WorldWideScience

Sample records for area next-generation infrastructure

  1. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    The infrastructure for transportation in the United States allows for a high level of mobility and freight activity for the current population of 300 million residents, and several million business establishments. According to a Department of Transportation study, more than 230 million motor vehicles, ships, airplanes, and railroads cars were used on 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles) of highways, railroads, airports, and waterways in 1998. Pipelines and storage tanks were considered to be part of this deteriorating infrastructure. The annual direct cost of corrosion in the infrastructure category was estimated to be approximately $22.6 billion in 1998. There were 583,000 bridges in the United States in 1998. Of this total, 200,000 bridges were steel, 235,000 were conventional reinforced concrete, 108,000 bridges were constructed using pre-stressed concrete, and the balance was made using other materials of construction. Approximately 15 percent of the bridges accounted for at this point in time were structurally deficient, primarily due to corrosion of steel and steel reinforcement. Iron-based amorphous metals, including SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been developed, and have very good corrosion resistance. These materials have been prepared as a melt-spun ribbons, as well as gas atomized powders and thermal-spray coatings. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stabilities of these materials were found to be comparable to that of more expensive high-performance alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. These materials also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation

  2. Building the Next Generation of Digital Government Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Chun, S.A.; Gil-Garcia, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Digital Government Infrastructures provide generic functionalities that are used by large numbers of users. Typically, they have no central authority, are governed by networks and contain both emerging and purposefully designed parts. Their use varies over time, and a large number of individuals use

  3. Strategies for the next generation green ICT infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, M. Tahir; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2009-01-01

    Today, the global society is facing serious challenges in improving environmental performance, particularly with global warming, and resource management. Where the information and communication technology (ICT) industry is contributing to the global economy coupling with innovation and development...... of almost all the aspect of human life, but it also responsible for global CO2 emissions. In this paper, we provide a short survey of the challenges faced today of global warming by C02 emission related to global ICT infrastructure. The paper provides a number of strategies for greening ICT lead...

  4. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mark Schanfein; Philip Casey Durst

    2012-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to be constructed near Idaho Falls, Idaho The NGNP is intrinsically safer than current reactors and is planned for startup ca. 2021 Safety is more prominent in the minds of the Public and Governing Officials following the nuclear reactor meltdown accidents in Fukushima, Japan The authors propose that the NGNP should be designed with International (IAEA) Safeguards in mind to support export to Non-Nuclear-Weapons States There are two variants of the NGNP design; one using integral Prismatic-shaped fuel assemblies in a fixed core; and one using recirculating fuel balls (or Pebbles) The following presents the infrastructure required to safeguard the NGNP This infrastructure is required to safeguard the Prismatic and Pebble-fueled NGNP (and other HTGR/VHTR) The infrastructure is based on current Safeguards Requirements and Practices implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for similar reactors The authors of this presentation have worked for decades in the area of International Nuclear Safeguards and are recognized experts in this field Presentation for INMM conference in July 2012.

  5. SQoS as the Base for Next Generation Global Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    of Service (SQoS) has been introduced as an attempt to establish a base for reliability management in complex large-scale communication infrastructures. Two approaches to provide SQoS are introduced, and results for the N2R(p;q;r) family of vertex symmetric graph structures are presented and discussed......The convergence towards a unified global WAN platform, providing both best effort services and guaranteed high quality services, sets the agenda for the design and implementation of the next generation global information infrastructure. The absence of design principles, allowing for smooth and cost...

  6. SQoS as the Base for Next Generation Global Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    of Service (SQoS) has been introduced as an attempt to establish a base for reliability management in complex large-scale communication infrastructures. Two approaches to provide SQoS are introduced, and results for the N2R(p;q;r) family of vertex symmetric graph structures are presented and discussed......The convergence towards a unified global WAN platform, providing both best effort services and guaranteed high quality services, sets the agenda for the design and implementation of the next generation global information infrastructure. The absence of design principles, allowing for smooth and cost...

  7. Next-generation Algorithms for Assessing Infrastructure Vulnerability and Optimizing System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchett, Deon L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Richard Li-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richard, Jean-Philippe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project project Next-Generation Algo- rithms for Assessing Infrastructure Vulnerability and Optimizing System Resilience. The goal of the project was to improve mathematical programming-based optimization technology for in- frastructure protection. In general, the owner of a network wishes to design a network a network that can perform well when certain transportation channels are inhibited (e.g. destroyed) by an adversary. These are typically bi-level problems where the owner designs a system, an adversary optimally attacks it, and then the owner can recover by optimally using the remaining network. This project funded three years of Deon Burchett's graduate research. Deon's graduate advisor, Professor Jean-Philippe Richard, and his Sandia advisors, Richard Chen and Cynthia Phillips, supported Deon on other funds or volunteer time. This report is, therefore. essentially a replication of the Ph.D. dissertation it funded [12] in a format required for project documentation. The thesis had some general polyhedral research. This is the study of the structure of the feasi- ble region of mathematical programs, such as integer programs. For example, an integer program optimizes a linear objective function subject to linear constraints, and (nonlinear) integrality con- straints on the variables. The feasible region without the integrality constraints is a convex polygon. Careful study of additional valid constraints can significantly improve computational performance. Here is the abstract from the dissertation: We perform a polyhedral study of a multi-commodity generalization of variable upper bound flow models. In particular, we establish some relations between facets of single- and multi- commodity models. We then introduce a new family of inequalities, which generalizes traditional flow cover inequalities to the multi-commodity context. We present encouraging numerical results. We also consider the directed

  8. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  9. 3D television (3DTV) technology, systems, and deployment rolling out the infrastructure for next-generation entertainment

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Going beyond the technological building blocks of 3DTV, 3D Television (3DTV) Technology, Systems, and Deployment: Rolling Out the Infrastructure for Next-Generation Entertainment offers an early view of the deployment and rollout strategies of this emerging technology. It covers cutting-edge advances, theories, and techniques in end-to-end 3DTV systems to provide a system-level view of the topic and what it takes to make this concept a commercial reality. The book reflects the full-range of questions being posed about post-production 3D mastering, delivery options, and home screens. It reviews

  10. Technology Advancements in the Next Generation of Domain Agnostic Spatial Data Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Rankine, Terry; Box, Paul; Atkinson, Rob; Kostanski, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) are typically composed of a suite of products focused on improving spatial information discovery and access. Proliferation of SDI initiatives has caused the "Yet Another Portal" (YAP) syndrome to emerge with each initiative providing a new mechanism for cataloguing and enabling users to search for spatial information resources. Often coarse-grained and incomplete metadata information available via these SDIs renders them to being analogous with an antiquated library catalogue. We posit that the successful use of SDI resources requires attention to be focused on various semantic aspects of the information contained within - particularly the information models and vocabularies. Currently it is common for understanding of these models and vocabularies to be built into portals. This does not enhance interoperability between SDIs, nor does this provide a means for referencing or searching for a specific feature (e.g., the City of Sydney) without first knowing the location of the information source for the feature and the form in which it is represented. SDI interfaces, such as OGC WFS, provide data from a spatial representation perspective, but do not provide identifiers that can easily be cited or used across system boundaries. The lack of mechanisms to provide stable identifiers of a feature renders it permanently scoped to a particular dataset. The other three important aspects that are commonly lacking in SDIs are the inadequate handling of feature level metadata that is commonly not sufficient enough for more than the most basic data discovery; features delivered through SDI are not well integrated with information systems that deliver statistical information about those features; and, importantly there are inadequate mechanisms to reconcile and associate multiple identities and representations of the same real world feature. In this paper we present an extended view of an SDI architecture with integrated support for information

  11. High-performance integrated virtual environment (HIVE): a robust infrastructure for next-generation sequence data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Vahan; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Faison, William; Goldweber, Scott; Golikov, Anton; Gulzar, Naila; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Vinh Nguyen Lam, Phuc; Maudru, Thomas; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Osipova, Ekaterina; Pan, Yang; Pschenichnov, Alexey; Rostovtsev, Alexandre; Santana-Quintero, Luis; Smith, Krista; Thompson, Elaine E; Tkachenko, Valery; Torcivia-Rodriguez, John; Voskanian, Alin; Wan, Quan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Wilson, Carolyn; Mazumder, Raja

    2016-01-01

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a distributed storage and compute environment designed primarily to handle next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. This multicomponent cloud infrastructure provides secure web access for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, annotate and compute on NGS data, and to analyse the outcomes using web interface visual environments appropriately built in collaboration with research and regulatory scientists and other end users. Unlike many massively parallel computing environments, HIVE uses a cloud control server which virtualizes services, not processes. It is both very robust and flexible due to the abstraction layer introduced between computational requests and operating system processes. The novel paradigm of moving computations to the data, instead of moving data to computational nodes, has proven to be significantly less taxing for both hardware and network infrastructure.The honeycomb data model developed for HIVE integrates metadata into an object-oriented model. Its distinction from other object-oriented databases is in the additional implementation of a unified application program interface to search, view and manipulate data of all types. This model simplifies the introduction of new data types, thereby minimizing the need for database restructuring and streamlining the development of new integrated information systems. The honeycomb model employs a highly secure hierarchical access control and permission system, allowing determination of data access privileges in a finely granular manner without flooding the security subsystem with a multiplicity of rules. HIVE infrastructure will allow engineers and scientists to perform NGS analysis in a manner that is both efficient and secure. HIVE is actively supported in public and private domains, and project collaborations are welcomed. Database URL: https://hive.biochemistry.gwu.edu.

  12. Development of Closed-Loop Simulation Methods for a Next-Generation Terminal Area Automation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John E., III; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    A next-generation air traffic decision support tool, known as the Active Final Approach Spacing Tool (aFAST), will generate heading, speed and altitude commands to achieve more precise separation of aircraft in the terminal area. The techniques used to analyze the performance of earlier generation decision support tools are not adequate to analyze the performance of aFAST. This paper summarizes the development of a new and innovative fully closed-loop testing method for aFAST. This method, called trajectory feedback testing, closes each aircraft's control loop inside of the aFAST scheduling algorithm. Validation of trajectory feedback testing by examination of the variation of aircraft time-of-arrival predictions between schedule updates and the variation of aircraft excess separation distances between simulation runs is presented.

  13. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  14. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  15. Hacking the next generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dhanjani, Nitesh; Hardin, Brett

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of rich Internet applications, the explosion of social media, and the increased use of powerful cloud computing infrastructures, a new generation of attackers has added cunning new techniques to its arsenal. For anyone involved in defending an application or a network of systems, Hacking: The Next Generation is one of the few books to identify a variety of emerging attack vectors. You'll not only find valuable information on new hacks that attempt to exploit technical flaws, you'll also learn how attackers take advantage of individuals via social networking sites, and abuse

  16. PLANNING AND MANAGING VIRTUALIZED NEXT GENERATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukant K. Mohapatra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Service convergence, content digitization, rapid and flexible service delivery, reduction of capital and operating costs, economies of scale, changes in telecom policy and regulation, and ever increasing competition have been key factors in the evolution of virtualized Next Generation Networks (vNGN. IPcentric converged networks aim to provide a multitude of services over a single network infrastructure. Tremendous success and benefit of server virtualization in data centers is driving the adaption of network virtualization. Network virtualization is applicable to enterprise data center, and enterprise as well as wide area networks. The focus of this paper is network virtualization aspects of service providers’ next generation network. The key factors for moving to virtualized network is optimal use and sharing of network infrastructure even among competitive service providers, programmability of network and rapid introduction of new service and standard based on open platform rather than proprietary implementation. Evolving Software Defined Network (SDN and Network Function Virtualization (NFV shall enable common network infrastructure sharing, control, and management at a higher layer thus making network devices more generic and less intelligent, thus enabling cost competitiveness and quick service delivery. Network virtualization shall enable key benefits such as lower cost, flexibility, efficiency, and security, However, the deployment of virtualized next generation networks has brought its unique challenges for network managers and planners, as the network has to be planned in a comprehensive way with effective management of virtual network elements, its correlation with physical infrastructure and monitoring of control functions and server platforms. This paper discusses generic next generation network, its virtualization, and addresses the challenges related to the planning and managing of virtualized next generation networks. This

  17. Power Challenges of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: the Square Kilometer Array and Solar Energy Integration; Towards a zero-carbon footprint next generation telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Domingos; Ruiz, Valeriano; Silva, Manuel; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Santander-Vela, Juande; Maia, Dalmiro; Antón, Sonia; van Ardenne, Arnold; Vetter, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Keller, Reinhard; Pereira, Nuno; Silva, Vitor

    2012-01-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will be the largest Global science project of the next two decades. It will encompass a sensor network dedicated to radioastronomy, covering two continents. It will be constructed in remote areas of South Africa and Australia, spreading over 3000Km, in high solar irradiance latitudes. Solar Power supply is therefore an option to power supply the SKA and contribute to a zero carbon footprint next generation telescope. Here we outline the major characteristics of the SKA and some innovation approaches on thermal solar energy Integration with SKA prototypes.

  18. A new vision of the post-NIST civil infrastructure program: the challenges of next-generation construction materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. Felix; Wan, Yan

    2014-03-01

    , security, and safety of elements of critical infrastructure for the Nation's already deteriorating civil infrastructure. It is envisioned that the Nation should look far beyond: not only should we efficiently and effectively address current problems of the aging infrastructure, but we must also further develop next-generation construction materials and processes for new construction. To accomplish this ambitious goal, we must include process efficiency that will help select the most reliable and cost-effective materials in construction processes; performance and cost will be the prime consideration for selections construction materials based on life-cycle cost and materials performance; energy efficiency will drive reduced energy consumption from current levels by 50 % per unit of output; and environmental responsiveness will achieve net-zero waste from construction materials and its constituents. Should it be successfully implemented, we will transform the current 21st century infrastructure systems to enable the vital functioning of society and improve competitiveness of the economy to ensure that our quality of life remains high.

  19. A Simulated Annealing Based Location Area Optimization in Next Generation Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmos Simon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile networks have faced rapid increase in the number of mobile users and the solution for supporting the growing population is to reduce the cell sizes and to increase the bandwidth reuse. This will cause the number of location management operations and call deliveries to increase significantly, and result in high signaling overhead. We focus on minimizing this overhead, by efficient Location Area Planning (LAP. In this paper we seek to determine the location areas to achieve the minimization of the registration cost, constrained by the paging cost. For that we propose a simulated annealing algorithm, which is applied on a basic Location Area partition of cells formed by a greedy algorithm. We used our realistic mobile environment simulator to generate input (cell changing and incoming call statistics for our algorithm, and by comparing the values of the registration cost function we recognized that significant reduction was achieved in the amount of the signaling traffic.

  20. Next Generation Intelligent Wireless Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2010-01-01

    describes a focused number of research issues to solve in order for this to happen. Completely new disruptive ways of building the architecture is necessary. New ways of thinking where the next level of network intelligence is fundamental, where much more network and device cooperation should be used. New...

  1. Next Generation Virtual Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Observatories (VO) are now being established in a variety of geoscience disciplines beyond their origins in Astronomy and Solar Physics. Implementations range from hydrology and environmental sciences to solid earth sciences. Among the goals of VOs are to provide search/ query, access and use of distributed, heterogeneous data resources. With many of these goals being met and usage increasing, new demands and requirements are arising. In particular there are two of immediate and pressing interest. The first is use of VOs by non-specialists, especially for information products that go beyond the usual data, or data products that are sought for scientific research. The second area is citation and attribution of artifacts that are being generated by VOs. In some sense VOs are re-publishing (re-packaging, or generating new synthetic) data and information products. At present only a few VOs address this need and it is clear that a comprehensive solution that includes publishers is required. Our work in VOs and related semantic data framework and integration areas has lead to a view of the next generation of virtual observatories which the two above-mentioned needs as well as others that are emerging. Both of the needs highlight a semantic gap, i.e. that the meaning and use for a user or users beyond the original design intention is very often difficult or impossible to bridge. For example, VOs created for experts with complex, arcane or jargon vocabularies are not accessible to the non-specialist and further, information products the non-specialist may use are not created or considered for creation. In the second case, use of a (possibly virtual) data or information product (e.g. an image or map) as an intellectual artifact that can be accessed as part of the scientific publication and review procedure also introduces terminology gaps, as well as services that VOs may need to provide. Our supposition is that formalized methods in semantics and semantic web

  2. Next-generation human genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Shendure, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The field of human genetics is being reshaped by exome and genome sequencing. Several lessons are evident from observing the rapid development of this area over the past 2 years, and these may be instructive with respect to what we should expect from 'next-generation human genetics' in the next few years.

  3. Next generation information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limback, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Medina, Melanie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silva, Michelle E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive

  4. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  5. Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Schwartz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two network types had been existing in Slovakia by the end of the year 2004 – public switched telephone network – PSTN and packet switched data network – DCN. The other network, known as the next generation network – NGN, has been put into operation since the beginning of the year 2005. The role of the next generation network is to merge the both previous network types into one unified complex network with the full centralised control, based on routing and packet switching. The T-Com company (previous Slovak Telecom was the first who did it.

  6. Next Generation Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2013-04-01

    On 21.06.2010 the "Next Generation" Summer School has opened the doors for its first students. They were introduced in the astronomy world by astronomical observations, astronomy and radio-astronomy lectures, laboratory projects meant to initiate them into modern radio astronomy and radio communications. The didactic programme was structure as fallowing: 1) Astronomical elements from the visible spectrum (lectures + practical projects) 2) Radio astronomy elements (lectures + practical projects) 3) Radio communication base (didactic- recreative games) The students and professors accommodation was at the Agroturistic Pension "Popasul Iancului" situated at 800m from the Marisel Observatory. First day (summer solstice day) began with a practical activity: determination of the meridian by measurements of the shadow (the direction of one vertical alignment, when it has the smallest length). The experiment is very instructive and interesting because combines notions of physics, spatial geometry and basic astronomy elements. Next day the activities took place in four stages: the students processed the experimental data obtained on first day (on sheets of millimetre paper they represented the length of the shadow alignments according the time), each team realised its own sun quadrant, point were given considering the design and functionality of these quadrant, the four teams had to mimic important constellations on carton boards with phosphorescent sticky stars and the students, accompanied by the professors took a hiking trip to the surroundings, marking the interest point coordinates, using a GPS to establish the geographical coronations and at the end of the day the students realised a small map of central Marisel area based on the GPS data. On the third day, the students were introduced to basic notions of radio astronomy, the principal categories of artificial Earth satellites: low orbit satellites (LEO), Medium orbit satellites (MEO) and geostationary satellites (GEO

  7. Next Generation Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Van 11-14 november 2012 vond in de Reehorst de conferentie ‘Next Generation Plant Breeding’ plaats. Tijdens deze bijeenkomst kwamen de grote uitdagingen van de toekomstige plantenveredeling aan de orde: de opkomst van nieuwe sequencing-technieken, de bijbehorende enorme hoeveelheid gegevens die gepr

  8. Next Generation Inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zilai [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Gough, Charles [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The goal of this Cooperative Agreement was the development of a Next Generation Inverter for General Motors’ electrified vehicles, including battery electric vehicles, range extended electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The inverter is a critical electronics component that converts battery power (DC) to and from the electric power for the motor (AC).

  9. Next-generation phylogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Cheong Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thanks to advances in next-generation technologies, genome sequences are now being generated at breadth (e.g. across environments and depth (thousands of closely related strains, individuals or samples unimaginable only a few years ago. Phylogenomics – the study of evolutionary relationships based on comparative analysis of genome-scale data – has so far been developed as industrial-scale molecular phylogenetics, proceeding in the two classical steps: multiple alignment of homologous sequences, followed by inference of a tree (or multiple trees. However, the algorithms typically employed for these steps scale poorly with number of sequences, such that for an increasing number of problems, high-quality phylogenomic analysis is (or soon will be computationally infeasible. Moreover, next-generation data are often incomplete and error-prone, and analysis may be further complicated by genome rearrangement, gene fusion and deletion, lateral genetic transfer, and transcript variation. Here we argue that next-generation data require next-generation phylogenomics, including so-called alignment-free approaches. Reviewers Reviewed by Mr Alexander Panchin (nominated by Dr Mikhail Gelfand, Dr Eugene Koonin and Prof Peter Gogarten. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers’ comments section.

  10. Next Generation Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to discussing the future of electronic communication, social networking is the buzzword. The Internet has become a platform where new social networks emerge and the Internet it itself support the more traditional computer supported communication. The way users build and verifies...... different online networks for communities of people who share interests or individuals who presents themselves through user produced content is what makes up the social networking of today. The purpose of this paper is to discuss perceived user requirements to the next generation social networks. The paper...

  11. The Next Generation Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Dennis Thomas; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2005-09-12

    This dissertation will elucidate the design, construction, theory, and operation of the Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP). This photoinjector is comprised of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell symmetrized S-band photocathode radio frequency (rf) electron gun and a single emittance-compensation solenoidal magnet. This photoinjector is a prototype for the Linear Coherent Light Source X-ray Free Electron Laser operating in the 1.5 {angstrom} range. Simulations indicate that this photoinjector is capable of producing a 1nC electron bunch with transverse normalized emittance less than 1 {pi} mm mrad were the cathode is illuminated with a 10 psec longitudinal flat top pulse. Using a Gaussian longitudinal laser profile with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 psec, simulation indicates that the NGP is capable of producing a normalized rms emittance of 2.50 {pi} mm mrad at 1 nC. Using the removable cathode plate we have studied the quantum efficiency (QE) of both copper and magnesium photo-cathodes. The Cu QE was found to be 4.5 x 10{sup -5} with a 25% variation in the QE across the emitting surface of the cathode, while supporting a field gradient of 125 MV/m. At low charge, the transverse normalized rms emittance, {epsilon}{sub n,rms}, produced by the NGP is {epsilon}{sub n,rms} = 1.2 {pi} mm mrad for Q{sub T} = 0.3 nC. The 95% electron beam bunch length was measured to 10.9 psec. The emittance due to the finite magnetic field at the cathode has been studied. The scaling of this magnetic emittance term as a function of cathode magnetic field was found to be 0.01 {pi} mm mrad per Gauss. The 1.6 cell rf gun has been designed to reduce the dipole field asymmetry of the longitudinal accelerating field. Low level rf measurements show that this has in fact been accomplished, with an order of magnitude decrease in the dipole field. High power beam studies also show that the dipole field has been decreased. An upper limit of the intrinsic non-reducible thermal emittance of a

  12. Next generation toroidal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Shoichi [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A general survey of the possible approach for the next generation toroidal devices was made. Either surprisingly or obviously (depending on one`s view), the technical constraints along with the scientific considerations lead to a fairly limited set of systems for the most favorable approach for the next generation devices. Specifically if the magnetic field strength of 5 T or above is to be created by superconducting coils, it imposes minimum in the aspect ratio for the tokamak which is slightly higher than contemplated now for ITER design. The similar technical constraints make the minimum linear size of a stellarator large. Scientifically, it is indicated that a tokamak of 1.5 times in the linear dimension should be able to produce economically, especially if a hybrid reactor is allowed. For the next stellarator, it is strongly suggested that some kind of helical axis is necessary both for the (almost) absolute confinement of high energy particles and high stability and equilibrium beta limits. The author still favors a heliac most. Although it may not have been clearly stated in the main text, the stability afforded by the shearless layer may be exploited fully in a stellarator. (author)

  13. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan

    – ICT convergence regulation and multisector utility regulation. Whatever structure of next generation telecom regulation is adopted, all countries will need to pay much greater attention to the need for increased coordination of policy directions and regulatory activities both across the industries......Continuously expanding applications of information and communication technologies (ICT) are transforming local, national, regional and international economies into network economies, the foundation for information societies. They are being built upon expanded and upgraded national telecom networks...... to creating an environment to foster a massive expansion in the coverage and capabilities of the information infrastructure networks, with national telecom regulators as the key implementers of the policies of reform. The first phase of reform has focused on industry specific telecom policy and regulation...

  14. Next generation sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Written by experts in their area of research, this book has outlined the current status of the fundamentals and analytical concepts, modelling and design issues, technical details and practical applications of different types of sensors and discussed about the trends of next generation of sensors and systems happening in the area of Sensing technology. This book will be useful as a reference book for engineers and scientist especially the post-graduate students find will this book as reference book for their research on wearable sensors, devices and technologies.  .

  15. Achieving universal access to next generation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    The paper examines investment dimensions of next generation networks in a universal service perspective in a European context. The question is how new network infrastructures for getting access to communication, information and entertainment services in the present and future information society...

  16. Dynalight Next Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Dam-Hansen, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    The project aims to develop the next generation of energy cost-efficient artificial lighting control that enables greenhouse growers to adapt their use of artificial lighting dynamically to fluctuations in the price of electricity. This is a necessity as fluctuations in the price of electricity can...... be so large that it directly affects the production costs. The project results show that the newly developed lighting control software, DynaLight NG, allows greenhouse growers to adapt their use of artificial lighting to market variations in electricity prices without negative impacts on plant quality...... or production time. The electricity savings that DynaLight NG can achieve depends on the installed lamp type. When used together with conventional SON-T lamps DynaLight NG can achieve an electricity savings of 25% compared to traditional artificial lighting control. The project results also show that shifting...

  17. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  18. VSX: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. L.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX), the most comprehensive and up-to-date assemblage of publicly-maintained variable star data on the planet, will be undergoing a major overhaul in the coming year to greatly improve the database design, as well as the Web-based user interface. Five years after its official launch, VSX has evolved into an essential component of the AAVSO enterprise information architecture, tightly integrated with many of the technical organization’s other mission-critical processes. However, its unique configuration and functionality are largely based on decades-old data formats and outmoded Web methodologies which will generally not scale well under the anticipated deluge of data from large-scale synoptic surveys. Here, we present the justifications and vision for VSX 2.0, the next generation of this indispensable research tool, including overviews of the creation of a brand new, fully-normalized, database schema, and the ground-up redesign of the front-end Web interface.

  19. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  20. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England University; Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually benficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT'w mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  1. Mobility management techniques for the next-generation wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junzhao; Howie, Douglas P.; Sauvola, Jaakko J.

    2001-10-01

    The tremendous demands from social market are pushing the booming development of mobile communications faster than ever before, leading to plenty of new advanced techniques emerging. With the converging of mobile and wireless communications with Internet services, the boundary between mobile personal telecommunications and wireless computer networks is disappearing. Wireless networks of the next generation need the support of all the advances on new architectures, standards, and protocols. Mobility management is an important issue in the area of mobile communications, which can be best solved at the network layer. One of the key features of the next generation wireless networks is all-IP infrastructure. This paper discusses the mobility management schemes for the next generation mobile networks through extending IP's functions with mobility support. A global hierarchical framework model for the mobility management of wireless networks is presented, in which the mobility management is divided into two complementary tasks: macro mobility and micro mobility. As the macro mobility solution, a basic principle of Mobile IP is introduced, together with the optimal schemes and the advances in IPv6. The disadvantages of the Mobile IP on solving the micro mobility problem are analyzed, on the basis of which three main proposals are discussed as the micro mobility solutions for mobile communications, including Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP), Cellular IP, and Handoff-Aware Wireless Access Internet Infrastructure (HAWAII). A unified model is also described in which the different micro mobility solutions can coexist simultaneously in mobile networks.

  2. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which

  3. The Evolving Wide Area Network Infrastructure in the LHC era

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The global network is more than ever taking its role as the great "enabler" for many branches of science and research. Foremost amongst such science drivers is of course the LHC/LCG programme, although there are several other sectors with growing demands of the network. Common to all of these is the realisation that a straightforward over provisioned best efforts wide area IP service is probably not enough for the future. This talk will summarise the needs of several science sectors, and the advances being made to exploit the current best efforts infrastructure. It will then describe current projects aimed as provisioning "better than best efforts" services (such bandwidth on demand), the global optical R&D testbeds and the strategy of the research network providers to move towards hybrid multi-service networks for the next generation of the global wide area production network.

  4. Next Generation Environment for Collaborative Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Collados; G.Denis; 等

    2001-01-01

    Collaborative environments supporting point to point and multipoint videoconferencing,document and application sharing across both local and wide area networks,video on demand (Broadcast and playback)and interactive text facilities will be a crucial element for the development of the next generation of HEP experiments by geographically dispersed collaborations.The "Virtual Room Videoconferencing System"(VRVS) has been developed since 1995,in order to provide a low cost,bandwidth-efficient,extensible means for videoconferencing and remote collaboration over networks within the high Energy and Nuclear Physics communities.The VRVS(Virtual Rooms Videoconferencing System) provides worldwide videoconferencing service and collaborative environment to the research and education communities,VRVS uses the Internet2 and ESnet high-performance networks infrastructure to deploy its Web-based system,which now includes more than 5790 registered hosts running VRVS software in more than 50 different countries,VRVS hosts an average of 100-multipoint videconference and collaborative sessions worldwide every month.There are around 35 reflectors that manage the traffic flow.at HENP labs and universities in the US and Europe,So far,there are 7 Virtual Rooms for World Wide Conferences(involving more than one contient),and 4 Virtual Rooms each for intra-continental conferences in the US,Europe and Asia,VRVS continues to expand and implement new digital video technologies,including H.323 ITU standard integration,MPEG-2 videoconferencing integration,shared environments,and Quality of Service.

  5. Next Generation Microshutter Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the next generation MicroShutter Array (MSA) as a multi-object field selector for missions anticipated in the next two decades. For many...

  6. GLOFs - The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Doug; Thompson, Sarah; Luckman, Adrian; Nicholson, Lindsey; Quincey, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    In the central and eastern Himalaya, recent climate warming has resulted in the thinning and stagnation of debris-covered glaciers, and the formation of numerous moraine-dammed lakes. To date, the affected glaciers are mainly in relatively low-lying catchments, with accumulation areas rising to altitudes of up to ~6,500 m. Examples include the Langmoche Glacier (origin of the 1985 Dig Tsho GLOF), and the Trakarding Glacier (retreat of which formed the well-known Tsho Rolpa lake). Potentially dangerous lakes have not been identified on glaciers with extensive high-altitude catchments, such as the Khumbu and Ngozumpa Glaciers. (The Imja-Lhotse Shar glacier system - in front if which is the Imja Lake - rises to over 8,000 metres, but is mostly much lower.) Glaciers with large accumulation areas at extreme altitudes have so far been partially buffered against the impacts of climate change, although satellite image analysis has shown that the lower reaches of both the Khumbu and Ngozumpa (and many similar glaciers) are undergoing sustained surface lowering, and are largely stagnant. Moreover, the rapid coalescence of supraglacial ponds behind the terminal moraine of the Ngozumpa indicates that the glacier is very close to the threshold for the development of a potentially hazardous lake. Even without any additional warming, it is likely that large lakes will develop on these and other high-elevation glaciers in the coming decades. The very low surface gradients of many of these glaciers means that such lakes could reach several km in length, with volumes one or more orders of magnitude greater than any now existing. Because the catastrophic drainage of lakes of this size could severely impact on communities located far downstream, it is imperative to identify the most at-risk glaciers at an early stage, and to formulate appropriate responses.

  7. EAULIQ: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David A.; Fowler, Laura D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the design of a new version of the stratiform cloud parameterization called Eauliq; the new version is called Eauliq NG. The key features of Eauliq NG are: (1) a prognostic fractional area covered by stratiform cloudiness, following the approach developed by M. Tiedtke for use in the ECMWF model; (2) separate prognostic thermodynamic variables for the clear and cloudy portions of each grid cell; (3) separate vertical velocities for the clear and cloudy portions of each grid cell, allowing the model to represent some aspects of observed mesoscale circulations; (4) cumulus entrainment from both the clear and cloudy portions of a grid cell, and cumulus detrainment into the cloudy portion only; and (5) the effects of the cumulus-induced subsidence in the cloudy portion of a grid cell on the cloud water and ice there. In this paper we present the mathematical framework of Eauliq NG; a discussion of cumulus effects; a new parameterization of lateral mass exchanges between clear and cloudy regions; and a theory to determine the mesoscale mass circulation, based on the hypothesis that the stratiform clouds remain neutrally buoyant through time and that the mesoscale circulations are the mechanism which makes this possible. An appendix also discusses some time-differencing methods.

  8. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  9. Next generation natriuretic peptide measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ingrid; Goetze, Jens P

    2012-01-01

    Plasma measurement of natriuretic peptides is a "must" for clinical laboratories. For the next generation measurement, the unraveling of the molecular complexity of the peptides points toward a more qualitative assessment, as the posttranslational processing also changes with disease. Changes...... in the molecular heterogeneity could in itself contain valuable information of clinical status, and the time seems right for industry and dedicated researchers in the field to get together and discuss the next generation natriuretic peptide measurement. In such an environment, new strategies can be developed...

  10. Technical presentation: Next Generation Oscilloscopes

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

      Rohde & Schwarz "Next Generation Oscilloscopes" - Introduction and Presentation Agenda: Wednesday 23 March  -  09:30 to 11:30 (open end) Bldg. 13-2-005 Language: English 09.30 Presentation "Next Generation Oscilloscopes" from Rohde & Schwarz RTO / RTM in theory and practice Gerard Walker 10.15 Technical design details from R&D Dr. Markus Freidhof 10.45 Scope and Probe Roadmap (confidential) Guido Schulze 11.00 Open Discussion Feedback, first impression, wishes, needs and requirements from CERN All 11.30 Expert Talks, Hands on All Mr. Dr. Markus Freidhof, Head of R&D Oscilloscopes, Rohde & Schwarz, Germany; Mr. Guido Schulze, ...

  11. Towards Next Generation BI Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Jovan; Romero, Oscar; Pedersen, Torben Bach;

    2014-01-01

    . Although evidently needed, there is no clear picture about the necessary metadata artifacts, especially considering user support requirements. Therefore, we propose a comprehensive metadata framework to support the user assistance activities and their automation in the context of next generation BI systems...

  12. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  13. Algorithms for Next Generation Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cormode, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Data networking now plays a major role in everyday life and new applications continue to appear at a blinding pace. Yet we still do not have a sound foundation for designing, evaluating and managing these networks. This book covers topics at the intersection of algorithms and networking. It builds a complete picture of the current state of research on Next Generation Networks and the challenges for the years ahead. Particular focus is given to evolving research initiatives and the architecture they propose and implications for networking. Topics: Network design and provisioning, hardware issue

  14. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing.

  15. Building next-generation converged networks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    Supplying a comprehensive introduction to next-generation networks, Building Next-Generation Converged Networks: Theory and Practice strikes a balance between how and why things work and how to make them work. It compiles recent advancements along with basic issues from the wide range of fields related to next generation networks. Containing the contributions of 56 industry experts and researchers from 16 different countries, the book presents relevant theoretical frameworks and the latest research. It investigates new technologies such as IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Network (6L

  16. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Angilè, Francesco E; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J; Dober, Bradley J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeffrey; Van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5 m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and ~3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid he...

  17. The next generation rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichel, Rudi; O'Brien, Charles J.; Taylor, James P.

    This paper examines propulsion system technologies for earth-to-orbit vehicles, and describes several propulsion system concepts which could support the recommendations of the Commission for Space Development for the year 2000. The hallmark of that system must and will be reliability. Reliability will be obtained through a very structured design approach, coupled with a rational, cost effective, development and qualification program. To improve the next generation space transportation propulsion systems we need to select the very best of alternative power and performance cycles and engine physical concepts with a rigid requirement to achieve a robust, dependable, affordable propulsion system. For example, engine concepts using either propellants or non-propellant fluids for cooling and/or power drive offer the potential to provide smooth, controlled engine starts, low turbine temperatures, etc. as required for long life turbomachinery. Concepts examined are LOX/LH 2, |LOX/LH 2 + hydrocarbon, and LOX/LH 2 + hydrocarbon + Al dual expander engines, separate LOX/LH 2 and LOX/hydrocarbon engines, and variable mixture ratio engines. A fully reusable propulsion system that is perceived to be very low risk and low in operation cost is described.

  18. Biomimetics for next generation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelat, Francois

    2007-12-15

    Billions of years of evolution have produced extremely efficient natural materials, which are increasingly becoming a source of inspiration for engineers. Biomimetics-the science of imitating nature-is a growing multidisciplinary field which is now leading to the fabrication of novel materials with remarkable mechanical properties. This article discusses the mechanics of hard biological materials, and more specifically of nacre and bone. These high-performance natural composites are made up of relatively weak components (brittle minerals and soft proteins) arranged in intricate ways to achieve specific combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness (resistance to cracking). Determining which features control the performance of these materials is the first step in biomimetics. These 'key features' can then be implemented into artificial bio-inspired synthetic materials, using innovative techniques such as layer-by-layer assembly or ice-templated crystallization. The most promising approaches, however, are self-assembly and biomineralization because they will enable tight control of structures at the nanoscale. In this 'bottom-up' fabrication, also inspired from nature, molecular structures and crystals are assembled with a little or no external intervention. The resulting materials will offer new combinations of low weight, stiffness and toughness, with added functionalities such as self-healing. Only tight collaborations between engineers, chemists, materials scientists and biologists will make these 'next-generation' materials a reality.

  19. Next Generation National Security Leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahy, Heidi A.; Fankhauser, Jana G.; Stein, Steven L.; Toomey, Christopher

    2012-07-19

    It is generally accepted that the international security community faces an impending challenge in its changing leadership demographics. The workforce that currently addresses nonproliferation, arms control, and verification is moving toward retirement and there is a perceived need for programs to train a new set of experts for both technical- and policy-related functions to replace the retiring generation. Despite the perceived need, there are also indicators that there are not sufficient jobs for individuals we are currently training. If we had “right-sized” the training programs, there would not be a shortage of jobs. The extent and scope of the human resource crisis is unclear, and information about training programs and how they meet existing needs is minimal. This paper seeks to achieve two objectives: 1) Clarify the major human resource problem and potential consequences; and 2) Propose how to characterize the requirement with sufficient granularity to enable key stakeholders to link programs aimed at developing the next generations of experts with employment needs. In order to accomplish both these goals, this paper recommends establishing a forum comprised of key stakeholders of this issue (including universities, public and private sectors), and conducting a study of the human resources and resource needs of the global security community. If there is indeed a human resource crisis in the global security field, we cannot address the problem if we are uninformed. The solution may lie in training more (or fewer) young professions to work in this community – or it may lie in more effectively using our existing resources and training programs.

  20. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  1. Statistical analysis of next generation sequencing data

    CERN Document Server

    Nettleton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is the latest high throughput technology to revolutionize genomic research. NGS generates massive genomic datasets that play a key role in the big data phenomenon that surrounds us today. To extract signals from high-dimensional NGS data and make valid statistical inferences and predictions, novel data analytic and statistical techniques are needed. This book contains 20 chapters written by prominent statisticians working with NGS data. The topics range from basic preprocessing and analysis with NGS data to more complex genomic applications such as copy number variation and isoform expression detection. Research statisticians who want to learn about this growing and exciting area will find this book useful. In addition, many chapters from this book could be included in graduate-level classes in statistical bioinformatics for training future biostatisticians who will be expected to deal with genomic data in basic biomedical research, genomic clinical trials and personalized med...

  2. The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goad Michael

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS is a new ground-based sky survey designed to find transiting Neptunes and super-Earths. By covering at least sixteen times the sky area of Kepler, we will find small planets around stars that are sufficiently bright for radial velocity confirmation, mass determination and atmospheric characterisation. The NGTS instrument will consist of an array of twelve independently pointed 20 cm telescopes fitted with red-sensitive CCD cameras. It will be constructed at the ESO Paranal Observatory, thereby benefiting from the very best photometric conditions as well as follow up synergy with the VLT and E-ELT. Our design has been verified through the operation of two prototype instruments, demonstrating white noise characteristics to sub-mmag photometric precision. Detailed simulations show that about thirty bright super-Earths and up to two hundred Neptunes could be discovered. Our science operations are due to begin in 2014.

  3. The Next Generation Transit Survey - Prototyping Phase

    CERN Document Server

    McCormac, James; Wheatley, Peter; West, Richard; Walker, Simon; Bento, Joao; Skillen, Ian; Faedi, Francesca; Burleigh, Matt; Casewell, Sarah; Chazelas, Bruno; Genolet, Ludovic; Gibson, Neale; Goad, Mike; Lawrie, Katherine; Ryans, Robert; Todd, Ian; Udry, Stephan; Watson, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We present the prototype telescope for the Next Generation Transit Survey, which was built in the UK in 2008/09 and tested on La Palma in the Canary Islands in 2010. The goals for the prototype system were severalfold: to determine the level of systematic noise in an NGTS-like system; demonstrate that we can perform photometry at the (sub) millimagnitude level on transit timescales across a wide field; show that it is possible to detect transiting super-Earth and Neptune-sized exoplanets and prove the technical feasibility of the proposed planet survey. We tested the system for around 100 nights and met each of the goals above. Several key areas for improvement were highlighted during the prototyping phase. They have been subsequently addressed in the final NGTS facility which was recently commissioned at ESO Cerro Paranal, Chile.

  4. The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    CERN Document Server

    Wheatley, Peter J; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Watson, Christopher A; West, Richard G; Chazelas, Bruno; Louden, Tom M; Walker, Simon; Bannister, Nigel; Bento, Joao; Burleigh, Matthew; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmueller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Genolet, Ludovic; Goad, Michael; Grange, Andrew; Jordan, Andres; Lawrie, Katherine; McCormac, James; Neveu, Marion

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based sky survey designed to find transiting Neptunes and super-Earths. By covering at least sixteen times the sky area of Kepler we will find small planets around stars that are sufficiently bright for radial velocity confirmation, mass determination and atmospheric characterisation. The NGTS instrument will consist of an array of twelve independently pointed 20cm telescopes fitted with red-sensitive CCD cameras. It will be constructed at the ESO Paranal Observatory, thereby benefiting from the very best photometric conditions as well as follow up synergy with the VLT and E-ELT. Our design has been verified through the operation of two prototype instruments, demonstrating white noise characteristics to sub-mmag photometric precision. Detailed simulations show that about thirty bright super-Earths and up to two hundred Neptunes could be discovered. Our science operations are due to begin in 2014.

  5. The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don L.; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.; Chazelas, Bruno; Louden, Tom M.; Walker, Simon; Bannister, Nigel; Bento, Joao; Burleigh, Matthew; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Genolet, Ludovic; Goad, Michael; Grange, Andrew; Jordán, Andrés; Lawrie, Katherine; McCormac, James; Neveu, Marion

    2013-04-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based sky survey designed to find transiting Neptunes and super-Earths. By covering at least sixteen times the sky area of Kepler, we will find small planets around stars that are sufficiently bright for radial velocity confirmation, mass determination and atmospheric characterisation. The NGTS instrument will consist of an array of twelve independently pointed 20 cm telescopes fitted with red-sensitive CCD cameras. It will be constructed at the ESO Paranal Observatory, thereby benefiting from the very best photometric conditions as well as follow up synergy with the VLT and E-ELT. Our design has been verified through the operation of two prototype instruments, demonstrating white noise characteristics to sub-mmag photometric precision. Detailed simulations show that about thirty bright super-Earths and up to two hundred Neptunes could be discovered. Our science operations are due to begin in 2014.

  6. SmartMIMO: An Energy-Aware Adaptive MIMO-OFDM Radio Link Control for Next-Generation Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Dehaene

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiantenna systems and more particularly those operating on multiple input and multiple output (MIMO channels are currently a must to improve wireless links spectrum efficiency and/or robustness. There exists a fundamental tradeoff between potential spectrum efficiency and robustness increase. However, multiantenna techniques also come with an overhead in silicon implementation area and power consumption due, at least, to the duplication of part of the transmitter and receiver radio front-ends. Although the area overhead may be acceptable in view of the performance improvement, low power consumption must be preserved for integration in nomadic devices. In this case, it is the tradeoff between performance (e.g., the net throughput on top of the medium access control layer and average power consumption that really matters. It has been shown that adaptive schemes were mandatory to avoid that multiantenna techniques hamper this system tradeoff. In this paper, we derive smartMIMO: an adaptive multiantenna approach which, next to simply adapting the modulation and code rate as traditionally considered, decides packet-per-packet, depending on the MIMO channel state, to use either space-division multiplexing (increasing spectrum efficiency, space-time coding (increasing robustness, or to stick to single-antenna transmission. Contrarily to many of such adaptive schemes, the focus is set on using multiantenna transmission to improve the link energy efficiency in real operation conditions. Based on a model calibrated on an existing reconfigurable multiantenna transceiver setup, the link energy efficiency with the proposed scheme is shown to be improved by up to 30% when compared to nonadaptive schemes. The average throughput is, on the other hand, improved by up to 50% when compared to single-antenna transmission.

  7. SmartMIMO: An Energy-Aware Adaptive MIMO-OFDM Radio Link Control for Next-Generation Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehaene Wim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiantenna systems and more particularly those operating on multiple input and multiple output (MIMO channels are currently a must to improve wireless links spectrum efficiency and/or robustness. There exists a fundamental tradeoff between potential spectrum efficiency and robustness increase. However, multiantenna techniques also come with an overhead in silicon implementation area and power consumption due, at least, to the duplication of part of the transmitter and receiver radio front-ends. Although the area overhead may be acceptable in view of the performance improvement, low power consumption must be preserved for integration in nomadic devices. In this case, it is the tradeoff between performance (e.g., the net throughput on top of the medium access control layer and average power consumption that really matters. It has been shown that adaptive schemes were mandatory to avoid that multiantenna techniques hamper this system tradeoff. In this paper, we derive smartMIMO: an adaptive multiantenna approach which, next to simply adapting the modulation and code rate as traditionally considered, decides packet-per-packet, depending on the MIMO channel state, to use either space-division multiplexing (increasing spectrum efficiency, space-time coding (increasing robustness, or to stick to single-antenna transmission. Contrarily to many of such adaptive schemes, the focus is set on using multiantenna transmission to improve the link energy efficiency in real operation conditions. Based on a model calibrated on an existing reconfigurable multiantenna transceiver setup, the link energy efficiency with the proposed scheme is shown to be improved by up to 30% when compared to nonadaptive schemes. The average throughput is, on the other hand, improved by up to 50% when compared to single-antenna transmission.

