Nanou, Maki; Politi, Christina (Tanya); Stavdas, Alexandros; Glentis, George-Othon; Georgoulakis, Kristina; Emeretlis, Andreas; Theodoridis, George
Improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic components has enabled the investigation of transmitting optical channels with data rates greater than 40 Gb/s, over infrastructures that were initially supporting 10 Gb/s transport. However, for transporting high capacity channels, over long distances, considerable signal processing is necessary, with current emphasis being on digital techniques. Meanwhile in the context of optical networking where spectrally adjacent channels may cross different routes to interconnect the same source destination nodes, adaptive transmission systems become vital. This paper will suggest, compare and develop the necessary transponder technologies that enable transportation of 40 Gb/s channels over deployed Metropolitan Area optical Networks (MAN) infrastructure with emphasis on the interplay between realistic performance, feasibility and complexity/cost. Specifically it will investigate utilizing deployed optical infrastructure for transporting 40 Gb/s DQPSK channels in conjunction with various high performance, low complexity electronic equalizers that can compensate the corresponding linear impairment enhancement that accompanies this upgrade, namely Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion while they can be implemented in a single FPGA. It is shown that resource constraint performance evaluation is vital and the exact technology choice is related to the deployed infrastructure.
Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt
The availability on the market of powerful and lightweight mobile devices has led to a fast diffusion of mobile services for end users and the trend is shifting from voice based services to multimedia contents distribution. The current access networks are, however, able to support relatively low...... data rates and with limited Quality of Service (QoS). In order to extend the access to high data rate services to wireless users, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) established new requirements for future wireless communication technologies of up to 1Gbps in low mobility and up to 100Mbps...
Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J
A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.
Baek, In Hwan
Biomedical devices in the past provided limited capability for the data acquisition and presented the data in the form of user interface for a care provider to observe. Now, what is required for biomedical devices has fundamentally changed. Many devices must now support secure networking and include a network of sensors to enable machine learning-based sensor fusion for accurate inference of the subject’s state.This thesis introduces an Internet-of-Things (IoT) body area network (BAN) platfor...
Weiss, P.; Yung, K. L.
Exploration activities on the lunar surface will require precise knowledge of the position of a robotic or manned vehicle. This paper discusses the use of radio beacons as method to determine the position of a mobile unit on the surface. Previous concepts consider the installation of such equipment by the robot itself. A novel idea is discussed here, namely to use miniaturized radio beacons which are deployed (released) during the descent of the lander on the surface. This idea has three major advantages compared to previous proposals: (i) it avoids the time costly and energy consuming installation of the equipment by a rover. (ii) The impact velocities of the probes are in reasonable range since the probes are deployed at low altitude from the main lander that approaches its final landing site. (iii) The probes can take reconnaissance pictures during their free-fall to the surface. This method will therefore deliver charts of the proximity of the landing area with higher resolution than those done by orbital means. Such information will enable scientists and mission operators to precisely plan robotic excursions (and later Extra Vehicular Activity) through the identification of hazardous areas and spots of interest. The paper will study the feasibility of this system from different aspects. The first section will outline the application scenario and the potential outcome of such a system for the coming phase of lunar exploration. A technological readiness review was done to evaluate if the payload instrumentation for these high velocity impacting probes is available. The second section presents the simulation of the impact process of a preliminary probe model in nonlinear transient dynamic finite element analysis using the Lagrangian hydrocode LS-DYNA. The purpose of this simulation was to evaluate if the beacon is able to communicate with the mobile unit even when buried into the soil. The integration of this payload into coming lunar missions will contribute to
Aldhaibani, Jaafar A.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yahya, A.; Azeez, Suzan A.
Wireless multi-hop relay networks have become very important technologies in mobile communications. These networks ensure high throughput and coverage extension with a low cost. The poor capacity at cell edges is not enough to meet with growing demand of high capacity and throughput irrespective of user's placement in the cellular network. In this paper we propose optimal placement of relay node that provides maximum achievable rate at users and enhances the throughput and coverage at cell edge region. The proposed scheme is based on the outage probability at users and taken on account the interference between nodes. Numerical analyses along with simulation results indicated there are an improvement in capacity for users at the cell edge is 40% increment from all cell capacity.
Full Text Available We are living in the world where almost everything is dependent on right information. Nowadays many kinds of disasters are happening around the world like: earthquake, hurricane, terrorist attacks, explosions or biological warfare etc. are few of them. Therefore steps are required to be taken to prevent from these kinds of threats and for the rescue measures or disaster management operations quick and correct information is required. Wireless communication plays an important role in helping these kinds of situations. Among all Wireless Communication, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is able to cause immediate alert for disaster management operations to begin. In this paper we will focus on the disaster detection and disaster managing operations through WSN. First we need to understand the basic architecture of WSN and then how it can be helpful for disaster management. We will see the world’s scenario and incidents for examples.
The plethora of connected devices, such as attractive smartphones, data dongles and 3G/4G built-in tablet computers, has brought mobile operators to face increasing demand in mobile broadband traffic and services. In addition to the roll-out of Long Term Evolution (LTE), the deployment of small low...... available at the macro layer for wireless backhaul. The main goal is to investigate the LTE downlink performance of different deployment configurations, focusing on spectrum allocation schemes and deployment strategies that are needed to maximize network coverage. Differently from most studies using...... statistical models of deployment areas, the performance analysis is carried out in the form of operator case studies for large-scale deployment scenarios, including realistic macro network layouts and inhomogeneous spatial traffic distributions. Deployment of small cells is performed by means of proposed...
... Employment and Training Administration Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Alpharetta, GA; Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering) Division Hunt Valley, MD; Goodman Networks, Inc. Core Network Engineering (Deployment Engineering)...
Full Text Available One of the most active research areas in wireless sensor networks is the coverage. The efficiency of the sensor network is measured in terms of the coverage area and connectivity. Therefore these factors must be considered during the deployment. In this paper, we have presented a scheme for homogeneous distribution of randomly distributed mobile sensor nodes (MSNs in the deployment area. The deployment area is square in shape, which is divided into number of concentric regions centered at Base Station, these regions are separated by half of the communication range and further deployment area is divided in to numbers of regular hexagons. To achieve the maximum coverage and better connectivity MSNs will set themselves at the center of the hexagon on the instruction provided by the BS which is located at one of the corner in the deployment area. The simulation results shows that the presented scheme is better than CPVF and FLOOR schemes in terms of number of MSNs required for same coverage area and average movement required by MSNs to fix themselves at the desired location and energy efficiency.
Lloret Mauri, Jaime; Rawat, Danda B; Perez, Javier Manuel Aguiar
INTRODUCTIONEfficient Spectrum Management: Challenges and Solutions; Tarek M. Salem, Sherine M. Abdel-Kader, Salah M. Abdel-MaGeid, and Mohamed ZakiA Survey on Joint Routing and Dynamic spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks; Xianzhong Xie, Helin Yang, and Athanasios V. VasilakosNeighbor Discovery for Cognitive Radio Networks; Athar Ali Khan, Mubashir Husain Rehmani, and Yasir SaleemSPECTRUM SENSINGTime-Domain Cognitive Sensor Networking; Stefano Busanelli, Gianluigi Ferrari, Alessandro Colazzo, and Jean-Michel DricotSpectrum Sensing in Cognitive Wireless Networks; Danda B. Rawat and Chan
Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane
Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.
Gaura, Elena; Roedig, Utz; Brusey, James
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are among the most promising technologies of the new millennium. The opportunities afforded by being able to program networks of small, lightweight, low-power, computation- and bandwidth-limited nodes have attracted a large community of researchers and developers. However, the unique set of capabilities offered by the technology produces an exciting but complex design space, which is often difficult to negotiate in an application context. Deploying sensing physical environments produces its own set of challenges, and can push systems into failure modes, thus revealing problems that can be difficult to discover or reproduce in simulation or the laboratory. Sustained efforts in the area of wireless networked sensing over the last 15 years have resulted in a large number of theoretical developments, substantial practical achievements, and a wealth of lessons for the future. It is clear that in order to bridge the gap between (on the one hand) visions of very large scale, autonomous, randomly deployed networks and (on the other) the actual performance of fielded systems, we need to view deployment as an essential component in the process of developing sensor networks: a process that includes hardware and software solutions that serve specific applications and end-user needs. Incorporating deployment into the design process reveals a new and different set of requirements and considerations, whose solutions require innovative thinking, multidisciplinary teams and strong involvement from end-user communities. This special feature uncovers and documents some of the hurdles encountered and solutions offered by experimental scientists when deploying and evaluating wireless sensor networks in situ, in a variety of well specified application scenarios. The papers specifically address issues of generic importance for WSN system designers: (i) data quality, (ii) communications availability and quality, (iii) alternative, low-energy sensing
This monograph (Early Experiences related to Service Creation & Deployment in Converged Networks) presents different experiences related to architectures and mechanisms for deployment of telephony services, understood as especial features complementing the basic voice service. The context...... for these experiences is the transition of telecommunication (telephony) networks from circuit switched based systems towards packet based ones. The text of this monograph proceeds, unaltered for the most, from the author’s PhD thesis “Framework for Deployment of Advanced Telecommunication Services in Current...... and Future Converged Networks”, carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in the period [April 2002-April 2005]. Even though the technologies presented in the text have evolved from that period until now, the presented scenarios and setups are still valid as interesting initial steps in the realm....
