic yards per day), manpower required by craft, unit cost (dollars per cubic yard) and the advantages and disadvantages. The methods included in this overview are those that have been routinely used in nuclear and nonnuclear applications or demonstrated in field tests. These methods include controlled blasting, wrecking ball or slab, backhoe mounted ram, flame torch, thermic lance, rock splitter, demolition compound, sawing, core stitch drilling, explosive cutting, paving breaker and power chisel, drill and spall, scarifying, water cannon and grinding

  1. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  2. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  3. Geology of the Plumtree area, Spruce Pine district, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1953-01-01

    This report describes the results of study and geologic mapping (1:12,000) in the 70-square-mile Plumtree area in the northeastern part of the Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine and includes parts of Mitchell and Avery Counties shown on the portions of the 7.5-minute Spruce Pine, Linville Falls, Newland, North Carolina, and Carvers Gap, North Carolina and Tennessee quadrangle. The topography varies from rugged mountains to rounded or flat topped hills near the entrenched, meandering master streams. Old erosion surfaces are approximately 600,1,100, 1,500, and 2,500 feet above the present master stream level. The area is in late youth or early maturity after rejuvenation.. The regionally metamorphosed rocks of the amophibolite facies form three mappable units: mica gneiss, mica schist, and hornblende rock. These rocks, perhaps of Precambrian age, are intimately interlayered with thicknesses of the individual layers ranging from less than one inch to several tons of feet. Field relationships and chemical data suggest that the mica (Carolina-type) rocks were derived from sandstones, graywackes, and shales and that the hornblende-rich (Roan-type) layers were derived from impure carbonate rocks. The igneous rocks include alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age (?), dunite and associated soapstone of a prepegmatite age, and a few diabasic

  4. Distribution and area of mangrove forest in Pising Bay coastal area North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salam Tarigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available esearched of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi was carried out on April 2006. Data digital Landsat 7ETM+ parth/raw 113/064 was used for mangrove mapping. Classification method was done is multispectral supervised with artificial neural networks algortms. Analysis and data validation from field survey, it is estimated that distribution and areas of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi is 152.128 Ha. Mangrove in Pising Bay dominated by rhizophora apiculata, rhizophora mucronata; and the forest is relatively in good condition.

  5. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A.L.; Nacht, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities.

  6. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities

  7. REINFORCED CONCRETE SILO DEMOLITION BY BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Josip Krsnik; Zvonimir Ester; Marin Petrov

    1993-01-01

    This paper represents the demolition of reinforced concrete silo by blasting. The loadbearing structure was blasted so that the weight of the silo itself done most of the felling (the paper is published in Croatian).

  8. Demolition waste generation for development of a regional management chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miguel; Gomes, Marta Castilho; de Brito, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Even though construction and demolition waste (CDW) is the bulkiest waste stream, its estimation and composition in specific regions still faces major difficulties. Therefore new methods are required especially when it comes to make predictions limited to small areas, such as counties. This paper proposes one such method, which makes use of data collected from real demolition works and statistical information on the geographical area under study. Based on a correlation analysis between the demolition waste estimates and indicators such as population density, buildings ageing index, buildings density and land occupation type, relationships are established that can be used to determine demolition waste outputs in a given area. The derived models are presented and explained. This methodology is independent from the specific region with which it is exemplified (the Lisbon Metropolitan Area) and can therefore be applied to any region of the world, from the country to the county level. Generation of demolition waste data at the county level is the basis of the design of a systemic model for CDW management in a region. Future developments proposed include a mixed-integer linear programming formulation of such recycling network. PMID:26838607

  9. Assessing Environmental Sensitivity Areas to Desertification in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sobhani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity map to desertification of Chehel-chai basin (North of Iran has been elaborated by the crossing of fives criteria including climate, water erosion, soil, vegetation, and management, which have the main impact on the evolutionary process of desertification. The methodology is resulted from the desertification model of MEDALUS, which use qualitative index to define the land sensitive area to desertification. According to the factorial scaling technique, score-ranging from 1(good condition to 2(deteriorated condition is assigned to each indicator. Each index was assessed based on selected indicators, which resulted in qualitative mapping of each index based on geometric average of the indicators. Thematic databases, with a 1:50000 scale resolution, were integrated and elaborated in GIS software based on arc view3.2, Ilwis3.1 and ArcGIS9.3. The obtained results indicate that 39.39% of Chehel-chai basin is highly sensitive to desertification, 2.13 % has moderate sensitivity, only 2.43% has low sensitivity and 56.05% is non-sensitive. Studying the mean weight of numerical value, it is distinguished that the intensity of desertification for the total area is 1.32 which is classified as fragile (2.

  10. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  11. The decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of loss-of-fluid test reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2006, CH2M-WG Idaho completed the decontamination, decommissioning and demolition of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The 30-year-old research reactor, located at the Idaho National Laboratory site, posed significant challenges involving regulations governing the demolition of a historical facility, as well as worker safety issues associated with the removal of the reactor's domed structure. The LOFT facility was located at the west end of Test Area North (TAN), built in the 1950's to support the government's aircraft nuclear propulsion program. When President Kennedy cancelled the nuclear propulsion program in 1961, TAN began to host various other activities. The LOFT reactor became part of the new mission. The LOFT facility, constructed between 1965 and 1975, was a scaled-down version of a commercial pressurized water reactor. Its design allowed engineers, scientists, and operators to create or re-create loss-of-fluid accidents (reactor fuel meltdowns) under controlled conditions. The LOFT dome provided containment for a relatively small, mobile test reactor that was moved into and out of the facility on a railroad car. The dome was roughly 21 meters (70 feet) in diameter and 30 meters (98 feet) in height. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission received the results from the accident tests and incorporated the data into commercial reactor operating codes. The facility conducted 38 experiments, including several small loss-of-coolant experiments designed to simulate events such as the accident that occurred at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, before the LOFT facility was closed. Through formal survey and research, the LOFT facility was determined to be a DOE Signature Property, as defined by the 'INEEL Cultural Resource Management Plan', and thus eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the facility constituted an adverse effect on the historic property that required

  12. Impact of Earthquake Demolition Debris on the Quality of Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Benmenni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Debris from construction or demolition/deconstruction processes have no significant impact on the environment as they are res-usable and inert. This has been also long admitted for solid waste generated by the demolition of damaged cities following violent earthquakes. Approach: This study is a contribution to the assessment of actual impact on the quality of groundwater of buried demolition debris from the city of Boumerdes, in the North of Algeria 5 years after the May 21st 2003 earthquake hit the region. The public discharge of Boumerdes city has been used as a temporary landfill. It is located about 5 km downtown of Boumerdes at the Tidjelabine site which is marly-calcareous formation. Leachate from the landfill was directly rejected in the receiving environment, where the soil is marly-calcareous type with cracks giving a variable permeability (10-2 m sec-1 to nearly 10-6 m sec-1 that facilitates infiltration of potential pollutants to the groundwater. The slope character (from 5-10% of the field contributes to pollutants movement and may accentuate water quality deterioration. Three domestic wells (designated S1, S2 and S3 were selected in the vicinity of the landfill and served as piezometers. Leachate samples were taken from the landfill and evaluated. Results: Leachate analysis indicated organic matter with relatively high COD (1136 mg L-1 O2 and BOD5 (200 mg L-1 O2; whereas the pH yielded 7.65 thus indicating fermentation phase of the landfill. Heavy metal contents were beyond national standard limits except for Pb with 0.51 mg L-1 which is slightly higher than limit value of 0.5 mg L-1. More than five years after the creation of this landfill and despite its predominant C&D nature, these results showed that it was following a typical urban wastes decomposition scheme. Same analysis carried on water samples drawn from the piezometers yielded following results: acidic pH (6.88, acceptable values of target heavy metals

  13. Salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay during 1956. Study areas include Kuskokwim river, Yukon river, Unalakleet River, Nome,...

  14. Seasonal Management Areas for North Atlantic Right Whales GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent Seasonal Mangagement Area locations where regulations implement speed restrictions in shipping areas at certain times of the year along the...

  15. Hanford Patrol Academy demolition sites closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    The Hanford Site is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites, the unit addressed in this paper. This document consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3 (Revision 4), and a closure plan for the site. An explanation of the Part A Form 3 submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. This Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of December 15, 1994.

  16. ACCELERATED PILOT PROJECT FOR U CANYON DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KEHLER KL

    2011-01-13

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is underway on a first-of-a-kind project with the decommissioning and demolition of the U Canyon. Following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Record of Decision for the final remediation of the canyon, CH2M HILL is combining old and new technology and techniques to prepare U Canyon for demolition. The selected remedial action called first for consolidating and grouting equipment currently in the canyon into lower levels of the plant (openings called cells), after which the cell galleries, hot pipe trench, ventilation tunnel, drains and other voids below the operating deck and crane-way deck levels will be filled with approximately 20,000 cubic yards of grout and the canyon roof and walls demolished down to the approximate level of the canyon deck. The remaining canyon structure will then be buried beneath an engineered barrier designed to control potential contaminant migration for a 500-year life. Methods and lessons learned from this project will set the stage for the future demolition of Hanford's four other canyon-type processing facilities.

  17. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  18. Deglaciation of the Wijdefjorden-Austfjorden area, north Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, Matthias; Vorren, Tore O.; Hass, H. Christian; Vogt, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Swath-bathymetry, high-resolution seismics and lithological data from the Wijdefjorden-Austfjorden fjord system, the largest fjord system on northern Spitsbergen, have been analysed. The data indicate that multiple halts and/or readvances during the deglaciation of the study area at the end of the last glacial occurred. However, even though the study area and several west Spitsbergen fjords are fed by the same glacier source (the ice field Lomonosovfonna), the final deglaciation of Wijdefjorden-Austfjorden took place after 9300 cal. years BP, i.e. at least approx. 2000 years later than in the west. It is suggested that the retarded deglaciation of the study area is mainly related to the fjord bathymetry, i.e. a more than 35 km wide and up to 60 m high plateau in the central parts of the study area (approx. 45 km beyond the present fjord head). Multiple, relatively large and partly stacked moraine ridges and sediment wedges are suggested to reflect that the ice front retreated slowly across this shallow area and that repeated readvances occurred. The absence of larger sediment wedges in the deeper parts between the shallow area and the fjord head may indicate that the final retreat occurred rapidly.

  19. TL studies of calcareous rocks of Danta area, North Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithounits exposed around Danta in Banaskantha district of North Gujarat belong to Ajabgarh Group, the upper division of the Delhi super group. These rocks are intruded by syn to late kinematic basic rocks and by Erinpura granites of post Delhi age. The Ajabgarh group consists of pelitic and calcareous components. Mineralogically the pelitic rocks comprise cordierite, almandine garnet, k-feldspar, sillimanite, quartz and mica in variable proportions. The calcareous rocks are seen to contain dominantly calcite, scapolite, forsterite, sphene, k-feldspar. These mineral assemblages correspond to upper Amphibolite to lower Granulite facies of regional metamorphism. The chemistry of the calcareous rocks show predominance of CaO over MgO. The glow curves obtained from virgin samples (NTL) as well as artificial beta irradiated indicate glow peaks at 140oC, 290oC, 310oC and 390oC. The TL glow peak temperatures are in general agreement with those reported by Borsi and Rinaldi and Medlin. The pronounced peak at 390oC and 290oC are suggestive of their high irradiation sensitivity and also probably reflect variation in the Mn content of the rocks. (author). 9 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs

  20. DEMOLITIONS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S CONCENTRATOR AND FINISHING FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcdonagh, P; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has produced Special Nuclear Materials (SNMs) starting in the early 1950's to the mid 1970's for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and from the mid 1970's to the present for the Department of Energy (DOE). In that time, over 1,000 facilities have been built in the sixteen (16) operational areas of the eight hundred (800) square kilometer site. Over the years, many of the facilities have been dispositioned by the DOE as inactive. In FY-03, DOE identified two hundred and forty-seven (247) (inactive or soon to be inactive) facilities that required demolition. Demolition work was scheduled to start in FY-04 and be completed in the first quarter of FY-07. Two-hundred and thirty-nine (239) of these facilities have been demolished employing Routine demolition techniques. This presentation reviews and discusses two (2) of the eight (8) Non-Routine demolitions Facilities, 420-D ''The Concentrator Facility'', and 421-D ''The Finishing Facility''.

  1. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... Scoping Meetings MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND Sleep... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  2. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND. Sleep Inn--Inn... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  3. Bat Surveys of Retired Facilitiies Scheduled for Demolition by Washington Closure Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.; Lindsey, C. T.

    2011-06-30

    This project was conducted to evaluate buildings and facilities remaining in the Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition schedule for bat roost sites. The project began in spring of 2009 and was concluded in spring of 2011. A total of 196 buildings and facilities were evaluated for the presence of bat roosting sites. The schedule for the project was prioritized to accommodate the demolition schedule. As the surveys were completed, the results were provided to the project managers to facilitate planning and project completion. The surveys took place in the 300 Area, 400 Area, 100-H, 100-D, 100-N, and 100-B/C Area. This report is the culmination of all the bat surveys and summarizes the findings by area and includes recommended mitigation actions where bat roosts were found.

  4. Discussion on the dynamic mechanism of Great North China area based on the observed stress data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯向东; 魏东平; 陈棋福

    2005-01-01

    Based on the constrained data from the observed stress orientation and the observed stress regime, the tectonic stress fields of the Great North China area has been simulated by using the pseudo-3D finite element method. The results indicate that the stress fields in this area are basically controlled by the push forces coming from the Pacific Plate and from the Tibet Plateau, and the WNW-ward action from the Pacific Plate play a more important role in North China plain block. In addition to that, the stress field in this area is also partly formed by the extension action from the mantle upwelling in perpendicular at the basin margins.

  5. How the Location of Roads and Protected Areas Affects Deforestation in North Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Cropper, Maureen; Puri, Jyotsna; Griffiths, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Using plot-level data, the authors estimate a bi-variate probit model to explain land clearing, and the siting of protected areas in North Thailand in 1986. Their model suggests that protected areas (national parks, together with wildlife sanctuaries) did not reduce the likelihood of forest clearing, but wildlife sanctuaries may have reduced the probability of deforestation. Road building,...

  6. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cilliers, S.S.; Van Wyk, E; G.J. Bredenkamp

    1999-01-01

    This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN) as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in...

  7. TCC2, the target hall of the SPS North Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    In the foreground can be seen the three proton beam branches leading to the targets enclosed in an assembly of iron blocks with the positioning mechanism on top. In the background, the six secondary beams lead off towards the experimental areas, H2/P2, H4/E4/P4 (from T2 via TT81) and H6, H8 (from T4 via TT82) towards the hall EHN1, M2 from T6 via TT83 towards the hall EHN2. The development proton beam line P0 leads off from T4 via TT83 towards TCC8 and hall ECN3 (NAHIF).

  8. Chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Ellen Fischer; Hannerz, Harald; Tüchsen, Finn;

    2013-01-01

    To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009.......To estimate standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases among demolition and cement workers in Denmark, 1995-2009....

  9. Demolition wastes recycling; Reciclado de residuos de construccion y demolicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, A.; Monge, G. [INGURU Constructore, S.A. (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    This paper wants to show the up-to-date situation of demolition wastes from an international point of view. On the one hand it describes the different type of demolition wastes; on the other hand it explains the kind of treatment that is more adequate to each one. (Author)

  10. Progressively safer, cheaper demolition of Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. has been progressively improving Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) at the Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project by applying new technologies and better methodologies to the work. Demolition issues existed in the past that necessitated new or improved solutions to maintain worker safety, protect the environment and accomplish the work in a cost effective manner. Lessons learned from D and D of 80 structures has led to a systematic approach, which can be implemented in various D and D arenas. When facility production was halted, hold-up material and process residues remained in the process piping and components. Over 500,000 pounds of material was removed by workers who completed the tasks two years ahead of schedule, $7 million under budget and with an excellent safety record. This success was the result of detailed planning and irdision of lessons learned as work progressed from facility to facility. Work sequences were developed that reduced airborne contamination. Demolition of structures has been performed at Fernald by carefully selected and qualified subcontractors. Asbestos and lead abatement, equipment, piping and conduit removal, and structural demolition have been completed to progressively higher performance specifications developed by Fluor Fernald based on lessons learned during execution. Safety continues to be the primary consideration in performing potentially hazardous work. Technologies such as hydraulic shears have been developed and used to keep workers away from danger. A new technology, ''Cool Suits,'' has been demonstrated to help prevent heat stress when anti-contamination clothing is required in elevated temperature working conditions. For tall structures, implosion technologies have been employed with progressively improved results, Several other new technologies have been evaluated by Fluor Fernald and applied by subcontractors. The improved technologies included the oxy-gas torch

  11. Does demolition or refurbishment of old and inefficient homes help to increase our environmental, social and economic viability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of whether to demolish or refurbish older housing has been debated for over a century. It has been an active policy area since the late 1880s, when the Government first authorised the statutory demolition of insanitary slums. In the 1960s, revulsion at the scale of 'demolition blight' and new building caused a rethink, leading to a major reinvestment in inner city neighbourhoods of older housing. In the past 5 years, debate on demolition and new building has been intensified by the Government's Sustainable Communities Plan of 2003, with its proposals for large-scale clearance and building. Environmental arguments about renovating the existing stock have gained increasing prominence as people have sought to defend their communities from demolition. The evidence on whether demolition would reduce the amount of greenhouse gases we emit into the atmosphere is unclear and disputed. This paper summarises the evidence and arguments, and attempts to clarify the most realistic, achievable route to major reductions in energy use in homes

  12. Does demolition or refurbishment of old and inefficient homes help to increase our environmental, social and economic viability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Anne [London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Sustainable Development Commission, Room 101, 55 Whitehall, c/o 3-8 Whitehall Place, London SW1A 2HH (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    The issue of whether to demolish or refurbish older housing has been debated for over a century. It has been an active policy area since the late 1880s, when the Government first authorised the statutory demolition of insanitary slums. In the 1960s, revulsion at the scale of 'demolition blight' and new building caused a rethink, leading to a major reinvestment in inner city neighbourhoods of older housing. In the past 5 years, debate on demolition and new building has been intensified by the Government's Sustainable Communities Plan of 2003, with its proposals for large-scale clearance and building. Environmental arguments about renovating the existing stock have gained increasing prominence as people have sought to defend their communities from demolition. The evidence on whether demolition would reduce the amount of greenhouse gases we emit into the atmosphere is unclear and disputed. This paper summarises the evidence and arguments, and attempts to clarify the most realistic, achievable route to major reductions in energy use in homes. The arguments that apply to housing also apply to most other buildings and therefore to the overall built environment, which accounts for half of all carbon emissions. Three main sources of evidence have helped in the development of this paper, but there are many other studies we draw on in the discussion.

  13. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko;

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI...

  14. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez‐Moreno, Heidi; Martínez‐Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas‐Soto, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long‐distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North...

  15. Carbon isotope ratios of C4 plants in loess areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of 89 C4 plant samples were determined from the loess area in North China. δ13C values vary between -10.5‰ and -14.6‰ with a mean of -12.6‰. Along a precipitation gradient from the semi-moist area to the semiarid area, then to the arid area, the δ13C values of C4 plants show a slight decreasing trend. The δ13C values of C4 plants in the dry season are found lower than those in the wet season. These trends are opposite to those observed for C3 species.

  16. Degraded Ecosystem and its Rehabilitating Measures in Sandy Areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGFengchun; LUQi

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem degradation occurs in parallel with desertification process in sandy areas of North China. The vast sandy areas in North China are characterized with flexible environments and fragile ecosystems as well as intensive human activities. Due to the annual precipitation gradient decreases from east to west in North China, the whole sandy region falls into 3 main climatic zones: add, semi-add and dry sub-humid zones.The ecosystems in each type of climatic zones are different in climatic conditions, human activities,cultural dimensions, vegetation covers, landscapes, and causes and processes of ecosystem degradation.Therefore, the most effective rehabilitation measures of degraded ecosystems in different types of the climatic zones are also different. For the arid sandy areas, vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems needs to be completely closed, assisting with artificial measures, such as plantation, irrigation or others. For semi-add sandy areas, the effective measures of vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems include increasing of proportion of forests and rangelands and limitation of reclamation; reducing the carrying capacity of livestock on unit area of rangelands and growth of fodder plants; and plantation on the lowlands betweens and dunes. For the dry sub-humid areas, the most effective measure is enclosure of degraded ecosystems combined with plantation, and in some cases, just stop uses by grazing or reclamation.

  17. PROJECT EXPERIENCE REPORT DEMOLITION OF HANFORDS 233-S PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    describe those that the project believes to be of most benefit to future DOE projects. These fact sheets cover a number of specific topics within the subject areas noted below: (1) Project Management; (2) Organization Structure and Responsibilities; (3) Demolition Approach and Equipment; (4) Planning and Scheduling; (5) Site Preparation and Infrastructure; (6) Radiological Controls; (7)Industrial Safety and Health; and (8) Waste Management

  18. Entanglement Concentration with Quantum Non Demolition Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Tatham, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We devise and examine two procrustean entanglement concentration schemes using Quantum Non- Demolition (QND) interaction Hamiltonians in the continuous variable regime, applicable for light, for atomic ensembles or in a hybrid setting. We thus expand the standard entanglement distillation toolbox to the use of a much more general, versatile and experimentally feasible interaction class. The first protocol uses Gaussian ancillary modes and a non-Gaussian post-measurement, the second a non-Gaussian ancillary mode and a Gaussian post-measurement. We explicitly calculate the density matrix elements of the non-Gaussian mixed states resulting from these protocols using an elegant Wigner-function based method in a numerically efficient manner. We then quantify the entanglement increase calculating the Logarithmic Negativity of the output state and discuss and compare the performance of the protocols.

  19. Demolition of one of the old barracks

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Many people at CERN will no doubt remember having rented accommodation in the four barracks-type huts near Entrance A. The rates were certainly rock bottom but it was hardly the Ritz! Put up at the end of the 1950s, they were abandoned in favour of the Saint-Genis-Pouilly hostel and the Meyrin site hostels. As they no longer meet current safety standards, they will all ultimately have to be demolished. One of them, situated immediately below the HV power line, has just been demolished at the request of the Swiss electricity company Energie Ouest Suisse. With its demolition, a little piece of CERN's social history has gone for ever.

  20. A Monte Carlo-tuned model of the flow in the NorthGRIP area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) drill site was chosen in order to obtain a good Eemian record. At the present depth, 3001m, the Eemian interstadial has yet to be seen. Clearly the flow in this area is poorly understood and needs further investigation. After a review of specific...... Eemian is observed is a high basal melt rate (2.7mm/a). The melting is a consequence of a higher geothermal heat flux than the expected 51mW/m^2 of the Precambrian shield. From our analyses it is concluded that the geothermal heat flux at NorthGRIP is 98mW/m^2.The high basalmelt rate also gives rise to...

  1. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  2. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com; Afifi, S.Y.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Salman, A.B.; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (R{sub eq}) and the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  3. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary. PMID:12201151

  4. North Putrajaya Catchment Area Putrajaya, Malaysia-Challenges in Water Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH3-N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH3-N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH3-N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH3-N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and control of

  5. Fracture analysis for controlled blasting demolition of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward establishing a design method for controlled blasting demolition used for the designed dismantling of large reinforced concrete (RC) structures, this study is intended to prove the overall suitability and efficiency of this method. The previous paper (Controlled Blasting for Demolition of Biological Shield Concrete Wall: Part 2) described an application of controlled blasting demolition to an inner part of the radioactive RC biological shield in the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). Through this experience, it was confirmed that the partial demolition of the structure was carried out safely and rationally using this method. In order to clarify the characteristics of blasting effect, an RC cylinder blasting test was performed and the results of this test were compared with analytical simulation of this test using the discrete element method (DEM) and the finite element method (FEM). This paper outlines the test, the analyses and the comparison. (author)

  6. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  7. RECOVERY AND REUSE OF FINE AGGREGATE FROM DEBRIS OF BUILDING DEMOLITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Poovendiran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Demolition of unsafe buildings and structures requiring extensive modifications is more common now a days. Almost 30% of new constructions are coming up on the demolition site. Handling of demolition debris has become a challenging issue in all the developing countries including India. The growth rate in the construction sector is 1.5 times in 5 years. While the demand for aggregates is increasing day-by-day, the natural resources like sand, gravel etc. are decreasing around the world. The need for the recycle of aggregate recovered from the debris is the need of the hour to meet the rising demand. Various studies have been reported on the subject. The present study reports the developed empirical relations between the area of the building and different items of materials in the debris for the estimation of quantity generation. Experimental results on the strength of concrete for different proportions of replacement of fine aggregate recovered from the debris are presented. The study results encourage the use of fine aggregate recycle in concrete.

  8. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  9. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  10. 300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (smbullet) Uranium fuel production (smbullet) Test reactor and separations experiments (smbullet) Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex (smbullet) .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities

  11. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  12. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  13. Analysis on Variations of the Temperature and Precipitation in North Slope Area of the Western Tianshan in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze variation characteristics of the temperature and precipitation in north slope area of the Western Tianshan in recent 50 years.[Method] According to temperature and rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 at three meteorological stations in north slope area of the Western Tianshan,climate change in the zone in recent 50 years was analyzed by using linear trend analysis method and 5-year sliding average method.[Result] The temperature in north slope area of the Western Tiansha...

  14. An oilspill risk analysis for the North Atlantic outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Allmon; Slack, James Richard; Davis, Robert K.

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to lease 1,172,795 acres of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands on Georges Bank off the New England Coast for oil and gas development. Estimated recoverable petroleum resources for the proposed 206 tract sale area range from 180 to 650 million barrels. Contingent upon actual discovery of this quantity of oil, production is expected to span a period of about 20 years. An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine relative environmental hazards of developing oil in the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed probability of spill occurrence, likely path of pollutants from spills, and locations in space and time of recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results are combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the lease area. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Oil geologic anomaly in the north edge of the Middle and Lower Yangtze areas based on the evidence weight method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwu HU; Jianping CHEN; Pengfei ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The study of oil geologic anomalies is a new area of petroleum geology.Using the evidence weight method,we selected tectonic,hydrocarbon abundance of source rock,thickness of source rock,level of reservoir,complexity of reservoir,degree of mineralization of formation water as the evidence layer to evaluate the favorable zones of pool forming in the Lower Paleozoic in the north edge of the Middle and Lower Yangtze areas.Finally,we integrated our results with the petroleum geology of this area and concluded that the North Sichuan basin,the western area of Hubei and the eastern area of Chongqing and parts of the Lower Yangtze are the most profitable areas for exploration in the north edge of the Lower and Middle Yangtze areas.

  16. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  17. Waterspout outbreaks over areas of Europe and North America: Environment and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutas, Michalis; Szilagyi, Wade; Keul, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Waterspout outbreak occurrences are examined for the areas of the Aegean and Ionian Seas, Eastern Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe and the Great Lakes of North America. Notable outbreaks included a series of 13 waterspouts on September 5, 2002, and 25 plus waterspouts on September 21, 2006 off the Cretan north coast in the Aegean Sea. Two outbreak days with 10 waterspouts each, occurred on August 11 and 13, 2006 over the Baltic Sea. During the fall of 2003 an outbreak produced about 66 waterspouts during a week over the Great Lakes of North America. A preliminary climatology of waterspout outbreak occurrences showed August as the most active month for the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes and September for the Aegean and Ionian Seas; a feature primary related to the warmest sea surface temperatures during these months. Synoptic data indicated that a closed low (CLOSED) type pattern prevailed during waterspout outbreaks over the Baltic and the Aegean and Ionian Seas and a longwave (LW) type over the Great Lakes. Thermodynamic, wind and moisture data indicated a marginally unstable environment for most waterspout outbreaks. A steep thermal gradient between the water surface and lowest layers proved to be a primary factor for Great Lakes waterspout outbreak occurrences. For the Baltic Sea, the primary factors were balanced between the thermal contrast in the lowest layers and the total positive buoyancy. For the Aegean and Ionian Seas, positive buoyancy was the dominant factor. Selected waterspout outbreak case studies are investigated in order to present specific synoptic, thermodynamic features and predictability for the three areas. The Szilagyi waterspout nomogram, which is used as a forecasting tool, was applied together with the Szilagyi waterspout index (SWI) and found to be strongly correlated with outbreak occurrences for the three geographical areas.

  18. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Heidi; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas-Soto, Octavio

    2016-04-01

    Long-distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North America present climatic preferences during arrival to and departure from their wintering areas. We used ecological niche modeling to generate monthly potential climatic distributions for 13 migratory bird species during the winter season by combining the locations recorded per month with four environmental layers. We calculated monthly coefficients of climate variation and then compared two GLM (generalized linear models), evaluated with the AIC (Akaike information criterion), to describe how these coefficients varied over the course of the season, as a measure of the patterns of establishment in the wintering areas. For 11 species, the sites show nonlinear patterns of variation in climatic preferences, with low coefficients of variation at the beginning and end of the season and higher values found in the intermediate months. The remaining two species analyzed showed a different climatic pattern of selective establishment of wintering areas, probably due to taxonomic discrepancy, which would affect their modeled winter distribution. Patterns of establishment of wintering areas in the species showed a climatic preference at the macroscale, suggesting that individuals of several species actively select wintering areas that meet specific climatic conditions. This probably gives them an advantage over the winter and during the return to breeding areas. As these areas become full of migrants, alternative suboptimal sites are occupied. Nonrandom winter area selection may also have

  19. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  20. Analysis of demolition of buildings and structcrs in terms of safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sichko, І. N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. There are many methods of demolition of buildings and structures that are used depending on the conditions of reconstruction. Each of them, along with the merits has its disadvantages, mainly related to the inability to carry out work due to cramped of reconstruction site. It is necessary to find new or improved known methods of demolition of buildings and structures to enhance the process of demolition in view of safety of work. Methodology. Choice of rational method of demolition c...

  1. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  2. Expedited Demolition Notification for 2nd Quarter CY 2012 Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Catherine L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The National Nuclear Security Administration and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) (collectively the Permittees) are informing the New Mexico Environment Department Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the need to expedite the demolition of structures summarized in the enclosures. These structures have been identified to receive funding and be demolished prior to the 3rd Quarter Demolition Notification (June 30, 2012). This letter is a follow up to the email that was sent to the NMED-HWB on April 17, 2012. The enclosures attached to this letter satisfy the reporting requirements as outlined in Section 1.17 of the LANL Hazardous Facility Waste Permit (Permit). Demolition of buildings that appear on this list will not occur until 30 days after NMED has received this notification.

  3. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAHYU ASTIKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Astiko W, Fauzi MT, Sukartono. 2016. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 66-70. Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on maize in sandy soil is expected to have positive implications for the improvement of AMF population and nutrient uptake. However, how many increases in the AMF population and nutrient uptake in the second cycle of a certain cropping system commonly cultivated by the farmers after growing their corn crop have not been examined. Since different cropping systems would indicate different increases in the populations of AMF and nutrient uptake. This study aimed to determine the population AMF and nutrient uptake on the second cropping cycle of corn-based cropping systems which utilized indigenous mycorrhizal fungi on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. For that purpose, an experiment was conducted at the Akar-Akar Village in Bayan Sub-district of North Lombok, designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design, with four replications and six treatments of cropping cycles (P0 = corn-soybean as a control, in which the corn plants were not inoculated with AMF; P1 = corn-soybean, P2 = corn-peanut, P3 = corn-upland rice, P4 = corn-sorghum, and P5 = corn-corn, in which the first cycle corn plants were inoculated with AMF. The results indicated that the mycorrhizal populations (spore number and infection percentage were highest in the second cycle sorghum, achieving 335% and 226% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control. Increased uptake of N, P, K and Ca the sorghum plants at 60 DAS of the second cropping cycle reached 200%; 550%; 120% and 490% higher than in the control. The soil used in this experiment is rough-textured (sandy loam, so it is relatively low in water holding capacity and high porosity.

  4. 77 FR 72957 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... December 2nd and 8th, 2012, Walsh Construction Company will be conducting demolition on portions of the..., the planned demolition date was postponed twice. Walsh Construction Company has requested another... Construction Company's need to properly prepare the bridge for demolition on a later date. C. Discussion...

  5. Monitorization of the waste incinerator effects in an industrial area in the north of Lisbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a sequence of a heavy metal monitoring contract made with IDAD/ValorSul, who is responsible for an urban waste incinerator placed in an industrial area in the north of Lisbon. The area for monitorization involves a 10 km circle around the incinerator. Two collecting procedures were followed: Gent collectors and biomonitorization. Gent collectors have been used since 25th January 1999, in order to sample air particulate matter in three stations situated in the North of Lisbon - Bobadela, S. Joao da Talha and Quinta da Piedade. These collectors allow the separation between fine and coarse particles. The sampling is made twice a week: one weekend day and one midweek day. For biomonitorization two sampling sites were chosen: one at 2 km northwest (upstream) from the incinerator and the other close to the incinerator (a few meters down river). The biomonitors (two different species) were chosen from the local vegetation (in situ). This procedure was started in April 1999. The filters and the plants are analysed by the multielemental nuclear technique Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). A comparison between results obtained by both collecting procedures is presented. (author)

  6. Occurrence and abundance of fruit bats in selected conservation areas of North Cotabato, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion John Michael M. Achondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence and abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae was done in two conservation areas in North Cotabato, Philippines: Portion of the Mt. Apo National Park ; Balabag, Kidapawan City and Cotabato Provincial Forest and Ecotourism Park (CPFEP, Amas, Kidapawan City. Seven species were recorded in CPFEP and six were noted in Balabag area identified from 449 individuals captured. Two species (Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus were unique to CPFEP while one (Ptenochirus minor was found only in Balabag area. A total of eight species were recorded when accounting the species found in two areas in which, three are endemic to the country namely Haplonycteris fischeri, Ptenochirus jagori, and P. minor. Of these endemics, the first two were noted in CPFEP while all were found in Balabag area. More than half of the bats captured were Cynopterus brachyotis hence, considered as the most common species. Remarkable finding was the presence of Megaerops wetmorei, a threatened species, to have found in a new altitudinal record. Considering the importance of fruit bats in regenerating forest, urgent conservation measures are highly recommended.

  7. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  8. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  9. Air Monitoring Modeling of Radioactive Releases During Proposed PFP Complex Demolition Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2011-01-24

    This report is part of the planning process for the demolition of the 234-5Z, 236-Z, 242-Z, and 291-Z-1 structures at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facilities on the Hanford Site. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) demolition planning effort by making engineering estimates of potential releases for various potential demolition alternatives. This report documents an analysis considering open-air demolition using standard techniques. It does not document any decisions about the decommissioning approaches; it is expected that this report will be revisited as demolition plans are finalized.

  10. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  11. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  12. Demolition of Building 12, an old plutonium filter facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the decommissioning and disposal of a plutonium-contaminated air filter facility that provided ventilation for the main plutonium processing plant at Los Alamos from 1945 until 1973. The health physics, waste management, and environmental aspects of the demolition are also discussed

  13. 40 CFR 61.145 - Standard for demolition and renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for demolition and renovation. 61.145 Section 61.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... facility components at the beginning, middle, and end of each workday and keep daily temperature...