  8. Next generation non-vacuum, maskless, low temperature nanoparticle ink laser digital direct metal patterning for a large area flexible electronics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyeob Yeo

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics opened a new class of future electronics. The foldable, light and durable nature of flexible electronics allows vast flexibility in applications such as display, energy devices and mobile electronics. Even though conventional electronics fabrication methods are well developed for rigid substrates, direct application or slight modification of conventional processes for flexible electronics fabrication cannot work. The future flexible electronics fabrication requires totally new low-temperature process development optimized for flexible substrate and it should be based on new material too. Here we present a simple approach to developing a flexible electronics fabrication without using conventional vacuum deposition and photolithography. We found that direct metal patterning based on laser-induced local melting of metal nanoparticle ink is a promising low-temperature alternative to vacuum deposition- and photolithography-based conventional metal patterning processes. The "digital" nature of the proposed direct metal patterning process removes the need for expensive photomask and allows easy design modification and short turnaround time. This new process can be extremely useful for current small-volume, large-variety manufacturing paradigms. Besides, simple, scalable, fast and low-temperature processes can lead to cost-effective fabrication methods on a large-area polymer substrate. The developed process was successfully applied to demonstrate high-quality Ag patterning (2.1 µΩ·cm and high-performance flexible organic field effect transistor arrays.

  9. Next generation non-vacuum, maskless, low temperature nanoparticle ink laser digital direct metal patterning for a large area flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Lee, Daehoo; Hotz, Nico; Lee, Ming-Tsang; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Flexible electronics opened a new class of future electronics. The foldable, light and durable nature of flexible electronics allows vast flexibility in applications such as display, energy devices and mobile electronics. Even though conventional electronics fabrication methods are well developed for rigid substrates, direct application or slight modification of conventional processes for flexible electronics fabrication cannot work. The future flexible electronics fabrication requires totally new low-temperature process development optimized for flexible substrate and it should be based on new material too. Here we present a simple approach to developing a flexible electronics fabrication without using conventional vacuum deposition and photolithography. We found that direct metal patterning based on laser-induced local melting of metal nanoparticle ink is a promising low-temperature alternative to vacuum deposition- and photolithography-based conventional metal patterning processes. The "digital" nature of the proposed direct metal patterning process removes the need for expensive photomask and allows easy design modification and short turnaround time. This new process can be extremely useful for current small-volume, large-variety manufacturing paradigms. Besides, simple, scalable, fast and low-temperature processes can lead to cost-effective fabrication methods on a large-area polymer substrate. The developed process was successfully applied to demonstrate high-quality Ag patterning (2.1 µΩ·cm) and high-performance flexible organic field effect transistor arrays.

  10. Pervasive Services for Next Generation Heterogeneous Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguiar, Rui; Bijwaard, Dennis; Farschian, Bakak A.; Jonas, Amardeo; Sarma, Amardeo

    2006-01-01

    The overall goal of the European collaborative project Daidalos is to design, develop and validate a framework for next generation mobility-enabled networks. Envisioned scenarios include heterogeneous access networks, while requiring ubiquitous, services of adequate quality, broadcast integration, a

  11. NOAA NEXt-Generation RADar (NEXRAD) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level III weather radar products collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska,...

  12. Next generation estrategic airlift military transport

    OpenAIRE

    CARSÍ DE LA CONCEPCIÓN, PAULA

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to design a next generation strategic airlift military transport for entry in 2030. The design must follow specific rules and specifications required by the AIAA Foundation Undergraduate Team Aircraft Design Competition. Carsí De La Concepción, P. (2015). Next generation estrategic airlift military transport. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/59487. Archivo delegado

  13. Optical Subsystems for Next Generation Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, J.A; Polo, V.; Schrenk, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent optical technologies are providing higher flexibility to next generation access networks: on the one hand, providing progressive FTTx and specifically FTTH deployment, progressively shortening the copper access network; on the other hand, also opening fixed-mobile convergence solutions...... in next generation PON architectures. It is provided an overview of the optical subsystems developed for the implementation of the proposed NG-Access Networks....

  14. Convergence and Next Generation Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; Hooli, Basavaraj

    2010-01-01

    The communications sector is undergoing significant changes, with the emergence of a number of platforms available to provide a different range of services. Some of these platforms are complementary to each other, while others are competitive, or can provide a valid substitute for some of the services provided. Up till now, the most important communications platform in most of the developing countries has been the public switched telecommunication network (PSTN) which provides access to all households and buildings. This universality in providing access has also meant that the network has generally been designated as one for universal service.This chapter focuses on the area where the most significant changes are taking place in the communication sector. The objective of this chapter is neither to give an overview of all communication platforms, nor is it aimed to assess the relative extent to which different platforms complement or compete with each other. The central theme of this chapter is to examine the ...

  15. Genomic counseling: next generation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rachel; Haga, Susanne B

    2014-08-01

    Personalized medicine continues to expand with the development and increasing use of genome-based testing. While these advances present new opportunities for diagnosis and risk assessment, they also present challenges to clinical delivery. Genetic counselors will play an important role in ushering in this new era of testing; however, it will warrant a shift from traditional genetic counseling to "genomic counseling." This shift will be marked by a move from reactive genetic testing for diagnosis of primarily single-gene diseases to proactive genome-based testing for multiple complex diseases for the purpose of disease prevention. It will also require discussion of risk information for a number of diseases, some of which may have low relative risks or weak associations, and thus, may not substantially impact clinical care. Additionally, genomic counselors will expand their roles, particularly in the area of health promotion to reduce disease risk. This additional role will require a style of counseling that is more directive than traditional counseling and require greater knowledge about risk reducing behaviors and disease screening.

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  17. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Attila [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States); Charles, Ruth [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  18. Galaxy LIMS for next-generation sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtalbers, J.; Rossler, J.; Sorn, P.; Graaf, J. de; Boisguerin, V.; Castle, J.; Sahin, U.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: We have developed a laboratory information management system (LIMS) for a next-generation sequencing (NGS) laboratory within the existing Galaxy platform. The system provides lab technicians standard and customizable sample information forms, barcoded submission forms, tracking of input sam

  19. Data Analysis and Next Generation Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    For the last decade, much of the work of California school administrators has been shaped by the accountability of the No Child Left Behind Act. Now as they stand at the precipice of Common Core Standards and next generation assessments, it is important to reflect on the proficiency educators have attained in using data to improve instruction and…

  20. Next Generation Drivetrain Development and Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan; Erdman, Bill; Blodgett, Doug; Halse, Chris; Grider, Dave

    2015-11-03

    This presentation was given at the Wind Energy IQ conference in Bremen, Germany, November 30 through December 2, 2105. It focused on the next-generation drivetrain architecture and drivetrain technology development and testing (including gearbox and inverter software and medium-voltage inverter modules.

  1. Research on Next-Generation Internet Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ping Wu; Ke Xu

    2006-01-01

    The primary problem during the evolvement of next-generation Internet is the contradiction between growing requirements for Internet and the insufficient development of network theory and technology. As the fundamental principles to guide the developing direction of Internet, the study of Internet architecture is always a focus in the research community. To address the core issue of network scalability, we propose multi-dimension scalable architecture of next-generation Internet, the main idea of which is to extend the single-dimension scalability of traditional Internet on interconnection to multi-dimension scalability of next-generation Internet. The multi-dimension scalability is composed of scale-scalability,performance-scalability, security-scalability, function-scalability, and service-scalability. We suggest five elements, namely,IPv6, authentic IPv6 addressing, scalable processing capacity of routers, end-to-end connectionless Quality-of-Service control,and 4over6 mechanism to realize the multi-dimension scalability. The current research results show that the multi-dimension scalable architecture composed of these five elements will bring great influence on next-generation Internet.

  2. Fetal Kidney Anomalies: Next Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Nielsen, Marlene Louise

    Aim and Introduction Identification of abnormal kidneys in the fetus may lead to termination of the pregnancy and raises questions about the underlying cause and recurrence risk in future pregnancies. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness of targeted next generation sequencing in fetuses...

  3. VIMT: The Next-Generation Media transport Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard Femando

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of MPEG media transport (MMT), which is a next-generation media transport standard effort by ISQ/MPEG. The architecture and functional areas of MMT are described. The functionality of existing media transport is analyzed to determine whether there is a need for this new media standard. From this analysis, potential areas for standardization in MMT have been identified.

  4. Next-Generation Multifunctional Electrochromic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-08-16

    during the daytime. Energy can also be stored in the smart windows during the daytime simultaneously and be discharged for use in the evening. These results reveal that the electrochromic devices have potential applications in a wide range of areas. We hope that this Account will promote further efforts toward fundamental research on electrochromic materials and the development of new multifunctional electrochromic devices to meet the growing demands for next-generation electronic systems.

  5. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  6. NetworkedDesign: next generation infrastructure for computational design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    During the design and engineering process of buildings and structures an enormous amount of data and information is produced. Logic, knowledge and experience is employed during this process by the designers and engineers to finally come to the design result. Because this information can not be fully

  7. The Next Generation Information Infrastructure for International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Gal, Uri; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Regulators and actors in international trade are facing a difficult challenge of increasing control and security while at the same time lowering the administrative burden for traders. As a tentative response, the European Commission has introduced the concept of “trusted traders”: certified trade...

  8. Next Generation of Photovoltaics New Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Vega, Antonio; López, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This book presents new concepts for a next generation of PV. Among these concepts are: Multijunction solar cells, multiple excitation solar cells (or how to take benefit of high energy photons for the creation of more than one electron hole-pair), intermediate band solar cells (or how to take advantage of below band-gap energy photons) and related technologies (for quantum dots, nitrides, thin films), advanced light management approaches (plasmonics). Written by world-class experts in next generation photovoltaics this book is an essential reference guide accessible to both beginners and experts working with solar cell technology. The book deeply analyzes the current state-of-the-art of the new photovoltaic approaches and outlines the implementation paths of these advanced devices. Topics addressed range from the fundamentals to the description of state-of-the-art of the new types of solar cells.

  9. Next generation high productivity submerged arc welding

    OpenAIRE

    LANGENOJA, MARKUS; Öhrvall Karlsson, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The task of designing concepts for the next generation of submerged arc welding heads was given by ESAB. ESAB is a global company manufacturing welding equipment for a wide span of industries and uses. In October 2011, ESAB introduced a new technology called Integrated Cold Electrode™, abbreviated and trademarked as ICE™. ICE™ is a technique which utilizes three electrodes in a highly productive and stable process. The current state of the ICE™ technique focuses on welding thick plates with c...

  10. Tablet—next generation sequence assembly visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Iain; Bayer, Micha; Cardle, Linda; Shaw, Paul; Stephen, Gordon; Wright, Frank; Marshall, David

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Tablet is a lightweight, high-performance graphical viewer for next-generation sequence assemblies and alignments. Supporting a range of input assembly formats, Tablet provides high-quality visualizations showing data in packed or stacked views, allowing instant access and navigation to any region of interest, and whole contig overviews and data summaries. Tablet is both multi-core aware and memory efficient, allowing it to handle assemblies containing millions of reads, even on a 32...

  11. Population genomics of marine fishes: next generation prospects and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Pujolar, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    in natural populations, are likely to challenge future studies. However, the combination of high genome coverage and new statistical developments offers promising solutions. Thus, the next generation of studies is likely to truly facilitate the transition from population genetics to population genomics...... are valuable organisms for advancing our understanding of evolution on historical and contemporary time scales, and here we highlight areas in which research on these species is likely to be particularly important in the near future. These include possibilities for gaining insights into processes on ecological...... time scales, identifying genomic signatures associated with population divergence under gene flow, and determining the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We also consider future challenges pertaining to the implementation of genome-wide coverage through next-generation sequencing and genotyping...

  12. Optimizing the next generation optical access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando; Soto, Ana Cardenas; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    of the optical amplification in the performance of the standardized PON is presented comparing the performance of the EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) and the distributed Raman amplification. The effect of the Raman amplification in extending the reach of the NG-OAN is analyzed and some requirements......Several issues in the design and optimization of the next generation optical access network (NG-OAN) are presented. The noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities are considered to optimize the video distribution link in a passive optical network (PON). A discussion of the effect...

  13. JUNO: A Next Generation Reactor Antineutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The mass hierarchy and the CP phase are the main focus of the next generation neutrino oscillation experiments. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), as a medium baseline reactor antineutrino experiment, can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy independent of the CP phase. The physics potential on the mass hierarchy, and other measurements are reviewed. The preliminary design options for a 20~kton detector with an energy resolution of $3\\%/\\sqrt{E_{vis}}$ are illustrated. The main technical challenges on the PMT and scintillator are discussed and the corresponding R\\&D efforts are presented.

  14. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  15. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    The emission regions of many types of X-ray sources are small and cannot be spatially resolved without interferometry techniques that haven't yet been developed. In order to understand the emission mechanisms and emission geometry, alternate measurement techniques are required. Most microphysical processes that affect X-rays, including scattering and magnetic emission processes are imprinted as polarization signatures. X-ray polarization also reveals exotic physical processes occurring in regions of very strong gravitational and magnetic fields. Observations of X-ray polarization will provide a measurement of the geometrical distribution of gas and magnetic fields without foreground depolarization that affects longer wavelengths (e.g. Faraday rotation in the radio). Emission from accretion disks has an inclination-dependent polarization. The polarization signature is modified by extreme gravitational forces, which bend light, essentially changing the contribution of each part of the disk to the integrated total intensity seen by distant observers. Because gravity has the largest effect on the innermost parts of the disk (which are the hottest, and thus contributes to more high energy photons), the energy dependent polarization is diagnostic of disk inclination, black hole mass and spin. Increasing the sensitive energy band will make these measurements possible. X-ray polarimetry will also enable the study of the origin of cosmic rays in the universe, the nature of black holes, the role of black holes in the evolution of galaxies, and the interaction of matter with the highest physically possible magnetic fields. These objectives address NASA's strategic interest in the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. We propose a two-year effort to develop the Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter (NGXP) that will have more than ten times the sensitivity of the current state of the art. NGXP will make possible game changing measurements of classes of astrophysical

  16. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  17. Next Generation Large Capacity Long Distance Fiber To The Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. A. Ayad and M. Elazazy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical device technologies for photonic networks, are focusing on integrated optical device technologies for digital coherent optical transmission technologies. With the rapid spread of fiber to the home (FTTH, broadband video services and mobile Internet devices now require a highly functional optical network infrastructure with a large capacity 100-Gbit/s/channel system based on digital coherent technology is considered to be a promising candidate for next-generation large-capacity long-distance optical communication systems. The optical components required for such systems, such as Polarization Division Multiplexed Quadrate Phase Shift Keying (PDM-QPSK optical modulator, integrated receiver, and local light source, are under development. Opto-electrical integration technologies, which enable us to construct small, low-cost, and highly functional optical components, will play an important role in providing cost-effective transmission equipment for future 100-Gbit/s/ch and post-100-Gbit/s/ch optical communications

  18. Convergence of wireless, wireline, and photonics next generation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Filled with illustrations and practical examples from industry, this book provides a brief but comprehensive introduction to the next-generation wireless networks that will soon replace more traditional wired technologies. Written by a mixture of top industrial experts and key academic professors, it is the only book available that covers both wireless networks (such as wireless local area and personal area networks) and optical networks (such as long-haul and metropolitan networks) in one volume. It gives engineers and engineering students the necessary knowledge to meet challenges of next-ge

  19. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Development of next generation reactor in Korea -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The project, development of next generation reactor, aims overall related technology development and obtainment of related license in 2001. The development direction is to determine the reactor type and to build up the design concept in 1994. For development trend analysis of foreign next generation reactor, level-1 PSA, fuel cycle analysis and computer code development are performed on System 80+ and AP 600. Especially for design characteristics analysis and volume upgrade of AP 600, nuclear fuel and reactor core design analysis, coolant circuit design analysis, mechanical structure design analysis and safety analysis etc. are performed. (Author).

  20. Software Defined Radio Architecture Contributions to Next Generation Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John

    2015-01-01

    systems, as well as those communications and navigation systems operated by international space agencies and civilian and government agencies. In this paper, we review the philosophies, technologies, architectural attributes, mission services, and communications capabilities that form the structure of candidate next-generation integrated communication architectures for space communications and navigation. A key area that this paper explores is from the development and operation of the software defined radio for the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed currently on the International Space Station (ISS). Evaluating the lessons learned from development and operation feed back into the communications architecture. Leveraging the reconfigurability provides a change in the way that operations are done and must be considered. Quantifying the impact on the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio architecture provides feedback to keep the standard useful and up to date. NASA is not the only customer of these radios. Software defined radios are developed for other applications, and taking advantage of these developments promotes an architecture that is cost effective and sustainable. Developments in the following areas such as an updated operating environment, higher data rates, networking and security can be leveraged. The ability to sustain an architecture that uses radios for multiple markets can lower costs and keep new technology infused.

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  2. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  3. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  4. Integrated control of next generation power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  5. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  6. Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

  7. Terahertz planar antennas for next generation communication

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, Kumud Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    This book describes various methods to enhance the directivity of  planar antennas, enabling the next generation of high frequency, wireless communication.  The authors discuss various applications to the terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, with an emphasis on gain enhancement mechanisms.  The numerical models of these antennas are presented and the analytical results are supported, using commercial simulators. The multilayer substrate microstrip transmission line at terahertz frequency is also explored and a method to obtain the various parameters of this interconnect at high frequency is described.  This book will be a valuable resource for anyone needing to explore the terahertz band gap for future wireless communication, in an effort to solve the bandwidth (spectrum scarcity) problem. • Enables development of terahertz communication systems in a license-free band of the electromagnetic spectrum; • Describes methods to design a multi-layered substrate transmission line to reduce var...

  8. Comparison of next-generation sequencing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Li, Yinhu; Li, Siliang; Hu, Ni; He, Yimin; Pong, Ray; Lin, Danni; Lu, Lihua; Law, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    With fast development and wide applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, genomic sequence information is within reach to aid the achievement of goals to decode life mysteries, make better crops, detect pathogens, and improve life qualities. NGS systems are typically represented by SOLiD/Ion Torrent PGM from Life Sciences, Genome Analyzer/HiSeq 2000/MiSeq from Illumina, and GS FLX Titanium/GS Junior from Roche. Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI), which possesses the world's biggest sequencing capacity, has multiple NGS systems including 137 HiSeq 2000, 27 SOLiD, one Ion Torrent PGM, one MiSeq, and one 454 sequencer. We have accumulated extensive experience in sample handling, sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. In this paper, technologies of these systems are reviewed, and first-hand data from extensive experience is summarized and analyzed to discuss the advantages and specifics associated with each sequencing system. At last, applications of NGS are summarized.

  9. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Science with a Next-Generation VLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric J.; Carilli, Chris Luke; ngVLA Science Working Groups

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by dramatic discoveries from the Jansky VLA and ALMA, a plan has been initiated to pursue a future large area radio interferometer that will open new discovery space from proto-planetary disks to distant galaxies. Building on the superb cm observing conditions and existing infrastructure of the VLA site, the current vision of ngVLA is an interferometric array with more than 10 times the effective collecting area and 10 times higher spatial resolution than the current VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) that will operate at frequencies spanning ~1.2-116GHz. The ngVLA is optimized for observations at wavelengths between the exquisite performance of ALMA at submm wavelengths, and the future SKA-1 at few centimeter and longer wavelengths, thus lending itself to be highly complementary with these facilities. As such, the ngVLA will open a new window on the universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcecond resolution, as well as deliver unprecedented broad band continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. The ngVLA will be the only facility in the world that can tackle a broad range of outstanding scientific questions in modern astronomy by simultaneously delivering the capability to: directly image planet formation in the terrestrial-zone; map dust-obscured star formation and the cosmic baryon cycle down to pc-scales out to the Virgo cluster; take a cosmic census of the molecular gas which fuels star formation back to first light and cosmic reionization; and carry out novel techniques for exploring temporal phenomena from milliseconds to years. In this poster we highlight a number of the tranformative science cases that are driving the design of the ngVLA.

  11. The Influence of Technical Infrastructure on the Roundabout Areas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Jakub; Greinert, Andrzej; Owoc, Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the analysis of roundabouts design aspects including the location of underground and overground infrastructure. Authors also undertake an attempt to assess the existing situation with planning conditions. Many differences depended on the roundabout size, location, surroundings, natural conditions, landform technology used were noted. Roundabouts design should include both the natural arrangements and art installations, increasing the area of urban green areas in parallel using the area as a place for works of art exposure. For Zielona Góra urban area this is of particular importance because of the multitude of roundabouts and their good position in the city structure.

  12. The next-generation BLASTPol experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dober, Bradley; Ashton, Peter; Angilè, Francesco E; Beall, James A; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeffrey; Van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P; Pascale, Enzo; Santos, Fabio P; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Ullom, Joel N; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) is a suborbital mapping experiment designed to study the role magnetic fields play in star formation. BLASTPol has had two science flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. These flights have produced thousands of polarization vectors at 250, 350 and 500 microns in several molecular cloud targets. We present the design, specifications, and progress towards the next-generation BLASTPol experiment (BLAST-TNG). BLAST-TNG will fly a 40% larger diameter primary mirror, with almost 8 times the number of polarization-sensitive detectors resulting in a factor of 16 increase in mapping speed. With a spatial resolution of 22 arcseconds and four times the field of view of BLASTPol, BLAST-TNG will bridge the angular scales between Planck's low resolution all-sky maps and ALMA's ultra-high resolution narrow fields. The new receiver has a larger cryogenics volume, allowing for a 28 day hold time. BLAST-TNG employs three arr...

  13. Orbitography for next generation space clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Duchayne, Loïc; Wolf, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade of the 20th century and the first few years of the 21st, the uncertainty of atomic clocks has decreased by about two orders of magnitude, passing from the low 10^-14 to below 10^-16, in relative frequency . Space applications in fundamental physics, geodesy, time/frequency metrology, navigation etc... are among the most promising for this new generation of clocks. Onboard terrestrial or solar system satellites, their exceptional frequency stability and accuracy makes them a prime tool to test the fundamental laws of nature, and to study gravitational potentials and their evolution. In this paper, we study in more detail the requirements on orbitography compatible with operation of next generation space clocks at the required uncertainty based on a completely relativistic model. Using the ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) mission as an example, we show that the required accuracy goal can be reached with relatively modest constraints on the orbitography of the space clock, much less str...

  14. THE NEXT GENERATION TRANSIT SURVEY PROTOTYPING PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. McCormac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS es un nuevo sondeo d e exoplanetas transitantes de campo amplio que tiene como objetivo descubrir exoplanetas del tama ̃no d e Neptuno y super-Tierras entorno a estrellas brillantes ( V < 13 cercanas. NGTS consiste de un arreglo de 12 telescopios o perados rob ́oticamente observando en la banda de 600 − 900 nm. NGTS sondear ́a m ́as de cinco veces el n ́umero de estre llas, con V < 13, que Kepler y por lo tanto proveer ́a los objetivos m ́as brillantes para s er caracterizados con instrumentaci ́on existente y futura (VLT, E-ELT y JWST. En 2009/10 un prototipo del NGTS f ue probado en La Palma, comprobando que un sistema as ́ı puede alcanzar nuestros objetivos de fot ometr ́ıa estelar esencialmente limitada s ́olo por el ruido blanco. Los resultados son resumidos aqu ́ı. NGTS se al imenta de la experiencia del proyecto SuperWASP, que, por muchos a ̃nos, ha liderado la detecci ́on terrestre d e exoplanetas transitantes.

  15. Interoperability and security in wireless body area network infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Steve; Lebak, Jeffrey; Yao, Jianchu; Creekmore, Jonathan; Milenkovic, Aleksandar; Jovanov, Emil

    2005-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) and their supporting information infrastructures offer unprecedented opportunities to monitor state of health without constraining the activities of a wearer. These mobile point-of-care systems are now realizable due to the convergence of technologies such as low-power wireless communication standards, plug-and-play device buses, off-the-shelf development kits for low-power microcontrollers, handheld computers, electronic medical records, and the Internet. To increase acceptance of personal monitoring technology while lowering equipment cost, advances must be made in interoperability (at both the system and device levels) and security. This paper presents an overview of WBAN infrastructure work in these areas currently underway in the Medical Component Design Laboratory at Kansas State University (KSU) and at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). KSU efforts include the development of wearable health status monitoring systems that utilize ISO/IEEE 11073, Bluetooth, Health Level 7, and OpenEMed. WBAN efforts at UAH include the development of wearable activity and health monitors that incorporate ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor platforms with hardware-level encryption and the TinyOS development environment. WBAN infrastructures are complex, requiring many functional support elements. To realize these infrastructures through collaborative efforts, organizations such as KSU and UAH must define and utilize standard interfaces, nomenclature, and security approaches.

  16. Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael; Wu, Weihua; Taatjes, Craig A.; Scheer, Adam Michael; Turner, Kevin M.; Yu, Eizadora T.; O' Bryan, Greg; Powell, Amy Jo; Gao, Connie W.

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

  17. Applications for next-generation sequencing in fish ecotoxicogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvine C Mehinto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The new technologies for next-generation sequencing and global gene expression analyses that are widely used in molecular medicine are increasingly applied to the field of fish biology. This has facilitated new directions to address research areas that could not be previously considered due to the lack of molecular information for ecologically relevant species. Over the past decade, the cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS has decreased significantly, making it possible to use non-model fish species to investigate emerging environmental issues. NGS technologies have permitted researchers to obtain large amounts of raw data in short periods of time. There have also been significant improvements in bioinformatics to assemble the sequences and annotate the genes, thus facilitating the management of these large datasets. The combination of DNA sequencing and bioinformatics has improved our abilities to design custom microarrays and study the genome and transcriptome of a wide variety of organisms. Despite the promising results obtained using these techniques in fish studies, NGS technologies are currently underused in ecotoxicogenomics and few studies have employed these methods. These issues should be addressed in order to exploit the full potential of NGS in ecotoxicological studies and expand our understanding of the biology of non-model organisms.

  18. Patterning techniques for next generation IC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reduction of linear critical dimensions (CDs) beyond 45 nm would require significant increase of the complexity of pattern definition process. In this work, we discuss the key successor methodology to the current optical lithography, the Double Patterning Technique (DPT). We compare the complexity of CAD solutions, fab equipment, and wafer processing with its competitors, such as the nanoimprint (NIL) and the extreme UV (EUV) techniques. We also look ahead to the market availability for the product families enabled using the novel patterning solutions. DPT is often recognized as the most viable next generation lithography as it utilizes the existing equipment and processes and is considered a stop-gap solution before the advanced NIL or EUV equipment is developed. Using design for manufacturability (DfM) rules, DPT can drive the k1 factor down to 0.13. However, it faces a variety of challenges, from new mask overlay strategies, to layout pattern split, novel OPC, increased CD tolerances, new etch techniques, as well as long processing time, all of which compromise its return on investment (RoI). In contrast, it can be claimed e.g., that the RoI is the highest for the NIL but this technology bears significant risk. For all novel patterning techniques, the key questions remain: when and how should they be introduced, what is their long-term potential, when should they be replaced, and by what successor technology. We summarize the unpublished results of several panel discussions on DPT at the recent SPIE/BACUS conferences.

  19. Resilient Control Systems: Next Generation Design Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Rieger

    2009-05-01

    Since digital control systems were introduced to the market more than 30 years ago, the operational efficiency and stability gained through their use have fueled our migration and ultimate dependence on them for the monitoring and control of critical infrastructure. While these systems have been designed for functionality and reliability, a hostile cyber environment and uncertainties in complex networks and human interactions have placed additional parameters on the design expectations for control systems.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  1. Toward robust AV conferencing on next-generation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haining; Cheng, Liang; El Zarki, Magda

    2005-01-01

    In order to enable a truly pervasive computing environment, next generation networks (including B3G and 4G) will merge the broadband wireless and wireline networking infrastructure. However, due to the tremendous complexity in administration and the unreliability of the wireless channel, provision of hard-guarantees for services on such networks will not happen in the foreseeable future. This consequently makes it particularly challenging to offer viable AV conferencing services due to their stringent synchronization, delay and data fidelity requirements. We propose in this paper a robust application-level solution for wireless mobile AV conferencing on B3G/4G networks. Expecting no special treatment from the network, we apply a novel adaptive delay and synchronization control mechanism to maintain the synchronization and reduce the latency as much as possible. We also employ a robust video coding technique that has better error-resilience capability. We investigate the performance of the proposed solution through simulations using a three-state hidden Markov chain as the generic end-to-end transport channel model. The results show that our scheme yields tight synchronization performance, relatively low end-to-end latency and satisfactory presentation quality. The scheme successfully provides a fairly robust AV conferencing service.

  2. Layer 1 VPN services in distributed next-generation SONET/SDH networks with inverse multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, N.; Muthalaly, M. V.; Benhaddou, D.; Alanqar, W.

    2006-05-01

    Advances in next-generation SONET/SDH along with GMPLS control architectures have enabled many new service provisioning capabilities. In particular, a key services paradigm is the emergent Layer 1 virtual private network (L1 VPN) framework, which allows multiple clients to utilize a common physical infrastructure and provision their own 'virtualized' circuit-switched networks. This precludes expensive infrastructure builds and increases resource utilization for carriers. Along these lines, a novel L1 VPN services resource management scheme for next-generation SONET/SDH networks is proposed that fully leverages advanced virtual concatenation and inverse multiplexing features. Additionally, both centralized and distributed GMPLS-based implementations are also tabled to support the proposed L1 VPN services model. Detailed performance analysis results are presented along with avenues for future research.

  3. Prometheus: a next-generation monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Prometheus is an open eco-system that provides an end-to-end approach to infrastructure and application monitoring. It covers all levels beginning with easy instrumentation based on a flexible, multi-dimensional data model. The Prometheus server itself collects and stores time series while trying to maintain operational simplicity while being adaptable to varying scales and layouts of infrastructure. By integrating with a wide range of service discovery systems, it always stays in sync with the world it is monitoring. The powerful query language allows us to ask complex questions and can be applied seamlessly between ad-hoc investigation and static dashboarding. It is also directly applied in the eco-system's alerting layer, which favors a time-series based over and event driven approach. In this talk we will look at all aspects of Prometheus from the high-level philosophy behind its design to its practical concerns of implementation and operation. About the speaker Fabian Reinartz is a software eng...

  4. Advances Made in the Next Generation of Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the unique networking characteristics of communications satellites, global satellite networks are moving to the forefront in enhancing national and global information infrastructures. Simultaneously, broadband data services, which are emerging as the major market driver for future satellite and terrestrial networks, are being widely acknowledged as the foundation for an efficient global information infrastructure. In the past 2 years, various task forces and working groups around the globe have identified pivotal topics and key issues to address if we are to realize such networks in a timely fashion. In response, industry, government, and academia undertook efforts to address these topics and issues. A workshop was organized to provide a forum to assess the current state-of-the-art, identify key issues, and highlight the emerging trends in the next-generation architectures, data protocol development, communication interoperability, and applications. The Satellite Networks: Architectures, Applications, and Technologies Workshop was hosted by the Space Communication Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Nearly 300 executives and technical experts from academia, industry, and government, representing the United States and eight other countries, attended the event (June 2 to 4, 1998). The program included seven panels and invited sessions and nine breakout sessions in which 42 speakers presented on technical topics. The proceedings covers a wide range of topics: access technology and protocols, architectures and network simulations, asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite networks, Internet over satellite networks, interoperability experiments and applications, multicasting, NASA interoperability experiment programs, NASA mission applications, and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over satellite: issues, relevance, and experience.

  5. The FAST Project - A Next Generation UHECR Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Malacari, Max; Bellido, Jose A.; Horvath, Pavel; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Jiang, Jiaqi; Mandat, Dusan; Matalon, Ariel; Matthews, John N.; Motloch, Pavel; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Privitera, Paolo; Schovanek, Petr; Thomas, Stan B.; Travnicek, Petr

    2017-03-01

    We present a concept for large-area, low-cost detection of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with a Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes (FAST)b, addressing the requirements for the next generation of UHECR experiments. In the FAST design, a large field of view is covered by a few pixels at the focal plane of a mirror or Fresnel lens. We report on the first results of a FAST prototype installed at the Telescope Array (TA) site, consisting of a single 200 mm photomultiplier tube (PMT) at the focal plane of a 1 m2 Fresnel lens system taken from the prototype of the JEM-EUSO experiment. We also report on the status of the full-scale FAST prototype soon to be installed at the TA site, comprising a segmented spherical mirror of 1.6 m diameter and a 2 × 2 PMT camera.

  6. Next Generation Device Grade Silicon-Germanium on Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Callum G.; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Mallinson, Christopher F.; Watts, John F.; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Reed, Graham T.; Gardes, Frederic Y.

    2015-02-01

    High quality single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator has the potential to facilitate the next generation of photonic and electronic devices. Using a rapid melt growth technique we engineer tailored single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator structures with near constant composition over large areas. The proposed structures avoid the problem of laterally graded SiGe compositions, caused by preferential Si rich solid formation, encountered in straight SiGe wires by providing radiating elements distributed along the structures. This method enables the fabrication of multiple single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator layers of different compositions, on the same Si wafer, using only a single deposition process and a single anneal process, simply by modifying the structural design and/or the anneal temperature. This facilitates a host of device designs, within a relatively simple growth environment, as compared to the complexities of other methods, and also offers flexibility in device designs within that growth environment.

  7. Mobile location services over the next generation IP core network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    Mobile communication networks are evolving towards smaller cells, higher throughput, better security and provision of better services. Wireless short-range technologies, such as the WLAN 802.11 standards family and Bluetooth, are expected to play a major role in future networks. The mobile core....... The concept of mobile location services over the next generation IP networks is described. We also discuss the effectiveness of the short-range wireless network regarding a mobile user's position inside buildings and hotspot areas....... network is changing from circuit-switched to packet-switched technology and evolving to an IP core network based on IPv6. The IP core network will allow all IP devices to be connected seamlessly. Due to the movement detection mechanism of Mobile IPv6, mobile terminals will periodically update...

  8. The Next Generation Transit Survey—Prototyping Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormac, J.; Pollacco, D.; Wheatley, P. J.; West, R. G.; Walker, S.; Bento, J.; Skillen, I.; Faedi, F.; Burleigh, M. R.; Casewell, S. L.; Chazelas, B.; Genolet, L.; Gibson, N. P.; Goad, M. R.; Lawrie, K. A.; Ryans, R.; Todd, I.; Udry, S.; Watson, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    We present the prototype telescope for the Next Generation Transit Survey, which was built in the UK in 2008/2009 and tested on La Palma in the Canary Islands in 2010. The goals for the prototype system were severalfold: to determine the level of systematic noise in an NGTS-like system; demonstrate that we can perform photometry at the (sub) millimagnitude level on transit timescales across a wide-field; show that it is possible to detect transiting super-Earth and Neptune-sized exoplanets and prove the technical feasibility of the proposed planet survey. We tested the system for around 100 nights and met each of the goals above. Several key areas for improvement were highlighted during the prototyping phase. They have been subsequently addressed in the final NGTS facility, which was recently commissioned at ESO Cerro Paranal, Chile.

  9. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  10. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. H. Southworth; P. E. MacDonald

    2003-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project will demonstrate emissions-free nuclearassisted electricity and hydrogen production by 2015. The NGNP reactor will be a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with a design goal outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. The reactor thermal power and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during hypothetical accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. This paper provides a description of the project to build the NGNP at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The NGNP Project includes an overall reactor design activity and four major supporting activities: materials selection and qualification, NRC licensing and regulatory support, fuel development and qualification, and the hydrogen production plant. Each of these activities is discussed in the paper. All the reactor design and construction activities will be managed under the DOE’s project management system as outlined in DOE Order 413.3. The key elements of the overall project management system discussed in this paper include the client and project management organization relationship, critical decisions (CDs), acquisition strategy, and the project logic and timeline. The major activities associated with the materials program include development of a plan for managing the selection and qualification of all component materials required for the NGNP; identification of specific materials alternatives for each system component; evaluation of the needed testing, code work, and analysis required to qualify each identified material; preliminary selection of component materials; irradiation of needed sample materials; physical, mechanical, and chemical testing of unirradiated and irradiated materials; and documentation of final materials selections. The NGNP will be licensed by the NRC under 10 CFR 50 or 10

  11. EIDA Next Generation: ongoing and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Angelo; Quinteros, Javier; Sleeman, Reinoud; Trani, Luca; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin

    2015-04-01

    The European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA; http://www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html) is the distributed Data Centre system within ORFEUS, providing transparent access and services to high quality, seismic data across (currently) 9 large data archives in Europe. EIDA is growing, in terms of the number of participating data centres, the size of the archives, the variability of the data in the archives, the number of users, and the volume of downloads. The on-going success of EIDA is thus providing challenges that are the driving force behind the design of the next generation (NG) of EIDA, which is expected to be implemented within EPOS IP. EIDA ORFEUS must cope with further expansion of the system and more complex user requirements by developing new techniques and extended services. The EIDA NG is being designed to work on standard FDSN web services and two additional new web services: Routing Service and QC (quality controlled) service. This presentation highlights the challenges EIDA needs to address during the EPOS IP and focuses on these 2 new services. The Routing Service can be considered as the core of EIDA NG. It was designed to assist users and clients to locate data within a federated, decentralized data centre (e.g. EIDA). A detailed, FDSN-compliant specification of the service has been developed. Our implementation of this service will run at every EIDA node, but is also capable of running on a user's computer, allowing anyone to define virtual or integrate existing data centres. This (meta)service needs to be queried in order to locate the data. Some smart clients (in a beta status) have been also provided to offer the user an integrated view of the whole EIDA, hiding the complexity of its internal structure. The service is open and able to be queried by anyone without the need of credentials or authentication. The QC Service is developed to cope with user requirements to query for relevant data only. The web service provides detailed information on the

  12. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  13. Optimal localisation of next generation Biofuel production in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mossberg, Johanna [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)] [and others

    2013-09-01

    With a high availability of lignocellulosic biomass and various types of cellulosic by-products, as well as a large number of industries, Sweden is a country of great interest for future large scale production of sustainable, next generation biofuels. This is most likely also a necessity as Sweden has the ambition to be independent of fossil fuels in the transport sector by the year 2030 and completely fossil free by 2050. In order to reach competitive biofuel production costs, plants with large production capacities are likely to be required. Feedstock intake capacities in the range of about 1-2 million tonnes per year, corresponding to a biomass feed of 300-600 MW, can be expected, which may lead to major logistical challenges. To enable expansion of biofuel production in such large plants, as well as provide for associated distribution requirements, it is clear that substantial infrastructure planning will be needed. The geographical location of the production plant facilities is therefore of crucial importance and must be strategic to minimise the transports of raw material as well as of final product. Competition for the available feedstock, from for example forest industries and CHP plants (combined heat and power) further complicates the localisation problem. Since the potential for an increased biomass utilisation is limited, high overall resource efficiency is of great importance. Integration of biofuel production processes in existing industries or in district heating systems may be beneficial from several aspects, such as opportunities for efficient heat integration, feedstock and equipment integration, as well as access to existing experience and know-how. This report describes the development of Be Where Sweden, a geographically explicit optimisation model for localisation of next generation biofuel production plants in Sweden. The main objective of developing such a model is to be able to assess production plant locations that are robust to varying

  14. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Next- Generation Microshutter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary; Sultana, Mahmooda; Hess, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite. It is optically transparent and has high electron mobility, and thus has great potential to make transparent conductive electrodes. This invention contributes towards the development of graphene transparent conductive electrodes for next-generation microshutter arrays. The original design for the electrodes of the next generation of microshutters uses indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode material. ITO is widely used in NASA flight missions. The optical transparency of ITO is limited, and the material is brittle. Also, ITO has been getting more expensive in recent years. The objective of the invention is to develop a graphene transparent conductive electrode that will replace ITO. An exfoliation procedure was developed to make graphene out of graphite crystals. In addition, large areas of single-layer graphene were produced using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with high optical transparency. A special graphene transport procedure was developed for transferring graphene from copper substrates to arbitrary substrates. The concept is to grow large-size graphene sheets using the LPCVD system through chemical reaction, transfer the graphene film to a substrate, dope graphene to reduce the sheet resistance, and pattern the film to the dimension of the electrodes in the microshutter array. Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are expected to have a transparency of 97.7%. This covers the electromagnetic spectrum from UV to IR. In comparison, ITO electrodes currently used in microshutter arrays have 85% transparency in mid-IR, and suffer from dramatic transparency drop at a wavelength of near-IR or shorter. Thus, graphene also has potential application as transparent conductive electrodes for Schottky photodiodes in the UV region.

  15. ADS: The Next Generation Search Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, Edwin A; Chyla, Roman; Luker, James; Grant, Carolyn S; Thompson, Donna M; Holachek, Alexandra; Dave, Rahul; Murray, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Four years after the last LISA meeting, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) finds itself in the middle of major changes to the infrastructure and contents of its database. In this paper we highlight a number of features of great importance to librarians and discuss the additional functionality that we are currently developing. Starting in 2011, the ADS started to systematically collect, parse and index full-text documents for all the major publications in Physics and Astronomy as well as many smaller Astronomy journals and arXiv e-prints, for a total of over 3.5 million papers. Our citation coverage has doubled since 2010 and now consists of over 70 million citations. We are normalizing the affiliation information in our records and, in collaboration with the CfA library and NASA, we have started collecting and linking funding sources with papers in our system. At the same time, we are undergoing major technology changes in the ADS platform which affect all aspects of the system and its operations. We hav...

  16. Manufacturing Laboratory for Next Generation Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    be an adjacent wood shop area in that many of the activities and projects involve wood mockups , wooden support structures, forming for fiberglass or...with the acquisition of a state-of- the-art laser 3D coordinate measuring machine. The machine is a FARO 7 axis Edge system with options and software ...activities and projects involve wood mockups , wooden support structures, forming for fiberglass or composite lay-up, etc. This area will also be

  17. A Rural Next Generation Network (R-NGN and Its Testbed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armein Z. R. Langi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Rural Next Generation Networks (R-NGN technology allows Internet protocol (IP based systems to be used in rural areas. This paper reports a testbed of R-NGN that uses low cost Ethernet radio links, combined with media gateways and a softswitch. The network consists of point-to-point IP Ethernet 2.4 GHz wireless link, IP switches and gateways in each community, standard copper wires and telephone sets for users. It uses low power consumption, and suitable for low density users. This combination allows low cost systems as well as multiservices (voice, data, and multimedia for rural communications. An infrastructure has been deployed in two communities in Cipicung Girang, a village 10 km outside Bandung city, Indonesia. Two towers link the communities with a network of Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB campus. In addition, local wirelines connect community houses to the network. Currently there are four houses connected to each community node (for a total of eight house, upon which we can perform various tests and measurements.

  18. The next generation of revenue cycle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, David C

    2007-07-01

    The revenue cycle management environment is dynamic. Revenue cycle leaders are now responsible for additional functional areas and have to deal with new financing arrangements that expose the organization to greater financial risk. Financial managers can use key performance indicators and the suggested practice processes checklist to determine whether their revenue cycle operations are in good shape or need shaping up.

  19. Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A prototype Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly will be fabricated and delivered during Phase II. Maximum weight reduction for the Hard Upper...

  20. Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly will maximize the Hard Upper Torso - Hatch assembly weight reduction through the combination of innovative...

  1. NOAA Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Level II Base Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level II weather radar data collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii,...

  2. NOAA Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Level III Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Level III weather radar products collected from Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) stations located in the contiguous United States, Alaska,...

  3. Analyzing the next-generation catalog a library technology report

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    his issue of ""Library Technology Reports"" analyzes five different academic libraries to better understand their investments, detailing the outcome thus far and drawing conclusions about the next-generation catalog.

  4. Next-generation sequencing offers new insights into DNA degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    The processes underlying DNA degradation are central to various disciplines, including cancer research, forensics and archaeology. The sequencing of ancient DNA molecules on next-generation sequencing platforms provides direct measurements of cytosine deamination, depurination and fragmentation r...

  5. Next-generation wireless technologies 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Chilamkurti, Naveen; Chaouchi, Hakima

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive text/reference examines the various challenges to secure, efficient and cost-effective next-generation wireless networking. Topics and features: presents the latest advances, standards and technical challenges in a broad range of emerging wireless technologies; discusses cooperative and mesh networks, delay tolerant networks, and other next-generation networks such as LTE; examines real-world applications of vehicular communications, broadband wireless technologies, RFID technology, and energy-efficient wireless communications; introduces developments towards the 'Internet o

  6. Next Generation Network Routing and Control Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong

    proved, the dominating Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) cannot address all the issues that in inter-domain QoS routing. Thus a new protocol or network architecture has to be developed to be able to carry the inter-domain traffic with the QoS and TE consideration. Moreover, the current network control also......-domain. It is a routing component that flexibly supports path computation with different requirements, constraints and areas. It is also can be seen as part of NGN transport control plane, which integrates with the other functions. In the aspect of resource control, an NGN release Resource and Admission Control Functions...

  7. Novel Technologies for Next Generation Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    cell into the Reset state, the diode must be forward-biased to reduce Felec so that the sum of Felec and Fadh (i.e. the total attractive force) is...total attractive force (with Fadh fixed at 3.5 µN [8] and I0 = 1.2×10-8, m = 4.76 for the pn diode) vs. the magnitude of VBL, for various values of... Fadh is expected to scale with the contact area [17] [18], it is important to maintain the ratio Felec/Fres to be greater than 1 in the Set state, to

  8. Investment dimensions in a universal service perspective: Next generation networks, alternative funding mechanisms and public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the investment dimensions of next generation networks from a universal service perspective in a European context. The question is how new network infrastructures for providing access for everyone to communication, information and entertainment services in the present...