Eba’ Hamad AlMousa
Full Text Available With the explosion of mobile services and the continuouse increase demand for a higher data traffic, a new high speed communication networks are required. Mobile networks are developing to increase the data speed and channels bandwidth inorder to meet the subscriber needs. Many attempts have been carried out to achieve the main demands of faster connectivity and download. 5G technolgy which refers to the 5th Generation Mobile Tecnology is the new mobile network that will provide the users with more features and effeciency at the finest QoS (Quality of Service. This study presents most of the experemints and researches to deploy the new Mobile Network 5G, however it is still in its infancy stage and lacks standardization. Some of the proposed potential architecture for 5G are described in this article.
Greco, Luca; Piccoli, Benedetto
This paper considers the problem of optimally deploying omnidirectional sensors, with potentially limited sensing radius, in a network-like environment. This model provides a compact and effective description of complex environments as well as a proper representation of road or river networks. We present a two-step procedure based on a discrete-time gradient ascent algorithm to find a local optimum for this problem. The first step performs a coarse optimization where sensors are allowed to move in the plane, to vary their sensing radius and to make use of a reduced model of the environment called collapsed network. It is made up of a finite discrete set of points, barycenters, produced by collapsing network edges. Sensors can be also clustered to reduce the complexity of this phase. The sensors' positions found in the first step are then projected on the network and used in the second finer optimization, where sensors are constrained to move only on the network. The second step can be performed on-line, in a ...
Poirrier, Julien; Herviou, Fabrice; Barboule, Hélène; Moignard, Maryse
FTTH or FTTC, depending on countries and areas, will be the key technology for operators to differentiate themselves from competitors and win market share. Such a disruptive evolution of the access network should be supported by a significant re-design of the higher network layers. In the present paper, the required features of these new WDM networks are presented. Capacity and cost are the two obvious drivers. But versatility will be crucial to cope with an uncertain context (tedious prediction of traffic, regulation and services) and with very diverse population densities. Finally we also address how PON could benefit from mature WDM technologies to ease the global network design.
Ozturk, Celal; Karaboga, Dervis; Gorkemli, Beyza
As the usage and development of wireless sensor networks are increasing, the problems related to these networks are being realized. Dynamic deployment is one of the main topics that directly affect the performance of the wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the artificial bee colony algorithm is applied to the dynamic deployment of stationary and mobile sensor networks to achieve better performance by trying to increase the coverage area of the network. A probabilistic detection model is considered to obtain more realistic results while computing the effectively covered area. Performance of the algorithm is compared with that of the particle swarm optimization algorithm, which is also a swarm based optimization technique and formerly used in wireless sensor network deployment. Results show artificial bee colony algorithm can be preferable in the dynamic deployment of wireless sensor networks.
de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien; Sullivan, Paul; Grueneberg, Keith; Vasconcelos, Wamberto; Norman, Tim
Information derived from sensor networks plays a crucial role in the success of many critical tasks such as surveillance, and border monitoring. In order to derive the correct information at the right time, sensor data must be captured at desired locations with respect to the operational tasks in concern. Therefore, it is important that at the planning stage of a mission, sensing resources are best placed in the field to capture the required data. For example, consider a mission goal identify snipers, in an operational area before troops are deployed - two acoustic arrays and a day-night video camera are needed to successfully achieve this goal. This is because, if the resources are placed in correct locations, two acoustic arrays could provide direction of the shooter and a possible location by triangulating acoustic data whereas the day-night camera could produce an affirmative image of the perpetrators. In order to deploy the sensing resources intelligently to support the user decisions, in this paper we propose a Semantic Web based knowledge layer to identify the required resources in a sensor network and deploy the needed resources through a sensor infrastructure. The knowledge layer captures crucial information such as resources configurations, their intended use (e.g., two acoustic arrays deployed in a particular formation with day-night camera are needed to identify perpetrators in a possible sniper attack). The underlying sensor infrastructure will assists the process by exposing the information about deployed resources, resources in theatre, and location information about tasks, resources and so on.
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are being deployed in very diverse application scenarios, including rural and forest environments. In these particular contexts, specimen protection and conservation is a challenge, especially in natural reserves, dangerous locations or hot spots of these reserves (i.e., roads, railways, and other civil infrastructures. This paper proposes and studies a WSN based system for generic target (animal tracking in the surrounding area of wildlife passages built to establish safe ways for animals to cross transportation infrastructures. In addition, it allows target identification through the use of video sensors connected to strategically deployed nodes. This deployment is designed on the basis of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, but it increases the lifetime of the nodes through an appropriate scheduling. The system has been evaluated for the particular scenario of wildlife monitoring in passages across roads. For this purpose, different schemes have been simulated in order to find the most appropriate network operational parameters. Moreover, a novel prototype, provided with motion detector sensors, has also been developed and its design feasibility demonstrated. Original software modules providing new functionalities have been implemented and included in this prototype. Finally, main performance evaluation results of the whole system are presented and discussed in depth.
Full Text Available Virtualized Infrastructures are increasingly deployed in many data centers. One of the key components of this virtualized infrastructure is the virtual network – a software-defined communication fabric that links together the various Virtual Machines (VMs to each other and to the physical host on which the VMs reside. Because of its key role in providing connectivity among VMs and the applications hosted on them, Virtual Networks have to be securely configured to provide the foundation for the overall security of the virtualized infrastructure in any deployment scenario. The objective of this paper is to illustrate a deployment-driven methodology for deriving a security configuration for Virtual Networks. The methodology outlines two typical deployment scenarios, identifies use cases and their associated security requirements, the security solutions to meet those requirements, the virtual network security configuration to implement each security solution and then analyzes the pros and cons of each security solution.
Mao, Yuyi; Luo, Yaming; Zhang, Jun; Letaief, Khaled B.
Small cell networks (SCNs) have attracted great attention in recent years due to their potential to meet the exponential growth of mobile data traffic and the increasing demand for better quality of service and user experience in mobile applications. Nevertheless, a wide deployment of SCNs has not happened yet because of the complexity in the network planning and optimization, as well as the high expenditure involved in deployment and operation. In particular, it is difficult to provide grid ...
Procket Networks, a provider of high performance Internet Protocol (IP) technology and products has announced that the University of Cambridge has deployed the PRO/8801(TM) router into its research network to develop industry-leading deep packet inspection applications. The major application for this deployment is to identify and understand new traffic patterns created by large scale scientific computations and downloads such as the GRID (1 page).
Full Text Available The intrusion detection application in a homogeneous wireless sensor network is defined as a mechanism to detect unauthorized intrusions or anomalous moving attackers in a field of interest. The quality of deterministic sensor nodes deployment can be determined sufficiently by a rigorous analysis before the deployment. However, when random deployment is required, determining the deployment quality becomes challenging. An area may require that multiple nodes monitor each point from the sensing area; this constraint is known as k-coverage where k is the number of nodes. The deployment quality of sensor nodes depends directly on node density and sensing range; mainly a random sensor nodes deployment is required. The major question is centred around the problem of network coverage, how can we guarantee that each point of the sensing area is covered by the required number of sensor nodes and what a sufficient condition to guarantee the network coverage? To deal with this, probabilistic intrusion detection models are adopted, called single/multi-sensing detection, and the deployment quality issue is surveyed and analysed in terms of coverage. We evaluate the capability of our probabilistic model in homogeneous wireless sensor network, in terms of sensing range, node density, and intrusion distance.
Full Text Available This paper describes an autonomous deployment and restoration of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN using mobile robots. The authors have been developing an information-gathering system using mobile robots and WSNs in underground spaces in post-disaster environments. In our system, mobile robots carry wireless sensor nodes (SN and deploy them into the environment while measuring Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI values to ensure communication, thereby enabling the WSN to be deployed and restored autonomously. If the WSN is disrupted, mobile robots restore the communication route by deploying additional or alternate SNs to suitable positions. Utilizing the proposed method, a mobile robot can deploy a WSN and gather environmental information via the WSN. Experimental results using a verification system equipped with a SN deployment and retrieval mechanism are presented.
Eba’ Hamad AlMousa; Feda’ AlShahwan; Rana Alhajri
With the explosion of mobile services and the continuouse increase demand for a higher data traffic, a new high speed communication networks are required. Mobile networks are developing to increase the data speed and channels bandwidth inorder to meet the subscriber needs. Many attempts have been carried out to achieve the main demands of faster connectivity and download. 5G technolgy which refers to the 5th Generation Mobile Tecnology is the new mobile network that will provide the users wit...
Shankle, Dean E.; Shankle, Jeremy P.
Please, cite this publication as: Shankle, D.E., & Shankle, J.P. (2006). Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria:
Shankle, Dean E.; Shankle, Jeremy P.
Please, cite this publication as: Shankle, D.E., & Shankle, J.P. (2006). Problems in the Deployment of Learning Networks In Small Organizations. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org
Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David
A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...