  14. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Multimedia

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Pinget, B

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processors modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a\

  15. Mapping Spatial and Temporal Variations of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Peng; WU Wen-bin; TANG Hua-jun; ZHOU Qing-bo; ZOU Jin-qiu; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Leaf area index(LAI)is an important parameter in a number of models related to ecosystem functioning,carbon budgets,climate,hydrology,and crop growth simulation.Mapping and monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of LAI are necessary for understanding crop growth and development at regional level.In this study.the relationships between LAI of winter wheat and Landsat TM spectral vegetation indices(SVIs)were analyzed by using the curve estimation procedure in North China Plain.The series of LAI maps retrieved by the best regression model were used to assess the spatial and temporal Variations of winter wheat LAI.The results indicated that the general relationships between LAI and SVIs were curvilinear,and that the exponential model gave a better fit than the linear model or other nonlinear models for most SVIs.The best regression model was constructed using an exponential model between surface-reflectance-derived difference vegetation index(DVI)and LAI,with the adjusted R2(0.82)and the RMSE(0.77).The TM LAI maps retrieved from DVILAI model showed the significant spatial and temporal variations.The mean TMLAI value(30m)for winter wheat of the study area increased from 1.29(March 7,2004)to 3.43(April 8,2004),with standard deviations of 0.22 and 1.17,respectively.In conclusion,spectral vegetation indices from multi-temporal Landsat TM images can be used to produce fine-resolution LAI maps for winter wheat in North China Plain.

  16. Diversity and conservation status of the herpetofauna for an area from north of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Badillo-Saldaña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation measures currently lack adequate information to assign some species of amphibians and reptiles in the categories of protection. In this study we analyzed and compared the herpetofauna of mountain cloud forest (MCF and tropical evergreen forest (TEF in an area north of Hidalgo. For this study, we conducted fieldwork (24 sites and a literature review. In addition, the conservation status of species was analyzed. The herpetofauna of the municipality of Tepehuacan de Guerrero, Hidalgo, Mexico consists of 70 species (20 amphibians and 50 reptiles, nine of which are historical records that were not found in the present study. Cloud forest was more diverse (39 species than TEF (37 species. There are discrepancies between national and international agencies of conservation regarding the threatened status of these species. The high biodiversity recorded in MCF and TEF in the study area indicates the importance of this area for conservation. In this study, we propose to reassess the conservation category of Hidalgo state herpetofauna.

  17. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Liu

    Full Text Available Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  18. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO2 emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO2 emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  19. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  20. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(regsign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  1. Air quality during demolition and recovery activities in post-Katrina New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikrishna, Raghunathan; Lee, Han-Woong; Mbuligwe, Stephen; Valsaraj, K T; Pardue, John H

    2010-07-01

    Air samples were collected during demolition and cleanup operations in the Lakeview district of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, in late 2005 during the period immediately after Hurricane Katrina. Three different high-volume air samples were collected around waste collection areas that were created to temporarily hold the debris from the cleanup of residential properties in the area. Particulate concentrations were elevated and included crystalline fibers associated with asbestos. Metal concentrations on particulate matter resembled those measured in sediments deposited by floodwaters with the exception of Ba, which was elevated at all three locations. The highest organic contaminant concentration measured on particulates was the pesticide Ziram (Zinc, bis[diethylcarbamodithioato-S,S']-, [T-4]-) at 2,200 microg/g of particulate matter during sampling period 2. Ziram is used in latex paint, adhesives, caulking, and wallboard as a preservative. Fungal isolates developed from particulate air samples included species associated with disease including Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These data represent the most comprehensive assessment of demolition activities during the period immediately after Hurricane Katrina.

  2. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336...

  3. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Xiaohui [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tang Jianhui, E-mail: jhtang@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Chen Yingjun [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li Jun; Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-12-15

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g{sup -1} dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g{sup -1} dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: > We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. > PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. > Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. > PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. > In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  4. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  5. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  6. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Eaton

    2007-01-18

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) applies to the remedial actions performed under the Final Record of Decision for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (DOE-ID 1999) as amended by the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2003), the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks (TSF-09 and TSF-18) and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks (TSF-26) and TSF-06, Area IO, at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0 (DOE-ID 2004a), and the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2005). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10; and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare-now identified as the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)-signed the Record of Decision (ROD) in December 1999, the 2003 ESD in April 2003, the ROD Amendment/ESD in February 2004, and the 2005 ESD in January 2005. The EPA and DEQ support the need for this ESD.

  7. Modeling four occurred debris flow events in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino

    2016-04-01

    Four occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) are modeled by back-analysis. The four debris flows events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006, at Rovina di Cancia (Belluno) on the 18th of July 2009 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. In all the events, runoff entrained sediments present on natural channels and formed a solid-liquid wave that routed downstream. The first event concerns the routing of debris flow on an inhabited fan. The second event the deviation of debris flow from the usual path due to an obstruction with the excavation of a channel in the scree and the downstream spreading in a wood. The third event concerns the routing of debris flow in a channel with an ending the reservoir, its overtopping and final spreading in the inhabited area. The fourth event concerns the routing of debris flow along the main channel downstream the initiation area until spreading just upstream a village. All the four occurred debris flows are simulated by modeling runoff that entrained debris flow for determining the solid-liquid hydrograph. The routing of the solid-liquid hydrograph is simulated by a bi-phase cell model based on the kinematic approach. The comparison between simulated and measured erosion and deposition depths is satisfactory. Nearly the same parameters for computing erosion and deposition were used for all the four occurred events. The maps of erosion and deposition depths are obtained by comparing the results of post-event surveys with the pre-event DEM. The post-event surveys were conducted by using different instruments (LiDAR and GPS) or the combination photos-single points depth measurements (in this last case it is possible obtaining the deposition/erosion depths by means of stereoscopy techniques).

  8. Air Dispersion Modeling for Building 3026C/D Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Sjoreen, Andrea L [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    This report presents estimates of dispersion coefficients and effective dose for potential air dispersion scenarios of uncontrolled releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) buildings 3026C, 3026D, and 3140 prior to or during the demolition of the 3026 Complex. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD system1-6 was used to compute these estimates. AERMOD stands for AERMIC Model, where AERMIC is the American Meteorological Society-EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee. Five source locations (three in building 3026D and one each in building 3026C and the filter house 3140) and associated source characteristics were determined with the customer. In addition, the area of study was determined and building footprints and intake locations of air-handling systems were obtained. In addition to the air intakes, receptor sites consisting of ground level locations on four polar grids (50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 500 m) and two intersecting lines of points (50 m separation), corresponding to sidewalks along Central Avenue and Fifth Street. Three years of meteorological data (2006 2008) were used each consisting of three datasets: 1) National Weather Service data; 2) upper air data for the Knoxville-Oak Ridge area; and 3) local weather data from Tower C (10 m, 30 m and 100 m) on the ORNL reservation. Annual average air concentration, highest 1 h average and highest 3 h average air concentrations were computed using AERMOD for the five source locations for the three years of meteorological data. The highest 1 h average air concentrations were converted to dispersion coefficients to characterize the atmospheric dispersion as the customer was interested in the most significant response and the highest 1 h average data reflects the best time-averaged values available from the AERMOD code. Results are presented in tabular and graphical form. The results for dose were obtained using radionuclide activities for each of the buildings provided by the customer.7

  9. Demolition and removal of plutonium-contaminated facilities at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful demolition and cleanup of a plutonium-contaminated facility at the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration Hanford Plant in Washington State are described. Several new materials, along with special techniques and equipment, were utilized for the containment and control of plutonium contamination during the course of the demolition work. The use of light-capacity fiber-glassed plywood boxes for long-term (20 yr, min) storage of the contaminated materials in underground transuranic waste trenches has led to the development, design, and use of larger capacity, modular, fiber-glassed plywood boxes that are replacing standard carbon steel boxes at less than one-third the cost, and without the potential for early failure from normal soil or atmospheric corrosion

  10. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques Applied During Structural Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Williams, P.T.; Dua, S.K.

    1998-10-20

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure properly and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated from a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology given site-specific conditions. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was carried out at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University, was to conduct an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study targeted the problem of dust suppression during the demolition of nuclear facilities. The resulting data were employed to assist in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to predict dust generation during structural demolition.

  11. Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Camiel de [Hilti Corporation, P.O. Box 333, FL-9494 Schaan (Liechtenstein)

    2008-07-01

    Hilti is your reliable partner in nuclear power plant construction, maintenance and demolition worldwide. Professional advice and innovative solutions for virtually every phase of construction and supply technologically leading products and systems to increase your productivity and help to create and maintain safe and lasting plants is offered. The solutions for nuclear power plants construction, maintenance and demolition have been employed with great success in many different countries on a wide variety of projects due in no small way to their worldwide availability. An unbroken, international exchange of experience upholds a permanent innovation process. This assures our customers that they always receive products on the very latest technological standard. This paper is not intended to cover all topics related to nuclear power plants. The idea is more to give a kind of an overview. The paper covers briefly the following topics: safety (corrosion and fire), fastenings, measuring and finally decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  12. Structural and Metamorphic Evolution of the Archaean High-pressure Granulite in Datong-Huaian Area, North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Archaean granulite terrain in the Datong-Huaian area, north China, comprises a basement complex of fe lsic and mafic granulite (TTG gneiss), overlain by a sedimentary sequence dominated by metapelite and metapsammite (khondalite series). Both lithological associations are separated by a tectonic

  13. Pleistocene pollen stratigraphy from borehole 81/34, devil's hole area, central north sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Sten R.

    1998-09-01

    Twelve pollen assemblage zones are identified in a 229 m deep borehole (BH 81/34) from the Devil's Hole area in the central North Sea (British sector). The sediment from this borehole is Early to Late Pleistocene in age and the observation of massulae from Azolla filiculoides in sediment with reversed polarity indicates an age younger than the Olduvai geomagnetic event for the entire sequence. The Early Pleistocene sediments were at least partly deposited in the vicinity of a river outlet and can be correlated either with the Eburonian or the Menapian cold stage and with the Bavel interglacial and the Linge glacial within the Bavelian stage in the Dutch stratigraphy. The Middle Pleistocene sequence contains an interval rich in Abies, Picea and Pinus, probably deposited during the end of either Cromerian Complex interglacial IV (Noordbergum) or possibly the Holsteinian. The uppermost 80 m of the core contains high frequencies of pre-Quaternary and deteriorated palynomorphs indicating extensive glacial or glaciofluvially reworked sediment.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome. Diagnosis in women of five doctor's office. North Area. November 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneisy Triana Toledo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The morbility for Metabolic-Syndrome in five doctor's office of the north health area in the municipality Accomplished a descriptive transverse cut investigation in 151 adult women's probabilistic sign to characterize itself Sancti - Spíritus, among 1ro of Noviembre of the 2007 and the November 30 the 2008. Morbility, the antecedent factors personnels of risk and of chronic illnesses were variables gone into no transmissible, they gathered data in a fill-out form, statistical analysis included percentages calculation, parameters esteem and tests them of proportions difference (x2. The main things aftermaths were Metabolic Syndrome prevalence of 33,3 % In the patients with metabolic syndrome the risk factor of chronic illnesses no transmissible that predominate was in order not to accomplish physical activity (96,1 %, her hiperlipidemia (27,3 %, as well as the obesity (24,4 % in this entity's bearers. The antecedent pathological personals for chronic illnesses no transmissible registered hypertension went with 64,7 %.

  15. Profile of Skin Disorders in Unreached Hilly Areas of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dimri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (>18 years constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6% followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%, and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%. Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients’ needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs.

  16. Survey of otomycosis in north- western area of Iran(1447- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Otomycosis(Otitis externa is an acute, subacte or chronic fungal infection that has exogenous or endogenous origin. The present study was carried out to investigate the etiologic agents and determine risk factore and epidemiological aspects of otomycosis in north- West area of Iran.Materials and methods : Clinical samples of suspected patients were studied in direct microscopy and cultured in specific medium for determining the causative fungi.Results : 89 patients; 64 male and 25 female were recruited and studies. The disease were more prevalent in 20- 40 years in both sexes.Identified etiologic agents with direct examination and culture of samples in numerous series were: Aspergillus niger(51 cases, A. terreus(9 cases, A. flavus(7 cases, A Fuminagatus(6 cases, Eurotium( prefect stage of A. glaucus(2 cases, penicillium Sp.(2 cases, Candida albicans(8 cases, Epicoccum Sp.(1 case, Mucor Sp. (1 case, Rhizopus Sp.(1 case and Microsporum canis(1 case.Conclusion : Saprophytic moulds were the main etiologic agent of Otomycosis and Aspergillus niger was the prime causaltive agent. Infection in 20 –40 year age group was the most prevalent and Otomycosis among females was determined more than male. This report has provided useful information on the prevalence, causative agents and health implications of Otomycosis, as an infection grossly neglected in enviroment.

  17. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Fowler, T; Pinget, B

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processor modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a state where rapid degradation would occur. Above this level an interlock is raised and the high voltage is switched off. Additionally, all spark si...

  18. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. PMID:25897728

  19. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  20. Asbestos Exposure among Construction Workers During Demolition of Old Houses in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein KAKOOEI; NORMOHAMMADI, Mohhammad

    2013-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contr...

  1. Methane emission and consumption at a North Sea gas seep (Tommeliten area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The North Sea hosts large coal, oil and gas reservoirs of commercial value. Natural leakage pathways of subsurface gas to the hydrosphere have been recognized during geological surveys (Hovland and Judd, 1988. The Tommeliten seepage area is part of the Greater Ekofisk area, which is situated above the Tommeliten Delta salt diapir in the central North Sea. In this study, we report of an active seep site (56°29.90'N, 2°59.80'E located in the Tommeliten area, Norwegian Block 1/9, at 75 m water depth. Here, cracks in a buried marl horizon allow methane to migrate into overlying clay-silt and sandy sediments. Hydroacoustic sediment echosounding showed several venting spots coinciding with the apex of marl domes where methane is released into the water column and potentially to the atmosphere during deep mixing situations. In the vicinity of the gas seeps, sea floor observations showed small mats of giant sulphide-oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments and carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDACs contain 13C-depleted, archaeal lipids indicating previous gas seepage and AOM activity. High amounts of sn2-hydroxyarchaeol relative to archaeol and low abundances of biphytanes in the crusts give evidence that ANaerobic MEthane-oxidising archaea (ANME of the phylogenetic cluster ANME-2 were the potential mediators of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM at the time of carbonate formation. Small pieces of MDACs were also found subsurface at about 1.7 m sediment depth, associated with the Sulphate-Methane Transition Zone (SMTZ. The SMTZ of Tommeliten is characterized by elevated AOM and Sulphate Reduction (SR rates, increased concentrations of 13C-depleted tetraether derived biphytanes, and specific bacterial Fatty Acids (FA. Further biomarker and 16S rDNA based analyses give evidence that AOM at the Tommeliten SMTZ

  2. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure. This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established. Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man?s activities may play a role in faulting as well. Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  3. The Finding and Phylogenetic Evolution Analysis of Bovine Piroplasms in the Rasŏn Area of North Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-jun; ZHANG Shou-fa; CAO Shi-nuo; QIAN Nian-chao; YU Long-zheng; XUAN Xue-nan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of bovine Piroplasms infections in the Rasŏn area of North Korea. The survey was carried out by light microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and phylogenetic evolution analysis of 128 blood samples collected from the Rasŏn area. The results showed that the infection rates of the small and large parasites were about 2.5 and 1.5% on average, respectively, in all Theileria sergenti and Babesia ovata-positive blood smears by microscopic examination of blood smears. The detection rate of T. sergenti Giemsa-stained smears was 43.75%, while that with PCR was 67.97%. The detection rate of B. ovata Giemsa-stained smears was 49.21%, while that with PCR was 71.88%. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA showed 98.84%homology between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. sergenti isolates from North Korean and that of Yanbian state from China, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. Moreover, 100%homology was shown between the 18S rRNA gene sequence of B. ovata isolates from North Korea and the published sequence AY081192 of GenBank, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. This survey confirmed that Rasŏn is the endemic area of T. sergenti and B. ovata in North Korea.

  4. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  5. Color Shaded-relief TIFF Image of High-resolution Bathymetry, North Carolina, Pamlico Sound Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  6. 100 Area D4 Project Building Completion Report May 2006 - June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. G. Ison

    2007-07-25

    This report documents the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) and the demolition of the 153-N, 1515-N, 1516-N, 1517-N, 1518-N, 1519-N, 1331-N, 1332-N, and 181-NC facilities in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The D&D and demolition of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and removal of the remaining slabs.

  7. Evaluation and Intercomparison of MODIS and GEOV1 Global Leaf Area Index Products over Four Sites in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenwang Li; Huan Tang; Baohui Zhang; Guixia Yang; Xiaoping Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and GEOLAND2 Version 1 (GEOV1) Leaf Area Index (LAI) products using ground measurements and LAI reference maps over four sites in North China for 2011–2013. The Terra + Aqua MODIS and Terra MODIS LAI retrieved by the main algorithm and GEOV1 LAI within the valid range were evaluated and intercompared using LAI reference maps to assess their uncertainty and seasonal variability The results sho...

  8. Safety Practices for Demolition Procedures. Module SH-41. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safety practices for demolition procedures is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents a general outline of the safe work practices that should be followed at a demolition job site in order for workers to avoid injury. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  9. 75 FR 73962 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition; Illinois River, Seneca, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition; Illinois River, Seneca... temporary safety zone on the Illinois River near Seneca, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Illinois River due to the demolition of the Seneca Highway Bridge. This...

  10. 24 CFR 247.10 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired. 247.10 Section 247.10 Housing and Urban... FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND... or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired. This subpart shall not apply in any case in which...

  11. 76 FR 35006 - Recovery Policy RP9523.4, Demolition of Private Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy RP9523.4, Demolition of Private Structures..., Demolition of Private Structures. DATES: Comments must be received by July 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments must... private structures under the provisions of the Public Assistance Program. FEMA proposes to include...

  12. 40 CFR 61.150 - Standard for waste disposal for manufacturing, fabricating, demolition, renovation, and spraying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) under 29 CFR 1910.1001(j)(4) or 1926.1101(k)(8). The... manufacturing, fabricating, demolition, renovation, and spraying operations. 61.150 Section 61.150 Protection of... disposal for manufacturing, fabricating, demolition, renovation, and spraying operations. Each owner...

  13. 32 CFR 644.478 - Demolition of buildings and other improvements for utilization of salvage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demolition of buildings and other improvements for utilization of salvage material. 644.478 Section 644.478 National Defense Department of Defense... improvements for utilization of salvage material. With respect to DA property, demolition may be undertaken...

  14. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including...

  15. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed...... environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because...

  16. The Quality Improvement of Stony Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Wei-hong; Alex Fraaij; Hans Pietersen; Peter Rem; Koen Van Dijk

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide construction and demolition waste (CDW) is currently dumped. To close the building cycle and the building materials cycle by recycling CDW in high technical applications, the technical quality of stony materials must be improved. For this purpose, concrete rubbles and brick rubbles, the two major stony constituents of CDW, should be separated from each other. Based on the differences in density and content of Fe2O3 between the two materials, a wet method of jigging and a dry method of magnetic separation are effective,tested.

  17. "Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Tavakoli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.37-40, 2003 Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran *HR Tavakoli 1,V Razavilar 2 1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Hygiene,School of public health, Baghyatollah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Dept. of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University , Iran Clostridium botulinum has long been recognized as an etiological agent of food borne botulism and has been reported as an important food safety hazard. The aim of this study was to obtain information about C. botulinum distribution in north areas sediments of Iran in order to ascertain the risks associated with consumption and processing of fish from these waters. Two hundred and seventy samples of sediments from coastal areas of "Gilan" and "Mazandaran" provinas of Iran were collected and analyzed. The supernatants were inoculated into cooked meat media and then , grown specimens were stained and cheked microscopically. After centrifuge ,the supernatants were divided into three (untreated ,heated , and tripsinised and toxicity of them were tested by mouse bioassay. All mice controlled for 4 days for symptoms of botulism. Monovalent standard antitoxins were used for detection of toxin type. The present study revealed that the prevalence of C. botulinum (types A, B and E in sediments from different areas of Gillan and Mazandaran was 3.6% and 4.6% respectively, Mean prevalence of C. botulinum in sediments from north regions of Iran was 4.1%. It is also demonstrated that C. botulinum type E is predominant type seen in aquatic environments of the coastal areas of Iran. This is the first report of C. botulinum distribution in the sediments coastal areas of Iran. Introduction *Corresponding author: +98 21 4811483

  18. Evaluation of the 183-D Water Filtration Facility for Bat Roosts and Development of a Mitigation Strategy, 100-D Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C. T.; Gano, K. A.; Lucas, J. G.

    2011-03-07

    The 183-D Water Filtration Facility is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. It was used to provide filtered water for cooling the 105-D Reactor and supplying fire-protection and drinking water for all facilities in the 100-D Area. The facility has been inactive since the 1980s and is now scheduled for demolition. Therefore, an evaluation was conducted to determine if any part of the facility was being used as roosting habitat by bats.

  19. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  20. Air Dispersion Modeling of Radioactive Releases During Proposed PFP Complex Demolition Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2011-01-11

    This report is part of the planning process for the demolition of the 234-5Z, 236-Z, 242-Z, and 291-Z-1 structures at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) demolition planning effort by making engineering estimates of potential releases for various potential demolition alternatives. This report documents an analysis considering open-air demolition using standard techniques. It does not document any decisions about the decommissioning approaches; it is expected that this report will be revisited as the final details of the demolition are developed.

  1. Open-Country Poverty in a Relatively Affluent Area - The East North Central States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwilliams, Jeanette

    Poverty among open-country households in the East North Central States (11%) was slightly above the incidence found among U.S. whites in general. Incidence of poverty was greatest among the aged, disabled, and small farmers of all ages who made farming their major source of earnings. Of the respondent households in this 1967 survey, 87% had…

  2. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Puget Sound to the west and Lake Washington to the east, which limits transportation options. This dense... Lynnwood in Snohomish County, Washington. The EIS will also be prepared in accordance with Washington's... major north-south route through Washington State and serves a large commuter market traveling...

  3. Energy and mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the area of winter polynya to the north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Boris; Wesman, Anna; Sviashchennikov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The warm inflow of the West Spitsbergen Current keeps waters ice-free in winter to the north of Svalbard, an area also called the Whalers Bay. Here we present results of the winter expedition in the Arctic Ocean to the north of Svalbard on board a research vessel «Helmer Hanssen» in January 2012. The characteristics of the turbulent energy and mass exchange are calculated using an algorithm, which is based on semi-empirical theory of "Monin-Obukhov", adapted to the conditions of marine meteorological observations. The results are compared with the data obtained in this area in February 1986 on board Russian research icebreaker "Otto Schmidt". The features of energy-mass exchange are explained by synoptic and ice conditions in the study area. Intense heat and mass exchange in the area leads to enhanced convective mixing and, thus, upwelling of nutrients to surface waters that can contribute to higher biological activity in the area throughout the food web.

  4. Quantum demolition filtering and optimal control of unstable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavkin, V P

    2012-11-28

    A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for optimal control of quantum unstable systems is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme, we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects as in the usual case of quantum stable systems with non-demolition observation. This allows us to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation generalized to demolition observations and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. An unstable controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one. PMID:23091216

  5. Use of rubble from building demolition in mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, V; Giuggiolini, M; Moriconi, G

    2002-01-01

    Because of increasing waste production and public concerns about the environment, it is desirable to recycle materials from building demolition. If suitably selected, ground, cleaned and sieved in appropriate industrial crushing plants, these materials can be profitably used in concrete. Nevertheless, the presence of masonry instead of concrete rubble is particularly detrimental to the mechanical performance and durability of recycled-aggregate concrete and the same negative effect is detectable when natural sand is replaced by fine recycled aggregate fraction. An alternative use of both masonry rubble and fine recycled material fraction could be in mortars. These could contain either recycled instead of natural sand or powder obtained by bricks crushing as partial cement substitution. In particular, attention is focused on the modification that takes place when either polypropylene or stainless steel fibers are added to these mortars. Polypropylene fibers are added in order to reduce shrinkage of mortars, stainless steel fibers for improving their flexural strength. The combined use of polypropylene fibers and fine recycled material from building demolition could allow the preparation of mortars showing good performance, in particular when coupled with bricks. Furthermore, the combined use of stainless steel fibers and mortars containing brick powder seems to be an effective way to guarantee a high flexural strength.

  6. Middle Holocene warm period and sea level high in coastal areas,North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guanglan; HAN Yousong; WANG Shaoqing

    2005-01-01

    Relevant geological, geographical, archaeological data were collected to study the characteristics of middle Holocene warm period and sea level high on North China coast. Middle Holocene climate and sea level change on North China coast were correlated to warm marine environment events in about 8-3 ka B.P. The sea level in about 8 ka B.P. was higher than present mean sea level, then fluctuated for 5 000 years and after that it became even in 3 ka B.P. The highest sea level occurred in about 6-5 ka B.P.; the maximum was about 2-3 m and minimum was about 1-2 m.

  7. The source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoil in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, North of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Le; Wang, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Dong, Yi-Hui; Du, Bin; Liao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-12-01

    31 topsoil samples were collected by grid method in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan City, North of China. The concentrations of 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrum. Generally speaking, the distribution order of PAHs in the area is: those with five and six rings > those with four rings > those with two and three rings. Source apportionment shows a significant zonation of the source of PAHs: the civil coal pollution occurred in the north part, the local and far factory pollution happened in the middle area and the mixed pollution sources from coal and wood combustion, automotive emission, presented in the south area. The distribution of PAHs has a definite relationship with the sewage water flow and soil adsorption. The related coefficient between PAHs and physicochemical property showed there was a negative correlation between pH, silt, clay and PAHs while there was a positive correlation between total organic carbon, sand and PAHs. PMID:25139034

  8. Leisure and tourism behaviour in rural areas in the North West Province / Victor S. Mogajane

    OpenAIRE

    Mogajane, Victor Solomon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine ways in which the accessibility of leisure and tourism behaviour patterns can be improved to ultimately improve the quality of life of people in rural communities in the North West Province. In order to achieve this it was necessary to indicate the holistic perspective of the tourism industry, with special reference to rural tourism and also the holistic perspective on leisure provision in South Africa. This study is important to addre...

  9. EEG CHARACTERISTICS AND THYROID PROFILE RATIO IN ADOLESCENTS OF SUBPOLAR AND POLAR EUROPEAN NORTH AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    D. B. Demin; L. V. Poskotinova; Ye. V. Krivonogova

    2013-01-01

    Features of brain bioelectric activity and thyroid system in adolescents living in Subpolar andPolar regionsof the North are considered. Hyperactivity of subcortical diencephalic brain structures in adolescents of the Polar region is revealed. Adolescents of Subpolar region have more intensive age optimization of neurodynamic processes. There are noted latitude distinctions of thyroid hormones role for age formation of brain bioelectric activity in adolescents.

  10. EEG CHARACTERISTICS AND THYROID PROFILE RATIO IN ADOLESCENTS OF SUBPOLAR AND POLAR EUROPEAN NORTH AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Demin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of brain bioelectric activity and thyroid system in adolescents living in Subpolar andPolar regionsof the North are considered. Hyperactivity of subcortical diencephalic brain structures in adolescents of the Polar region is revealed. Adolescents of Subpolar region have more intensive age optimization of neurodynamic processes. There are noted latitude distinctions of thyroid hormones role for age formation of brain bioelectric activity in adolescents.

  11. Knowledge and psychomotor skills of nursing students in North Cyprus in the area of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dal, Umran; Sarpkaya, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Objective : The aim of the study was to determine the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skill levels of nursing students in North Cyprus. Methods : The study design was quasi-experimental and longitudinal. A questionnaire was applied to the students before the CPR lecture. Then the students were informed about adult CPR by the researchers and all of the students practiced CPR on a Resusci-Anne manikin. One and six months after this training the same questionnaire and skills ch...

  12. Tracing back nutrients from Southern North Sea eutrophicated areas up to the watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulière, Valérie; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Luyten, Patrick; Lacroix, Geneviève

    2015-04-01

    The Southern North Sea faces eutrophication problems. They result from growing anthropogenic pressure in the river watersheds, and subsequent increase in nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) loading to the sea. Establishing the link between human activities and eutrophication problems requires the identification of the major nutrient sources and the ecological response of the coastal ecosystem to these nutrient alterations. This information is crucial to mitigate eutrophication in coastal zones by applying appropriate dual-nutrient reduction strategies, therefore achieving the Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020. The marine biogeochemical model (MIRO&CO) has been coupled to a newly developed generic watershed model (PyNuts) based on Riverstrahler model. A nutrient tracking approach has been adapted and implemented in MIRO&CO. The transboundary nutrient transport method has been used to track the nutrients in the sea, and trace back their sources (river, ocean, and atmosphere). Here, the relative contributions of the different nutrient sources will be presented. Results show that the nitrogen contribution from atmospheric deposition is not negligible and that the nutrients released by French rivers reach the Southern North Sea in significant proportions. This work has done in the framework of the EMoSEM EU project (http://www.odnature.be/emosem/) that aims at providing support to eutrophication management in the North Atlantic Ocean, using state-of-the-art modelling tools.

  13. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  14. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  15. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2007 Building Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Westberg

    2009-01-15

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of twenty buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilties included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation, as appropriate.

  16. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  17. Assessment of leaching from Construction & Demolition Waste concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste features two very important properties when considering its management options: the large amounts, and the low environmental hazardousness. Therefore, concrete waste can be recycled relatively easily: most common end-of-life option is utilization as unbound...... aggregates in road sub-bases, where it substitutes for natural aggregates such as gravel and crushed rocks. However, leaching of heavy metals may occur in such uncontrolled environmental conditions, and become a limiting factor for utilization. Therefore, proper assessment of leaching is crucial. Different...... approaches exist, often implying unrealistic or not relevant conditions if compared to real life utilization scenarios. A modified version of the CEN/TS 14405 column percolation test has been implemented on four crushed concrete samples, with the purpose of analysing the release of chromium, one...

  18. Forecasting of construction and demolition waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Diogo Hf; Lafayette, Kalinny Pv

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a computerised tool (software) that facilitates the analysis of strategies for waste management on construction sites through the use of indicators of construction and demolition waste generation. The development involved the following steps: knowledge acquisition, structuring the system, coding and system evaluation. The step of knowledge acquisition aims to provide subsidies for the representation of them through models. In the step of structuring the system, it was presented the structuring and formalisation of knowledge for the development of the system, and has two stages: the construction of the conceptual model and the subsequent instantiation of the model. The coding system aims to implement (code) the conceptual model developed in a model played by computer (digital). The results showed that the system is very useful and applicable in construction sites, helping to improve the quality of waste management, and creating a database that will support new research. PMID:27177555

  19. Forecasting of construction and demolition waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Diogo Hf; Lafayette, Kalinny Pv

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a computerised tool (software) that facilitates the analysis of strategies for waste management on construction sites through the use of indicators of construction and demolition waste generation. The development involved the following steps: knowledge acquisition, structuring the system, coding and system evaluation. The step of knowledge acquisition aims to provide subsidies for the representation of them through models. In the step of structuring the system, it was presented the structuring and formalisation of knowledge for the development of the system, and has two stages: the construction of the conceptual model and the subsequent instantiation of the model. The coding system aims to implement (code) the conceptual model developed in a model played by computer (digital). The results showed that the system is very useful and applicable in construction sites, helping to improve the quality of waste management, and creating a database that will support new research.

  20. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques applied During Structural Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.

    1997-08-06

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated by a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was conducted by the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), was to perform an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study specifically targeted the problem of dust suppression during demolition. The resulting data were used in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to structural demolition. In the Fiscal Year 1996 (FY96), the effectiveness of different dust suppressing agents was investigated for different types of concrete blocks. Initial tests were conducted in a broad particle size range. In Fiscal Year 1997 (FY97), additional tests were performed in the size range in which most of the particles were detected. Since particle distribution is an important parameter for predicting deposition in various compartments of the human respiratory tract, various tests were aimed at determining the particle size distribution of the airborne dust particles. The effectiveness of dust suppressing agents for particles of various size was studied. Instead of conducting experiments on various types of blocks, it was thought prudent to carry out additional tests on blocks of the same type. Several refinements were also incorporated in the test procedures and data acquisition system used in FY96.

  1. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jinghui

    2001-01-01

    -pressure granulites and amphibolite from Sanggan area, North China craton, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(2): 106-110.[10]Guo. J. H, Zhai M. G., Li, Y. G. et al., Isotopic ages and their tectonic significance of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the early Precambrian granulite belt, North China craton, in Geological Evolution of the Granulite Terrane in North Part of the North China Craton (eds. Qian, X., Wang, R.), Beijing: Seismolgical Press, 1994, 130-144.[11]Wang, J., Lu, S. N., Li, H. M., Isotope ages of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the Inner Mongolia, Bulletin of Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (in Chinese with English abstract), 1995, 29: 1-76.[12]Wu, C. H., Li, H. M., Zhong, C. T. et al,, The ages of zircon and rutile (cooling) from Khondalite in Huangtuyao, Inner Mongolia, Geological Review (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 44(6): 618-626.[13]Zhao, Z. P et al., Precambrian Crustal Evolution of Sino-Korean Paraplateform (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1994,444.[14]Dirks, P. H. G. M., Zhang, J. S., Passchier, C. W., Exhumation of high-pressure granulites and the role of lower crustal advection in the North China craton near Datong, J. Struct. Geol., 1997, 19: 1343-1358.[15]Zhang, J. Sh., Dirks, P. H, G., Passchier, C. W., Extensional collapse and uplift in a polymetamorphic granulite terrain in the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic of north China, Precambrian Res., 1994, 67: 37-57.[16]Li. J. H.. Zhai, M. G., Qian, X. L. et al., The geological occurrence, regional tectonic setting and exhumation of late Archaean high-pressure granulite with the high-grade metamorphic terranes, north to central portion of North China craton.Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 14: 176-189.[17]Lu, L. Z., Xu, X. C., Liu, F. L., Early Precambrian Khondalite Series in North China (in Chinese with English abstract),Changchun: Changchun Press, 1996, 276.[18]Yan, Y. H.. Liu, W. J., Discussion

  2. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  3. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200μm up to 1000μm size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.68±0.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.23±0.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20μm are not able to translocate into the tissues. PMID:26456303

  4. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages are reported for three samples of intrusive rocks in Khondalite series in the Sanggan area, North China craton. The age of meta-granite is dated as 2005±9 Ma, implying that the sedimentary sequences in Khondalites series formed before 2.0Ga. The age of 1921 ±1Ma for the meta-diorite constrain the age of granulite facies metamorphism younger than this date. The age of 1892±10 Ma for garnet granite is obtained, but the granite crystallization age seems a little younger than the date considering the morphology of zircons. On the basis of these dates and of a concise review of previous age data, it is inferred that the Khondalite series was subjected to granulite facies metamorphism at about 1.87Ga together with tonalitic granulites and HP basic granulites in the Sanggan area.