  9. Cross-Layer Resource Allocation Scheme Under Heterogeneous Constraints for Next Generation High Rate WPAN

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Ayman; Helard, Jean-Francois; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2312

    2010-01-01

    In the next generation wireless networks, the growing demand for new wireless applications is accompanied with high expectations for better quality of service (QoS) fulfillment especially for multimedia applications. Furthermore, the coexistence of future unlicensed users with existing licensed users is becoming a challenging task in the next generation communication systems to overcome the underutilization of the spectrum. A QoS and interference aware resource allocation is thus of special interest in order to respond to the heterogeneous constraints of the next generation networks. In this work, we address the issue of resource allocation under heterogeneous constraints for unlicensed multiband ultra-wideband (UWB) systems in the context of Future Home Networks, i.e. the wireless personal area network (WPAN). The problem is first studied analytically using a heterogeneous constrained optimization problem formulation. After studying the characteristics of the optimal solution, we propose a low-complexity sub...

  10. SecA inhibitors: next generation antimicrobials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixuan Chen; Arpana Chaudhary; Jianmei Cui; Jinshan Jin; Yinghsin Hsieh; Hsiuchin Yang; Yingju Huang; Phang C. Tai; Binghe Wang

    2012-01-01

    Health problems caused by bacterial infection have become a major public health concern in recent years due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains.Therefore,the need for the development of new types of antimicrobial agents,especially those with a novel mechanism of action,is urgent.SecA,one of the key components of the secretion (Sec) pathway,is a new promising target for antimicrobial agent design.In recent years,promising leads targeting SecA have been identified and the feasibility of developing antimicrobial agents through the inhibition of SecA has been demonstrated.We hope this review will help stimulate more research in this area so that new antimicrobials can be obtained by targeting SecA.

  11. Next Generation Radio Astronomy Receiver Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    Radio astronomy observations in the coming decade will require new levels of sensitivity while mapping large regions of space with much greater efficiency than is achieved with current telescopes. This requires new instrumentation with the greatest achievable sensitivity, dynamic range, and field of view. Receiver noise is quickly approaching fundamental limits at most radio wavelengths, so significant gains in sensitivity can only be made by increasing collecting area. Jointly, these requirements suggest using large arrays of smaller antennas, or many moderate-size antennas equipped with multi-beam arrays. The challenge is to develop receivers and wide bandwidth data transport systems which are lower cost, more compact, more reliable, lower weight, and more reproducible than the best current systems, with no compromise to performance. This can be achieved with a greater degree of component integration, extensive use of digital signal processing and transport, and replacement of functions currently performed ...

  12. Writing next-generation display photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Tor; Wahlsten, Mikael; Park, Youngjin

    2016-10-01

    Recent years have seen a fast technical development within the display area. Displays get ever higher pixel density and the pixels get smaller. Current displays have over 800 PPI and market forces will eventually drive for densities of 2000 PPI or higher. The transistor backplanes also get more complex. OLED displays require 4-7 transistors per pixel instead of the typical 1-2 transistors used for LCDs, and they are significantly more sensitive to errors. New large-area maskwriters have been developed for masks used in high volume production of screens for state-of-theart smartphones. Redesigned laser optics with higher NA and lower aberrations improve resolution and CD uniformity and reduce mura effects. The number of beams has been increased to maintain the throughput despite the higher writing resolution. OLED displays are highly sensitive to placement errors and registration in the writers has been improved. To verify the registration of produced masks a separate metrology system has been developed. The metrology system is self-calibrated to high accuracy. The calibration is repeatable across machines and sites using Z-correction. The repeatability of the coordinate system makes it possible to standardize the coordinate system across an entire supply chain or indeed across the entire industry. In-house metrology is a commercial necessity for high-end mask shop, but also the users of the masks, the panel makers, would benefit from having in-house metrology. It would act as the reference for their mask suppliers, give better predictive and post mortem diagnostic power for the panel process, and the metrology could be used to characterize and improve the entire production loop from data to panel.

  13. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  14. The next generation of neural network chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1997-08-01

    There have been many national and international neural networks research initiatives: USA (DARPA, NIBS), Canada (IRIS), Japan (HFSP) and Europe (BRAIN, GALA TEA, NERVES, ELENE NERVES 2) -- just to mention a few. Recent developments in the field of neural networks, cognitive science, bioengineering and electrical engineering have made it possible to understand more about the functioning of large ensembles of identical processing elements. There are more research papers than ever proposing solutions and hardware implementations are by no means an exception. Two fields (computing and neuroscience) are interacting in ways nobody could imagine just several years ago, and -- with the advent of new technologies -- researchers are focusing on trying to copy the Brain. Such an exciting confluence may quite shortly lead to revolutionary new computers and it is the aim of this invited session to bring to light some of the challenging research aspects dealing with the hardware realizability of future intelligent chips. Present-day (conventional) technology is (still) mostly digital and, thus, occupies wider areas and consumes much more power than the solutions envisaged. The innovative algorithmic and architectural ideals should represent important breakthroughs, paving the way towards making neural network chips available to the industry at competitive prices, in relatively small packages and consuming a fraction of the power required by equivalent digital solutions.

  15. Developing the Next Generation of Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Monitoring Seasons Through Global Learning Communities (Seasons and Biomes), an inquiry- and project- based program, works with K-12 teachers and their students worldwide to increase awareness and understanding of the Earth as a system, and the science process. Seasons and Biomes is one of four GLOBE (Global learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment, www.globe.gov) earth system science projects. Seasons and Biomes engage students in ongoing research investigations as way of learning science. We do this by conducting for teachers, professional development workshops that incorporate science content, best teaching practices (that include inquiry, integrating science with math, language and art, authentic assessments, concept mapping), a model for student scientific research, and an earth system science approach. Teachers learn and practice standardized measurement protocols developed by GLOBE in the following areas of investigations: atmosphere, hydrology, soils, phenology and land cover/biology, as well as those developed by Seasons and Biomes on ice seasonality (freeze-up and break-up of rivers and lakes), active layer/depth of soil freezing (frost tube), mosquitoes (larvae abundance and identification of mosquito vectors for malaria and dengue fever) and plant invasive species. They also learn how to enter data as well as access data on the GLOBE website. Teachers in turn teach and work with their students in doing authentic science, contribute data to ongoing research as well as conduct their own studies. During the workshops we also provide guidance and opportunity for early career scientists to share their research, work with teachers and mentor them as well as to develop measurement protocols pertinent to their research. Similarly we work with GLOBE Alumni, students who were in the GLOBE program when they were in primary and/or secondary schools and have graduated from college, yet are still very much inspired and dedicated to working with

  16. The Next Generation of HLA Image Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, N. I.; Casertano, S.; Ferguson, B.

    2012-09-01

    We present the re-engineered pipeline based on existing and improved algorithms with the aim of improving processing quality, cross-instrument portability, data flow management, and software maintenance. The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) is a project to add value to the Hubble Space Telescope data archive by producing and delivering science-ready drizzled data products and source lists derived from these products. Initially, ACS, NICMOS, and WFCP2 data were combined using instrument-specific pipelines based on scripts developed to process the ACS GOODS data and a separate set of scripts to generate source extractor and DAOPhot source lists. The new pipeline, initially designed for WFC3 data, isolates instrument-specific processing and is easily extendable to other instruments and to generating wide-area mosaics. Significant improvements have been made in image combination using improved alignment, source detection, and background equalization routines. It integrates improved alignment procedures, better noise model, and source list generation within a single code base. Wherever practical, PyRAF based routines have been replaced with non-IRAF based python libraries (e.g. NumPy and PyFITS). The data formats have been modified to handle better and more consistent propagation of information from individual exposures to the combined products. A new exposure layer stores the effective exposure time for each pixel in the sky which is key in properly interpreting combined images from diverse data that were not initially planned to be mosaiced. We worked to improve the validity of the metadata within our FITS headers for these products relative to standard IRAF/PyRAF processing. Any keywords that pertain to individual exposures have been removed from the primary and extension headers and placed in a table extension for more direct and efficient perusal. This mechanism also allows for more detailed information on the processing of individual images to be stored and propagated

  17. Proceedings of the international workshop on next-generation linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, M. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    This report contains papers on the next-generation of linear colliders. The particular areas of discussion are: parameters; beam dynamics and wakefields; damping rings and sources; rf power sources; accelerator structures; instrumentation; final focus; and review of beam-beam interaction.

  18. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-05

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as

  19. Nanoimprint Lithography -A Next Generation High Volume Lithography Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Pelzer; P.Lindner; T.Glinsner; B.Vratzov; C.Gourgon; S.Landis; P.Kettner; C.Schaefer

    2004-01-01

    Nanoimprint Lithography has been demonstrated to be one of the most promising next generation techniques for large-area structure replication in the nanometer scale.This fast and low cost method becomes an increasingly important instrument for fabrication of biochemistry,μ-fluidic,μ-TAS and telecommunication devices,as well as for a wide variety of fields in the nm range,like biomedical,nano-fluidics,nano-optical applications,data storage,etc.Due to the restrictions on wavelength and the enormous development works,linked to high process and equipment costs on standard lithography systems,nanoimprint lithography might become a real competitive method in mainstream IC industry.There are no physical limitations encountered with imprinting techniques for much smaller replicated structures,down to the sub-10nm range [1].Among several Nanoimprint lithography techniques results of two promising methods,hot embossing lithography(HEL)and UV-nanoimprinting(UV-NIL)will be presented.Both techniques allow rapid prototyping as well as high volume production of fully patterned substrates for a wide range of materials.This paper will present results on HE and UVNIL,among them full wafer imprints up to 200mm with high-resolution patterns down to nm range.

  20. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies in virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Alan D; Chapman, David; Dixon, Linda; Chantrey, Julian; Darby, Alistair C; Hall, Neil

    2012-09-01

    The progress of science is punctuated by the advent of revolutionary technologies that provide new ways and scales to formulate scientific questions and advance knowledge. Following on from electron microscopy, cell culture and PCR, next-generation sequencing is one of these methodologies that is now changing the way that we understand viruses, particularly in the areas of genome sequencing, evolution, ecology, discovery and transcriptomics. Possibilities for these methodologies are only limited by our scientific imagination and, to some extent, by their cost, which has restricted their use to relatively small numbers of samples. Challenges remain, including the storage and analysis of the large amounts of data generated. As the chemistries employed mature, costs will decrease. In addition, improved methods for analysis will become available, opening yet further applications in virology including routine diagnostic work on individuals, and new understanding of the interaction between viral and host transcriptomes. An exciting era of viral exploration has begun, and will set us new challenges to understand the role of newly discovered viral diversity in both disease and health.

  1. Fiber Assignment in Next-generation Wide-field Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Isaac; Azzaro, Marco; Prada, Francisco; Sanchez, Justo; Becerril, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm for assigning fibers to targets in next-generation fiber-fed multi-object spectrographs. The method, that we named draining algorithm, ensures that the maximum number of targets in a given target field is observed in the first few tiles. Using randomly distributed targets and mock galaxy catalogs we have estimated that the gain provided by the draining algorithm as compared to a random assignment can be as much as 2% for the first tiles. This would imply for a survey like BigBOSS saving for observation several hundred thousand objects or, alternatively, reducing the covered area in ~350 sq. deg. An important advantage of this method is that the fiber collision problem can be solved easily and in an optimal way. We also discuss additional optimizations of the fiber positioning process. In particular, we show that allowing for rotation of the focal plane can improve the efficiency of the process in ~3.5-4.5% even if only small adjustments are permitted (up to 2 deg). For instru...

  2. Deciphering next-generation pharmacogenomics: an information technology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamias, George; Lakiotaki, Kleanthi; Katsila, Theodora; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Topouzis, Stavros; Cooper, David N; Patrinos, George P

    2014-07-01

    In the post-genomic era, the rapid evolution of high-throughput genotyping technologies and the increased pace of production of genetic research data are continually prompting the development of appropriate informatics tools, systems and databases as we attempt to cope with the flood of incoming genetic information. Alongside new technologies that serve to enhance data connectivity, emerging information systems should contribute to the creation of a powerful knowledge environment for genotype-to-phenotype information in the context of translational medicine. In the area of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, it has become evident that database applications providing important information on the occurrence and consequences of gene variants involved in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug efficacy and drug toxicity will become an integral tool for researchers and medical practitioners alike. At the same time, two fundamental issues are inextricably linked to current developments, namely data sharing and data protection. Here, we discuss high-throughput and next-generation sequencing technology and its impact on pharmacogenomics research. In addition, we present advances and challenges in the field of pharmacogenomics information systems which have in turn triggered the development of an integrated electronic 'pharmacogenomics assistant'. The system is designed to provide personalized drug recommendations based on linked genotype-to-phenotype pharmacogenomics data, as well as to support biomedical researchers in the identification of pharmacogenomics-related gene variants. The provisioned services are tuned in the framework of a single-access pharmacogenomics portal.

  3. Next-generation digital camera integration and software development issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Shyam; Peters, Ken; Hecht, Richard

    1998-04-01

    This paper investigates the complexities associated with the development of next generation digital cameras due to requirements in connectivity and interoperability. Each successive generation of digital camera improves drastically in cost, performance, resolution, image quality and interoperability features. This is being accomplished by advancements in a number of areas: research, silicon, standards, etc. As the capabilities of these cameras increase, so do the requirements for both hardware and software. Today, there are two single chip camera solutions in the market including the Motorola MPC 823 and LSI DCAM- 101. Real time constraints for a digital camera may be defined by the maximum time allowable between capture of images. Constraints in the design of an embedded digital camera include processor architecture, memory, processing speed and the real-time operating systems. This paper will present the LSI DCAM-101, a single-chip digital camera solution. It will present an overview of the architecture and the challenges in hardware and software for supporting streaming video in such a complex device. Issues presented include the development of the data flow software architecture, testing and integration on this complex silicon device. The strategy for optimizing performance on the architecture will also be presented.

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  6. Next-Generation GPS Station for Hazards Mitigation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to better forecast, assess, and mitigate natural hazards, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and extreme storms and flooding through development and implementation of a modular technology for the next-generation in-situ geodetic station to support the flow of information from multiple stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. The same technology developed under NASA funding can be applied to enhance monitoring of large engineering structures such as bridges, hospitals and other critical infrastructure. Meaningful warnings save lives when issued within 1-2 minutes for destructive earthquakes, several tens of minutes for tsunamis, and up to several hours for extreme storms and flooding, and can be provided by on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: GPS/GNSS and accelerometer measurements to estimate point displacements, and GPS/GNSS and meteorological measurements to estimate moisture variability in the free atmosphere. By operating semi-autonomously, each station can then provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of narrow communications bandwidth that often accompanies natural disasters. We have developed a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS, a strong-motion accelerometer module, and a meteorological sensor package, for deployment at existing continuous GPS stations in southern California; fifteen stations have already been upgraded. The low-cost modular design is scalable to the many existing continuous GPS stations worldwide. New on-the-fly data products are estimated with 1 mm precision and accuracy, including three-dimensional seismogeodetic displacements for earthquake, tsunami and structural monitoring and precipitable water for forecasting extreme weather events such as summer monsoons and atmospheric rivers experienced in California. Unlike more

  7. Next generation framework for aquatic modeling of the Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Vörösmarty

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Earth System model development is becoming an increasingly complex task. As scientists attempt to represent the physical and bio-geochemical processes and various feedback mechanisms in unprecedented detail, the models themselves are becoming increasingly complex. At the same time, the complexity of the surrounding IT infrastructure is growing as well. Earth System models must manage a vast amount of data in heterogeneous computing environments. Numerous development efforts are on the way to ease that burden and offer model development platforms that reduce IT challenges and allow scientists to focus on their science. While these new modeling frameworks (e.g. FMS, ESMF, CCA, OpenMI do provide solutions to many IT challenges (performing input/output, managing space and time, establishing model coupling, etc., they are still considerably complex and often have steep learning curves.

    The Next generation Framework for Aquatic Modeling of the Earth System (NextFrAMES, a revised version of FrAMES have numerous similarities to those developed by other teams, but represents a novel model development paradigm. NextFrAMES is built around a modeling XML that lets modelers to express the overall model structure and provides an API for dynamically linked plugins to represent the processes. The model XML is executed by the NextFrAMES run-time engine that parses the model definition, loads the module plugins, performs the model I/O and executes the model calculations. NextFrAMES has a minimalistic view representing spatial domains and treats every domain (regardless of its layout such as grid, network tree, individual points, polygons, etc. as vector of objects. NextFrAMES performs computations on multiple domains and interactions between different spatial domains are carried out through couplers. NextFrAMES allows processes to operate at different frequencies by providing rudimentary aggregation and disaggregation facilities.

    NextFrAMES was

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Next Generation Safeguards Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [ORNL; Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a comprehensive review of the current and potential future challenges facing the international safeguards system. The review examined trends and events impacting the mission of international safeguards and the implications of expanding and evolving mission requirements on the legal authorities and institutions that serve as the foundation of the international safeguards system, as well as the technological, financial, and human resources required for effective safeguards implementation. The review's findings and recommendations were summarized in the report, 'International Safeguards: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century (October 2007)'. One of the report's key recommendations was for DOE/NNSA to launch a major new program to revitalize the international safeguards technology and human resource base. In 2007, at the International Atomic Energy Agency's General Conference, then Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced the newly created Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). NGSI consists of five program elements: (1) Policy development and outreach; (2) Concepts and approaches; (3) Technology and analytical methodologies; (4) Human resource development; and (5) Infrastructure development. The ensuing report addresses the 'Human Resource Development (HRD)' component of NGSI. The goal of the HRD as defined in the NNSA Program Plan (November 2008) is 'to revitalize and expand the international safeguards human capital base by attracting and training a new generation of talent.' One of the major objectives listed in the HRD goal includes education and training, outreach to universities, professional societies, postdoctoral appointments, and summer internships at national laboratories. ORNL is a participant in the NGSI program, together

  9. Educational Approaches When Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Brian

    This paper overviews the history of science education from the launch of Sputnik through reform movements and associated legislation to the most recent Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The paper also considers stakeholder groups that would need to be involved if NGSS is to be implemented properly, including teachers, parents and unions. Each group holds a responsibility within a school system that needs to be addressed from a practical standpoint to increase the likelihood of the effective adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards. This paper provides background and program information about the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). It also considers the educational, philosophical, and instructional approach known as inquiry which is strongly advocated by NGSS and explores where and how other well-studied instructional approaches might have a place within an inquiry-based classroom.

  10. Next Generation Sequencing of Ancient DNA: Requirements, Strategies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knapp

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The invention of next-generation-sequencing has revolutionized almost all fields of genetics, but few have profited from it as much as the field of ancient DNA research. From its beginnings as an interesting but rather marginal discipline, ancient DNA research is now on its way into the centre of evolutionary biology. In less than a year from its invention next-generation-sequencing had increased the amount of DNA sequence data available from extinct organisms by several orders of magnitude. Ancient DNA  research is now not only adding a temporal aspect to evolutionary studies and allowing for the observation of evolution in real time, it also provides important data to help understand the origins of our own species. Here we review progress that has been made in next-generation-sequencing of ancient DNA over the past five years and evaluate sequencing strategies and future directions.

  11. Physical Configuration of the Next Generation Home Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Shohei; Kakishima, Yu; Hanawa, Dai; Oguchi, Kimio

    The number of broadband users is rapidly increasing worldwide. Japan already has over 10 million FTTH users. Another trend is the rapid digitalization of home electrical equipment e. g. digital cameras and hard disc recorders. These trends will encourage the emergence of the next generation home network. In this paper, we introduce the next generation home network image and describe the five domains into which home devices can be classified. We then clarify the optimum medium with which to configure the network given the requirements imposed by the home environment. Wiring cable lengths for three network topologies are calculated. The results gained from the next generation home network implemented on the first phase testbed are shown. Finally, our conclusions are given.

  12. Evolution and Next Generation of Large Cosmic-Ray Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, Angela

    2016-03-01

    With collaborations involving as many as 32 countries, next generation astro-particle observatories are being built to understand the puzzling origin of the most energetic processes in the Universe. We will review some recent results and the effort behind next generation observatories, which include large arrays of detectors and space missions to study high to ultra-high energy cosmic-rays, neutrinos, and gamma-rays. The great opportunity of word-wide scientific productivity and funding motivates these large-scale efforts, which also face many challenges due to geopolitical events and differences in science funding cultures.

  13. The contribution of next generation sequencing to epilepsy genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke S.; Dahl, Hans A.; Helbig, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    to as epileptic encephalopathies. The increased knowledge about causative genetic variants has had a major impact on diagnosis of genetic epilepsies and has already been translated into treatment recommendations for a few genes. This article provides an overview of how next generation sequencing has advanced our......During the last decade, next generation sequencing technologies such as targeted gene panels, whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing have led to an explosion of gene identifications in monogenic epilepsies including both familial epilepsies and severe epilepsies, often referred...... understanding of epilepsy genetics and discusses some of the recently discovered genes in monogenic epilepsies....

  14. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  15. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  16. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  17. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  18. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  19. Accelerators for Society - TIARA 2012 Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    TIARA (Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - Preparatory Phae) is an European Collaboration of Accelerator Technology, which by running research projects, technical, networks and infrastructural has a duty to integrate the research and technical communities and infrastructures in the global scale of Europe. The Collaboration gathers all research centers with large accelerator infrastructures. Other ones, like universities, are affiliated as associate members. TIARA-PP (preparatory phase) is an European infrastructural project run by this Consortium and realized inside EU-FP7. The paper presents a general overview of TIARA activities, with an introduction containing a portrait of contemporary accelerator technology and a digest of its applications in modern society.

  20. The Next Generation of the Montage Image Mopsaic Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Good, John; Rusholme, Ben; Robitaille, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We have released a major upgrade of the Montage image mosaic engine (http://montage.ipac.caltech.edu) , as part of a program to develop the next generation of the engine in response to the rapid changes in the data processing landscape in Astronomy, which is generating ever larger data sets in ever more complex formats . The new release (version 4) contains modules dedicated to creating and managing mosaics of data stored as multi-dimensional arrays ("data cubes"). The new release inherits the architectural benefits of portability and scalability of the original design. The code is publicly available on Git Hub and the Montage web page. The release includes a command line tool that supports visualization of large images, and the beta-release of a Python interface to the visualization tool. We will provide examples on how to use these these features. We are generating a mosaic of the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI) Survey maps of neutral hydrogen in and around our Milky Way Galaxy, to assess the performance at scale and to develop tools and methodologies that will enable scientists inexpert in cloud processing to exploit could platforms for data processing and product generation at scale. Future releases include support for an R-tree based mechanism for fast discovery of and access to large data sets and on-demand access to calibrated SDSS DR9 data that exploits it; support for the Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelization (HEALPix) scheme, now standard for projects investigating cosmic background radiation (Gorski et al 2005); support fort the Tessellated Octahedral Adaptive Subdivision Transform (TOAST), the sky partitioning sky used by the WorldWide Telescope (WWT); and a public applications programming interface (API) in C that can be called from other languages, especially Python.

  1. Fibre assignment in next-generation wide-field spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Isaac; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Azzaro, Marco; Prada, Francisco; Sánchez, Justo; Becerril, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm for assigning fibres to targets in next-generation fibre-fed multi-object spectrographs. The method, which we have called the draining algorithm, ensures that the maximum number of targets in a given target field is observed in the first few tiles. Using randomly distributed targets and mock galaxy catalogues, we have estimated that the gain provided by the draining algorithm, compared to a random assignment, can be as much as 2 per cent for the first tiles. For a survey such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BigBOSS), this would imply saving for observation several hundred thousand objects or, alternatively, reducing the covered area in ˜350 deg2. An important advantage of this method is that the fibre collision problem can be solved easily and in an optimal way. We also discuss the additional optimizations of the fibre-positioning process. In particular, we show that if we allow for the rotation of the focal plane, we can improve the efficiency of the process by ˜3.5-4.5 per cent, even if only small adjustments are permitted (up to 2°). For instruments that allow large rotations of the focal plane, the expected gain increases to ˜5-6 per cent. Therefore, these results strongly support the use of focal plane rotation in future spectrographs, as far as the efficiency of the fibre-positioning process is concerned. Finally, we discuss the implications of our optimizations and provide some basic hints for an optimal survey strategy, based on the number of targets per positioner.

  2. Next-generation sequencing strategies for characterizing the turkey genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalloul, Rami A; Zimin, Aleksey V; Settlage, Robert E; Kim, Sungwon; Reed, Kent M

    2014-02-01

    The turkey genome sequencing project was initiated in 2008 and has relied primarily on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Our first efforts used a synergistic combination of 2 NGS platforms (Roche/454 and Illumina GAII), detailed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) maps, and unique assembly tools to sequence and assemble the genome of the domesticated turkey, Meleagris gallopavo. Since the first release in 2010, efforts to improve the genome assembly, gene annotation, and genomic analyses continue. The initial assembly build (2.01) represented about 89% of the genome sequence with 17X coverage depth (931 Mb). Sequence contigs were assigned to 30 of the 40 chromosomes with approximately 10% of the assembled sequence corresponding to unassigned chromosomes (ChrUn). The sequence has been refined through both genome-wide and area-focused sequencing, including shotgun and paired-end sequencing, and targeted sequencing of chromosomal regions with low or incomplete coverage. These additional efforts have improved the sequence assembly resulting in 2 subsequent genome builds of higher genome coverage (25X/Build3.0 and 30X/Build4.0) with a current sequence totaling 1,010 Mb. Further, BAC with end sequences assigned to the Z/W and MG18 (MHC) chromosomes, ChrUn, or not placed in the previous build were isolated, deeply sequenced (Hi-Seq), and incorporated into the latest build (5.0). To aid in the annotation and to generate a gene expression atlas of major tissues, a comprehensive set of RNA samples was collected at various developmental stages of female and male turkeys. Transcriptome sequencing data (using Illumina Hi-Seq) will provide information to enhance the final assembly and ultimately improve sequence annotation. The most current sequence covers more than 95% of the turkey genome and should yield a much improved gene level of annotation, making it a valuable resource for studying genetic variations underlying economically important traits in poultry.

  3. Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.; Saleh, Issa M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning" examines the challenges involved in the development of modern curriculum models, teaching strategies, and assessments in science education in order to prepare future students in the 21st century economies. This comprehensive collection of research brings together science educators,…

  4. Design Principles of Next-Generation Digital Gaming for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt; Jenkins, Henry; Holland, Walter; Miller, Heather; O'Driscoll, Alice; Tan, Katie Philip; Todd, Katie.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of digital games, describes research at MIT that is exploring the potential of digital games for supporting learning, and offers hypotheses about the design of next-generation educational video and computer games. Highlights include simulations and games; and design principles, including context and using information to…

  5. Efficient Cryptography for the Next Generation Secure Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupcu, Alptekin

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, and client-server type storage and computation outsourcing constitute some of the major applications that the next generation cloud schemes will address. Since these applications are just emerging, it is the perfect time to design them with security and privacy in mind. Furthermore, considering the high-churn…

  6. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. Some criteria and tools for evaluating and improving the critical performances of the wind power converters have been proposed and established. The book addresses some emerging problems...

  7. The bioinformatics of next generation sequencing: a meeting report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi Shankar

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Studio of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics (SCBB), IHBT, CSIR,Palampur, India organized one of the very first national workshop funded by DBT,Govt.of India, on the Bioinformatics issues associated with next generation sequencing approaches.The course structure was designed by SCBB, IHBT.The workshop took place in the IHBT premise on 17 and 18 June 2010.

  8. Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

  9. Next-generation sequencing approaches to understanding the oral microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the focus in dental research has been on studying a small fraction of the oral microbiome—so-called opportunistic pathogens. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, researchers now have the tools that allow for profiling of the microbiomes and metagenomes at

  10. Visions, Scenarios and Action Plans Towards Next Generation Tanzania Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kyaruzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents strategic visions, scenarios and action plans for enhancing Tanzania Power Systems towards next generation Smart Power Grid. It first introduces the present Tanzanian power grid and the challenges ahead in terms of generation capacity, financial aspect, technical and non-technical losses, revenue loss, high tariff, aging infrastructure, environmental impact and the interconnection with the neighboring countries. Then, the current initiatives undertaken by the Tanzania government in response to the present challenges and the expected roles of smart grid in overcoming these challenges in the future with respect to the scenarios presented are discussed. The developed scenarios along with visions and recommended action plans towards the future Tanzanian power system can be exploited at all governmental levels to achieve public policy goals and help develop business opportunities by motivating domestic and international investments in modernizing the nation’s electric power infrastructure. In return, it should help build the green energy economy.

  11. Historical perspective, development and applications of next-generation sequencing in plant virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Marina; Czosnek, Henryk; Hadidi, Ahmed

    2014-01-06

    Next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies became available at the onset of the 21st century. They provide a highly efficient, rapid, and low cost DNA sequencing platform beyond the reach of the standard and traditional DNA sequencing technologies developed in the late 1970s. They are continually improved to become faster, more efficient and cheaper. They have been used in many fields of biology since 2004. In 2009, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies began to be applied to several areas of plant virology including virus/viroid genome sequencing, discovery and detection, ecology and epidemiology, replication and transcription. Identification and characterization of known and unknown viruses and/or viroids in infected plants are currently among the most successful applications of these technologies. It is expected that NGS will play very significant roles in many research and non-research areas of plant virology.

  12. Historical Perspective, Development and Applications of Next-Generation Sequencing in Plant Virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Barba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies became available at the onset of the 21st century. They provide a highly efficient, rapid, and low cost DNA sequencing platform beyond the reach of the standard and traditional DNA sequencing technologies developed in the late 1970s. They are continually improved to become faster, more efficient and cheaper. They have been used in many fields of biology since 2004. In 2009, next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies began to be applied to several areas of plant virology including virus/viroid genome sequencing, discovery and detection, ecology and epidemiology, replication and transcription. Identification and characterization of known and unknown viruses and/or viroids in infected plants are currently among the most successful applications of these technologies. It is expected that NGS will play very significant roles in many research and non-research areas of plant virology.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  15. Preliminary thoughts on the data acquisition for the next generation of silicon tracking systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J F Genat; A Savoy-Navarro

    2007-12-01

    Preliminary thoughts about the data acquisition system to be developed for the next generation of large area silicon tracker are presented in this paper. This paper describes the set of data delivered by these tracking systems, and the various stages of processing and data flow transmission from the front-end chip sitting on the detector to the latest stage in the data processing. How to best profit from the status of the art technologies is a major goal.

  16. Estimating individual admixture proportions from next generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Inference of population structure and individual ancestry is important both for population genetics and for association studies. With next generation sequencing technologies it is possible to obtain genetic data for all accessible genetic variations in the genome. Existing methods for admixture...... analysis rely on known genotypes. However, individual genotypes cannot be inferred from low-depth sequencing data without introducing errors. This article presents a new method for inferring an individual's ancestry that takes the uncertainty introduced in next generation sequencing data into account....... This is achieved by working directly with genotype likelihoods that contain all relevant information of the unobserved genotypes. Using simulations as well as publicly available sequencing data, we demonstrate that the presented method has great accuracy even for very low-depth data. At the same time, we...

  17. DARC: Next generation decentralized control framework for robot applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents DARC, a next generation control framework for robot applications. It is designed to be equally powerful in prototyping research projects and for building serious commercial robots running on low powered embedded hardware, thus closing the gab between research and industry. It ....... It incorporates several new techniques such as a decentralized peer-to-peer architecture, transparent network distribution of the control system, and automatic run-time supervision to guarantee robustness.......This paper presents DARC, a next generation control framework for robot applications. It is designed to be equally powerful in prototyping research projects and for building serious commercial robots running on low powered embedded hardware, thus closing the gab between research and industry...

  18. Microbial production of next-generation stevia sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Kim; Carlsen, Simon; Semmler, Angelika;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The glucosyltransferase UGT76G1 from Stevia rebaudiana is a chameleon enzyme in the targeted biosynthesis of the next-generation premium stevia sweeteners, rebaudioside D (Reb D) and rebaudioside M (Reb M). These steviol glucosides carry five and six glucose units, respectively....... This screen made it possible to identify variants, such as UGT76G1Thr146Gly and UGT76G1His155Leu, which diminished accumulation of unwanted side-products and gave increased specific accumulation of the desired Reb D or Reb M sweeteners. This improvement in a key enzyme of the Stevia sweetener biosynthesis...... pathway represents a significant step towards the commercial production of next-generation stevia sweeteners....

  19. Next-Generation Sequencing for Binary Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eSuter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H system exploits host cell genetics in order to display binary protein-protein interactions (PPIs via defined and selectable phenotypes. Numerous improvements have been made to this method, adapting the screening principle for diverse applications, including drug discovery and the scale-up for proteome wide interaction screens in human and other organisms. Here we discuss a systematic workflow and analysis scheme for screening data generated by Y2H and related assays that includes high-throughput selection procedures, readout of comprehensive results via next-generation sequencing (NGS, and the interpretation of interaction data via quantitative statistics. The novel assays and tools will serve the broader scientific community to harness the power of NGS technology to address PPI networks in health and disease. We discuss examples of how this next-generation platform can be applied to address specific questions in diverse fields of biology and medicine.

  20. Next-generation proteomics faces new challenges in environmental biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengaud, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Environmental biotechnology relies on the exploration of novel biological systems and a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Next-generation proteomics based on the latest generation of mass analyzers currently allows the recording of complete proteomes from any microorganism. Interpreting these data can be straightforward if the genome of the organism is established, or relatively easy to perform through proteogenomics approaches if a draft sequence can be obtained. However, next-generation proteomics faces new, interesting challenges when the organism is distantly related to previously characterized organisms or when mixtures of organisms have to be analyzed. New mass spectrometers and innovative bioinformatics tools are reshaping the possibilities of homology-based proteomics, proteogenomics, and metaproteomics for the characterization of biological systems. Novel time- and cost-effective screening strategies are also possible with this methodology, as exemplified by whole proteome thermal profiling and subpopulation proteomics. The complexity of environmental samples allows for unique developments of approaches and concepts.

  1. Providing content based billing architecture over Next Generation Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Communication marketplace has stressed that "content is king" ever since the initial footsteps for Next Generation Networks like 3G, 3GPP, IP Multimedia subsystem (IMS) services. However, many carriers and content providers have struggled to drive revenue for content services, primarily due to current limitations of certain types of desirable content offerings, simplistic billing models, and the inability to support flexible pricing, charging and settlement. Unlike wire line carriers, wireless carriers have a limit to the volume of traffic they can carry, bounded by the finite wireless spectrum. Event based services like calling, conferencing etc., only perceive charge per event, while the Content based charging system attracts Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) to maximize service delivery to customer and achieve best ARPU. With the Next Generation Networks, the number of data related services that can be offered, is increased significantly. The wireless carrier will be able to move from offering wireles...

  2. The Next Generation of the Montage Image Mosaic Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Berriman, G Bruce; Rusholme, B; Robitaille, T

    2016-01-01

    The scientific computing landscape has evolved dramatically in the past few years, with new schemes for organizing and storing data that reflect the growth in size and complexity of astronomical data sets. In response to this changing landscape, we are, over the next two years, deploying the next generation of the Montage toolkit ([ascl:1010.036]). The first release (October 2015) supports multi-dimensional data sets ("data cubes"), and insertion of XMP/AVM tags that allows images to "drop-in" to the WWT. The same release offers a beta-version of web-based interactive visualization of images; this includes wrappers for visualization in Python. Subsequent releases will support HEALPix (now standard in cosmic background experiments); incorporation of Montage into package managers (which enable automated management of software builds), and support for a library that will enable Montage to be called directly from Python. This next generation toolkit will inherit the architectural benefits of the current engine - ...

  3. Biomarkers in neonatology: the next generation of tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak C; Lam, Hugh S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, neonatal clinicians have commonly used host response biomarkers to diagnose and assess the severity of systemic infection. Most of these biomarkers, such as acute-phase proteins or cytokines, are non-specific immunomodulating mediators of the inflammatory cascade. With advances in biochemical/genetic research, it is anticipated that future biomarkers will be 'organ and/or disease specific'. There is also the quest for discovery of 'novel' biomarkers to assist diagnosis and prognosis of neonatal diseases using powerful mass-screening techniques, e.g. the next-generation sequencing, proteomics and arrays. This article aims to introduce the concept of the next generation of biomarkers to practising neonatal clinicians, and, hopefully, to integrate basic science research into day-to-day clinical practice in the future.

  4. [Automatic analysis pipeline of next-generation sequencing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Li; Fengyu, Li; Siyao, Zhang; Bin, Cai; Na, Zheng; Yu, Nie; Dao, Zhou; Qian, Zhao

    2014-06-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has generated high demand for data processing and analysis. Although there are a lot of software for analyzing next-generation sequencing data, most of them are designed for one specific function (e.g., alignment, variant calling or annotation). Therefore, it is necessary to combine them together for data analysis and to generate interpretable results for biologists. This study designed a pipeline to process Illumina sequencing data based on Perl programming language and SGE system. The pipeline takes original sequence data (fastq format) as input, calls the standard data processing software (e.g., BWA, Samtools, GATK, and Annovar), and finally outputs a list of annotated variants that researchers can further analyze. The pipeline simplifies the manual operation and improves the efficiency by automatization and parallel computation. Users can easily run the pipeline by editing the configuration file or clicking the graphical interface. Our work will facilitate the research projects using the sequencing technology.

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing: From Understanding Biology to Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Meder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within just a few years, the new methods for high-throughput next-generation sequencing have generated completely novel insights into the heritability and pathophysiology of human disease. In this review, we wish to highlight the benefits of the current state-of-the-art sequencing technologies for genetic and epigenetic research. We illustrate how these technologies help to constantly improve our understanding of genetic mechanisms in biological systems and summarize the progress made so far. This can be exemplified by the case of heritable heart muscle diseases, so-called cardiomyopathies. Here, next-generation sequencing is able to identify novel disease genes, and first clinical applications demonstrate the successful translation of this technology into personalized patient care.

  6. Next-generation genome-scale models for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Zachary A; Lloyd, Colton J; Feist, Adam M; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2015-12-01

    Constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods have become widely used tools for metabolic engineering in both academic and industrial laboratories. By employing a genome-scale in silico representation of the metabolic network of a host organism, COBRA methods can be used to predict optimal genetic modifications that improve the rate and yield of chemical production. A new generation of COBRA models and methods is now being developed--encompassing many biological processes and simulation strategies-and next-generation models enable new types of predictions. Here, three key examples of applying COBRA methods to strain optimization are presented and discussed. Then, an outlook is provided on the next generation of COBRA models and the new types of predictions they will enable for systems metabolic engineering.

  7. Converged Wireless Networking and Optimization for Next Generation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation Network (NGN vision is tending towards the convergence of internet and mobile services providing the impetus for new market opportunities in combining the appealing services of internet with the roaming capability of mobile networks. However, this convergence does not go far enough, and with the emergence of new coexistence scenarios, there is a clear need to evolve the current architecture to provide cost-effective end-to-end communication. The LOOP project, a EUREKA-CELTIC driven initiative, is one piece in the jigsaw by helping European industry to sustain a leading role in telecommunications and manufacturing of high-value products and machinery by delivering pioneering converged wireless networking solutions that can be successfully demonstrated. This paper provides an overview of the LOOP project and the key achievements that have been tunneled into first prototypes for showcasing next generation services for operators and process manufacturers.

  8. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Natalia V.; Kuzmina, Maria L.; Thomas W A Braukmann; Borisenko, Alex V.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. Methods We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-grae...

  9. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. Some criteria and tools for evaluating and improving the critical performances of the wind power converters have been proposed and established. The book addresses some emerging problems...... as well as possibilities for the wind power conversion, and may be useful as an inspiring reference for the researchers in this field....

  10. Training the next generation of experts in hadron therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    Manuela Cirilli, Nathalie Vibert

    2012-01-01

    PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Initial Training Network funded by the European Commission, aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts in hadron therapy. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. PARTNER just came to an end in September 2012, and the 25 young researchers recall here their experience

  11. Optimizing multimedia content delivery over next-generation optical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pascale, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the performance of a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) multimedia content delivery system for a network architecture based on next-generation Passive Optical Networks (PONs). A PON is an optical access technology that is able to deliver high bandwidth capacities at a fraction of the cost of traditional point-to-point fiber solutions; this is achieved by sharing the same feeder fiber among several customers through the use of optical splitters. Established standards such as G...

  12. Clinical Next Generation Sequencing for Precision Medicine in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ling; Wang, Wanheng; Li, Alvin; Kansal, Rina; Chen, Yuhan; Hong CHEN; Li, Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in genomic medicine has been driven by low cost, high throughput sequencing and rapid advances in our understanding of the genetic bases of human diseases. Today, the NGS method has dominated sequencing space in genomic research, and quickly entered clinical practice. Because unique features of NGS perfectly meet the clinical reality (need to do more with less), the NGS technology is becoming a driving force to realize the dream of precision ...

  13. TriG: Next Generation Scalable Spaceborne GNSS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Jeffrey Y.; Okihiro, Brian Bachman; Esterhuizen, Stephan X.; Franklin, Garth W.; Meehan, Thomas K.; Munson, Timothy N.; Robison, David E.; Turbiner, Dmitry; Young, Lawrence E.

    2012-01-01

    TriG is the next generation NASA scalable space GNSS Science Receiver. It will track all GNSS and additional signals (i.e. GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Compass and Doris). Scalable 3U architecture and fully software and firmware recofigurable, enabling optimization to meet specific mission requirements. TriG GNSS EM is currently undergoing testing and is expected to complete full performance testing later this year.

  14. Application of next-generation sequencing for comparative transcriptome analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Heesun

    2010-01-01

    I have used novel whole transcriptome sequence data generated from massively parallel high-throughput next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing, to perform comparative transcriptome analyses of C. elegans populations in specific biological conditions and developmental stages. Firstly, I have conducted transcriptome profiling of C. elegans in its first larval (L1) stage using data generated from the Roche 454 sequencing platform. I have used thi...

  15. Next-generation genome-scale models for metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Lloyd, Colton J.; Feist, Adam M.;

    2015-01-01

    Constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods have become widely used tools for metabolic engineering in both academic and industrial laboratories. By employing a genome-scale in silico representation of the metabolic network of a host organism, COBRA methods can be used to predict...... examples of applying COBRA methods to strain optimization are presented and discussed. Then, an outlook is provided on the next generation of COBRA models and the new types of predictions they will enable for systems metabolic engineering....

  16. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  17. Genotype and SNP calling from next-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Paul, Joshua S.; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, which are produced extensively by genetics and genomics studies, relies crucially on the accurate calling of SNPs and genotypes. Recently developed statistical methods both improve and quantify the considerable uncertainty associated w...... with genotype calling, and will especially benefit the growing number of studies using low- to medium-coverage data. We review these methods and provide a guide for their use in NGS studies....

  18. Design of the next generation target at Lujan center, LANSCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferres, Laurent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-27

    This is a presentation given at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the design of the next generation target at Lujan center, LANSCE. The motivation for this design is to enable new nuclear physics experiments (defense program applications (DANCE)) that are currently limited by neutron intensity or energy resolution available at LANSCE. The target is being redesigned so that the Flight Paths in the upper tier provide a higher intensity in the epithermal and medium energy ranges.

  19. Next-generation pushbroom filter radiometers for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarde, Richard W.; Dittman, Michael G.; Kvaran, Geir E.

    2012-09-01

    Individual focal plane size, yield, and quality continue to improve, as does the technology required to combine these into large tiled formats. As a result, next-generation pushbroom imagers are replacing traditional scanning technologies in remote sensing applications. Pushbroom architecture has inherently better radiometric sensitivity and significantly reduced payload mass, power, and volume than previous generation scanning technologies. However, the architecture creates challenges achieving the required radiometric accuracy performance. Achieving good radiometric accuracy, including image spectral and spatial uniformity, requires creative optical design, high quality focal planes and filters, careful consideration of on-board calibration sources, and state-of-the-art ground test facilities. Ball Aerospace built the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) next-generation Operational Landsat Imager (OLI) payload. Scheduled to launch in 2013, OLI provides imagery consistent with the historical Landsat spectral, spatial, radiometric, and geometric data record and completes the generational technology upgrade from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) whiskbroom technology to modern pushbroom technology afforded by advanced focal planes. We explain how Ball's capabilities allowed producing the innovative next-generational OLI pushbroom filter radiometer that meets challenging radiometric accuracy or calibration requirements. OLI will improve the multi-decadal land surface observation dataset dating back to the 1972 launch of ERTS-1 or Landsat 1.

  20. Next generation sequencing in sporadic retinoblastoma patients reveals somatic mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, Sara; Marozza, Annabella; Somma, Serena; Imperatore, Valentina; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; De Francesco, Sonia; Toti, Paolo; Galimberti, Daniela; Meloni, Ilaria; Cetta, Francesco; Piu, Pietro; Di Marco, Chiara; Dosa, Laura; Lo Rizzo, Caterina; Carignani, Giulia; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    In about 50% of sporadic cases of retinoblastoma, no constitutive RB1 mutations are detected by conventional methods. However, recent research suggests that, at least in some of these cases, there is somatic mosaicism with respect to RB1 normal and mutant alleles. The increased availability of next generation sequencing improves our ability to detect the exact percentage of patients with mosaicism. Using this technology, we re-tested a series of 40 patients with sporadic retinoblastoma: 10 of them had been previously classified as constitutional heterozygotes, whereas in 30 no RB1 mutations had been found in lymphocytes. In 3 of these 30 patients, we have now identified low-level mosaic variants, varying in frequency between 8 and 24%. In 7 out of the 10 cases previously classified as heterozygous from testing blood cells, we were able to test additional tissues (ocular tissues, urine and/or oral mucosa): in three of them, next generation sequencing has revealed mosaicism. Present results thus confirm that a significant fraction (6/40; 15%) of sporadic retinoblastoma cases are due to postzygotic events and that deep sequencing is an efficient method to unambiguously distinguish mosaics. Re-testing of retinoblastoma patients through next generation sequencing can thus provide new information that may have important implications with respect to genetic counseling and family care.

  1. Future Developments of the Next Generation Manned Space Platforms (European and Russian Space Students Perspectives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Douglas K. R.