Full Text Available Deploying femtocells underlaying macrocells is a promising way to improve the capacity and enhance the coverage of a cellular system. However, densely deployed femtocells in urban area also give rise to intra-tier interference and cross-tier issue that should be addressed properly in order to acquire the expected performance gain. In this paper, we propose an interference management scheme based on joint clustering and resource allocation for two-tier Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM-based femtocell networks. We formulate an optimization task with the objective of maximizing the sum throughput of the femtocell users (FUs under the consideration of intra-tier interference mitigation, while controlling the interference to the macrocell user (MU under its bearable threshold. The formulation problem is addressed by a two-stage procedure: femtocells clustering and resource allocation. First, disjoint femtocell clusters with dynamic sizes and numbers are generated to minimize intra-tier interference. Then each cluster is taken as a resource allocation unit to share all subchannels, followed by a fast algorithm to distribute power among these subchannels. Simulation results show that our proposed schemes can improve the throughput of the FUs with acceptable complexity.
Sunrise, the alternative telecoms provider in Switzerland, is finalizing the installation of a mobile network comprising about forty sites located around the new particle accelerator at CERN (1 paragraph)
Ivancic, William D.
This document describes numerous problems associated with deployment of multi-homed mobile platforms consisting of multiple networks and traversing large geographical areas. The purpose of this document is to provide insight to real-world deployment issues and provide information to groups that are addressing many issues related to multi-homing, policy-base routing, route optimization and mobile security - particularly those groups within the Internet Engineering Task Force.
Luo, Hanjiang; Guo, Zhongwen; Wu, Kaishun; Hong, Feng; Feng, Yuan
Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWA-SNs) are envisioned to perform monitoring tasks over the large portion of the world covered by oceans. Due to economics and the large area of the ocean, UWA-SNs are mainly sparsely deployed networks nowadays. The limited battery resources is a big challenge for the deployment of such long-term sensor networks. Unbalanced battery energy consumption will lead to early energy depletion of nodes, which partitions the whole networks and impairs the integrity of the monitoring datasets or even results in the collapse of the entire networks. On the contrary, balanced energy dissipation of nodes can prolong the lifetime of such networks. In this paper, we focus on the energy balance dissipation problem of two types of sparsely deployed UWA-SNs: underwater moored monitoring systems and sparsely deployed two-dimensional UWA-SNs. We first analyze the reasons of unbalanced energy consumption in such networks, then we propose two energy balanced strategies to maximize the lifetime of networks both in shallow and deep water. Finally, we evaluate our methods by simulations and the results show that the two strategies can achieve balanced energy consumption per node while at the same time prolong the networks lifetime.
Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWA-SNs are envisioned to perform monitoring tasks over the large portion of the world covered by oceans. Due to economics and the large area of the ocean, UWA-SNs are mainly sparsely deployed networks nowadays. The limited battery resources is a big challenge for the deployment of such long-term sensor networks. Unbalanced battery energy consumption will lead to early energy depletion of nodes, which partitions the whole networks and impairs the integrity of the monitoring datasets or even results in the collapse of the entire networks. On the contrary, balanced energy dissipation of nodes can prolong the lifetime of such networks. In this paper, we focus on the energy balance dissipation problem of two types of sparsely deployed UWA-SNs: underwater moored monitoring systems and sparsely deployed two-dimensional UWA-SNs. We first analyze the reasons of unbalanced energy consumption in such networks, then we propose two energy balanced strategies to maximize the lifetime of networks both in shallow and deep water. Finally, we evaluate our methods by simulations and the results show that the two strategies can achieve balanced energy consumption per node while at the same time prolong the networks lifetime.
Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.
Full Text Available This paper is focused on the study of the energy hole problem in the Progressive Multi-hop Rotational Clustered (PMRC-structure, a highly scalable wireless sensor network (WSN architecture. Based on an analysis on the traffic load distribution in PMRC-based WSNs, we propose a novel load-similar node distribution strategy combined with the Minimum Overlapping Layers (MOL scheme to address the energy hole problem in PMRC-based WSNs. In this strategy, sensor nodes are deployed in the network area according to the load distribution. That is, more nodes shall be deployed in the range where the average load is higher, and then the loads among different areas in the sensor network tend to be balanced. Simulation results demonstrate that the load-similar node distribution strategy prolongs network lifetime and reduces the average packet latency in comparison with existing nonuniform node distribution and uniform node distribution strategies. Note that, besides the PMRC structure, the analysis model and the proposed load-similar node distribution strategy are also applicable to other multi-hop WSN structures.
Li, Qiao-Qin; Gong, Haigang; Liu, Ming; Yang, Mei; Zheng, Jun
This paper is focused on the study of the energy hole problem in the Progressive Multi-hop Rotational Clustered (PMRC)-structure, a highly scalable wireless sensor network (WSN) architecture. Based on an analysis on the traffic load distribution in PMRC-based WSNs, we propose a novel load-similar node distribution strategy combined with the Minimum Overlapping Layers (MOL) scheme to address the energy hole problem in PMRC-based WSNs. In this strategy, sensor nodes are deployed in the network area according to the load distribution. That is, more nodes shall be deployed in the range where the average load is higher, and then the loads among different areas in the sensor network tend to be balanced. Simulation results demonstrate that the load-similar node distribution strategy prolongs network lifetime and reduces the average packet latency in comparison with existing nonuniform node distribution and uniform node distribution strategies. Note that, besides the PMRC structure, the analysis model and the proposed load-similar node distribution strategy are also applicable to other multi-hop WSN structures.
Juul, Jakob Pilegaard; Green, Ole; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg
of a wireless sensor network based system that provides continuous, automatic, and up-to-date information on a crop storage, while presenting the data in an easily accessible manner, is also described. The design decisions, challenges, and practical experiences from real-world large scale deployment...... ensure a good overview of the entire storage. This paper describes the challenges of providing a good network coverage, sufficient network lifetime, a physical design able to cope with the harsh environments met in deployments, and cost. How these challenges were approached in the development...... of the system are also discussed. It is concluded that the network works well for the intended application and that the intended users also see a value in the provided service....
Urdiales, Cristina; Aguilera, Francisco; González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Sandoval, Francisco
In mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN), nodes are allowed to move autonomously for deployment. This process is meant: (i) to achieve good coverage; and (ii) to distribute the communication load as homogeneously as possible. Rather than optimizing deployment, reactive algorithms are based on a set of rules or behaviors, so nodes can determine when to move. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of both reactive deployment approaches: rule-based and behavior-based ones. Specifically, we compare a backbone dispersion algorithm with a social potential fields algorithm. Most tests are done under simulation for a large number of nodes in environments with and without obstacles. Results are validated using a small robot network in the real world. Our results show that behavior-based deployment tends to provide better coverage and communication balance, especially for a large number of nodes in areas with obstacles. PMID:27399709
This CIGRE green book begins by addressing the specification and provision of communication services in the context of operational applications for electrical power utilities, before subsequently providing guidelines on the deployment or transformation of networks to deliver these specific communication services. Lastly, it demonstrates how these networks and their services can be monitored, operated, and maintained to ensure that the requisite high level of service quality is consistently achieved.
Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven
Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks being energy constrained systems, one major problem is to deploy the sensor nodes in such a manner so as to ensure maximum coverage and connectivity with optimal number of nodes and furthermore elongate network lifetime with maximum energy utilization. In this paper, the above problem has been tackled for a linear array. A node deployment strategy has been devised which ensures equal energy dissipation for all the nodes through a trade-off between idle and sleep times while ensuring minimal energy dissipation for the entire network during each data gathering cycle. Furthermore the deployment scheme being developed for equidistant placement of nodes, a 100 percent coverage and connectivity has been guaranteed with radio ranges remaining within appreciable limits. An analysis considering Rayleigh Fading Link model has also been presented. Extensive simulations have been carried out with encouraging outcomes and the results that have been obtained show that the network lifetime is also enhanced when compared to previousschemes.
Full Text Available A wireless rechargeable sensor network (WRSN consists of sensor nodes that can harvest energy emitted from wireless chargers for refilling their batteries so that the WRSN can operate sustainably. This paper assumes wireless chargers are equipped with directional antennas, and are deployed on grid points of a fixed height to propose two heuristic algorithms solving the following wireless charger deployment optimization (WCDO problem: how to deploy as few as possible chargers to make the WRSN sustainable. Both algorithms model the charging space of chargers as a cone and calculate charging efficiency according power regression expressions complying with the Friis transmission equation. The two algorithms are the greedy cone covering (GCC algorithm and the adaptive cone covering (ACC algorithm. The GCC (respectively, ACC algorithm greedily (respectively, adaptively generates candidate cones to cover as many as possible sensor nodes. Both algorithms then greedily select the fewest number of candidate cones, each of which corresponds to the deployment of a charger, to have approximate solutions to the WCDO problem. We perform experiments, conduct simulations and do analyses for the algorithms to compare them in terms of the time complexity, the number of chargers deployed, and the execution time.
Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Williams, Idongesit
to deploy than mobile technologies. But in many developing countries, there is preference for the deployment of fiber optics rather than a broadband wireless solution for the deployment of broadband internet. Argument is made in this paper using the Expectation Confirmation Theory to reveal the level...... of satisfaction of mobile WiMAX compared to what Fiber optics would bring to rural areas in terms of broadband provisioning, Cost of access, Cost of deployment, Network accessibility and availability. The case of investigation is Northern Ghana due to the proliferation of rural areas in that region...... broadband users have no access to the existing Fibre Optic Cable backhaul access network in the rural due to lack of coverage. Finally, the contribution from this study is that, it is possible to deploy the 2.3GHz -2.6 GHz band of WiMAX Backhaul Access Network Technologies to provide Wireless Broadband...
Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng
In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks.
A wireless sensor network has been designed and deployed to gather data from nodes on and inside glaciers. This paper describes the solutions to power management, radio communications, management and discusses the performance of the final system. 18 months of data have now been received, which provide an insight not only into the glacier’s behaviour but on the design decisions. The system uses custom PIC-based sensor nodes and an ARM-based base station which controls weather and differential ...
Azpilicueta, Leyre; López-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Martínez, Carlos; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco
With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network. PMID:27455270
Full Text Available With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network.
Azpilicueta, Leyre; López-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Martínez, Carlos; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco
With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network.
Pitro Zafiropulo is a- staff member at the IBM Research Laboratories at Zurich. He joined IBM in 1968 and has worked on protocol validation, synthesis, integrated networks, network reliability, PABX's and speech recognition. Local Area Networks are intended to provide improved communication capabilities such as high data throughput rates, low error rates and ease of connection among terminal stations and comuters. These new types of networks operate within a limited geographical range like an establishment, campus or building and are owned by a single organization. The presentation introduces these networks and the main techniques are described. It then proceeds to evaluate the main switching techniques as they apply to LAN ring and bus configurations. The preferred technique of token-ring distributed switching is identified. The contents of Mr. Zafiropoulo's talk was somewhat similar to the paper of Mr. Kummerle, which is therefore included in these Proceedings.
Dehwah, Ahmad H.
The successful deployment of a large scale solar powered wireless sensor network in an urban, desert environment is a very complex task. Specific cities of such environments cause a variety of operational problems, ranging from hardware faults to operational challenges, for instance due to the high variability of solar energy availability. Even a seemingly functional sensor network created in the lab does not guarantee reliable long term operation, which is absolutely necessary given the cost and difficulty of accessing sensor nodes in urban environments. As part of a larger traffic flow wireless sensor network project, we conducted several deployments in the last two years to evaluate the long-term performance of solar-powered urban wireless sensor networks in a desert area. In this article, we share our experiences in all domains of sensor network operations, from the conception of hardware to post-deployment analysis, including operational constraints that directly impact the software that can be run. We illustrate these experiences using numerous experimental results, and present multiple unexpected operational problems as well as some possible solutions to address them. We also show that current technology is far from meeting all operational constraints for these demanding applications, in which sensor networks are to operate for years to become economically appealing.
Deruyck, Margot; Joseph, Wout; Tanghe, Emmeric; Martens, Luc
As both the bit rate required by applications on mobile devices and the number of those mobile devices are steadily growing, wireless access networks need to be expanded. As wireless networks also consume a lot of energy, it is important to develop energy-efficient wireless access networks in the near future. In this study, a capacity-based deployment tool for the design of energy-efficient wireless access networks is proposed. Capacity-based means that the network responds to the instantaneous bit rate requirements of the users active in the selected area. To the best of our knowledge, such a deployment tool for energy-efficient wireless access networks has never been presented before. This deployment tool is applied to a realistic case in Ghent, Belgium, to investigate three main functionalities incorporated in LTE-Advanced: carrier aggregation, heterogeneous deployments, and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO). The results show that it is recommended to introduce femtocell base stations, supporting both MIMO and carrier aggregation, into the network (heterogeneous deployment) to reduce the network's power consumption. For the selected area and the assumptions made, this results in a power consumption reduction up to 70%. Introducing femtocell base stations without MIMO and carrier aggregation can already result in a significant power consumption reduction of 38%.
Chen Chen; Jie Chen; Bin Xin
With applying the information technology to the military field, the advantages and importance of the networked combat are more and more obvious. In order to make ful use of limited battle-field resources and maximal y destroy enemy targets from arbitrary angle in a limited time, the research on firepower nodes dynamic deployment becomes a key problem of command and control. Con-sidering a variety of tactical indexes and actual constraints in air defense, a mathematical model is formulated to minimize the ene-my target penetration probability. Based on characteristics of the mathematical model and demands of the deployment problems, an assistance-based algorithm is put forward which combines the ar-tificial potential field (APF) method with a memetic algorithm. The APF method is employed to solve the constraint handling prob-lem and generate feasible solutions. The constrained optimization problem transforms into an optimization problem of APF para-meters adjustment, and the dimension of the problem is reduced greatly. The dynamic deployment is accomplished by generation and refinement of feasible solutions. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and feasible in dynamic situation.
Yap, Florence G H; Yen, Hong-Hsu
In this paper, we consider the visual sensor deployment algorithm in Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). With PTZ capability, a sensor's visual coverage can be extended to reduce the number of visual sensors that need to be deployed. The coverage zone of a visual sensor in PTZ WVSN is composed of two regions, a Direct Coverage Region (DCR) and a PTZ Coverage Region (PTZCR). In the PTZCR, a visual sensor needs a mechanical pan-tilt-zoom operation to cover an object. This mechanical operation can take seconds, so the sensor might not be able to adjust the camera in time to capture the visual data. In this paper, for the first time, we study this PTZ time-aware PTZ WVSN deployment problem. We formulate this PTZ time-aware PTZ WVSN deployment problem as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the total visual sensor deployment cost so that each area is either covered in the DCR or in the PTZCR while considering the PTZ time constraint. The proposed Time Aware Coverage Zone (TACZ) model successfully captures the PTZ visual sensor coverage in terms of camera focal range, angle span zone coverage and camera PTZ time. Then a novel heuristic, called Time Aware Deployment with PTZ camera (TADPTZ) algorithm, is proposed to solve the problem. From our computational experiments, we found out that TACZ model outperforms the existing M coverage model under all network scenarios. In addition, as compared to the optimal solutions, the TACZ model is scalable and adaptable to the different PTZ time requirements when deploying large PTZ WVSNs.
Full Text Available This paper explores the network performance and costs associated with the deployment, labor, and maintenance of a long-term outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN located at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP, which has been in operation for more than four years for environmental data collection. The WSN performance is studied over selected time periods during the network deployment time, based on two different TinyOS-based WSN routing protocols: commercial XMesh and the open-source Collection Tree Protocol (CTP. Empirical results show that the network performance is improved with CTP (i.e., 79% packet reception rate, 96% packet success rate and 0.2% duplicate packets, versus using XMesh (i.e., 36% packet reception rate and 46% packet success rate, with 3%–4% duplicate packets. The deployment cost of the 52-node, 253-sensor WSN is $31,500 with an additional $600 per month in labor and maintenance resulting in a cost of $184 m−2·y−1 of sensed area. Network maintenance during the first four years of operation was performed on average every 12 days, costing approximately $187 for each field visit.
Mohammad Ali Afsharkazemi
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an empirical study of QFD implementation when fuzzy numbers are used to handle the uncertainty associated with different components of the proposed model. We implement fuzzy analytical network to find the relative importance of various criteria and using fuzzy numbers we calculate the relative importance of these factors. The proposed model of this paper uses fuzzy matrix and house of quality to study the products development in QFD and also the second phase i.e. part deployment. In most researches, the primary objective is only on CRs to implement the quality function deployment and some other criteria such as production costs, manufacturing costs etc were disregarded. The results of using fuzzy analysis network process based on the QFD model in Daroupat packaging company to develop PVDC show that the most important indexes are being waterproof, resistant pill packages, and production cost. In addition, the PVDC coating is the most important index in terms of company experts’ point of view.
"The Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and Internet 2 - two of the nation's leading networking organizations for research - today announced a partnership to deploy a highly reliable, high capacity nationwide network.." (1,5 page)
METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl
Full Text Available As the use of camera networks has expanded, camera placement to satisfy some quality assurance parameters (such as a good coverage ratio, an acceptable resolution constraints, an acceptable cost as low as possible, etc. has become an important problem. The discrete camera deployment problem is NP-hard and many heuristic methods have been proposed to solve it, most of which make very simple assumptions. In this paper, we propose a probability inspired binary Particle Swarm Optimization (PI-BPSO algorithm to solve a homogeneous camera network placement problem. We model the problem under some more realistic assumptions: (1 deploy the cameras in the 3D space while the surveillance area is restricted to a 2D ground plane; (2 deploy the minimal number of cameras to get a maximum visual coverage under more constraints, such as field of view (FOV of the cameras and the minimum resolution constraints. We can simultaneously optimize the number and the configuration of the cameras through the introduction of a regulation item in the cost function. The simulation results showed the effectiveness of the proposed PI-BPSO algorithm.