  5. Dengue fever Potential Area at Pademangan Barat Sub District, North Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri E. B. Soesilo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease that contagious by Aedes aegypti mosquito’s bites. Anybody could infectious by this illness, without differentiate their sex, age, social status, and economic status as well. Nevertheless, at slum area, where mosquito’s larva is easy to find, the number of infectious people is presuming high. By using primary data and analyze with geography information system (GIS, the study found that the number of infectious people of dengue fever do not have any positive correlation with larva amount, that was monitored through clean water in the surrounding neighborhood area. The number of infectious people have correlation with the dirty areas that caused by the piling of used articles and inundate area. Gender and age do not have any influence with the number of infectious people.

  6. Possible volcanic structures near Olympia Undae, North circumpolar area of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bayton, M.; Tréguier, E.; Herraiz, M.; Martin, P.; Schmidt, F.; Witasse, O.

    2011-10-01

    The work presented here is a study of structures encountered in the area bordering the Olympia Undae dune sea (Fig. 1). Various structures have been observed in this area, such as cones and domes [6] (whose origin may be volcanic), impact craters, etc. These structures are particularly difficult to characterize because of their relatively small size and the occasional occurrence of a sediment cover. This study is mainly based on data from Mars Express (HRSC imagery) and Mars Global Surveyor (MOLA altimetry data).

  7. 77 FR 65818 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Construction Company will be conducting demolition on portions of the Cline Avenue Bridge in East Chicago, IN... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ] A. Regulatory History and Information...

  8. 77 FR 63732 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Purpose On October 27 and November 10, 2012, Walsh Construction Company will be conducting demolition on.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM...

  9. Water-quality trends for streams and reservoirs in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, 1983-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, C.J.; Bathala, Neeti

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data, collected from 1983 to 1995, were analyzed for 34 stream and reservoir sites in a seven- county region within the upper Neuse and upper Cape Fear River Basins. Early data (1983-88) were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey water- quality studies and from the ambient water-quality monitoring network of the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, metals, trace elements, and synthetic organic compounds were compiled from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1988 to 1995 as part of a continuing project to monitor the water quality of surface-water supplies in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, and from the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources ambient water-quality monitoring network. This report presents the results of analysis of consistently increasing or decreasing trends in concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species, suspended sediment, suspended solids, sodium, chloride, iron, manganese, zinc, and chlorophyll a from seasonal Kendall trend analysis on flow-adjusted concentrations for streams and concentrations in lakes. Total phosphorus concentrations also were tested for a step decrease in concentration (step trend) associated with the North Carolina phosphate-detergent ban of 1988. For some other constituents, insufficient data or values below laboratory detection limits precluded trend analysis. A regionwide decrease in total phosphorus, ranging from 25 to 81 percent was observed that coincided with increased phosphorus removal efforts at municipal wastewater-treatment facilities in the region and the statewide phosphate-detergent ban. Most sites had stable or decreasing trends in nitrogen concentrations; however, increasing trends occurred in the Neuse River near Clayton and at Smithfield, both of which are downstream from the developing Raleigh-Durham area. Chlorophyll a

  10. Electrifying reviews of the central North Sea area; Elektrisifiseringsvurderinger for midtre Nordsjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husdal, Geir

    2012-06-15

    We conducted a site evaluation of power from land to several fields in the central North Sea. The findings are included Dagny, Edvard Grieg, Draupne and Johan Sverdrup. In addition, an unidentified future field is included in the evaluation. Unclassified cost estimates have been prepared and measures cost is calculated for a main concept based on a set of assumptions and suppositions. To check the robustness of the results and to identify which parameters the results are most sensitive to, we conducted sensitivity analyzes in which key assumptions are changed. The study shows a cost of Nok 412 Nok / tonne reduction in Co2 emissions. This is slightly higher than the sum of the current Co2 tax and quota price, but lower than the Co2 cost proposed in the white paper. Sensitivity calculations show that the cost of measures is very sensitive to investment costs, future energy demand and the price difference between gas sold on the continent and electricity from the grid in Norway. (eb)

  11. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  12. Seismic tomography of the area of the 2010 Beni-Ilmane earthquake sequence, north-central Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacha, Issam; Koulakov, Ivan; Semmane, Fethi; Yelles-Chaouche, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    The region of Beni-Ilmane (District of M'sila, north-central Algeria) was the site of an earthquake sequence that started on 14 May 2010. This sequence, which lasted several months, was triggered by conjugate E-W reverse and N-S dextral faulting. To image the crustal structure of these active faults, we used a set of 1406 well located aftershocks events and applied the local tomography software (LOTOS) algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the initial 1D velocity model, and iterative tomographic inversion for 3D seismic P- and S-wave velocities (and the Vp/Vs ratio), and source parameters. The patterns of P-wave low-velocity anomalies correspond to the alignments of faults determined from geological evidence, and the P-wave high-velocity anomalies may represent rigid blocks of the upper crust that are not deformed by regional stresses. The S-wave low-velocity anomalies coincide with the aftershock area, where relatively high values of Vp/Vs ratio (1.78) are observed compared with values in the surrounding areas (1.62-1.66). These high values may indicate high fluid contents in the aftershock area. These fluids could have been released from deeper levels by fault movements during earthquakes and migrated rapidly upwards. This hypothesis is supported by vertical sections across the study area show that the major Vp/Vs anomalies are located above the seismicity clusters. PMID:25485193

  13. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  14. An analysis of the North Rainier Elk Herd area, Washington: Change detection and habitat modeling with remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Joshua J.

    The North Rainier Elk Herd (NREH) is one of ten designated herds in Washington State, all managed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To aid in the management of the herd, the WDFW has decided to implement a spatial ecosystem analysis. This thesis partially undertakes this analysis through the use of a suite of software tools, the Westside Elk Nutrition and Habitat Use Models (WENHUM). This model analyzes four covariates that have a strong correlation to elk habitat selection: dietary digestible energy (DDE); distance to roads open to the public; mean slope; and distance to cover-forage edge and returns areas of likely elk habitation or use. This thesis includes an update of the base vegetation layer from 2006 data to 2011, a series of clear cuts were identified as areas of change and fed into the WENHUM models. The addition of these clear cuts created improvements in the higher quality DDE levels and when the updated data is compared to the original, predictions of elk use are higher. The presence of open or closed roads was simulated by creating an area of possible closures, selecting candidate roads within that area and then modeling them as either "all open" or "all closed". The simulation of the road closures produced increases in the higher levels of predicted use.

  15. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  16. Update of data on decision making of test drills in the North Sea coastal area. Outlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For activities that will have environmental impacts there exists a legal commitment in the Netherlands to draw up a so-called Environmental Effect Report (MER, abbreviated in Dutch). In this publication supplementary information is given on a previous MER with respect to exploratory drillings for natural gas in the title area. 8 refs

  17. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  18. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  19. Decontamination and demolition of concrete and metal structures during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to give a concise technical description of the techniques and equipment being used or developed for the decontamination and demolition of nuclear facilities in sufficient detail to assist Member States to plan decommissioning operations and make preliminary evaluations of techniques and equipment. This report also reviews new and/or different aspects which have not been well covered previously in readily available review documents or IAEA publications. This report is an up to date review of techniques and equipment being used or developed for decontamination or dismantling work during the decommissioning of all types of nuclear facility except mining and milling sites. Although the information presented is aimed at countries initiating decommissioning programmes, it should also be useful to others who are responsible for or interested in the planning and implementation of decommissioning tasks. This report describes the relevant techniques and equipment, their areas of application and degree of development and the conditions in which they are used, when these details are known. However, this publication should be used in conjunction with other published technical information on these topics, experience gained as a result of previous decommissioning operations and the assistance of experts in the appropriate areas are required. 64 refs, 33 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jinghui

    2001-01-01

    -pressure granulites and amphibolite from Sanggan area, North China craton, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(2): 106-110.[10]Guo. J. H, Zhai M. G., Li, Y. G. et al., Isotopic ages and their tectonic significance of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the early Precambrian granulite belt, North China craton, in Geological Evolution of the Granulite Terrane in North Part of the North China Craton (eds. Qian, X., Wang, R.), Beijing: Seismolgical Press, 1994, 130-144.[11]Wang, J., Lu, S. N., Li, H. M., Isotope ages of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the Inner Mongolia, Bulletin of Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (in Chinese with English abstract), 1995, 29: 1-76.[12]Wu, C. H., Li, H. M., Zhong, C. T. et al,, The ages of zircon and rutile (cooling) from Khondalite in Huangtuyao, Inner Mongolia, Geological Review (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 44(6): 618-626.[13]Zhao, Z. P et al., Precambrian Crustal Evolution of Sino-Korean Paraplateform (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1994,444.[14]Dirks, P. H. G. M., Zhang, J. S., Passchier, C. W., Exhumation of high-pressure granulites and the role of lower crustal advection in the North China craton near Datong, J. Struct. Geol., 1997, 19: 1343-1358.[15]Zhang, J. Sh., Dirks, P. H, G., Passchier, C. W., Extensional collapse and uplift in a polymetamorphic granulite terrain in the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic of north China, Precambrian Res., 1994, 67: 37-57.[16]Li. J. H.. Zhai, M. G., Qian, X. L. et al., The geological occurrence, regional tectonic setting and exhumation of late Archaean high-pressure granulite with the high-grade metamorphic terranes, north to central portion of North China craton.Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 14: 176-189.[17]Lu, L. Z., Xu, X. C., Liu, F. L., Early Precambrian Khondalite Series in North China (in Chinese with English abstract),Changchun: Changchun Press, 1996, 276.[18]Yan, Y. H.. Liu, W. J., Discussion

  1. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  2. Effect of Ecotourism on Plant Biodiversity in Cherlagh Protected Area North-Eastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hossein Zarghi; Sayed Mohsen Hosseini; Hamid Ejtehadi

    2015-01-01

    Due to importance of considerable effects of ecotourism on environment, the effect of ecotourism on plant biodiversity in Cherlagh zone was investigated .To acquire the aim of the article, the sampling area was selected under the condition that the ecotourism is solely the variable factor and the slope, direction and height are considered constant factor after evaluation of the ecological land unit drawings. Two zones of high pressured and low pressured ecotourism were considered after evalua...

  3. Regional geochemical and geophysical surveys in the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas, north Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, D. C.; Rollin, K.; Cornwell, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes stream sediment and gravity surveys carried out across the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas. The gravity survey confirmed the presence of a broad regional Bouguer anomaly low in the central part of the Dome, on which is superimposed several smaller irregular highs and lows. Some of these local anomalies possibly reflect small igneous bodies but more detailed gravity surveys would be needed to determine their form. Near Corwen the Bryneglwys Fault co...

  4. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  5. Geology and Uranium, Thorium Distributions of Gabal Humr Ar-Raha Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Humr ar-Raha area, about 150 km2 of crystalline basement rocks, is delineated by Lat. 27° 18’ and 27° 26' N and Long. 32° 42' and 32° 48’ E. It is covered by Dokhan volcanics (oldest), younger granites (syenogranite) and post granitic dykes (youngest). Dokhan volcanics are represented by a thick sequence of stratified lava flows of intermediate (andesites) and acidic (rhyolites) composition. The main rock type of Gabal Humr ar-Raha granitoid rocks are classified as syenogranites; their emplacement were structurally controlled by pre-existing fractures trending NNE- SSW and NE-SW. The acidic Dokhan volcanics and younger granites show the highest equivalent uranium and equivalent thorium contents in the study area. The younger granites can be considered as uraniferous granites as revealed from their radiometric studies. They are originated from highly fractionated U-rich magma that trapping high concentrations of uranium in the accessory minerals. These granites host an interesting radioactive anomalies which are essentially exhibited by a strongly altered granites occupying at the intersection zone of two major strike-slip faults striking NNW-SSE and NE-SW. The sheared granites show dark brown spots of iron oxides at this zone. Thus the enrichment of uranium in the study area is controlled by structural elements

  6. ESTIMATION OF THE POPULATION EXPOSURE DOSES FROM DRINKING-WATER CONSUMPTION FOR THE INHABITANTS OF NORTH-EASTERN AREA OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kaduka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on natural radionuclides content in drinking-water of North-Eastern area of Russian Federation obtained in long-term investigations is presented; population internal exposure doses estimation from the drinking-water consumption is carried out for the inhabitants of the area.

  7. Splash erosion in recently-burnt area in North-West Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María

    2013-04-01

    Splash erosion is generally acknowledged as the main erosive agent, because it represents the first step in water erosion (Ellison, 1944, Sempere Torres et al., 1994). The impact of raindrops not only modifies the structure of the earth's surface, (Moss, 1991) but also breaks down and emits soil fragments which are later transported over long distances in the case of additional surface runoff processes (Moss and Green, 1983). In the whole process we need to take into account not only the specific kinetic energy associated to each rain event, but also the type of soil and the size of the particles released (Sharma et al 1991), as well as the characteristics of the layer of water formed on the surface (Moss and Green, 1983, Kinnell, 1991, Leguédois et al., 2005). The erosion process is more obvious when it affects vulnerable areas that have recently been devastated by a wildfire. This study has computed the raindrop size, its volume, the fall velocity, and its kinetic energy by means of an optical disdrometer. The data have subsequently been compared with the mass of soil that was splashed and collected in a particular area devastated by an important wildfire on the 17th of May 2012. The splash erosion produced in 6 months has been analyzed. 2. Study Site The data were gathered in the period between the 29th May and the 30th November 2012, in the area of Congosto, in the province of León, Spain. The study zone is part of a transition area between the plain and the mountainous regions. The dominant climate is the continentalized Mediterranean climate, although with more moderate temperatures. In general, in this area we find a wide temperature range (from 12 to 20°C), long and cold winters, short springs and autumns, and short and warm summers. Precipitation is irregularly scattered along the year, and may reach, depending on the area, up to 1,500 mm per year. Intense precipitation events may occur. The area presents a coarse-grained siliceous lithology, that is

  8. Regional Evaluation of ERA-40 Reanalysis Data with Marine Atmospheric Observations in the North Sea Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils H. Schade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important task of the departmental research programme KLIWAS is the evaluation and assessment of climate model results by means of a comprehensive reference data set. For validation purposes, and to create a North Sea wide maritime atmospheric and oceanographic reference database, in-situ observations of the Centre for Global Marine Meteorological Observations (GZS of the National Meteorological Service DWD have been compared to the ERA-40 reanalysis. ERA-40 is used as forcing for the hindcast runs of the ENSEMBLES regional climate models, which is used within the KLIWAS model chain. The GZS hosts a regularly updated, quality controlled, world-wide data bank of weather observations from the oceans. It includes data from all sorts of observation platforms as Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS, drifting and moored buoys, light vessels, and offshore platforms, either from real-time (RT via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS or from international exchange in delayed-mode (DM. In addition to the automated set of programs applied for high quality control, erroneous data are also manually corrected to a certain extent, if possible. To assure reliable statistics for the evaluation, the corrected observations are gridded to a resolution of 2.25 degree, so each grid box includes four ERA-40 reanalysis grid points. The temporal coverage of the grid boxes depends on shipping routes and the positions of automated systems. Observed air temperatures, covering a period of 40 years (1961?2000, show noticeable differences to the reanalysis data for all land influenced boxes, specifically in the winter months. The same differences can be found if ERA-40 data alone are compared between land- and sea facing boxes. They can not be found in GZS data. It can be assumed that the differences are not resulting from measurement errors or uncertain fraction variabilities, since they are small during the winter months. A comparison of the differences basing on the 1981

  9. MAPPING OF MARINE PLANTS DISTRIBUTIONS IN NORTH COASTAL AREA OF SUMBAWA REGENCY USING ALOS/AVNIR-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Astuti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation and management of water resource be more beneficial, if preceded by study which includes biological aspect besides physics and chemical parameter of waters. The biological aspects study can be conducted by monitoring the change of ecosystem (biomonitoring. One of study that entangles biomonitoring is the research concerning change of marine plants. Marine plants consists of seagrasses and seaweeds. Using ALOS/AVNIR-2 data in this research because it has 3 visible bands (blue, green, and red with 10 meter spacial resolutions can penetrate into water column. Aims of research were (1 to know combinations of bands in ALOS/AVNIR-2 data was better in Lyzenga method applying to mapping marine plants, (2 to know the general species of marine plants in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency. Lyzenga method was used in image processing process to know the combination of bands which have better for mapping marine plants. Preliminary steps of image processing were image cropping, geometric correction and radiometric correction. Water column effect was reduced by Lyzenga algorithm. Six classes were determined by multispectral classification process i.e. seagrass, seaweeds, coral, hard sand and rubble of coral, and substratum. Field surveys has done to identify the accuracy level. The accuracy method by Lillesand and Kiefer (1990 was used in this research.The result of accuracy test show for image band 1 and band 2 combination given better visual object benthic than another combinations of bands, with overall accuracy was 86.67%. Seagrass found in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency consist of four species there were Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Halophila ovalis with width equal to 835.37 ha, while seaweeds were found equal to five species there were Euchema cottoni, Euchema cottoni ssp sakul, Halimeda sp, Padina sp, and Sargasum duplicatum with width equal to 269,16 ha.

  10. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina, water years 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-09-07

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2011 through September 2012 (water year 2012) and October 2012 through September 2013 (water year 2013). Major findings for this period include:Annual precipitation was approximately 2 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2012 and approximately 3 percent below the long-term mean in 2013.In water year 2012, streamflow was generally below the long-term mean during most of the period for the 10 project streamflow gaging stations. Streamflow was near or above the long-term mean at the same streamflow gaging stations during the 2013 water year.More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 17 sites—6 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-three water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality standards exist for 23 of these.All observations met State water-quality standards for pH, temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium.North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, turbidity, chlorophyll a, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at all 17 sites.Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 19 water-quality constituents relative to non-storm events.

  11. Assessment of the impact of moving fluids on the regional thermal field for the area of Brandenburg (North German Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, V.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cacace, M.; Lewerenz, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the 3D thermal field for the area of Brandenburg in the North German Basin. The study area encompasses a part of the basin centre in the north, whereas to the south the basin margin is enclosed. Starting with Permocarboniferous volcanic rocks the basin fill is represented by Permian to Cenozoic sediments. A thick layer of mobilized salt (Zechstein, Upper Permian) generated elevated structures such as salt pillows and diapirs. Especially where diapirs pierce their overburden, the overlying deposits are strongly influenced in their thickness and distribution. This special configuration of the Zechstein salt is relevant for the thermal calculations due to the fact that salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than the surrounding sediments and is impermeable to fluid flow. Therefore, the Zechstein salt acts as a conductive chimney for heat and a hydraulic decoupling horizon between the Pre-Permian and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata. The latter are characterized by two further quasi-impervious sediment complexes, the Rupelian-clay and the Muschelkalk. These two divide the Post-Permian strata in three main aquifer systems: the Buntsandstein, Keuper to Pre-Rupelian and the Post-Rupelian complex. Based on results from purely conductive modelling we additionally analyse the influence of moving fluids on the shallow temperature field above the Zechstein salt. Therefore coupled fluid flow and heat transfer numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydrothermal field. The 3D simulations for the heat transport processes are based on the finite element method. The results indicate that the distribution of thermal conductivities in the basin fill controls the short-wavelength pattern of the temperature distribution whereas the long wavelength pattern results from interaction between the highly conductive crust and low conductive sediments. Furthermore, the results reveal that the shallow temperature field

  12. Complex gravity zones and the extension of labour catchment areas in North Transdanubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study are the identification of the centres of gravity of the Northern-Transdanubian cities, including Győr, by using a gravitation model and, based on empirical examination, the definition of manpower catchment areas. Then, we are going to analyze the impact fields determined by two methods and seek explanations for the overlaps and differences of the two delineations, which are also going to be analyzed with the consideration of geographic, social and economic factors. Both examinations were carried out at two dates, covering a timeframe of 10 years.

  13. Costs of urban area retrofit to district heating and cooling systems: north-central cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D J; Davis, A A; Marder, S M

    1978-03-01

    This study considers the major urbanized areas of six U.S. cities (Washington, D.C.; St. Louis; Cleveland; Milwaukee; Detroit; Chicago) to arrive at reasonably accurate estimates of costs required to retrofit them with district heating and cooling systems. Only costs associated with heating and hot water are addressed here. Demand estimates and energy-supply analyses are made, and component capital costs are estimated to arrive at annualized system costs. Finally, a comparison of alternative energy-delivery options is made, and estimates of scarce-fuel savings are derived. 39 refs., 12 figs., 14 tables.

  14. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The sediment source controls the distribution of the heavy metals. • There is no Cu, Pb, Zn and As pollution instead of slight Cd pollution. • Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic while Cd and As are mixed in origin. • Cd in polluted stations showed obvious anthropogenic origin. - Abstract: Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, 210Pbexcess and 137Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin

  15. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S; Allen, Lee R; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K-P

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  16. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts. PMID:26964762

  17. Study of Landcover Change in Yelwa-Heipang Area of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria: A Geoinformatics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study is a research programme carried out to detect the change in land use/land cover of Yelwa-Heipang area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. It lies within the South-Eastern part of the Jos-Plateau. It is about 40 km South of Jos city. It is located between latitude 9°35'16.65" N, longitude 8°52'29.91" E and Latitude 9°38'38.92" N, longitude 8°57'03.87" E (Naraguta topomap, sheet 168S.E). Two sets of Landsat images of 1975, 1986 and NigeriaSat-X image of 2012 were subjected to various image processing techniques and a supervised classification was carried out on the various images using ILWIS (Integrated land and water information system) software. The classification scheme used are bare-surface, built-up, farmland and vegetation. A follow up field work was carried out to confirm the results of the classification. The results were subjected to various statistical analyses and it shows natural vegetated area coverage increased from 5.80 sqkm in 1975 to 18.47 sqkm in 1986 and later reduced to 16.85 sqkm in 2012. Non-vegetated area which comprised built-up area, farmlands and bare surface, decreased from 42.2 sqkm in 1975 to 33.82 sqkm in 1986, then to 35.86 sqkm in 2012.The rate of change of natural vegetation between 1975 and 1986 was 1.152 sqkm per annum, while that of 1986 and 2012 was 0.108 sqkm per annum. Loss of naturally vegetated area in Yelwa-Heipang Barkin-Ladi is mainly as a result of urban growth and expansion, farming and gully erosion. Another important issue in the study area is the problem of soil erosion. In the past mining activity had led to accelerated gully erosion which has stripped substantial areas of lands of their vegetations. This has led to the formation of bare surface. Land cover of the study area during the period between 1975 and 2012 changed from a forested area to other land uses as a result of increase in population, demand for land for agricultural purposes and increase in the demand for firewood.

  18. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program. PMID:25421712

  19. Quantifying construction and demolition waste: An analytical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Prevailing C and D waste quantification methodologies are identified and compared. • One specific methodology cannot fulfill all waste quantification scenarios. • A relevance tree for appropriate quantification methodology selection is proposed. • More attentions should be paid to civil and infrastructural works. • Classified information is suggested for making an effective waste management plan. - Abstract: Quantifying construction and demolition (C and D) waste generation is regarded as a prerequisite for the implementation of successful waste management. In literature, various methods have been employed to quantify the C and D waste generation at both regional and project levels. However, an integrated review that systemically describes and analyses all the existing methods has yet to be conducted. To bridge this research gap, an analytical review is conducted. Fifty-seven papers are retrieved based on a set of rigorous procedures. The characteristics of the selected papers are classified according to the following criteria - waste generation activity, estimation level and quantification methodology. Six categories of existing C and D waste quantification methodologies are identified, including site visit method, waste generation rate method, lifetime analysis method, classification system accumulation method, variables modelling method and other particular methods. A critical comparison of the identified methods is given according to their characteristics and implementation constraints. Moreover, a decision tree is proposed for aiding the selection of the most appropriate quantification method in different scenarios. Based on the analytical review, limitations of previous studies and recommendations of potential future research directions are further suggested

  20. Characterization of wastes from construction and demolition sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Swarnalatha; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Jeong, Seong-Kyeong; Kim, Yong-Jun; Yeon, Jin-Mo; Shin, Sun Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    In Republic of Korea, construction and demolition (C&D) waste accounts for 49.9% of the total waste. In the present work, the mineralogical composition, the concentrations of 11 heavy metals, 19 PAH, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners present in the 6 broad category (9 subcategories) of C&D hazardous waste were discussed along with their leaching characteristics. In concrete/mixed cement waste, the concentrations of As, Cr(6+), Hg, and Zn were in the range of 1.76-7.86, ND-1.63, 0.026-0.047, and 110.90-280.17 mg/kg, respectively. The asphalt waste sample A1 possessed relatively high concentrations of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene comparing to the other samples and it contains 0.08-0.1% of coal tar. Hazardous nature of the C&D wastes greatly depends on the source of the collection. Zn concentration was above 1000 mg/kg for road asphalt waste samples A4 and A5. Total PCB concentration were high in the soil waste sample S1 (130 μg/kg) as it was the excavated soil obtained from the premises of an oil station. Leaching of As, Ba, CN(-), and F(-) were observed in most of the C&D waste samples.

  1. Effect of Ecotourism on Plant Biodiversity in Cherlagh Protected Area North-Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zarghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to importance of considerable effects of ecotourism on environment, the effect of ecotourism on plant biodiversity in Cherlagh zone was investigated .To acquire the aim of the article, the sampling area was selected under the condition that the ecotourism is solely the variable factor and the slope, direction and height are considered constant factor after evaluation of the ecological land unit drawings. Two zones of high pressured and low pressured ecotourism were considered after evaluation of related drawings. Samples were taken in spring 2010. For evaluation of the plant biodiversity 60 samples of 1 m2 (30 samples in each zone were taken randomly and then the list of flora and the cover percentage of vegetation were recorded and then the percentage of vegetation data were analyzed in PAST software individual , the biodiversity (Shanon, Simpson richness (Menhinick, Margalef evenness (Dominance, Berger parker, indices were calculated. The mentioned indices were inserted in SPSS II software and the data normality was tested through Kolomogrov-Smirnov test also the homogeneity of variances was tested using Leven test. Due to data normality, non-paired T test was used in order to compare diversity analysis. The results indicate that the richness and individual indices show significant effects of ecotourism on biodiversity indices.

  2. Bimodal Distribution of Area-Weighted Latitude of Sunspots And Solar North-South Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2011-01-01

    We study the latitudinal distribution of sunspots observed from 1874 to 2009 using the center-of-latitude (COL). We calculate COL by taking the area-weighted mean latitude of sunspots for each calendar month. We then form the latitudinal distribution of COL for the sunspots appearing in the northern and southern hemispheres separately, and in both hemispheres with unsigned and signed latitudes, respectively. We repeat the analysis with subsets which are divided based on the criterion of which hemisphere is dominant for a given solar cycle. Our primary findings are as follows: (1) COL is not monotonically decreasing with time in each cycle. Small humps can be seen (or short plateaus) around every solar maxima. (2) The distribution of COL resulting from each hemisphere is bimodal, which can well be represented by the double Gaussian function. (3) As far as the primary component of the double Gaussian function is concerned, for a given data subset, the distributions due to the sunspots appearing in two different...

  3. Outbreak of Salmonella Typhi enteric fever in sub-urban area of North India:A public health perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nidhi Singla; Neha Bansal; Varsha Gupta; Jagdish Chander

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of enteric fever are a major health concern not only due to significant human morbidity and mortality but also fear of spread of multidrug resistant strains.We report an outbreak of enteric fever caused bySalmonella enterica serotypeTyphi in a suburban area, in cityChandigarh ofNorthIndia.Twenty-seven strains ofS. typhi were isolated from blood cultures over a period of two weeks with18 of these27 patients residing in the same area.Maximum cases were in the age group5-14 years(10 patients,55.5%) while4(22.2%) cases were children under5 years.All the strains showed similar resistogram being resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, intermediate to ciprofloxacin and sensitive to chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cotrimoxazole and azithromycin on disc diffusion testing.Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method and was found to be raised(≥2 μg/mL).This nalidixic acid resistant S. typhioutbreak report warrants the necessity of implementing stringent sanitation practices in public health interest.

  4. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern.

  5. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area. PMID:25072718

  6. Communal visual histories to detect environmental change in northern areas: Examples of emerging North American and Eurasian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Tero

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed. PMID:26008615

  7. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern. PMID:26318969

  8. Fishes associated with North Carolina shelf-edge hardbottoms and initial assessment of a proposed marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, A.M.; Ross, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Fish community data are limited from deeper shelf-edge hardbottoms along the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. This lack of data Hampers the design of recently proposed marine protected areas (MPAs) on the outer shelf of the southeastern U.S. During 2001-2004, sampling was conducted (57-25 m) to describe habitats and fish communities within and outside of the North Carolina proposed MPA (p-MPA) using the JOHNSON-SEA-LINK submersible, remotely operated vehicles, otter trawls, and hook and line. Habitats observed included soft substrate or non-hardbottom (NH), a shipwreck ("Snowy Wreck"), low relief hardbottoms (LRH), boulder fields (BF), and high relief ledges (HRL), the latter of which were divided into three mi-crohabitats. Non-metric, multi-dimensional scaling indicated that hardbottom fish assemblages were distinct from NH, and fish assemblages among microhabitats on HRL were different. In total, 152 fish species were documented. Thirty-five species were observed only on NH and 117 were observed or hardbottoms and the Snowy Wreck. Several species of anthiines were the most abundant fishes on most hardbottoms, whereas triglids, synodontids, and Seriola spp. were abundant on NH. Species richness was highest on HRL, and species composition was unique at the Snowy Wreck (238-253 m) and on BF. Future shelf-edge hardbottom research should include more standardized surveys using direct observations. Further, we recommend that the boundaries of the North Carolina p-MPA be redrawn to include more hardbottom habitat. ?? 2006 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

  9. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    geomagnetic activity leads to a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones in residing at high latitudes area healthy individuals, indicating that they revealed the type of adaptive stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  10. The inner circulation mechanism in sinking column formation in North China coal field——A case study in Fengfeng mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-ming; LIU Xian-wei; LIU Wen-sheng; GUAN Yong-qiang; WANG Jun-xian

    2007-01-01

    Sinking columns are one of the most hazardous geological structures in north Chine typed coal fields.To understand the sinking column formation,to judge if the columns are hazardous or not,the inner circle mechanism of groundwater in forming sinking columns in the relatively isolated areas was proposed according to the investigation on formation or distribution of sinking columns in some north China typed coal fields.such as Fengfeng,Xiangtai,Huaibei,Yangquan and so on.The heat generated by magma energized groundwater circulation and developed limestone karst in the relatively isolated areas.The CaCO3 solution accelerated by geothermal abnormality,the effect of high content of CO2 on dissolution and saturation of CaCO3 were discussed.Compared the forming conditions of the sinking columns developed in other coal mining areas in north China coal field,the paper deduced that the above factors collude karst development and sinking column formation,the columns in current geothermaI areas are permeable and those in high coal rank areas or in paleo abnormally geothermal areas.The paper suggested that the sinking columns in the current abnormally geothermal areas were permeable,but those in the areas with high coal rank were not on contract.

  11. Landfills, Hazardous Waste - CONSTRUCTION_DEMOLITION_WASTE_IDEM_IN: Construction and Demoliton Waste Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — CONSTRUCTION_DEMOLITION_WASTE_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains construction and demolition waste facility locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of...

  12. Environmental and economical feasibility of selective demolition project; Viabilidad ambiental y economica de un proyecto de demolicion selectiva: hacia una optima gestion de los RCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegas, I.

    2004-07-01

    Selective demolition practices have not yet become popular in our country. Unlike conventional demolition practices, selective demolition helps to increase the amount of components to be reused or materials to be recycled. Thus, the percentage of demolition waste deposited in landfills can be reduced, and the production of recycled materials with optimum quality is fostered. Taking the case study of selective demolition carried out in the municipally of Lasarte-Oria (Basque Country-Spain) as its basis, this paper presents an economic and environmental analysis of the same. Likewise, the economic costs deriving from selective demolition are compared with analogous costs from conventional demolition with an aim to establishing the ideal frame supporting economically feasible selective demolition. (Author)

  13. Construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Construction/Demolition Landfill VII (CDL VII), Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Bid Option 2 of the Y-12 Plant Construction Demolition Landfill 7 (CDL-7) was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. CDL-7 is located in Anderson County on the south side of Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report applies specifically to the limits of excavation for Area No. 1 portions of the perimeter maintenance road and drainage channel and Sedimentation Pond No. 3. A partial ''As-Built'' survey was performed and is included

  14. Quantum non-demolition measurements and quantum simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum information processing (QIP) has developed into one of the 'hot topics' in physics during the last decade. More and more experiments appeared aiming at the realization of a quantum computer and/or quantum simulations. Strings of ions stored in a Paul trap are currently one of the most promising systems for realizing quantum algorithms. The great challenges ion traps are facing is the realization of robust high fidelity operations, scalable traps and the ombination of all DiVincenzo criteria in one system. This thesis reports on the realization of simple QIP sequences and a quantum simulation with trapped 40Ca+and 43Ca+ions. For both isotopes the quantum bit (qubit) is encoded in an optical transition. It consists of the ground state S1/2 and the metastable excited state D5/2. The isotope 43Ca+ has a nuclear spin of I =7/2 and thus exhibits a very complicated level structure. The advantage of this isotope is that hyperfine levels can be used as a robust memory for quantum information. In the framework of this thesis a high Fidelity Moelmer-Soerensen gate operation was implemented. Two ion Bell states and three ion GHZ states were created with a respective fidelity of 99.3% and 98.4% using 40Ca+ ions. It was demonstrated that the Moelmer-Soerensen gate operation works nearly as well for ions cooled to the ground state as for ions in thermal states of motion. The fidelity achieved for thermal ions was still 98.4%. A thorough experimental analysis of the gate mechanism indicated possible error sources. A combination of four DiVincenzo criteria (initialization, long coherence times, a universal set of gates, readout) was realized by utilizing 43Ca+ hyperfine states. Bell states, created on the optical qubit, were stored in the qubit S1/2; F = 4; mf = 0, S1/2; F = 3; mf = 0 for 20 ms. The experience gained with the entangling operation rendered it possible to do non-demolition two-qubit measurements. The non-demolition measurements were used to experimentally

  15. Trend of the research on construction and demolition waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research interests in addressing construction and demolition (C and D) waste management issues have resulted in a large amount of publications during the last decade. This study demonstrates that there is no systematic examination on the research development in literature in the discipline of C and D waste management. This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline through analyzing the publications from 2000 to 2009 in eight major international journals. The analysis is conducted on the number of papers published annually, main authors' contributions, research methods and data analysis methods adopted, and research topics covered. The results exhibit an increasing research interest in C and D waste management in recent years. Researchers from developed economies have contributed significantly to the development of the research in the discipline. Some developing countries such as Malaysia and China have also been making good efforts in promoting C and D waste management research. The findings from this study also indicate that survey and case study are major methods for data collection, and the data are mostly processed through descriptive analysis. It is anticipated that more future studies on C and D waste management will be led by researchers from developing economies, where construction works will remain their major economic activities. On the other hand, more sophisticated modeling and simulating techniques have been used effectively in a number of studies on C and D waste management research, and this is considered a major methodology for future research in the discipline. C and D waste management will continue to be a hot research topic in the future, in particularly, the importance of human factors in C and D waste management has emerged as a new challenging topic.