    2002-01-01

    The opportunities for research made available by in-orbit manned space platforms is extensive. Research topics from space life science and biotechnology to material science and structural mechanics, from Astrophysics to the Low Earth Orbit environment to name a few. The list is long and has been growing steadily since the launch of Salyut 1 in 1971 till the present day ISS. With the construction of the ISS now into its final phase, what is the future of such research platforms? What will the "Next Generation" space station comprise of? What of manned research platforms beyond LEO and what constraints are foreseen after ISS. This paper presents current issues concerning the conceptual design of the "Next Generation" manned space platforms, the obstacles that are predicted concerning major subsystems of such platforms and also predictions of where the foci of research will concentrate. Future developments of the next generation manned space platforms presents research by the author in both his previous academic institutions1, personal opinions and the opinions of other young space research students and space professionals including Super Aero (France), Leicester University and Space Research Centre (UK) and Moscow State University (Russia). Here the author will detail the areas in which the contributors (representing the next generation space professionals) believe manned space platform architectures will be evolved, new technological developments and barriers to be overcome. In addition, new methods of Spacecraft design will also be presented, referring in the main to the Space Station Design Workshop 2002 (ESTEC Concurrent Design Facility) a week long workshop where a group of 30 young space professionals where brought together to design a conceptual space station. Future developments of the next generation manned space platforms has been composed with two aims. Firstly, to convey to both young space enthusiasts and more mature space professionals the ideas

  2. Validity of Short and Long Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaires in Ranking Dietary Intake in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) Protocol Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Shinozawa, Yurie; Tanaka, Junta; Kato, Erika; Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies require both the periodic update of intake information via repeated dietary survey and the minimization of subject burden in responding to questionnaires. We developed a 66-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (short-FFQ) for the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) follow-up survey using major foods from the FFQ developed for the original JPHC Study. For the JPHC-NEXT baseline survey, we used a larger 172-item FFQ (long-FFQ), which was also derived from the JPHC-FFQ. We compared the validity of ranking individuals by levels of dietary consumption by these FFQs among residents of selected JPHC-NEXT study areas. Methods From 2012 to 2013, 240 men and women aged 40–74 years from five areas in the JPHC-NEXT protocol were asked to respond to the long-FFQ and provide 12-day weighed food records (WFR) as reference; 228 also completed the short-FFQ. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQs and WFR were calculated and corrected for intra-individual variation of the WFR. Results Median CC values for energy and 53 nutrients for the short-FFQ for men and women were 0.46 and 0.44, respectively. Respective values for the long-FFQ were 0.50 and 0.43. Compared with the long-FFQ, cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the short-FFQ ranged from 68% to 91% in men and 58% to 85% in women. Conclusions Similar to the long-FFQ, the short-FFQ provided reasonably valid measures for ranking middle-aged and elderly Japanese for many nutrients and food groups. The short-FFQ can be used in follow-up surveys in prospective cohort studies aimed at updating diet rank information. PMID:27064130

  3. Toward next-generation optical networks: a network operator perspective based on experimental tests and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaojun; Du, Chunsheng; Zhou, Rongsheng

    2004-04-01

    As a result of data traffic"s exponential growth, network is currently evolving from fixed circuit switched services to dynamic packet switched services, which has brought unprecedented changes to the existing transport infrastructure. It is generally agreed that automatic switched optical network (ASON) is one of the promising solutions for the next generation optical networks. In this paper, we present the results of our experimental tests and economic analysis on ASON. The intention of this paper is to present our perspective, in terms of evolution strategy toward ASON, on next generation optical networks. It is shown through experimental tests that the performance of current Pre-standard ASON enabled equipments satisfies the basic requirements of network operators and is ready for initial deployment. The results of the economic analysis show that network operators can be benefit from the deployment of ASON from three sides. Firstly, ASON can reduce the CAPEX for network expanding by integrating multiple ADM & DCS into one box. Secondly, ASON can reduce the OPEX for network operation by introducing automatic resource control scheme. Finally, ASON can increase margin revenue by providing new optical network services such as Bandwidth on Demand, optical VPN etc. Finally, the evolution strategy is proposed as our perspective toward next generation optical networks. We hope the evolution strategy introduced may be helpful for the network operators to gracefully migrate their fixed ring based legacy networks to next generation dynamic mesh based network.

  4. Safety Arguments for Next Generation, Location Aware Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns over accuracy, availability, integrity, and continuity have limited the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) for safety-critical applications. More recent augmentation systems, such as the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) and the North American Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) have begun to address these concerns. Augmentation architectures build on the existing GPS/GLONASS infrastructures to support location based services in Safety of Life (SoL) applications. Much of the technical development has been directed by air traffic management requirements, in anticipation of the more extensive support to be offered by GPS III and Galileo. WAAS has already been approved to provide vertical guidance for aviation applications. During the next twelve months, the full certification of EGNOS for SoL applications is expected. This paper discusses similarities and differences between the safety assessment techniques used in Europe and North America.

  5. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, Kenneth; Ganesh, Lakshmi; Renessee, Robbert van; Ferris, Michael; Hofmann, Andreas; Williams, Brian; Sztipanovits, Janos; Hemingway, Graham; University, Vanderbilt; Bose, Anjan; Stivastava, Anurag; Grijalva, Santiago; Grijalva, Santiago; Ryan, Sarah M.; McCalley, James D.; Woodruff, David L.; Xiong, Jinjun; Acar, Emrah; Agrawal, Bhavna; Conn, Andrew R.; Ditlow, Gary; Feldmann, Peter; Finkler, Ulrich; Gaucher, Brian; Gupta, Anshul; Heng, Fook-Luen; Kalagnanam, Jayant R; Koc, Ali; Kung, David; Phan, Dung; Singhee, Amith; Smith, Basil

    2011-10-05

    The April 2011 DOE workshop, 'Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid', was the culmination of a year-long process to bring together some of the Nation's leading researchers and experts to identify computational challenges associated with the operation and planning of the electric power system. The attached papers provide a journey into these experts' insights, highlighting a class of mathematical and computational problems relevant for potential power systems research. While each paper defines a specific problem area, there were several recurrent themes. First, the breadth and depth of power system data has expanded tremendously over the past decade. This provides the potential for new control approaches and operator tools that can enhance system efficiencies and improve reliability. However, the large volume of data poses its own challenges, and could benefit from application of advances in computer networking and architecture, as well as data base structures. Second, the computational complexity of the underlying system problems is growing. Transmitting electricity from clean, domestic energy resources in remote regions to urban consumers, for example, requires broader, regional planning over multi-decade time horizons. Yet, it may also mean operational focus on local solutions and shorter timescales, as reactive power and system dynamics (including fast switching and controls) play an increasingly critical role in achieving stability and ultimately reliability. The expected growth in reliance on variable renewable sources of electricity generation places an exclamation point on both of these observations, and highlights the need for new focus in areas such as stochastic optimization to accommodate the increased uncertainty that is occurring in both planning and operations. Application of research advances in algorithms (especially related to optimization techniques and uncertainty quantification) could accelerate power

  6. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, Kenneth; Ganesh, Lakshmi; Renessee, Robbert van; Ferris, Michael; Hofmann, Andreas; Williams, Brian; Sztipanovits, Janos; Hemingway, Graham; University, Vanderbilt; Bose, Anjan; Stivastava, Anurag; Grijalva, Santiago; Grijalva, Santiago; Ryan, Sarah M.; McCalley, James D.; Woodruff, David L.; Xiong, Jinjun; Acar, Emrah; Agrawal, Bhavna; Conn, Andrew R.; Ditlow, Gary; Feldmann, Peter; Finkler, Ulrich; Gaucher, Brian; Gupta, Anshul; Heng, Fook-Luen; Kalagnanam, Jayant R; Koc, Ali; Kung, David; Phan, Dung; Singhee, Amith; Smith, Basil

    2011-10-05

    The April 2011 DOE workshop, 'Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid', was the culmination of a year-long process to bring together some of the Nation's leading researchers and experts to identify computational challenges associated with the operation and planning of the electric power system. The attached papers provide a journey into these experts' insights, highlighting a class of mathematical and computational problems relevant for potential power systems research. While each paper defines a specific problem area, there were several recurrent themes. First, the breadth and depth of power system data has expanded tremendously over the past decade. This provides the potential for new control approaches and operator tools that can enhance system efficiencies and improve reliability. However, the large volume of data poses its own challenges, and could benefit from application of advances in computer networking and architecture, as well as data base structures. Second, the computational complexity of the underlying system problems is growing. Transmitting electricity from clean, domestic energy resources in remote regions to urban consumers, for example, requires broader, regional planning over multi-decade time horizons. Yet, it may also mean operational focus on local solutions and shorter timescales, as reactive power and system dynamics (including fast switching and controls) play an increasingly critical role in achieving stability and ultimately reliability. The expected growth in reliance on variable renewable sources of electricity generation places an exclamation point on both of these observations, and highlights the need for new focus in areas such as stochastic optimization to accommodate the increased uncertainty that is occurring in both planning and operations. Application of research advances in algorithms (especially related to optimization techniques and uncertainty quantification) could accelerate power

  7. Investigation of Next-Generation Earth Radiation Budget Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Katherine L.; Mahan, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The current effort addresses two issues important to the research conducted by the Thermal Radiation Group at Virginia Tech. The first research topic involves the development of a method which can properly model the diffraction of radiation as it enters an instrument aperture. The second topic involves the study of a potential next-generation space-borne radiometric instrument concept. Presented are multiple modeling efforts to describe the diffraction of monochromatic radiant energy passing through an aperture for use in the Monte-Carlo ray-trace environment. Described in detail is a deterministic model based upon Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the particle theory of light. This method is applicable to either Fraunhofer or Fresnel diffraction situations, but is incapable of predicting the secondary fringes in a diffraction pattern. Also presented is a second diffraction model, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle with a correcting obliquity factor. This model is useful for predicting Fraunhofer diffraction, and can predict the secondary fringes because it keeps track of phase. NASA is planning for the next-generation of instruments to follow CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), an instrument which measures components of the Earth's radiant energy budget in three spectral bands. A potential next-generation concept involves modification of the current CERES instrument to measure in a larger number of wavelength bands. This increased spectral partitioning would be achieved by the addition of filters and detectors to the current CERES geometry. The capacity of the CERES telescope to serve for this purpose is addressed in this thesis.

  8. Next generation Zero-Code control system UI

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Developing ergonomic user interfaces for control systems is challenging, especially during machine upgrade and commissioning where several small changes may suddenly be required. Zero-code systems, such as *Inspector*, provide agile features for creating and maintaining control system interfaces. More so, these next generation Zero-code systems bring simplicity and uniformity and brake the boundaries between Users and Developers. In this talk we present *Inspector*, a CERN made Zero-code application development system, and we introduce the major differences and advantages of using Zero-code control systems to develop operational UI.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  10. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Rue

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  11. Semantic e-Learning: Next Generation of e-Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinos, Markellos; Penelope, Markellou; Giannis, Koutsonikos; Aglaia, Liopa-Tsakalidi

    Semantic e-learning aspires to be the next generation of e-learning, since the understanding of learning materials and knowledge semantics allows their advanced representation, manipulation, sharing, exchange and reuse and ultimately promote efficient online experiences for users. In this context, the paper firstly explores some fundamental Semantic Web technologies and then discusses current and potential applications of these technologies in e-learning domain, namely, Semantic portals, Semantic search, personalization, recommendation systems, social software and Web 2.0 tools. Finally, it highlights future research directions and open issues of the field.

  12. Next generation immunotherapeutics--honing the magic bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enever, Carrie; Batuwangala, Thil; Plummer, Chris; Sepp, Armin

    2009-08-01

    Most therapeutic antibodies in the clinic today are based on fully humanised immunoglobulins. They have proven to be outstandingly effective, especially for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases where the target is a single, well-defined and accessible molecule. Many diseases however are complex, involving multiple mediators or signalling pathways that could be targeted simultaneously to maximise clinical benefit. There is also a wealth of validated intracellular and CNS-based targets which are currently inaccessible to monoclonal antibody therapy. A spectrum of next generation immunotherapeutics is in development to address these issues and a number of them have also entered clinical trials.

  13. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  14. Next Generation Luminaire (NGL) Downlight Demonstration Project, Hilton Columbus Downtown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perrin, T. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Molecular Diagnosis of Choroideremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Shimizu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We screened patients with choroideremia using next-generation sequencing (NGS and identified a novel mutation and a known mutation in the CHM gene. One patient presented an atypical fundus appearance for choroideremia. Another patient presented macular hole retinal detachment in the left eye. The present case series shows the utility of NGS-based screening in patients with choroideremia. In addition, the presence of macular hole in 1 of the 2 patients, together with a previous report, indicated the susceptibility of patients with choroideremia to macular hole.

  16. Wavelet Neural Network Based Traffic Prediction for Next Generation Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qigang; Li Qunzhan; He Zhengyou

    2005-01-01

    By using netflow traffic collecting technology, some traffic data for analysis are collected from a next generation network (NGN) operator. To build a wavelet basis neural network (NN), the Sigmoid function is replaced with the wavelet in NN. Then the wavelet multiresolution analysis method is used to decompose the traffic signal, and the decomposed component sequences are employed to train the NN. By using the methods, an NGN traffic prediction model is built to predict one day's traffic. The experimental results show that the traffic prediction method of wavelet NN is more accurate than that without using wavelet in the NGN traffic forecasting.

  17. Strategies Towords Next Generation IP Over Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A consensus is emerging in industry on utilizing an IP-Centric control plane within optical networks to support dynamic provisioning and restoration of lightpaths. At the same time, there are divergent views of how IP routers interact with optical core networks to achieve end-to-end connectivity. This paper describes the strategies of optical communication's future development towards next generation IP over Optical Networks. The desirable extent of network transparency in advanced all-optical network architecture is studied. Architectural alternatives for interconnecting IP routers over optical networks, and the concerned routing and signaling issues are described.

  18. Wireless next generation networks a virtue-based trust model

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief proposes a trust model motivated by virtue epistemology, addressing the need for a more efficient and flexible trust model for wireless next generation networks. This theory of trust simplifies the computation and communication overhead of strictly cognitive-computational models of trust. Both the advantages and the challenges of virtue-based trust models are discussed. This brief offers new research and a general theory of rationality that enables users to interpret trust and reason as complementary mechanisms that guide our rational conduct at two different epistemic level

  19. UMTS-WIMAX VERTICAL HANDOVER IN NEXT GENERATION WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Alamri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The vision of next generation wireless network (NGWN is to integrate different wireless accesstechnologies, each with its own characteristics, into a common IP-based core network to provide mobileuser with service continuity and seamless roaming. One of the major issues for the convergedheterogeneous networks is providing a seamless vertical handover (VHO with QoS support. In this paperwe have reviewed the various interworking architectures and handover scenarios between UMTS andWiMAX. Also, we have compared the proposed solutions based on different criteria and revealed the prosand cons of each scheme. The comparison aids to adopt a better interworking and handover mechanismin NGWN.

  20. Physics Opportunities at the Next Generation of Precision Flavor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuchini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Starting with next-generation experiments, flavor physics fully enters the era of precision measurements. The focus shifts from testing the Standard Model to finding and characterizing new physics contributions. We review the opportunities offered by future flavor experiments, discussing the expected sensitivities of the most important measurements. We also present some examples of measurable deviations from the Standard Model in the flavor sector generated in a selection of new physics models, demonstrating the major contribution that precision flavor physics could give to the effort of going beyond the Standard Model.

  1. How to Achieve Next-Generation Public Safety Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton

    2008-07-01

    Cellular technologies have dramatically affected our culture and the way we communicate. High-feature cellular handsets have enabled a cornucopia of new addictive information services. Meanwhile, public safety workers frequently are given antiquated wireless technologies, some systems more than 15 years old, to perform the important job of saving the lives of others while risking their own. Achieving nationwide interoperability and migrating public safety to next generation networks is a complicated, variegated problem that requires solutions in multiple arenas. Using the strategic solutions of cellular communication networks with backup capabilities, public safety data prioritization mechanisms, software development standards, and a public safety MVNO.

  2. Radio resource management for next generation mobile communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua

    The key feature of next generation (4G) mobile communication system is the ability to deliver a variety of multimedia services with different Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. Compared to the third generation (3G) mobile communication systems, 4G mobile communication system introduces several...... technological novelties. Those technological breaks impose significant challenges on the design of advanced and completely new Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms, such as channel assignments and packet scheduling. Among the emerging technologies for broadband wireless access, special attention has been...

  3. Fiber Assignment in Next-generation Wide-field Spectrographs

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Isaac; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Azzaro, Marco; Prada, Francisco; Sanchez, Justo; Becerril, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    We present an optimized algorithm for assigning fibers to targets in next-generation fiber-fed multi-object spectrographs. The method, that we named draining algorithm, ensures that the maximum number of targets in a given target field is observed in the first few tiles. Using randomly distributed targets and mock galaxy catalogs we have estimated that the gain provided by the draining algorithm as compared to a random assignment can be as much as 2% for the first tiles. This would imply for ...

  4. Next generation digital microfluidic technology: Electrophoresis of charged droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Do Jin [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Contact charging of a conducting droplet in a dielectric medium is introduced as a novel and useful digital microfluidic technology as well as an interesting scientific phenomenon. The history of this phenomenon, starting from original observations to its interpretations and applications, is presented. The basic principle of the droplet contact charging is also presented. Several fundamental aspects of the droplet contact charging from view points of electrochemistry, surface science, electrocoalescence, and electrohydrodynamics are mentioned. Some promising results for future applications and potential features as a next generation digital microfluidic technology are discussed, especially for 3D organ printing. Finally, implications and significance of the proposed technology for chemical engineering community are discussed.

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing and Genome Editing in Plant Virology

    OpenAIRE

    Hadidi, Ahmed; Flores, Ricardo; Candresse, Thierry; Barba, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA, or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21–24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant vir...

  6. Novel opportunities for next-generation probiotics targeting metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Patrice D; Van Hul, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Various studies have described the beneficial effects of specific bacteria on the characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Intestinal microbiota might therefore represent a modifiable trait for translational intervention to improve the metabolic profiles of obese and type 2 diabetic patients. However, identifying potential probiotic strains that can effectively colonize the gastrointestinal tract and significantly affect host metabolism has been challenging. This review aims to summarize the notable advances and contributions in the field that may prove useful for identifying next-generation probiotics that target metabolic syndrome and its related disorders.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  8. A Survey on Next-generation Power Grid Data Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Shutang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhu, Dr. Lin [University of Tennessee (UT); Liu, Yong [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun (Arjun) [ORNL; Robertson, Russell [Grid Protection Alliance; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The operation and control of power grids will increasingly rely on data. A high-speed, reliable, flexible and secure data architecture is the prerequisite of the next-generation power grid. This paper summarizes the challenges in collecting and utilizing power grid data, and then provides reference data architecture for future power grids. Based on the data architecture deployment, related research on data architecture is reviewed and summarized in several categories including data measurement/actuation, data transmission, data service layer, data utilization, as well as two cross-cutting issues, interoperability and cyber security. Research gaps and future work are also presented.

  9. ERP II - Next-generation Extended Enterprise Resource Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2003-01-01

    ERP II (ERP/2) systems is a new concept introduced by Gartner Group in 2000 in order to label the latest extensions of the ERP-systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the next-generation of ERP systems, the Extended Enterprise Resource Planning (EERP or as we prefer to use: e......ERP). The results of the paper are threefold: First a conceptual framework for eERP is established. Secondly, the business and research issues of this new framework are evaluated in the perspective of ERP and in particular the SCM developments. Third, the conceptual framework is applied in a discussion of potential...

  10. ERP II: Next-generation Extended Enterprise Resource Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2004-01-01

    ERP II (ERP/2) systems is a new concept introduced by Gartner Group in 2000 in order to label the latest extensions of the ERP-systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the next-generation of ERP systems, the Extended Enterprise Resource Planning (EERP or as we prefer to use: e......ERP). The results of the paper are threefold: First a conceptual framework for eERP is established. Secondly, the business and research issues of this new framework are evaluated in the perspective of ERP and in particular the SCM developments. Third, the conceptual framework is applied in a discussion of potential...

  11. Next generation fuel irradiation capability in the High Flux Reactor Petten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuetterer, Michael A., E-mail: michael.fuetterer@jrc.n [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy (JRC-IE), P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); D' Agata, Elio; Laurie, Mathias; Marmier, Alain; Scaffidi-Argentina, Francesco [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy (JRC-IE), P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Raison, Philippe [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC-ITU), D-76334 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bakker, Klaas; Groot, Sander de; Klaassen, Frodo [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    This paper describes selected equipment and expertise on fuel irradiation testing at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, The Netherlands. The reactor went critical in 1961 and holds an operating license up to at least 2015. While HFR has initially focused on Light Water Reactor fuel and materials, it also played a decisive role since the 1970s in the German High Temperature Reactor (HTR) development program. A variety of tests related to fast reactor development in Europe were carried out for next generation fuel and materials, in particular for Very High Temperature Reactor (V/HTR) fuel, fuel for closed fuel cycles (U-Pu and Th-U fuel cycle) and transmutation, as well as for other innovative fuel types. The HFR constitutes a significant European infrastructure tool for the development of next generation reactors. Experimental facilities addressed include V/HTR fuel tests, a coated particle irradiation rig, and tests on fast reactor, transmutation and thorium fuel. The rationales for these tests are given, results are provided and further work is outlined.

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NEXT GENERATION HIGH SPEED WIRELESS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAHUL MALHOTRA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobile communication theory have enabled the development of different wireless access technologies. Alongside the revolutionary progress in wireless access technologies, advances in wireless access devices such as laptops, palmtops, and cell phones and mobile middleware have paved the way for the deliveryof beyond-voice-type services while on the move. This sets the platform for high-speed mobile communications that provide high-speed data and both real and non-real time multimedia to mobile users. Today's wireless world uses several communication infrastructures such as Bluetooth for personal area, IEEE 802.11 for local area,Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS for wide area, and Satellite networks for global networking other hand, since these wireless networks are complementary to each other, their integration and coordinated operation can provide ubiquitous “always best connection" quality mobile communications to the users. This paper discusses the different architectures of wireless networks and the different factors to be considered while designing a hybrid wireless network. The different factors to be considered for design of ahybrid wireless network and the different networks have been explored in this paper.

  13. 25 years of endothelin research: the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Noriaki; Vignon-Zellweger, Nicolas; Lopes, Rhéure Alves Moreira; Cacioppo, Joseph; Desbiens, Louisane; Kamato, Danielle; Leurgans, Thomas; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Straube, Julia; Wurm, Raphael; Heiden, Susi; Ergul, Adviye; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Barton, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    In the past three decades, endothelin and endothelin receptor antagonists have received great scientific and clinical interest, leading to the publication of more than 27,000 scientific articles since its discovery. The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13) was held on September 8-11, 2013, at Tokyo Campus of the University of Tsukuba in Japan. Close to 300 scientists from 25 countries from around the world came to Tokyo to celebrate the anniversary of the discovery of the endothelin peptide discovered 25 years ago at the University of Tsukuba. This article summarizes some of the highlights of the conference, the anniversary celebration ceremony, and particularly the participation of next generation of endothelin researchers in endothelin science and the anniversary celebration. As a particular highlight, next generation endothelin researchers wrote a haiku (a traditional form of Japanese poetry originating from consisting of no more than three short verses and 27 on, or Japanese phonetic units) to describe the magic of endothelin science which they presented to the conference audience at the anniversary ceremony. The text of each haiku - both in its original language together with the English translation - is part of this article providing in an exemplary fashion how poetry can be bridged with science. Finally, we give an outlook towards the next 25 years of endothelin research.

  14. Distributed situation management processing: enabling next generation C2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    1996-06-01

    Increased use of joint task force concepts is expanding the battlespace and placing higher demands on interoperability. But simultaneous downsizing of forces is increasing the workload on warfighters; while there is a demand for increased decision aiding there has not been a corresponding increase in computational resources. Force wide situation management, the proactive command and control (C2) of the battlespace enabled by broad situation awareness and a deep understanding of mission context, is not likely given today's computational capability, system architecture, algorithmic, and datalink limitations. Next generation C2, e.g. decentralized, `rolling' etc., could be significantly enhanced by distributed situation management processing techniques. Presented herein is a sampling of core technologies, software architectures, cognitive processing algorithms, and datalink requirements which could enable next generation C2. Dynamic, adaptive process distribution concepts are discussed which address platform and tactical application computational capability limitations. Software and datalink architectures are then presented which facilitate situation management process distribution. Finally, required evolution of current algorithms and algorithms potentially enabled within these concepts are introduced.

  15. Women in Physics: The Next Generation At Our National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krossa, Cheryl

    2001-04-01

    Just as a house must be built on a strong foundation, with each subsequent course of bricks placed upon those that went before, the advances of women in physics are built upon the accomplishments of those women who have gone before. How are we preparing for the next course of bricks? Where will the next generation of women in physics come from, and how are these women being prepared to take their place among your ranks? The United States Department of Energy is helping to mold the next generation of women in physics, in part, through the efforts of its fifteen national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Fermi, Idaho, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Princeton Plasma Physics, Sandia, National Energy Technology Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This presentation will showcase some of the creative and innovative approaches these institutions are taking, from outreach to girls in elementary schools to executive appointments, to secure not only this nation's future, but that of women in physics.

  16. Next generation sequencing (NGS): a golden tool in forensic toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, S M; Sabri, D M

    2015-01-01

    The DNA analysis is a cornerstone in contemporary forensic sciences. DNA sequencing technologies are powerful tools that enrich molecular sciences in the past based on Sanger sequencing and continue to glowing these sciences based on Next generation sequencing (NGS). Next generation sequencing has excellent potential to flourish and increase the molecular applications in forensic sciences by jumping over the pitfalls of the conventional method of sequencing. The main advantages of NGS compared to conventional method that it utilizes simultaneously a large number of genetic markers with high-resolution of genetic data. These advantages will help in solving several challenges such as mixture analysis and dealing with minute degraded samples. Based on these new technologies, many markers could be examined to get important biological data such as age, geographical origins, tissue type determination, external visible traits and monozygotic twins identification. It also could get data related to microbes, insects, plants and soil which are of great medico-legal importance. Despite the dozens of forensic research involving NGS, there are requirements before using this technology routinely in forensic cases. Thus, there is a great need to more studies that address robustness of these techniques. Therefore, this work highlights the applications of forensic sciences in the era of massively parallel sequencing.

  17. Towards Next Generation Internet Management:CNGI-CERNET2EXPERIENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Hai Yang; Hui Zhang; Jin-Xiang Zhang; Chang-Qing An

    2009-01-01

    Manageability is an important feature of next generation Internet; management and monitoring of IPv6-based networks are proving a big challenge. While leveraging current IPv4-based SNMP management scheme to IPv6 networks'management need is necessary, it is more urgent to coin a new network management architecture to accommodate the scalability and extensibility requirements of next generation Internet management. The paper proposes a novel network management architecture, IMN (Internet Management Network), which creates an overlay network of management nodes.While each management node can perform management tasks autonomously and independently, it can finish more sophis-ticated management tasks by collaboratively invoking management operations or sharing information provided by other management nodes. P2P-based communication services are introduced in IMN to enable such collaboration. The paper presents a prototyping implementation based on the Web service related technology, as well as some of the key technologies,especially solutions to those issues arising from the management practice of CERNET2. Experiences of deployment of CERNET2 operation and lessons learned from the management practice are discussed.

  18. Technical and environmental challenges for the next generation supersonic transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacull, M. [Aerospatiale (France); Hume, Ch. [British Aerospace (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The next century will be marked by the entry into service of new supersonic transport. The real question concerning the next generation supersonic transport is not will it happen, but when, and how. There is a general agreement that such an airplane will result from a worldwide venture. Who will participate, to what extend and how we will put the vehicle and partners together, are an interesting concern that will need some time to resolve. The other challenges will be to design, build and market an aircraft that will be a viable product: for the passenger, who wants the service of a fast airliner with a reasonable surcharge; for the airline which wants competitive operating cost so that it will make sense to introduce such an airplane in its fleet; for the manufacturer, which not only does not want to go bankruptcy, but seeks to make a profit in the long term within the environmental constraints: no adverse impact on high atmosphere ozone; compliance with noise requirements, operations compatible with sonic boom. This paper does not try to answer all these question, but rather highlight major technical and environmental issues for the next generation supersonic transport. The topics discussed are: general specification, noise, atmospheric emissions, sonic boom, aerodynamics, structures, engine integration, systems. (authors)

  19. Next-generation DNA barcoding: using next-generation sequencing to enhance and accelerate DNA barcode capture from single specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokralla, Shadi; Gibson, Joel F; Nikbakht, Hamid; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-09-01

    DNA barcoding is an efficient method to identify specimens and to detect undescribed/cryptic species. Sanger sequencing of individual specimens is the standard approach in generating large-scale DNA barcode libraries and identifying unknowns. However, the Sanger sequencing technology is, in some respects, inferior to next-generation sequencers, which are capable of producing millions of sequence reads simultaneously. Additionally, direct Sanger sequencing of DNA barcode amplicons, as practiced in most DNA barcoding procedures, is hampered by the need for relatively high-target amplicon yield, coamplification of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes, confusion with sequences from intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia) and instances of intraindividual variability (i.e. heteroplasmy). Any of these situations can lead to failed Sanger sequencing attempts or ambiguity of the generated DNA barcodes. Here, we demonstrate the potential application of next-generation sequencing platforms for parallel acquisition of DNA barcode sequences from hundreds of specimens simultaneously. To facilitate retrieval of sequences obtained from individual specimens, we tag individual specimens during PCR amplification using unique 10-mer oligonucleotides attached to DNA barcoding PCR primers. We employ 454 pyrosequencing to recover full-length DNA barcodes of 190 specimens using 12.5% capacity of a 454 sequencing run (i.e. two lanes of a 16 lane run). We obtained an average of 143 sequence reads for each individual specimen. The sequences produced are full-length DNA barcodes for all but one of the included specimens. In a subset of samples, we also detected Wolbachia, nontarget species, and heteroplasmic sequences. Next-generation sequencing is of great value because of its protocol simplicity, greatly reduced cost per barcode read, faster throughout and added information content.

  20. Next generation hyper-scale software and hardware systems for big data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Building on foundational technologies such as many-core systems, non-volatile memories and photonic interconnects, we describe some current technologies and future research to create real-time, big data analytics, IT infrastructure. We will also briefly describe some of our biologically-inspired software and hardware architecture for creating radically new hyper-scale cognitive computing systems. About the speaker Rich Friedrich is the director of Strategic Innovation and Research Services (SIRS) at HP Labs. In this strategic role, he is responsible for research investments in nano-technology, exascale computing, cyber security, information management, cloud computing, immersive interaction, sustainability, social computing and commercial digital printing. Rich's philosophy is to fuse strategy and inspiration to create compelling capabilities for next generation information devices, systems and services. Using essential insights gained from the metaphysics of innnovation, he effectively leads ...

  1. Analyzing Web 2.0 Integration with Next Generation Networks for Services Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Networks (NGN) aims to integrate for IP-based telecom infrastructures and provide most advance & high speed emerging value added services. NGN capable to provide higher innovative services, these services will able to integrate communication and Web service into a single platform. IP Multimedia Subsystem, a NGN leading technology, enables a variety of NGN-compliant communications services to interoperate while being accessed through different kinds of access networks, preferably broadband. IMS–NGN services essential by both consumer and corporate users are by now used to access services, even communications services through the web and web-based communities and social networks, It is key for success of IMS-based services to be provided with efficient web access, so users can benefit from those new services by using web-based applications and user interfaces, not only NGN-IMS User Equipments and SIP protocol. Many Service are under planning which provided only under convergence of ...

  2. Design & Deploy Web 2.0 enable services over Next Generation Network Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I; 10.5121/ijdms.2010.2305

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Networks (NGN) aims to integrate for IP-based telecom infrastructures and provide most advance & high speed emerging value added services. NGN capable to provide higher innovative services, these services will able to integrate communication and Web service into a single platform. IP Multimedia Subsystem, a NGN leading technology, enables a variety of NGN-compliant communications services to interoperate while being accessed through different kinds of access networks, preferably broadband. IMS–NGN services essential by both consumer and corporate users are by now used to access services, even communications services through the web and web-based communities and social networks, It is key for success of IMS-based services to be provided with efficient web access, so users can benefit from those new services by using web-based applications and user interfaces, not only NGN-IMS User Equipments and SIP protocol. Many Service are under planning which provided only under convergence of ...

  3. A new framework architecture for next generation e-Health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengou, M; Mantas, G; Lymberopoulos, D; Komninos, N; Fengos, S; Lazarou, N

    2013-01-01

    The challenge for fast and low-cost deployment of ubiquitous personalized e-Health services has prompted us to propose a new framework architecture for such services. We have studied the operational features and the environment of e-Health services and we led to a framework structure that extends the ETSI/Parlay architecture, which is used for the deployment of standardized services over the next generation IP networks. We expanded the ETSI/Parlay architecture with new service capability features as well as sensor, profiling and security mechanisms. The proposed framework assists the seamless integration, within the e-Health service structure, of diverse facilities provided by both the underlying communication and computing infrastructure as well as the patient's bio and context sensor networks. Finally, we demonstrate the deployment of a tele-monitoring service in smart home environment based on the proposed framework architecture.

  4. Solar power satellites: our next generation of satellites will deliver the sun's energy to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flournoy, Don M.

    2009-12-01

    The paper addresses the means for gathering energy from sunlight in space and transmitting it to Earth via Solar Power Satellites. The motivating factor is that the output of our sun is the largest potential energy source available, with the capability of providing inexhaustible quantities of clean electrical energy to every location on Earth. The challenge is that considerable financial, intellectual and diplomatic resources must be focused on designing and implementing new types of energy infrastructures in space and on the ground. These include: 1) next-generation space platforms, arrays, and power transmission systems; 2) more flexible and powerful launch vehicles for delivering materials to space; 3) specialized receivers, converters and storage systems on earth, and the in-orbit position allocations, spectrum and software that make these systems work together efficiently and safely.

  5. 75 FR 80799 - Preparation of the PEIS for Modernization of Training Infrastructure at Pōhakuloa Training Area, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... infrastructure (roads and utilities), and training support facilities in the cantonment area at P hakuloa... PTA's long-term vision for modernizing training ranges, training support infrastructure, and the... consider modernizing the training ranges, training support infrastructure, and the cantonment area at...

  6. Next-generation X-ray cluster surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, N. W.; Ponman, T. J.

    2014-03-01

    Contemporary X-ray surveys have permitted rich galaxy clusters to be detected out to redshifts z > 1, but studies with next-generation instruments will allow this work to be extended to both higher redshift and lower cluster masses. Such studies have the potential to provide powerful constraints on the evolution of baryonic processes such as cooling and feedback within developing cosmic structures, provided that observational selection effects can be controlled. To explore this, we generate simulated surveys using the Wide Field Imager (WFI) instrument on International X-ray Observatory (IXO), studied in 2010 by NASA and ESA as a major next-generation X-ray observatory. A sample of observed groups and clusters is assembled and used to derive relationships between temperature and four cluster properties: M500, L500, core radius and β. These are coupled with an evolving population of dark matter haloes drawn from the Millennium Simulation to construct an evolving set of X-ray clusters which are cast into a lightcone and imaged using the main instrumental characteristics of the IXO WFI. State-of-the-art techniques are then employed for source detection and extension testing, to generate a simulated survey cluster catalogue. These simulations are used to explore the dependence of a next-generation survey on the evolution of cluster scaling relations, survey strategy (wide versus deep) and instrument point spread function (PSF). We find that a 1.8 Ms IXO survey gives a cluster sample three to five times larger for a wide survey compared to a deep survey. In both surveys, the strongest discrimination between different LX-T evolutionary models derives from galaxy groups, with T ˜ 1-2 keV. Deep surveys can be affected by cosmic variance within this temperature range, whilst wide surveys suffer from incompleteness, and hence are more vulnerable to biases arising from incomplete knowledge of the survey selection function. Degrading the telescope PSF is found to most

  7. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmentally DurableThermal Control Material Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase II proposal will develop next generation products for Thermal Control Material Systems (TCMS) an adhesives based on the next generation...

  8. 78 FR 52941 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Next Generation Arctic Navigational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Next Generation Arctic Navigational... Agreement (CRADA) with Marine Exchange of Alaska (MXAK) to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate, in an operational setting, at least one promising technology approach to the ``Next Generation Arctic...

  9. Implementation of Targeted Next Generation Sequencing in Clinical Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Jakob; Burton, Mark; Thomassen, Mads;

    Accurate mutation detection is essential in clinical genetic diagnostics of monogenic hereditary diseases. Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) provides a promising and cost-effective alternative to Sanger sequencing and MLPA analysis currently used in most diagnostic laboratories. One...... advantage of targeted NGS is that multiple disease-specific genes can easily be sequenced simultaneously, which is favorable in genetic heterogeneous diseases. Prior to implementation in our diagnostic setting, we aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of targeted NGS by sequencing a collection......, respectively. For diagnostics, the sequencing coverage is essential, wherefore a minimum coverage of 30x per nucleotide in the coding regions was used as our primary quality criterion. For the majority of the included genes, we obtained adequate gene coverage, in which we were able to detect 100% of the known...

  10. The AGATA Spectrometer: next generation gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J.; AGATA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. The spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for electromagnetic nuclear radiation. The tracking technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances and the spectrometer is now operational. AGATA has been operated in a series of scientific campaigns at Legnaro National Laboratory in Italy and GSI in Germany and is presently being assembled at GANIL in France. The status of the instrument will be reviewed.

  11. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...... generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... semiconductors is emphasized and a multidisciplinary approach for the stress analysis is introduced. Based on the proposed criteria and tools, the electrical and thermal behaviors of wind power converters are investigated under both normal and fault conditions, where the factors of wind speeds, grid codes...

  12. Multi-Intelligence Analytics for Next Generation Analysts (MIAGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Waltz, Ed

    2016-05-01

    Current analysts are inundated with large volumes of data from which extraction, exploitation, and indexing are required. A future need for next-generation analysts is an appropriate balance between machine analytics from raw data and the ability of the user to interact with information through automation. Many quantitative intelligence tools and techniques have been developed which are examined towards matching analyst opportunities with recent technical trends such as big data, access to information, and visualization. The concepts and techniques summarized are derived from discussions with real analysts, documented trends of technical developments, and methods to engage future analysts with multiintelligence services. For example, qualitative techniques should be matched against physical, cognitive, and contextual quantitative analytics for intelligence reporting. Future trends include enabling knowledge search, collaborative situational sharing, and agile support for empirical decision-making and analytical reasoning.

  13. Towards next-generation biodiversity assessment using DNA metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pompanon, Francois

    2012-01-01

    amplification step, and comprehensive taxonomic reference libraries composed of whole organellar genomes and repetitive ribosomal nuclear DNA can be built based on the well-curated DNA extract collections maintained by standardized barcoding initiatives. The near-term future of DNA metabarcoding has an enormous......Virtually all empirical ecological studies require species identification during data collection. DNA metabarcoding refers to the automated identification of multiple species from a single bulk sample containing entire organisms or from a single environmental sample containing degraded DNA (soil......, water, faeces, etc.). It can be implemented for both modern and ancient environmental samples. The availability of next-generation sequencing platforms and the ecologists need for high-throughput taxon identification have facilitated the emergence of DNA metabarcoding. The potential power of DNA...

  14. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  15. Application of Next Generation Sequencing on Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jian

    The discovery of genetic factors behind increasing number of human diseases and the growth of education of genetic knowledge to the public make demands for genetic testing increase rapidly. However, traditional genetic testing methods cannot meet all kinds of the requirements. Next generation...... sequencing (NGS) featured with high throughput and low cost of sequencing capacity develops fast, especially with the improvement of its read length, read accuracy and the immergence of small-sized machines, making it a powerful genetic testing tool. In this study, we applied NGS to develop novel genetic...... developed a targeted sequencing based preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) method for monogenic diseases and tested it in a family suffering from β-thalassaemia major undergoing PGD. Moreover, we developed a method which can achieve detection of point mutation and copy number variation simultaneously...

  16. Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

    2011-11-01

    To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

  17. Materials for next-generation desalination and water purification membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Jay R.; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-05-01

    Membrane-based separations for water purification and desalination have been increasingly applied to address the global challenges of water scarcity and the pollution of aquatic environments. However, progress in water purification membranes has been constrained by the inherent limitations of conventional membrane materials. Recent advances in methods for controlling the structure and chemical functionality in polymer films can potentially lead to new classes of membranes for water purification. In this Review, we first discuss the state of the art of existing membrane technologies for water purification and desalination, highlight their inherent limitations and establish the urgent requirements for next-generation membranes. We then describe molecular-level design approaches towards fabricating highly selective membranes, focusing on novel materials such as aquaporin, synthetic nanochannels, graphene and self-assembled block copolymers and small molecules. Finally, we highlight promising membrane surface modification approaches that minimize interfacial interactions and enhance fouling resistance.

  18. Detection of mobile user location on next generation wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel conceptual mechanism for detecting the location of a mobile user on next generation wireless networks. This mechanism can provide location information of a mobile user at different levels of accuracy, by applying the movement detection mechanism of Mobile IPv6 at both...... macro- and micromobility level. In this scheme, an intradomain mobility management protocol (IDMP) is applied to manage the location of the mobile terminal. The mobile terminal needs two care-of addresses, a global care-of address (GCoA) and a local care-of address (LCoA). The current location...... of a Mobile IPv6 device can be determined by mapping the geographical location information with the two care-of-addresses and the physical address of the access point where the user is connected. Such a mechanism makes location services for mobile entities available on a global IP network. The end-users can...

  19. Application of next generation sequencing technology in Mendelian movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yumin; Pan, Xuya; Xue, Dan; Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Xueying; Kuang, Biao; Zheng, Jiabo; Deng, Hao; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has developed very rapidly in the last decade. Compared with Sanger sequencing, NGS has the advantages of high sensitivity and high throughput. Movement disorders are a common type of neurological disease. Although traditional linkage analysis has become a standard method to identify the pathogenic genes in diseases, it is getting difficult to find new pathogenic genes in rare Mendelian disorders, such as movement disorders, due to a lack of appropriate families with high penetrance or enough affected individuals. Thus, NGS is an ideal approach to identify the causal alleles for inherited disorders. NGS is used to identify genes in several diseases and new mutant sites in Mendelian movement disorders. This article reviewed the recent progress in NGS and the use of NGS in Mendelian movement disorders from genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. A perspective on how NGS could be employed in rare Mendelian disorders is also provided.

  20. Optical Property Evaluation of Next Generation Thermal Control Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Deshpande, Mukund S.; Pierson, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Next generation white thermal control coatings were developed via the Small Business Innovative Research program utilizing lithium silicate chemistry as a binder. Doping of the binder with additives yielded a powder that was plasma spray capable and that could be applied to light weight polymers and carbon-carbon composite surfaces. The plasma sprayed coating had acceptable beginning-of-life and end-of-live optical properties, as indicated by a successful 1.5 year exposure to the space environment in low Earth orbit. Recent studies also showed the coating to be durable to simulated space environments consisting of 1 keV and 10 keV electrons, 4.5 MeV electrons, and thermal cycling. Large scale deposition was demonstrated on a polymer matrix composite radiator panel, leading to the selection of the coating for use on the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.

  1. Astroinformatics Challenges from Next-generation Radio Continuum Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2016-01-01

    The tens of millions of radio sources to be detected with next-generation surveys pose new challenges, quite apart from the obvious ones of processing speed and data volumes. For example, existing algorithms are inadequate for source extraction or cross-matching radio and optical/IR sources, and a new generation of algorithms are needed using machine learning and other techniques. The large numbers of sources enable new ways of testing astrophysical models, using a variety of "large-n astronomy" techniques such as statistical redshifts. Furthermore, while unexpected discoveries account for some of the most significant discoveries in astronomy, it will be difficult to discover the unexpected in large volumes of data, unless specific software is developed to mine the data for the unexpected.

  2. Applications of Next-generation Sequencing in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyangzi Ma; Na Shi; Mengtao Li; Fei Chen; Haitao Niu

    2015-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous disorders caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Although numerous causal genes have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), these susceptibility genes are correlated to a relatively low disease risk, indicating that environmental factors also play an important role in the pathogen-esis of disease. The intestinal microbiome, as the main symbiotic ecosystem between the host and host-associated microorganisms, has been demonstrated to regulate the development of the body’s immune system and is likely related to genetic mutations in systemic autoimmune diseases. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with high-throughput capacity and accuracy, provides a powerful tool to discover genomic mutations, abnormal transcription and intestinal microbiome identification for autoimmune diseases. In this review, we briefly outlined the applications of NGS in systemic autoimmune diseases. This review may provide a reference for future studies in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases.

  3. Unrevealed mosaicism in the next-generation sequencing era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecka, Marzena

    2016-04-01

    Mosaicism refers to the presence in an individual of normal and abnormal cells that are genotypically distinct and are derived from a single zygote. The incidence of mosaicism events in the human body is underestimated as the genotypes in the mosaic ratio, especially in the low-grade mosaicism, stay unrevealed. This review summarizes various research outcomes and diagnostic questions in relation to different types of mosaicism. The impact of both tested biological material and applied method on the mosaicism detection rate is especially highlighted. As next-generation sequencing technologies constitute a promising methodological solution in mosaicism detection in the coming years, revisions in current diagnostic protocols are necessary to increase the detection rate of the unrevealed mosaicism events. Since mosaicism identification is a complex process, numerous examples of multistep mosaicism investigations are presented and discussed.

  4. Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Forensic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaran Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice.

  5. Application of next-generation sequencing technology in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei

    2014-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice.

  6. A fraud management system architecture for next-generation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihina Bella, M A; Eloff, J H P; Olivier, M S

    2009-03-10

    This paper proposes an original architecture for a fraud management system (FMS) for convergent. Next-generation networks (NGNs), which are based on the Internet protocol (IP). The architecture has the potential to satisfy the requirements of flexibility and application-independency for effective fraud detection in NGNs that cannot be met by traditional FMSs. The proposed architecture has a thorough four-stage detection process that analyses billing records in IP detail record (IPDR) format - an emerging IP-based billing standard - for signs of fraud. Its key feature is its usage of neural networks in the form of self-organising maps (SOMs) to help uncover unknown NGN fraud scenarios. A prototype was implemented to test the effectiveness of using a SOM for fraud detection and is also described in the paper.