Fu, Yi-Ge; Zhou, Jie; Deng, Lei
As the use of camera networks has expanded, camera placement to satisfy some quality assurance parameters (such as a good coverage ratio, an acceptable resolution constraints, an acceptable cost as low as possible, etc.) has become an important problem. The discrete camera deployment problem is NP-hard and many heuristic methods have been proposed to solve it, most of which make very simple assumptions. In this paper, we propose a probability inspired binary Particle Swarm Optimization (PI-BPSO) algorithm to solve a homogeneous camera network placement problem. We model the problem under some more realistic assumptions: (1) deploy the cameras in the 3D space while the surveillance area is restricted to a 2D ground plane; (2) deploy the minimal number of cameras to get a maximum visual coverage under more constraints, such as field of view (FOV) of the cameras and the minimum resolution constraints. We can simultaneously optimize the number and the configuration of the cameras through the introduction of a regulation item in the cost function. The simulation results showed the effectiveness of the proposed PI-BPSO algorithm.
With the development of mobile communication 2G to 3G technology evolution, the voice-centric mobile service toward the direction of both voice and data services, business development needs of new mobile Internet business and telecom operators to promote the mobile service and bearer network IP-based process. This article describes the IPRAN the background, analysis of key issues. On mainstream IPRAN technology introduction, in particular, demonstrated the technical principles and network strategy for PTN. On this basis, a full-service operation environment as a starting point, how to IP RAN bearer network architecture to build a fusion carrying mobile, video and broadband integrated services. Finally, the actual network of the telecom operators to deploy strategic plan as an example, certain described the IPRAN network deployment strategy.% 随着移动通信2G向3G技术的演进，以话音为主的移动业务向着话音和数据业务并重的方向发展，移动互联网的新型业务以及电信运营商的全业务拓展需求推动着移动业务和承载网络的IP化进程。本文介绍了IPRAN的发展背景，对关键问题进行了分析。同时，对主流的IPRAN技术做了一定的介绍；特别针对PTN的技术原理以及组网策略进行了论证。在此基础上，讨论了全业务运营环境中，如何以IP RAN作为切入点来构建一个融合承载移动、视频及宽带等综合业务的承载网络架构。最后，通过某电信运营商的实际网络部署策略方案为案例，对IPRAN网络部署策略做一定阐述。
Full Text Available Mobile sensor networks are an important part of modern robotics systems and are widely used in robotics applications. Therefore, sensor deployment is a key issue in current robotics systems research. Since it is one of the most popular deployment methods, in recent years the virtual force algorithm has been studied in detail by many scientists. In this paper, we focus on the virtual force algorithm and present a corresponding parameter investigation for mobile sensor deployment. We introduce an optimized virtual force algorithm based on the exchange force, in which a new shielding rule grounded in Delaunay triangulation is adopted. The algorithm employs a new performance metric called ’pair-correlation diversion’, designed to evaluate the uniformity and topology of the sensor distribution. We also discuss the implementation of the algorithm’s computation and analyse the influence of experimental parameters on the algorithm. Our results indicate that the area ratio, φs, and the exchange force constant, G, influence the final performance of the sensor deployment in terms of the coverage rate, the convergence time and topology uniformity. Using simulations, we were able to verify the effectiveness of our algorithm and we obtained an optimal region for the (φs, G-parameter space which, in the future, could be utilized as an aid for experiments in robotic sensor deployment.
Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.
Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…
Full Text Available Node deployment is a fundamental issue to be solved in wireless sensor network. A proper node deployment can reduce the complexity of problems in WSN as for eg, routing, data fusion, communication etc. Different node deployment models have been proposed to reduce the complexity. In this paper we will discuss about the three models- Tri-hexagon-tiling (THT, Uniform Random and Square Grid. The nature of deployment of sensor nodes depend on the type of sensors, application and the environment where the networks will operate. Deployment of sensor nodes can be random or pre-determined. In random deployment nodes are deployed in a random manner. In pre-determined deployment, location of the nodes are specified. Most commonly used cell structure is Regular Hexagonal Cell Architecture. Here we will discuss the concept of relay nodes and its impact in sensor nodes
Katiyar, Sumit; Agrawal, N K
As the mobile telecommunication systems are growing tremendously all over the world, the numbers of handheld and base stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in the neighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning wither the radiated electromagnetic fields from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. Recently UP High Court in India ordered for removal of BTS towers from residential area, it has created panic among cellular communication network designers too. Green cellular networks could be a solution for the above problem. This paper deals with green cellular networks with the help of multi-layer overlaid hierarchical structure (macro / micro / pico / femto cells). Macrocell for area coverage, micro for pedestrian and a slow moving traffic while pico for indoor use and femto for individual high capacity users. This could be the answer of the problem of ...
Full Text Available With the standardization of IEEE 802.11, there has been an explosive growth of wireless local area networks (WLAN. Recently, this cost effective technology is being developed aggressively for establishing metro-scale “cellular Wi-Fi” network to support seamless Internet access in the urban area. We envision a large scale WLAN system in the future where Access Points (APs will be scattered over an entire city enabling people to use their mobile devices ubiquitously. The problem addressed in this paper involves finding the minimum number of gateways and their optimal placement so as to minimize the network installation costs while maintaining reliability, flexibility and an acceptable grade of service. The problem is modeled taking a network graph, where the nodes represents either the Access Points of IEEE 802.11 or wired backbone gateways. In this paper, we present two methods (1 an innovative approach using integer linear programming (ILP for gateway selection in the cellular Wi-Fi network, and (2 a completely new heuristic (OPEN/CLOSE to solve the gateway selection problem. In the ILP model, we developed a set of linear inequalities based on various constraints. The ILP model is solved by using lp-solve, a simplex-based software for linear and integer programming problems. The second approach is an OPEN/CLOSE heuristic, tailored for cellular Wi-Fi, which arrives at a sub-optimal solution. Java programming language is used for simulation in OPEN/CLOSE heuristic. Extensive simulations are carried out for performance evaluation. Simulation results show that the proposed approaches can effectively identify a set of gateways at optimal locations in a cellular Wi-Fi network, resulting in an overall cost reduction of up to 50%. The technique presented in this paper is generalized and can be used for gateway selection for other networks as well.
Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest
Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)
Li, Ruiying; Liu, Xiaoxi; Xie, Wei; Huang, Ning
Sensor-deployment-based lifetime optimization is one of the most effective methods used to prolong the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) by reducing the distance-sensitive energy consumption. In this paper, data retransmission, a major consumption factor that is usually neglected in the previous work, is considered. For a homogeneous WSN, monitoring a circular target area with a centered base station, a sensor deployment model based on regular hexagonal grids is analyzed. To maximize the WSN lifetime, optimization models for both uniform and non-uniform deployment schemes are proposed by constraining on coverage, connectivity and success transmission rate. Based on the data transmission analysis in a data gathering cycle, the WSN lifetime in the model can be obtained through quantifying the energy consumption at each sensor location. The results of case studies show that it is meaningful to consider data retransmission in the lifetime optimization. In particular, our investigations indicate that, with the same lifetime requirement, the number of sensors needed in a non-uniform topology is much less than that in a uniform one. Finally, compared with a random scheme, simulation results further verify the advantage of our deployment model.
Nowadays, strategic marketing management has become an accepted practice in the strategic field. An increasing number of researchers consider marketing strategies for offering key competitive advantages associated with strategic marketing management. Every decision in the strategic field should be based on three dimensions of evaluating market, evaluating competitors and evaluating company. In this research, a model has been developed for selecting and ranking marketing strategies considering the evaluation of market (customer satisfaction elements, competitors and company based on Kano model. Quality function deployment (QFD and the analytic network process (ANP approaches have been used for market prioritization. The research has been carried out in three phases. In Phase one, the Kano model of customer satisfaction has been used to determine which requirements of a product or service brings more satisfaction to the customers, followed by the evaluation of competitors and gap analyze. In Phase two, The QFD approach has been used to incorporate the voice of customer (VOC into the marketing strategies of the company and has provided a systematic planning tool for considering the information of elements (in the last phase to make appropriate decisions effectively and efficiently. In Phase three, the ANP method has been used to analyze strategic actions considering company conditions. Finally the outputs of QFD have been corrected by ANP weights. Findings imply that the three most important strategic actions which are important for the company include offering differentiated and new generation of products to the market (leapfrog strategy, optimizing visual properties of products, and widespread and attractive advertising (frontal attack.