  16. Innovative technology summary report: remote control concrete demolition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Chicago Operations Office and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) jointly sponsored a Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison to current baseline technologies. The objective of remotely removing and packaging radioactively contaminated concrete during the D and D process is to reduce worker exposure rates, heat stress and injury to personnel. To achieve this objective, the Brokk Remotely Operated Concrete Demolition System was demonstrated in August and September, 1997 at the Janus Research Reactor located in Building 202 of ANL. The Brokk BM 150, manufactured by Holmhed Systems AB of Sweden and supplied by Duane Equipment Corp., uses a remote operated articulated hydraulic boom with various tool head attachments to perform the work. The machine is designed primarily to drive a hammer and has a reach of fifteen feet. The Brokk can be operated by someone 400 feet away or in a different room with a TV monitor. The machine can be operated up to a 30-degree gradient. The unit requires a 480-volt, 50-amp circuit for its power source. Two attachments were used in this demonstration. The hydraulic hammer and the excavating bucket. The hammer operates at 600 foot pounds and has outputs of 1000 to 1500 beats per minute. The bucket has a capacity of 1/4 cubic yard and has a smooth cutting edge. Other attachments available include a concrete crusher, a La Bounty shear, and a 1/4 yard clamshell bucket. Smaller and larger sizes of the Brokk are available from Duane Equipment Corporation

  17. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  18. An integrated life cycle inventory for demolition processes in the context of life cycle sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Hu, Mingming; van Roekel, Eric;

    2012-01-01

    According to the Life Cycle Assessment in Building and Construction: State-of-the-Art Report (2003), the dismantling and demolition stage of the building life cycle is only sometimes included in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) when doing Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). The reason that it is less...... inventoried in a traditional LCA maybe because this stage is expected to have a negligible environmental impact comparing to other stages in the life cycle of the buildings. When doing a life cycle sustainability assessment considering not only environmental but also economic and social impacts, the impacts...... of the labor-intensive dismantling and demolition stage may not be possible to disregard anymore, due to the related process costs, health and safety of workers and the influence on the quality of the demolition materials, determining their suitability for high grade recycling. Currently, LCIs of dismantling...

  19. Quantitative evaluation of the underground Geoheritage in karst areas: The Picos de Europa National Park, North Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuestra, María; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica

    2014-05-01

    Karst areas show a lot of kilometers of cave conduits with a hidden Geoheritage poorly investigated in previous works that concerning with their cultural, scientific and education values. The evaluation of cave Geoheritage is complex due to methodological constrains. One of the most important karst areas in the World is the Picos de Europa National Park (North Spain) that was declared as a Global Geosite in 2007 and includes 14 % of the World's Deepest Caves. The GEOCAVE research project is being developed in several caves from the Picos de Europa National Park since 2012 in order to characterize geomorphology and geochronology of the cavities, proposing and validating new methodologies adapted to these environments. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Geoheritage of the Picos de Europa caves based on the studies made in nine selected caves. The methodology includes: 1) elaboration of geomorphological maps of the nine selected caves, projecting geomorphological, geological, hydrogeological, paleontological and cultural forms on the caves surveys; and 2) definition and calculation of three indexes useful to evaluate the Geoheritage of the caves. The indexes are: a) Cave Geoheritage Extension Index (CGhEI), defined as the percentage of the area occupied by the entire features divided by the cave area (excluding the forms that represent the conduits themselves), b) Feature Extension Index (FEI), defined as the area occupied by each group of form divided by the cave area, and c) Cave Geodiversity Index (CGdI), defined as the number of forms divided by the cave area. The nine cave geomorphological maps cover 178,639 m2 of caves and include a whole of 14.9 km of karst conduits, representing these caves the 4.1 % of the conduits of the Picos de Europa. The values of the Cave Geoheritage Extension Index range from 22 to 82 %, while the values of the Feature Extension Indexes for each group of features reach the following values: Geomorphological FEI take values of 20

  20. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  1. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-02-18

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ``clean`` fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into {le}10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release {ge}90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving.

  2. Dental care knowledge and practices among secondary school adolescents in Ibadan North Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Joshua Ogunrinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental care knowledge, and practice of secondary school adolescents in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Methodology: Four hundred and twelve secondary school adolescents were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data on dental care knowledge and practice obtained through the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with level of significance set at 5%. Result: Consumption of sticky, sugary and chocolaty food items was perceived by a majority (81.8% as unhealthy to dental health and 66.3% perceived consumption of fruits and vegetables as healthy to the teeth. Vertical brushing technique was mentioned by 69.7% of respondents as the best method of brushing the teeth, and 89.6% stated that teeth should be brushed twice daily. Majority 57.0% of respondents open caps of soft drink bottles with their teeth and 74.3% used toothpicks to remove food trapped in between teeth. Majority (82.8% perceived that dentist should be visited for check-up once in 6 months, however, only 31.6% of respondents had visited dentists before. There was a statistically significant relationship between tooth brushing technique and type of school attended by the respondents (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents have good oral health knowledge but poor dental health practice.

  3. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137Cs and 241Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h-1, below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h-1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h-1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  4. The Netherlands and the designation of marine protected areas in the North Sea Implementing international and European law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Dotinga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that representative and ecologically coherent networks of marine protected areas (MPAs should be created to maintain biodiversity and to conserve specific species, habitats and ecological processes. This article addresses the contribution that is made by the Netherlands to the North Sea MPA network. It reviews the applicable legal obligations with regard to the designation of MPAs contained in global and regional treaties and EU law, and provides a critical assessment of the actions that have thus far been taken by the Netherlands to implement these obligations. The article concludes that significant steps have been taken towards a solid Dutch contribution to the global and regional goals of representative MPA networks. There are, however, a number of shortcomings. To a large degree, these are the result of the policy of the Netherlands Government to go no further in the designation of MPAs than what is strictly required by the EU Birds and Habitats Directives. On account of the widely acknowledged ‘marine deficiencies’ of the Habitats Directive, this policy stands in the way of achieving the target of a representative MPA network. Moreover, it is rather doubtful whether the same minimalist approach is sufficient to meet the relevant obligations of the Netherlands under global and regional treaties, in particular the OSPAR Convention. These shortcomings can be remedied by the designation of additional MPAs and, in some cases, by extending the list of species and habitats for which current MPAs have been selected.

  5. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments.

  6. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sungsil; Shim, So-Hee; Park, Yon Mi; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-12-01

    In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the People's Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases.

  7. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  8. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of ∼323+/-5Bqm-3 was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of ∼13+/-6Bqm-3 was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm-3) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm-3 was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of ∼25+/-7Bqm-3 was measured in Mardan and maximum of ∼210+/-5Bqm-3 was measured in Charsadda District

  9. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: matiullah@pieas.edu.pk; Rahman, Z. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mati, N. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ghauri, B.M. [SPAS Division, Sparcent, SUPARCO Karachi (Pakistan)

    2007-02-15

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of {approx}323+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of {approx}13+/-6Bqm{sup -3} was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm{sup -3}) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm{sup -3} was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of {approx}25+/-7Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Mardan and maximum of {approx}210+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Charsadda District.

  10. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  11. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the tertiary particle yield from secondary targets of different materials placed at the ‘filter’ position of the H2 beam line of SPS North Area are presented. The production is studied for secondary beams of different momenta in the range of 50-250 GeV/c. More specifically, we studied six different targets: two copper cylinders with a radius of 40 mm and lengths of 100 and 300 mm, one solid tungsten cylinder with a radius of 40 mm and a length of 150 mm and three polyethylene cylinders with radius of 40 mm and lengths of 550, 700 and 1000 mm. Eight different momenta of the secondary beam (50, 60, 70, 100, 120, 150, 200 and 250 GeV/c) as well as two different physics lists (QGSP_BIC and FTFP_BERT) have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is (a) to optimize (using the appropriate filter target) the particle production from the secondary targets as demanded by the experiments (b) investigate the proton production (with respect to the pion production) in the produced tertiary bea...

  12. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    Tellander, Felix

    2016-01-01

    H2 beam line of SPS North Area is a high energy, high resolution and multipurpose particle beam line. It is able to transport secondary hadron and pure electron beams with momenta between 10 and 400 GeV/c to be exploited by several different experiments. In this work, tertiary particle production from a secondary target placed in the line is studied. The introduction of this “filter” target enhances the middle to low momentum hadron (20 - 60 GeV/c) and electron production. In this work, a systematic Monte Carlo simulation study using a GEANT 4 based package, G4beamline, has been performed in order to investigate the tertiary particle production from several different targets. More specifically, Cu, W and polyethylene targets with different thicknesses have been studied. The proton over pi+ ratio is of particular interest, as well as the optimal electron production for several momenta. The present work will act as a reference to be used by the future test-beam users of the line as an indication of the expe...

  13. HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered

  14. HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered.

  15. Adoption of Improved Processing Technologies by Fish Farmers in Akure North and South Local Government Areas, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIX OLAYINKA OLADIPO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the adoption of improved processing technologies by fish farmers in Akure North and South LGAs, Ondo state, Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was employed to select 150 fish farmers interviewed for the study, data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Tobit regression model. Results showed that majority of the farmers (68.0% were males with mean age of 38.5 years old. Majority (80.7% of respondents were married while (90% had various degree of formal education, oil drum, smoking kiln and mud oven were the improved fish processing technologies available in the study area. Furthermore, cooperatives (92.7% was ranked 1st as the most preferred source of information by the farmers, majority of respondents (94.7% were aware of oil drum. The mean levels of adoption was 2.50, values below and above the mean were regarded as low and high respectively, the use of oil drum (2.58, smoking kiln (1.47 and mud oven (1.33 were the adoption scores of the respondents in the study area. Moreover, age (4.201, education level (2.105, household size (1.791, income (3.021, gender (1.781, pond size (2.511 and other income generating activities (2.256 were factors that were statistically significant thus affecting the rate of adoption of improved fish processing technologies. The study concludes that respondents were aware of some of the improved technologies but low adoption, the study therefore recommends the need for capacity building and advisory services by extension agents and other stakeholders for fish processors.

  16. Innovative probabilistic risk assessment applications: barrier impairments and fracture toughness. 2. Demolition Debris and Tornado Missile Hazard During Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    impose on decommissioning projects. Unit 1 began operation in 1968. Because of the age of Unit 1's design and the low frequency of tornadoes in California, the original plant design did not provide any protection from tornado hazards. Tornado protection requirements were later imposed as a back-fit; however, the approved license change was based on a probabilistic risk assessment that defined Unit 1's tornado missile damage acceptance limit in terms of reactor core damage frequency. When several Unit 1 buildings have been demolished, construction will begin on an ISFSI for Unit 1's spent fuel. The ISFSI design incorporates tornado missile barrier features into the storage canister and transfer cask. These design provisions will alleviate any need to manage tornado missile hazards. Units 2 and 3 share a design basis for tornado missile protection that closely follows the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Standard Review Plan (NUREG 0800), Revision 1. Critical components are identified that are required to be functional following design-basis tornadoes. Missile barriers protect most critical components; however, some critical components are allowed to be exposed to tornado missiles provided the aggregate annual probability of damage to all critical components is -7 per unit. According to the analysis that established this probability, it is directly proportional to the inventory of unrestrained objects within a missile pickup/transport area that includes the entire site. To determine the increased probability of damage due to demolition work, the quantity of loose debris was estimated for several discrete time intervals of the decommissioning process. This intermediate result showed that debris controls would be necessary to protect critical components in Units 2 and 3 during the demolition of Unit 1. Several different methods for controlling debris were evaluated for efficacy, feasibility, and cost-effectiveness. Unit 1 decommissioning work will increase the number of

  17. Integration of geological and geophysical data: a guide to exploration for uranium in Raghunathgarh area, North Delhi fold belt, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralization associated with sulphide bearing sheared/brecciated quartzite in North Delhi Fold Belt is known from Raghunathgarh area of Sikar district, Rajasthan. Here, the surface mineralisation occurs intermittently over 1.5 km with samples (n=21) analysing 0.014-0.710% U3O8 (Av. 0.162%) with negligible thorium. Uraninite, along with other secondary minerals, occurs as fine sized grains along fracture planes, around grain boundaries and also as fine sized grains forming small clusters. The sulfides include pyrite, pyrhotite, and chalcopyrite. Magnetite is also present. Considering the promising surface indications, structural control and association of uranium mineralisation with sulfides, magnetic, IP/resistivity and EM surveys were carried out to delineate subsurface structural features and conductors in the area. A sizeable part of the area is covered with sand dunes and soil. The magnetic survey revealed two sub-surface faults, one of which is parallel to a shear and the mineralized zone. EM conductor axis, as marked by the EM survey, extends over a strike length of about 800m and again for 400m with a lateral shift. A prominent NE-SW trending high chargeability and corresponding low resistivity zone and a magnetic low depicting a fracture zone was identified in the NW part of the explored area. Based on the geological and geophysical data and the surface indications, sub-surface exploration was taken up at Raghunathgarh and a total of 42 boreholes have been completed so far. It is observed that the EM conductor axis and one of the faults delineated from the magnetic survey broadly coincide with the mineralization bands intercepted in some of the boreholes. A few boreholes were also drilled to test the NE-SW trending high chargeability/low resistivity zone corresponding to carbonaceous phyllite, clay, disseminated sulphides and the fracture zone marked by a magnetic low in the NW part. Core examination indicated the presence of varied lithounits

  18. Non-Demolition Dispersive Measurement of a Superconducting Qubit with a Microstrip SQUID Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, G P; Kinion, D; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the possibility of a single-shot non-demolition measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microstrip SQUID amplifier (MSA). The Johnson noise generated by all resistors in the MSA is taken into consideration. We show that a single-shot non-demolition measurement is possible with six photons in the measurement resonator. For a phase qubit inductively coupled to a measurement resonator we have obtained the expression for the mutual inductance required for measurement of the qubit state.

  19. European legislation and implementation measures in the management of construction and demolition waste.

    OpenAIRE

    Villoria Saez, Paola; Rio Merino, Mercedes del; Porras Amores, Cesar; San Antonio Gonzalez, Alicia de

    2011-01-01

    The intense activity in the construction sector during the last decade has generated huge volumes of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. In average, Europe has generated around 890 million tonnes of construction and demolition waste per year. Although now the activity has entered in a phase of decline, due to the change of the economic cycle, we don’t have to forget all the problems caused by such waste, or rather, by their management which is still far from achieving the overall tar...

  20. Ambient exposure to coarse and fine particle emissions from building demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-07-01

    Demolition of buildings produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that could be inhaled by on-site workers and people living in the neighbourhood, but studies assessing ambient exposure at the real-world demolition sites are limited. We measured concentrations of PM10 (≤10 μm), PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) and PM1 (≤1 μm) along with local meteorology for 54 working hours over the demolition period. The measurements were carried out at (i) a fixed-site in the downwind of demolished building, (ii) around the site during demolition operation through mobile monitoring, (iii) different distances away from the demolition site through sequential monitoring, and (iv) inside an excavator vehicle cabin and on-site temporary office for engineers. Position of the PM instrument was continuously recorded using a Global Positioning System on a second basis during mobile measurements. Fraction of coarse particles (PM2.5-10) contributed 89 (with mean particle mass concentration, PMC ≈ 133 ± 17 μg m-3), 83 (100 ± 29 μg m-3), and 70% (59 ± 12 μg m-3) of total PMC during the fixed-site, mobile monitoring and sequential measurements, respectively, compared with only 50% (mean 12 ± 6 μg m-3) during the background measurements. The corresponding values for fine particles (PM2.5) were 11, 17 and 30% compared with 50% during background, showing a much greater release of coarse particles during demolition. The openair package in R and map source software (ArcGIS) were used to assess spatial variation of PMCs in downwind and upwind of the demolition site. A modified box model was developed to determine the emission factors, which were 210, 73 and 24 μg m-2 s-1 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The average respiratory deposited doses to coarse (and fine) particles inside the excavator cabin and on-site temporary office increased by 57- (and 5-) and 13- (and 2-) times compared with the local background level, respectively. The monitoring stations in downwind direction

  1. The decommissioning and demolition of four suites of high active chemical analysis cells at DNPDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning and demolition of four laboratory suites of high active cells at DNPDE is described. All four suites had suffered drain leaks of high active liquor into underfloor ducts; the options available at the time and current policy for dealing with the resultant activity deposits are given. The decommissioning procedures are detailed to provide information for future similar exercises. Features to ease demolition of such facilities and to eliminate the possibility of long term activity deposition from drain leaks are highlighted for incorporation in future designs. The waste arisings and radiation doses received during the work are tabulated. (author)

  2. Lessons learned from US Department of Energy programs on decontamination and demolition, radioactive waste processing and shipping, and environmental restoration of former nuclear technology and production sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has contracted for the cleanup and closure of former weapons sites using turn-key, performance-incentive contracts that comprise the complete range of project management, decontamination and demolition, waste management, and environmental restoration technologies. This paper describes several of the technologies developed and deployed in each of the four technical areas, and also the management strategies and systems employed to integrate the various technologies into the overall cleanup plan. Lessons learned from the approaches taken at the Rocky Flats, Hanford, Mound and Savannah River Sites include contractual, regulatory, and technological aspects of the work. (author)

  3. CoPant 97222 – A High Yielding Mid Late Maturing Sugarcane Variety for North West Zone Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Tyagi, K.A. Khan and A.Q. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety CoPant 97222 was developed from open pollinated cross on cultivar CoPant 84212 at Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore. It was evaluated against the check varieties Co 1148, CoS 767 and CoS 8436 for its performance under AICRP yield trials of North Western Zone from 2000-01 to 2003-04 in two plants and one ratoon crops at G. B. Pant Univ. of Agri.& Technology, Pantnagar. The clone CoPant 97222, recorded an average cane yield of 88.16 t/ha and sugar yield of 11.14 t/ha and thus found superior to the checks CoS 767 (72.70 and 8.81 t/ha and (Co 1148 (78.27 and 9.23 t/ha and CoS 8436 (71.33 and 8.88 t/ha for cane and sugar yields respectively. The percent increase for cane yield t/ha of CoPant 97222 over checks CoS767, Co 1148 and CoS 8436 was 21.12, 12.78 and 23.80 respectively. The percent increase for sugar yield over checks also ranged from 21.17 to 26.00. Juice sucrose percent at harvest in CoPant 97222 was on par with CoS 767 and CoS 8436 but superior to Co 1148. The number of millable canes in CoPant 97222 were on par with CoS 8436 but cane length, cane diameter and cane weight were high in variety CoPant 97222 over the checks. This variety was resistant to Red rot under natural and artificial inoculated conditions. This variety CoPant had tall medium thick canes with erect growing habit and non lodging . It was released for cultivation in North Western Zone comprising of five states viz., Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, UP and Uttarakhand by Central Variety Release Committee, Government in the year 2006. This variety is performing excellent in the notified areas.

  4. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butera, Stefania, E-mail: stbu@teknologisk.dk; Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  5. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  6. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60-95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing that end-of-life impacts and leaching should not be disregarded when assessing environmental impacts from construction products and materials. CO2 uptake in the C

  7. Geoarchaeology of the karstic area of Mirambello, North-East Crete (Greece): palaeoenvironmental investigations and human settlement implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M.; Kunesch, S.; Robert, V.; Farnoux, A.; Wurmser, H.

    2009-04-01

    The present work aims to detail the preliminary researches dealing with the geomorphologic, topographic and archaeological setting from two major settlements located in north east Crete. The project undertook by the French school of Archaeology in Athens aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the whole area during the last millennia. Fieldworks, including coring, had already been done in August 2006, April 2007 and September 2008; we propose to present the main results. The settlements of Latô and Dreros belong to the area of Mirambello characterized by its spectacular karstic processes and landforms, different karstic depressions with different size can be identified and classified into Dolines and Poljés. As far as the archaeological interest is concerned, villages and cities were occupied during the hellenestic period; several remains are still present around and inside these depressions. Using a G.I.S., the first step consisted in establishing a local geomorphological mapping, taking into account the geological background and the historical occupation of the area. The second step consisted in establishing topographic cross sections of the doline, where the ancient settlement of Latô is located, based on various DGPS surveys. Several questions concerning the occupation of this depression arose : how and for which reasons people decided to leave close to this specific landform ? Which type of activities (farming, grazing, cultivation…) existed and did they were related with natural resources exploitation ? A project associating the local greek archaeological services (Ephoria of Aghios Nikolaos, Director Ms. Apostolakou), the mayor of Nea Polis, the University of Paris 12 (GEONAT EA 435) and the French School of Athens tries to depict the historical evolution of the landscape. Four boreholes (up to a maximum depth of 5 meters) had been drilled in the poljé of Dreros and in a doline situated 1 km away from the ancient settlement of Lat

  8. Distribution of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific in relation to oceanic fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Hiroto; Hakamada, Takashi; Matsuoka, Koji; Nishiwaki, Shigetoshi; Inagake, Denzo; Okazaki, Makoto; Tojo, Naoki; Kitakado, Toshihide

    2014-09-01

    The subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific is an important summer feeding grounds of sei whales. The oceanographic structure and circulation of this area are largely determined by strong oceanic fronts and associated geostrophic currents, namely the Polar Front (PF), Subarctic Front (SAF) and Kuroshio Extension Front (KEF). The relationship between the distribution of sei whales and oceanographic fronts was investigated using a generalized additive model (GAM), and the cetacean sighting survey data and oceanographic observations in July from 2000 to 2007 were used in the analysis. The number of individual sei whales was used as the response variable while the distances from the PF, SAF, and KEF to the whales were used as explanatory variables along with the longitude values. Sei whales were concentrated north and south of the SAF and the areas from 250 to 300 km north and from 100 to 200 km south of the SAF were estimated as high-density areas of sei whales. The entire inter-frontal zone between the PF and SAF featured an elevated concentration of sei whales, and the area south of the PF and along the SAF was identified as an important feeding ground of sei whales in July from 2000 to 2007.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES (RCD) RECYCLED = CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO RESÍDUO DE CONSTRUÇÃO E DEMOLIÇÃO (RCD) RECICLADO

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Arnosti Jr; Robson Willians Costa Silva

    2005-01-01

    The development of Brazilian cities increases the consumption of building site materials, consequently generating great amount of Construction and Demolition Wastes (RCD). In the city of Piracicaba, through the Company of Habitational Development of Piracicaba (EMDHAP), RCD is being recycled and later used in the making of blocks and floors for blocking, in the undertrashings and primary covering, in public areas without paving, accomplished by the city hall. But countless city halls and depr...

  10. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  11. Limited-area atmospheric energetics: illustration on a simulation of the CRCM5 over eastern North America for December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Marilys; Laprise, René; Nikiéma, Oumarou

    2016-06-01

    The seminal work of Lorenz on global atmospheric energetics has allowed understanding much on the physical processes responsible for the general circulation, its maintenance and the development of synoptic-scale weather systems. In mid-latitudes, potential energy generated by the differential heating of the planet by the Sun is converted into kinetic energy by the weather systems and eventually dissipated by friction. While a corresponding study of atmospheric energetics over a limited region would have the advantage of focusing on the details of individual storms and the processes taking place over a domain of interest, such study has encountered several pitfalls and has been challenging. Here we build upon our earlier work on the energy cycle of inter-member variability in ensembles of limited-area model simulations to develop a regional-scale atmospheric energy cycle formulated in terms of available enthalpy and kinetic energy. The approach is then applied to study the energetics of a short simulation made with the fifth-generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) over an eastern North American domain for December 2004. The results obtained for a specific storm and monthly mean climatology confirm the current understanding that available enthalpy of the atmospheric time-mean state is mainly generated by the covariance of diabatic heating and temperature, and that the most important conversions of energy are found to correspond to baroclinic processes that take place along the storm track, where perturbations of temperature and wind are important. Finally, transient-eddy kinetic energy is mainly dissipated by friction in the boundary layer.

  12. Radioactive Accessory Minerals From Stream Sediments at Wadi Mayet EL Abd, Northern Gattar Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadi Mayet El-Abd is located in the northern part of G. Gattar, north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Significant remarks have been recorded on the heterogeneous distributions of heavy minerals content along the stream course, where they are most common in both deeper sediments and downstream sites. Moreover, these sediments appear to be slightly favorable delivery pools for thorium but not for uranium which is probably due to either the marked enrichment in the thorium-bearing minerals or the selective leaching for uranium during the supergene processes. The greater eU/U and eTh/U ratios, besides the negative values of the calculated authigenic uranium and further the markedly reverse relationships between uranium and thorium as well as uranium and Th/U ratio reveal the disequilibrium state of uranium and confirm U leaching. The available data propose that, the study sediments are potential sink for radioactive accessory minerals as well as rare metal minerals that may control the geochemical enrichment of trace elements as; U, Th, Zr, Y, Nb, REE, Ba, Zn and V. The present work adopts the ESEM/EDX- BSE as an appropriate tool for the recognition of the accessory minerals. The minerals; betafite, ishikawaite, xenotime, fluorite and zircon have been identified as the most abundant uraniferous accessory minerals; whereas monazite dominates as thorium-bearing mineral. Moreover, thorite and uranothorite have occasionally been recognized. A particular attention has been given to the contents of the rare metals in general and radionuclides in paticular in the accessory minerals, despite of their frequency in the whole stream sediments. In conclusion, the study sediments are conceivably genetically related to common sources. Actually it reflects the mineral constituent of the different rocks composing the drained area. Hence it may represent an erosional remnant either of the bordering granites and Hammamat molasses terrenes of Wadi Mayet El- Abd or drained from the further

  13. Sedimentary geochemistry of chert from the Middle-Upper Ordovician in Shihuigou area, North Qilian orogenic belt and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuansheng; ZHU Jie; GU Songzhu

    2007-01-01

    The North Qilian orogenic belt is an elongate tectonic unit that lies between the North China plate to the north and the Middle Qilian microplate to the south, and is formed by a collision of the two plates in the Caledonian. The Shihuigou Section from Yongdeng County, Gansu Province,is in the eastern sector of the North Qilian Mountains, span-ning the Ordovician island-arc zones. The Zhongpu Group is distributed in the Shihuigou area and composed of medium-basic volcanic rocks and volcanic clastic rocks interspersed with cherts, limestones, slates, and metamorphic sandstones.The geochemistry of chert from the Zhongpu Group reveals that all cherts coexisting with island-arc volcanic rocks formed in a continental margin basin environment. Research results of the rare earth elements reveal that these cherts formed in a relatively deep-water basin with no significant terrestrial interference. Therefore, it is inferred that the North Qilian orogenic belt was previously an archipelagic ocean in the Ordovician.

  14. 76 FR 32313 - Safety Zone; Chelsea St. Bridge Demolition, Chelsea River, Chelsea, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chelsea St. Bridge Demolition, Chelsea River, Chelsea, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  15. Mixture optimization of cement treated demolition waste with recycled masonry and concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.X.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Shui, Z.H

    2011-01-01

    Due to environmental reasons and the shortage of natural resources, it is greatly valuable to recycle construction and demolition waste (CDW) as much as possible. One of effective ways to reuse more CDW is to produce a cemented road base material. The recycled CDW however is a mix of recycled masonr

  16. Fracture analysis of cement treated demolition waste using a lattice model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Houben, L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture properties of cement treated demolition waste were investigated using a lattice model. In practice the investigated material is applied as a cement treated road base/subbase course. The granular aggregates used in this material were crushed recycled concrete and masonry. This results in six

  17. Investigation of combined effect of mixture variables on mechanical properties of cement treated demolition waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Shui, Z.

    2012-01-01

    One of high efficient ways to reuse the recycled construction and demolition waste (CDW) is to consider it as a road base material. The recycled CDW however is mainly a mix of recycled masonry and concrete with a wide variation in composition. This results that the mechanical properties of cement tr

  18. 78 FR 2616 - Safety Zone; Bridge Demolition Project; Indiana Harbor Canal, East Chicago, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Security Delegation No. 0170.1. During the month of January, 2013 Walsh Construction Company will be... the Construction Company conducted demolition on the East span of the bridge as scheduled. However.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM...

  19. Drivers of Housing Demolition Decision Making and the Impact on Timber Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry John Forsythe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates housing demolition and timber waste recovery – with the aim to identify ways of improving recovery. Using case studies the research focused on demolisher decision making, their onsite processes and the associated network of participants that influence timber recovery. From the data, a process model was developed that identifies and orders the drivers of demolition decision making. One aspect of the model identified the initiators of demolition and the waste created, including issues revolving around the demolition feedstock. Another aspect covers organisational business drivers and includes site safety, productivity, economies of scale, market value of waste and supply chain entrepreneurship. A third component deals with project specific drivers including the recurring cost versus income equation that impacts on the viability of project level decisions. The model includes a typology of the operational onsite response to the above drivers. Here, the deconstruction approach was found to provide high timber recovery mainly used where high-value timber waste was involved; the miscellaneous salvage approach provided some recovery of high and low-value timber; the crunch and dump approach provided low recovery or dumping at landfill and was used where low and no-value timber was involved. An expected increase in supply of these latter timber categories creates a significant need to increase the market value of currently low value timber groups. Designing for deconstruction is also posed as a long term strategy for this. 

  20. Drivers of Housing Demolition Decision Making and the Impact on Timber Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry John Forsythe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates housing demolition and timber waste recovery – with the aim to identify ways of improving recovery. Using case studies the research focused on demolisher decision making, their onsite processes and the associated network of participants that influence timber recovery. From the data, a process model was developed that identifies and orders the drivers of demolition decision making. One aspect of the model identified the initiators of demolition and the waste created, including issues revolving around the demolition feedstock. Another aspect covers organisational business drivers and includes site safety, productivity, economies of scale, market value of waste and supply chain entrepreneurship. A third component deals with project specific drivers including the recurring cost versus income equation that impacts on the viability of project level decisions. The model includes a typology of the operational onsite response to the above drivers. Here, the deconstruction approach was found to provide high timber recovery mainly used where high-value timber waste was involved; the miscellaneous salvage approach provided some recovery of high and low-value timber; the crunch and dump approach provided low recovery or dumping at landfill and was used where low and no-value timber was involved. An expected increase in supply of these latter timber categories creates a significant need to increase the market value of currently low value timber groups. Designing for deconstruction is also posed as a long term strategy for this.

  1. 36 CFR 72.41 - Demolition and replacement of existing recreation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing recreation properties. 72.41 Section 72.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Grants for Recovery... recreation properties. Demolition will only be supported when rehabilitation is not feasible or prudent....

  2. Choosing a sustainable demolition waste management strategy using multicriteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussat, Nicolas; Dujet, Christiane; Méhu, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the ELECTRE III decision-aid method in the context of choosing a sustainable demolition waste management strategy for a case study in the city of Lyon, France. This choice of waste management strategy takes into consideration the sustainable development objectives, i.e. economic aspects, environmental consequences, and social issues. Nine alternatives for demolition waste management were compared with the aid of eight criteria, taking into account energy consumption, depletion of abiotic resources, global warming, dispersion of dangerous substances in the environment, economic activity, employment, and quality of life of the local population. The case study concerned the demolition of 25 buildings of an old military camp. Each alternative was illustrated with different waste treatments, such as material recovery, recycling, landfilling, and energy recovery. The recommended solution for sustainable demolition waste management for the case study is a selective deconstruction of each building with local material recovery in road engineering of inert wastes, local energy recovery of wood wastes, and specific treatments for hazardous wastes. PMID:18572397

  3. The Adaptation of Fishing Instruments by a Farmers' Community in the Thung Kula Area, in North Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Ubonlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a historical study of the ancient communities in the area of Thung Kula, it was revealed that there are important resources including rice, fish, salt and iron. Salt is used in making fermented fish (known locally as Pla Daek, a culinary culture which has been prevalent in the ethnic groups of Laos and Khmer. The availability of rice and fish in Thung Kula has continued to this day. Thung Kula farmers have extended their fishing sources from the government-owned places to their own fields or ponds. Approach: They use fishing instruments that had been developed out of folk wisdom in combination with the new technology in order to increase the fishing yields adequate for their own consumption and for commerce. The present research aimed to study the adaptation of fishing instruments of the farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Thung Luang sub-district, Suwannaphum district, Roi-Et province. The studied area was Thung Kula in the North East of Thailand. The research method was qualitative. Data were collected from relevant documents and from field studies with 25 informants. Structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with local tradesmen, consumers, fishing-instrument shop owners. Results: The results were presented descriptively below. The adaptation of fishing instruments of Ban Ta Yuak farmers began with the increased population, the changing ecological systems as a result of the government’s construction of reservoirs, canals, public ponds and the market-oriented economy which had attracted the local fishing markets across the Thung Kula area. Ban Ta Yuak farmers have then adapted their fishing instruments to fit the available kinds of fish and the ecological systems of the local water sources. With assistance from the government, the farmers have their own fishing ponds. It was found that prior to the application of the national economic and social plan of 1962 these farmers created simple fishing instruments such as Sai (a

  4. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale. PMID:24373388

  5. Trade openness and investment in North Africa: A CGE application to deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the EU and respectively Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    BOULANGER PIERRE; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Rau, Marie-Luise; Rutten, Martine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an impact analysis of deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the European Union (EU) and most of the North-African (NAF) countries – namely Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Scenarios are modelled with MAGNET, a general equilibrium model, and focus on trade liberalisation including non-tariff measures (NTMs) on the one hand, increases in foreign direct investments (FDIs) and capital flows on the other. They assume either broad productivity gains...

  6. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sudheendra; Hiremath; Pramod S

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic...

  7. Integrated Green Roofs System and its Role of Achieving Sustainability in Residential Buildings in Urban Area in Athens, Greece and Famagusta, North Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mehran shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics and importance of the green roof in urban area would investigate in some residential buildings in Athens, Greece and then, some strategies give to integrate green roof in residential buildings in Famagusta, north Cyprus due to the importance of energy saving and thermal comfort in residential buildings. These days, sustainable architecture is spreading around the world. Therefore, Sustainable architecture has important role in design build...

  8. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; LU, XIAOXIA

    2011-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrati...