  7. Engineering microbes for tolerance to next-generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop Mary J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major challenge when using microorganisms to produce bulk chemicals such as biofuels is that the production targets are often toxic to cells. Many biofuels are known to reduce cell viability through damage to the cell membrane and interference with essential physiological processes. Therefore, cells must trade off biofuel production and survival, reducing potential yields. Recently, there have been several efforts towards engineering strains for biofuel tolerance. Promising methods include engineering biofuel export systems, heat shock proteins, membrane modifications, more general stress responses, and approaches that integrate multiple tolerance strategies. In addition, in situ recovery methods and media supplements can help to ease the burden of end-product toxicity and may be used in combination with genetic approaches. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology provide a framework for tolerance engineering. This review highlights recent targeted approaches towards improving microbial tolerance to next-generation biofuels with a particular emphasis on strategies that will improve production.

  8. Ultra-large scale cosmology with next-generation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, David; Ferreira, Pedro G; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mario G

    2015-01-01

    Future surveys of large-scale structure will be able to measure perturbations on the scale of the cosmological horizon, and so could potentially probe a number of novel relativistic effects that are negligibly small on sub-horizon scales. These effects leave distinctive signatures in the power spectra of clustering observables and, if measurable, would open a new window on relativistic cosmology. We quantify the size and detectability of the effects for a range of future large-scale structure surveys: spectroscopic and photometric galaxy redshift surveys, intensity mapping surveys of neutral hydrogen, and continuum surveys of radio galaxies. Our forecasts show that next-generation experiments, reaching out to redshifts z ~ 4, will not be able to detect previously-undetected general-relativistic effects from the single-tracer power spectra alone, although they may be able to measure the lensing magnification in the auto-correlation. We also perform a rigorous joint forecast for the detection of primordial non-...

  9. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  10. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  11. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  12. Next Generation Strong Lensing Time Delay Estimation with Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hojjati, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing forms multiple, time delayed images of cosmological sources, with the "focal length" of the lens serving as a cosmological distance probe. Robust estimation of the time delay distance can tightly constrain the Hubble constant as well as the matter density and dark energy. Current and next generation surveys will find hundreds to thousands of lensed systems but accurate time delay estimation from noisy, gappy lightcurves is potentially a limiting systematic. Using a large sample of blinded lightcurves from the Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge we develop and demonstrate a Gaussian Process crosscorrelation technique that delivers an average bias within 0.1% depending on the sampling, necessary for subpercent Hubble constant determination. The fits are accurate (80% of them within 1 day) for delays from 5-100 days and robust against cadence variations shorter than 6 days. We study the effects of survey characteristics such as cadence, season, and campaign length, and derive requiremen...

  13. The next-generation liquid-scintillator neutrino observatory LENA

    CERN Document Server

    Wurm, Michael; Bezrukov, Leonid B; Bick, Daniel; Blümer, Johannes; Choubey, Sandhya; Ciemniak, Christian; D'Angelo, Davide; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Domogatsky, Grigorij; Dye, Steve; Eliseev, Sergey; Enqvist, Timo; Erykalov, Alexey; von Feilitzsch, Franz; Fiorentini, Gianni; Fischer, Tobias; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Grabmayr, Peter; Hagner, Caren; Hellgartner, Dominikus; Hissa, Johannes; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Jaupart, Claude; Jochum, Josef; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Lazanu, Ionel; Learned, John G; Lewke, Timo; Lombardi, Paolo; Lorenz, Sebastian; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Loo, Kai; Maalampi, Jukka; Mantovani, Fabio; Marafini, Michela; Maricic, Jelena; Undagoitia, Teresa Marrodán; McDonough, William F; Miramonti, Lino; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Meindl, Quirin; Mena, Olga; Möllenberg, Randolph; Nahnhauer, Rolf; Nesterenko, Dmitry; Novikov, Yuri N; Nuijten, Guido; Oberauer, Lothar; Pakvasa, Sandip; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pallavicini, Marco; Pascoli, Silvia; Patzak, Thomas; Peltoniemi, Juha; Potzel, Walter; Räihä, Tomi; Raffelt, Georg G; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Razzaque, Soebur; Rummukainen, Kari; Sarkamo, Juho; Sinev, Valerij; Spiering, Christian; Stahl, Achim; Thorne, Felicitas; Tippmann, Marc; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Trzaska, Wladyslaw H; Vergados, John D; Wiebusch, Christopher; Winter, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    We propose the liquid-scintillator detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) as a next-generation neutrino observatory on the scale of 50 kt. The outstanding successes of the Borexino and KamLAND experiments demonstrate the large potential of liquid-scintillator detectors in low-energy neutrino physics. LENA's physics objectives comprise the observation of astrophysical and terrestrial neutrino sources as well as the investigation of neutrino oscillations. In the GeV energy range, the search for proton decay and long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments complement the low-energy program. Based on the considerable expertise present in European and international research groups, the technical design is sufficiently mature to allow for an early start of detector realization.

  14. Final Report for "Analyzing and visualizing next generation climate data"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletzer, Alexander

    2012-11-13

    The project "Analyzing and visualizing next generation climate data" adds block-structured (mosaic) grid support, parallel processing, and 2D/3D curvilinear interpolation to the open-source UV-CDAT climate data analysis tool. Block structured grid support complies to the Gridspec extension submitted to the Climate and Forecast metadata conventions. It contains two parts: aggregation of data spread over multiple mosaic tiles (M-SPEC) and aggregation of temporal data stored in different files (F-SPEC). Together, M-SPEC and F-SPEC allow users to interact with data stored in multiple files as if the data were in a single file. For computational expensive tasks, a flexible, multi-dimensional, multi-type distributed array class allows users to process data in parallel using remote memory access. Both nodal and cell based interpolation is supported; users can choose between different interpolation libraries including ESMF and LibCF depending on the their particular needs.

  15. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  16. Structural materials for the next generation of technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Voorde, Marcel Hubert

    1996-01-01

    1. Overview of advanced technologies; i.e. aerospace-aeronautics; automobile; energy technology; accelerator engineering etc. and the need for new structural materials. 2. Familiarisation with polymers, metals and alloys, structural ceramics, composites and surface engineering. The study of modern materials processing, generation of a materials data base, engineering properties includind NDE, radiation damage etc. 3. Development of new materials for the next generation of technologies; including the spin-off of materials developed for space and military purposes to industrial applications. 4. Materials selection for modern accelerator engineering. 5. Materials research in Europe, USA and Japan. Material R & D programmes sponsored by the European Union and the collaboration of CERN in EU sponsored programmes.

  17. Next generation sequencing for characterizing biodiversity: promises and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompanon, François; Samadi, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    DNA barcoding approaches are used to describe biodiversity by analysing specimens or environmental samples in taxonomic, phylogenetic and ecological studies. While sharing data among these disciplines would be highly valuable, this remains difficult because of contradictory requirements. The properties making a DNA barcode efficient for specimen identification or species delimitation are hardly reconcilable with those required for a powerful analysis of degraded DNA from environmental samples. The use of next generation sequencing methods open up the way towards the development of new markers (e.g., multilocus barcodes) that would overcome such limitations. However, several challenges should be taken up for coordinating actions at the interface between taxonomy, ecology, molecular biology and bioinformatics in order to develop methods and protocols compatible with both taxonomic and ecological studies.

  18. High Performance Ethernet Packet Processor Core for Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jitendra Nayaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for high speed Internet significantly increasing to meet the requirement of large datatransfers, real-time communication and High Definition ( HD multimedia transfer over IP, the IP basednetwork products architecture must evolve and change. Application specific processors require highperformance, low power and high degree of programmability is the limitation in many general processorbased applications. This paper describes the design of Ethernet packet processor for system-on-chip (SoCwhich performs all core packet processing functions, including segmentation and reassembly, packetizationclassification, route and queue management which will speedup switching/routing performance making itmore suitable for Next Generation Networks (NGN. Ethernet packet processor design can be configuredfor use with multiple projects targeted to a FPGA device the system is designed to support 1/10/20/40/100Gigabit links with a speed and performance advantage. VHDL has been used to implement and simulatedthe required functions in FPGA.

  19. The Next Generation ARC Middleware and ATLAS Computing Model

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Smirnova, O; Konstantinov, A; Karpenko, D

    2012-01-01

    The distributed NDGF Tier-1 and associated Nordugrid clusters are well integrated into the ATLAS computing model but follow a slightly different paradigm than other ATLAS resources. The current strategy does not divide the sites as in the commonly used hierarchical model, but rather treats them as a single storage endpoint and a pool of distributed computing nodes. The next generation ARC middleware with its several new technologies provides new possibilities in development of the ATLAS computing model, such as pilot jobs with pre-cached input files, automatic job migration between the sites, integration of remote sites without connected storage elements, and automatic brokering for jobs with non-standard resource requirements. ARC's data transfer model provides an automatic way for the computing sites to participate in ATLAS' global task management system without requiring centralised brokering or data transfer services. The powerful API combined with Python and Java bindings can easily be used to build new ...

  20. Building Scientific Community Support for the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. M.; Awad, A. A.; Robeck, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards offer an opportunity to teach Earth and space science in ways that are closer to how scientists practice, and more relevant to students and to societal issues. However, the level of scientific community involvement required to capitalize on this opportunity is high. Building on the results of the Summit Meeting on the Implementation of the NGSS at the State Level , this presentation proposes a set of mechanisms and practices by which the NGSS Earth and space science community can support NGSS implementation at the national, state and local levels. Based on work with summit attendees, classroom teachers, informal educators and undergraduate faculty, this presentation proposes ways to build a network of practitioners with shared communication, approaches and resources. A set of mechanisms whereby the community can build relationships and share practices will be described, along with an emerging set of strategies for supporting groups as they take the first steps into implementation.

  1. The Next-Generation Power Electronics Technology for Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents an overview of the next-generation power electronics technology for the Japanese-version smart grid. It focuses on a grid-level battery energy storage system, a grid-level STATCOM (STATic synchronous COMpensator), and a 6.6-kV BTB (Back-To-Back) system for power flow control between two power distribution feeders. These power electronic devices play an important role in achieving load frequency control and voltage regulation. Their circuit configurations based on modular multilevel cascade PWM converters are characterized by flexible system design, low voltage steps, and low EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) emission. Their downscaled laboratory models are designed, constructed, and tested to verify the viability and effectiveness of the circuit configurations and control methods.

  2. Next-generation sequencing: big data meets high performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bertil; Hildebrandt, Andreas

    2017-02-02

    The progress of next-generation sequencing has a major impact on medical and genomic research. This high-throughput technology can now produce billions of short DNA or RNA fragments in excess of a few terabytes of data in a single run. This leads to massive datasets used by a wide range of applications including personalized cancer treatment and precision medicine. In addition to the hugely increased throughput, the cost of using high-throughput technologies has been dramatically decreasing. A low sequencing cost of around US$1000 per genome has now rendered large population-scale projects feasible. However, to make effective use of the produced data, the design of big data algorithms and their efficient implementation on modern high performance computing systems is required.

  3. NREL-Prime Next-Generation Drivetrain Dynamometer Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Erdman, Bill [Cinch, Inc., Moraga, CA (United States); Blodgett, Douglas [DNV KEMA Renewables, Burlington, VT (United States); Halse, Christopher [Romax Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Advances in wind turbine drivetrain technologies are necessary to improve reliability and reduce the cost of energy for land-based and offshore wind turbines. The NREL-Prime Next-Generation Drivetrain team developed a geared, medium-speed drivetrain that is lighter, more reliable and more efficient than existing designs. One of the objectives of Phase II of the project was to complete the detailed design, fabrication, and dynamometer testing of a 750 kilowatt (kW) drivetrain that includes the key gearbox innovations designed by Romax Technology and power converter innovations designed by DNV Kema Renewables. The purpose of this document is to summarize these tests completed in NREL's National Wind Technology Center 2.5 megawatt (MW) dynamometer.

  4. Design and Modeling Billing solution to Next Generation Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I

    2010-01-01

    Next generation networks (NGN) services are assumed to be a new revenue stream for both network operators and service providers. New services especially focused on a mobile telecommunications that would be used not only as a communication de vice but also as a personal gateway to order or consume a variety of services and products [1]. This type of advanced services can be accomplished when the adaptability of the packet-networks (Internet) and the quality of service of the circuit switched networks are combined into one network [2]. New challenges appear in the billing of this heterogeneous multi services network. Some examples of such a services and possible solutions about charging and billing are examined in this paper. The first steps of mathematical model for billing are also considered.

  5. Quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Vieira, Filipe G.; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand;

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, new high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have dramatically increased speed and reduced sequencing costs. However, the use of these sequencing technologies is often challenged by errors and biases associated with the bioinformatical methods used for analyzing the da...... individuals, suggesting that employing this new method is useful for investigating the genetic relationships of populations sampled at low coverage....... method for quantifying population genetic differentiation from next-generation sequencing data. In addition, we present a strategy to investigate population structure via Principal Components Analysis. Through extensive simulations, we compare the new method herein proposed to approaches based...... on genotype calling and demonstrate a marked improvement in estimation accuracy for a wide range of conditions. We apply the method to a large-scale genomic data set of domesticated and wild silkworms sequenced at low coverage. We find that we can infer the fine-scale genetic structure of the sampled...

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  7. Durability Challenges for Next Generation of Gas Turbine Engine Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive fuel burn and carbon dioxide emission reduction goals for future gas turbine engines will require higher overall pressure ratio, and a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature. These goals can be achieved by increasing temperature capability of turbine engine hot section materials and decreasing weight of fan section of the engine. NASA is currently developing several advanced hot section materials for increasing temperature capability of future gas turbine engines. The materials of interest include ceramic matrix composites with 1482 - 1648 C temperature capability, advanced disk alloys with 815 C capability, and low conductivity thermal barrier coatings with erosion resistance. The presentation will provide an overview of durability challenges with emphasis on the environmental factors affecting durability for the next generation of gas turbine engine materials. The environmental factors include gaseous atmosphere in gas turbine engines, molten salt and glass deposits from airborne contaminants, impact from foreign object damage, and erosion from ingestion of small particles.

  8. Potential of OFDM for next generation optical access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Daniel; Weis, Erik; Breuer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the requirements for next generation optical access (NGOA) networks and analyzes the potential of OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) for the use in such network scenarios. First, we show the motivation for NGOA systems based on the future requirements on FTTH access systems and list the advantages of OFDM in such scenarios. In the next part, the basics of OFDM and different methods to generate and detect optical OFDM signals are explained and analyzed. At the transmitter side the options include intensity modulation and the more advanced field modulation of the optical OFDM signal. At the receiver there is the choice between direct detection and coherent detection. As the result of this discussion we show our vision of the future use of OFDM in optical access networks.

  9. Grid: A next generation data parallel C++ QCD library

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Peter; Cossu, Guido; Portelli, Antonin

    2015-01-01

    In this proceedings we discuss the motivation, implementation details, and performance of a new physics code base called Grid. It is intended to be more performant, more general, but similar in spirit to QDP++\\cite{QDP}. Our approach is to engineer the basic type system to be consistently fast, rather than bolt on a few optimised routines, and we are attempt to write all our optimised routines directly in the Grid framework. It is hoped this will deliver best known practice performance across the next generation of supercomputers, which will provide programming challenges to traditional scalar codes. We illustrate the programming patterns used to implement our goals, and advances in productivity that have been enabled by using new features in C++11.

  10. Satellite communications for the next generation telecommunication services and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite communications can play an important role in provisioning the next-generation telecommunication services and networks, provided the protocols specifying these services and networks are satellite-compatible and the satellite subnetworks, consisting of earth stations interconnected by the processor and the switch on board the satellite, interwork effectively with the terrestrial networks. The specific parameters and procedures of frame relay and broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) protocols which are impacted by a satellite delay. Congestion and resource management functions for frame relay and B-ISDN are discussed in detail, describing the division of these functions between earth stations and on board the satellite. Specific onboard and ground functions are identified as potential candidates for their implementation via neural network technology.

  11. Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Forensic Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaran Yang; Bingbing Xie; Jiangwei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multi-ple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice.

  12. Next generation sequencing reveals the hidden diversity of zooplankton assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope K Lindeque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Plankton net hauls (200 µm were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may

  13. Next-Generation Sequencing and Genome Editing in Plant Virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hadidi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21-24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology. The genome engineering editing method, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas9 system has been successfully used recently to engineer resistance to DNA geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae by targeting different viral genome sequences in infected Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis plants. The DNA viruses targeted include tomato yellow leaf curl virus and merremia mosaic virus (begomovirus; beet curly top virus and beet severe curly top virus (curtovirus; and bean yellow dwarf virus (mastrevirus. The technique has also been used against the RNA viruses zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus and turnip mosaic virus (potyvirus and cucumber vein yellowing virus (ipomovirus, family, Potyviridae by targeting the translation initiation genes eIF4E in cucumber or Arabidopsis plants. From these recent advances of major importance, it is expected that NGS and CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a significant role in the very near future in advancing the field of plant virology and connecting it with other related fields of biology.Keywords: Next-generation sequencing, NGS, plant virology, plant viruses, viroids, resistance to plant viruses by CRISPR-Cas9

  14. Free Space Optics for Next Generation Cellular Backhaul

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2016-11-01

    The exponential increase in the number of mobile users, coupled with the strong demand for high-speed data services results in a significant growth in the required cellular backhaul capacity. Optimizing the cost efficiency while increasing the capacity is becoming a key challenge to the cellular backhaul. It refers to connections between base stations and mobile switching nodes over a variety of transport technologies such as copper, optical fibers, and radio links. These traditional transmission technologies are either expensive, or cannot provide high data rates. This work is focused on the opportunities of free-space-optical (FSO) technology in next generation cellular back- haul. FSO is a cost effective and wide bandwidth solution as compared with the traditional radio-frequency (RF) transmission. Moreover, due to its ease of deployment, license-free operation, high transmission security, and insensitivity to interference, FSO links are becoming an attractive solution for next generation cellular networks. However, the widespread deployment of FSO links is hampered by the atmospheric turbulence-induced fading, weather conditions, and pointing errors. Increasing the reliability of FSO systems, while still exploiting their high data rate communications, is a key requirement in the deployment of an FSO-based backhaul. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide different approaches to address these technical challenges. In this context, investigation of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols from an information-theoretic perspective is undertaken. Moreover, performance analysis of asymmetric RF/FSO dual-hop systems is studied. In such system models, multiple RF users can be multiplexed and sent over the FSO link. More specifically, the end-to-end performance metrics are presented in closed-form. This also has increased the interest to study the performance of dual-hop mixed FSO/RF systems, where the FSO link is used as a multicast channel that serves

  15. DNA qualification workflow for next generation sequencing of histopathological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Simbolo

    Full Text Available Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard

  16. DNA qualification workflow for next generation sequencing of histopathological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbolo, Michele; Gottardi, Marisa; Corbo, Vincenzo; Fassan, Matteo; Mafficini, Andrea; Malpeli, Giorgio; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF) tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard workflow for

  17. AgMIP: Next Generation Models and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    Next steps in developing next-generation crop models fall into several categories: significant improvements in simulation of important crop processes and responses to stress; extension from simplified crop models to complex cropping systems models; and scaling up from site-based models to landscape, national, continental, and global scales. Crop processes that require major leaps in understanding and simulation in order to narrow uncertainties around how crops will respond to changing atmospheric conditions include genetics; carbon, temperature, water, and nitrogen; ozone; and nutrition. The field of crop modeling has been built on a single crop-by-crop approach. It is now time to create a new paradigm, moving from 'crop' to 'cropping system.' A first step is to set up the simulation technology so that modelers can rapidly incorporate multiple crops within fields, and multiple crops over time. Then the response of these more complex cropping systems can be tested under different sustainable intensification management strategies utilizing the updated simulation environments. Model improvements for diseases, pests, and weeds include developing process-based models for important diseases, frameworks for coupling air-borne diseases to crop models, gathering significantly more data on crop impacts, and enabling the evaluation of pest management strategies. Most smallholder farming in the world involves integrated crop-livestock systems that cannot be represented by crop modeling alone. Thus, next-generation cropping system models need to include key linkages to livestock. Livestock linkages to be incorporated include growth and productivity models for grasslands and rangelands as well as the usual annual crops. There are several approaches for scaling up, including use of gridded models and development of simpler quasi-empirical models for landscape-scale analysis. On the assessment side, AgMIP is leading a community process for coordinated contributions to IPCC AR6

  18. Areas vulnerable to natural disasters and damage estimation of infrastructure in Busan, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEON Sang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Since the damages caused by disasters associated with climate anomalies and the diversification of the social structure increase every year, an efficient management system associated with a damage assessment of the areas vulnerable to disasters is demanded to prevent or mitigate the damages to infrastructure. The areas vulnerable to disasters in Busan, located at southeastern part of Korea, were estimated based on historical records of damages and a risk assessment of the infrastructure was performed to provide fundamental information prior to the establishment of the real-time monitoring system for infrastructure and establish disaster management system. The results are illustrated by using geographical information system (GIS) and provide the importance of the roadmap for comprehensive and specific strategy to manage natural disasters.

  19. The NASA Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) Next Generation Space Weather Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, M. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Zheng, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Chulaki, A.; Pembroke, A. D.; Wiegand, C.; Mullinix, R.; Boblitt, J.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Swindell, M. J., IV; Bakshi, S. S.; Mays, M. L.; Shim, J. S.; Hesse, M.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; MacNeice, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables, supports, and performs research and development for next generation space science and space weather models. The CCMC currently hosts a large and expanding collection of state-or-the-art, physics-based space weather models that have been developed by the international research community. There are many tools and services provided by the CCMC that are currently available world-wide, along with the ongoing development of new innovative systems and software for research, discovery, validation, visualization, and forecasting. Over the history of the CCMC's existence, there has been one constant engineering challenge - describing, managing, and disseminating data. To address the challenges that accompany an ever-expanding number of models to support, along with a growing catalog of simulation output - the CCMC is currently developing a flexible and extensible space weather data warehouse to support both internal and external systems and applications. This paper intends to chronicle the evolution and future of the CCMC's data infrastructure, and the current infrastructure re-engineering activities that seek to leverage existing community data model standards like SPASE and the IMPEx Simulation Data Model.

  20. ACO Algorithm Applied to Multi-Objectives Optimization of Capacity Expansion in Next Generation Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dac-Nhuong Le

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimal capacity expansion of base station subsystems in Next Generation Wireless Network (NGWN problem with respect to multi-demand type and system capacity constraints is known to be NP-complete. In this paper, we propose a novel ant colony optimization algorithm to solve a network topology has two levels in which mobile users are sources and both base stations and base station controllers are concentrators. There are two important aspects of upgrading to NGWN. The first importance of backward compatibility with pre-existing networks, and the second is the cost and operational benefit of gradually enhancing networks, by replacing, upgrading and installing new wireless network infrastructure elements that can accommodate both voice and data demand. Our objective function is the sources to concentrators connectivity costas well as the cost of the installation, connection, replacement, and capacity upgrade of infrastructure equipment. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm with a set of real world and data randomly generated. Numerical results show that our algorithms is a promising approach to solve this problem.

  1. On the use of IT investment assessment methods in the area of spatial data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwirowicz-Rutkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    One of the important issues concerning development of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) is the carrying out of economic and financial analysis. It is essential to determine expenses and also assess effects resulting from the development and use of infrastructures. Costs and benefits assessment could be associated with assessment of the infrastructure effectiveness and efficiency as well as the infrastructure value, understood as the infrastructure impact on economic aspects of an organisational performance, both of an organisation which realises an SDI project and all users of the infrastructure. The aim of this paper is an overview of various assessment methods of investment as well as an analysis of different types of costs and benefits used for information technology (IT) projects. Based on the literature, the analysis of the examples of the use of these methods in the area of spatial data infrastructures is also presented. Furthermore, the issues of SDI projects and investments are outlined. The results of the analysis indicate usefulness of the financial methods from different fields of management in the area of SDI building, development and use. The author proposes, in addition to the financial methods, the adaptation of the various techniques used for IT investments and their development, taking into consideration the SDI specificity for the purpose of assessment of different types of costs and benefits and integration of financial aspects with non-financial ones. Among the challenges are identification and quantification of costs and benefits, as well as establishing measures which would fit the characteristics of the SDI project and artefacts resulting from the project realisation. Moreover, aspects of subjectivity and variability in time should be taken into account as the consequences of definite goals and policies as well as business context of organisation undertaking the project or using its artefacts and also investors.

  2. On the use of IT investment assessment methods in the area of spatial data infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwirowicz-Rutkowska Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the important issues concerning development of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs is the carrying out of economic and financial analysis. It is essential to determine expenses and also assess effects resulting from the development and use of infrastructures. Costs and benefits assessment could be associated with assessment of the infrastructure effectiveness and efficiency as well as the infrastructure value, understood as the infrastructure impact on economic aspects of an organisational performance, both of an organisation which realises an SDI project and all users of the infrastructure. The aim of this paper is an overview of various assessment methods of investment as well as an analysis of different types of costs and benefits used for information technology (IT projects. Based on the literature, the analysis of the examples of the use of these methods in the area of spatial data infrastructures is also presented. Furthermore, the issues of SDI projects and investments are outlined. The results of the analysis indicate usefulness of the financial methods from different fields of management in the area of SDI building, development and use. The author proposes, in addition to the financial methods, the adaptation of the various techniques used for IT investments and their development, taking into consideration the SDI specificity for the purpose of assessment of different types of costs and benefits and integration of financial aspects with non-financial ones. Among the challenges are identification and quantification of costs and benefits, as well as establishing measures which would fit the characteristics of the SDI project and artefacts resulting from the project realisation. Moreover, aspects of subjectivity and variability in time should be taken into account as the consequences of definite goals and policies as well as business context of organisation undertaking the project or using its artefacts and also investors.

  3. The impact of next-generation sequencing on genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhang; Rod Chiodini; Ahmed Badr; Genfa Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews basic concepts,general applications,and the potential impact of next-generation sequencing(NGS)technologies on genomics,with particular reference to currently available and possible future platforms and bioinformatics.NGS technologies have demonstrated the capacity to sequence DNA at unprecedented speed,thereby enabling previously unimaginable scientific achievements and novel biological applications.But,the massive data produced by NGS also presents a significant challenge for data storage,analyses,and management solutions.Advanced bioinformatic tools are essential for the successful application of NGS technology.As evidenced throughout this review,NGS technologies will have a striking impact on genomic research and the entire biological field.With its ability to tackle the unsolved challenges unconquered by previous genomic technologies,NGS is likely to unravel the complexity of the human genome in terms of genetic variations,some of which may be confined to susceptible loci for some common human conditions.The impact of NGS technologies on genomics will be far reaching and likely change the field for years to come.

  4. The Next Generation Photoinjector (thermal Emittance, Quantum Efficiency)

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, D T

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation will elucidate the design, construction, theory, and operation of the Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP). This photoinjector is comprised of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell symmetrized S-band photocathode radio frequency (rf) electron gun and a single emittance-compensation solenoidal magnet. This photoinjector is a prototype for the Linear Coherent Light Source X-ray Free Electron Laser operating in the 1.5 A range. Simulations indicate that this photoinjector is capable of producing a 1 nC electron bunch with transverse normalized emittance less than 1 $\\pi$ mm-mrad were the cathode is illuminated with a 10 psec longitudinal flat top pulse. Using a Gaussian longitudinal laser profile with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 psec, simulation indicates that the NGP is capable of producing a normalized rms emittance of 2.50 $\\pi$ mm-mrad at 1 nC. Using the removable cathode plate we have studied the quantum efficiency (QE) of both copper and magnesium photo-cathodes...

  5. Careers : the next generation addressing the labour shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    This article described the activities of CAREERS: The Next Generation, a group formed 20 years ago to address anticipated labour shortages in Alberta. The group has reached out to over 350 schools and 225,000 students in the province in order to promote trades, forestry, and health services careers. The province has had a shortage of at 150,000 skilled workers in both trades and technical jobs in the petroleum industry. CAREERS now has many partners in the oil and gas industry, and has recently launched an initiative involving a basic apprenticeship model designed for young people to explore different trades. CAREERS is now focusing its efforts on high schools in order to promote trades amongst students. The Registered Apprenticeship Program (RAP) allows high school students to gain up to a year's worth of hours towards a journeyman status in the trade of their choice. CAREERS is now developing programs for the province's health services and has just completed a 3-year health care pilot program. A study has shown that 87 per cent of the students involved in the program plan to continue on to a career in the health services field. CAREERS is now involved in an Aboriginal Youth Initiative designed to bring career education and workplace learning opportunities to young people across the province. 2 figs.

  6. 2012 Next Generation Experiments to Measure the Neutron Lifetime Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    There is a great interest in improving the limits on neutron lifetime to the level of a precision of 0.1 s. The neutron lifetime is both an important fundamental quantity as well as a parameter influencing important processes such as nucleosynthesis (Helium production in the early universe) and the rate of energy production in the Sun. Aiming to create a roadmap of R&D for a next generation neutron lifetime experiment that can be endorsed by the North American neutron community, the focus of the workshop was on experiments using traps that utilize ultracold neutrons and confinement by a combination of magnetic and/or gravitational interaction in order to avoid systematic uncertainties introduced by neutron interactions with material walls. The papers in this volume summarize the limitations of present experiments, the discussion of new experiments in planning stage, and the discussion of systematic effects that must be addressed to achieve a lifetime measurement at an accuracy of 0.1 second.

  7. Solution-processed semiconductors for next-generation photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Armin, Ardalan; Meredith, Paul; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient light detection is central to modern science and technology. Current photodetectors mainly use photodiodes based on crystalline inorganic elemental semiconductors, such as silicon, or compounds such as III-V semiconductors. Photodetectors made of solution-processed semiconductors — which include organic materials, metal-halide perovskites and quantum dots — have recently emerged as candidates for next-generation light sensing. They combine ease of processing, tailorable optoelectronic properties, facile integration with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, compatibility with flexible substrates and good performance. Here, we review the recent advances and the open challenges in the field of solution-processed photodetectors, examining the topic from both the materials and the device perspective and highlighting the potential of the synergistic combination of materials and device engineering. We explore hybrid phototransistors and their potential to overcome trade-offs in noise, gain and speed, as well as the rapid advances in metal-halide perovskite photodiodes and their recent application in narrowband filterless photodetection.

  8. Preparation of next-generation sequencing libraries from damaged DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adrian W; Heyn, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized ancient DNA research, especially when combined with high-throughput target enrichment methods. However, attaining high sequencing depth and accuracy from samples often remains problematic due to the damaged state of ancient DNA, in particular the extremely low copy number of ancient DNA and the abundance of uracil residues derived from cytosine deamination that lead to miscoding errors. It is therefore critical to use a highly efficient procedure for conversion of a raw DNA extract into an adaptor-ligated sequencing library, and equally important to reduce errors from uracil residues. We present a protocol for NGS library preparation that allows highly efficient conversion of DNA fragments into an adaptor-ligated form. The protocol incorporates an option to remove the vast majority of uracil miscoding lesions as part of the library preparation process. The procedure requires only two spin column purification steps and no gel purification or bead handling. Starting from an aliquot of DNA extract, a finished, highly amplified library can be generated in 5 h, or under 3 h if uracil removal is not required.

  9. Rucio, the next-generation Data Management system in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, C; The ATLAS collaboration; Beermann, T; Garonne, V; Goossens, L; Lassnig, M; Nairz, A; Vigne, R

    2014-01-01

    Rucio is the next-generation of Distributed Data Management (DDM) system benefiting from recent advances in cloud and "Big Data" computing to address HEP experiments scaling requirements. Rucio is an evolution of the ATLAS DDM system Don Quijote 2 (DQ2), which has demonstrated very large scale data management capabilities with more than 160 petabytes spread worldwide across 130 sites, and accesses from 1,000 active users. However, DQ2 is reaching its limits in terms of scalability, requiring a large number of support staff to operate and being hard to extend with new technologies. Rucio addresses these issues by relying on new technologies to ensure system scalability, cover new user requirements and employ new automation framework to reduce operational overheads. This paper shows the key concepts of Rucio, details the Rucio design, and the technology it employs, the tests that were conducted to validate it and finally describes the migration steps that were conducted to move from DQ2 to Rucio.

  10. Rucio, the next-generation Data Management system in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, C; The ATLAS collaboration; Beermann, T; Garonne, V; Goossens, L; Lassnig, M; Nairz, A; Vigne, R

    2014-01-01

    Rucio is the next-generation of Distributed Data Management (DDM) system benefiting from recent advances in cloud and "Big Data" computing to address HEP experiments scaling requirements. Rucio is an evolution of the ATLAS DDM system Don Quijote 2 (DQ2), which has demonstrated very large scale data management capabilities with more than 160 petabytes spread worldwide across 130 sites, and accesses from 1,000 active users. However, DQ2 is reaching its limits in terms of scalability, requiring a large number of support staff to operate and being hard to extend with new technologies. Rucio addresses these issues by relying on new technologies to ensure system scalability, cover new user requirements and employ new automation framework to reduce operational overheads. In this talk, we will present the history of the DDM project and the experience of data management operation in ATLAS computing. Thus, We will show the key concepts of Rucio, including its data organization. The Rucio design, and the technology it e...

  11. Impact of ectopic pregnancy for reproductive prognosis in next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Egerup, Pia; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-04-01

    The impact of an ectopic pregnancy in the next generation is unknown. Our aim was to compare reproductive outcomes in daughters of women with and without ectopic pregnancy. Designed as a historical prospective controlled cohort study with data collected in four Danish registries from 1977-2009, women with ectopic pregnancy during 1977-1982 were age-matched to women without ectopic pregnancy. Daughters of these two cohorts were followed until 2009. We compared 5126 daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy with 19 928 daughters of women without ectopic pregnancy. The daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy had a 1.5-fold (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.9) increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, while for deliveries this was 1.0 (1.0-1.1), for miscarriages 1.1 (1.0-1.2), and for induced abortions 1.3 (1.2-1.4). Daughters of mothers with ectopic pregnancy have a 50% higher risk of ectopic pregnancy than daughters of women without an ectopic pregnancy, but a normal delivery rate.

  12. Impact of ectopic pregnancy for reproductive prognosis in next generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Egerup, Pia; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel;

    2014-01-01

    The impact of an ectopic pregnancy in the next generation is unknown. Our aim was to compare reproductive outcomes in daughters of women with and without ectopic pregnancy. Designed as a historical prospective controlled cohort study with data collected in four Danish registries from 1977......-2009, women with ectopic pregnancy during 1977-1982 were age-matched to women without ectopic pregnancy. Daughters of these two cohorts were followed until 2009. We compared 5126 daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy with 19 928 daughters of women without ectopic pregnancy. The daughters of women...... with ectopic pregnancy had a 1.5-fold (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.9) increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, while for deliveries this was 1.0 (1.0-1.1), for miscarriages 1.1 (1.0-1.2), and for induced abortions 1.3 (1.2-1.4). Daughters of mothers with ectopic pregnancy have a 50% higher risk of ectopic...

  13. Next Generation Very Large Array: The Cradle of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Andrea; Hull, Charles L. H.; Moullet, Arielle; ngVLA Cradle of Life

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses compelling science cases for a future long-baseline interferometer operating at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths, like the proposed Next Generation Vary Large Array (ngVLA). We report on the activities of the Cradle of Life science working group, which focused on the formation of low- and high-mass stars, the formation of planets and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the physical and compositional study of Solar System bodies, and the possible detection of radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. We propose 19 scientific projects based on the current specification of the ngVLA. Five of them are highlighted as possible Key Science Projects: (1) Resolving the density structure and dynamics of the youngest HII regions and high-mass protostellar jets, (2) Unveiling binary/multiple protostars at higher resolution, (3) Mapping planet formation regions in nearby disks on scales down to 1 AU, (4) Studying the formation of complex molecules, and (5) Deep atmospheric mapping of giant planets in the Solar System. For each of these projects, we discuss the scientific importance and feasibility. The results presented here should be considered as the beginning of a more in-depth analysis of the science enabled by such a facility, and are by no means complete or exhaustive.

  14. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS Diversity and Equity Team completed four major charges: (1) bias reviews of the NGSS, (2) Appendix D on diversity and equity, (3) inclusion of the topic of diversity and equity across Appendices, and (4) seven case studies of diverse student groups. This article starts with an overview of the NGSS Diversity and Equity charges, followed by a description of each of the four charges. This body of work addresses what science educators can and should do to ensure that the NGSS are accessible to all students, hence the title: " All Standards, All Students." In the coming years, the nation's student diversity will continue to grow rapidly while states adopt and implement the NGSS. Therefore, science teaching for non-dominant student groups equates to science teaching for all students.

  15. The next generation of positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Samuel L; Roney, Celeste A; Daumar, Pierre; Lewis, Jason S

    2011-07-01

    Although (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) is still the most widely used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, there are a few well-known limitations to its use. The last decade has seen the development of new PET probes for in vivo visualization of specific molecular targets, along with important technical advances in the production of positron-emitting radionuclides and their related labeling methods. As such, a broad range of new PET tracers are in preclinical development or have recently entered clinical trials. The topics covered in this review include labeling methods, biological targets, and the most recent preclinical or clinical data of some of the next generation of PET radiopharmaceuticals. This review, which is by no means exhaustive, has been separated into sections related to the PET radionuclide used for radiolabeling: fluorine-18, for the labeling of agents such as FACBC, FDHT, choline, and Galacto-RGD; carbon-11, for the labeling of choline; gallium-68, for the labeling of peptides such as DOTATOC and bombesin analogs; and the long-lived radionuclides iodine-124 and zirconium-89 for the labeling of monoclonal antibodies cG250, and J591 and trastuzumab, respectively.

  16. A Proposal for a Next Generation European Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K. H.; Carlile, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    We argue that it is not too early to begin the planning process for a next generation neutron source for Europe, even as the European Spallation Source is being constructed. We put forward three main arguments. Firstly, nowadays the period between the first scientific concept of a new facility being proposed and its actual realisation is approaching half a century. We show evidence for this. Secondly, there is a straightforward development of the short pulse/long pulse spallation concepts that will deliver gains in neutron brightness of more than a factor 30 over what the ESS will soon deliver and provide the optimum balance between resolution and intensity. We describe our concept, which is a spallation source where the proton pulse length is matched to the moderating time of slow neutrons. Thirdly, when we look at our colleagues in astronomy and high energy physics, we see that they have a totally different, more global and more ambitious approach to the coming generations of large facilities. We argue that it is time for the neutron community not simply to rest upon its laurels and take what is given but to be proactive..

  17. Enhanced Pointing Gimbal Mechanisms for Next Generation Communication Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2013-09-01

    This paper summarizes the design and the development of a family of high precision Enhanced Pointing Gimbal Assemblies (EPGA) specifically targeting the next generation of satellite communication antenna technologies.The development and qualification of the first two EPGAs started some years ago. The purpose of this project has been to develop a gimbal based on a new rotary actuator technology achieving positioning performance superior to micro-stepping performance, to be used in highly accurate pointing and scanning mechanisms. The design also had to provide high stiffness and high load carrying capacity at the output stage.The design of this new line of gimbals is based on a rotary actuator with a high gear reduction ratio and high load carrying capacity output stage.Analysis of the latest missions, especially those for communication, earth observation and imaging, show that performance requirements for dual axis gimbals used for antenna pointing are becoming more and more demanding. Most recent Ka-band and future generation antenna technologies for smaller spot beams require finer resolutions of less than 0.003 degrees. Considerably larger solid core ( 3.0 meter diameter) and expandable wire-mesh ( 22 meter diameter) require higher load carrying capabilities and moment stiffness to sustain the launch and orbital maneuvering loads. The developed Enhanced Pointing Gimbal Assembly addresses those applications requiring small output step size, high precision pointing, and unpowered holding torque, which challenge the use of gimbals that use conventional rotary actuators.

  18. Next-generation dengue vaccines: novel strategies currently under development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna P; Whitehead, Stephen S

    2011-10-01

    Dengue has become the most important arboviral infection worldwide with more than 30 million cases of dengue fever estimated to occur each year. The need for a dengue vaccine is great and several live attenuated dengue candidate vaccines are proceeding through clinical evaluation. The need to induce a balanced immune response against all four DENV serotypes with a single vaccine has been a challenge for dengue vaccine developers. A live attenuated DENV chimeric vaccine produced by Sanofi Pasteur has recently entered Phase III evaluation in numerous dengue-endemic regions of the world. Viral interference between serotypes contained in live vaccines has required up to three doses of the vaccine be given over a 12-month period of time. For this reason, novel DENV candidate vaccines are being developed with the goal of achieving a protective immune response with an immunization schedule that can be given over the course of a few months. These next-generation candidates include DNA vaccines, recombinant adenovirus vectored vaccines, alphavirus replicons, and sub-unit protein vaccines. Several of these novel candidates will be discussed.

  19. Construction Planning For The Next Generation Of Rural Coastal India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvamuthukumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Construction activities in the rural coast is a typical phenomenon which involves social, psychological, economical, environmental, geological, political, global, national as well as local issues of concern. Safe reconstruction for the rural coastal community after the 2004 devastating tsunami was the common will of all the twelve affected countries. In the subsequent tsunami of 2011, Japan experienced a multiple disasters and could not be able to manage things. It was proved by many factors like lack of land use planning, quality of construction, provision of basic amenities, health and total safety for Indian Tsunami reconstruction. Therefore, scientific and technological based approach only can give a better solution. For a developing country like India, having more rural based communities, the problem is serious and it becomes necessary to have the construction activities with a control system to achieve a permanently safer system. The problem is also aggravated for the next decade invited by the expected sea level rise and global warming issues, scarcity of water and other essential construction materials and shortage of conventional power production. This paper brings out the concept of providing an appropriate planning for the overall safe reconstruction in the rural east coast of India for the next generation.

  20. Enhancing QOS and QOE in IMS enabled next generation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I

    2010-01-01

    Managing network complexity, accommodating greater numbers of subscribers, improving coverage to support data services (e.g. email, video, and music downloads), keeping up to speed with fast-changing technology, and driving maximum value from existing networks - all while reducing CapEX and OpEX and ensuring Quality of Service (QoS) for the network and Quality of Experience (QoE) for the user. These are just some of the pressing business issues faced by mobileservice providers, summarized by the demand to "achieve more, for less." The ultimate goal of optimization techniques at the network and application layer is to ensure End-user perceived QoS. The next generation networks (NGN), a composite environment of proven telecommunications and Internet-oriented mechanisms have become generally recognized as the telecommunications environment of the future. However, the nature of the NGN environment presents several complex issues regarding quality assurance that have not existed in the legacy environments (e.g., m...

  1. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontok, Katherine S; Zhang, Hubert; Dougherty, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  2. Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Godor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.

  3. Next generation tools for genomic data generation, distribution, and visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nix David A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapidly falling cost and availability of high throughput sequencing and microarray technologies, the bottleneck for effectively using genomic analysis in the laboratory and clinic is shifting to one of effectively managing, analyzing, and sharing genomic data. Results Here we present three open-source, platform independent, software tools for generating, analyzing, distributing, and visualizing genomic data. These include a next generation sequencing/microarray LIMS and analysis project center (GNomEx; an application for annotating and programmatically distributing genomic data using the community vetted DAS/2 data exchange protocol (GenoPub; and a standalone Java Swing application (GWrap that makes cutting edge command line analysis tools available to those who prefer graphical user interfaces. Both GNomEx and GenoPub use the rich client Flex/Flash web browser interface to interact with Java classes and a relational database on a remote server. Both employ a public-private user-group security model enabling controlled distribution of patient and unpublished data alongside public resources. As such, they function as genomic data repositories that can be accessed manually or programmatically through DAS/2-enabled client applications such as the Integrated Genome Browser. Conclusions These tools have gained wide use in our core facilities, research laboratories and clinics and are freely available for non-profit use. See http://sourceforge.net/projects/gnomex/, http://sourceforge.net/projects/genoviz/, and http://sourceforge.net/projects/useq.

  4. Human identification by lice: A Next Generation Sequencing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Elena; Agostino, Alessandro; Vergani, Debora; Salata, Elena; Ciuna, Ignazio; Berti, Andrea; Caramelli, David; Lambiase, Simonetta

    2016-09-01

    Rapid and progressive advances in molecular biology techniques and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) have opened new possibilities for analyses also in the identification of entomological matrixes. Insects and other arthropods are widespread in nature and those found at a crime scene can provide a useful contribution to forensic investigations. Entomological evidence is used by experts to define the postmortem interval (PMI), which is essentially based on morphological recognition of the insect and an estimation of its insect life cycle stage. However, molecular genotyping methods can also provide an important support for forensic entomological investigations when the identification of species or human genetic material is required. This case study concerns a collection of insects found in the house of a woman who died from unknown causes. Initially the insects were identified morphologically as belonging to the Pediculidae family, and then, human DNA was extracted and analyzed from their gastrointestinal tract. The application of the latest generation forensic DNA assays, such as the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA Quantification Kit and the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel (Applied Biosystems(®)), individuated the presence of human DNA in the samples and determined the genetic profile.

  5. Design of the next generation cognitive mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Ali; Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Xiaoming

    Cognition capability has been seen by researchers as the way forward for the design of next generation of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The reason why a cognitive paradigm would be more suited to a MANET is because MANETs are highly dynamic networks. The topology may change very frequently during the operation of a MANET. Traffic patterns in MANETs can vary from time to time depending on the need of the users. The size of a MANET and node density is also very dynamic and may change without any predictable pattern. In a MANET environment, most of these parameters may change very rapidly and keeping track of them manually would be very difficult. Previous studies have shown that the performance of a certain routing approach in MANETs is dependent on the size of the network and node density. The choice of whether to use a reactive or proactive routing approach comes down to the network size parameter. Static or offline approaches to fine tune a MANET to achieve certain performance goals is hence not very productive as a lot of these parameters keep changing during the course of operation of MANETs. Similarly, the performance of MANETs would improve greatly if the MAC layer entity could operate in a more flexible manner. In this paper we propose a cognitive MANET design that will ensure that all these dynamic parameters are automatically monitored and decisions are based on the current status of these parameters.