Full Text Available At 01:36 UTC (03:36 local time on August 24th 2016, an earthquake Mw 6.0 struck an extensive sector of the central Apennines (coordinates: latitude 42.70° N, longitude 13.23° E, 8.0 km depth. The earthquake caused about 300 casualties and severe damage to the historical buildings and economic activity in an area located near the borders of the Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo and Marche regions. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV located in few minutes the hypocenter near Accumoli, a small town in the province of Rieti. In the hours after the quake, dozens of events were recorded by the National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN of the INGV, many of which had a ML > 3.0. The density and coverage of the RSN in the epicentral area meant the epicenter and magnitude of the main event and subsequent shocks that followed it in the early hours of the seismic sequence were well constrained. However, in order to better constrain the localizations of the aftershock hypocenters, especially the depths, a denser seismic monitoring network was needed. Just after the mainshock, SISMIKO, the coordinating body of the emergency seismic network at INGV, was activated in order to install a temporary seismic network integrated with the existing permanent network in the epicentral area. From August the 24th to the 30th, SISMIKO deployed eighteen seismic stations, generally six components (equipped with both velocimeter and accelerometer, with thirteen of the seismic station transmitting in real-time to the INGV seismic monitoring room in Rome. The design and geometry of the temporary network was decided in consolation with other groups who were deploying seismic stations in the region, namely EMERSITO (a group studying site-effects, and the emergency Italian strong motion network (RAN managed by the National Civil Protection Department (DPC. Further 25 BB temporary seismic stations were deployed by colleagues of the British Geological Survey
CHEN Guang-zhu; ZHU Zhen-cai; ZHOU Gong-bo; SHEN Chun-feng; SUN Yan-jing
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are very important for monitoring underground mine safety. Sensor node deployment affects the performances of WSNs. In our study, a chain-type wireless underground mine sensor network (CWUMSN) is first presented. A CWUMSN can monitor the environment and locate miners in underground mines. The lowest density deployment strategies of cluster head nodes are discussed theoretically. We prove that the lifetime of CWUMSN with a non-uniform deployment strategy is longer than with a uniform deployment strategy. Secondly, we present the algorithm of non-uniform lowest density deployment of cluster head nodes. Next, we propose a dynamic choice algorithm of cluster head nodes for CWUMSN which can improve the adaptability of networks. Our experiments of CWUMSN with both non-uniform lowest density and uniform lowest density deployments are simulated. The results show that the lifetime of CWUMSN with non-uniform lowest density deployment is almost 2.5 times as long as that of the uniform lowest density deployment. This work provides a new deployment strategy for wireless underground mine sensor networks and then effectively promotes the application of wireless sensor networks to underground mines.
Edordu, C.; Yang, Y.
This study reports results of, as well as experiences and engineering challenges encountered, during a pilot deployment of a Dual Prediction and Probabilistic Scheduler (DPPS) for energy efficient data collection (EEDC). The deployment was motivated by sensor network supplier, Senceive Ltd., whose researchers wanted to incorporate more intelligence into their firmware to facilitate more cost effective remote asset management. The process of embedding and deploying DPPS, highlighted the importance of re-evaluating the assumptions typically overlooked in computer simulations and emphasises the need for sensor network researchers as a whole to reconsider the usefulness of EEDC protocols through real-life experimental deployment.
Full Text Available The next fifth generation (5G of wireless communication networks comes with a set of new features to satisfy the demand of data-intensive applications: millimeter-wave frequencies, massive antenna arrays, beamforming, dense cells, and so forth. In this paper, we investigate the use of beamforming techniques through various architectures and evaluate the performance of 5G wireless access networks, using a capacity-based network deployment tool. This tool is proposed and applied to a realistic area in Ghent, Belgium, to simulate realistic 5G networks that respond to the instantaneous bit rate required by the active users. The results show that, with beamforming, 5G networks require almost 15% more base stations and 4 times less power to provide more capacity to the users and the same coverage performances, in comparison with the 4G reference network. Moreover, they are 3 times more energy efficient than the 4G network and the hybrid beamforming architecture appears to be a suitable architecture for beamforming to be considered when designing a 5G cellular network.
Katiyar, Sumit; K. Jain, R.; K. Agrawal, N.
As the mobile telecommunication systems are growing tremendously all over the world, the numbers of handheld and base stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in the neighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning wither the radiated electromagnetic fields from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. Recently UP High Court in India ordered for removal of BTS towers from residential area, it has created panic among cellular communication network designers too. Green cellular networks could be a solution for the above problem. This paper deals with green cellular networks with the help of multi-layer overlaid hierarchical structure (macro / micro / pico / femto cells). Macrocell for area coverage, micro for pedestrian and a slow moving traffic while pico for indoor use and femto for individual high capacity users. This could be the answer of the problem of energy conservation and enhancement of spectral density also.
Li Jin; Huang Zailu
The co-channel interference (collisions) seriously affect the transmission for the newly deployed wireless sensor networks since there is no structure at that phase. In this paper, the interference of the whole network is analyzed based on the SNIR model. The new concept of critical transmitting range is proposed, based on which the transmission theorem is obtained and proved. The results provide the theoretical ground to set up the primary structure of newly deployed networks.
Full Text Available Nowadays, strategic marketing management has become an accepted practice in the strategic field. An increasing number of researchers consider marketing strategies for offering key competitive advantages associated with strategic marketing management. Every decision in the strategic field should be based on three dimensions of evaluating market, evaluating competitors and evaluating company. In this research, a model has been developed for selecting and ranking marketing strategies considering the evaluation of market (customer satisfaction elements, competitors and company based on Kano model. Quality function deployment (QFD and the analytic network process (ANP approaches have been used for market prioritization. The research has been carried out in three phases. In Phase one, the Kano model of customer satisfaction has been used to determine which requirements of a product or service brings more satisfaction to the customers, followed by the evaluation of competitors and gap analyze. In Phase two, The QFD approach has been used to incorporate the voice of customer (VOC into the marketing strategies of the company and has provided a systematic planning tool for considering the information of elements (in the last phase to make appropriate decisions effectively and efficiently. In Phase three, the ANP method has been used to analyze strategic actions considering company conditions. Finally the outputs of QFD have been corrected by ANP weights. Findings imply that the three most important strategic actions which are important for the company include offering differentiated and new generation of products to the market (leapfrog strategy, optimizing visual properties of products, and widespread and attractive advertising (frontal attack.
Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi
To accommodate the rapidly increasing demand for wireless broadband communications in Smart Grid (SG) networks, research efforts are currently ongoing to enable the SG networks to utilize the TV spectrum according to the Cognitive Radio paradigm. To this aim, in this letter, we develop an analytical framework for the optimal deployment of multiple closely-located SG Neighborhood Area Networks (NANs) concurrently using the same TV spectrum. The objective is to derive the optimal values for both the number of NANs and their coverage. More specifically, regarding the number of NANs, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression that assures the deployment of the maximum number of NANs in the considered region satisfying a given collision constraint on the transmissions of the NANs. Regarding the NAN coverage, we derive the optimal closed-form expression, i.e., the closed-form expression of the NAN transmission range that assures the maximum coverage of each NAN in the considered region satisfying the given collision constraint. All the theoretical results are derived by adopting a stochastic approach. Finally, numerical results validate the theoretical analysis.
ElNashar, Ayman; Sherif, Mahmoud
This book provides an insight into the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G-LTE network design, performance, and deployment Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks addresses the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G networks design, performance, and deployment. In addition, the book focuses on the end-to-end aspects of the LTE network architecture and different deployment scenarios of commercial LTE networks. It describes the air interface of LTE focusing on the access stratum protocol layers: PDCP, RLC, MAC, and Physical Layer. The air interface described in this book covers the concepts of LTE frame structure, downlink and uplink scheduling, and detailed illustrations of the data flow across the protocol layers. It describes the details of the optimization process including performance measurements and troubleshooting mechanisms in addition to demonstrating common issues and case studies based on actual field results. The book provides detailed performance analysis of key fe...
Efficient self-organizing virtual clusterheads that supervise data collection based on their wireless connectivity, risk, and overhead costs, are an important element of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This function is especially critical during deployment when system resources are allocated to a subsequent application. In the presented research, a model used to deploy intrusion detection capability on a Local Area Network (LAN), in the literature, was extended to develop a role-based hierarchical agent deployment algorithm for a WSN. The resulting model took into consideration the monitoring capability, risk, deployment distribution cost, and monitoring cost associated with each node. Changing the original LAN methodology approach to model a cluster-based sensor network depended on the ability to duplicate a specific parameter that represented the monitoring capability. Furthermore, other parameters derived from a LAN can elevate costs and risk of deployment, as well as jeopardize the success of an application on a WSN. A key component of the approach presented in this research was to reduce the costs when established clusterheads in the network were found to be capable of hosting additional detection agents. In addition, another cost savings component of the study addressed the reduction of vulnerabilities associated with deployment of agents to high volume nodes. The effectiveness of the presented method was validated by comparing it against a type of a power-based scheme that used each node's remaining energy as the deployment value. While available energy is directly related to the model used in the presented method, the study deliberately sought out nodes that were identified with having superior monitoring capability, cost less to create and sustain, and are at low-risk of an attack. This work investigated improving the efficiency of an intrusion detection system (IDS) by using the proposed model to deploy monitoring agents after a temperature sensing
Dessy, Raymond E.
Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…
Sniady, Aleksander; Kassab, Mohamed; Soler, José
Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro......-cell radio deployments reach overload, especially in high-density areas, such as major train stations. In this paper, an LTE micro-cell deployment is investigated in high-density railway areas. Copenhagen Main Station is considered as a realistic deployment study case, with a set of relevant railway...
Full Text Available Energy efficiency is one of the key requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. In order to optimize energy usage at sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new network architecture that relies on concepts of Software Defined Networking (SDN. Since SDN is a relatively new technology, originally envisioned for wired networks, it cannot be expected to get immediately and completely adopted in WSN domain, regardless of potential benefits. For this reason, we consider incremental SDN deployment where SDN nodes coexist with traditional sensor nodes, and propose a new routing algorithm for SDN controller that prolongs the WSN lifetime even when a small percentage of SDN nodes is deployed.