  9. Water quality in Reedy Fork and Buffalo Creek basins in the Greensboro area, North Carolina, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from April 1986 through September 1987 at 19 sites in Guilford County and the City of Greensboro, North Carolina. Sampling locations included 13 stream sites, two lakes that supply the City of Greensboro with drinking water, two City of Greensboro finished drinking-water filtration plants, and effluent from the two municipal wastewater plants prior to outfall into receiving streams. Water sampling consisted of six surveys during various stages of steady ground-water flow at all sites and high-flow-event sampling during two storms at six sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected at three sites during two routine sampling surveys. A summary of nearly 22, 000 separate chemical or physical analyses of water samples or bottom sediment is presented and discussed as individual values, ranges of values, or median values with respect to the locations of sampling sites, streamflow conditions, or other information bearing on water-quality conditions under discussion. The results include discussions of general water-quality indicators; major ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations; acid and base/neutral extractable organic compounds; volatile organic compounds; and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides detected at each sampling site. Loadings of selected constituents are also estimated on a yearly and daily basis. The quality of the raw and finished water, municipal effluents, and streams in the Greensboro area are characterized by using State and Federal water-quality standards. Inorganic constituents most commonly found in excess of standards were iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, phosphorus, manganese, cyanide, and mercury. Relatively few organic compounds were detected; however, those consistently reported were phthalate, thihalomethane, organophosphorus pesticide, benzol, and phenolic compounds. Selected inorganic, physical, and total organic carbon data are used in a Wilcoxon test for two independent

  10. Hydro-geochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in Akoko North West local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Dare Timothy Oyedotun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A sudden geometric increase in population of Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State has led to an increase in demand for water and harnessing of subsurface water reserve. A total of twenty six water samples obtained from both boreholes and hand-dug wells were analyzed for their physico-chemical characteristics with the aim of assessing their quality, usability and also to determine the level of their contamination in the local government which is dominated by granite gneisses, charnockites, and augen gneisses as the main rock types. The following physico-chemical properties were analyzed for in the samples collected: electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total alkalinity (TA, total dissolved solids (TDS, total suspended solids (TSS, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC with major cations (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, anions (PO43-, HCO3-, SO43- and several heavy metals (Zn2+, Fe2+, As+, Ni+, Pb2+, Cd+, Cu2+. The following results were obtained from the analysis: Zn2+ (0.109 – 0.437 ppm, Fe2+ (0.216 – 0.726 ppm, As+ (0.01 – 0.03 ppm, Ni+ (0.036 – 0.074, Pb2+ (0.003 – 0.010, Cd+ (0.002 – 0.007, Cu2+ (0.086 – 0.241 with appreciable abundances of PO43-, Cd+, Fe2+and Ni+ some exceeding while some others are below the WHO acceptable level for drinking water, thereby making it a serious source of concern as it indicates varying levels of faecal contamination (from leaky septic tanks, interception with pit latrines and heavy metal liberation into the water consumed by the residents. It was also noticed that the water was fresh based on the analysis of the Total Dissolved Solids and the Pb2+ concentrations almost exceeded the standard permissible limit. Generally, it was concluded that the overall quality of the ground water is averagely good physico-chemically.

  11. Dynamic mechanism for horizontal deformation in part of North China area-- Three-dimensional finite-element calculation and analysis of results from GPS remeasurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A deformation monitoring network that covers part of North China area and takes the Beijing region as the center was measured for two times with high-precision GPS in 1995 and 1996 respectively. The results from remeasurement indicate that present horizontal movement in the monitored area is characterized by relative motion among several main tectonic blocks. Considering the spatial distribution features obtained from geological survey and results on seismic wave and activity in the area, and stratified features of crustal medium in depth, a three dimensional finite-element medium model is designed. And under the conditions of taking and not taking the action manner of the background stress field in the studied area into account, the relative motion between tectonic blocks is calculated and modeled. Based on the results from the analysis and calculations the dynamic mechanism for the present horizontal deformation in the area is discussed.

  12. Features and comprehensive evaluation of relative fitting anomalies of airborne gamma spectral in the south Hunan-north Guangxi area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Hunan-North Guangxi area is a main uranium metallogenetic area in South China, in which the types of uranium mineralization are mostly granite type and carbonate-siliceous-pelitic rock type, and are main types of uranium prospecting in South China. In order to break through the area by much more economically and effectively utilizing available airborne radioactive data, the main features are studied and summarized for relative fitting anomalies of airborne gamma spectral. The fitting anomalies are mostly distributed in granite areas and its exterior zones, and are closely relative to fault zones and uranium mineralization areas. By comprehensive evaluation, the anomalies of grade 1, 2, and 3 are selected according to the significance of uranium metallogenetic prospect. The mineralization zone in which uranium content is larger than 2 ‰ are discovered in the anomaly of grade 1 by trenching. (authors)

  13. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value conservative transport characteristics and relatively elevated concentrations in production waters associated with gas extraction activities. Major ions

  14. Cycling and Health: An Exploratory Study of Views about Cycling in an Area of North Liverpool, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavill, Nick; Watkins, Francine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore views about cycling among members of identified community groups living near the Loop Line, a cycling and walking path in a deprived part of North Liverpool, UK. Design/methodology/approach: Following a literature review, qualitative focus group research was conducted among six groups of children,…

  15. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, J.M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental d

  16. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional

  17. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for the Demolition of the Masonry Block for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) has been prepared to clearly define the sampling and analysis activities to be performed in support of the demolition and disposition (or disposal) of the 108-F Biological Laboratory masonry block walls

  18. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west Himalaya with epicentral distance and magnitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Ghosh; A K Mahajan

    2013-02-01

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation which relates the seismological data with parameters of engineering interest. In the absence of sufficient strong motion data for northwest Himalayan region, isoseismal maps of previous earthquakes were the only source of information for computing the attenuation characteristics of that region. The northwest Himalayan region had experienced major and moderate earthquakes in the past and isoseismal maps had been developed by various authors for each of these earthquakes representing intensity pattern and decay of intensity in different directions. With this information, attenuation relations of intensity with distance can be obtained. The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes ( ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the last 100 years. These are primarily Kangra (1905), Chamba-1 (1945), Chamba-2 (1995), Kinnaur (1975), Dharamsala (1986), Uttar Kashi (1991), Garhwal-1 (1996), Garhwal-2 (1996), Sundarnagar (1997) and Chamoli (1999) earthquakes. Miezoseismal zones in majority of the isoseismal maps show two major directions, i.e., either the longest axis of these isoseismal maps which are aligned in NW–SE direction following the major longitudinal features or north-northwest to south-southeast direction, following the tectonic features which are transverse to the Himalayan trend. Isoseismal maps of Kangra (1905), Chamba (1945) and Uttar Kashi (1991) earthquakes are more symmetrical and elongated in south-east direction, but compressed in north-east and north-west directions, thus indicating fast attenuation characteristics in north-east and north-west directions reflecting lithological variation. On the other hand, Sundernagar (1997) and Kinnuar (1975) earthquakes show circular pattern of intensity distribution. Combining decay patterns from different magnitude earthquakes in different directions, two attenuation relationships have been developed using regression relationship

  19. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  20. 300 Area D4 Project 1st Quarter Fiscal Year 2006 Building Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Smith

    2006-04-20

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition of the MO-052, 3225, 334, 334A, and 334-TF Buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The D4 of these facilities included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation as appropriate.

  1. 300 Area D4 Project Fiscal Year 2008 Building Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Westberg

    2009-01-15

    This report documents the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of eighteen buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site that were demolished in Fiscal Year 2008. The D4 of these facilties included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, utility disconnection, deactivation, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and stabilization or removal of the remaining slab and foundation, as appropriate.

  2. Phased Construction Completion Report for Bldg. K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-10-01

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  3. Phased Construction Completion Report for Building K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland S.

    2008-03-01

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  4. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. PMID:26897362

  5. Measures for regional security and arms control in the North-East Asian Area. Report of working group I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specific topics were of utmost interest in Working Group I: the possibility of establishing some kind of multilateral security mechanism in North-East Asia; elements of Korean reconciliation; non-proliferation of weapons; openness, transparency and confidence-building measures; general principles of norms of conduct for peace and security in the region; nuclear weapons and security measures; cooperative measures for regional security and stability

  6. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, J. M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental data. The highest α and γ-diversities were identified in the south-eastern portion of the state, in mountain zones with a warm sub-humid climate, whereas the greatest β-diversity (multiplicative for...

  7. LCA of Recycling Options for Gypsum from Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Large amounts of gypsum waste are annually produced from the construction and demolition sector. Its landfilling is becoming more and more expensive due to stricter EU regulations, while its recycling together with the rest of construction and demolition waste might be hampered due to technical...... restrictions; source separation, however, makes gypsum waste recycling feasible. Different alternatives for recycling exist, but their overall environmental impacts have never been quantified and compared in details. This study investigates from a life cycle perspective the environmental impacts of two...... of the four main recycling options currently carried out in Denmark: recycling for production of new gypsum plasterboards, and utilization on land mixed with compost as soil amendment. Life cycle assessment results indicate that the option of gypsum recycling to new plasterboard provides environmental savings...

  8. Analysis of Radioactive Releases During Proposed Demolition Activities for the 224-U and 224-UA Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Droppo, James G.

    2009-03-31

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling has been conducted in support of the demolition of the 224-U and 224-UA buildings using estimated release rates to provide information on the location and levels of radioactive contamination that may be expected. The facilities surrounding the UO3 plant have the potential to affect dispersion patterns through various meteorological phenomena, including building wake effects. Hourly meteorological data collected over a 5-year period were used to examine the effects of wind speed, direction, and stability on projected concentrations of contaminants in air and deposited on nearby surfaces. The modeling results indicate that the radiological exposures from the planned demolition efforts will be below the designated limits for air and soil exposures.

  9. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities. PMID:21949948

  10. Stress reactions and coping strategies among Bedouin Arab adolescents exposed to demolition of houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra; Al Said, Haled

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine emotional reactions and coping strategies of Bedouin adolescents against the backdrop of house demolitions in the unrecognized Bedouin villages in the Negev, Israel. We compared two groups of adolescents living in unrecognized Bedouin villages, teenagers whose houses had been destroyed (acute + chronic group) and their counterparts whose houses had not been destroyed (chronic group). Data were gathered during October to December 2010 from 465 Bedouin adolescents aged 13-18 years. Adolescents filled out self-report questionnaires, which included demographics, objective and subjective exposure to house demolition, state anxiety, state anger, psychological distress and Adolescent Coping Scale. Results show differences between the two groups in stress reactions as well as in objective exposure to house demolition with the acute + chronic group reporting more stress and more exposure. In addition, different variables explained stress reactions in the different groups. Whereas in the acute + chronic group, objective and subjective exposure were the most significant variables, in the chronic group, the coping strategies explained stress with more variance. Results are discussed in terms of differentiating between types of stress, chronic versus acute + chronic and in relation to the interactionist model of coping with stress.

  11. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    distributions of juvenile cod. The transport of particles showed considerable intra- and interannual variability, but also some general patterns of retention within and dispersion todifferentmanagement areas.Good spatial overlapof particle end positions, representing potential juvenile settlement areas...

  12. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alice T.; Leung, Luke K. -P.; Goullet, Mark S.; Gentle, Matthew N.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Simple summary Conflicts with dingoes and other wild dogs are becoming increasingly common in and around urban areas of Australia. A lack of basic information about wild dog movement ecology hampers efficient planning and allocation of resources to mitigate human–wild dog conflicts. We captured, collared and released 37 wild dogs in urban areas of north-eastern Australia to investigate their movement ecology. In general, wild dogs occupied small fragments of bushland within an urban matrix, were active at all times of the day, and lived within a few hundred meters of houses and humans at all times. We conclude that wild dog management strategies in urban areas should focus on the mitigation of impacts at the individual or group level, and not population-level reductions in numbers. Abstract Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo × domestic dog hybrids are common in many urban areas, and pose a variety of human health and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-eastern Australia and continuously monitored them each 30 min for 11–394 days. Most dingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas. PMID:27537916

  13. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault

  14. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diansari, Angga Vertika, E-mail: anggav.bmkg@gmail.com; Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri [Academy of Meteorology and Geophysics, Jalan Perhubungan I no.5 Tangerang 15221 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault.

  15. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  16. UPWELLING AND SEDIMENTATION DYNAMICS Ⅲ: COINCIDENCE OF UPWELLING AREAS WITH MUD PATCHES IN NORTH HEMISPHERE SHELF SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞重光; 胡敦欣

    2002-01-01

    The determinant role of upwelling in fine sediment patches is examined from the viewpoints of physical process and biological process respectively. It is pointed out that physical and biological processes are usually coexistent and interact with each other during the sedimentation of suspended matters. This study used available figures showing the circulation pattern and surface sediment distribution in the whole China Seas, the Gulf of Maine, the Irish Sea and the North Sea, and additional data to verify that wherever upwelling exists on the continental shelf, mud must occur; and that wherever downwelling occurs, coarse sediment substitutes for mud.

  17. VAK Kahl - decommissioning and demolition continued under new auspices; VAK Kahl - Fortsetzung des Rueckbaus unter neuem Vorzeichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, W.; Runge, H. [RWE NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The Kahl experimental nuclear power station (VAK), the first German nuclear power plant, was decommissioned after 25 years of operation (1961 to 1985). The BWR plant generated approx. 2 million kWh of electricity in 150,000 hours of operation at a gross power of MWe. After the operator, VAK GmbH, had filed an application for decommissioning, the first of four decommissioning permits was issued in 1988. The plant is to be demolished completely so that the site will no longer be within the scope of the Atomic Energy Act. By 2001, demolition work covered by the first decommissioning permit had been finished, also the 2nd and 3rd decommissioning permits had largely been completed, and work under the 4th decommissioning permit had been begun. To acquire technical and organization experience and know-how, the decommissioning and demolition phases are accompanied by research and development work carried out by the operators and by VAK shareholders RWE and E.ON. After the bulk of the work had been completed, the radioactive inventory had been removed from the plant, and the end of the project was in sight, RWE NUKEM GmbH was commissioned to carry on. The main objectives now are speedy completion of the jobs still to be finished, further development for other projects of the know-how acquired, and job protection. The main work still to be carried out includes dismantling of systems no longer needed and of the biological shield as well as decontamination of building structures accompanied by the clearance of buildings and open areas for subsequent conventional demolition. The waste arising will be packaged in accordance with its classification, and will be removed into interim storage or managed in the conventional way. The project is to be completed in the 3rd quarter of 2006. (orig.) [German] Das Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl (VAK) mit Siedewasserreaktor, das erste deutsche Kernkraftwerk, wurde nach 25 Betriebsjahren (1961 bis 1985) stillgelegt. Die Siedewasserreaktoranlage

  18. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  19. Is Gray Water the Key to Unlocking Water for Resource-Poor Areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and Other Arid Regions of the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Leas, Eric C.; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2013-01-01

    Support for the use of treated gray water as an alternative water resource in the Middle East and North Africa is high, especially given the lack of religious restrictions against its use, but several obstacles have kept application of treated gray water near 1 % in some areas. The largest of obstacles include the cost of treatment and the ambiguity surrounding the health safety of gray water and treated gray water. This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices global...

  20. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  1. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  2. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    pumping well of 1.96 ft and 1.14 ft, respectively. The transmissivity estimates for wells tested were within the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests in other wells near Test Area North.Groundwater samples were collected from both wells and were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Groundwater samples for most of the inorganic constituents showed similar water chemistry in both wells. Groundwater samples for strontium-90, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride exceeded maximum contaminant levels for public drinking water supplies in one or both wells.

  3. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack C P; Ma, Lauren Y H

    2013-06-01

    Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C&D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D&R) works and the growing amount of D&R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D&R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D&R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry

  4. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  5. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  6. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  7. Safeguards in the demolition of the MOX plant of the former Siemens fuel element factory at Hanau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demolishing a plant for manufacturing MOX fuel elements, as is currently seen at the former Siemens Fuel Element Factory at Hanau, not only must be preceded by careful planning of the demolition work and obtaining the necessary permits under the Atomic Energy Act and, on the hardware side, adapting the plant and its supply facilities to the conditions of demolition, but also requires general rethinking and redesigning of the concepts and procedures of nuclear materials safeguards and of the safeguards inspection measures to be applied by the safeguards authorities of the European Commission and IAEA. Under safeguards aspects, demolition is quite different from the previous manufacturing and construction phases. The (manufacturing) processes change, as do the throughputs, flows and types of nuclear materials, arisings of radioactive waste, methods of measuring nuclear material for documentation and the accuracy of these methods and, of course, also the nuclear materials inventories. One the basis of the definition of the conditions to be expected for demolition, the concepts and detailed procedures of nuclear materials safeguards, and the safeguards approach, were defined at Hanau within the German Support Program of IAEA in a joint effort by the operator, the European Commission, and IAEA in such a way that, on the one hand, the safeguards authorities are able to perform their duties and, on the other hand, the operator is not hindered or restricted in the demolition job. After nearly three years of demolition work, it is safe to say that the safeguards procedures established jointly have proven their practical usefulness. The approach adopted, the national support program for jointly elaborating the safeguards aspects, can only be recommended for other demolition projects. (orig.)

  8. Large social housing estates: From stigma to demolition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, F.

    2004-01-01

    It is curious that the most frequently reviewed and well thought-out large housing estates are now the areas with the worst image. Image is an important factor of a neighbourhood’s popularity, affecting its position in the local or regional neighbourhood hierarchy. Many studies and reports about pr

  9. Diel variability of feeding activity in haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus ) larvae in the East Shetland area, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ueberschar, B.; Basford, D.;

    1999-01-01

    aeglifinus) larvae four times per day during a 10-d cruise in the northern North Sea. Feeding activity was evaluated using indices of gut fullness, prey digestive state and biochemical measurements (tryptic enzyme activity). The gut fullness and the enzyme activity indices indicated moderate to high rates...... of food consumption throughout the cruise. Time series analysis of the three indices showed significant diel variability in all indices and enabled identification of significant lags between food uptake and peak digestive enzyme activity. The typical pattern of food consumption and digestion...... was characterized by maximal ingestion of prey early in the evening (19:00 hrs) and peak digestive enzyme activity at 01:00 hrs. The time scale over which enzyme activities reacted to prey ingestion was ca. 6 h, and is consistent with expectations from controlled laboratory experiments with other larval fish...

  10. Palynology of Waikato Coal Measures (Late Eocene-Late Oligocene) from the Raglan area, North Island, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocknall, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    Spore-pollen assemblages from Waikato Coal Measures in the Kawhia-Raglan region, North Island, indicate that the coal measures, which rest on basement, are time transgressive and young to the southwest. The climate was predominantly cool to warm temperate, in accord with other climatic reconstructions for the Late Eocene-Late Oligocene period elsewhere in New Zealand, with brassi beech being the dominant component in the forests of the region. One new genus, Gemmapollis, is erected to accommodate tricolporate pollen with thickened colpi margins and gemmate/verrucate surface sculpture. Five new species are described. These are Monosulcites subverrucatus, Gemmapollis raglanensis, Rhoipites aequatorius, R. karamuensis, and Sparsipollis acuminatus. One species, Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, has been recombined, a revised description is given for Nothofagidites waipawaensis, and a new name is proposed for Rhoipites pilatus. The following taxa are recorded and/or illustrated from New Zealand for the first time - Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, Tricolpites discus, Cupanieidites reticularis, Santalumidites cainozoicus, and Corsinipollenites oculus noctis.

  11. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  12. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alice T; Leung, Luke K-P; Goullet, Mark S; Gentle, Matthew N; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo×domesticdoghybridsarecommoninmanyurbanareas,andposeavarietyofhumanhealth and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-easternAustraliaandcontinuouslymonitoredthemeach30minfor11-394days. Mostdingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas.

  13. An in-situ campaign of spectral measurements for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in Luancheng of North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Sen; Chen, Liang-Fu; Liu, Qin-Huo; Xiao, Qing

    2004-10-01

    In an attempt to support the demonstration application of "Spectral Library Of Chinese representative surface substances", an in-situ campaign of spectral measurements was carried out during the summer of 2003 for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in North China Plain. The experiment sites, based on Luancheng Agricultural ecosystem experiment station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was a 5×5 km area located just south-east of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China. The spectral instrument used is ASD FieldSpecFR with wavelength of 0.35~2.5μm. The experimental achievement includes: soil moisture, corn physiological & biochemical parameters, corn leaf water & chlorophyll-a,b contents, corn structure parameters, field farmland microclimate, aerological exploration data of atmosphere, corn spectra of component, corn crown & background spectra cross the growth period of crop. The paper details the whole experimental scheme and design and partial representation of results of data analysis.

  14. What happened to gray whales during the Pleistocene? The ecological impact of sea-level change on benthic feeding areas in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Pyenson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their

  15. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy: Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy. Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS- based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%, Toxocara canis (1.72%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%, Ancylostomatidae (0.43%, and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%, followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%. Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection.

  16. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  17. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  18. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters. PMID:26769702

  19. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  20. Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, Caitlin; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

  1. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  2. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols: Impact of biomass burning and secondary formation in summertime in a rural area of the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Li, Weijun; Sui, Xiao; Wen, Liang; Chi, Jianwei; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Xu, Caihong; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain, field measurements were conducted at Yucheng (YC) in the summers of 2013 and 2014. The concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols at YC exhibited clear diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the early morning and at night and lower concentrations during the afternoon hours. The mass-balance method designed for particulate matter smaller than 2.5μm (PM2.5) was used to calculate the organic matter (OM)/organic carbon (OC) ratio. The value obtained, 2.07±0.05, was suggested as a reference to estimate organics in PM2.5 in rural areas of the North China Plain. Biomass burning was identified to be a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols; approximately half of the samples obtained at YC were affected by biomass burning during summer 2013. Case studies revealed that biomass burning accounted for up to 52.6% of the OC and 51.1% of the elemental carbon in PM2.5 samples. The organic coatings observed on sulphur-rich and potassium-rich particles indicated the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from the oxidation of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the aging of smoke released from biomass burning. Based on the evolution of the VOCs, the contribution of VOCs oxidation to SOA concentration was 3.21 and 1.07μgm(-3)ppm(-1) CO under conditions of low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and high NOx, respectively. Aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene) made the greatest contribution to SOA concentration (88.4% in low-NOx conditions and 80.6% in high-NOx conditions). The results of the study offer novel insights into the effects of biomass burning on the carbonaceous aerosols and SOA formation in polluted rural areas. PMID:27031303

  3. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future. PMID:26910989

  4. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  5. Study on HCl emission behavior during pyrolysis of demolition wood with PVC and municipal solid waste for clean hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Wei Wu; Katsuya Kawamoto [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, first, HCl emission during the pyrolysis of demolition wood containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) converted from municipal wastes was measured with a laboratory scale cylindrical batch reactor. The difference in the HCl emission behavior between both feedstocks was discussed. In the case of the demolition wood with PVC, the effects of wood composition on HCl emission were investigated by not only measuring the HCl emission during the co-pyrolysis of the primary constituents of wood (cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin) with PVC film but also by conducting thermogravimetric analysis of the constituents. Finally, the reduction of HCl emission due to blending demolition wood and PVC film with a K-rich biomass was experimentally evaluated as a method for reducing the HCl emission. (authors)

  6. Increasing the Safety in Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste by Using Supervised Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the possibility of the optical identification of recycled aggregates of construction and demolition waste (CDW) using methods of image processing, spectral analysis and machine learning. The classification performances in colour images shown, that we have to use other added spectral information to solve the recognition task in a satisfactory manner. In addition to investigations on a large colour image dataset first investigations in visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) spectrum were done for analysing significant characteristics in spectrum, which are useful for classification the C and D aggregates

  7. Composition and leaching of construction and demolition waste: Inorganic elements and organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-three samples of construction and demolition waste collected at 11 recycling facilities in Denmark were characterised in terms of total content and leaching of inorganic elements and presence of the persistent organic pollutants PCBs and PAHs. Samples included (i) "clean" (i.e. unmixed...... levels in urban environments. "Old" and "new" concrete samples indicated different PCB congener profiles and the presence of PCB even in new concrete suggested that background levels in raw materials may be an issue. Significant variability in total content of trace elements, even more pronounced...

  8. Single photon quantum non-demolition measurements in the presence of inhomogeneous broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has often been proposed for generating nonlinear optical effects at the single photon level; in particular, as a means to effect a quantum non-demolition measurement of a single-photon field. Previous treatments have usually considered homogeneously broadened samples, but realizations in any medium will have to contend with inhomogeneous broadening. Here we reappraise an earlier scheme (Munro et al 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 033819) with respect to inhomogeneities and show an alternative mode of operation that is preferred in an inhomogeneous environment. We further show the implications of these results on a potential implementation in diamond-containing nitrogen-vacancy colour centres.

  9. Perception of Tourist towards the Potential Development of Tumpa Mountain Area as Integrated Ecotourism, Manado, North Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Irwan Towoliu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumpa is the name of mountain located at the northern part of the Manado City region which bordering The National Park of Bunaken. As a mountainous region with a height of ±623m (asl, it occupies a strategic position. In addition to being adjacent to the park, it is also part of uplands owned by the city of Manado. It serves as buffer zone (green belt of water, horticultural and agricultural areas with mangrove coastal areas. Master Plan of Tourism Development Region in Manado City used as part of ecotourism products from mountain and forest, but so far there has been no in-depth study to assess the holistic perception of tourist in the development potency of the region as an integrated tourism in Tumpa Mountain area. This study was purposed to determine the tourist perception toward the potential development as integrated ecotourism. This research involved a qualitative research approach, described by using figures on the percentage. Fieldwork was used as a questionnaire survey. The analysis measurement using Likert Scale, scoring and analysis combined with the analysis of the interest rate (level of importance. This study result shows that the average respondent answered good with the score range between 3.5 until 4.2. It means the respondents have argued that every indicator; natural, social-cultural and infrastructure that exists in the region Tumpa Mount area is still in good condition. In the level of interest the respondents answered between 3.6 until 4.6 with category important. This means respondents expect that good environmental circumstances will be always maintained and linked with the development of tourist attraction which is very suitable to be developed as ecotourism. In conclusion, the indicators are considered good and important to be developed as an integrated ecotourism area. Keywords: Ecotourism, Integrated, Perception, Tourist, Tumpa Mount.

  10. Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks in a High-Risk Area of the North-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Kightlinger, L.; Vincent, G.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America. Since its emergence in the western hemisphere in 1999, human WNV disease has continued to exhibit recurrent outbreaks. Perplexingly, the incidence of this tropical disease has been highest in the cold-temperate climates of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). The spatial and temporal distributions of the vector mosquitoes and bird hosts, and consequently the risk of disease in humans, are strongly influenced by temperature, precipitation, vegetation, soils, and land use. We have utilized satellite remote sensing to map these environmental factors through time and develop models of disease risk. Outbreak years in South Dakota were preceded by warm winters, and WNV cases were most likely to occur during the hottest weeks of summer. Hot spots of persistent WNV transmission within the state were associated with rural land cover as well as patterns of physiography and climate. These models are currently being integrated into the South Dakota Mosquito Early Warning system (SDMIS), an automated WNV outbreak detection system that integrates remotely-sensed environmental indicators with vector abundance and infection data from a statewide mosquito surveillance network. The major goal of this effort is to leverage global environmental monitoring datasets to provide up-to-date, locally relevant information that can improve the effectiveness of mosquito control and disease prevention activities. This system was implemented for the first time during the summer of 2015. We will review the outcomes of this implementation, including the underlying influences of temperature on WNV risk, a preliminary statewide WNV risk map, and dynamic risk predictions made during the 2015 WNV season. Lessons learned as well as plans for future years will be discussed.

  11. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  12. Depressive symptoms among Arab Bedouin women whose houses are under threat of demolition in southern Israel: a right to housing issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Jabareen, Yousef

    2014-06-14

    Housing is a fundamental human right and a social determinant of health. According to international law, indigenous peoples are entitled to special housing and health rights and protections. In Israel, land disputes between the government and Arab Bedouins, an indigenous minority, have resulted in ongoing demolitions of Arab Bedouin homes, with thousands more homes threatened. While demolitions could expose this population to mental health problems, research linking house demolition and health is scarce. In this paper, we draw on a human rights perspective to describe this housing instability and examine the association between the threat of house demolition and depressive symptoms (DS) among 464 Arab Bedouin women. We conclude that having their house under threat of demolition is an important determinant of poor mental health among Bedouin women. Any efforts to decrease DS among these women will have to take place alongside efforts to stop this practice.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern.

  14. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern. PMID:26330321

  16. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R G Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  17. Summary and Trend Analysis of Water-Quality Data for the Oakes Test Area, Southeastern North Dakota, 1984-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.

    2007-01-01

    The Oakes Test Area is operated and maintained by the Garrison Diversion Conservancy District, under a cooperative agreement with the Bureau of Reclamation, to evaluate the effectiveness and environmental consequences of irrigation. As part of the evaluation, the Bureau of Reclamation collected water-quality samples from seven sites on the James River and the Oakes Test Area. The data were summarized and examined for trends in concentration. A nonparametric statistical test was used to test whether each concentration was increasing or decreasing with time for selected physical properties and constituents, and a trend slope was estimated for each constituent at each site. Trends were examined for two time periods, 1988-2004 and 1994-2004. Results varied by site and by constituent. All sites and all constituents tested had at least one statistically significant trend in the period 1988-2004. Sulfate, total dissolved solids, nitrate, and orthophosphate have significant positive trends at multiple sites with no significant negative trend at any site. Alkalinity and arsenic have single significant positive trends. Hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, potassium, and chloride have both significant positive and negative trends. Ammonia has a single significant negative trend. Fewer significant trends were identified in 1994-2004, and all but one were positive. The contribution to the James River from Oakes Test Area drainage appears to have little effect on water quality in the James River.

  18. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  19. Crustal Structure in the area of the North American Mid-Continent Rift System from P-wave Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Stein, S. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mid-continent Geophysical Anomaly (MGA) represents the largest gravity anomaly in the North American continental interior, its strongest portion stretching from Iowa to Lake Superior, and is the direct result of 1.1 Ga deposition and uplift of volcanic rocks in the Mid-continent Rift System (MRS). The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) collected broadband seismic data around this prominent portion of the MGA for 2.5 years from 82 seismic stations, simultaneously with about 30 Transportable Array (TA) stations in the region. To image crustal structure around the MGA, we analyzed the P-wave trains of 119 teleseismic earthquakes at these stations using the time-domain iterative-deconvolution method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999), the waveform-fitting method of Van der Meijde et al. (2003), and the H-κ stacking method of Zhu and
Kanamori (2000). Our aim was to resolve intra-crustal layering and Moho characteristics. Despite considerable noise related to station installation constraints, we find that outside of the MGA, the Moho is sharp and relatively flat, both beneath the Archean Superior Province as well as beneath the Proterozoic terranes to its south. This Moho produces consistent P to S converted phases in the analyzed receiver functions. Receiver functions show much more complexity along the MGA, where P to S converted phases from the Moho are much weaker and more variable with azimuth and epicentral distance. Similar results have been found in Iowa by French et al. (2009). For many stations along the MGA, multiple weak S phases arrive around the time expected for the Moho-converted phase. In addition, strong P-to-S converted phases are observed from the base of shallow sedimentary layers. The base of the sedimentary layer is fairly shallow outside of the MGA, thickens near the flanks where gravity anomalies are low and shallows again in the center where the gravity peaks. We conclude that the Moho is not a strong feature of the MRS

  20. Studies on geological background and source of fluorine in drinking water in the North China Plate fluorosis areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, K.; Feng, F.; Li, H.; Chou, C.-L.; Feng, Z.; Yunshe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Endemic fluorosis in northern China is usually produced by high fluorine (F) content in drinking water. Thirty-one samples of drinking waters, mainly well waters and nearly 200 samples of rocks, loess, and coal were analyzed for F content using the combustion hydrolysis-fluoride-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. The geologic cross sections of two well-known fluorosis basins were studied. The solubility of F in different rock types collected from fluorosis areas was determined. Results showed that areas of endemic fluorosis in northern China are located in coal-bearing basins which are comprised of three stratagraphic portions. The lowest portion is Precambrian granitic rocks or Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates. The middle portion consists of Permo-Carboniferous or Jurassic coal-bearing sequences. The upper portion is 0-400 m Pleistocene loess. Flourine content in the Precambrian granite-gneiss contained (a) 1090-1460 ppm, in the Cambrian-Ordovician limestone and dolomite, (b) 52-133 ppm, in black shales and coal gob of Permo-Carboniferous coal-bearing strata, (c) 200-700 ppm, and (d) Pleistocene loess 454-542 ppm. The solubility of F in black shales of coal-bearing sequences was higher than in Precambrian granitic rocks, and both were more soluble than loess. F solubility from Precambrian granitic rocks was moderate, but Precambrian granitic rocks have high F content and thus contribute an appreciable amount of ion to the shallow groundwater (well water). Varying F content in shallow groundwater is controlled by geological conditions. The sources of F in the shallow groundwater from fluorosis areas in northern China are mainly derived from black shales of coal-bearing sequences and Precambrian granitic basement in the basins of northern China. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  1. Effects on non-human species inhabiting areas with enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Belykh, Elena S. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Majstrenko, Tatiana A. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    Results of long-term radioecological investigations in areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia are summarized. Deleterious changes within animal and plant populations inhabiting areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the Komi Republic were revealed. These changes are expressed in enhanced levels of mutagenesis, destructive processes in the tissues of animals, disturbances of reproductive functions and reduced offspring viability. Compensatory processes, resulting in animal and plant survival under extremely adverse conditions of radium and uranium-radium contamination, were observed as well. However, obvious signs of adaptation failed to be detected. The findings suggest that adverse somatic and genetic effects are possible in plants and animals in the dose range observed at sites with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. In contrast, different plant species inhabiting an area with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the taiga zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) reveal a stimulation of growth processes, photosynthesis, endogenous low molecular weight antioxidant synthesis as well as adaptive response. It is apparent from the data presented that naturally occurring differences in terrestrial radiation level could be of genetic and ecological consequence.

  2. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; F. R. Warshauer, frwvolcano@hotmail.com; Jonathan Price, jpprice@hawaii.edu

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  3. Evaluation of the hydrologic system in the New Leipzig coal area, Grant and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aquifers in the New Leipzig coal area consist of sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone, the Hell Creek Formation, the Cannonball and Ludlow Members of the Fort Union Formation, and the basal part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. Aquifers also occur in sandstone and lignite beds in the upper part of the Tongue River Member and Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation. Potential well yields from each of the aquifers are variable, but are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Cannonball, and Ludlow is soft and of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in basal Tongue River aquifer is either soft or very hard and generally is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in the upper Tongue River and Sentinel Butte aquifer system is very hard and generally is either of the calcium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type. There is little or no contribution of ground water to Thirty Mile Creek or the Cannonball River from the area of minable coal. Coal mining will expose sulfide minerals to oxidation, and result in an increase in dissolved solids and sulfate in water in the basal Tongue River aquifer. (USGS)

  4. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  5. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. PMID:24996353

  6. The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

  7. A Petrographic and Mineralogical Study of Volcanic Rocks from the Mayaxueshan Area, North Qilian Fold Belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐达伟; 萧炎宏

    2002-01-01

    The Ordovician volcanic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have been pervasively altered or metamorphosedand contain abundant secondary minerals such as albite, chlorite, epidote, prehnite, pumpellyite, actinolite, titanite, quartz,and/or calcite. They were denoted as spilites or spilitic rocks in terms of their petrographic features and mineral assem-blages. The metamorphic grades of the volcanic rocks are equivalent to that of the intercalated metaclastic rocks. Thisindicates that both the spilitic volcanic rocks and metaclastic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have formed as a result ofCaledonian regional metamorphism. We suggest that the previously denoted spilitic rocks or altered volcanic rocks shouldbe re-denoted as metabasalts or metabasaltic rocks. The metamorphic grade of the volcanic rocks increases with their age:prehnite-pumpellyite facies for the upper part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, prehnite-pumpellyite to lowergreenschist facies for the lower part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, and lower greenschist facies for the LowerOrdovician volcanic rocks. The P-T conditions are estimated as T = 240 - 290C and P = 1.5 - 4.5 kbar for the lower partof the Middle Ordovician rocks, and T = ~ 300~C for the Lower Ordovician rocks. The variations of mineral assemblagesoccurring at different domains of the volcanic rocks were controlled by the variations of the effective bulk composition inthose domains during metamorphism. The geochemical characteristics of Mg-Al chromite in the Mayaxueshan volcanicrocks are consistent with an origin of island arc environment.