  6. Next generation sequencing data of a defined microbial mock community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Esther; Andreopoulos, Bill; Bowers, Robert M.; Lee, Janey; Deshpande, Shweta; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Ciobanu, Doina; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zane, Matthew; Daum, Christopher; Clum, Alicia; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Copeland, Alex; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Generating sequence data of a defined community composed of organisms with complete reference genomes is indispensable for the benchmarking of new genome sequence analysis methods, including assembly and binning tools. Moreover the validation of new sequencing library protocols and platforms to assess critical components such as sequencing errors and biases relies on such datasets. We here report the next generation metagenomic sequence data of a defined mock community (Mock Bacteria ARchaea Community; MBARC-26), composed of 23 bacterial and 3 archaeal strains with finished genomes. These strains span 10 phyla and 14 classes, a range of GC contents, genome sizes, repeat content and encompass a diverse abundance profile. Short read Illumina and long-read PacBio SMRT sequences of this mock community are described. These data represent a valuable resource for the scientific community, enabling extensive benchmarking and comparative evaluation of bioinformatics tools without the need to simulate data. As such, these data can aid in improving our current sequence data analysis toolkit and spur interest in the development of new tools. PMID:27673566

  7. Precise Thermometry for Next Generation LHC Superconducting Magnet Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Datskov, V; Bottura, L; Perez, J C; Borgnolutti, F; Jenninger, B; Ryan, P

    2013-01-01

    The next generation of LHC superconducting magnets is very challenging and must operate in harsh conditions: high radiation doses in a range between 10 and 50 MGy, high voltage environment of 1 to 5 kV during the quench, dynamic high magnetic field up to 12 T, dynamic temperature range 1.8 K to 300 K in 0.6 sec. For magnet performance and long term reliability it is important to study dynamic thermal effects, such as the heat flux through the magnet structure, or measuring hot spot in conductors during a magnet quench with high sampling rates above 200 Hz. Available on the market cryogenic temperature sensors comparison is given. An analytical model for special electrically insulating thermal anchor (Kapton pad) with high voltage insulation is described. A set of instrumentation is proposed for fast monitoring of thermal processes during normal operation, quenches and failure situations. This paper presents the technology applicable for mounting temperature sensors on high voltage superconducting (SC) cables....

  8. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglieri, M; Celentano, A; Chung, S -U; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; Döring, M; Dudek, J; Eidelman, S; Fegan, S; Ferretti, J; Fox, G; Galata, G; Garcia-Tecocoatzi, H; Glazier, D I; Grube, B; Hanhart, C; Hoferichter, M; Hughes, S M; Ireland, D G; Ketzer, B; Klein, F J; Kubis, B; Liu, B; Masjuan, P; Mathieu, V; McKinnon, B; Mitchell, R; Nerling, F; Paul, S; Pelaez, J R; Rademacker, J; Rizzo, A; Salgado, C; Santopinto, E; Sarantsev, A V; Sato, T; Schlüter, T; da Silva, M L L; Stankovic, I; Strakovsky, I; Szczepaniak, A; Vassallo, A; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Zana, L

    2014-01-01

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near...

  9. Towards a next generation of scientific computing in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Tabaa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available More than ever, designing new types of highly scalable data intensive computing is needed to qualify the new generation of scientific computing and analytics effectively perform complex tasks on massive amounts of data such as clustering, matrix computation, data mining, information extraction, etc. MapReduce, put forward by Google, is a well-known model for programming commodity computer clusters to perform large-scale data processing in a single pass. Hadoop is the most popular open-source implementation of the MapReduce model which provides a simple abstraction for large-scale distributed algorithm; it has become a popular distributed computing and data analysis paradigm in recent years. While, Hadoop MapReduce suits well for embarrassingly parallel problems, it suffers significant troubles when dealing with iterative algorithms; as a consequence, many alternative frameworks that support this class of algorithms were created. In this paper, we propose architecture for such configuration implemented in an SPC (Scientific Private Cloud prototype, using the Hadoop 2.0 next generation platform to allow the use of alternative programming frameworks respecting a hybrid approach, while retaining the scalability and fault tolerance of Hadoop MapReduce. By adapting scientific problems to execute them in our Scientific Cloud, experiments conducted show the effectiveness of the proposed model and its impact on the ease of frameworks handling.

  10. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  11. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing Techniques in Food Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Baltasar; Rachid, Caio T. C. C; Alegría, Ángel; Leite, Analy M. O; Peixoto, Raquel S; Delgado, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger sequencing as the first generation, in recent years there has been an explosion of newly-developed sequencing strategies, which are usually referred to as next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. NGS techniques have high-throughputs and produce thousands or even millions of sequences at the same time. These sequences allow for the accurate identification of microbial taxa, including uncultivable organisms and those present in small numbers. In specific applications, NGS provides a complete inventory of all microbial operons and genes present or being expressed under different study conditions. NGS techniques are revolutionizing the field of microbial ecology and have recently been used to examine several food ecosystems. After a short introduction to the most common NGS systems and platforms, this review addresses how NGS techniques have been employed in the study of food microbiota and food fermentations, and discusses their limits and perspectives. The most important findings are reviewed, including those made in the study of the microbiota of milk, fermented dairy products, and plant-, meat- and fish-derived fermented foods. The knowledge that can be gained on microbial diversity, population structure and population dynamics via the use of these technologies could be vital in improving the monitoring and manipulation of foods and fermented food products. They should also improve their safety. PMID:25132799

  12. RICOR development of the next generation highly reliable rotary cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Itai; Nachman, Ilan; Livni, Dorit; Riabzev, Sergey; Filis, Avishai; Segal, Victor

    2016-05-01

    Early rotary cryocoolers were designed for the lifetime of a few thousands operating hours. Ricor K506 model's life expectancy was only 5,000 hours, then the next generation K508 model was designed to achieve 10,000 operating hours in basic conditions, while the modern K508N was designed for 20,000 operating hours. Nowadays, the new challenges in the field of rotary cryocoolers require development of a new generation cooler that could compete with the linear cryocooler reliability, achieving the lifetime goal of 30,000 operating hours, and even more. Such new advanced cryocooler can be used for upgrade existing systems, or to serve the new generation of high-temperature detectors that are currently under development, enabling the cryocooler to work more efficiently in the field. The improvement of the rotary cryocooler reliability is based on a deep analysis and understating of the root failure causes, finding solutions to reduce bearings wear, using modern materials and lubricants. All of those were taken into consideration during the development of the new generation rotary coolers. As a part of reliability challenges, new digital controller was also developed, which allows new options, such as discrete control of the operating frequency, and can extend the cooler operating hours due to new controlling technique. In addition, the digital controller will be able to collect data during cryocooler operation, aiming end of life prediction.

  13. SpaceX's Dragon America's next generation spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This book describes Dragon V2, a futuristic vehicle that not only provides a means for NASA to transport its astronauts to the orbiting outpost but also advances SpaceX’s core objective of reusability. A direct descendant of Dragon, Dragon V2 can be retrieved, refurbished and re-launched. It is a spacecraft with the potential to completely revolutionize the economics of an industry where equipment costing hundreds of millions of dollars is routinely discarded after a single use. It was presented by SpaceX CEO Elon Musk in May 2014 as the spaceship that will carry NASA astronauts to the International Space Station as soon as 2016 SpaceX’s Dragon – America’s Next Generation Spacecraft describes the extraordinary feats of engineering and human achievement that have placed this revolutionary spacecraft at the forefront of the launch industry and positioned it as the precursor for ultimately transporting humans to Mars. It describes the design and development of Dragon, provides mission highlights of the f...

  14. Next Generation Sequencing of Pooled Samples: Guideline for Variants’ Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Santosh; Mangano, Eleonora; Barizzone, Nadia; Bordoni, Roberta; Sorosina, Melissa; Clarelli, Ferdinando; Corrado, Lucia; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; D’Alfonso, Sandra; De Bellis, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing large number of individuals, which is often needed for population genetics studies, is still economically challenging despite falling costs of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Pool-seq is an alternative cost- and time-effective option in which DNA from several individuals is pooled for sequencing. However, pooling of DNA creates new problems and challenges for accurate variant call and allele frequency (AF) estimation. In particular, sequencing errors confound with the alleles present at low frequency in the pools possibly giving rise to false positive variants. We sequenced 996 individuals in 83 pools (12 individuals/pool) in a targeted re-sequencing experiment. We show that Pool-seq AFs are robust and reliable by comparing them with public variant databases and in-house SNP-genotyping data of individual subjects of pools. Furthermore, we propose a simple filtering guideline for the removal of spurious variants based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test. We experimentally validated our filters by comparing Pool-seq to individual sequencing data showing that the filters remove most of the false variants while retaining majority of true variants. The proposed guideline is fairly generic in nature and could be easily applied in other Pool-seq experiments. PMID:27670852

  15. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  16. Implementing Value Added Applications in Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Kuang Tu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in the future Internet is the integration of telecom networks with the Internet. In many countries, large Internet Service Providers (ISPs are also telecom operators that have been focusing on providing Internet services through their telecom networks with telecom-grade mechanisms. In this article, we show that IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is a telecom-grade mechanism that addresses this important issue. In Next Generation Network (NGN, IMS supports IP-based multimedia services that can be accessed from various wireless and wired access technologies through fixed-mobile convergence. We show how to integrate Internet Protocol Television (IPTV with NGN/IMS to offer enhanced IPTV services for subscribers with set-top boxes or mobile phones. We specifically describe the implementations of three services: weather forecasts, short messages on TV screens and TV shopping/food ordering for mobile users. Although these services can be directly implemented in the Internet, our commercial operation experiences indicate that the NGN/IMS implementation has advantages in terms of telecom-grade security, Quality of Service (QoS, and flexible service creation.

  17. Integrating Communication and Navigation: Next Generation Broadcast Service (NGBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    NASA Goddard has been investing in technology demonstrations of a beacon service, now called Next Generation Broadcast Services (NGBS). NGBS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). NGBS will provide an S-band beacon messaging source and radio navigation available to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below, increasing the autonomy and resiliency of onboard communication and navigation. NGBS will deliver both one-way radiometric (Doppler and pseudorange) and fast forward data transport services to users. Portions of the overall forward data volume will be allocated for fixed message types while the remaining data volume will be left for user forward command data. The NGBS signal will reside within the 2106.43 MHz spectrum currently allocated for the Space Networks multiple access forward (MAF) service and a live service demonstration is currently being planned via the 2nd and 3rd generation TDRS satellites.

  18. Performance benchmarks for a next generation numerical dynamo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Heien, Eric; Aubert, Julien; Aurnou, Jonathan M.; Avery, Margaret; Brown, Ben; Buffett, Bruce A.; Busse, Friedrich; Christensen, Ulrich R.; Davies, Christopher J.; Featherstone, Nicholas; Gastine, Thomas; Glatzmaier, Gary A.; Gubbins, David; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Hollerbach, Rainer; Hwang, Lorraine J.; Jackson, Andrew; Jones, Chris A.; Jiang, Weiyuan; Kellogg, Louise H.; Kuang, Weijia; Landeau, Maylis; Marti, Philippe; Olson, Peter; Ribeiro, Adolfo; Sasaki, Youhei; Schaeffer, Nathanaël.; Simitev, Radostin D.; Sheyko, Andrey; Silva, Luis; Stanley, Sabine; Takahashi, Futoshi; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Wicht, Johannes; Willis, Ashley P.

    2016-05-01

    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo have successfully represented many observable characteristics of the geomagnetic field, yielding insight into the fundamental processes that generate magnetic fields in the Earth's core. Because of limited spatial resolution, however, the diffusivities in numerical dynamo models are much larger than those in the Earth's core, and consequently, questions remain about how realistic these models are. The typical strategy used to address this issue has been to continue to increase the resolution of these quasi-laminar models with increasing computational resources, thus pushing them toward more realistic parameter regimes. We assess which methods are most promising for the next generation of supercomputers, which will offer access to O(106) processor cores for large problems. Here we report performance and accuracy benchmarks from 15 dynamo codes that employ a range of numerical and parallelization methods. Computational performance is assessed on the basis of weak and strong scaling behavior up to 16,384 processor cores. Extrapolations of our weak-scaling results indicate that dynamo codes that employ two-dimensional or three-dimensional domain decompositions can perform efficiently on up to ˜106 processor cores, paving the way for more realistic simulations in the next model generation.

  19. Boosting Bandwidth: Colleges Are Upgrading Their Network Infrastructure to Support Next-Generation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    In October 2013, nearly half of U.S. community colleges--46.2 percent-- said upgrading their campus networks is a "very important priority" within the next three years, according to The Campus Computing Project, a survey of 94 community colleges. More robust networks are needed to support a host of new wireless access points and the…

  20. Spotted hyaena space use in relation to human infrastructure inside a protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Lydia E.; Cameron, Elissa Z.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing human population growth has led to elevated levels of human-carnivore conflict. However, some carnivore populations have adapted to urban environments and the resources they supply. Such associations may influence carnivore ecology, behaviour and life-history. Pockets of urbanisation sometimes occur within protected areas, so that anthropogenic influences on carnivore biology are not necessarily confined to unprotected areas. In this study we evaluated associations between human infrastructure and related activity and space use of spotted hyaenas within one of the largest protected areas in South Africa, the Kruger National Park. Home range size was smaller for the dominant female of a clan living in close proximity to humans than that of the dominant female of a clan without direct access to human infrastructure. The home range including human infrastructure was also used less evenly during the night, presumably when the animals were active. Within this home range, a village area was preferred during the night, when the least modified areas within the village were preferred and administration and highly modified areas were avoided. During the day, however, there were no preference or avoidance of the village area, but all habitats except unmodified habitats within the village area were avoided. We suggest that human infrastructure and associated activity influenced hyaena space use, primarily through alterations in the spatial distribution of food. However, these effects may have been indirectly caused by habitat modification that generated favourable hunting habitat rather than a direct effect caused by access to human food such as garbage. Because of the often pivotal effects of apex predators in terrestrial ecosystems, we encourage further work aimed to quantify how human presence influences large carnivores and associated ecosystem processes within protected areas. PMID:27781175

  1. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  2. Tracing the Baryon Cycle within Nearby Galaxies with a next-generation VLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Leroy, Adam; Murphy, Eric J.; ngVLA Baryon Cycle Science Working Group

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies over cosmic time is shaped by the cycling of baryons through these systems, namely the inflow of atomic gas, the formation of molecular structures, the birth of stars, and the expulsion of gas due to associated feedback processes. The best way to study this cycle in detail are observations of nearby galaxies. These systems provide a complete picture of baryon cycling over a wide range of astrophysical conditions. In the next decade, higher resolution/sensitivity observations of such galaxies will fundamentally improve our knowledge of galaxy formation and evolution, allowing us to better interpret higher redshift observations of sources that were rapidly evolving at epochs soon after the Big Bang. In particular, the centimeter-to-millimeter part of the spectrum provides critical diagnostics for each of the key baryon cycling processes and access to almost all phases of gas in galaxies: cool and cold gas (via emission and absorption lines), ionized gas (via free-free continuum and recombination lines), cosmic rays and hot gas (via synchrotron emission and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect). This poster highlights a number of key science problems in this area whose solutions require a next-generation radio-mm interferometer such as the next-generation VLA.

  3. Cross-layer Optimization for Next Generation Wi-Fi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redieteab, Getachew

    2013-01-01

    From the initial 1997 specification to the undergoing IEEE 802.11ac standardization, a leap in throughput has been observed with every new generation. The expectations for next generations on issues like throughput, range, reliability, and power consumption are even higher. This is quite a challenge considering all the work already done. Cross-layer optimization of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers can be an interesting exploration path for further enhancement. During this thesis we have studied cross-layer optimization techniques, with a focus on the IEEE 802.11ac standard. A new multichannel aggregation scheme involving cross-knowledge between PHY and MAC layers has been proposed to improve performance in collision-prone environments. We have shown that some functionalities directly involved PHY and MAC layers. An accurate modeling of both PHY and MAC mechanisms is thus needed to have a realistic characterization of such functionalities. A cross-layer simulator, compliant with IEEE 802.11ac specifications, has thus been implemented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first simulator incorporating detailed PHY and MAC functionalities for the IEEE 802.11ac standard. The multiple-user multiple-input, multiple-output (MU-MIMO) technique, which is one of the main innovations of the IEEE 802.11ac, needs both PHY and MAC layer considerations. We have thus used the implemented cross-layer simulator to evaluate the performance of MU-MIMO and compared it with the single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO). The aim of these studies was to evaluate the 'real' gains of MU-MIMO solutions (accounting for PHY+MAC) over SU-MIMO solutions and not the generally accepted ones. The impact of the channel sounding interval has particularly been studied. Finally, we have proposed a short PHY layer version of acknowledgment frames for overhead reduction in IEEE 802.11ah communications.

  4. Next Generation UV Coronagraph Instrumentation for Solar Cycle-24

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John L. Kohl; Rajmal Jain; Steven R. Cranmer; Larry D. Gardner; Anil K. Pradhan; John C. Raymond; Leonard Strachan

    2008-03-01

    Ultraviolet coronagraph observations of the extended solar corona (defined here as 1.5 to 10 solar radii from Sun-center) have become a powerful tool for obtaining detailed empirical descriptions of coronal holes, streamers, and coronal mass ejections. The empirical models resulting from ultraviolet coronagraph observations provide the constraints needed to test and guide theoretical models aimed at determining the physical processes that control solar wind acceleration, CME heating and acceleration, and solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration. Measurements to date from sounding rockets, the shuttle deployed Spartan 201 satellite and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) have utilized high resolution spectroscopy over a very limited instantaneous field of view. New concepts for next generation instrumentation include imaging ultraviolet spectrocoronagraphs and large aperture ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometers. An imaging instrument would be the first to obtain absolute spectral line intensities of the extended corona over a wide field of view. Such images would provide the absolute intensities of spectral lines that can be used to determine densities and outflow velocities of specific coronal ions. Measurements from several charge states of a given element will allow electron temperatures to be determined. These measurements combined with observations of H I Ly provide absolute chemical abundances (relative to hydrogen) for observed elements. Ultraviolet imaging would be highly complementary to a large-aperture ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer designed for high spectral resolution observations over a small instantaneous field of view. The images would be used to select targets for more detailed spectroscopic studies with the large aperture UV coronagraph spectrometer and to provide time dependent empirical descriptions of the regions surrounding the narrow instantaneous field of view of the large aperture instrument. Descriptions of both the

  5. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Ivanova

    Full Text Available DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious.We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components.All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS. NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components.Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should

  6. Let's move our next generation of patients toward healthy behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsiah-Kumi PA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Phyllis A Nsiah-Kumi1,2, Lydia Y Kang1, Jennifer R Parker1,21General Internal Medicine, 2Internal Medicine-Pediatrics Program, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Health care professionals in all disciplines who care for adults have the opportunity to improve the health of the next generation. The prevalence of overweight and obesity continues to rise in children and adults around the world. As providers caring for adults, our primary goal is to address the health needs of our patients. However, it is important to recognize that counseling our patients who have children can lead them to adopt model behaviors that will be imitated by their children (and therefore improve the weight status and reduce health risks for their children. Additionally, many patients are more motivated to adopt behavior changes for the sake of their children than for their own health. All of 2012's 11-year-old children may be our adult patients in 10 years – especially if they have already developed weight-related health problems. Anything we do to address childhood obesity is an investment in the health of our patient panels, both now and in the future. While counseling may feel futile at times, there is strong evidence for the power of counseling to shape patient behavior. Counseling adult patients about healthy behaviors will benefit not only our patients today but our patients in the future as well.Keywords: obesity, counseling, provider, lifestyle change, parental modeling, self-efficacy

  7. Genotyping 1000 yeast strains by next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkening Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The throughput of next-generation sequencing machines has increased dramatically over the last few years; yet the cost and time for library preparation have not changed proportionally, thus representing the main bottleneck for sequencing large numbers of samples. Here we present an economical, high-throughput library preparation method for the Illumina platform, comprising a 96-well based method for DNA isolation for yeast cells, a low-cost DNA shearing alternative, and adapter ligation using heat inactivation of enzymes instead of bead cleanups. Results Up to 384 whole-genome libraries can be prepared from yeast cells in one week using this method, for less than 15 euros per sample. We demonstrate the robustness of this protocol by sequencing over 1000 yeast genomes at ~30x coverage. The sequence information from 768 yeast segregants derived from two divergent S. cerevisiae strains was used to generate a meiotic recombination map at unprecedented resolution. Comparisons to other datasets indicate a high conservation of recombination at a chromosome-wide scale, but differences at the local scale. Additionally, we detected a high degree of aneuploidy (3.6% by examining the sequencing coverage in these segregants. Differences in allele frequency allowed us to attribute instances of aneuploidy to gains of chromosomes during meiosis or mitosis, both of which showed a strong tendency to missegregate specific chromosomes. Conclusions Here we present a high throughput workflow to sequence genomes of large number of yeast strains at a low price. We have used this workflow to obtain recombination and aneuploidy data from hundreds of segregants, which can serve as a foundation for future studies of linkage, recombination, and chromosomal aberrations in yeast and higher eukaryotes.

  8. Anomaly Detection for Next-Generation Space Launch Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Iverson, David L.; Hall, David R.; Taylor, William M.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Brown, Barbara; Ferrell, Bob A.; Waterman, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing new capabilities that will enable future human exploration missions while reducing mission risk and cost. The Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) project aims to demonstrate the utility of integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) tools in the domain of ground support equipment (GSE) to be used for the next generation launch vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the utility of IVHM tools for GSE, FDIR aims to mature promising tools for use on future missions and document the level of effort - and hence cost - required to implement an application with each selected tool. One of the FDIR capabilities is anomaly detection, i.e., detecting off-nominal behavior. The tool we selected for this task uses a data-driven approach. Unlike rule-based and model-based systems that require manual extraction of system knowledge, data-driven systems take a radically different approach to reasoning. At the basic level, they start with data that represent nominal functioning of the system and automatically learn expected system behavior. The behavior is encoded in a knowledge base that represents "in-family" system operations. During real-time system monitoring or during post-flight analysis, incoming data is compared to that nominal system operating behavior knowledge base; a distance representing deviation from nominal is computed, providing a measure of how far "out of family" current behavior is. We describe the selected tool for FDIR anomaly detection - Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), how it fits into the FDIR architecture, the operations concept for the GSE anomaly monitoring, and some preliminary results of applying IMS to a Space Shuttle GSE anomaly.

  9. Next Generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work Across Internets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-02-24

    We are now well-advanced in our development, prototyping and deployment of a high performance next generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work. The system, aimed at using the capability of ESnet and Internet2 for rapid data exchange, is based on the Virtual Room Videoconferencing System (VRVS) developed by Caltech. The VRVS system has been chosen by the Internet2 Digital Video (I2-DV) Initiative as a preferred foundation for the development of advanced video, audio and multimedia collaborative applications by the Internet2 community. Today, the system supports high-end, broadcast-quality interactivity, while enabling a wide variety of clients (Mbone, H.323) to participate in the same conference by running different standard protocols in different contexts with different bandwidth connection limitations, has a fully Web-integrated user interface, developers and administrative APIs, a widely scalable video network topology based on both multicast domains and unicast tunnels, and demonstrated multiplatform support. This has led to its rapidly expanding production use for national and international scientific collaborations in more than 60 countries. We are also in the process of creating a 'testbed video network' and developing the necessary middleware to support a set of new and essential requirements for rapid data exchange, and a high level of interactivity in large-scale scientific collaborations. These include a set of tunable, scalable differentiated network services adapted to each of the data streams associated with a large number of collaborative sessions, policy-based and network state-based resource scheduling, authentication, and optional encryption to maintain confidentiality of inter-personal communications. High performance testbed video networks will be established in ESnet and Internet2 to test and tune the implementation, using a few target application-sets.

  10. Using next generation transcriptome sequencing to predict an ectomycorrhizal metablome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, P. E.; Sreedasyam, A.; Trivedi, G; Podila, G. K.; Cseke, L. J.; Collart, F. R. (Biosciences Division); (On Assignment, Scientific Staffing); (Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville)

    2011-05-13

    Mycorrhizae, symbiotic interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The fungi contribute phosphorous, nitrogen and mobilized nutrients from organic matter in the soil and in return the fungus receives photosynthetically-derived carbohydrates. This union of plant and fungal metabolisms is the mycorrhizal metabolome. Understanding this symbiotic relationship at a molecular level provides important contributions to the understanding of forest ecosystems and global carbon cycling. We generated next generation short-read transcriptomic sequencing data from fully-formed ectomycorrhizae between Laccaria bicolor and aspen (Populus tremuloides) roots. The transcriptomic data was used to identify statistically significantly expressed gene models using a bootstrap-style approach, and these expressed genes were mapped to specific metabolic pathways. Integration of expressed genes that code for metabolic enzymes and the set of expressed membrane transporters generates a predictive model of the ectomycorrhizal metabolome. The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. The analysis illustrates an approach to generate testable biological hypotheses to investigate the complex molecular interactions that drive ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. These models are consistent with experimental environmental data and provide insight into the molecular exchange processes for organisms in this complex ecosystem. The method used here for predicting metabolomic models of mycorrhizal systems from deep RNA sequencing data can be generalized and is broadly applicable to transcriptomic data derived from complex systems.

  11. Towards a Next-Generation Catalogue Cross-Match Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, F.; Boch, T.; Derriere, S.; Arches Consortium

    2015-09-01

    We have been developing in the past several catalogue cross-match tools. On one hand the CDS XMatch service (Pineau et al. 2011), able to perform basic but very efficient cross-matches, scalable to the largest catalogues on a single regular server. On the other hand, as part of the European project ARCHES1, we have been developing a generic and flexible tool which performs potentially complex multi-catalogue cross-matches and which computes probabilities of association based on a novel statistical framework. Although the two approaches have been managed so far as different tracks, the need for next generation cross-match services dealing with both efficiency and complexity is becoming pressing with forthcoming projects which will produce huge high quality catalogues. We are addressing this challenge which is both theoretical and technical. In ARCHES we generalize to N catalogues the candidate selection criteria - based on the chi-square distribution - described in Pineau et al. (2011). We formulate and test a number of Bayesian hypothesis which necessarily increases dramatically with the number of catalogues. To assign a probability to each hypotheses, we rely on estimated priors which account for local densities of sources. We validated our developments by comparing the theoretical curves we derived with the results of Monte-Carlo simulations. The current prototype is able to take into account heterogeneous positional errors, object extension and proper motion. The technical complexity is managed by OO programming design patterns and SQL-like functionalities. Large tasks are split into smaller independent pieces for scalability. Performances are achieved resorting to multi-threading, sequential reads and several tree data-structures. In addition to kd-trees, we account for heterogeneous positional errors and object's extension using M-trees. Proper-motions are supported using a modified M-tree we developed, inspired from Time Parametrized R-trees (TPR

  12. Development of Next Generation Segmented Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.; Caillat, T.; Ewell, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been used for space-based applications since 1961 with a total of 22 space missions that have successfully used RTGs for electrical power production. The key advantages of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are their long life, robustness, compact size, and high reliability. Thermoelectric converters are easily scalable, and possess a linear current-voltage curve, making power generation easy to control via a shunt regulator and shunt radiator. They produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. These properties have made RTGs ideally suitable for autonomous missions in the extreme environments of outer space and on planetary surfaces. More advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) with higher specific power (W/kg) and/or power output are desirable for future NASA missions, including the Europa Geophysical Orbiter mission. For the past few years, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing more efficient thermoelectric materials and has demonstrated significant increases in the conversion efficiency of high temperature thermocouples, up to 14% when operated across a 975K to 300K temperature differential. In collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center, universities (USC and UNM), Ceramic and Metal Composites Corporation and industrial partners, JPL is now planning to lead the research and development of advanced thermoelectric technology for integration into the next generations of RPS. Preliminary studies indicate that this technology has the potential for improving the RPS specific power by more than 50% over the current state-of-the-art multi-mission RTG being built for the Mars Science Laboratory mission. A second generation advanced RPS is projected at more than doubling the specific power.

  13. Applications of next-generation sequencing to phylogeography and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, John E; Hird, Sarah M; Zellmer, Amanda J; Carstens, Bryan C; Brumfield, Robb T

    2013-02-01

    This is a time of unprecedented transition in DNA sequencing technologies. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) clearly holds promise for fast and cost-effective generation of multilocus sequence data for phylogeography and phylogenetics. However, the focus on non-model organisms, in addition to uncertainty about which sample preparation methods and analyses are appropriate for different research questions and evolutionary timescales, have contributed to a lag in the application of NGS to these fields. Here, we outline some of the major obstacles specific to the application of NGS to phylogeography and phylogenetics, including the focus on non-model organisms, the necessity of obtaining orthologous loci in a cost-effective manner, and the predominate use of gene trees in these fields. We describe the most promising methods of sample preparation that address these challenges. Methods that reduce the genome by restriction digest and manual size selection are most appropriate for studies at the intraspecific level, whereas methods that target specific genomic regions (i.e., target enrichment or sequence capture) have wider applicability from the population level to deep-level phylogenomics. Additionally, we give an overview of how to analyze NGS data to arrive at data sets applicable to the standard toolkit of phylogeography and phylogenetics, including initial data processing to alignment and genotype calling (both SNPs and loci involving many SNPs). Even though whole-genome sequencing is likely to become affordable rather soon, because phylogeography and phylogenetics rely on analysis of hundreds of individuals in many cases, methods that reduce the genome to a subset of loci should remain more cost-effective for some time to come.

  14. Next-generation sequencing technology in clinical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianchi, M R; Giombini, E; Rozera, G

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in nucleic acid sequencing technologies, referred to as 'next-generation' sequencing (NGS), have produced a true revolution and opened new perspectives for research and diagnostic applications, owing to the high speed and throughput of data generation. So far, NGS has been applied to metagenomics-based strategies for the discovery of novel viruses and the characterization of viral communities. Additional applications include whole viral genome sequencing, detection of viral genome variability, and the study of viral dynamics. These applications are particularly suitable for viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, whose error-prone replication machinery, combined with the high replication rate, results, in each infected individual, in the formation of many genetically related viral variants referred to as quasi-species. The viral quasi-species, in turn, represents the substrate for the selective pressure exerted by the immune system or by antiviral drugs. With traditional approaches, it is difficult to detect and quantify minority genomes present in viral quasi-species that, in fact, may have biological and clinical relevance. NGS provides, for each patient, a dataset of clonal sequences that is some order of magnitude higher than those obtained with conventional approaches. Hence, NGS is an extremely powerful tool with which to investigate previously inaccessible aspects of viral dynamics, such as the contribution of different viral reservoirs to replicating virus in the course of the natural history of the infection, co-receptor usage in minority viral populations harboured by different cell lineages, the dynamics of development of drug resistance, and the re-emergence of hidden genomes after treatment interruptions. The diagnostic application of NGS is just around the corner.

  15. Using next generation transcriptome sequencing to predict an ectomycorrhizal metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cseke Leland J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycorrhizae, symbiotic interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The fungi contribute phosphorous, nitrogen and mobilized nutrients from organic matter in the soil and in return the fungus receives photosynthetically-derived carbohydrates. This union of plant and fungal metabolisms is the mycorrhizal metabolome. Understanding this symbiotic relationship at a molecular level provides important contributions to the understanding of forest ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Results We generated next generation short-read transcriptomic sequencing data from fully-formed ectomycorrhizae between Laccaria bicolor and aspen (Populus tremuloides roots. The transcriptomic data was used to identify statistically significantly expressed gene models using a bootstrap-style approach, and these expressed genes were mapped to specific metabolic pathways. Integration of expressed genes that code for metabolic enzymes and the set of expressed membrane transporters generates a predictive model of the ectomycorrhizal metabolome. The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. Conclusions The analysis illustrates an approach to generate testable biological hypotheses to investigate the complex molecular interactions that drive ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. These models are consistent with experimental environmental data and provide insight into the molecular exchange processes for organisms in this complex ecosystem. The method used here for predicting metabolomic models of mycorrhizal systems from deep RNA sequencing data can be generalized and is broadly applicable to transcriptomic data derived from complex systems.

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2007-01-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  17. Microbiome selection could spur next-generation plant breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gopal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation. Overall, a plant is ensconced both on the outside and inside with a diverse assemblage of microbiota. Together, the plant genome and the genes of the microbiota that the plant harbours in different plant tissues i.e the ‘plant microbiome’, form the holobiome which is now considered as unit of selection: ‘the holobiont’. The ‘plant microbiome’ not only helps plants to remain fit but also offers critical genetic variability, hitherto, not employed in the breeding strategy by plant breeders, who traditionally have exploited the genetic variability of the host for developing high yielding or disease tolerant or drought resistant varieties. This fresh knowledge of the microbiome, particularly of the rhizosphere, offering genetic variability to plants, opens up new horizons for breeding that could usher in cultivation of next-generation crops depending less on inorganic inputs, resistant to insect pest and diseases and resilient to climatic perturbations. We surmise, from ever increasing evidences, that plants and their microbial symbionts need to be co-propagated as life-long partners in future strategies for plant breeding.

  18. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  19. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  20. Next-Generation Sequencing and Genome Editing in Plant Virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Ahmed; Flores, Ricardo; Candresse, Thierry; Barba, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA, or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21-24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology. The genome engineering editing method, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system has been successfully used recently to engineer resistance to DNA geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae) by targeting different viral genome sequences in infected Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis plants. The DNA viruses targeted include tomato yellow leaf curl virus and merremia mosaic virus (begomovirus); beet curly top virus and beet severe curly top virus (curtovirus); and bean yellow dwarf virus (mastrevirus). The technique has also been used against the RNA viruses zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus and turnip mosaic virus (potyvirus) and cucumber vein yellowing virus (ipomovirus, family, Potyviridae) by targeting the translation initiation genes eIF4E in cucumber or Arabidopsis plants. From these recent advances of major importance, it is expected that NGS and CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a significant role in the very near future in advancing the field of plant virology and connecting it with other related fields of biology.

  1. Next-Generation Sequencing and Genome Editing in Plant Virology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Ahmed; Flores, Ricardo; Candresse, Thierry; Barba, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA, or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21–24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology. The genome engineering editing method, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system has been successfully used recently to engineer resistance to DNA geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae) by targeting different viral genome sequences in infected Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis plants. The DNA viruses targeted include tomato yellow leaf curl virus and merremia mosaic virus (begomovirus); beet curly top virus and beet severe curly top virus (curtovirus); and bean yellow dwarf virus (mastrevirus). The technique has also been used against the RNA viruses zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus and turnip mosaic virus (potyvirus) and cucumber vein yellowing virus (ipomovirus, family, Potyviridae) by targeting the translation initiation genes eIF4E in cucumber or Arabidopsis plants. From these recent advances of major importance, it is expected that NGS and CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a significant role in the very near future in advancing the field of plant virology and connecting it with other related fields of biology. PMID:27617007

  2. Progress on Concepts for Next-Generation Drop Tower Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM about 100 scientists, engineers, and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important research center for space sciences and technologies in Europe. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM's ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10-6 g (microgravity), which is one of the best achievable for ground-based flight opportunities. Scientists may choose up to three times a day between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and an experiment in ZARM's worldwide unique catapult system with 9.3 s in weightlessness. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 7500 drops or catapult launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like fundamental physics, combustion, fluid dynamics, planetary formation / astrophysics, biology and materials sciences have been accomplished so far. In addition, more and more technology tests have been conducted under microgravity conditions at the Bremen Drop Tower in order to effectively prepare appropriate space missions in advance. In this paper we report on the progress on concepts for next-generation drop tower systems based on the GraviTower idea utilizing a guided electro-magnetic linear drive. Alternative concepts motivated by the scientific demand for higher

  3. Discovery of posttranscriptional regulatory RNAs using next generation sequencing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Grant; Contreras, Lydia M

    2013-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the way by which we engineer metabolism by radically altering the path to genome-wide inquiries. This is due to the fact that NGS approaches offer several powerful advantages over traditional methods that include the ability to fully sequence hundreds to thousands of genes in a single experiment and simultaneously detect homozygous and heterozygous deletions, alterations in gene copy number, insertions, translocations, and exome-wide substitutions that include "hot-spot mutations." This chapter describes the use of these technologies as a sequencing technique for transcriptome analysis and discovery of regulatory RNA elements in the context of three main platforms: Illumina HiSeq, 454 pyrosequencing, and SOLiD sequencing. Specifically, this chapter focuses on the use of Illumina HiSeq, since it is the most widely used platform for RNA discovery and transcriptome analysis. Regulatory RNAs have now been found in all branches of life. In bacteria, noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) are involved in highly sophisticated regulatory circuits that include quorum sensing, carbon metabolism, stress responses, and virulence (Gorke and Vogel, Gene Dev 22:2914-2925, 2008; Gottesman, Trends Genet 21:399-404, 2005; Romby et al., Curr Opin Microbiol 9:229-236, 2006). Further characterization of the underlying regulation of gene expression remains poorly understood given that it is estimated that over 60% of all predicted genes remain hypothetical and the 5' and 3' untranslated regions are unknown for more than 90% of the genes (Siegel et al., Trends Parasitol 27:434-441, 2011). Importantly, manipulation of the posttranscriptional regulation that occurs at the level of RNA stability and export, trans-splicing, polyadenylation, protein translation, and protein stability via untranslated regions (Clayton, EMBO J 21:1881-1888, 2002; Haile and Papadopoulou, Curr Opin Microbiol 10:569-577, 2007) could be highly beneficial to metabolic

  4. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  5. ABrowse - a customizable next-generation genome browser framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid growth of genome sequencing projects, genome browser is becoming indispensable, not only as a visualization system but also as an interactive platform to support open data access and collaborative work. Thus a customizable genome browser framework with rich functions and flexible configuration is needed to facilitate various genome research projects. Results Based on next-generation web technologies, we have developed a general-purpose genome browser framework ABrowse which provides interactive browsing experience, open data access and collaborative work support. By supporting Google-map-like smooth navigation, ABrowse offers end users highly interactive browsing experience. To facilitate further data analysis, multiple data access approaches are supported for external platforms to retrieve data from ABrowse. To promote collaborative work, an online user-space is provided for end users to create, store and share comments, annotations and landmarks. For data providers, ABrowse is highly customizable and configurable. The framework provides a set of utilities to import annotation data conveniently. To build ABrowse on existing annotation databases, data providers could specify SQL statements according to database schema. And customized pages for detailed information display of annotation entries could be easily plugged in. For developers, new drawing strategies could be integrated into ABrowse for new types of annotation data. In addition, standard web service is provided for data retrieval remotely, providing underlying machine-oriented programming interface for open data access. Conclusions ABrowse framework is valuable for end users, data providers and developers by providing rich user functions and flexible customization approaches. The source code is published under GNU Lesser General Public License v3.0 and is accessible at http://www.abrowse.org/. To demonstrate all the features of ABrowse, a live demo for

  6. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards: Impacts on Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    This is a critical time for the geoscience community. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been released and are now being adopted by states (a dozen states and Washington, DC, at the time of writing this), with dramatic implications for national K-12 science education. Curriculum developers and textbook companies are working hard to construct educational materials that match the new standards, which emphasize a hands-on practice-based approach that focuses on working directly with primary data and other forms of evidence. While the set of 8 science and engineering practices of the NGSS lend themselves well to the observation-oriented approach of much of the geosciences, there is currently not a sufficient number of geoscience educational modules and activities geared toward the K-12 levels, and geoscience research organizations need to be mobilizing their education & outreach programs to meet this need. It is a rare opportunity that will not come again in this generation. There are other significant issues surrounding the implementation of the NGSS. The NGSS involves a year of Earth and space science at the high school level, but there does not exist a sufficient workforce is geoscience teachers to meet this need. The form and content of the geoscience standards are also very different from past standards, moving away from a memorization and categorization approach and toward a complex Earth Systems Science approach. Combined with the shift toward practice-based teaching, this means that significant professional development will therefore be required for the existing K-12 geoscience education workforce. How the NGSS are to be assessed is another significant question, with an NRC report providing some guidance but leaving many questions unanswered. There is also an uneasy relationship between the NGSS and the Common Core of math and English, and the recent push-back against the Common Core in many states may impact the implementation of the NGSS.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Richard R.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Nigg, David W.; Gougar, Hans D.; Johnson, Richard W; Terry, William K.; Oh, Chang H.; McEligot, Donald W.; Johnsen, Gary W.; McCreery, Glenn E.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Sterbentz, James W.; Herring, J. Steve; Taiwo, Temitope A.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Pointer, William D.; Yang, Won S.; Farmer, Michael T.; Khalil, Hussein S.; Feltus, Madeline A.

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  8. Liquid as template for next generation micro devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmet, Jerome; Haquette, Henri; Laux, Edith; Keppner, Herbert [HES-SO ARC, Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees, La Chaux de Fonds (Switzerland); Gorodyska, Ganna; Textor, Marcus [ETHZ, BioInterfaceGroup, Zuerich (Switzerland); Durante, Guido Spinola; Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Knapp, Helmut [CSEM Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Alpnach (Switzerland); Bitterli, Roland; Noell, Wilfried, E-mail: Jerome.Charmet@he-arc.c [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Microengineering, Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems laboratory, Rue Jaquet Droz 1, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2009-08-01

    their potential to deliver next generation micro devices.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  10. G-EVER Activities and the Next-generation Volcanic Hazard Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) is a consortium of Asia-Pacific geohazard research institutes that was established in 2012. G-EVER aims to formulate strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions. G-EVER is working on enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information on the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The 1st G-EVER International Symposium was held in Tsukuba, Japan in March 11, 2013. The 2nd Symposium is scheduled in Sendai, Tohoku Japan, in Oct. 19-20, 2013. Currently, 4 working groups were proposed in the G-EVER Consortium. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment WG is developing a useful system for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is based on volcanic eruption history datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Volcanic eruption histories including precursor phenomena leading to major eruptions of active volcanoes are very important for future prediction of volcanic eruptions. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and types, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. Proposing international standards on how to estimate the volume of volcanic products is important to make a high quality volcanic eruption database. Spatial distribution database of volcanic products (e.g. tephra and pyroclastic flow distributions), encoded into a GIS based database is necessary for more precise area and volume estimation and risk assessments. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represents a subset of possible future scenarios. Therefore, numerical simulations with controlled parameters are needed for more precise volcanic eruption

  11. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process.

  12. Rural youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the level of youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and five youths were randomly selected from seven rural communities, fifteen youths from each village. Data were collected with the aid of a questionnaire, which was analysed using frequency count and percentages. Chi-square analysis was used to test the hypothesis of significance between the socio-economic characteristics and the level of participation in infrastructural development. Findings revealed that 56.2% of respondents were within the age category of 21-30 years, 62.9% were male, and 60% were single, while 56.2% of the respondents had secondary school level education. The study revealed the various roles played by youths in participating in infrastructural development as well as the associated constraints which include finance, availability of materials, technical knowledge and time. Age, marital status, educational level and years of residence were found to be significantly related to the level of participation of youths in infrastructural development. The study recommended the adequate budget allocation to rural areas as well as intensive training and educative programmes for effective participative development.

  13. Network Edge Intelligence for the Emerging Next-Generation Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salekul Islam

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of the Content Delivery Networks (CDN in the recent years has demonstrated the increased benefits of the deployment of some form of “intelligence” within the network. Cloud computing, on the other hand, has shown the benefits of economies of scale and the use of a generic infrastructure to support a variety of services. Following that trend, we propose to move away from the smart terminal-dumb network dichotomy to a model where some degree of intelligence is put back into the network, specifically at the edge, with the support of Cloud technology. In this paper, we propose the deployment of an Edge Cloud, which integrates a variety of user-side and server-side services. On the user side, surrogate, an application running on top of the Cloud, supports a virtual client. The surrogate hides the underlying network infrastructure from the user, thus allowing for simpler, more easily managed terminals. Network side services supporting delivery of and exploiting content are also deployed on this infrastructure, giving the Internet Service Providers (ISP many opportunities to become directly involved in content and service delivery.

  14. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. [Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, 2000 E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  15. Development of the Next Generation Type Water Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Tachihara, Satoru; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Ueoka, Terumi; Soejima, Fujito; Teranishi, Hiromitsu

    According to NASA, an astronaut living on the International Space Station (ISS) requires approximately 7 kg of water per day. This includes 2 kg of drinking water as well as sanitary fresh water for hand washing, gargling, etc. This water is carried to the space station from the earth, so when more people are staying on the space station, or staying for a longer period of time, the cost of transporting water increases. Accordingly, water is a valuable commodity, and restrictions are applied to such activities as brushing teeth, washing hair, and washing clothes. The life of an astronaut in space is not necessarily a healthy one. JAXA has experience in the research of water recovery systems. Today, utilizing knowledge learned through experiences living on the space station and space shuttles, and taking advantage of the development of new materials for device construction, it is possible to construct a new water recovery system. Therefore, JAXA and New Medican Tech Corporation (NMT) have created a system for collaborative development. Based on the technologies of both companies, we are proceeding to develop the next generation of water recovery devices in order to contribute to safe, comfortable, and healthy daily life for astronauts in space. The goal of this development is to achieve a water purification system based on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that can perform the following functions. • Preprocessing that removes ammonia and breaks down organic matter contained in urine. • Post-processing that adds minerals and sterilizes the water. • Online TOC measurement for monitoring water quality. • Functions for measuring harmful substances. The RO membrane is an ultra-low-pressure type membrane with a 0.0001 micron (0.1 nanometer) pore size and an operating pressure of 0.4 to 0.6 MPa. During processing with the RO membrane, nearly all of the minerals contained in the cleaned water are removed, resulting in water that is near the quality of deionized water

  16. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrianowycz, Orest; Norley, Julian; Stuart, David J; Flaherty, David; Wayne, Ryan; ; Williams, Warren; Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan H; Zawodzinski, Tom; Pietrasz, Patrick

    2010-04-15

    The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 °C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTech’s GRAFCELL resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 °C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the

  17. Recruiting Fresh Faces: Engaging the Next Generation of Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C. M.; Keane, C. M.; Gonzales, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    careers, such as access to the Online Glossary of Geology, and will also allow students to join several professional geoscience societies free of charge so that they are included in our global community from the beginning of their academic careers. AGI is creating a global network for geoscience students using social networking and video-sharing websites. Student engagement materials will also address parents' concerns, since they have considerable influence in students' decisions. According to a study by the National Research Center for College and University Admissions, 70 percent of high school juniors say their parents influence their college choices. The AGI Student Engagement Initiative is designed to compliment the recruiting efforts of individual geoscience departments and to assist them in attracting the next generation of geoscientists to our community.