Full Text Available Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes and solve the limited battery power problem. The combination of wireless sensors and wireless chargers forms a new type of network called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. In this research, we focus on how to effectively deploy chargers to maximize the lifespan of a network. In WSNs, the sensor nodes near the sink consume more power than nodes far away from the sink because of frequent data forwarding. This important power unbalanced factor has not been considered, however, in previous charger deployment research. In this research, a power balance aware deployment (PBAD method is proposed to address the power unbalance in WRSNs and to design the charger deployment with maximum charging efficiency. The proposed deployment method is effectively aware of the existence of the sink node that would cause unbalanced power consumption in WRSNs. The simulation results show that the proposed PBAD algorithm performs better than other deployment methods, and fewer chargers are deployed as a result.
Kristensen, Preben Sander; Holmen, Elsebeth
During 1993-94 the authors followed a product development process in a Danish Butter Cookie company. The process was structured according to the Quality Function Deployment technique House of Quality. Customer attributes were derived from a discus a diabetics end-user focus group. During a series...
González-Parada, Eva; Cano-García, Jose; Aguilera, Francisco; Sandoval, Francisco; Urdiales, Cristina
Autonomous mobile nodes in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSN) allow self-deployment and self-healing. In both cases, the goals are: (i) to achieve adequate coverage; and (ii) to extend network life. In dynamic environments, nodes may use reactive algorithms so that each node locally decides when and where to move. This paper presents a behavior-based deployment and self-healing algorithm based on the social potential fields algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, nodes are attached to low cost robots to autonomously navigate in the coverage area. The proposed algorithm has been tested in environments with and without obstacles. Our study also analyzes the differences between non-hierarchical and hierarchical routing configurations in terms of network life and coverage. PMID:28075364
Full Text Available Considering that deployment strategies for underwater sensor networks should contribute to fully connecting the networks, a Guaranteed Full Connectivity Node Deployment (GFCND algorithm is proposed in this study. The GFCND algorithm attempts to deploy the coverage nodes according to the greedy iterative strategy, after which the connectivity nodes are used to improve network connectivity and fully connect the whole network. Furthermore, a Location Dispatch Based on Command Nodes (LDBCN algorithm is proposed, which accomplishes the location adjustment of the common nodes with the help of the SINK node and the command nodes. The command nodes then dispatch the common nodes. Simulation results show that the GFCND algorithm achieves a comparatively large coverage percentage and a fully connected network; furthermore, the LDBCN algorithm helps the common nodes preserve more total energy when they reach their destination locations.
Marshall, I. W.; Price, M. C.; Li, H.; Boyd, N.; Boult, S.
It has widely [1-3] been proposed that sensor networks are a good solution for environmental monitoring. However, this application presents a number of major challenges for current technology. In particular environmental science involves the study of coupled non-equilibrium dynamic processes that generate time series with non-stationary means and strongly dependent variables and which operate in the presence of large amounts of noise/interference (thermal, chemical and biological) and multiple quasi-periodic forcing factors (diurnal cycles, tides, etc). This typically means that any analysis must be based on large data samples obtained at multiple scales of space and time. In addition the areas of interest are large, relatively inaccessible and typically extremely hostile to electronic instrumentation. Our analysis of these factors has encouraged us to focus on this list of generic requirements; a) Node lifetime (between visits) should be 1 yr or greater b) Communication range should be ~250m c) Nodes should be portable, unobtrusive, low cost, etc. d) Networks are expected to be sparse since areas of interest are large and budgets are small However, the characteristics of each environment, the dominant processes operating in it and the measurements that are of interest are sufficiently different that the design of an appropriate sensor network solution is normally most determined by site specific constraints. Most importantly the opportunities for exploiting contextual correlation to disambiguate observations and improve the maintenance and robustness of a deployed sensor network are always site specific. We will describe the design and initial deployment of a hydrological sensor network we are developing to assess the hydro-dynamics of surface water drainage into Great Crowden Brook in the Peak District (UK). The complete network will observe soil moisture, temperature and rainfall on a number of transects across the valley, and will also investigate water quality
Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.
As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.
V. Violet Juli
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN had become almost an indispensible especially the demand for data acquisition from national security to disaster mitigation management, weather data to environmental changes and from many more agencies. The effectiveness and efficacy of WSN dependent on the strength and weakness of the deployment of the sensor nodes which collect and transmit the data. The success of data acquisition in any network depended upon the adequacy of coverage by the sensor nodes; which in turn depended on the method of deployment and redeployment. Since deterministic deployment of nodes could not always be done, random deployment was adopted as a compulsion rather than an option. The random deployment of sensors by nature provided poor network coverage and leading to unsatisfactory data acquisition. Therefore, a better method was sought-after to redeploy the sensors that were deployed earlier at random. Hence, the compelling need had resulted in the development of numerous algorithms for suitably moving the sensors for maximum coverage. Such algorithms were of standalone ones or hybrid/combination in nature. One such combination algorithm termed as Voronoi-Genetic Algorithm (V-GA a combination/tandom application of Voronoi Vertex Averaging Algorithm (VVAA and Genetic Algorithm (GA was analyzed in this study. The displacement and coverage performance were studied, analyzed and compared with that of random deployment and redeployment by the earlier proposed algorithms namely VVAA and GA by the same researcher.
Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David
A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...
Wei; WEI; Lijun; LIAO; Jianxin; YU
It is an important means in management of improving both the quality and quantity of cultivated land to monitor grade changes in cultivated land quality. How to deploy monitoring network system and its point reasonably and roundly are the key to the technology of monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality by monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality dynamically in order to obtain the information to the index of cultivated land quality and its changes based on the existing achievements of farmland classification and grading. Spatial analysis method is used to demarcate monitoring area and deploy monitoring point according to ARCGIS,of which the result can meet the demand for monitoring grade changes in cultivated land.
Alvarez, Rosio; Rodriguez, Juana Maria
This paper examines Municipal Wireless (MW) deployments in the United States. In particular, the interest is in understanding how discourse has worked to mobilize widespread support for MW networks. We explore how local governments discursively deploy the language of social movements to create a shared understanding of the networking needs of communities. Through the process of"framing" local governments assign meaning to the MW networks in ways intended to mobilize support anddemobilize opposition. The mobilizing potential of a frame varies and is dependent on its centrality and cultural resonance. We examine the framing efforts of MW networks by using a sample of Request for Proposals for community wireless networks, semi-structured interviews and local media sources. Prominent values that are central to a majority of the projects and others that are culturally specific are identified and analyzed for their mobilizing potency.
Full Text Available Increasing amount of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN applications require low network delays. However, current research on WSNs has mainly concentrated on optimizing energy-efficiency omitting low network delays. This paper presents a novel WSN design targeted at applications requiring low data transfer delays and high reliability. We present the whole design flow from user requirements to an actual pilot deployment in a real hospital unit. The WSN includes multihop low-delay data transfer and energy-efficient mobile nodes reaching lifetime of years with small batteries. The nodes communicate using a low-cost low-power 2.4 GHz radio. The network is used in a security application with which personnel can send alarms in threatening situations. Also, a multitude of sensor measurements and actuator control is possible with the WSN. A full-scale pilot deployment is extensively experimented for performance results. Currently, the pilot network is in use at the hospital.
Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC, Sharonville, OH (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
The main objective of this report is to evaluate different software options for performing robust distributed generation (DG) power system modeling. The features and capabilities of four simulation tools, OpenDSS, GridLAB-D, CYMDIST, and PowerWorld Simulator, are compared to analyze their effectiveness in analyzing distribution networks with DG. OpenDSS and GridLAB-D, two open source software, have the capability to simulate networks with fluctuating data values. These packages allow the running of a simulation each time instant by iterating only the main script file. CYMDIST, a commercial software, allows for time-series simulation to study variations on network controls. PowerWorld Simulator, another commercial tool, has a batch mode simulation function through the 'Time Step Simulation' tool, which obtains solutions for a list of specified time points. PowerWorld Simulator is intended for analysis of transmission-level systems, while the other three are designed for distribution systems. CYMDIST and PowerWorld Simulator feature easy-to-use graphical user interfaces (GUIs). OpenDSS and GridLAB-D, on the other hand, are based on command-line programs, which increase the time necessary to become familiar with the software packages.
Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter
The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.
Guang-ping Qi; Ping Song; Ke-jie Li
A novel bionic swarm intelligence algorithm, called ant colony algorithm based on a blackboard mechanism, is proposed to solve the autonomy and dynamic deployment of mobiles sensor networks effectively. A blackboard mechanism is introduced into the system for making pheromone and completing the algorithm. Every node, which can be looked as an ant, makes one information zone in its memory for communicating with other nodes and leaves pheromone, which is created by ant itself in nature. Then ant colony theory is used to find the optimization scheme for path planning and deployment of mobile Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). We test the algorithm in a dynamic and unconfigurable environment. The results indicate that the algorithm can reduce the power consumption by 13% averagely, enhance the efficiency of path planning and deployment of mobile WSN by 15% averagely.