  8. Slope runoff study in situ using rainfall simulator in mountainous area of North China%华北山区坡地产流规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静洁; 杨聪; 刘昌明; 宋献方; 胡珊珊; 李发东; 唐常源

    2009-01-01

    Simulated rainfall is a valid tool to examine the runoff generation on the slope. 13 simulated rainfall experiments with different rainfall intensities and durations are completed in a 5 m ×10 m experimental plot in mountainous area of North China. Simultaneously, rainfall, surface runoff, soil-layer flow, mantel-layer flow and soil moisture are monitored respectively. From the results, it is found that the hydrographs in all layers have the characteristics of rapid rise and fall. The recessions of surface flow and soil-layer flow are much faster than that of mantel-layer flow. Surface flow, the main contributor, makes up more than 60% of the total runoff in the study area. It even exceeds 90% in the cases of high intensity rainfall events. Runoff coefficient (ratio of total runoff to rainfall amount) is mainly influenced by rainfall amount, rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture, and the relationship can be well ex-pressed by a multiple linear regression function a = 0.002P + 0.1821 + 4.88Wa - 0.821. The relation between the rainfall intensity and the lag time of three flows (surface runoff, soil-layer flow and mantel-layer flow) is shown to be exponential. Then, the result also shows that the recession constant is 0.75 for surface runoff, is 0.94 for soil-layer and mantel-layer flow in this area. In this study area, the dominant infiltration excess runoff is simulated by Horton model. About 0.10 mm/min percolation is observed under the condition of different rainfall intensities, therefore the value is regarded as the steady infiltration rate of the study area.

  9. Recycling of rubble from building demolition for low-shrinkage concretes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Valeria; Moriconi, Giacomo

    2010-04-01

    In this project concrete mixtures were prepared that were characterized by low ductility due to desiccation by using debris from building demolition, which after a suitable treatment was used as aggregate for partial replacement of natural aggregates. The recycled aggregate used came from a recycling plant, in which rubble from building demolition was selected, crushed, cleaned, sieved, and graded. Such aggregates are known to be more porous as indicated by the Saturated Surface Dry (SSD) moisture content. The recycled concrete used as aggregates were added to the concrete mixture in order to study their influence on the fresh and hardened concrete properties. They were added either after water pre-soaking or in dry condition, in order to evaluate the influence of moisture in aggregates on the performance of concrete containing recycled aggregate. In particular, the effect of internal curing, due to the use of such aggregates, was studied. Concrete behavior due to desiccation under dehydration was studied by means of both drying shrinkage test and German angle test, through which shrinkage under the restrained condition of early age concrete can be evaluated. PMID:20022737

  10. Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

    2009-01-01

    Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed.

  11. Comparison of leaching tests to determine and quantify the release of inorganic contaminants in demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Markus; Lager, Tanja; Schulz, Horst D; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2007-01-01

    The changes in waste management policy caused by the massive generation of waste materials (e.g. construction and demolition waste material, municipal waste incineration products) has led to an increase in the reuse and recycling of waste materials. For environmental risk assessment, test procedures are necessary to examine waste materials before they can be reused. In this article, results of column and lysimeter leaching tests having been applied to inorganic compounds in a reference demolition waste material are presented. The results show a good agreement between the leaching behaviour determined with the lysimeter unit and the column units used in the laboratory. In view of less time and system requirements compared to lysimeter systems, laboratory column units can be considered as a practicable instrument to assess the time-dependent release of inorganic compounds under conditions similar to those encountered in a natural environment. The high concentrations of elements in the seepage water at the initial stage of elution are reflected by the laboratory column leaching tests. In particular, authorities or laboratories might benefit and have an easy-to-use, but nevertheless reliable, method to serve as a basis for decision-making.

  12. Asbestos exposure during renovation and demolition of asbestos-cement clad buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    External asbestos cement (AC) claddings become weathered after many years by the gradual loss of cement from exposed surfaces; as a result, loosely bound layers enriched with asbestos fibers are formed. Asbestos fibers on such weathered surfaces may be mixtures of chrysotile with amosite or crocidolite. Renovation and demolition of old AC clad buildings could cause asbestos fiber emission, but this has not been investigated in the past. The exposure of workers to asbestos dust during these operations and precautions to minimize exposure now have been investigated at several building sites. Asbestos dust concentrations during water jet cleaning or painting of weathered AC roofing were approximately 0.1 to 0.2 fibers per milliliter (f/mL). Limited results suggest that concentrations may be reduced substantially by avoiding abrasion of surfaces. Concentrations during AC roof replacement averaged approximately 0.1 f/mL and were reduced markedly by employing more careful work procedures. Asbestos dust concentrations during demolition by removal of whole sheets averaged 0.3 to 0.6 f/mL for roofs and less than 0.1 f/mL for walls, reflecting the significant differences in extent of weathering between these elements. Suppression of asbestos emissions from roof sheets by wetting or sealing of weathered surfaces was not predictable because of the occurrence of asbestos fibers in dust trapped under sheet laps.

  13. Use of Recycling Building Demolition waste As Coarse Aggregate in Hot Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil I. Al- Sarrag* Hanaa Khaleel A Suham E. Saleh Al-Maliky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At the recent years in Iraq, building demolition increase because of wars and the processes of destruction that lead to increase concrete waste, causing extreme pressure on the available land-filled sites that’s becomes a new challenge to local environment, in addition to south region from country poor from aggregate source.  So this study make as first evaluation to return use concrete aggregate for old and demolition building in concrete asphalt mix, the concrete aggregate obtained from building to live long more than 20 years after crash reinforcement concrete and sieving to get requirement granular particle to make locally asphalt mixture (Type IIIB depends on modified specification of State Commission of Roads and Bridges (2003 with percent (0,25,50,75,100% from weight of coarse aggregate.  Asphalt mixtures were tested by Marshall test, Indirect tensile strength test, and the loss of stability test.

  14. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the reported thermogenic composition of the Fayetteville Shale gas (δ13CCH4 = −35.4‰ to −41.9‰). Based on major element chemistry, four shallow groundwater types were identified: (1) low ( 100 mg/L and Ca–HCO3 dominated, (3) TDS > 100 mg/L and Na–HCO3dominated, and (4) slightly saline groundwater with TDS > 100 mg/L and Cl > 20 mg/L with elevated Br/Cl ratios (>0.001). The Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097

  15. Factors Influencing the Large-Scale Distribution of Hg(0) in the Mexico City Area and Over the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R.; Mao, H.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J.; Avery, M.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G.; Vay, S.; Blake, D.; Huey, G.; Fuelberg, H.

    2007-12-01

    Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data was obtained during March-May 2006 and covered 0.15-12 km altitude. The vertical distribution in all three study regions showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant mixing ratio centered around 100 ppqv. Highly concentrated pollution plumes emanating from Mexico City revealed that mixing ratios of Hg° as large as 500 ppqv were correlated with combustion tracers such as CO, but not SO2 which is presumably released from coal burning, refineries, and volcanoes. Our analysis of Mexico City plumes indicated that widespread multi-source urban/industrial emissions may have a more important influence on Hg° than specific point sources. Over the Pacific, correlations with CO, CO2, CH4, and C2Cl4 were diffuse overall, but recognizable on flights out of Anchorage and Honolulu. In distinct plumes originating from the Asian continent the Hg° - CO relationship was better defined and yielded an average value of ~0.0050 ng Hg° m-3/ppbv, in good agreement with previous findings. A prominent feature of the INTEX-B dataset was frequent total depletion of Hg° in the upper troposphere when stratospherically influenced air was encountered. When O3 mixing ratios exceeded 300 ppbv, Hg° was rarely detected. It appears that in the tropopause and stratosphere Hg° is oxidized on the order of days followed by heterogeneous transformation to particulate mercury. Our data confirm efficient chemical cycling of Hg° in the tropopause region and show that it is strongly anti-correlated with O3. These processes constitute an effective chemical sink for Hg° at the top of the troposphere, which may recycle mercury back to the gas phase as stratospheric

  16. Geology, structure and age of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area, North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Gerson A.; González, Pablo D.; González, Santiago N.; Sato, Ana M.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei; Varela, Ricardo; Llambías, Eduardo J.

    2015-10-01

    The low-grade Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area (40°50‧S-65°53‧W) shows ultramafic to felsic metaigneous rocks forming a sill swarm intercalated in the metasedimentary sequence and a polyphase deformation which permit an integrated study of the magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of this geological unit. In this paper we present a geological characterization of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area combining mapping, structural and metamorphic analysis with a SHRIMP U-Pb age and geochemical data from the metaigneous rocks. The metasedimentary sequence consists of alternating metagreywackes and phyllites, and minor metasandstones and granule metaconglomerates. The sills are pre-kinematic intrusions and yielded one SHRIMP U-Pb, zircon crystallization age of 513.6 ± 3.3 Ma. Their injection occurred after consolidation of the sedimentary sequence. A syn-sedimentary volcanic activity is interpreted by a metaandesite lava flow interlayered in the metasedimentary sequence. Sedimentary and igneous protoliths of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation would have been formed in a continental margin basin associated with active magmatic arc during the Cambrian Epoch 2. Two main low-grade tectonometamorphic events affected the Nahuel Niyeu Formation, one during the Cambrian Epoch 2-Early Ordovician and the other probably in the late Permian at ˜260 Ma. Local late folds could belong to the final stages of the late Permian deformation or be even younger. In a regional context, the Nahuel Niyeu and El Jagüelito formations and Mina Gonzalito Complex show a comparable Cambrian-Ordovician evolution related to the Terra Australis Orogen in the south Gondwana margin. This evolution is also coeval with the late and early stages of the Pampean and Famatinian orogenies of Central Argentina, respectively. The late Permian event recorded in the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in Aguada Cecilio area is identified by comparable structures affecting the Mina Gonzalito

  17. The socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors associated with leptospirosis in an urban area of north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D S C; Guimarães, M J B; Portugal, J L; Medeiros, Z

    2009-03-01

    In an ecological study based on the 18 microregions that form the city of Recife, the capital of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, associations between socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors and the incidence of leptospirosis in the city were investigated. Incidence over a 5-year period (2001-2005) and 14 variables were analysed, using central trend and dispersion measurements, Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression. Variables relating to education, income, housing type, sewage system, rubbish collection and hydrographic factors were found to be significantly correlated with leptospirosis incidence (Plegal minimum (U.S.$83.55/month), and the proportion of households from which rubbish was dumped in skips, lakes, rivers or the sea or on vacant land - explained 60% (P=0.017) of the differences in disease risk observed between the various areas of the city.

  18. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  19. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  20. Appropriate density of water and soil conservation of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia forests in loess area, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun ZHANG; Chengliang ZHANG; Wei HE; Lei NA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on a long-term monitor-ing of water cycle in the water and soil conservation forest stands of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseu-doacacia, the soil moisture deficit is calculated. Following the principles of runoff-collecting forestry and applying the forest structure investigation results, the authors developed a formula to calculate appropriate density for forests on the basis of different diameters at breast height (DBH). Using this method to manage forests, the natural water requirement of forests can be met and soil drought can be avoided. In addition, with long-term monitoring of soil moisture in stands, the authors also give an appropriate managing density specifically for the water and soil conservation forests of P.tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacacia in the loess area which is according to soil moisture content,or with the lowest soil moisture content and invalid moisture frequency as the indexes.

  1. Studies on quality of sub-surface water around tanneries in some areas of north west frontier province (NWFP) Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is a part of our investigations comprising (a) characterization of the tannery/leather industry effluents, (b) assessment of the pollution caused by these effluents to the environment, and (c) development of a simple but economical procedure for the pre-treatment and recycling of these effluents, to recover some valuable materials. In NWFP, the tanning industry has shown a rapid development in the late seventies, during which large-size industrial units were established at Peshawar, Charsadda and Jehangira. Since no pollution control measures are being adopted by these units, the hazards to the environment caused by the effluents and emissions from tanneries pose an acute problem in the country. The studies narrated below indicate that the under-ground water samples around tanneries have high concentrations of TDS, phenols, chromium and sulfides, which render the well-water in the area unsuitable for drinking and domestic uses. (author)

  2. Some evidences for earthquake occurrence in the shallow crust in some areas of North China and Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新亮; 刁桂苓; 高景春; 张四昌; 张学民; 李钦祖; 秦清娟; 朱振兴; 张彦清

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of hypocentral location are important fundamental data for the study of seismology and the earth interior physics; among them, the focal depth is a very important one but can hardly be measured with higher precision. With the increase of seismic stations in number, the heightening of observation quality and the improvement of determination method, such a situation has been changed much. In this paper, the results of hypocentral location and re-location by 7 small-aperture digital seismic station networks at Tangshan, Zhangbei and Huailai of Hebei Province, Datong of Shanxi Province and Jianchuan, Luquan and Yao'an of Yunnan Province are used. Using these results together with those of focal depth inversion by far-field data of some individual large shocks in corresponding areas and those re-determined by the Linfen telemetered seismic network of Shanxi Province, a comparison with the results of focal depth determination in the past earthquake catalogues is made. It is found out that the focal depths determined by the small-aperture seismic networks are basically distributed in the range from the earth surface to ten-odd kilometers underground. In contrast, the focal depths determined in the past are mostly distributed at the depth range from the earth surface to 30 km underground. Besides, there is a difference of 50% to 100% between the average values of the two cases, which is quite an obvious one. From the result of analysis, it is considered that the results determined by the small-aperture seismic networks may be closer to the reality of focal depths distribution. That is to say, earthquakes in the above-mentioned areas should be distributed in the shallow part of the crust. The causes that lead to the above situation are discussed preliminarily, and some suggestions and measures for improving the precision of focal depth determination are put forward.

  3. Use of Polar Orbiting Earth Observatories to Create a Synoptic Inventory of North American Forested Areas Affected by Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, R.; Carroll, M.; Townshend, J.; McCarty, J.

    2005-12-01

    The authors will discuss a newly developed algorithm which utilizes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites to derive an ongoing inventory of forested areas affected by wildfire. The experimental data set has been developed at a spatial resolution of 250 m and a temporal resolution of 16 days. The intent is to provide a near real-time inventory of fire-affected forested landscapes. The method allows for discrimination between those areas which were recently burned and those which were burned previously in the same or earlier fire seasons. This is an automated and repeatable method for delineating fire-affected forest at a country scale. By relying entirely on satellite observations, the product is intended to be internally consistent, avoiding potential bias and omission introduced by ground and airborne-based mapping. The data set is intended for use at a national and regional scale to update forest inventories in a rapid fashion, and to direct land management efforts. This moderate resolution product can then be used to direct detailed inventory and characterization efforts utilizing fine resolution instruments and in situ observation. Additional features of the data set provide the ability to gain a basic understanding of the spatial distribution of burn severity. Based upon user requirements, such as the need to monitor specific events of national importance, the methods presented can be adapted to provide results on a daily basis. We will present validation results using perimeter and progression maps produced for large fires in the western United States and Alaska. Special attention will be given to future operational opportunities as we move to the next generation instrument, VIIRS, which will first launch aboard the NPP platform and later on a planned series of NPOESS satellites.

  4. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources. - Highlights: • PFASs were detected in the soil of rapidly developing coastal regions in China. • PFAS concentrations ranged from LOQ to 13.97 ng/g dw, with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. • Higher concentrations of PFASs correspond to higher levels of urbanization. • Existence of fluorine industry induced PFAS pollutions dominated by PFOA and PFOS. • Intensive urbanization caused increasing emission of industrial and domestic PFASs. - Among urban, suburban and rural areas in the coasts, soils from urban area showed high degrees of PFASs contamination with the existence of industrial emissions dominated by PFOA and PFOS

  5. Tectonic and deformation history of the Gyeonggi Massif in and around the Hongcheon area, and its implications in the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengkhom, Kesorjit S.; Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Yi, Kee Wook; Kang, Ji Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The Gyeonggi Massif (GM) in South Korea is considered to be a part of the North China Craton. The Precambrian rocks of the GM in and around the Hongcheon area, South Korea, consist of the Yongduri Gneiss Complex (YGC), Euiam Group (EG) and Euiam Gneiss Complex (EGC). The YGC and EG composed mainly of partially migmatised metasedimentary rocks and the EGC is Paleoproterozoic intrusive rock that intruded the EG. At least three major folding (F1, F2 & F3), two-stage ductile shearing and three-stages of metamorphic events (M1, M2 & M3) occurred in the study area. The F1 folds are extremely drawn out, isoclinal, intrafolial folds and have Class 2 to Class 1C geometry. The F1 folds and regional S1 foliation in the YGC and EG are results of the E-W compression during the D1 deformation. Ductile shearing in the southern part of the EG is marked by the Palbongsan Shear Zone that indicates top-to-the SW sheared movement during syn to post-F1 folding. The F2 folds are open to tight, SW plunging and inclined folds, and have Class 1A to 1C geometry. The F2 folding and subsequent NNE thrusting along multiple ductile shear zones parallel to S2 planar fabrics are results of the D2 deformation due to N-S progressive shortening. The D3 deformation was coaxial with the D1 deformation, leading to the development of the F3 kink bands in the mylonite zones. The SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon ages from quartzite and banded gneisses in the EG indicate that the sedimentation in the Chunseong basins began after ca. 2094 Ma. The banded gneisses yield M1 metamorphic age of 1917-1925 Ma. However ca.1867-1883 Ma, M2 metamorphism previously reported from the YGC is absent or weakly preserved in the EG representing that the M2 metamorphism was not strong enough to form new zircon in the EG. The igneous zircons form augen gneisses in the EGC yield intrusion age of ca. 1867-1881 Ma and the geochemistries of the EGC gneisses show post-collision tectonic origin. The D1deformation observed in the YGC and

  6. Mitigation of Hexavalent Chromium in Storm Water Resulting from Demolition of Large Concrete Structure at the East Tennessee Technology Park - 12286

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, Ronnie; Brown, Bridget; Hale, Timothy B.; Hensley, Janice L.; Johnson, Robert T.; Patel, Madhu [Tetra Tech, Inc. (United States); Emery, Jerry A. [Energy Solutions, Inc. (United States); Gaston, Clyde [LATA-SHARP Remediation Services - LSRS (United States); Queen, David C. [U.S. DOE-ORO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding was provided to supplement the environmental management program at several DOE sites, including the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Demolition of the ETTP K-33 Building, the largest building to be demolished to date in Oak Ridge, was awarded to LSRS in FY-2010 under the ARRA program. The K-33 building was an 82 foot tall 2-story structure covering approximately 32 acres. Once this massive building was brought down to the ground, the debris was segregated and consolidated into piles of concrete rubble and steel across the remaining pad. The process of demolishing the building, tracking across concrete debris with heavy equipment, and stockpiling the concrete rubble caused it to become pulverized. During and after storm events, hexavalent chromium leached from the residual cement present in the large quantities of concrete. Storm water control measures were present to preclude migration of contaminants off-site, but these control measures were not designed to control hexavalent chromium dissolved in storm water from reaching nearby receiving water. The following was implemented to mitigate hexavalent chromium in storm water: - Steel wool was distributed around K-33 site catch basins and in water pools as an initial step in addressing hexavalent chromium. - Since the piles of concrete were too massive and unsafe to tarp, they were placed into windrows in an effort to reduce total surface area. - A Hach colorimetric field meter was acquired by the K-33 project to provide realtime results of hexavalent chromium in site surface water. - Three hexavalent chromium treatment systems were installed at three separate catch basins that receive integrated storm water flow from the K-33 site. Sodium bisulfite is being used as a reducing agent for the immobilization of hexavalent chromium while also assisting in lowering pH. Concentrations initially were 310 - 474 ppb of hexavalent chromium in

  7. Relationship between localization of gold mining areas and hair mercury levels in people from Bolivar, north of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Marrugo Negrete, Jose; Negrete-Marrugo, José

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed for T-Hg using atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 20.14 μg/g. Greatest levels were detected in La Raya (5.27 ± 0.32 μg/g), Achi (2.44 ± 0.22 μg/g), and Montecristo (2.20 ± 0.20 μg/g), places that are located near gold mines. Concentrations decreased with the distance from main mining areas. Only 0.75% of the individuals had T-Hg levels above 10 μg/g. Men had significantly higher T-Hg levels than women, and correlation analysis revealed moderately weak but significant relationships between T-Hg and weight (R = 0.111, P mining, monitoring, and educational programs are necessary to protect health of people living near Colombian rivers. PMID:21476008

  8. Trophic magnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the marine food web from coastal area of Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mihua; Tao, Ping; Wang, Man; Jia, Hongliang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Trophic transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aquatic ecosystems is an important criterion for assessing their environmental risk. This study analyzed 13 PBDEs in marine organisms collected from coastal area of Bohai Bay, China. The concentrations of total PBDEs (Σ13PBDEs) ranged from 12 ± 1.1 ng/g wet weight (ww) to 230 ± 54 ng/g ww depending on species. BDE-47 was the predominant compound, with a mean abundance of 20.21 ± 12.97% of total PBDEs. Stable isotopic ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) were analyzed to determine the food web structure and trophic level respectively. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of PBDEs were assessed as the slope of lipid equivalent concentrations regressed against trophic levels. Significant positive relationships were found for Σ13PBDEs and eight PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-49, BDE-66, BDE-85, BDE-99, BDE-100 and BDE-154). Monte-Carlo simulations showed that the probabilities of TMF >1 were 100% for Σ13PBDEs, BDE-47, BDE-85, BDE-99 and BDE-100, 99% for DE-28, BDE-49, BDE-66 and BDE-154, 94% for BDE-153, and 35% for BDE-17.

  9. Geology and uranium mineralisation around Ampulli Area, Papum-Pare District, Arunachal Pradesh, North-East India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralisation associated with Middle Proterozoic Bomdila Group (Daling equivalent) metasediments have been located intermittently over a strike length of 310 m with 0.11 to 2.0 m thickness around Ampulli area of Papum-Pare district, Arunachal Pradesh. The metasediments trend NE-SW and dip 20°- 85° due either side. The grab and trench samples assayed 0.012 - 0.36% eU3O8, 0.006 - 0.19% U3O8 (beta/gamma), 0.009 - 0.235% U3O8 (Chem.) and less than 0.010% ThO2. The host rocks have been identified as tourmaline bearing biotite-quartz schist, garnet bearing muscovite-biotite-quartz schist and muscovite-biotite schist. Uraninite, brannerite and U-Ti complex are observed with uranocircite and meta-uranocircite, the secondary uranium minerals. Replacement of uraninite by molybdenite and pyrite suggested earlier oxide and later sulphide phase. Partial chemical analysis indicated aluminous nature of the host rock and their high K2O/Na2O (3.3-10.73) ratios are suggestive of predominance of potash feldspar over sodic and effects of potash metasomatism. Both syngenetic as well as epigenetic hydrothermal origin of uranium mineralisation has been suggested. (author)

  10. Privatization of tubewells in North China: Determinants and impacts on irrigated area, productivity and the water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Huang, Qiuqiong; Rozelle, Scott

    2006-03-01

    Despite the rise in importance of the private sector in the expansion of the use of groundwater in China and the potential implications this might have for production and poverty, little has been written about the effect of these phenomena on northern China’s economy. In examining determinants of tubewell privatization and its impact on producers in northern China, data were collected using a community leader survey, carried out in 448 villages in six provinces in northern China. The results show that since 1990 collective ownership of tubewells has largely been replaced by private ownership. Increasing water scarcity, government grants and bank loans for tubewell investment and the declining investment capacity of China’s local communities have led to the observed change in tubewell ownership patterns. By far, the most important positive effect on income appears to be due to the expansion of newly irrigated area that has been fueled by the rise of private tubewells. Many newly private tubewells also have begun to replace irrigation from surface water sources. While helping increase income and productivity, the rise of private tubewells also has contributed to the fall in groundwater levels.

  11. Mapping diagenetic fluid flow within a reservoir: K-Ar dating in the Alwyn area (UK North Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, A.J.C. (Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Petroleum Geology); Hamilton, P.J.; Macintyre, R.M. (Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1993-06-01

    The Alwyn area demonstrates that variation in the timing of diagenesis on the field scale depends on the structure and the proximity to the sources of diagenetic fluids. Variation in reservoir quality within the structure is the result of facies control on fluid migration. Illite in Alwyn South formed in the Middle Palaeocene to Middle Oligocene between 60 and 38 Ma. At this time the Brent Group was at depths of between 2400 and 3000 m and reservoir temperatures ranged from 110 to 120[sup o]C. Extensive K-Ar dating shows that illitization, pre-oil emplacement, proceeded from the deepest reservoir panels along and up-structure. Fluid migration may have occurred along the deep seated Alwyn South-Ninian Fault System. Where the reservoir is lithologically homogeneous illite precipitation proceeded systematically base-upwards at rates of 5.5 m Ma[sup -1]. The duration of illite formation at any one level was between 2 and 8 Ma. In contrast, in heterolithic reservoirs fluid migration occurred initially along high permeability fairways and consequently illite ages do not vary systematically with depth. (Author)

  12. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  13. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China.

  14. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  15. Investigation of connections among physical, social and economic factors in case of optimal Land Use System Planning in the Egri-Bükkalja Foothill Area of North Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Anna; Utasi, Zoltán; Tóth, Antal; Csabai Kitti, Edina; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Hegyi, Balázs; Tamás Hegyi, Péter; Pásztor, László; Mika, János

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, detailed knowledge of landscape elements and their capabilties, furthermore the probable tendency of climate change play important role in spatial planning of optimal land use system and solving agricultural and social challeges. During our research work, we have investigated three settlements (Cserépfalu, Egerszólát, Kerecsend) based on different landscape factors in the Egri-Bükkalja Fothill Areas of North Hungary. Our aim was to point out the landscape differences along north - south direction inside this microlandscape unit and their effects on land use system, economic developments, social challenges and their changeable tendency in the future We have investigated quantitative and qualitative connections among different landscape factors in suitable GIS environment. Based on the identified relationships thematic maps were compiled. The elaborated GIS integrates digitally processed legacy data, properly selected spatial data infrastructure elements and recently collected field data originating from our geomopholgical and pedological investigations carried out in last three years. We discribed soil features in soil profiles using methods according to FAO (2006) and Novák (2013). Soils were featured by soil type, the thickness of A horizon and the rate of soil erosion. Projected climate changes have also been considered for the region. Besides collection of the available recent OAGCM outputs and outputs by four RCM run in Hungary, an empirical approach has been also included. This is based on empirical regression relationship between relevant grid-point values of the CarpatClim data base and the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. Land use maps were created based on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Military Survey Maps and aerial photographs covering a relatively long period from the 18th century till nowadays. Main social and economic factors and processes were characterized using data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, population census and

  16. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawwad Shaikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which included all 347 students (199 boys and 148 girls of classes VII to X. The students were asked to answer, by recall method, a self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behaviour by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to the statements regarding physical / verbal aggression, after taking their consent. Results: Majority of the students (58.8% were from nuclear families and 26.2% students experienced aggressive behaviour in the family. Role models for aggressive behaviour were parents (42.3% and TV / Cinema actors (39.0%. Overall, 241 (69.5% children were physically aggressive in the previous month. Physical active direct and indirect aggression was significantly more common among boys than among girls. 248 (71.5% children were verbally aggressive in the previous month. Physical aggression increased substantially from VII standard (56.9% to X standard (84.6%. Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour was common among both boys and girls, with increasing trend of physical aggression from VII standard to X standard. Classroom management, counseling and life skills education strategies are recommended for channelizing the aggressive behaviour among school children.

  17. Methodology to Estimate the Quantity, Composition, and Management of Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, Methodology to Estimate the Quantity, Composition and Management of Construction and Demolition Debris in the US, was developed to expand access to data on CDD in the US and to support research on CDD and sustainable materials management. Since past US EPA CDD estima...

  18. On the Legal Liability of the House Violence Demolition%论暴力拆迁的法律责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童靖

    2011-01-01

    The acts of house violence Demolition shall be severely punished by a crime or offense.the legal liability has been confirmed by The Urban Housing Demolition Management Regulations.Demolition act of violence shall be investigated by the criminal liability,the administrative liability and the civil liability in accordance with the Constitution and the Laws.To protect the legal liability of the house violence demolition to achieve,it is necessary to strengthen the national institutions' liability,to clear the priority principle to the judiciary.%从法律上讲,房屋暴力拆迁行为已经构成犯罪或违法,应当依法予以严惩。我国《国有土地上房屋征收与补偿条例》确认了暴力拆迁行为的法律责任。本文认为,对于暴力拆迁行为,应当按照宪法与法律的相关规定追究其刑事责任、行政责任和民事责任等。要保障暴力拆迁行为法律责任的实现,有必要转变执法观念、强化国家机关的不作为责任,明确司法机关适用法律优先的权力。

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.170 - What happens to the related personal property in a structure scheduled for demolition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration should be given to designating items having possible historical or artistic value as personal... related personal property in a structure scheduled for demolition? 102-75.170 Section 102-75.170 Public... As Personal Property § 102-75.170 What happens to the related personal property in a...

  20. Data Gap Analysis and Damage Case Studies: Risk Analyses from Construction and Demolition Debris Landfills and Recycling Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents an evaluation of construction and demolition (C&D) debris management in the US to update and expand upon the previous set of data to include information on more recent cases of damage and potential impacts and expand the breadth of damages beyond groundwater a...

  1. Integrated Green Roofs System and its Role of Achieving Sustainability in Residential Buildings in Urban Area in Athens, Greece and Famagusta, North Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehran shahidipour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the characteristics and importance of the green roof in urban area would investigate in some residential buildings in Athens, Greece and then, some strategies give to integrate green roof in residential buildings in Famagusta, north Cyprus due to the importance of energy saving and thermal comfort in residential buildings. These days, sustainable architecture is spreading around the world. Therefore, Sustainable architecture has important role in design buildings and urban design due to high amount of energy use and global warming around the world. There are different methods in sustainable design and one of them that has significant role is design green roof. Green roof integrated to the roof of the buildings to provide the suitable indoor temperature without spending high amount of budget. The methodology is qualitative type that trough the literature review and survey would be understood the importance and role of the green roof in both architecture and urban area. There are many significant architects like Wright that they understood how greenery would improve the function of the building in terms of provide thermal comfort and indoor temperature for the residences, and green roof as well. In Famagusta, there is not any green roof however, the design and integrating of green roof is inexpensive. Green roof should design properly depend on the characteristic of the climate of every place so, the location, temperature, and humidity, location, and wind have influence on the design of the green roof.

  2. [Differentiation of vegetation characteristics on slope micro-topography of fenced watershed in loess area of north Shaanxi Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Qing-Ke; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Yun, Lei; Xie, Jing; Kuang, Gao-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Based on the investigation data of the vegetations in Hegou valley in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, this paper studied the vegetation characteristics on the five typical micro-topography categories including shallow gully, gully, collapse, platform, and scarp in the loess area of north Shaanxi, with the undisturbed slope as the control. There existed distinct differences in the species composition, quantitative characteristics, and species diversity of plant communities on the five typical micro-topography categories and the undisturbed slope. After twelve years of enclosure recovery, the study area formed herbaceous plant community, with Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii as the dominant species. Among the main companion species, shrubs such as Prinsepia uniflora and Caragana korshinskii were found in scarp and gully, and hygrophyte Phragmites australis appeared in platform. The coverage, height, and biomass of the plant communities on most of the micro-topography categories, especially on the gully and collapse, were larger than those on the undisturbed slope. The Shannon index on the micro-topography categories and undisturbed slope was in the order of scarp > gully > shallow gully > undisturbed slope > platform > collapse.

  3. Soil gas radon–thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gulshan Kumar; Arvind Kumar; Vivek Walia; Jitender Kumar; Vikash Gupta; Tsanyao Frank Yang; Surinder Singh; Bikramjit Singh Bajwa

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon–thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon–thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon–thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon–thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  4. Rural population mixing and childhood leukaemia: effects of the North Sea oil industry in Scotland, including the area near Dounreay nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine if any excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was associated with certain striking examples of population mixing in rural Scotland produced by the North Sea oil industry. Details were traced for over 30 000 workers (25 yrs old) involved in the construction of the large oil terminals in the Shetland and Orkney islands in northern Scotland or employed offshore. Home addresses of the 17160 Scottish residents were postcoded, integrated with census data, and then classified as urban or rural. Rural postcode sectors, ranked by proportion of oil workers, were grouped into three categories with similar numbers of children but contrasting densities of oil workers. The incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was examined in these rural (and also in urban) categories in the periods 1974-8, 1979-83 and 1984-8. A significant excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found in 1979-83 in the group of rural home areas with the largest proportion of oil workers, following closely on large increases in the workforce. The area near the Dounreay nuclear installation, where an excess of leukaemia is already well known, was within the rural high oil category. (Author)

  5. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  6. Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  7. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between around 49°-55° N especially between 20°-30°W. An illustrative example of spatial modelling is presented. Only for 1 year (and part of the total survey area were there sufficient data to attempt to estimate abundance: 1995. The estimated abundance in the W Block of the NASS-95 Faroese survey was 273,159 (cv=0.26; 95% CI=153,392-435,104 short-beaked common dolphins. This estimate is corrected for animals missed on the trackline (g(0 and for responsive movement.

  8. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  9. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  10. Referral of epileptic patients in North East Coast of West Malaysia an area with poor MRI coverage: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Y; Alias, N N; Shuaib, I L; Tharakan, J; Abdullah, J; Munawir, A H; Naing, N N

    2006-11-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), have proved invaluable in detecting structural brain lesions in patients with epilepsy in developed countries. In Malaysia, a few electroencephalography facilities available in rural district hospitals run by trained physician assistants have Internet connections to a government neurological center in Kuala Lumpur. These facilities are more commonly available than MRI machines, which require radiological expertise and helium replacement, which may problematic in Southeast Asian countries where radiologists are found in mainly big cities or towns. We conducted a cross-sectional study over a two year period begining January 2001 on rural patients, correlating EEG reports and MRI images with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy to set guidelines for which rural patients need to be referred to a hospital with MRI facilities. The patients referred by different hospitals without neurological services were classified as having generalized, partial or unclassified seizures based on the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The clinical parameters studied were seizure type, seizure frequency, status epilepticus and duration of seizure. EEG reports were reviewed for localized and generalized abnormalities and epileptiform changes. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and area under the curve. The association between clinical and radiological abnormalities was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-six males and 18 females were evaluated. The mean age was 20.7 +/- 13.3 years. Nineteen (43.2%) had generalized seizures, 22 (50.0%) had partial seizures and 3 (6.8%) presented with unclassified seizures. The EEG was abnormal in 30 patients (20 with generalized abnormalities and 10 localized abnormalities). The MRI was abnormal in 17 patients (38.6%); the abnormalities observed were cerebral

  11. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengnian Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  12. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  13. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehler, Kurt [Decommissioning and Demolition, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  14. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  15. A flexible system of remediation to stabilize a road affected by landslide in the area of Val di Maso (North-Eastern Italian Apls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, G.; Cioli, C.; Floris, M.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    Slope stabilization follows different design procedures and approaches finalized to reduce the driving forces or increase resisting forces or avoid the problem at all by completely or partially remove unstable materials. But often the cost of stabilization works is very high. Therefore it is necessary to find new effective solutions with low or moderate costs. In this frame, this work reports the case study of a road in the area of Val di Maso, located in the North-Eastern Italian Alps. The road is threatened by the evolution of a mass movement occurred on November 2010 due to an extreme rainfall event that hit the entire North-Eastern sector of Italy. The complex landslide consists of a debris flow involving eluvial/colluvial deposits and past landslide debris. In the upper part, clear morphological evidences indicate that the instability is rapidly retrogressing by multiple rotational slides involving volcanic deposits that can be referred to a paleo-landslide. In the crown area, unstable materials have a thickness of around 20 m. For this reason, a stabilization system using rigid structures anchored to the stable bedrock for an appropriate length would be burdensome and costly. Starting from the geological model of the unstable slope, an innovative stabilization solution is proposed, a numerical simulation to analyze the effects of the stabilization is performed and an integrated monitoring system to control and verify the slope behaviour is planned. The proposed remediation works consist of a "floating belt", placed close to the edge of the road, and some "floating anchors" some meters further down behind the main scarp of the landslide. The system allows small displacements to induce a stress re-distribution favourable to the stability of the slope. The main advantages of the proposed solution are the adaptability to different geo-environmental situations and the low cost compared to other alternatives. On the basis of field data collected, a geological

  16. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  17. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  18. Control of a velocity-sensitive audio-band quantum non-demolition interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Leavey, S S; Gläfke, A; Barr, B W; Bell, A S; Gräf, C; Hennig, J -S; Houston, E A; Huttner, S H; Lück, H; Pascucci, D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Spencer, A; Steinlechner, S; Strain, K A; Wright, J; Zhang, T; Hild, S

    2016-01-01

    The Sagnac speed meter interferometer topology can potentially provide enhanced sensitivity to gravitational waves in the audio-band compared to equivalent Michelson interferometers. A challenge with the Sagnac speed meter interferometer arises from the intrinsic lack of sensitivity at low frequencies where the velocity-proportional signal is smaller than the noise associated with the sensing of the signal. Using as an example the on-going proof-of-concept Sagnac speed meter experiment in Glasgow, we quantify the problem and present a solution involving the extraction of a small displacement-proportional signal. This displacement signal can be combined with the existing velocity signal to enhance low frequency sensitivity, and we derive optimal filters to accomplish this for different signal strengths. We show that the extraction of the displacement signal for low frequency control purposes can be performed without reducing significantly the quantum non-demolition character of this type of interferometer.