  18. Comparison of next generation sequencing technologies for transcriptome characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Douglas E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a simulation approach to help determine the optimal mixture of sequencing methods for most complete and cost effective transcriptome sequencing. We compared simulation results for traditional capillary sequencing with "Next Generation" (NG ultra high-throughput technologies. The simulation model was parameterized using mappings of 130,000 cDNA sequence reads to the Arabidopsis genome (NCBI Accession SRA008180.19. We also generated 454-GS20 sequences and de novo assemblies for the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica and the magnoliid avocado (Persea americana using a variety of methods for cDNA synthesis. Results The Arabidopsis reads tagged more than 15,000 genes, including new splice variants and extended UTR regions. Of the total 134,791 reads (13.8 MB, 119,518 (88.7% mapped exactly to known exons, while 1,117 (0.8% mapped to introns, 11,524 (8.6% spanned annotated intron/exon boundaries, and 3,066 (2.3% extended beyond the end of annotated UTRs. Sequence-based inference of relative gene expression levels correlated significantly with microarray data. As expected, NG sequencing of normalized libraries tagged more genes than non-normalized libraries, although non-normalized libraries yielded more full-length cDNA sequences. The Arabidopsis data were used to simulate additional rounds of NG and traditional EST sequencing, and various combinations of each. Our simulations suggest a combination of FLX and Solexa sequencing for optimal transcriptome coverage at modest cost. We have also developed ESTcalc http://fgp.huck.psu.edu/NG_Sims/ngsim.pl, an online webtool, which allows users to explore the results of this study by specifying individualized costs and sequencing characteristics. Conclusion NG sequencing technologies are a highly flexible set of platforms that can be scaled to suit different project goals. In terms of sequence coverage alone, the NG sequencing is a dramatic advance

  19. Virtual networks pluralistic approach for the next generation of Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Otto Carlos M B

    2013-01-01

    The first chapter of this title concerns virtualization techniques that allow sharing computational resources basically, slicing a real computational environment into virtual computational environments that are isolated from one another.The Xen and OpenFlow virtualization platforms are then presented in Chapter 2 and a performance analysis of both is provided. This chapter also defines the primitives that the network virtualization infrastructure must provide for allowing the piloting plane to manage virtual network elements.Following this, interfaces for system management of the two platform

  20. Next Generation Flexible and Cognitive Heterogeneous Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkos, Ioannis; Angelou, Marianna; Barroso, Ramón J. Durán

    2012-01-01

    the capabilities of the Future Internet. In this book chapter, we highlight the latest activities of the optical networking community and in particular what has been the focus of EU funded research. The concepts of flexible and cognitive optical networks are introduced and their key expected benefits......Optical networking is the cornerstone of the Future Internet as it provides the physical infrastructure of the core backbone networks. Recent developments have enabled much better quality of service/experience for the end users, enabled through the much higher capacities that can be supported...

  1. Smart mobile in-vehicle systems next generation advancements

    CERN Document Server

    Abut, Huseyin; Takeda, Kazuya; Hansen, John

    2014-01-01

    This is an edited collection by world-class experts, from diverse fields, focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. The book presents developments on road safety, in-vehicle technologies and state-of-the art systems. Includes coverage of DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, algorithms and evaluation of in-car communication systems, driver-status monitoring and stress detection, in-vehicle dialogue systems and human-machine interfaces, challenges in video and audio processing for in-vehicle products, multi-sensor fusion for driver identification and vehicle to infrastructure wireless technologies.

  2. Green infrastructure practices – strategies how to sustain life in metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaręba Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Infrastructure is ‘an interconnected network of green space that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations’ [1, p. 12]. It contributes to long term strategic development goals for data and information management. The research paper was introduced with the aim to protect green areas in urban environment by improving biodiversity, leisure and recreation, tidal and fluvial flood risk management, grey water treatment and quality of life. Planning and design of green system should provide appropriate responses to the distinctive local circumstances. Green spaces encourage social interactions, form new places to practise sport and contribute to public health and fitness, as well as have indirect benefits for a range of environmental services. The research hypothesis is that Green Infrastructure is a framework for conservation and development and we need to design Green Infrastructure systems strategically to connect across urban, suburban, rural and wilderness landscapes and incorporate green space elements and functions at the state, regional, community, neighbourhood and site scales [2]. Analysis and design of emerging Green Infrastructure system take a holistic view which links related physical, environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects of local communities.

  3. Big data from small samples: Informatics of next-generation sequencing in cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Roy, Somak; Monaco, Sara E; Routbort, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-12-05

    The rapid adoption of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in clinical molecular laboratories has redefined the practice of cytopathology. Instead of simply being used as a diagnostic tool, cytopathology has evolved into a practice providing important genomic information that guides clinical management. The recent emphasis on maximizing limited-volume cytology samples for ancillary molecular studies, including NGS, requires cytopathologists not only to be more involved in specimen collection and processing techniques but also to be aware of downstream testing and informatics issues. For the integration of molecular informatics into the clinical workflow, it is important to understand the computational components of the NGS workflow by which raw sequence data are transformed into clinically actionable genomic information and to address the challenges of having a robust and sustainable informatics infrastructure for NGS-based testing in a clinical environment. Adapting to needs ranging from specimen procurement to report delivery is crucial for the optimal utilization of cytology specimens to accommodate requests from clinicians to improve patient care. This review presents a broad overview of the various aspects of informatics in the context of NGS-based testing of cytology specimens. Cancer Cytopathol 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Optimizing Low Speed VoIP Network for Rural Next Generation Network (R-NGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanes Bandung

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an optimization method based-on E-Model for designing an efficient low speed VoIP network for Rural Next Generation Network (R-NGN. We are choosing 128 kbps and 256 kbps bandwidth as the typical community link to be used in the designing of R-NGN infrastructure. The method is based on selection of some VoIP network parameters such as voice coder, communication protocol, packet loss level, network utilization and resource allocation. We draw analytic approach for achieving rating value (R of E-model that represent level of quality of service. In this approach, we focus on delay and packet loss calculation to find the rating value. We state the rating value = 70 as minimum level of quality of service for each call, equivalent to 3.6 of Mean Opinion Score (MOS. In our experiments, either G.723.1 5.3 kbps or G.729 is chosen for maximizing the number of VoIP calls, it depends on link utilization and level of packet loss.

  5. Phoebus: Network Middleware for Next-Generation Network Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Swany

    2012-06-16

    The Phoebus project investigated algorithms, protocols, and middleware infrastructure to improve end-to-end performance in high speed, dynamic networks. The Phoebus system essentially serves as an adaptation point for networks with disparate capabilities or provisioning. This adaptation can take a variety of forms including acting as a provisioning agent across multiple signaling domains, providing transport protocol adaptation points, and mapping between distributed resource reservation paradigms and the optical network control plane. We have successfully developed the system and demonstrated benefits. The Phoebus system was deployed in Internet2 and in ESnet, as well as in GEANT2, RNP in Brazil and over international links to Korea and Japan. Phoebus is a system that implements a new protocol and associated forwarding infrastructure for improving throughput in high-speed dynamic networks. It was developed to serve the needs of large DOE applications on high-performance networks. The idea underlying the Phoebus model is to embed Phoebus Gateways (PGs) in the network as on-ramps to dynamic circuit networks. The gateways act as protocol translators that allow legacy applications to use dedicated paths with high performance.

  6. Next-generation sequencing-based molecular diagnosis of 35 Hispanic retinitis pigmentosa probands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Xu, Mingchu; Verriotto, Jennifer D.; Li, Yumei; Wang, Hui; Gan, Lin; Lam, Byron L.; Chen, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal diseases. The prevalence of RP and the mutation spectrum vary across populations. Hispanic people account for approximately 17% of the United States population, and the genetic etiologies of RP of this ethnic group still remain not well defined. Utilizing next-generation sequencing (NGS), we screened mutations in known retinal disease-causing genes in an RP cohort of 35 unrelated Hispanic probands from the Miami area. We achieved a solving rate of 66% and identified 15 novel putative pathogenic mutations, including a frequent founder mutation disrupting PRPF31 splicing. Our data show that the mutation spectrum of Hispanic RP receives a significant impact from disease-causing alleles of Spanish origin and may also contain population-specific alleles.

  7. Karect: accurate correction of substitution, insertion and deletion errors for next-generation sequencing data

    KAUST Repository

    Allam, Amin

    2015-07-14

    Motivation: Next-generation sequencing generates large amounts of data affected by errors in the form of substitutions, insertions or deletions of bases. Error correction based on the high-coverage information, typically improves de novo assembly. Most existing tools can correct substitution errors only; some support insertions and deletions, but accuracy in many cases is low. Results: We present Karect, a novel error correction technique based on multiple alignment. Our approach supports substitution, insertion and deletion errors. It can handle non-uniform coverage as well as moderately covered areas of the sequenced genome. Experiments with data from Illumina, 454 FLX and Ion Torrent sequencing machines demonstrate that Karect is more accurate than previous methods, both in terms of correcting individual-bases errors (up to 10% increase in accuracy gain) and post de novo assembly quality (up to 10% increase in NGA50). We also introduce an improved framework for evaluating the quality of error correction.

  8. Emerging technologies to power next generation mobile electronic devices using solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewei JIA; Yubo DUAN; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mobile electronic devices such as MP3, mobile phones, and wearable or implanted medical devices have already or will soon become a necessity in peoples' lives.However, the further development of these devices is restricted not only by the inconvenient charging process of the power module, but also by the soaring prices of fossil fuel and its downstream chain of electricity manipulation.In view of the huge amount of solar energy fueling the world biochemically and thermally, a carry-on electricity harvester embedded in portable devices is emerging as a most noteworthy research area and engineering practice for a cost efficient solution. Such a parasitic problem is intrinsic in the next generation portable devices. This paper is dedicated to presenting an overview of the photovoltaic strategy in the chain as a reference for researchers and practitioners committed to solving the problem.

  9. Minimization of Handoff Failure Probability for Next-Generation Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarddar, Debabrata; Saha, Souvik Kumar; Banerjee, Joydeep; Biswas, Utpal; Naskar, M K; 10.5121/ijngn.2010.2204

    2010-01-01

    During the past few years, advances in mobile communication theory have enabled the development and deployment of different wireless technologies, complementary to each other. Hence, their integration can realize a unified wireless system that has the best features of the individual networks. Next-Generation Wireless Systems (NGWS) integrate different wireless systems, each of which is optimized for some specific services and coverage area to provide ubiquitous communications to the mobile users. In this paper, we propose to enhance the handoff performance of mobile IP in wireless IP networks by reducing the false handoff probability in the NGWS handoff management protocol. Based on the information of false handoff probability, we analyze its effect on mobile speed and handoff signaling delay.

  10. Promoting the Congregate Meal Program to the Next Generation of Rural-Residing Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Kara A; Francis, Sarah L; Margrett, Jennifer A; Peterson, Marc; Franke, Warren D

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing older adult population, Iowa Congregate Meal Program (CMP) participation has declined. Motivators and barriers to congregate mealsite participation and wellness programming preferences of baby boomers and older adults were examined to provide insight to how to revise and better promote the CMP for the next generation of older adults. Four focus group sessions were conducted with 27 primarily White, rural-residing adults, ages 48-88 years. Participation motivators included educational programs, food, and socialization while barriers included negative perceptions and stereotypes associated with congregate mealsites. Desired wellness programs were viewed as interactive and relevant. Healthcare was the leading wellness need with financial management and physical activity cited as the most-wanted topics of wellness programs. These results provide insight on factors, aside from funding, that may be adversely impacting CMP participation and identifies areas for further investigation.

  11. Developing the Next Generation of Tools for Simulating Galaxy Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Evan

    Outflows are observed in starbursting galaxies of all masses and at all cosmological epochs. They play a key role throughout the history of the Universe: shaping the galaxy mass-metallicity relation, drastically affecting the content and number density of dwarf galaxies, and transforming the chemical composition of the intergalactic medium. Yet, a complete model of galaxy out ows has proven to be elusive, as it requires both a better understanding of the evolution of the turbulent, multiphase gas in and around starbursting galaxies, and better tools to reproduce this evolution in galaxy-scale simulations. Here we propose to conduct a detailed series of numerical simulations designed to help develop such next-generation tools for the simulation of galaxy outflows. The program will consist of three types of direct numerical simulations, each of which will be targeted to allow galaxy-scale simulations to more accurately model key microphysical processes and their observational consequences. Our first set of simulations will be targeted at better modeling the starbursting interstellar medium (ISM) from which galaxy outflows are driven. The surface densities in starbursting galaxies are much larger than those in the Milky Way, resulting in larger gravitational accelerations and random velocities exceeding 30 or even 100 km/s. Under these conditions, the thermal stability of the ISM is changed dramatically, due to the sharp peak in gas cooling efficiency at H 200,000 K. Our simulations will carefully quantify the key ways in which this medium differs from the local ISM, and the consequences of these differences for when, where, and how outflows are driven. A second set of simulations will be targeted at better modeling the observed properties of rapidly cooling, highly turbulent gas. Because gas cooling in and around starbursts is extremely efficient, turbulent motions are often supersonic, which leads to a distribution of ionization states that is vastly different than

  12. G protein coupled receptors as targets for next generation pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Neil; Down, Rachel E

    2015-12-01

    There is an on-going need for the discovery and development of new pesticides due to the loss of existing products through the continuing development of resistance, the desire for products with more favourable environmental and toxicological profiles and the need to implement the principles of integrated pest management. Insect G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important roles in modulating biology, physiology and behaviour, including reproduction, osmoregulation, growth and development. Modifying normal receptor function by blocking or over stimulating its actions may either result in the death of a pest or disrupt its normal fitness or reproductive capacity to reduce pest populations. Hence GPCRs offer potential targets for the development of next generation pesticides providing opportunities to discover new chemistries for invertebrate pest control. Such receptors are important targets for pharmaceutical drugs, but are under-exploited by the agro-chemical industry. The octopamine receptor agonists are the only pesticides with a recognized mode of action, as described in the classification scheme developed by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee, that act via a GPCR. The availability of sequenced insect genomes has facilitated the characterization of insect GPCRs, but the development and utilization of screening assays to identify lead compounds has been slow. Various studies using knock-down technologies or applying the native ligands and/or neuropeptide analogues to pest insects in vivo, have however demonstrated that modifying normal receptor function can have an insecticidal effect. This review presents examples of potential insect neuropeptide receptors that are potential targets for lead compound development, using case studies from three representative pest species, Tribolium castaneum, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and Drosophila suzukii. Functional analysis studies on T. castaneum suggest that GPCRs involved in growth and development (eclosion

  13. Discovering Exoplanets with Microlensing: Transition to the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew

    We propose to continue our successful program of planet discovery using the gravitaional microlensing technique. Our work will specifically focus on so-called "high- magnification events", which are exceptionally sensitive to planets, and which allow us to extract exceptionally detailed information about each planetary system. These results will be of high scientific interest in their own right, but will also play a key role in the transition to "next-generation" surveys that will discover many times more planets in "low-magnification events". We will continue to operate and build our network of approximately 30 amateur+professional astronomers (about half each) on 6 continents plus Oceania, which enables the 24 hour coverage that is crucial to extracting planetary science from microlensing events. In particular, by engaging the amateurs at a high scientific level, we will both improve the quantity and quality of amateur data and utilize their role as a "transmission belt" to the broader public. Over the past few years, high-mag events have enabled the first detection of a Jupiter- Saturn analog system, the first census of ice and gas giants beyond the snow line, the recognition that "cold Neptunes" are extremely common, and the detection of 3 very massive, super-Jupiter planets orbiting M dwarfs (which may challenge the standard "core-accretion" paradigm). Analysis of these events has also led to key theoretical insights, including the fact that planet orbital motion can be detected in microlensing events and that careful effort is required to disentangle this from "parallax effects" (due to the Earth's own orbital motion). The direct impact of our proposed work will be to increase the still small statistics of high-mag planet detections (due to the intrinsic rarity of high-mag events) and to exploit the sensitivity of these events to higher-order effects (including parallax, planet orbital motion, and multiple planets) to gain deeper knowledge of detected systems

  14. Energy Reductions Using Next-Generation Remanufacturing Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordelet, Daniel; Racek, Ondrej

    2012-02-24

    supported the Industrial Technologies Program's initiative titled 'Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge.' To contribute to this Grand Challenge, we. pursued an innovative processing approach for the next generation of thermal spray coatings to capture substantial energy savings and green house gas emission reductions through the remanufacturing of steel and aluminum-based components. The primary goal was to develop a new thermal spray coating process that yields significantly enhanced bond strength. To reach the goal of higher coating bond strength, a laser was coupled with a traditional twin-wire arc (TWA) spray gun to treat the component surface (i.e., heat or partially melt) during deposition. Both ferrous and aluminum-based substrates and coating alloys were examined to determine what materials are more suitable for the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coating technique. Coating adhesion was measured by static tensile and dynamic fatigue techniques, and the results helped to guide the identification of appropriate remanufacturing opportunities that will now be viable due to the increased bond strength of the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coatings. The feasibility of the laser-assisted TWA (LATWA) process was successfully demonstrated in this current effort. Critical processing parameters were identified, and when these were properly controlled, a strong, diffusion bond was developed between the substrate and the deposited coating. Consequently, bond strengths were nearly doubled over those typically obtained using conventional grit-blast TWA coatings. Note, however, that successful LATWA processing was limited to ferrous substrates coated with steel coatings (e.g., 1020 and 1080 steel). With Al-based substrates, it was not possible to avoid melting a thin layer of the substrate during spraying, and this layer re-solidified to form a band of intermetallic phases at the substrate/coating interface, which significantly diminished the coating adhesion. The

  15. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  16. Popular Imagination and Identity Politics: Reading the Future in "Star Trek: The Next Generation."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian L.; Aoki, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the television series "Star Trek: The Next Generation." Theorizes the relationship between collective visions of the future and the identity politics of the present. Argues that "The Next Generation" invites audiences to participate in a shared sense of the future that constrains human agency and (re)produces the…

  17. BCube: A Broker Framework for Next Generation Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, S. S.; Pearlman, J.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    addressing the sociological and educational components of infrastructure development. Our research is initially focused on four disciplines: hydrology, oceans, polar and weather, with an emphasis on connecting existing domain infrastructure elements to facilitate cross-domain communications.

  18. Model of Next Generation Energy-Efficient Design Software for Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhiliang; ZHAO Yili

    2008-01-01

    Energy-efficient design for buildings (EEDB) is a vital step towards building energy-saving. In or-der to greatly improve the EEDB, the next generation EEDB software that makes use of latest technologies needs to be developed. This paper mainly focuses on establishing the model of the next generation EEDB software. Based on the investigation of literatures and the interviews to the designers, the requirements on the next generation EEDB software were identified, where the lifecycle assessment on both energy con-sumption and environmental impacts, 3D graphics support, and building information modeling (BIM) support were stressed. Then the workflow for using the next generation EEDB software was established. Finally,based on the workflow, the framework model for the software was proposed, and the partial models and the corresponding functions were systematically analyzed. The model lays a solid foundation for developing the next generation EEDB software.

  19. Propionibacterium acnes: disease-causing agent or common contaminant? Detection in diverse patient samples by next generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Vinner, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the most abundant bacterium on human skin, particularly in sebaceous areas. P. acnes is suggested to be an opportunistic pathogen involved in the development of diverse medical conditions, but is also a proven contaminant of human samples and surgical wounds. Its...... significance as a pathogen is consequently a matter of debate.In the present study we investigated the presence of P. acnes DNA in 250 next generation sequencing datasets generated from 180 samples of 20 different sample types, mostly of cancerous origin. The samples were either subjected to microbial...... reads were detected in most samples analysed, though the proportions in most shotgun-sequenced samples were low.Our results show that P. acnes can be detected in practically all sample types when employing molecular methods such as next generation sequencing. The possibility of contamination from...

  20. Energy Reductions Using Next-Generation Remanufacturing Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordelet, Daniel; Racek, Ondrej

    2012-02-24

    supported the Industrial Technologies Program's initiative titled 'Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge.' To contribute to this Grand Challenge, we. pursued an innovative processing approach for the next generation of thermal spray coatings to capture substantial energy savings and green house gas emission reductions through the remanufacturing of steel and aluminum-based components. The primary goal was to develop a new thermal spray coating process that yields significantly enhanced bond strength. To reach the goal of higher coating bond strength, a laser was coupled with a traditional twin-wire arc (TWA) spray gun to treat the component surface (i.e., heat or partially melt) during deposition. Both ferrous and aluminum-based substrates and coating alloys were examined to determine what materials are more suitable for the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coating technique. Coating adhesion was measured by static tensile and dynamic fatigue techniques, and the results helped to guide the identification of appropriate remanufacturing opportunities that will now be viable due to the increased bond strength of the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coatings. The feasibility of the laser-assisted TWA (LATWA) process was successfully demonstrated in this current effort. Critical processing parameters were identified, and when these were properly controlled, a strong, diffusion bond was developed between the substrate and the deposited coating. Consequently, bond strengths were nearly doubled over those typically obtained using conventional grit-blast TWA coatings. Note, however, that successful LATWA processing was limited to ferrous substrates coated with steel coatings (e.g., 1020 and 1080 steel). With Al-based substrates, it was not possible to avoid melting a thin layer of the substrate during spraying, and this layer re-solidified to form a band of intermetallic phases at the substrate/coating interface, which significantly diminished the coating adhesion. The

  1. Environmental barcoding: a next-generation sequencing approach for biomonitoring applications using river benthos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Shokralla, Shadi; Zhou, Xin; Singer, Gregory A C; Baird, Donald J

    2011-04-13

    Timely and accurate biodiversity analysis poses an ongoing challenge for the success of biomonitoring programs. Morphology-based identification of bioindicator taxa is time consuming, and rarely supports species-level resolution especially for immature life stages. Much work has been done in the past decade to develop alternative approaches for biodiversity analysis using DNA sequence-based approaches such as molecular phylogenetics and DNA barcoding. On-going assembly of DNA barcode reference libraries will provide the basis for a DNA-based identification system. The use of recently introduced next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches in biodiversity science has the potential to further extend the application of DNA information for routine biomonitoring applications to an unprecedented scale. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using 454 massively parallel pyrosequencing for species-level analysis of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate taxa commonly used for biomonitoring. We designed our experiments in order to directly compare morphology-based, Sanger sequencing DNA barcoding, and next-generation environmental barcoding approaches. Our results show the ability of 454 pyrosequencing of mini-barcodes to accurately identify all species with more than 1% abundance in the pooled mixture. Although the approach failed to identify 6 rare species in the mixture, the presence of sequences from 9 species that were not represented by individuals in the mixture provides evidence that DNA based analysis may yet provide a valuable approach in finding rare species in bulk environmental samples. We further demonstrate the application of the environmental barcoding approach by comparing benthic macroinvertebrates from an urban region to those obtained from a conservation area. Although considerable effort will be required to robustly optimize NGS tools to identify species from bulk environmental samples, our results indicate the potential of an environmental barcoding

  2. Using the living laboratory framework as a basis for understanding next-generation analyst work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeese, Michael D.; Mancuso, Vincent; McNeese, Nathan; Endsley, Tristan; Forster, Pete

    2013-05-01

    The preparation of next generation analyst work requires alternative levels of understanding and new methodological departures from the way current work transpires. Current work practices typically do not provide a comprehensive approach that emphasizes the role of and interplay between (a) cognition, (b) emergent activities in a shared situated context, and (c) collaborative teamwork. In turn, effective and efficient problem solving fails to take place, and practice is often composed of piecemeal, techno-centric tools that isolate analysts by providing rigid, limited levels of understanding of situation awareness. This coupled with the fact that many analyst activities are classified produces a challenging situation for researching such phenomena and designing and evaluating systems to support analyst cognition and teamwork. Through our work with cyber, image, and intelligence analysts we have realized that there is more required of researchers to study human-centered designs to provide for analyst's needs in a timely fashion. This paper identifies and describes how The Living Laboratory Framework can be utilized as a means to develop a comprehensive, human-centric, and problem-focused approach to next generation analyst work, design, and training. We explain how the framework is utilized for specific cases in various applied settings (e.g., crisis management analysis, image analysis, and cyber analysis) to demonstrate its value and power in addressing an area of utmost importance to our national security. Attributes of analyst work settings are delineated to suggest potential design affordances that could help improve cognitive activities and awareness. Finally, the paper puts forth a research agenda for the use of the framework for future work that will move the analyst profession in a viable manner to address the concerns identified.

  3. Vertical Handoff with Predictive Received Signal Strength in Next Generation Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Madaan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the last few decades, tremendous innovations and inventions have been observed in every field, but especially in wireless network technology. The prevailing demand curves and trends in this particular area of communication show the importance of real-time multimedia applications over several networks with guaranteed quality of service (QoS. The Next Generation Wireless Network (NGWN consists of heterogeneous wireless networks that will grant high data rate and bandwidth to mobile users. The primary aim of Next Generation Wireless Network (NGWN is to conceal heterogeneities and to achieve convergence of diverse networks to provide seamless mobility. So that mobile user can move freely between networks without losing the connection or changing the setting at any moment. When the mobile user moves between different networks, there is a requirement to handover the channel, from one network to another by considering its services, features and user preferences. Channel handover between two different networks is done with the help of vertical handoff (VHO. In a heterogeneous environment, numerous technologies co-exist with their unique characteristics. Therefore, it is very difficult to design efficient handoff decision algorithm. The poorly designed handoff algorithm tends to increase the traffic load and, thereby tend to dramatic decrease in quality of service. A mobile node equipped with multiple network interfaces will be able to access heterogeneous wireless access network. But the availability of alternatives give rise to a problem of unnecessary handoff. To avoid this, we have proposed a decision algorithm based on predictive received signal strength, hysteresis margin and dwell time to select an optimum target network. The handoff policies are designed using received signal strength (RSS, available bandwidth, service cost, user preference, type of application and network condition to reduce the number of handoffs, decision delay

  4. QColors: an algorithm for conservative viral quasispecies reconstruction from short and non-contiguous next generation sequencing reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Austin; Kantor, Rami; DeLong, Allison; Schreier, Leeann; Istrail, Sorin

    Next generation sequencing technologies have recently been applied to characterize mutational spectra of the heterogeneous population of viral genotypes (known as a quasispecies) within HIV-infected patients. Such information is clinically relevant because minority genetic subpopulations of HIV within patients enable viral escape from selection pressures such as the immune response and antiretroviral therapy. However, methods for quasispecies sequence reconstruction from next generation sequencing reads are not yet widely used and remains an emerging area of research. Furthermore, the majority of research methodology in HIV has focused on 454 sequencing, while many next-generation sequencing platforms used in practice are limited to shorter read lengths relative to 454 sequencing. Little work has been done in determining how best to address the read length limitations of other platforms. The approach described here incorporates graph representations of both read differences and read overlap to conservatively determine the regions of the sequence with sufficient variability to separate quasispecies sequences. Within these tractable regions of quasispecies inference, we use constraint programming to solve for an optimal quasispecies subsequence determination via vertex coloring of the conflict graph, a representation which also lends itself to data with non-contiguous reads such as paired-end sequencing. We demonstrate the utility of the method by applying it to simulations based on actual intra-patient clonal HIV-1 sequencing data.

  5. The Genome Analysis Toolkit: a MapReduce framework for analyzing next-generation DNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Aaron; Hanna, Matthew; Banks, Eric; Sivachenko, Andrey; Cibulskis, Kristian; Kernytsky, Andrew; Garimella, Kiran; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Daly, Mark; DePristo, Mark A

    2010-09-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) projects, such as the 1000 Genomes Project, are already revolutionizing our understanding of genetic variation among individuals. However, the massive data sets generated by NGS--the 1000 Genome pilot alone includes nearly five terabases--make writing feature-rich, efficient, and robust analysis tools difficult for even computationally sophisticated individuals. Indeed, many professionals are limited in the scope and the ease with which they can answer scientific questions by the complexity of accessing and manipulating the data produced by these machines. Here, we discuss our Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), a structured programming framework designed to ease the development of efficient and robust analysis tools for next-generation DNA sequencers using the functional programming philosophy of MapReduce. The GATK provides a small but rich set of data access patterns that encompass the majority of analysis tool needs. Separating specific analysis calculations from common data management infrastructure enables us to optimize the GATK framework for correctness, stability, and CPU and memory efficiency and to enable distributed and shared memory parallelization. We highlight the capabilities of the GATK by describing the implementation and application of robust, scale-tolerant tools like coverage calculators and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling. We conclude that the GATK programming framework enables developers and analysts to quickly and easily write efficient and robust NGS tools, many of which have already been incorporated into large-scale sequencing projects like the 1000 Genomes Project and The Cancer Genome Atlas.

  6. The priorities of the energy infrastructure modernization in rural areas of the Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Viktorovna Chaika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the problems of development and modernization of energy infrastructure priorities in rural areas of the Komi Republic. For the most part of rural population the achieved level of energy supply is the necessary minimum for the needs, and it has the low parameters of the energy and economy efficiency. The main directions of the rural energy supply modernization should be: the gas supply system development, the electric grid capacity growth and the construction of the modern small energy technologies (small central heating and power plants, modular boiler plants, efficient solid fuel boilers

  7. Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Santi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and

  8. Associate Directorate Environmental Management Infrastructure Plan for Area G and Area L Domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baumer, Andrew Ronald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Technical Area 54, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is situated in the east-central portion of the Laboratory on the Mesita del Buey between Pajarito Canyon to the south and Cañada del Buey to the north. TA-54 includes four MDAs designated as G, H, J, and L; a waste characterization, container storage, and transfer facility; active TRU waste and MLLW waste storage and low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations at Area G; active hazardous and mixed low-level (MLLW) waste storage operations at Area L; and administrative and support areas. MDA J has previously under-gone closure. Area G is a waste management and disposal area, used for the disposal and storage of radioactive wastes since 1957. Since August 2015, Area G has been in warm standby and provides minimal operations to support safety, compliance, and nitrate salt remediation. Located within Area G, MDA G covers 63-acres. MDA G contains 334 active and inactive waste management units, which include 36 pits, 294 shafts, and 4 trenches. In 1971, Area G began use for the retrievable storage of TRU waste. There are two pits, four trenches and 60 shafts that contain retrievable TRU waste. Thirty-three of the shafts contain TRU waste that may present unique problems for retrieval. In 1986, segregation of MLLW was initiated at Area G for treatment and temporary storage or for off-site disposal. Area G is the only active LLW disposal facility at the Laboratory. Current operations at Area G include storage and characterization of TRU and mixed TRU waste destined for off-site disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and the storage of MLLW destined for off-site treatment and/or disposal. Several above-ground container storage units (CSUs) are currently used for storage of containerized MLLW and/or mixed TRU wastes. These consist of asphalt pads and associated fabric domes or other structures. As defined by the Consent Order, MDA G contains 229 of the 334 subsurface waste

  9. Potential application of LIBS to NNSA next generation safeguards initiative (NGSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barefield Ii, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Ron [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamontagne, Stephen A [DOE/NNSA/NA241; Veal, Kevin [NN/ADTR

    2009-01-01

    In a climate in which states and nations have been and perhaps currently are involved in the prol iferation of nuclear materials and technologies, advanced methodologies and improvements in current measurement techniques are needed to combat new threats and increased levels of sophistication. The Department of Energy through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has undertaken a broad review of International Safeguards. The conclusion from that review was that a comprehensive initiative to revitalize international safeguards technology and the human resource base was urgently needed to keep pace with demands and increasingly sophisticated emerging safeguards challenges. To address these challenges, NNSA launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to develop policies, concepts, technologies, expertise, and infrastructure necessary to sustain the international safeguards system as its mission evolves for the next 25 years. NGSI is designed to revitalize and strengthen the U.S. safeguards technical base, recognizing that without a robust program the United States of America will not be in a position to exercise leadership or provide the necessary support to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). International safeguards as administrated by the IAEA are the primary vehicle for verifying compliance with the peaceful use and nonproliferation of nuclear materials and technologies. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy or LIBS has the potential to support the goals of NGSI as follows: by providing (1) automated analysis in complex nuclear processing or reprocessing facilities in real-time or near real-time without sample preparation or removal, (2) isotopic and important elemental ratio (Cm/Pu, Cm/U, ... etc) analysis, and (3) centralized remote control, process monitoring, and analysis of nuclear materials in nuclear facilities at multiple locations within the facility. Potential application of LIBS to international safeguards as

  10. Advanced relay technologies in next generation wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Krikidis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    This book details the use of the cooperative networks/relaying approach in new and emerging telecommunications technologies such as full-duplex radio, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), network coding and spatial modulation, and new application areas including visible light communications (VLC), wireless power transfer, and 5G.

  11. Digital Libraries: The Next Generation in File System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mic; Camargo, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Examines file sharing within corporations that use wide-area, distributed file systems. Applications and user interactions strongly suggest that the addition of services typically associated with digital libraries (content-based file location, strongly typed objects, representation of complex relationships between documents, and extrinsic…

  12. Analysis of metagenomics next generation sequence data for fungal ITS barcoding: Do you need advance bioinformatics experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Osman Abdalla Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, most of microbiology laboratories have become familiar in analyzing Sanger sequence data for ITS barcoding. However, with the availability of next-generation sequencing platforms in many centers, it has become important for medical mycologists to know how to make sense of the massive sequence data generated by these new sequencing technologies. In many reference laboratories, the analysis of such data is not a big deal, since suitable IT infrastructure and well-trained bioinformatics scientists are always available. However, in small research laboratories and clinical microbiology laboratories the availability of such resources are always lacking. In this report, simple and user-friendly bioinformatics work-flow is suggested for fast and reproducible ITS barcoding of fungi.

  13. Looking toward to the next-generation space weather forecast system. Comments former a former space weather forecaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Fumihiko [Communications Research Laboratory, Koganei, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    In the 21st century, man's space-based activities will increase significantly and many kinds of space utilization technologies will assume a vital role in the infrastructure, creating new businesses, securing the global environment, contributing much to human welfare in the world. Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been contributing to the safety of human activity in space and to the further understanding of the solar terrestrial environment through the study of space weather, including the upper atmosphere, magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and the sun. The next-generation Space Weather Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) for future space activities based on the present international space weather forecasting system is introduced in this paper. (author)

  14. The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for Next Generation Safeguards Specialists--Maximizing Potential and Minimizing the Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to provide an overview of the workshop entitled 'The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for the Next Generation Safeguards Experts-Maximizing Benefits While Minimizing Proliferation Risks', conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in partnership with the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This document presents workshop objectives; lists the numerous participant universities and individuals, the nuclear nonproliferation lecture topics covered, and the facilities tours taken as part of the workshop; and discusses the university partnership sessions and proposed areas for collaboration between the universities and ORNL for 2009. Appendix A contains the agenda for the workshop; Appendix B lists the workshop attendees and presenters with contact information; Appendix C contains graphics of the evaluation form results and survey areas; and Appendix D summarizes the responses to the workshop evaluation form. The workshop was an opportunity for ORNL, Y-12, and SRNL staff with more than 30 years combined experience in nuclear nonproliferation to provide a comprehensive overview of their expertise for the university professors and their students. The overall goal of the workshop was to emphasize nonproliferation aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and to identify specific areas where the universities and experts from operations and national laboratories could collaborate.

  15. Time Domain Science and Fundamental Physics with the Next-generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Paul; Bower, Geoffrey C.; ngVLA Time Domain/Physics Science Working Group

    2017-01-01

    The Next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) is a design concept for a future large-area radio telescope under development by the NRAO and interested members of the scientific community. The approximate ngVLA specifications call for a frequency range of ~1--116 GHz, ten times the effective collecting area and moderately increased field of view versus the current VLA, and an array configuration consisting of a dense (~km-scale) array core with some baselines extending out to hundreds of km. This instrument will enable new discoveries in many diverse areas of research relevant to modern astronomy; our group has explored the impact the ngVLA will have in time domain astronomy and fundamental physics.Here we present several key science topics considered as part of this work. These include: Searching for and timing radio pulsars at the galactic center -- the frequency coverage and sensitivity of the ngVLA will allow detection of highly-scattered pulsars near Sgr A*. Monitoring these sources will permit unprecedented tests of general relativity. Detecting and characterizing explosive transient sources -- electromagnetic observations of gravitational-wave sources provide complementary information to the GW signals themselves. Observations across the wide frequency range spanned by the ngVLA are critical for energy calorimetry of these events. Finally, with sufficient long-baseline coverage, novel astrometric approaches to cosmology become possible, by watching the expansion of the universe in real time through correlated proper motions of many extragalactic radio sources.

  16. The Next Generation of Photo-Detectors for Particle Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert G.; Byrum, Karen L.; Sanchez, Mayly; Vaniachine, Alexandre V.; Siegmund, Oswald; Otte, Nepomuk A.; Ramberg, Erik; Hall, Jeter; Buckley, James

    2009-04-01

    We advocate support of research aimed at developing alternatives to the photomultiplier tube for photon detection in large astroparticle experiments such as gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy, and direct dark matter detectors. Specifically, we discuss the development of large area photocathode microchannel plate photomultipliers and silicon photomultipliers. Both technologies have the potential to exhibit improved photon detection efficiency compared to existing glass vacuum photomultiplier tubes.

  17. Intelligent Joint Admission Control for Next Generation Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen, Abdulqader M.; Al-Akwaa, Fadhl M.; Mohammed M. Alkhawlani

    2012-01-01

    The Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN) integrates different wireless networks into one common network. The integrated networks often overlap coverage in the same wireless service areas, leading to the availability of a great variety of innovative services based on user demands in a cost-efficient manner. Joint Admission Control (JAC) handles all new or handoff service requests in the HWN. It checks whether the incoming service request to the selected Radio Access Network (RAN) by the initia...

  18. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data Through Quarter 3 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-07

    This publication includes 80 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Spring 2016 for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the third quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  19. Rapid Protoyping Software for Developing Next-Generation Air Traffic Management Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on next-generation air traffic management systems is being conducted at several laboratories using custom software. In order to provide a more uniform...

  20. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  1. Rapid Protoyping Software for Developing Next-Generation Air Traffic Management Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on next-generation air traffic control systems are being conducted at several laboratories. Most of this work is being carried out using custom software. In...

  2. Using Star Trek: The Next Generation Television Episodes To Teach Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubek, Leroy W.; Tatlow, Rose

    1998-01-01

    Argues that one advantage of using film as a medium in the classroom is that it draws on an activity students find interesting. Focuses on the use of certain episodes of the series "Star Trek: The Next Generation." (DDR)

  3. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  4. Next Generation Luminaires: Recognizing Innovative, Energy-Efficient Commercial Lighting Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    Fact sheet that describes the Next Generation Luminaires SSL lighting design competition, which recognizes excellence in technical innovation and design of high-quality, energy-efficient commercial lighting, both indoor and outdoor.

  5. Polymer Derived Yttrium Silicate Ablative TPS Materials for Next-Generation Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Through the proposed NASA SBIR program, NanoSonic will optimize its HybridSil® derived yttrium silicates to serve as next-generation reinforcement for carbon...

  6. Super- and Transcritical Fluid Expansions for Next-Generation Energy Conversion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, J.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of thermodynamic power cycles offers great potential as the conceptual basis for sustainable energy converters. Examples are the supercritical and superheated Organic Rankine cycle, the transcritical condensation cycle, the supercritical Brayton cycle, the Organic Stirling cycle

  7. Next-generation batteries and fuel cells for commercial, military, and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, A R

    2012-01-01

    Distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework, Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications describes primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. It emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries for applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability in harsh conditions are

  8. The Laser Communications Relay and the Path to the Next Generation Near Earth Relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is currently developing the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) as a Path to the Next Generation Near Earth Space Communication Network. The current NASA Space Network or Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System is comprised of a constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) in geosynchronous orbit and associated ground stations and operation centers. NASA is currently targeting a next generation of relay capability on orbit in the 2025 timeframe.

  9. Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report on BNLs Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, Susan E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL’s) Nonproliferation and National Security Department contributes to the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and International Security Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) through university engagement, safeguards internships, safeguards courses, professional development, recruitment, and other activities aimed at ensuring the next generation of international safeguards professionals is adequately prepared to support the U.S. safeguards mission. This report is a summary of BNL s work under the NGSI program in Fiscal Year 2014.

  10. NGS Catalog: A Database of Next Generation Sequencing Studies in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Junfeng; Wang, Qingguo; Jia, Peilin; Wang, Bing; Pao, William; Zhao, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been rapidly applied in biomedical and biological research since its advent only a few years ago, and they are expected to advance at an unprecedented pace in the following years. To provide the research community with a comprehensive NGS resource, we have developed the database Next Generation Sequencing Catalog (NGS Catalog, http://bioinfo.mc.vanderbilt.edu/NGS/index.html), a continually updated database that collects, curates and manages a...

  11. Historical Perspective, Development and Applications of Next-Generation Sequencing in Plant Virology

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Barba; Henryk Czosnek; Ahmed Hadidi

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies became available at the onset of the 21st century. They provide a highly efficient, rapid, and low cost DNA sequencing platform beyond the reach of the standard and traditional DNA sequencing technologies developed in the late 1970s. They are continually improved to become faster, more efficient and cheaper. They have been used in many fields of biology since 2004. In 2009, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies began to be appli...

  12. The Next Generation: Students Discuss Archaeology in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Sands, Ashley; Butler, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Project is a multi-agent, multi-directional cultural diplomacy effort. The need for communication among emerging archaeologists has never been greater. Increasingly, archaeological sites are impacted by military activity, destroyed through the development of dams and building projects, and torn apart through looting. The Next Generation Project works to develop communication via social networking sites online and through in-person meetings at international conferences. As ...

  13. The next generation Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory: CTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercellone, S., E-mail: stefano@ifc.inaf.it

    2014-12-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort aimed at the design and operation of an observatory dedicated to the very high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics in the energy range 30 GeV–100 TeV, which will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS). In order to achieve such improved performance, for both the northern and southern CTA sites, four units of 23 m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) will be deployed close to the centre of the array with telescopes separated by about 100 m. A larger number (about 25 units) of 12 m Medium Size Telescopes (MSTs, separated by about 150 m), will cover a larger area. The southern site will also include up to 24 Schwarzschild–Couder dual-mirror medium-size Telescopes (SCTs) with the primary mirror diameter of 9.5 m. Above a few TeV, the Cherenkov light intensity is such that showers can be detected even well outside the light pool by telescopes significantly smaller than the MSTs. To achieve the required sensitivity at high energies, a huge area on the ground needs to be covered by Small Size Telescopes (SSTs) with a field of view of about 10° and an angular resolution of about 0.2°, making the dual-mirror configuration very effective. The SST sub-array will be composed of 50–70 telescopes with a mirror area of about 5–10 m{sup 2} and about 300 m spacing, distributed across an area of about 10 km{sup 2}. In this presentation we will focus on the innovative solution for the optical design of the medium and small size telescopes based on a dual-mirror configuration. This layout will allow us to reduce the dimension and the weight of the camera at the focal plane of the telescope, to adopt Silicon-based photo-multipliers as light detectors thanks to the reduced plate-scale, and to have an optimal imaging resolution on a wide field of view.

  14. The next generation Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory: CTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort aimed at the design and operation of an observatory dedicated to the very high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics in the energy range 30 GeV-100 TeV, which will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS). In order to achieve such improved performance, for both the northern and southern CTA sites, four units of 23 m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) will be deployed close to the centre of the array with telescopes separated by about 100 m. A larger number (about 25 units) of 12 m Medium Size Telescopes (MSTs, separated by about 150 m), will cover a larger area. The southern site will also include up to 24 Schwarzschild-Couder dual-mirror medium-size Telescopes (SCTs) with the primary mirror diameter of 9.5 m. Above a few TeV, the Cherenkov light intensity is such that showers can be detected even well outside the light pool by telescopes significantly smaller than the MSTs. To achieve the required sensitivity at high energies, a huge area on the ground needs to be covered by Small Size Telescopes (SSTs) with a field of view of about 10° and an angular resolution of about 0.2°, making the dual-mirror configuration very effective. The SST sub-array will be composed of 50-70 telescopes with a mirror area of about 5-10 m2 and about 300 m spacing, distributed across an area of about 10 km2. In this presentation we will focus on the innovative solution for the optical design of the medium and small size telescopes based on a dual-mirror configuration. This layout will allow us to reduce the dimension and the weight of the camera at the focal plane of the telescope, to adopt Silicon-based photo-multipliers as light detectors thanks to the reduced plate-scale, and to have an optimal imaging resolution on a wide field of view.

  15. Next Generation Workload Management System For Big Data on Heterogeneous Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; Buncic, P.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Mount, R.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Porter, R. J.; Read, K. F.; Vaniachine, A.; Wells, J. C.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS and ALICE are the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences and are at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, both experiments rely on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System (WMS) for managing the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. The scale is demonstrated by the following numbers: PanDA manages O(102) sites, O(105) cores, O(108) jobs per year, O(103) users, and ATLAS data volume is O(1017) bytes. In 2013 we started an ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF). The project titled ‘Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data’ (BigPanDA) is funded by DOE ASCR and HEP. Extending PanDA to clouds and LCF presents new challenges in managing heterogeneity and supporting workflow. The BigPanDA project is underway to setup and tailor PanDA at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" together with ALICE distributed computing and ORNL computing professionals. Our approach to integration of HPC platforms at the OLCF and elsewhere is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the PanDA system. We

  16. SETI reloaded, Next Generation Radio Telescopes, Transients and Cognitive Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The Search for Extra-terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) using radio telescopes is an area of research that is now more than 50 years old. Thus far, both targeted and wide-area surveys have yet to detect artificial signals from intelligent civilisations. In this paper, I argue that the incidence of co-existing intelligent and communicating civilisations is probably small in the Milky Way. While this makes successful SETI searches a very difficult pursuit indeed, the huge impact of even a single detection requires us to continue the search. A substantial increase in the overall performance of radio telescopes (and in particular future wide-field instruments such as the Square Kilometre Array, SKA), provide renewed optimism in the field. Evidence for this is already to be seen in the success of SETI researchers in acquiring observations on some of the world's most sensitive radio telescope facilities via open, peer-reviewed processes. The increasing interest in the dynamic radio sky, and our ability to detect new a...

  17. Next-Generation Aura/OMI NO2 and SO2 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Yang, Kai; Bucsela, Eric; Lamsal, Lok; Celarier, Edward; Swartz, William; Carn, Simon; Bhartia, Pawan; Gleason, James; Pickering, Ken; Dickerson, Russ

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of both SO2 and NO2 gases are recognized as an essential component of atmospheric composition missions. We describe current capabilities and limitations of the operational Aura/OMI NO2 and SO2 data that have been used by a large number of researchers. Analyses of the data and validation studies have brought to light a number of areas in which these products can be expanded and improved. Major improvements for new NASA standard (SP) NO2 product include more accurate tropospheric and stratospheric column amounts, along with much improved error estimates and diagnostics. Our approach uses a monthly NO2 climatology based on the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model and takes advantage of OMI data from cloudy scenes to find clean areas where the contribution from the trap NO2 column is relatively small. We then use a new filtering, interpolation and smoothing techniques for separating the stratospheric and tropospheric components of NO2, minimizing the influence of a priori information. The new algorithm greatly improves the structure of stratospheric features relative to the original SP. For the next-generation OMI SO2 product we plan to implement operationally the offline iterative spectral fitting (ISF) algorithm and re-process the OMI Level-2 SO2 dataset using a priori SO2 and aerosol profiles, clouds, and surface reflectivity appropriate for observation conditions. This will improve the ability to detect and quantify weak tropospheric SO2 loadings. The new algorithm is validated using aircraft in-situ data during field campaigns in China (2005 and 2008) and in Maryland (Frostburg, 2010 and DISCOVER-AQ in July 2011). The height of the SO2 plumes will also be estimated for high SO2 loading cases (e.g., volcanic eruptions). The same SO2 algorithm will be applied to the data from OMPS sensor to be launched on NPP satellite later this year. The next-generation NO2 and SO2 products will provide critical information (e

  18. High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of planetary exploration vehicles will rely heavily on robust aero-assist technologies, especially those that include aerocapture. This paper provides an overview of an ongoing development program, led by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and aimed at introducing high-temperature structures, adhesives, and advanced thermal protection system (TPS) materials into the aeroshell design process. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate TPS materials that can withstand the higher heating rates of NASA's next generation planetary missions, and to validate high-temperature structures and adhesives that can reduce required TPS thickness and total aeroshell mass, thus allowing for larger science payloads. The effort described consists of parallel work in several advanced aeroshell technology areas. The areas of work include high-temperature adhesives, high-temperature composite materials, advanced ablator (TPS) materials, sub-scale demonstration test articles, and aeroshell modeling and analysis. The status of screening test results for a broad selection of available higher-temperature adhesives is presented. It appears that at least one (and perhaps a few) adhesives have working temperatures ranging from 315-400 C (600-750 F), and are suitable for TPS-to-structure bondline temperatures that are significantly above the traditional allowable of 250 C (482 F). The status of mechanical testing of advanced high-temperature composite materials is also summarized. To date, these tests indicate the potential for good material performance at temperatures of at least 600 F. Application of these materials and adhesives to aeroshell systems that incorporate advanced TPS materials may reduce aeroshell TPS mass by 15% - 30%. A brief outline is given of work scheduled for completion in 2006 that will include fabrication and testing of large panels and subscale aeroshell test articles at the Solar-Tower Test Facility located at Kirtland AFB and operated by Sandia

  19. Integrating Infrastructure and Institutions for Water Security in Large Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, J.; Jawitz, J. W.; Carrera, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban growth has forced cities to procure more freshwater to meet demands; however the relationship between urban water security, water availability and water management is not well understood. This work quantifies the urban water security of 108 large cities in the United States (n=50) and Africa (n=58) based on their hydrologic, hydraulic and institutional settings. Using publicly available data, urban water availability was estimated as the volume of water available from local water resources and those captured via hydraulic infrastructure (e.g. reservoirs, wellfields, aqueducts) while urban water institutions were assessed according to their ability to deliver, supply and regulate water resources to cities. When assessing availability, cities relying on local water resources comprised a minority (37%) of those assessed. The majority of cities (55%) instead rely on captured water to meet urban demands, with African cities reaching farther and accessing a greater number and variety of sources for water supply than US cities. Cities using captured water generally had poorer access to local water resources and maintained significantly more complex strategies for water delivery, supply and regulatory management. Eight cities, all African, are identified in this work as having water insecurity issues. These cities lack sufficient infrastructure and institutional complexity to capture and deliver adequate amounts of water for urban use. Together, these findings highlight the important interconnection between infrastructure investments and management techniques for urban areas with a limited or dwindling natural abundance of water. Addressing water security challenges in the future will require that more attention be placed not only on increasing water availability, but on developing the institutional support to manage captured water supplies.

  20. Environmentally compatible next generation green energetic materials (GEMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Sivabalan, R; Mukundan, T; Muthurajan, H; Sikder, A K; Gandhe, B R; Rao, A Subhananda

    2009-01-30

    This paper briefly reviews the literature work reported on the environmentally compatible green energetic materials (GEMs) for defence and space applications. Currently, great emphasis is laid in the field of high-energy materials (HEMs) to increase the environmental stewardship along with the deliverance of improved performance. This emphasis is especially strong in the areas of energetic materials, weapon development, processing, and disposal operations. Therefore, efforts are on to develop energetic materials systems under the broad concept of green energetic materials (GEMs) in different schools all over the globe. The GEMs program initiated globally by different schools addresses these challenges and establishes the framework for advances in energetic materials processing and production that promote compliance with environmental regulations. This review also briefs the principles of green chemistry pertaining to HEMs, followed by the work carried out globally on environmentally compatible green energetic materials and allied ingredients.

  1. Structural materials issues for the next generation fission reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, I.; Murty, K. L.

    2010-09-01

    Generation-IV reactor design concepts envisioned thus far cater to a common goal of providing safer, longer lasting, proliferation-resistant, and economically viable nuclear power plants. The foremost consideration in the successful development and deployment of Gen-W reactor systems is the performance and reliability issues involving structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core applications. The structural materials need to endure much higher temperatures, higher neutron doses, and extremely corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience of the current nuclear power plants. Materials under active consideration for use in different reactor components include various ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels, nickel-base superalloys, ceramics, composites, etc. This article addresses the material requirements for these advanced fission reactor types, specifically addressing structural materials issues depending on the specific application areas.

  2. Group IV nanotube transistors for next generation ubiquitous computing

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-06-04

    Evolution in transistor technology from increasingly large power consuming single gate planar devices to energy efficient multiple gate non-planar ultra-narrow (< 20 nm) fins has enhanced the scaling trend to facilitate doubling performance. However, this performance gain happens at the expense of arraying multiple devices (fins) per operation bit, due to their ultra-narrow dimensions (width) originated limited number of charges to induce appreciable amount of drive current. Additionally arraying degrades device off-state leakage and increases short channel characteristics, resulting in reduced chip level energy-efficiency. In this paper, a novel nanotube device (NTFET) topology based on conventional group IV (Si, SiGe) channel materials is discussed. This device utilizes a core/shell dual gate strategy to capitalize on the volume-inversion properties of an ultra-thin (< 10 nm) group IV nanotube channel to minimize leakage and short channel effects while maximizing performance in an area-efficient manner. It is also shown that the NTFET is capable of providing a higher output drive performance per unit chip area than an array of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining the leakage and short channel characteristics similar to that of a single gate-all-around nanowire, the latter being the most superior in terms of electrostatic gate control. In the age of big data and the multitude of devices contributing to the internet of things, the NTFET offers a new transistor topology alternative with maximum benefits from performance-energy efficiency-functionality perspective. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 1: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL

    2008-03-01

    A phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process was conducted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design. This design (in the conceptual stage) is a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) that generates both electricity and process heat for hydrogen production. Expert panels identified safety-relevant phenomena, ranked their importance, and assessed the knowledge levels in the areas of accidents and thermal fluids, fission-product transport and dose, high-temperature materials, graphite, and process heat for hydrogen production. This main report summarizes and documents the process and scope of the reviews, noting the major activities and conclusions. The identified phenomena, analyses, rationales, and associated ratings of the phenomena, plus a summary of each panel's findings, are presented. Individual panel reports for these areas are provided as attached volumes to this main report and provide considerably more detail about each panel's deliberations as well as a more complete listing of the phenomena that were evaluated.

  4. NGA's use of aerogravity to advance the next generation of Earth Gravitational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, S. C.; Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A. V.; Holmes, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    NGA has a long history of using aerogravity to improve existing knowledge of the world's gravity field, particularly over remote and inaccessible areas of the earth. Recent and on-going airborne campaigns include projects over Ethiopia, Nepal, Alaska, Tanzania, Antarctica, Indonesia, Mongolia, Afghanistan and the Arctic. Many of these datasets have already contributed to the development of improved national and regional geoid models. Comparisons of these geoid models against independent data serves as a useful quality check on the input aerogravity. Additionally, NGA is using the new airborne data to update their global terrestrial gravity anomaly file. NGA is forming harmonic models of this new aerogravity-enhanced data file and comparing these against the corresponding anomaly file used to develop EGM08, particularly in terms of their relative agreement with new satellite models in the long wavelength band. Initial results show clear improvement over the newly surveyed areas. This type of analysis highlights other regions which would also benefit from new aerogravity campaigns. Ultimately, this new and future data will propagate into NGA's next generation of earth gravitational models, thereby supporting the realization of an improved World Vertical Height System.

  5. Nanoscience and nanotechnology in next generation lithium batteries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce; Liu, Ping; Meng, Shirley

    2013-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries have enabled the portable electronics revolution that changed how we communicate and share information. They have also started to penetrate the vehicle electrification and grid storage markets, two applications that are at the core of a sustainable future. In the pursuit of higher energy densities, lower costs, and longer life, nanotechnology is regularly employed to create new materials and processes in order to achieve these goals. A wonderful example is the commercialization of the lithium iron phosphate cathode which functions as a high power material only in a nanophase form, clearly demonstrating the benefit of nanotechnology. Materials engineered at the nanoscale are expected to offer a suite of advantages: high power densities are enabled by much reduced solid-state diffusion distance; high surface area reduces the effective current density; and new material structures and compositions are stabilized by nanostructuring, leading to new charge storage mechanisms. On the other hand, the use of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries raises significant technological challenges. Thermodynamically unstable electrode/electrolyte interfaces combined with the high surface area of nanomaterials magnify the side reactions leading to performance losses. In addition electrically connecting large amounts of nanoparticles requires the use of large amounts of conducting diluents. Nanomaterials also tend to have low tap densities and are often more expensive to produce. In order for lithium ion batteries to meet the performance and cost requirements for vehicle electrification and grid storage, they increasingly employ electrode materials with challenging reaction kinetics, such as limited ionic and electronic conductivities and complex multiphase processes. By understanding nanoscale processes and using this understanding to extend the spatial scale over which battery design can be implemented, nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly

  6. Inquiry Coaching: Scientists & Science Educators Energizing the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R. E.; Alcantara Valverde, L.

    2007-05-01

    A recent National Academy of Sciences report recommends that science educators focus strategically on teaching the practice of science. To accomplish this, we have devised and implemented the Science Performance Laboratory, a collaborative research, education, and workforce model that brings scientists and science educators together to conduct scientific inquiry. In this session, we demonstrate how to form active inquiry teams around Arctica Science Research content areas related to the International Polar Year. We use the term "Arctica Science Research" to refer to the entire scope of exploration and discovery relating to: polar science and its global connections; Arctic and Antarctic research and climate sciences; ice and cryospheric studies on Earth; polar regions of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury; icy worlds throughout the Solar System, such as Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto and the Comets; cryovolcanism; ice in interstellar space, and beyond. We apply the notion of teaching the practice science by enacting three effective strategies: 1) The Inquiry Wheel Game, in which we develop an expanded understanding of what has been traditionally taught as "the scientific method"; 2) Acting Out the Science Story, in which we develop a physicalized expression of our conceptual understanding; and 3) Selecting Success Criteria for Inquiry Coaching, in which we reframe how we evaluate science learning as we teach the practice of science.

  7. NQRY Coaching: Scientists and Science Educators Energizing the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    A recent National Academy of Science report recommends that science educators focus strategically on teaching the practice of science. To accomplish this, we have devised and implemented the Science Performance Collaboratory, a collaborative research, education, and workforce model that brings scientists and science educators together to conduct scientific inquiry. In this session, we demonstrate how to form active inquiry teams around Arctica Science Research content areas related to the International Polar Year. We use the term Arctica Science Research to refer to the entire scope of exploration and discovery relating to: polar science and its global connections; Arctic and Antarctic research and climate sciences; ice and cryospheric studies on Earth; polar regions of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury; icy worlds throughout the Solar System, such as Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto and the Comets; cryovolvanism; ice in interstellar space, and beyond. We apply the notion of teaching the practice science by enacting three effective strategies: 1) The Inquiry Wheel Game, in which we develop an expanded understanding of what has been traditionally taught as "the scientific method"; 2) Acting Out the Science Story, in which we develop a physicalized expression of our conceptual understanding; and 3) Selecting Success Criteria for Inquiry Coaching, in which we reframe how we evaluate science learning as we teach the practice of science.

  8. Designer exosomes as next-generation cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brandon M; Kirk, Isabel D; Hiltbrunner, Stefanie; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Bultema, Jarred J

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small 40-120 nm vesicles secreted by nearly all cells and are an important form of intercellular communication. Exosomes are abundant, stable, and highly bioavailable to tissues in vivo. Increasingly, exosomes are being recognized as potential therapeutics as they have the ability to elicit potent cellular responses in vitro and in vivo. Patient-derived exosomes have been employed as a novel cancer immunotherapy in several clinical trials, but at this point lack sufficient efficacy. Still other researchers have focused on modifying the content and function of exosomes in various ways, toward the end-goal of specialized therapeutic exosomes. Here we highlight major advances in the use of exosomes for cancer immunotherapy and exosome bioengineering followed by a discussion of focus areas for future research to generate potent therapeutic exosomes. From the Clinical Editor: Exosomes are small vesicles used by cells for intercellular communication. In this short article, the authors described the current status and the potential use of exosomes in the clinical setting.

  9. The next generation Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory: CTA

    CERN Document Server

    Vercellone, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort aimed at the design and operation of an observatory dedicated to the VHE gamma-ray astrophysics in the energy range 30 GeV-100 TeV, which will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS). In order to achieve such improved performance, for both the northern and southern CTA sites, four units of 23m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) will be deployed close to the centre of the array with telescopes separated by about 100m. A larger number (about 25 units) of 12m Medium Size Telescopes (MSTs, separated by about 150m), will cover a larger area. The southern site will also include up to 24 Schwarzschild-Couder dual-mirror medium-size Telescopes (SCTs) with the primary mirror diameter of 9.5m. Above a few TeV, the Cherenkov light intensity is such that showers can be detected even well outside the light pool by telescopes significantly smaller than the MSTs. To a...

  10. Intelligent Joint Admission Control for Next Generation Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqader M. Mohsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN integrates different wireless networks into one common network. The integrated networks often overlap coverage in the same wireless service areas, leading to the availability of a great variety of innovative services based on user demands in a cost-efficient manner. Joint Admission Control (JAC handles all new or handoff service requests in the HWN. It checks whether the incoming service request to the selected Radio Access Network (RAN by the initial access network selection or the vertical handover module can be admitted and allocated the suitable resources. In this paper, a decision support system is developed to address the JAC problem in the modern HWN networks. This system combines fuzzy logic and the PROMETHEE II multiple criteria decision making system algorithm, to the problem of JAC. This combination decreases the influence of the dissimilar, imprecise, and contradictory measurements for the JAC criteria coming from different sources. A performance analysis is done and the results are compared with traditional algorithms for JAC. These results demonstrate a significant improvement with our developed algorithm.

  11. Bioconcrete: next generation of self-healing concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-03-01

    Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials and has a high tendency to form cracks. These cracks lead to significant reduction in concrete service life and high replacement costs. Although it is not possible to prevent crack formation, various types of techniques are in place to heal the cracks. It has been shown that some of the current concrete treatment methods such as the application of chemicals and polymers are a source of health and environmental risks, and more importantly, they are effective only in the short term. Thus, treatment methods that are environmentally friendly and long-lasting are in high demand. A microbial self-healing approach is distinguished by its potential for long-lasting, rapid and active crack repair, while also being environmentally friendly. Furthermore, the microbial self-healing approach prevails the other treatment techniques due to the efficient bonding capacity and compatibility with concrete compositions. This study provides an overview of the microbial approaches to produce calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Prospective challenges in microbial crack treatment are discussed, and recommendations are also given for areas of future research.

  12. Securing Canada’s Information-Technology Infrastructure: Context, Principles, and Focus Areas of Cybersecurity Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the challenges of cybersecurity and ultimately the provision of a stable and resilient information-technology infrastructure for Canada and, more broadly, the world. We describe the context of current cybersecurity challenges by synthesizing key source material whose importance was informed by our own real-world experiences. Furthermore, we present a checklist of guiding principles to a unified response, complete with a set of action-oriented research topics that are linked to known operational limitations. The focus areas are used to drive the formulation of a unified and relevant research and experimental development program, thereby moving us towards a stable and resilient cyberinfrastructure. When cybersecurity is viewed as an inherently interdisciplinary problem of societal concern, we expect that fundamentally new research perspectives will emerge in direct response to domain-specific protection requirements for information-technology infrastructure. Purely technical responses to cybersecurity challenges will be inadequate because human factors are an inherent aspect of the problem. This article will interest managers and entrepreneurs. Senior management teams can assess new technical developments and product releases to fortify their current security solutions, while entrepreneurs can harness new opportunities to commercialize novel technology to solve a high-impact cybersecurity problem..

  13. Body area network--a key infrastructure element for patient-centered telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgall, Thomas; Schmidt, Robert; von der Grün, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Body Area Network (BAN) extends the range of existing wireless network technologies by an ultra-low range, ultra-low power network solution optimised for long-term or continuous healthcare applications. It enables wireless radio communication between several miniaturised, intelligent Body Sensor (or actor) Units (BSU) and a single Body Central Unit (BCU) worn at the human body. A separate wireless transmission link from the BCU to a network access point--using different technology--provides for online access to BAN components via usual network infrastructure. The BAN network protocol maintains dynamic ad-hoc network configuration scenarios and co-existence of multiple networks.BAN is expected to become a basic infrastructure element for electronic health services: By integrating patient-attached sensors and mobile actor units, distributed information and data processing systems, the range of medical workflow can be extended to include applications like wireless multi-parameter patient monitoring and therapy support. Beyond clinical use and professional disease management environments, private personal health assistance scenarios (without financial reimbursement by health agencies / insurance companies) enable a wide range of applications and services in future pervasive computing and networking environments.

  14. Organic electrode coatings for next-generation neural interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregueta-Robles, Ulises A; Woolley, Andrew J; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Lovell, Nigel H; Green, Rylie A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional neuronal interfaces utilize metallic electrodes which in recent years have reached a plateau in terms of the ability to provide safe stimulation at high resolution or rather with high densities of microelectrodes with improved spatial selectivity. To achieve higher resolution it has become clear that reducing the size of electrodes is required to enable higher electrode counts from the implant device. The limitations of interfacing electrodes including low charge injection limits, mechanical mismatch and foreign body response can be addressed through the use of organic electrode coatings which typically provide a softer, more roughened surface to enable both improved charge transfer and lower mechanical mismatch with neural tissue. Coating electrodes with conductive polymers or carbon nanotubes offers a substantial increase in charge transfer area compared to conventional platinum electrodes. These organic conductors provide safe electrical stimulation of tissue while avoiding undesirable chemical reactions and cell damage. However, the mechanical properties of conductive polymers are not ideal, as they are quite brittle. Hydrogel polymers present a versatile coating option for electrodes as they can be chemically modified to provide a soft and conductive scaffold. However, the in vivo chronic inflammatory response of these conductive hydrogels remains unknown. A more recent approach proposes tissue engineering the electrode interface through the use of encapsulated neurons within hydrogel coatings. This approach may provide a method for activating tissue at the cellular scale, however, several technological challenges must be addressed to demonstrate feasibility of this innovative idea. The review focuses on the various organic coatings which have been investigated to improve neural interface electrodes.

  15. Training the next generation analyst using red cell analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Meghan N.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2016-05-01

    We have seen significant change in the study and practice of human reasoning in recent years from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. Ubiquitous communication coupled with advances in computing and a plethora of analytic support tools have created a push for instantaneous reporting and analysis. This notion is particularly prevalent in law enforcement, emergency services and the intelligence community (IC), where commanders (and their civilian leadership) expect not only a birds' eye view of operations as they occur, but a play-by-play analysis of operational effectiveness. This paper explores the use of Red Cell Analytics (RCA) as pedagogy to train the next-gen analyst. A group of Penn State students in the College of Information Sciences and Technology at the University Park campus of The Pennsylvania State University have been practicing Red Team Analysis since 2008. RCA draws heavily from the military application of the same concept, except student RCA problems are typically on non-military in nature. RCA students utilize a suite of analytic tools and methods to explore and develop red-cell tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs), and apply their tradecraft across a broad threat spectrum, from student-life issues to threats to national security. The strength of RCA is not always realized by the solution but by the exploration of the analytic pathway. This paper describes the concept and use of red cell analytics to teach and promote the use of structured analytic techniques, analytic writing and critical thinking in the area of security and risk and intelligence training.

  16. Next-Generation STR Genotyping Kits for Forensic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, J J; Hennessy, L K

    2012-01-01

    Forensic DNA typing has been a constantly evolving field driven by innovations from academic laboratories as well as kit manufacturers. Central to these technological advances has been the transition from multilocus-probe restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods to short tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based assays. STRs are now the markers of choice for forensic DNA typing and a wide variety of commercial STR kits have been designed to meet the various needs of a forensic lab. This review provides an overview of the commercial STR kits made available since the year 2000 and explains the rationale for creating these kits. Substantial progress has been made in key areas such as sample throughput, speed, and sensitivity. For example, a significant advancement for databasing labs was the capability of direct amplification from a blood or buccal sample without need for DNA extraction or purification, enabling increased throughput. Other key improvements are greater tolerance for inhibitors (e.g., humic acid, hematin, and tannic acid) present in evidence samples, PCR cycling times decreased by 1-1.5 h, and greater sensitivity with improved buffer components and thermal cycling conditions. These improvements that have been made over the last 11 years have enhanced the ability of forensic laboratories to obtain a DNA profile from more challenging samples. However, with the proliferation of kits from different vendors the primer binding sequences of the loci vary, which could result in discordant events that would need to be resolved either via a database-driven software solution or simply by evaluating discordant samples with multiple kits.

  17. Next-Generation Search Engines for Information Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Hook, Leslie A [ORNL; Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL; Green, James M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years, there have been significant advancements in the areas of scientific data management and retrieval techniques, particularly in terms of standards and protocols for archiving data and metadata. Scientific data is rich, and spread across different places. In order to integrate these pieces together, a data archive and associated metadata should be generated. Data should be stored in a format that can be retrievable and more importantly it should be in a format that will continue to be accessible as technology changes, such as XML. While general-purpose search engines (such as Google or Bing) are useful for finding many things on the Internet, they are often of limited usefulness for locating Earth Science data relevant (for example) to a specific spatiotemporal extent. By contrast, tools that search repositories of structured metadata can locate relevant datasets with fairly high precision, but the search is limited to that particular repository. Federated searches (such as Z39.50) have been used, but can be slow and the comprehensiveness can be limited by downtime in any search partner. An alternative approach to improve comprehensiveness is for a repository to harvest metadata from other repositories, possibly with limits based on subject matter or access permissions. Searches through harvested metadata can be extremely responsive, and the search tool can be customized with semantic augmentation appropriate to the community of practice being served. One such system, Mercury, a metadata harvesting, data discovery, and access system, built for researchers to search to, share and obtain spatiotemporal data used across a range of climate and ecological sciences. Mercury is open-source toolset, backend built on Java and search capability is supported by the some popular open source search libraries such as SOLR and LUCENE. Mercury harvests the structured metadata and key data from several data providing servers around the world and builds a

  18. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  19. Technology for the Next-Generation-Mobile User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagi, Greg

    specialized circuits, highly parallel architectures, and new packaging design. Another concern of the smart-mobile-companion user will be that their device is able to deliver an always-on, always-aware environment in a way that is completely seamless and transparent. These handsets will automatically determine the best and most appropriate modem link from the multiple choices on the device, including WiFi, LTE, 5G, and mmWave, based on which link will optimize performance, battery life, and network charges to deliver the best possible user experience. In the future, adaptive connectivity will require many different solutions, including the standard modem technologies of today, as well as new machine-machine interfaces and body-area-networks. All of the new and exciting applications and features of these mobile-companion devices are going to require additional energy due to added computational requirements. However, a gap in energy efficiency is quickly developing between the energy that can be delivered by today's battery technologies, and the energy needed to deliver all-day operation or 2-day always-on standby without a recharge. New innovations ranging from low-voltage digital and analog circuits, non-volatile memory, and adaptive power management, to energy harvesting, will be needed to further improve the battery life of these mobile companion devices. Increased bandwidth combined with decreased latency, higher power efficiency, energy harvesting, massive multimedia processing, and new interconnect technologies will all work together to revolutionize how we interact with our smart-companion devices. The implementation challenges in bringing these technologies to market may seem daunting and numerous at first, but with the strong collaboration in research and development from universities, government agencies, and corporations, the smart-mobile-companion devices of the future will likely become reality within 5 years!

  20. In-pixel conversion with a 10 bit SAR ADC for next generation X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodola, L., E-mail: luca.lodola01@universitadipavia.it [Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Batignani, G. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Benkechkache, M.A. [TIFPA INFN, I-38123 Trento (Italy); University Constantine 1, Department of Electronics in the Science and Technology Faculty, I-25017 Constantine (Algeria); Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Comotti, D. [Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.F. [Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, I-38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Fabris, L. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Università di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze Applicate, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); Forti, F. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Grassi, M. [Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Latreche, S. [University Constantine 1, Department of Electronics in the Science and Technology Faculty, I-25017 Constantine (Algeria); and others

    2016-07-11

    This work presents the design of an interleaved Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC, part of the readout channel for the PixFEL detector. The PixFEL project aims at substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in the field of 2D X-ray imaging for applications at the next generation Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities. For this purpose, the collaboration is developing the fundamental microelectronic building blocks for the readout channel. This work focuses on the design of the ADC carried out in a 65 nm CMOS technology. To obtain a good tradeoff between power consumption, conversion speed and area occupation, an interleaved SAR ADC architecture was adopted.

  1. In-pixel conversion with a 10 bit SAR ADC for next generation X-ray FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodola, L.; Batignani, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Comotti, D.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Fabris, L.; Forti, F.; Grassi, M.; Latreche, S.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Mendicino, R.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Pancheri, L.; Paoloni, E.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Rizzo, G.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    This work presents the design of an interleaved Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC, part of the readout channel for the PixFEL detector. The PixFEL project aims at substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in the field of 2D X-ray imaging for applications at the next generation Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities. For this purpose, the collaboration is developing the fundamental microelectronic building blocks for the readout channel. This work focuses on the design of the ADC carried out in a 65 nm CMOS technology. To obtain a good tradeoff between power consumption, conversion speed and area occupation, an interleaved SAR ADC architecture was adopted.

  2. Road infrastructure and mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mungaray-Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the mobility of consumption in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley border area. The study shows that the population in the Mexicali sections closer to border crossings generates the greatest amount of consumption dynamics with places located in Imperial Valley. Conversely, Imperial Valley sections that are more distant from the border concentrate a greater number of destination sites for these cross-border trips. It is concluded that a higher quality and more integrated road infrastructure allows the new consumption centers in Imperial Valley to be located farther away from the border and that the Mexicali population with visas can cross indiscriminately through any border crossing by taking longer journeys toward these centers.

  3. Earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures from tall buildings to urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xinzheng

    2017-01-01

    Based on more than 12 years of systematic investigation on earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures, this book covers the major research outcomes including a number of novel computational models, high performance computing methods and realistic visualization techniques for tall buildings and urban areas, with particular emphasize on collapse prevention and mitigation in extreme earthquakes, earthquake loss evaluation and seismic resilience. Typical engineering applications to several tallest buildings in the world (e.g., the 632 m tall Shanghai Tower and the 528 m tall Z15 Tower) and selected large cities in China (the Beijing Central Business District, Xi'an City, Taiyuan City and Tangshan City) are also introduced to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed computational models and techniques. The high-fidelity computational model developed in this book has proven to be the only feasible option to date for earthquake-induced collapse simulation of supertall buildings that are higher than 50...

  4. Assessment of U.S. Manufacturing Capability for Next-Generation Wind Turbine Drivetrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stelhy, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Robust U.S. wind turbine manufacturing capabilities and supply chains are important for the United States to reduce the cost of electricity generated from wind turbines. These capabilities and supply chains are also critical to the invention and commercialization of new wind turbine technologies while providing high-quality jobs. The development of advanced drivetrain technologies for windturbine applications is advancing the state of the art for drivetrain design by producing higher capacity and operating reliability than conventional drivetrains. Advanced drivetrain technologies such as medium-speed and direct-drive generators, silicon-carbide (SiC) IGBT-based power electronics, and high torque density speed increasers require different manufacturing and supply chaincapabilities that present both risks and opportunities for U.S. wind turbine manufacturers and the wind industry as a whole. The primary objective of this project is to assess how advanced drivetrain technologies and trends will impact U.S. wind turbine manufacturing and its supply chains. The U.S. Department of Energy and other industry participants will use the information from this study toidentify domestic manufacturing gaps, barriers, and opportunities for developing U.S. wind turbine manufacturing capabilities and supply chains for next-generation drivetrain technologies. This report also includes recommendations for prioritizing technology areas for possible investments by public, private, or nonprofit entities that will reduce the cost of wind-generated electricity. Suchinvestments foster opportunities to invent and commercialize new wind turbine technologies, and provide high-quality jobs in the United States.

  5. Next Generation Very Large Array Memo No. 5: Science Working Groups -- Project Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Carilli, C L; Ott, J; Beasley, A; Isella, A; Murphy, E; Leroy, A; Casey, C; Moullet, A; Lacy, M; Hodge, J; Bower, G; Demorest, P; Hull, C; Hughes, M; di Francesco, J; Narayanan, D; Kent, B; Clark, B; Butler, B

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the design, capabilities, and some of the priority science goals of a next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA). The ngVLA is an interferometric array with 10x larger effective collecting area and 10x higher spatial resolution than the current VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), optimized for operation in the wavelength range 0.3cm to 3cm. The ngVLA opens a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcecond resolution, as well as unprecedented broad band continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. The continuum resolution will reach 9mas at 1cm, with a brightness temperature sensitivity of 6K in 1 hour. For spectral lines, the array at 1" resolution will reach 0.3K surface brightness sensitivity at 1cm and 10 km/s spectral resolution in 1 hour. These capabilities are the only means with which to answer a broad range of critical scientific questions in modern astronomy, including direct imaging of plane...

  6. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XV. The photometric redshift estimation for background sources

    CERN Document Server

    Raichoor, A; Erben, T; Hildebrandt, H; Huertas-Company, M; Ilbert, O; Licitra, R; Ball, N M; Boissier, S; Boselli, A; Chen, Y -T; Côté, P; Cuillandre, J -C; Duc, P A; Durrell, P R; Ferrarese, L; Guhathakurta, P; Gwyn, S D J; Kavelaars, J J; Lançon, A; Liu, C; MacArthur, L A; Muller, M; Muñoz, R P; Peng, E W; Puzia, T H; Sawicki, M; Toloba, E; Van Waerbeke, L; Woods, D; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg^2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz-bands and one third in the r-band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point spread function-homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior which extends to iAB = 12.5 mag. When using the u*griz-bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 \\le i \\lesssim 23 mag or zphot \\lesssim 1 galaxies have a bias |\\Delta z| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, and a scatter \\sigma_{outl.rej.} and an individual error on zphot that increase with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz-bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r-band increases t...

  7. Educating the next generation of explorers at an historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, S.; Rodriguez, W. J.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the development of an innovative undergraduate research training model based at an Historically Black University in the USA that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic Earth Systems Science research. Educating those who will be the next generation of explorers of earth and space poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. Over a 5-year span, Norfolk State University has been developing a program that has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through partnerships with local K-12 school teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment). The successes and challenges of this program along with some innovative uses of technology to promote inquiry learning will be presented in this paper.

  8. Next Generation Electromagnetic Pump Analysis Tools (PLM DOC-0005-2188). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stregy, Seth [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States); Dasilva, Ana [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States); Yilmaz, Serkan [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States); Saha, Pradip [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States); Loewen, Eric [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States)

    2015-10-29

    This report provides the broad historical review of EM Pump development and details of MATRIX development under this project. This report summarizes the efforts made to modernize the legacy performance models used in previous EM Pump designs and the improvements made to the analysis tools. This report provides information on Tasks 1, 3, and 4 of the entire project. The research for Task 4 builds upon Task 1: Update EM Pump Databank and Task 3: Modernize the Existing EM Pump Analysis Model, which are summarized within this report. Where research for Task 2: Insulation Materials Development and Evaluation identified parameters applicable to the analysis model with Task 4, the analysis code was updated, and analyses were made for additional materials. The important design variables for the manufacture and operation of an EM Pump that the model improvement can evaluate are: space constraints; voltage capability of insulation system; maximum flux density through iron; flow rate and outlet pressure; efficiency and manufacturability. The development of the next-generation EM Pump analysis tools during this two-year program provides information in three broad areas: Status of analysis model development; Improvements made to older simulations; and Comparison to experimental data.

  9. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-03

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  10. A Survey of Surface Modification Techniques for Next-Generation Shape Memory Polymer Stent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Govindarajan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for a single material with ideal surface properties and necessary mechanical properties is on-going, especially with regard to cardiovascular stent materials. Since the majority of stent problems arise from surface issues rather than bulk material deficiencies, surface optimization of a material that already contains the necessary bulk properties is an active area of research. Polymers can be surface-modified using a variety of methods to increase hemocompatibilty by reducing either late-stage restenosis or acute thrombogenicity, or both. These modification methods can be extended to shape memory polymers (SMPs, in an effort to make these materials more surface compatible, based on the application. This review focuses on the role of surface modification of materials, mainly polymers, to improve the hemocompatibility of stent materials; additional discussion of other materials commonly used in stents is also provided. Although shape memory polymers are not yet extensively used for stents, they offer numerous benefits that may make them good candidates for next-generation stents. Surface modification techniques discussed here include roughening, patterning, chemical modification, and surface modification for biomolecule and drug delivery.

  11. Diagnostic value of next-generation sequencing in an unusual sphenoid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Farzad; Pleasance, Erin; Li, Yvonne; Shen, Yaoqing; Kasaian, Katayoon; Corbett, Richard; Eirew, Peter; Lum, Amy; Pandoh, Pawan; Zhao, Yongjun; Schein, Jacqueline E; Moore, Richard A; Rassekh, Rod; Huntsman, David G; Knowling, Meg; Lim, Howard; Renouf, Daniel J; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Nielsen, Torsten O; Laskin, Janessa; Yip, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    Extraordinary advancements in sequencing technology have made what was once a decade-long multi-institutional endeavor into a methodology with the potential for practical use in a clinical setting. We therefore set out to examine the clinical value of next-generation sequencing by enrolling patients with incurable or ambiguous tumors into the Personalized OncoGenomics initiative at the British Columbia Cancer Agency whereby whole genome and transcriptome analyses of tumor/normal tissue pairs are completed with the ultimate goal of directing therapeutics. First, we established that the sequencing, analysis, and communication with oncologists could be completed in less than 5 weeks. Second, we found that cancer diagnostics is an area that can greatly benefit from the comprehensiveness of a whole genome analysis. Here, we present a scenario in which a metastasized sphenoid mass, which was initially thought of as an undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, was rediagnosed as an SMARCB1-negative rhabdoid tumor based on the newly acquired finding of homozygous SMARCB1 deletion. The new diagnosis led to a change in chemotherapy and a complete nodal response in the patient. This study also provides additional insight into the mutational landscape of an adult SMARCB1-negative tumor that has not been explored at a whole genome and transcriptome level.

  12. The future of specific immunotherapy: strategies and challenges for the next generation of allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, P

    2011-07-01

    : The use of specific immunotherapy (SIT) for allergic disorders has recently been extended by introduction of a convenient, tablet-based, disease-modifying vaccine against grass pollen allergy. Allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT) programmes targeting house dust mite and other allergies are currently in late-phase development. Next-generation allergy vaccines can have optimised potency and onset of action without compromising safety or convenience. Key to achieving these objectives is a combination of evidence-based mode-of-action studies and biomarker-centric translational research approaches. This will rely on using biobank and bioinformatics resources for multi-omic characterisations of the 'immunome' of allergic disease. Other important areas are ongoing paediatric trials and long-term studies in adults for further defining the potential role of SIT in allergic disease and primary prevention of asthma. Finally, combining cellular- and serological-based assays, and developments in targeted delivery platforms and component-resolved diagnostics will lead to increased ability to stratify patients, with more personalised diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Trajectory Assessment and Modification Tools for Next Generation Air Traffic Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Connie; Lee, Paul; Mainini, Matthew; Lee, Homola; Lee, Hwasoo; Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews three Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) based high fidelity air traffic control human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations, with a focus on the expected requirement of enhanced automated trajectory assessment and modification tools to support future air traffic flow management (ATFM) planning positions. The simulations were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Centers Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) in 2009 and 2010. The test airspace for all three simulations assumed the mid-term NextGenEn-Route high altitude environment utilizing high altitude sectors from the Kansas City and Memphis Air Route Traffic Control Centers. Trajectory assessment, modification and coordination decision support tools were developed at the AOL in order to perform future ATFM tasks. Overall tool usage results and user acceptability ratings were collected across three areas of NextGen operatoins to evaluate the tools. In addition to the usefulness and usability feedback, feasibility issues, benefits, and future requirements were also addressed. Overall, the tool sets were rated very useful and usable, and many elements of the tools received high scores and were used frequently and successfully. Tool utilization results in all three HITLs showed both user and system benefits including better airspace throughput, reduced controller workload, and highly effective communication protocols in both full Data Comm and mixed-equipage environments.

  14. Next-generation sequencing of common osteogenesis imperfecta-related genes in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árvai, Kristóf; Horváth, Péter; Balla, Bernadett; Tobiás, Bálint; Kató, Karina; Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Klujber, Valéria; Lakatos, Péter; Kósa, János P.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a rapidly developing area in genetics. Utilizing this technology in the management of disorders with complex genetic background and not recurrent mutation hot spots can be extremely useful. In this study, we applied NGS, namely semiconductor sequencing to determine the most significant osteogenesis imperfecta-related genetic variants in the clinical practice. We selected genes coding collagen type I alpha-1 and-2 (COL1A1, COL1A2) which are responsible for more than 90% of all cases. CRTAP and LEPRE1/P3H1 genes involved in the background of the recessive forms with relatively high frequency (type VII and VIII) represent less than 10% of the disease. In our six patients (1–41 years), we identified 23 different variants. We found a total of 14 single nucleotide variants (SNV) in COL1A1 and COL1A2, 5 in CRTAP and 4 in LEPRE1. Two novel and two already well-established pathogenic SNVs have been identified. Among the newly recognized mutations, one results in an amino acid change and one of them is a stop codon. We have shown that a new full-scale cost-effective NGS method can be developed and utilized to supplement diagnostic process of osteogenesis imperfecta with molecular genetic data in clinical practice. PMID:27335225

  15. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XV. The Photometric Redshift Estimation for Background Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Ilbert, O.; Licitra, R.; Ball, N. M.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Chen, Y.-T.; Côté, P.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P. A.; Durrell, P. R.; Ferrarese, L.; Guhathakurta, P.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lançon, A.; Liu, C.; MacArthur, L. A.; Muller, M.; Muñoz, R. P.; Peng, E. W.; Puzia, T. H.; Sawicki, M.; Toloba, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Woods, D.; Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i AB = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag outliers, a scatter σoutl.rej., and an individual error on z phot that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 outliers, and z phot.err. ~ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.

  16. Implications of the Next Generation Science Standards for Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Colson, M.; Duschl, R. A.; Huff, K.; Lopez, R. E.; Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Matthews, T.; Childress, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), due to be released in 2013, set a new direction for K-12 science education in America. These standards will put forth significant changes for Earth and space sciences. The NGSS are based upon the recommendations of the National Research Council's 2011 report "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The standards are being written by a large group of authors who represent many different constituencies, including 26 participating states, in a process led by Achieve, Inc. The standards encourage innovative ways to teach science at the K-12 level, including enhanced integration between the content, practices, and crosscutting ideas of science and greater assimilation among the sciences and engineering, and among the sciences, mathematics, and English language arts. The NGSS presents a greater emphasis on Earth and space sciences than in previous standards, recommending a year at both the middle and high school levels. The new standards also present a greater emphasis on areas of direct impact between humans and the Earth system, including climate change, natural hazards, resource management, and sustainability.

  17. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-03

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low-level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  18. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XX. RedGOLD Background Galaxy Cluster Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, Rossella; Mei, Simona; Raichoor, Anand; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Huertas-Company, Marc; Lançon, Ariane; Parroni, Carolina; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2016-09-01

    We build a background cluster candidate catalog from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) using our detection algorithm RedGOLD. The NGVS covers 104 deg2 of the Virgo cluster in the {u}* ,g,r,i,z-bandpasses to a depth of g ˜ 25.7 mag (5σ). Part of the survey was not covered or has shallow observations in the r band. We build two cluster catalogs: one using all bandpasses, for the fields with deep r-band observations (˜20 deg2), and the other using four bandpasses ({u}* ,g,i,z) for the entire NGVS area. Based on our previous Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey W1 studies, we estimate that both of our catalogs are ˜100% (˜70%) complete and ˜80% pure, at z ≤ 0.6 (z ≲ 1), for galaxy clusters with masses of M ≳ 1014 M ⊙. We show that when using four bandpasses, though the photometric redshift accuracy is lower, RedGOLD detects massive galaxy clusters up to z ˜ 1 with completeness and purity similar to the five-band case. This is achieved when taking into account the bias in the richness estimation, which is ˜40% lower at 0.5 ≤ z z X-ray clusters in the area with mass M 500 > 1.4 × 1014 M ⊙ and 0.08 z < 0.5. Because of our different cluster richness limits and the NGVS depth, our catalogs reach lower masses than the published redMaPPer cluster catalog over the area, and we recover ˜90%-100% of its detections.

  19. RES-E-NEXT: Next Generation of RES-E Policy Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bazilian, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denny, E. [Ecar Limited (Ireland); Dillon, J. [Ecar Limited (Ireland); Bialek, J. [Ecar Limited (Ireland); O' Malley, M. [Ecar Limited (Ireland); Neuhoff, K. [DIW Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-04

    and the new challenges that could emerge, coordinated portfolios of policies, market designs, regulations, and operational protocols are essential. The goal for policymakers is to facilitate investment in RES-E technologies and to enable efficient and reliable system operation, costeffective service delivery, and continued public acceptance. Although the factors that impact the speed and scale of RES-E deployment manifest uniquely in each power system, in the transition to high shares of variable RES-E this report identifies four critical domains and the changing drivers that will shape next-generation policy for each. These domains are introduced in Table I, and comprise the major sections of this report.

  20. Environmental and sustainability factors associated with next-generation biofuels in the U.S.: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela R D; Inman, Daniel; Aden, Andy; Heath, Garvin A

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we assess what is known or anticipated about environmental and sustainability factors associated with next-generation biofuels relative to the primary conventional biofuels (i.e., corn grain-based ethanol and soybean-based diesel) in the United States during feedstock production and conversion processes. Factors considered include greenhouse (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, soil health and quality, water use and water quality, wastewater and solid waste streams, and biodiversity and land-use changes. Based on our review of the available literature, we find that the production of next-generation feedstocks in the U.S. (e.g., municipal solid waste, forest residues, dedicated energy crops, microalgae) are expected to fare better than corn-grain or soybean production on most of these factors, although the magnitude of these differences may vary significantly among feedstocks. Ethanol produced using a biochemical or thermochemical conversion platform is expected to result in fewer GHG and air pollutant emissions, but to have similar or potentially greater water demands and solid waste streams than conventional ethanol biorefineries in the U.S. However, these conversion-related differences are likely to be small, particularly relative to those associated with feedstock production. Modeling performed for illustrative purposes and to allow for standardized quantitative comparisons across feedstocks and conversion technologies generally confirms the findings from the literature. Despite current expectations, significant uncertainty remains regarding how well next-generation biofuels will fare on different environmental and sustainability factors when produced on a commercial scale in the U.S. Additional research is needed in several broad areas including quantifying impacts, designing standardized metrics and approaches, and developing decision-support tools to identify and quantify environmental trade-offs and ensure sustainable biofuels production.