  19. Management of construction and demolition waste; Gestion de residuos de construccion y demolicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgeno Munoz, A.

    2004-07-01

    The building sector is not considered a great pollutant although it does generate considerable amount of waste, traditionally called inert waste, as that is what it is composed of in the main, which requires specific management and for which specific rules and regulations are currently being drawn up (generally called Construction and Demolition Waste). So, far, for the mos part, they have ended up in the dump but a trend favouring recycling is the direct result of the regulations being drawn up and resultant financial criteria. The building industry will have to change its norms of conduct, it will have to start assessing waste, reduce the volume of the same and segregate properly what it generates. The former, necessarily linked with economic factors, factors relating to delivery dates and available space, will inevitably imply a change in the building sector in Spain in the medium term. (Author)

  20. Demolition, construction and excavation wastes in Copenhagen. Los residuos de demolicion, construccion y excavacion en Copenhague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, N.J.; Lauridsen, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Demolition Waste, Construction Waste and Excavation Waste will in a modern society represent a major part of the total amount of the industrial wastes. Implementation of the Regulation for Industrial Waste in Copenhagen has resulted insignificant changes in the transportation and processing of this type of waste was typically disposed of as mixed waste on landfill sites and open dumps. Today most of this waste is sorted at the source (see figure 1) and recycled namely as secondary raw materials. This change in the disposal of construction waste etc, is due to two main factors: implementation of the regulation of commercial wastes and a significant raise in the (governmental) waste tax on specially landfilling activities. (Author)

  1. Quantum non demolition measurement of a single nuclear spin in a room temperature solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement process and its interpretation are in the focus of quantum mechanics since its early days. Today's ability to isolate single quantum objects allows experimental demonstration of former ''gedankenexperiments'' like measurement induced quantum state collaps. Rapidly growing quantum technologies explore fundamental aspects of measurements in quantum computing, however for solid state systems such experiments require operation at very low temperatures. Here we show that projective quantum measurement can be performed on a single nuclear spin in diamond under ambient conditions. Using quantum non demolition (QND) readout we are able to detect quantum jumps and the quantum Zeno effect emphasising the addressability of fundamental questions of quantum mechanics in solids. Single shot measurements with fidelities exceeding 0.9 enable efficient state initialization, quantum error correction and entanglement pumping that is crucial for quantum information processing including measurement based schemes and distributed quantum networks.

  2. Microstructure of Concrete with Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Miguel; Santos Silva, António; de Brito, Jorge; Evangelista, Luís

    2016-02-01

    This paper intends to analyze the microstructure of concrete with recycled aggregates (RA) from construction and demolition waste from various Portuguese recycling plants. To that effect, several scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were performed. Various concrete mixes were evaluated in order to analyze the influence of the RA's collection point and consequently of their composition on the mixes' characteristics. Afterward all the mixes were subjected to the capillary water absorption test in order to quantitatively evaluate their porosity. Results from the SEM/EDS analysis were compared with those from capillary water absorption test. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that the bond capacity of aggregates to the new cement paste is greatly influenced by the RA's nature. On the other hand, there was an increase in porosity with the incorporation of RA.

  3. Evaluation of the hydrologic system and potential effects of mining in the Dickinson lignite area, eastern slope and western Stark and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Aquifer systems in the Dickinson lignite area of North Dakota are in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and lower Hell Creek Formation, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and lower Ludlow Member of the Fort Union Formation, in the upper Ludlow and lower Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation, and in the upper Tongue River and the Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation. Well yields from each of the aquifer systems generally are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer system and in the upper Hell Creek-lower Ludlow aquifer system is soft and a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 1 ,010 to 1,690 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper Ludlow-lower Tongue River aquifer system and in the upper Tongue River-Sentinel Butte aquifer system ranges from soft to very hard and generally is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 574 to 2,720 milligrams per liter. Discharges of ground water are less than 0.1 cubic foot per second to the Cannonball River and less than 1.0 cubic foot per second to the Heart River. (USGS)

  4. Low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoir conductive model --Dual water clay matrix conductive model in the north area of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘和平; 王家映; 樊政军; 马勇; 柳建华; 李明强

    2001-01-01

    Shaly sands reservoir is one of the most distributive types of the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs discovered in China, and low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs are mostly shaly sands reservoirs. Therefore, shaly sands reservoir conductive model is the key to evaluate low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs using logging information. Some defects were found when we studied the clay distribution type conductive model, dual-water conductive model, conductive rock matrix model, etc. Some models could not distinguish the conductive path and nature of microporosity water and clay water and some models did not consider the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume. So, we utilize the merits,overcome the defects of the above models, and put forward a new shaly sands conductive model-dual water clay matrix conductive model (DWCMCM) in which dual water is the free water and the microporosity water in shaly sands and the clay matrix(wet clay) is the clay grain containing water. DWCMCM is presented here, the advantages of which can tell the nature and conductive path from different water (microporosity water and freewater), in consid-eration of the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume in shaly sands. So, the results of logging interpretation in the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs in the north of Tarim Basin area, China with DWCMCM are better than those interpreted by the above models.

  5. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths.

  6. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse. PMID:27635258

  7. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  8. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse.

  9. Essential and Toxic Elements in Blood Samples of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from the Islands Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Baltic Sea): A Comparison Study with Urbanized Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuschke, Antje; Griesel, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Kattegat, Baltic Sea) are top predators within the marine food web and an indicator species of the environmental contamination. Furthermore, they are a main tourist attraction. Despite these important roles, little is known about the health and pollutant contamination of these seals. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate 18 essential and nonessential/toxic elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Sr, and Zn) in blood samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and total X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Blood concentrations of mineral nutrients, such as Ca, K, P, and S, were within the reference ranges described for harbor seals. Likewise, for the trace elements, As, Be, Rb, Se, and Sr, no significant differences were observed compared with previous studies. Interestingly, blood concentrations of nine nonessential as well as essential trace metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured significantly lower in the offshore living seals from Helgoland and Anholt compared with results obtained from animals living close to urbanized areas, such as the Wadden Sea and Elbe estuary. This suggests that industrial emissions, sewage deposition, shipping traffic and dredging tasks might be the cause of increased metal concentrations of inshore harbor seals.

  10. Chronology and geochemistry of Mesozoic granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Bin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Qing-Hai; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    We performed zircon U-Pb dating and analyses of major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes for granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China, with the aim of constraining the magma sources and tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). The analyzed zircons show typical fine-scale oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals granitoids of two ages: Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous ( 206Pb/ 238U ages of 160 Ma and 130-110 Ma, respectively). The Late Jurassic rocks (Jingshan intrusion) consist of biotite-syenogranite, whereas the Early Cretaceous rocks (Huaiguang, Xilushan, Nushan, and Caoshan intrusions) are granodiorite, syenogranite, and monzogranite. The Late Jurassic biotite-syenogranites and Early Cretaceous granitoids have the following common geochemical characteristics: SiO 2 = 70.35-74.56 wt.%, K 2O/Na 2O = 0.66-1.27 (mainly Nushan and Xilushan granitoids, suggests that the primary magmas were derived from partial melting of the Yangtze Craton (YC) basement. In contrast, the occurrence of Paleoproterozoic and Paleoarchean inherited zircons within the Huaiguang granitoids indicates that their primary magmas mainly originated from partial melting of the NCC basement. The occurrence of YC basement within the lower continental crust of the eastern NCC indicates that the YC was subducted to the northwest beneath the NCC, along the Tan-Lu fault zone, during the early Mesozoic.

  11. Clinical and Environmental Surveillance for Vibrio cholerae in Resource Constrained Areas: Application During a 1-Year Surveillance in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, Amanda K; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Ebile, Walter; Sonkoua, Isaac Tadzong; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Steinwald, Peter; Ram, Malathi; Sack, David A

    2016-03-01

    Biological confirmation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in clinical and environmental samples is often constrained due to resource- and labor-intensive gold standard methods. To develop low-cost, simple, and sustainable surveillance techniques, we modified previously published specimen sampling and culture techniques and applied the use of enriched dipstick testing in conjunction with the use of filter paper for DNA specimen preservation during clinical and environmental surveillance in the Far North of Cameroon from August 2013 to October 2014. The enriched dipstick methodology during routine use in a remote setting demonstrated a specificity of 99.8% compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The novel application of filter paper as a preservation method for cholera DNA specimens reduced the need for cold chain storage and allowed for PCR characterization and confirmation of V. cholerae. The application of basic technologies such as the enriched dipstick, the use of simplified gauze filtration for environmental sample collection, and the use of filter paper for sample preservation enabled early case identification with reduced logistics and supply cost while reporting minimal false-positive results. Simplified laboratory and epidemiological methodologies can improve the feasibility of cholera surveillance in rural and resource-constrained areas, facilitating early case detection and rapid response implementation. PMID:26755564

  12. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  13. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. PMID:24657581

  14. Occurrence and identification of risk areas of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: a cost-effectiveness analysis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capelli Gioia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus, a competent vector of several pathogens, is the tick species most frequently reported to bite humans in Europe. The majority of human cases of Lyme borreliosis (LB and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE occur in the north-eastern region of Italy. The aims of this study were to detect the occurrence of endemic and emergent pathogens in north-eastern Italy using adult tick screening, and to identify areas at risk of pathogen transmission. Based on our results, different strategies for tick collection and pathogen screening and their relative costs were evaluated and discussed. Methods From 2006 to 2008 adult ticks were collected in 31 sites and molecularly screened for the detection of pathogens previously reported in the same area (i.e., LB agents, TBE virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". Based on the results of this survey, three sampling strategies were evaluated a-posteriori, and the impact of each strategy on the final results and the overall cost reductions were analyzed. The strategies were as follows: tick collection throughout the year and testing of female ticks only (strategy A; collection from April to June and testing of all adult ticks (strategy B; collection from April to June and testing of female ticks only (strategy C. Results Eleven pathogens were detected in 77 out of 193 ticks collected in 14 sites. The most common microorganisms detected were Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (17.6%, Rickettsia helvetica (13.1%, and "Ca. N. mikurensis" (10.5%. Within the B. burgdorferi complex, four genotypes (i.e., B. valaisiana, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were found. Less prevalent pathogens included R. monacensis (3.7%, TBE virus (2.1%, A. phagocytophilum (1.5%, Bartonella spp. (1%, and Babesia EU1 (0.5%. Co-infections by more than one pathogen were diagnosed in 22% of infected ticks. The prevalences of infection

  15. Development of an adjoint model of GRAPES-CUACE and its application in tracking influential haze source areas in north China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xing Qin; Xian Zhai, Shi; Jin, Min; Gong, Sunling; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The aerosol adjoint module of the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES-CUACE (Global-Regional Assimilation and Prediction System coupled with the CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment) is constructed based on the adjoint theory. This includes the development and validation of the tangent linear and the adjoint models of the three parts involved in the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol module: CAM (Canadian Aerosol Module), interface programs that connect GRAPES and CUACE, and the aerosol transport processes that are embedded in GRAPES. Meanwhile, strict mathematical validation schemes for the tangent linear and the adjoint models are implemented for all input variables. After each part of the module and the assembled tangent linear and adjoint models is verified, the adjoint model of the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol is developed and used in a black carbon (BC) receptor-source sensitivity analysis to track influential haze source areas in north China. The sensitivity of the average BC concentration over Beijing at the highest concentration time point (referred to as the Objective Function) is calculated with respect to the BC amount emitted over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Four types of regions are selected based on the administrative division or the sensitivity coefficient distribution. The adjoint sensitivity results are then used to quantify the effect of reducing the emission sources at different time intervals over different regions. It is indicated that the more influential regions (with relatively larger sensitivity coefficients) do not necessarily correspond to the administrative regions. Instead, the influence per unit area of the sensitivity selected regions is greater. Therefore, controlling the most influential regions during critical time intervals based on the results of the adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative regions during an experimental time period.

  16. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheendra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic Filariasis which was neglected by the medical practitioners for past one year. A 40 - year - old male farmer visited the Primary Health Centre and BRIMS teaching hospital repeatedly during the past one year with a complaint of excretion of milky white urine with mild weight loss and physical weakness. The patient was undiagnosed for Filariasis. However , his urine examination revealed proteinuria with scanty pyuria , fat glo bules and elevated level of urinary triglyceride. Urine culture was found to be sterile. On physical examination of the patient , there was no visible swelling over the body. No enlarged lymph nodes were seen except non - tender minimal scrotal swelling. Radi ological examination of chest and pelvis had shown no calcification of lymph nodes. Overall , no abnormal findings were observed. Diagnosis revealed presence of microfilaria in peripheral blood smear after Diethylcarbamazine (DEC provocation test. The pati ent was prescribed the 12 days treatment regimen of DEC with Albendazole and asked to visit again for follow up. CONCLUSIONS: As this area is endemic for Filariasis in Karnataka state , it is a warning sign for the medical practitioners not to ignore patien ts presenting with Chyluria and to mandatorily investigate the presence of microfilaria even after mass drug administration. In this case the microbiological investigations helped prevent the patient from morbidity and disability due to Filariasis in futur e.

  17. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  18. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  19. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  20. Distinct microbial populations are tightly linked to the profile of dissolved iron in the methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatobi Emmanuel Oni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron reduction in subseafloor sulfate-depleted and methane-rich marine sediments is currently a subject of interest in subsurface geomicrobiology. While iron reduction and microorganisms involved have been well studied in marine surface sediments, little is known about microorganisms responsible for iron reduction in deep methanic sediments. Here, we used quantitative PCR (Q-PCR-based 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and pyrosequencing-based relative abundances of bacteria and archaea to investigate covariance between distinct microbial populations and specific geochemical profiles in the top 5 m of sediment cores from the Helgoland mud area, North Sea. We found that gene copy numbers of bacteria and archaea were specifically higher around the peak of dissolved iron in the methanic zone (250-350 cm. The higher copy numbers at these depths were also reflected by the relative sequence abundances of members of the candidate division JS1, methanogenic and Methanohalobium/ANME-3 related archaea. The distribution of these populations was strongly correlated to the profile of pore-water Fe2+ while that of Desulfobacteraceae corresponded to the pore-water sulfate profile. Furthermore, specific JS1 populations also strongly co-varied with the distribution of Methanosaetaceae in the methanic zone. Our data suggest that the interplay among JS1 bacteria, methanogenic archaea and Methanohalobium/ANME-3-related archaea may be important for iron reduction and methane cycling in deep methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area and perhaps in other methane-rich depositional environments.

  1. Spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, a water source area for the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (Middle Route), China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Dacong; ZHENG Lingling; SONG Lirong

    2011-01-01

    One of the water source areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is the Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR). To understand seasonal variation in phytoplankton composition, abundance and distribution in the DJKR area before water diversion, as well as to estimate potential risks of water quality after water diversion, we conducted an investigation on phytoplankton in the DJKR from August 2008 to May 2009. The investigation included 10 sampling sites, each with four depths of 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 m. In this study, 117 taxa belonging to 76 genera were identified, consisting of diatoms (39 taxa), green algae (47 taxa), blue-green algae (19 taxa), and others (12 taxa). Annual average phytoplankton abundance was 2.01xl06 ind./L, and the highest value was 14.72 x 106 ind/L (at site 3 in August 2008). Phytoplankton abundance in front of the Danjiangkou Dam (DJKD) was higher than that of the Danjiang Reservoir Basin. Phytoplankton distribution showed a vertical declining trend from 0.5 m to 20 m at most sites in August 2008 (especially at sites of 1, 2, 4 and 10), but no distinct pattern in other sampling months. In December 2008 and March 2009, Stephanodiscus sp. was the most abundant species, amounting to 55.23% and 72.34%, respectively. We propose that high abundance of Stephanodiscus sp. may have contributed greatly to the frequent occurrence of Stephanodiscus sp. blooms in middle-low reaches of the Hanjiang River during the early spring of 2009. In comparison with previous studies conducted from 1992 to 2006, annual average phytoplankton density, green algae and blue-green algae species, as well as major nutrient concentrations increased, while phytoplankton diversity indices declined. This indicates a gradual decline in water quality. More research should be conducted and countermeasures taken to prevent further deterioration of water quality in the DJKR.

  2. 'Save the North Sea' Fulmar Study 2002-2004: a regional pilot project for the Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the OSPAR area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Heubeck, M.; Fairclough, K.; Turner, D.M.; Grantham, M.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Guse, N.; Pedersen, J.; Olsen, K.O.; Andersson, P.J.; Olsen, B.

    2005-01-01

    North Sea Ministers at the Bergen Conference in 2002 decided that monitoring of marine plastic litter in stomachs of seabirds should become one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives for the North Sea (EcoQO's)'. The task of implementation was delegated to OSPAR, which covers the wider northeast Atla

  3. Sustainable Development in the Core Water Resource Area of the Central Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With continued population growth and accelerated industrialization and urbanization, water shortages and water quality deterioration have become a bottleneck restraining global socioeconomic progress. In China, water resources are unevenly distributed, with abundance in the south and scarcity in the north. Every year, a loss of nearly 100 billion yuan is incurred by water shortages in the north.

  4. The impact of the lithospheric flexure during the Elsterian glacial maximum on post-/proglacial systems in the southern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Huuse, Mads;

    Tunnel valleys have long fascinated the geoscientists by their scale and the consequent intensity of the sedimentary processes necessary to their formation. The filling of tunnel valleys in the southern and eastern North Sea is mainly made of clinoforms prograding north. A new sedimentological mo...

  5. Dehomed: the impacts of house demolitions on the well-being of women from the unrecognized Bedouin-Arab villages in the Negev/Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Nora; Feder-Bubis, Paula

    2014-09-01

    Thirty-five Bedouin-Arab villages in South Israel are regarded illegal settlements by the state. Consequently, the residents׳ homes are subject to demolition. Based on 12 semi-structured multiple-participant interviews, this paper examines the house demolitions׳ impacts on women, in the context of gendered constructions of social roles and space. It highlights that the marginalized position of Arab-Bedouin women - as women in a patriarchal community, as members of a minority within Israeli society, and as residents of an "invisible" settlement - contributes to the devastating effects of the house demolitions. In particular, the study׳s results show that the house demolitions inflict severe personal and collective trauma, amplified by women׳s primary role as mothers. Paradoxically, the very same role also becomes a source of resilience and political resistance, as women act to defend a sense of home and restore family life in the face of state violence.

  6. The Problems in the Old City Renovation and Demolition Engineering and the Countermeasures%旧城改造拆迁工程问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2012-01-01

    本文主要对旧城改造拆迁定义、改造拆迁的意义、旧城改造拆迁存在的问题及解决对策进行论述,探讨旧城改造拆迁问题.%This article discussed the definition and significance of the old city renovation and demolition, the exsiting problems and countermeasures and explored the old city renovation and demolition problem.

  7. Evaluating the effect of vehicle impoundment policy on illegal construction and demolition waste dumping: Israel as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Hareli, Shlomo; Portnov, Boris A

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste dumped alongside roads and in open areas is a major source of soil and underground water pollution. Since 2006, Israeli ministry for environmental protection enacted a policy of vehicle impoundment (VI) according to which track drivers caught while dumping C&D waste illegally have their vehicles impounded. The present study attempted to determine whether the VI policy was effective in increasing the waste hauling to authorized landfill sites, thus limiting the number of illegal unloads of C&D waste at unauthorized landfill sites and in open areas. During the study, changes in the ratio between the monthly amount of C&D waste brought to authorized landfills sites and the estimated total amount of C&D waste generated in different administrative districts of Israel were examined, before and after the enactment of the 2006 VI policy. Short questionnaires were also distributed among local track drivers in order to determine the degree of awareness about the policy in question and estimate its deterrence effects. According to the study's results, in the district of Haifa, in which the VI policy was stringently enacted, the ratio between C&D waste, dumped in authorized landfill sites, and the total amount of generated C&D waste, increased, on the average, from 20% in January 2004 to 35% in October 2009, with the effect attributed to the number of vehicle impoundments being highly statistically significant (t=2.324; p0.1). The analysis of the questionnaires, distributed among the local truck drivers further indicated that the changes observed in the district of Haifa are not coincident and appeared to be linked to the VI policy's enactment. In particular, 62% of the truck drivers, participated in the survey, were aware of the policy and 47% of them personally knew a driver whose vehicle was impounded. Furthermore, the drivers estimated the relative risk of being caught for unloading C&D waste in unauthorized sites, on the average, as

  8. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  9. Monitoring of the ground surface temperature and the active layer in NorthEastern Canadian permafrost areas using remote sensing data assimilated in a climate land surface scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, N.; Royer, A.; Krinner, G.; Roy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Projected future warming is particularly strong in the Northern high latitudes where increases of temperatures are up to 2 to 6 °C. Permafrost is present on 25 % of the northern hemisphere lands and contain high quantities of « frozen » carbon, estimated at 1400 Gt (40 % of the global terrestrial carbon). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the climate evolution in arctic areas, and more specifically of land areas covered by snow. The objective is to describe the ground temperature year round including under snow cover, and to analyse the active layer thickness evolution in relation to the climate variability. We use satellite data (fusion of MODIS land surface temperature « LST » and microwave AMSR-E brightness temperature « Tb ») assimilated in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) of the Canadian climate model coupled with a simple radiative transfer model (HUT). This approach benefits from the advantages of each of the data type in order to complete two objectives : 1- build a solid methodology for retrieving the ground temperature, with and without snow cover, in taïga and tundra areas ; 2 - from those retrieved ground temperatures, derive the summer melt duration and the active layer depth. We describe the coupling of the models and the methodology that adjusts the meteorological input parameters of the CLASS model (mainly air temperature and precipitations derived from the NARR database) in order to minimise the simulated LST and Tb ouputs in comparison with satellite measurements. Using ground-based meteorological data as validation references in NorthEastern Canadian tundra, the results show that the proposed approach improves the soil temperatures estimates when using the MODIS LST and Tb at 10 and 19 GHz to constrain the model in comparison with the model outputs without satellite data. Error analysis is discussed for the summer period (2.5 - 4 K) and for the snow covered winter period (2 - 3.5 K). Further steps are

  10. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  11. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  12. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  13. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin B Holman

    Full Text Available Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  14. The Walls Come Tumbling Down: Decontamination and Demolition of 29 Manhattan Project and Cold War-Era Buildings and Structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory-12301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ). The initially approved baseline for the ARRA D and D Project was to remove 22 buildings and structures that included approximately 14,680 m2 (158,000 ft2) of footprint. By employing efficiencies during subcontracting, demolition, and waste segregation, the savings allowed an additional 1,580 m2 (17,000 ft2) of footprint to be removed using ARRA funds. Additionally, the lessons learned from this experience were used to apply NNSA funding to the removal of six additional non-contaminated buildings and structures. In the end, 29 buildings and structures, including stacks, cooling towers and tanks, were removed from the mesa. The entire DP East area was cleared of buildings and sub-grade structures and the soils cleaned to residential standards. The total footprint reduction at TA-21 as a result of this effort was in excess of 17,650 m2 (190,000 ft2). The use of a Laboratory self-performance team to start demolition of non-contaminated structures resulted in steady work performance early in the project while subcontracts were being put in place to perform more complicated abatement and contaminated demolition activities. Most importantly, there were no serious worker injuries and the minor injuries recorded were those common to construction type activities. Extensive monitoring along the site boundary demonstrated that no hazardous chemicals or radioactive contamination were released and radiological dose to the public was negligible. The ARRA demolition activities were completed six months in advance of the deadline for employing ARRA funds. Additionally, over 17,585 m3 (23,000 yds3) of building demolition debris was safely removed from DP Mesa. All of the major buildings have been removed, unencumbered access to the SWMUs that are required to be cleaned up by the Consent Order with the state of New Mexico, has been achieved, and a significant portion of the mesa has been prepared to support a process that will eventually transfer this land from federal government

  15. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques Applied During Structural Demolition. Topical Report August1, 1995 - October 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure properly and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated from a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology given site-specific conditions. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was carried out at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University, was to conduct an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study targeted the problem of dust suppression during the demolition of nuclear facilities. The resulting data were employed to assist in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to predict dust generation during structural demolition

  16. Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection among Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL (BUD/S) candidates, Coronado, California, July 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Robert G; Balansay, Melinda S; Faix, Dennis J; Hawksworth, Anthony W; Patterson, Matthew B; Blair, Patrick J

    2011-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia can compromise readiness of recruits and service members operating in confined spaces. Often respiratory pathogens are implicated in outbreaks. In July 2008, 5 Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL students entering an intense period of training at Naval Amphibious Base Coronado reported with clinical symptoms and chest radiographs consistent with pneumonia. Throat and nasal swabs were tested for respiratory pathogens. Molecular evidence indicated that they were infected with the atypical bacterium Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Thirty contemporaneous Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL students were tested to determine the extent of C pneumoniae infection burden. Five additional cases were captured within this group. The 10 individuals diagnosed with C pneumoniae were treated with a course of azithromycin, Avelox (moxifloxacin hydrochloride), and doxycycline. The cases ended following the isolation of cases and prophylaxis with oral antibiotics. This work highlights the importance of rapid respiratory disease diagnoses to guide the clinical response following the emergence of respiratory infections among military trainees. PMID:21456360

  17. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  18. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqin [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Tang, Changyuan, E-mail: cytang@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Wang, Qinxue [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yuan, Ruiqiang [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University (China)

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  19. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  20. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  1. Digital map of the configuration of the base of the principal aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  2. Terrestrial Riparian Arthropod Investigations In the Big Beaver Creek Research Natural Area, North Cascades National Park Service Complex,1995-1996: Part III, Arachnida:Araneae

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — Ground-dwelling spider communities of nine distinct habitat types were sampled within the riparian corridor of lower Big Beaver Creek, North Cascades National Park...

  3. Integration of spatial and temporal data for the definition of different landslide hazard scenarios in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zêzere

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A general methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of landslide hazard is applied, taking in account both the landslide susceptibility and the instability triggering factors, mainly rainfall. The method is applied in the Fanhões-Trancão test site (north of Lisbon, Portugal where 100 shallow translational slides were mapped and integrated into a GIS database. For the landslide susceptibility assessment it is assumed that future landslides can be predicted by statistical relationships between past landslides and the spatial data set of the predisposing factors (slope angle, slope aspect, transversal slope profile, lithology, superficial deposits, geomorphology, and land use. Susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Bayesian model over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. The landslide susceptibility map is prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. In order to validate the results of the susceptibility ana- lysis, the landslide data set is divided in two parts, using a temporal criterion. The first subset is used for obtaining a prediction image and the second subset is compared with the prediction results for validation. The obtained prediction-rate curve is used for the quantitative interpretation of the initial susceptibility map. Landslides in the study area are triggered by rainfall. The integration of triggering information in hazard assessment includes (i the definition of thresholds of rainfall (quantity-duration responsible for past landslide events; (ii the calculation of the relevant return periods; (iii the assumption that the same rainfall patterns (quantity/duration which produced slope instability in the past will produce the same effects in the future (i.e. same types of landslides and same total affected area. The landslide hazard is present as the probability of each pixel to be affected by a slope movement

  4. The Variations and Trends of MODIS C5 & C6 Products’ Errors in the Recent Decade over the Background and Urban Areas of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With ten-year (2004–2013 ground-based observations of Beijing Forest (BJF and Beijing City (BJC sites in North China, we validated the high-quality MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 5 (C5 and Collection 6 (C6 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products’ precision and discussed the sensors degradation issues. The annual mean AOD and Angstrom exponent (α were 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.83 ± 0.15 in the background over the past ten years, and they were 0.59 ± 0.07 and 1.13 ± 0.08 in the urban, respectively. Ground-based AOD had both slightly declining trends, with variations of 0.023 and 0.057 over the past decade in the background and urban, respectively. There were large differences among the eight kinds of MODIS AOD products (Terra vs. Aqua, C5 vs. C6, DT (Deep Target vs. DB (Deep Blue, and DTDB in the background and urban areas, but all the products’ monthly errors had larger variations in the spring and summer, and smaller ones in the autumn and winter. In the background, more than 62% of DT matchups for C5 and C6 products were within NASA’s expected error (EE envelope. In the urban, 69%~72% of C6 DB retrievals were falling within EE envelope. The new dataset named C6 DTDB had better performance in the background, whereas it overestimated by 37%~41% in the urban caused by surface reflectivity estimation error. The range of monthly average error varied from −0.21 to 0.28 in the background and from −0.63 to 0.48 in the urban. From the background to the urban areas, the retrieval errors of Terra and Aqua had slightly increased by 0.0023~0.0158 and 0.0011~0.0124 per year, respectively, which implied that the two MODIS instruments had degraded slowly.

  5. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C and D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m2 and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C and D waste management in China.

  6. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: effect of bioreactor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Do, Anh Tien; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Yeh, Daniel H; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-03-30

    Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75-85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5h. A high calcium concentration up to 1,000 mg L(-1) did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems. PMID:24211179

  7. A study of explosive demolition techniques for heavy reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a research programme aimed at advancing explosive demolition techniques from the present 'rule of thumb art' to a more scientifically based set of procedures to achieve the degree of control which will be essential in a nuclear power station decommissioning. The research is directed mainly at the biological shields of early Magnox reactors and the prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) of later Magnox and Advanced Gas-cooled reactors. Relevant structures of other commercial nuclear power plants in the European Community, in particular the PCPVs of French Gas Graphite reactors and the biological shields of Light Water reactors are also considered. The bulk of the programme has been based on experiments with an extensive usage of scaled models. The programme investigated the use of buried explosive charges in cratering concrete and the use of shaped charges in stripping surface cover and drilling holes. After an initial parametric study the programme considered concrete layer stripping using multiple charges and culminated in the stripping off of an equivalent thickness of concrete, for radiation protection, from the inside walls of a complete cylindrical model of a biological shield. (author)

  8. A study of explosive demolition techniques for heavy reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a research programme aimed at advancing explosive demolition techniques from the present ''rule of thumb art'' to a more scientifically based set of procedures to achieve the degree of control which will be essential in a nuclear power station decommissioning. The research is directed mainly at the biological shields of early Magnox reactors and the prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) of later Magnox and advanced gas-cooled reactors. Relevant structures of other commercial nuclear power plants in the European Community, in particular the PCPVs of French gas graphite reactors and the biological shields of light water reactors are also considered. The bulk of the programme has been based on experiments with an extensive usage of scaled models. The programme investigated the use of buried explosive charges in cratering concrete and the use of shaped charges in stripping surface cover and drilling holes. After an initial parametric study the programme considered concrete layer stripping using multiple charges and culminated in the stripping off of an equivalent thickness of concrete, for radiation protection, from the inside walls of a complete cylindrical model of a biological shield

  9. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete.

  10. Quality Control of Recycled Aggregates Derived from Construction and Demolition Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POON Chi-sun; KOU Shi-cong

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, over 24 million tons of Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes were generated in Hong Kong. Since the local landfills will be saturated in about 6 years, it is important to find a viable way to reuse these waste materials as to alleviate the demand on public fill capacity. In order to tackle the problem, the Hong Kong government has set up a temporary recycling facility in Hong Kong in 2002 for producing different sizes of recycled aggregate for use in various construction materials. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has been studying the feasible use of recycled aggregates in Hong Kong for a number of years. A substantial amount of experimental results on the properties of recycled aggregates and the effect of recycled aggregates on the properties of concrete and other construction products (e. G. Concrete blocks and granular sub-base) has been published. In this paper, the experience of Hong Kong in using recycled aggregates are summarized and a set of quality control guidelines proposed for governing the use of recycled aggregates in Hong Kong is introduced. The experience and guidelines may also be useful for the recycling of waste materials derived from the recent Sichuan earthquake in China.

  11. USE OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES AS RAW MATERIALS IN CEMENT CLINKER PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos-Triantafyllos Galbenis; Stamatis Tsimas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the possibility of utilizing Construction and Demolition(C&D) wastes as substitutes of Portland cement raw meal. The C&D wastes that were so used, were the Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and the Recycled Masonry Aggregates (RMA) derived from demolished buildings in Attica region, Greece. RCA and RMA samples were selected because of their calcareous and siliceous origin respectively,which conformed the composition of the ordinary Portland cement raw meal. For that reason, six samples of cement raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample, and five by mixing the reference sample with RCA and RMA in appropriate proportions. The effect on the reactivity of the generated mixtures, was evaluated on the basis of the free lime content (fCaO) in the mixtures sintered at 1350℃, 1400℃ and 1450℃. Test showed that the added recycled aggregates improved the burnability of the cement raw meal without affecting negatively the cement clinker properties. Moreover, the formation of the major components (C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF) of the produced clinkers(sintered at 1450℃) was corroborated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

  12. Characterization of concrete made with recycled aggregate from concrete demolition waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terán Gilmore, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed: to characterize the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of recycled aggregate from construction and concrete structure demolition waste, processed before and after crushing; to characterize fresh and hardened concrete made with such recycled aggregate; and to design different doses varying the water/cement ratio, the amount of cement and the use of superplasticizing admixtures to offset the effects of absorption. The ultimate objective was to provide a broader perspective of the use of recycled aggregate in the manufacture of new concrete.El presente estudio nos permite caracterizar las propiedades físicas, químicas y mecánicas de los áridos reciclados, producto de residuos de la construcción y demolición de estructuras de hormigón, tratándolos antes y después de triturar; caracterizar el hormigón elaborado con áridos reciclados, en su estado fresco y endurecido, diseñando diferentes dosificaciones variando la relación agua/cemento, la cantidad de cemento y el uso de aditivos súper plastificantes para disminuir el efecto de la absorción; caracterización que nos permite tener una mayor perspectiva sobre el uso de áridos reciclados en la elaboración de nuevos hormigones.

  13. Checklist Model to Improve Work Practices in Small-Scale Demolition Operations with Silica Dust Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Succop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic approach was developed to review, revise and adapt existing exposure control guidance used in developed countries for use in developing countries. One-page employee and multiple-page supervisor guidance sheets were adapted from existing documents using a logic framework and workers were trained to use the information to improve work practices. Interactive, hands-on training was delivered to 26 workers at five small-scale demolition projects in Maputo City, Mozambique, and evaluated. A pre-and-post walkthrough survey used by trained observers documented work practice changes. Worker feedback indicated that the training was effective and useful. Workers acquired knowledge (84% increase, p < 0.01 and applied the work practice guidance. The difference of proportions between use of work practice components before and after the intervention was statistically significant (p < 0.05. Changes in work practices following training included preplanning, use of wet methods and natural ventilation and end-of-task review. Respirable dust measurements indicated a reduction in exposure following training. Consistency in observer ratings and observations support the reliability and validity of the instruments. This approach demonstrated the short-term benefit of training in changing work practices; follow-up is required to determine the long-term impact on changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  14. Demolition technique of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower by directional controlled blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yong; Cui Xiaorong; Lu Hua

    2008-01-01

    Based on blasting demolition of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower,by virtue of engi-neering practice of blasting the tube concrete structures,the analysis and research were made on the mechanism of cool tower collapse through selecting blasting parameters and selecting gap form,gap size and gap angle.The cool tower was twisted,collapsed directionally and broken weU according to the design requirements.The expected results and purpo-ses of blasting were obtained with no back blow,total blasted pile approximates to 4 ~ 5 m,no occurrence of flying stones and no damage to fixed buildings and equipment,the large-sized hyperbolic thin-wall reinforced concrete cool towers are twisted during blasting and it collapses well with good breaking.The test and measurement of blasting vibra-ting velocity was carried out during blasting and the measuring results are much less than critical values specified by Safety Regulations for Blasting.The study shows that gap form,gap size and gap angle are the key factors to cool tower collapse and will give beneficial references to related theoretical study and field application.

  15. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L−1) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L−1 did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems

  16. Digitial map of geologic units forming the base of the principal aquifer and areas where the base of aquifer is not well defined, Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  17. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  19. Sustainable Development in the Core Water Resource Area of the Central Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ With continued population growth and accelerated industrialization and urbanization, water shortages and water quality deterioration have become a bottleneck restraining global socioeconomic progress.In China, water resources are unevenly distributed, with abundance in the south and scarcity in the north.Every year, a loss of nearly 100 billion yuan is incurred by water shortages in the north.The Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is a key measure to optimize the spatial allocation of water resources in China.However, while giving opportunities for sound socioeconomic progress to the key headwaters region of the project, the move also poses new challenges to the region in terms of economic development, ecological balance, water quality monitoring and water quantity guarantee.

  20. On the Origin of One Basin-Multiple Mountain Couplings in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin-Range Area in Eastern North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shuyin; SHAO Ji'an; HOU Quanlin; WANG Baode; XU Chuanshi

    2004-01-01

    The basin-range coupling relation is a leading subject of the modern geology. In geometry, relations of this type include couplings between stretched orogenic belt and down-faulted basin, compressional orogenic belt and foreland basin, strike-slip orogenic belt and strike-slip basin and so on. Fault chains are the key for these couplings and there are typical examples for all these cases. The North China down-faulted basin is coupled west with the Tathang uplift, east with the Jiao-Liao Mountains, north with the Yanshan orogenic belt and south with the Dabie orogenic belt,that is to say, the central down-faulted basin and the surrounding orogenic belts bear a coupling relation within a uniform dynamistic system. Study shows that the central down-faulted basin and the North China mantle sub-plume structure have a close relation during their formation. Owing to intensive mantle sub-plume uplifting, the bottom of the lithosphere suffered from resistance, which caused the lithosphere of the eastern North China to be heated, thinned and fault-depressed. Meanwhile, mantle rocks that were detached outwards in the shape of mushroom was dissected by surrounding ductile shearing zones, which lead to decompression and unloading to generate hypomagmas, and a series of mantle-branch structures were formed around the down-faulted basin. There is an obvious comparability among these mantle branch structures (orogenic belts), and they have basin-range coupling relations with the central down-faulted basins.

  1. Challenges in automatic sorting of construction and demolition waste by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, Frank; Cacho, Íñigo; Arnaiz, Sixto; Wohllebe, Markus

    2016-05-01

    EU-28 countries currently generate 460 Mt/year of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and the generation rate is expected to reach around 570 Mt/year between 2025 and 2030. There is great potential for recycling C&DW materials since they are massively produced and content valuable resources. But new C&DW is more complex than existing one and there is a need for shifting from traditional recycling approaches to novel recycling solutions. One basic step to achieve this objective is an improvement in (automatic) sorting technology. Hyperspectral Imaging is a promising candidate to support the process. However, the industrial distribution of Hyperspectral Imaging in the C&DW recycling branch is currently insufficiently pronounced due to high investment costs, still insufficient robustness of optical sensor hardware in harsh ambient conditions and, because of the need of sensor fusion, not well-engineered special software methods to perform the (on line) sorting tasks. Thereby frame rates of over 300 Hz are needed for a successful sorting result. Currently the biggest challenges with regard to C&DW detection cover the need of overlapping VIS, NIR and SWIR hyperspectral images in time and space, in particular for selective recognition of contaminated particles. In the study on hand a new approach for hyperspectral imagers is presented by exploiting SWIR hyperspectral information in real time (with 300 Hz). The contribution describes both laboratory results with regard to optical detection of the most important C&DW material composites as well as a development path for an industrial implementation in automatic sorting and separation lines. The main focus is placed on the closure of the two recycling circuits "grey to grey" and "red to red" because of their outstanding potential for sustainability in conservation of construction resources.

  2. Developments in life cycle assessment applied to evaluate the environmental performance of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature that applies the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to the assessment of the environmental performance of the life cycle of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management systems. This article is focused on generating a general mapping of the literature and on identifying the best practices in compliance with LCA framework and proposing directions for future LCA studies in this field. The temporal evolution of the research in this field and the aim of the studies have grown in parallel with the legal framework related to waste and energy efficiency of buildings. Most studies have been published in Europe, followed by USA. Asia and Australia, being at an incipient application stage to the rest of the world. Topics related to "LCA of buildings, including their EoL" and "LCA of general CDW management strategies" are the most frequently analysed, followed by "LCA of EoL of construction elements" and "LCA of natural material vs recycled material". Regarding the strategies, recycling off-site and incineration, both combined with landfill for the rejected fractions, are the most commonly applied. Re-use or recycling on-site is the strategy least applied. The key aspect when LCA is applied to evaluate CDW management systems is the need to normalise which processes to include in the system boundary and the functional unit, the use of inventory data adapted to the context of the case study and the definition of a common set of appropriate impact assessment categories. Also, it is important to obtain results disaggregated by unit processes. This will allow the comparison between case studies.

  3. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck, E-mail: som_cheng00@hotmail.com [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Do, Anh Tien [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Annachhatre, Ajit P. [Environmental Engineering and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Esposito, Giovanni [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Yeh, Daniel H. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Lens, Piet N.L. [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L{sup −1}) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L{sup −1} did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems.

  4. Mechanical properties of hot mix asphalt made with recycled aggregates from reclaimed construction and demolition debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taibo, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The mix design for asphalt mixtures containing recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris was evaluated. The tests conducted to characterize the mechanical behaviour of these mixtures showed that the mechanical properties of mixtures with recycled and virgin aggregate are similar. The asphalt mixtures containing recycled aggregate proved to have lower resistance to water action. Nonetheless, recycled aggregate was found to be potentially usable in asphalt mixtures if higher quality materials are selected and such low resistance is corrected. This will call for expanding upon the preliminary work described in the present article.En este trabajo se dosificaron mezclas bituminosas fabricadas con áridos reciclados de residuos de construcción y demolición. Se realizaron una serie de ensayos que permitieron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de estas mezclas. Los parámetros mecánicos de las mezclas con áridos reciclados son similares a los de las mezclas fabricadas únicamente con áridos naturales de cantera. Sin embargo, las mezclas bituminosas con áridos reciclados tuvieron un mal comportamiento frente a la disminución de la resistencia por pérdida de cohesión por la acción del agua. No obstante, mediante la selección de materiales de mejor calidad y corrección de este mal comportamiento, existen posibilidades de utilizar áridos reciclados en mezclas bituminosas. Para ello será necesario ampliar la primera aproximación realizada en este artículo.

  5. Occurrence of organic pollutants in recovered soil fines from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y C; Townsend, T G

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize recovered soil fines from construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling facilities for trace organic pollutants. Over a period of 18 months, five sampling trips were made to 14 C&D waste recycling facilities in Florida. Screened soil fines were collected from older stockpiles and newly generated piles at the sites. The samples were analyzed for the total concentration (mg/kg) of a series of volatile organic compound (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (semi-VOCs). The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) test was also performed to evaluate the leachability of the trace organic chemicals. During the total analysis only a few volatile organic compounds were commonly found in the samples (trichlorofluoromethane, toluene, 4-isopropyltoluene, trimethylbenzene, xylenes, and methylene chloride). A total of nine VOCs were detected in the leaching test. Toluene showed the highest leachability among the compounds (61.3-92.0%), while trichlorofluoromethane, the most commonly detected compound from both the total and leaching tests, resulted in the lowest leachability (1.4-39.9%). For the semi-VOC analysis, three base-neutral semi-VOC compounds (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate) and several PAHs (acenaphthene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and phenanthrene) were commonly detected in C&D fines samples. These compounds also leached during the SPLP leaching test (0.1-25%). No acid extractable compounds, pesticides, or PCBs were detected. The results of this study were further investigated to assess risk from land applied recovered soil fines by comparing total and leaching concentrations of recovered soil fines samples to risk-based standards. The results of this indicate that the organic chemicals in recovered soil fines from C&D debris recycling facilities were not of a major concern in terms of human risk and leaching risk to groundwater under reuse and contact scenarios

  6. Developments in life cycle assessment applied to evaluate the environmental performance of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature that applies the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to the assessment of the environmental performance of the life cycle of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management systems. This article is focused on generating a general mapping of the literature and on identifying the best practices in compliance with LCA framework and proposing directions for future LCA studies in this field. The temporal evolution of the research in this field and the aim of the studies have grown in parallel with the legal framework related to waste and energy efficiency of buildings. Most studies have been published in Europe, followed by USA. Asia and Australia, being at an incipient application stage to the rest of the world. Topics related to "LCA of buildings, including their EoL" and "LCA of general CDW management strategies" are the most frequently analysed, followed by "LCA of EoL of construction elements" and "LCA of natural material vs recycled material". Regarding the strategies, recycling off-site and incineration, both combined with landfill for the rejected fractions, are the most commonly applied. Re-use or recycling on-site is the strategy least applied. The key aspect when LCA is applied to evaluate CDW management systems is the need to normalise which processes to include in the system boundary and the functional unit, the use of inventory data adapted to the context of the case study and the definition of a common set of appropriate impact assessment categories. Also, it is important to obtain results disaggregated by unit processes. This will allow the comparison between case studies. PMID:26919970

  7. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D and D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D and D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D and D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  8. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and

  9. Conversion of the compensation measures for the utilization of a FFH area of the brown coal open mining Cottbus North; Umsetzung der Kompensationsmassnahmen fuer die Inanspruchnahme eines FFH-Gebietes durch den Braunkohletagebau Cottbus-Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstgraser, Christoph [gerstgraser - Ingenieurbuero fuer Renaturierung, Cottbus (Germany); Arnold, Ingolf; Dingethal, Heidemarie [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Since the year 1981, the open mining Cottbus-North (Brandenburg, Federal Republic of Germany) produces brown coal. Presently, 5 million tons of brown coal are produced. This brown coal is used in the power generation at the coal-fired power station Jaenschwalde. Within this area of mining there is the pond's group Lakoma. This pond's group consisted of 22 ponds with a total area of 69 ha. These ponds served for breeding of fishes and accommodated protected animal species. In December 2003, the pond's group Lakoma was suggested as a FFH area by the country Brandenburg. With the planning approval procedure for waters, a FFH area was completely eliminated in the approach of an open mining. A licensing procedure came to the result that a removal of these ponds was permissible with consideration of the public interest, if a reconciliation for the plants and animals is carried out. These compensation measures were realized within short time. Thus the open mining Cottbus-North could be continued according to plan.

  10. 拆除建筑垃圾资源化影响因素分析%Factors Analysis of Demolition Waste Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石世英

    2013-01-01

    通过对重庆市拆除建筑垃圾管理现状调研,构建建筑垃圾供应链模型(信息流、材料流和资金流);从供应链管理的视角,分析制约建筑垃圾资源化的因素,并对优化供应链成员间的协作关系提出建议.%Through status research of demolition waste management in Chongqing, the supply chain model (information flow, material flow and cash flow) of demolition waste was constructed. From the perspective of supply chain management, the bottleneck factors of demolition waste reclamation were analyzed, and some proposal was presented to improve the cooperation relations among the member of supply chain management.

  11. Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg° in the Mexico City area and over the North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, R.; H. Mao; E. Scheuer; J. Dibb; Avery, M.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G.; S. Vay; D. Blake; Huey, G.; H. Fuelberg

    2008-01-01

    Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data obtained from 0.15–12 km altitude showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile centered around 100 ppqv. Highl...

  12. Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg° in the Mexico City area and over the North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    D. Blake; S. Vay; Sachse, G.; Browell, E.; Avery, M.; J. Dibb; E. Scheuer; H. Mao; Talbot, R.; Huey, G.; H. Fuelberg

    2007-01-01

    Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data obtained from 0.15–12 km altitude showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile centered around 100 ppqv. Highly concentrated pol...

  13. Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg° in the Mexico City area and over the North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, R.; H. Mao; E. Scheuer; J. Dibb; Avery, M.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G.; S. Vay; D. Blake; Huey, G.; H. Fuelberg

    2008-01-01

    International audience Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data obtained from 0.15?12 km altitude showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile centered around 100 ppqv. Highly conc...

  14. An evaluation of the management of the selection process for educators at primary schools in the North West Area : theoretical and practical implications / A.T. Aphane

    OpenAIRE

    Aphane, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research is about the evaluation of the management of the selection for educators at a primary school in the North West, Klerksdorp District and to consider theoretical and practical implications. Questionnaires were used as the main measuring instrument. The findings of the research revealed that some of the role players lack necessary skills and expertise to be part of the selection process. Policy implications were found to have an effect on the process. Ne...

  15. Minimization and recycling of construction and demolition wastes; Minimizacion y reciclado de los residuos de construccion y demolicion (RCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huete, R.; Lopez, J.A.; Ponce, M.; Llatas, C.

    1998-12-01

    We all know the damage to the environmental caused by the illegal dumping demolition waste, that causes a bad image of our cities. This damage, grows thanks to the inadequate governmental management and for the small co-operation of the owners of the wastes and we may quantify it with the necessary pressure and their impact on the environment has different aspects that should be remembered: on the economic media and on the culture. Following the recommendations of the European Union, we should place three different policies: prevention, recovery and sanitary landfilling. (Author)

  16. Soil retention of hexavalent chromium released from construction and demolition waste in a road-base-application scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Trapp, Stefan; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard;

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the retention of Cr(VI) in three subsoils with low organic matter content in laboratory experiments at concentration levels relevant to represent leachates from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) reused as unbound material in road construction. The retention mechanism appeared...... depth. However, in rigid climates and with high water infiltration through the road pavement, the reduction reaction could be so slow that Cr(VI) might migrate as deep as 200 cm under the road. The reaction parameters and the model can form the basis for systematically assessing under which scenarios Cr...

  17. Migration and wintering areas of American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) that summer in central North America as determined by satellite and radio telemetry, 1998-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschle, Guy; Toepfer, John E.; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty adult male American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) were marked on summer range in central North America with satellite tracking Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) to document migration routes and wintering range. Nineteen complete fall migration routes were documented for 17 individuals. Of the successful migrations, 63% (n = 12) went to southern Florida, 32% (n = 6) to southern Louisiana, and 5% (n = 1) to the Gulf coast of Texas. Spring migrations for nine birds were documented, and 78% (n = 7) showed fidelity to breeding range. Two complete migrations for two individuals were documented, and they demonstrated fidelity to winter range. The longest, fastest movement documented was 2,300 km in less than 74 hr. Extensive, post-breeding dispersal was not observed in the adult male American Bitterns in this study. Six male American Bitterns were marked with PTTs on winter range in Florida and Texas. Spring migration for these birds was documented to Nebraska, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Sixty-seven American Bitterns were marked with Very High Frequency radio transmitters on summer ranges, and 16% (n = 11) were located on wintering grounds used by the satellite-tracked birds, further documenting the importance of the Everglades and the Louisiana coast as winter habitat for American Bitterns that breed in Central North America.

  18. Hydrological conditions at the 317/319 Area at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.L.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1990-08-01

    This study examined the hydrological conditions of the glacial till underlying the 317/319 Area at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) near Lemont, Illinois. The study's purpose was to review and summarize hydrological data collected by ANL's Environment, Safety, and Health Department and to characterize, based on these data, the groundwater movement and migration of potential contaminants in the area. Recommendations for further study have been made based on the findings of this review. The 317/319 Area is located between Meridian Road and the southern border of ANL. The 317 Area was commissioned in the late 1940s for the temporary storage of radioactive waste. Low- and high-level solid radioactive waste is stored in partially buried concrete vaults. Low-level radioactive waste awaiting shipment for off-site disposal is stored in aboveground steel bins north of the vaults. The 319 Area is an inactive landfill, located east of the 317 Area that was used for the disposal of general refuse, demolition debris, and laboratory equipment. Fluorescent light bulbs, chemical containers, and suspect waste were also placed in the landfill. Liquid chemical wastes were disposed of at each site in gravel-filled trenches called French drains.'' The 317/319 Area is underlain by a silty clay glacial till. Dolomite bedrock underlies the till at an average depth of about 19.5m. Organic contaminants and radionuclides have been detected in groundwater samples from wells completed in the till. Fractures in the clay as well as sand and gravel lenses present in the till could permit these contaminants to migrate downward to the dolomite aquifer. At the time of this report, no chemical quality analyses had been made on groundwater samples from the dolomite. The study found that existing information about subsurface characteristics at the site is inadequate to identify potential pathways for contaminant migration. 14 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Analysis and forecasting of wind field character on the north of South China Sea borders near-ocean area%南海北部近岸海域风场特征分析与预报研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉; 肖瑜璋; 俞胜宾; 宋萍萍; 杨凡

    2011-01-01

    The north of South China Sea borders on the north of East Asia in the north and faces the wide sea area (or: maritime space), which has a special geographic location. It has a typical character of monsoon. This paper makes a correlation analysis of near-ocean area's wind field and macroscale atmospheric circulation character,presenting an impact of abnormal atmospheric circulation to the wind field of the north South China Sea area. It confirms that the distributing of wind field has a strongly zonal and seasonal character. Because of the change of climate yearly, for example of Elnino and ENSO circulation, South China Sea's warm-pool area index change yearly, also have a correlation to the near-ocean area's wind field intensity. Except the traditional statistics, the prophase diagnosis analysis, prophase strong signal of atmospheric outer force factor, the compositive using of numerical forecast, and compositive diagnosis analysis and so on, are the effective measures of enhancing and improving on the medium-range and short-range forecasting result.%南海北部近岸海域北靠东亚大陆,南面广阔的南海海域,地理位置十分独特,具有典型的季风特征.本文对南海北部近岸海域风场与大尺度大气环流特征的相关分析,阐述大气环流异常对南海北部近岸海域风场的影响.研究表明,南海北部近岸海域风场分布具有较强的区域性和季节性;因气候年际变化的强弱,如厄尔尼诺与南方涛动(ENSO)循环、南海暖池面积指数的年际变化,与南海北部近岸海域风场强度也具有相关性.除使用传统的数理统计方法外,前期大气环流的诊断分析、大气外部强迫因子的前期强信号以及数值预报产品等的综合运用、综合诊断分析,是改进、提高中长期天气过程和短期气候预测的有效方法.

  20. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25 R-MAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-02-24

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25, Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Building 3110, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--891-VOL I-Rev. 1, dated July 2003, provides details of demolition, waste disposal, and use restriction (UR) modification for Corrective Action Unit 113, Area 25 R-MAD Facility. Demolition was completed on July 15, 2010, when the last of the building debris was disposed. Final field activities were concluded on August 30, 2010, after all equipment was demobilized and UR signs were posted. This work was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  1. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25 R-MAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 113: Area 25, Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Building 3110, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--891-VOL I-Rev. 1, dated July 2003, provides details of demolition, waste disposal, and use restriction (UR) modification for Corrective Action Unit 113, Area 25 R-MAD Facility. Demolition was completed on July 15, 2010, when the last of the building debris was disposed. Final field activities were concluded on August 30, 2010, after all equipment was demobilized and UR signs were posted. This work was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  2. 75 FR 67216 - Regulated Navigation Area; Greenville Bridge Demolition, Lower Mississippi River Mile 531.3, AR, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... pursuant to authority under section 4(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This... 165.10; U.S.C.G. ] Commandant Instruction Manual M16704.3A, 1-6. The purpose of this rule is...

  3. Application of thorium-normalized airborne radio-spectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sadek, M.A. E-mail: elsadek_eg@yahoo.com

    2002-07-01

    A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERREGIONAL ENERGY PRODUCTION COOPERATION BETWEEN THE KOMI REPUBLIC AND THE AREAS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN AND URAL FEDERAL DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kalinina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes preconditions for interregional energy production cooperation between the Republic of Komi, the North-Western and the Ural Federal Districts, based on an analysis of the resource base, production dynamics, processing of fuel and energy resources and transportation of oil and gas. Types of energy production cooperation specific for the regions in question have been identified; these types represent an essence for establishment of a large macro-region within the framework of the territories in question. A prospect of their extension is demonstrated.

  5. Nutrients and temperature profile data from XBT and CTD casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and other Sea areas by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), from 06 January 2000 to 08 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using XBT and CTD casts from the R/V MIRAI in the North/South Pacific Ocean and other Sea areas from 06...

  6. Re-use of construction and demolition residues and industrial wastes for the elaboration or recycled eco-efficient concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of residues from industries and construction and demolition sectors has increased during last years. The total amount of debris produced according to different estimations reaches values close to 42 million tonnes yr-1. Much of this waste has been thrown to landfill, without considering its potential for reuse, recycling or valuation. The aim of this research is to describe some of the physical and mechanical properties of different laboratory-mixed concretes, using various proportions of additional materials recovered from industrial waste and demolition rubble. The added materials are included either as admixtures (forestry residues, cork dust, steel fibre) or in partial substitution of natural aggregates (wire from electrical residues, tyre rubber, white ceramic, sanitary porcelain or shale). The laboratory tests have followed the standard En protocols. Assay results were variable according to the nature of the material added to the mix: organic materials and shale, despite the steel fibre reinforcement, reduce the compression strength, but are suitable for the manufacture of lightweight concrete for agricultural pavements, with certain flexion resistance and a relatively good behaviour to impact. The substitution of natural aggregates with ceramic and porcelain wastes produces a significant increase in compression resistance, making them suitable for the manufacture of concrete with characteristic resistances above 40 MPa, which can be used both for structures or other agricultural elements: separators, feeders, slat floors. As a conclusion can be stated the possibility of reuse these wastes for the production of structural or non-structural concrete, with different applications in agricultural engineering. (Author) 36 refs.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Four - Appendix G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix G. Appendix G is a presentation of VOC chromatography data collected during the study. Information on the calibration curves and calibration checks used as well as the sample GC reports themselves are included here. The concentration values presented on the GC reports are calculation using the data from the applicable calibration curve and any necessary dilutions which were made.

  8. The NEA co-operative programme on decommissioning decontamination and demolition of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to growing interest in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency set up the Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning in 1985. Its basic scope is to facilitate the exchange of scientific and technical information between major decommissioning projects. Participation in the Programme has expanded significantly over the years to include organisations from 13 countries. Currently, about 60 projects participate in the Programme. The Programme is executed under an agreement between the participating organisations and companies. A progress report is issued every five years on the CPD and includes a brief description of each project. The most recent report is entitled A Decade of Progress. The projects are divided into two groups: reactor projects (60%) and fuel facility projects (40%). A complete list of the different projects and their country of residence can be found in Annex 1. Many of the early projects in the Programme focused on experimental or prototype plants, however, a number of projects for the decommissioning of commercial facilities (power generation, fuel and reprocessing plants) have recently joined the Programme. Limited feedback on concrete clean-up operations has been available until now due to the lengthy time frame of decommissioning projects and the fact that building demolition occurs in the very late stages of the project. Some of the early projects in the Programme are now complete or nearing completion, making available significant data and experience. This experience and lessons learnt can be applied to the further development of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) clean-up processes. This report aims to supplement the previous NEA report dedicated to decontamination techniques and to provide project engineers and/or project leaders involved in concrete infrastructure clean-up with: - Guidelines for setting up appropriate and adequate strategies, taking into consideration the international

  9. Deriving a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajalla, Nadim; Assaf, Eleni; Bashour, Issam; Talhouk, Salma

    2014-05-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which were locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been followed by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste problem. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Matiolla, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays, which is commonly known used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored

  10. Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in well MG-1693 at North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in well MG-1693 (NP-87) at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pa. Objectives of the study were to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of vertical borehole flow, and effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wells. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and borehole-video logs were collected. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and select depths to set packers. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of water-bearing zones and effects of pumping individual zones on water levels in two nearby monitor wells. Specific capacities of isolated zones during aquifer-isolation tests ranged from 0.03 to 3.09 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. Water enters the borehole primarily through high-angle fractures at 416 to 435 ft bls (feet below land surface) and 129 to 136 ft bls. Water exits the borehole through a high-angle fracture at 104 to 107 ft bls, a broken casing joint at 82 ft bls, and sometimes as artesian flow through the top of the well. Thirteen intervals were selected for aquifer-isolation testing, using a straddle-packer assembly. The specific capacity of interval 1 was 2.09 (gal/min)/ft. The specific capacities of intervals 2, 3, and 4 were similar: 0.27, 0.30, and 0.29 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. The specific capacities of intervals 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 were similar: 0.03, 0.04, 0.09, 0.09, and 0.04 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. Intervals 9, 11, and 12 each showed a strong

  11. North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Vukcevic, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The author postulates the existence of a high correlation between North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly and the variations of magnetic field over the Hudson Bay region. Post-glacial uplift and convection in the underlying mantle uplift (as reflected in changes of the area's magnetic intensity) are making significant contribution to the Atlantic basin climate change.

  12. Response of benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods index to different perturbations in coastal oligotrophic areas (Canary archipelago, North East Atlantic Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; de-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Oligotrophic areas harbour low macrofaunal abundance and patchy distribution. In these areas it is necessary to test the reliability of biological indicators, especially those based on taxonomic sufficiency where the level of identification is balanced against the need for ecological information and could affect the efficiency of bioindicators. The BOPA (benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods) index was applied in five coastal areas subjected to different perturbations (aquaculture, ...

  13. Radiological survey and decontamination of the former main technical area (TA-1) at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlquist, A.J.; Stoker, A.K.; Trocki, L.K. (comps.)

    1977-12-01

    A radiological survey was conducted on the undeveloped portions of the site of the former Main Technical Area (TA-1) of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in north-central New Mexico. Between 1943 and 1965, research work on nuclear weapons was carried out in TA-1. The area was decontaminated and demolished in stages, and beginning in 1966 the land was given to Los Alamos County or sold to private interests. The survey disclosed traces of radioactive contamination undetected or considered insignificant during original demolition in the 1950s and 1960s. The remaining contamination was removed in 1975 and 1976 to levels considered to pose no health or safety hazards and, further, to the lowest levels considered practicable. Methods used in the survey included measurement techniques for detecting alpha emitters such as uranium and plutonium, extensive surface and subsurface soil sampling, and use of conventional health physics instrumentation to provide detailed information on approximately 16 hectares (40 acres) of land. As a result of the decontamination efforts, approximately 15,000 m/sup 3/ of contaminated or potentially contaminated material was removed to an approved radioactive waste disposal site on ERDA property. Full details of the methods, findings, decision criteria, and as-left conditions are documented.

  14. Effects of Fire on Soil Organic Carbon of Cunninghamia lanceolata Stands in North Subtropical Area%火烧对北亚热带杉木林土壤有机碳的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志霞; 李正才; 周君刚; 程彩芳; 赵睿宇; 孙娇娇

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]To study the effect of burning on soil organic carbon and to provide references for post-fire vegetation regeneration.[Method]The changes of organic carbon and nutrient contents in post-fire Cunninghamia lanceolata stand with the soil depth of 0 50 cm in north subtropical areas were analyzed.[Result]The contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC),easily-oxidized carbon (EOC)and light fraction organic carbon (LFOM)were higher than those of contrast sample area,which increased by 1 .7% 38.0%、6.6% 33.2% and 3.1 %45.7%,respectively.Significant differences were found in the soil layer with depth of 0 1 0 cm and 1 0 20 cm (P <0.01 ).Compared with the contrast sample area,the soil carbon storage in the layer with depth of 0 50 cm increased by 1 9.1 % one year after burning.The TOC,EOC and LFOMwere all significantly related to the soil nu-trients (total N,hydrolyzable N and available K).After burning,the increase of TOC,EOC and LFOMwere main-ly concentrated on the surface of soil and the organic carbon contents increased by 9.22 g·kg -1 in 0 1 0 cm lay-er.[Conclusion]Moderate intensity burning has a significant impact on organic carbon in the soil of C.lanceolata stand in the north subtropical area.Moderate burning can increase the soil organic carbon because the soil can mix the organic residues caused by incomplete combustion of vegetation layer.Replanting in the burned area could be a-dopted to promote the vegetation restoration.

  15. Utility of Climate Forecasts in promoting optimal inter-basin transfer in the North Carolina Triangle Area Weihua Li, Sankarasubramanian Arumugam and Ranji S. Ranjithan Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering North Carolina State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Arumugam, S.; Ranjithan, R.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts experienced by regional water supply systems often result due to reduced streamflow/precipitation potential which could occur due to varying exogenous climatic conditions such as tropical sea surface temperature (SST). Similarly, water supply systems can also experience frequent shortages in supply due to increased water demand resulting from urbanization and population growth in the region. The goal of this study is to identify a sustainable way of managing triangle area's two major reservoir systems while in the meantime improving the water supply reliability for its urban area. In this study, the water resource availability within this area is determined using a predefined water surplus index, which indicates an uneven distribution of the available water resource. Therefore, combined with streamflow forecasts downscaled from GCM climate forecasts for the summer season, an integrated reservoir simulation-optimization model is developed to explore the potential benefit of inter-basin transfer between Falls Lake of the Neuse River basin and Jordan Lake in the Cape Fear River basin. Using the 3-month ahead ensembles of streamflow forecasts, the reservoir simulation model can estimate the average end of season storage deviation from the target storage across the two systems under the predefined inter-basin transfer scenario. Then the optimization model helps identify the optimal transfers among the systems that can minimize the average end of season storage deviation, while in the mean time sustain the water demand for the area. Results of the analysis for the period 1991~2008 show that by introducing inter-basin transfer, the reliability of the water supply systems for the triangle area could be increased, which would help in developing regional drought management strategies. Key words: Drought, climate forecast, inter-basin transfer

  16. Baseline well inventory and groundwater-quality data from a potential shale gas resource area in parts of Lee and Chatham Counties, North Carolina, October 2011-August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Gurley, Laura N.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Records were obtained for 305 wells and 1 spring in northwestern Lee and southeastern Chatham counties, North Carolina. Well depths ranged from 26 to 720 feet and yields ranged from 0.25 to 100 gallons per minute. A subset of 56 wells and 1 spring were sampled for baseline groundwaterquality constituents including the following: major ions; dissolved metals; nutrients; dissolved gases (including methane); volatile and semivolatile organic compounds; glycols; isotopes of strontium, radium, methane (if sufficient concentration), and water; and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon. Dissolved methane gas concentrations were low, ranging from less than 0.00007 (lowest reporting level) to 0.48 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nitrate, boron, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, total dissolved solids, and measurements of pH exceeded federal and state drinking water standards in a few samples. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the secondary (aesthetic) drinking water standard in approximately 35 to 37 percent of the samples.

  17. Succession and Enhancement Mechanism of Ecosystem Productivity in the De-farming Area of the Ecotone Between Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong; ZHANG Li-feng

    2008-01-01

    The succession and enhancement mechanism of the ecosystem productivity with the characteristics of de-farming in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in North China was discussed in order to provide an ideaology or a technical basis for maintaining the impetus of ecological restoration and economic development in this region. A case study was applied in combination with the theoretical analysis. The results indicated that the biomass productivity of the de-farming subsystem decreased by 38.4-72.3% compared with that of farming subsystem in the ecosystem. The main function of de-farming subsystem was focused on ecological productivity, it caused the ideal beneficial recycling'de-farming → planting grass → raising animals → earn money' difficult to be realized. With the differentiation of de-farming subsystem, the natural and social resources input to the farming subsystem were accumulated. This laid a basis for the new attributes of economic productivity to be upgraded. The case study indicated that the economic productivity of the ecosystem was increased by 8.85-13.35 times due to re-coupling between the de-farming subsystem and the farming subsystem as well as coupling between microhabitat differentiation and crop production in the subsystems, where the microhabitat differentiation could enrich water and fertilizer in the same field. It was concluded that the important mechanisms to enhance the system productivity in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of North China included structure rebuilding and opening of the de-farming ecosystem and taking the advantage of complementary cooperative production among different regions under the market economy and rebuilding an open agro-pasture production structure.f

  18. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  19. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  20. Nitrate and nitrite contamination of sub-surface water in some areas of North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P.) Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, nitrate and nitrite contamination of sub-surface water samples from Peshawar, Charsada, Mardan and Nowshera districts of NWFP has been studied. In all the areas under study, nitrate concentration of sub-surface water was found to be below WHO approved limit of 45 mg/l. Whereas city area after 1987 showed a decreasing level of nitrate contamination of sub-surface water, it appeared to be on the increase in water samples from the outskirts of Peshawar-Charsada road. No uniform increasing or decreasing patterns of nitrate contamination were observed for water samples from cantonment, University and Hayatabad, areas of Mardan, Charsada and Nowshera under study. The nitrate contamination of sub-surface water appeared to be due to both the agricultural activities as well as human and animal wastes. A few sub-surface water samples from Peshawar city, Mardan and Nowshera areas indicated high concentration of nitrite, which is alarming in view of the earlier reports showing absence of nitrite in water samples from these areas. However, since 1993, nitrite presence has not been detected in sub-surface water samples from all the areas under present investigation. (author)