Full Text Available The continuously emerging, operationally and managerially independent, geographically distributedcomputer networks deployable in an evolutionarily manner have created greater challenges in securingthem. Several research works and experiments have convinced the security expert that Network IntrusionDetection Systems (NIDS or Network Intrusion Prevention Systems (NIPS alone are not capable ofsecuring the Computer Networks from internal and external threats completely. In this paper we presentthe design of Intrusion Collaborative System which is a combination of NIDS,NIPS, Honeypots, softwaretools like nmap, iptables etc. Our Design is tested against existing attacks based on Snort Rules andseveral customized DDOS , remote and guest attacks. Dynamic rules are generated during every unusualbehavior that helps Intrusion Collaborative System to continuously learn about new attacks. Also aformal approach to deploy Live Intrusion Collaboration Systems based on System of Systems Concept isProposed.
introduces a unique concept which saves battery energy and lowers the interference level by simulating the network alignment and assign the necessary amount of transmit power to each individual network node and finally, deploy the smart objects. The needed transmit powers are calculated by the presented...... and discussed simulation model which offers the packet error rate as a function of transmit power, wall losses, path losses, interference source power, and white Gaussian noise power. The deployed smart objects process the user events on location and thereby minimize the costly wireless handling of these......Smart homes use sensor based networks to capture activities and offer learned services to the user. These smart home networks are challenging because they mainly use wireless communication at frequencies that are shared with other services and equipments. One of the major challenges...
Zhang, Kui; Guo, Peng; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.
In this paper, we propose a practical range-free localization solution for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Different from existing localization approaches, the proposed solution is specially designed for an ultra sparse mobile WSNs deployed in coal mine tunnels with linear topography. To obtain mor
"Force10 Networks, Inc. today announced that Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, IL) has successfully deployed Force10 E-Series switch/routers to connect to the TeraGrid, the world's largest supercomputing grid, sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF)" (1/2 page).
27 August 2012--ZTE Corporation has signed a deal on a packet-switched core network (CN) for KPN Group Belgium (KPNGB). KPNGB will deploy ZTE's packet-switched CN equipment, which supports unified radio access. The contract is the second of its kind between ZTE and KPNfollows from a construction project with KPN Germany (E-Plus) that was completed in September 2010.
Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.
Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) have been extensively discussed in 3GPP to further enhance the system throughput of traditional well-planned macrocell deployment. In this paper, we consider a HetNet scenario consisting of macro eNBs and low-power nodes implemented as remote radio heads (RRHs...
Semov, Plamen T.; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee
This paper proposes a novel algorithm for dynamic physical resource allocation based on the use of positioning information during carrier aggregation (CA) in a semi-and uncoordinated deployment of heterogeneous networks (HetNet). The algorithm uses the known Q-learning method enhanced with inform...
Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik
Deploying 5G technologies in a combination of smart homes and smart city opens for a new ecosystem with big potentials. The potentials lie in the creation of an advanced ICT infrastructure with support for connected and entangled services possibilities including technologies for efficient...... communication in an Internet of Things (5G) contexts. In this paper we discuss some of the key challenges that exist in the smart city and smart home networks in the light of possible 5G-solutions. Focus is on deploying cognitive radio technologies (5G) which enables the smart city networks to support...... interconnected infrastructure elements, to handle big-data from the smart homes, and to be compatible with existing infrastructures. The considered cognitive radio technology is based on pre-coded OFDM which offers the needed flexibility to deal with the key challenges found in the smart home networks. Thus...
Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, the available energy of sensor nodes is limited and hard to renew. The energy supervision is also very critical. In Mission Critical Surveillance application, due tonode’s battery depletion, coverage hole may be created. Hole at Critical Point (CP leads to performance degradation of overall network. It is merely impossible, to redeploy sensor nodes or to recharge the battery in middle run during monitoring. The proposed Energy Balanced-Dynamic Deployment (EB-DD Optimization approach, positions the self deployable mobile sensors towards CP according to its Energy Density. This balances the Energy Density of the network thereby increasing the Reliable Lifetime. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the approach in terms of balanced Energy Density around CPs with less mobility.
This report sought to identify limitation on large scale deployment of wind energy in the UK. A description of the existing electricity supply system in England, Scotland and Wales is given, and operational aspects of the integrated electricity networks, licence conditions, types of wind turbine generators, and the scope for deployment of wind energy in the UK are addressed. A review of technical limitations and technical criteria stipulated by the Distribution and Grid Codes, the effects of system losses, and commercial issues are examined. Potential solutions to technical limitations are proposed, and recommendations are outlined.
The field of Home Area Networks (HAN), a dedicated residential subset of LAN technologies for home-based use, is fast becoming the next frontier for the communications industry.This book describes the various technologies involved in the implementation of a HAN: high-speed Internet connections, indoor implementations, services, software, and management packages. It also reviews multimedia applications (which are increasingly the most important and complex aspects of most HANs) with a detailed description of IPTV technology. It highlights the main technologies used for HANs: information tra
Kulkarni, Nandkumar P.; Prasad, Ramjee; Cornean, Horia;
. The efficiency of this deployment is evaluated assuming three routing protocols used for the adhoc networks. They are AODV, DSDV, and DSR. The protocol assumed at transport layer is UDP. Application layer generates the CBR traffic. The performance of these three routing techniques is compared based on total...... energy consumption, coverage area. The simulation results show that the conventional routing protocols like DSR have a best performance for both RD and QRD of the sensor nodes when there is no mobility of the sensor nodes as compared to AODV and DSDV. Among AODV and DSDV, AODV performs better as compared...
Full Text Available Most existing deployment algorithms for event coverage in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs usually do not consider that network communication has non-uniform characteristics on three-dimensional underwater environments. Such deployment algorithms ignore that the nodes are distributed at different depths and have different probabilities for data acquisition, thereby leading to imbalances in the overall network energy consumption, decreasing the network performance, and resulting in poor and unreliable late network operation. Therefore, in this study, we proposed an uneven cluster deployment algorithm based network layered for event coverage. First, according to the energy consumption requirement of the communication load at different depths of the underwater network, we obtained the expected value of deployment nodes and the distribution density of each layer network after theoretical analysis and deduction. Afterward, the network is divided into multilayers based on uneven clusters, and the heterogeneous communication radius of nodes can improve the network connectivity rate. The recovery strategy is used to balance the energy consumption of nodes in the cluster and can efficiently reconstruct the network topology, which ensures that the network has a high network coverage and connectivity rate in a long period of data acquisition. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improves network reliability and prolongs network lifetime by significantly reducing the blind movement of overall network nodes while maintaining a high network coverage and connectivity rate.
Full Text Available In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites, a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.
Abdallah Bou Saleh
Full Text Available Decode-and-forward relaying is a promising enhancement to existing radio access networks and is currently being standardized in 3GPP to be part of the LTE-Advanced release 10. Two inband operation modes of relay nodes are to be supported, namely Type 1 and Type 1b. Relay nodes promise to offer considerable gain for system capacity or coverage depending on the deployment prioritization. However, the performance of relays, as any other radio access point, significantly depends on the propagation characteristics of the deployment environment. Hence, in this paper, we investigate the performance of Type 1 and Type 1b inband relaying within the LTE-Advanced framework in different propagation scenarios in terms of both coverage extension capabilities and capacity enhancements. A comparison between Type 1 and Type 1b relay nodes is as well presented to study the effect of the relaying overhead on the system performance in inband relay node deployments. System level simulations show that Type 1 and Type 1b inband relay deployments offer low to very high gains depending on the deployment environment. As well, it is shown that the effect of the relaying overhead is minimal on coverage extension whereas it is more evident on system throughput.
Ferner, Ulric J; Soljanin, Emina
This manuscript provides a model to characterize the energy savings of network coded storage (NCS) in storage area networks (SANs). We consider blocking probability of drives as our measure of performance. A mapping technique to analyze SANs as independent M/G/K/K queues is presented, and blocking probabilities for uncoded storage schemes and NCS are derived and compared. We show that coding operates differently than the amalgamation of file chunks and energy savings are shown to scale well with striping number. We illustrate that for enterprise-level SANs energy savings of 20-50% can be realized.
Markendahl, Jan; Mölleryd, Bengt G.; Beckman, Claes; Mäkitalo, Östen
The numbers of users and usage of mobile data service are increasing dramatically due to the introduction of smartphones and mobile broadband dongles. For the next decade the mobile broadband market is expected to grow and reach a level where the average data consumption per user is orders of magnitude greater than today. For the telecom industry it is a magnificent challenge to design and deploy these s high-capacity wireless networks taking into account limitations in cost, energy and radio...
Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola;
In this paper we propose a non-contention based mechanism for allocation of the spectral resources by several interfering Home e-NodeBs (HeNBs) deployed by the same or different operators, potentially in random manner in a given geographical area. The proposed mechanism facilitates allocation...... of spectral resources from a common pool based on the individual traffic requirements of the HeNBs, thereby enabling Flexible Spectrum Usage (FSU). It ensures coexistence of several HeNBs in the given geographical area by partially or completely preventing mutual interference on the shared spectrum...
Korhonen, Jouni; Soininen, Jonne
Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks - Evolving Mobile Broadband from 2G to LTE and Beyond A practical guide enabling mobile operators to deploy IPv6 with confidence The most widely used cellular mobile broadband network technology is based on the 3GPP standards. The history and background of the 3GPP technology is in the Global Mobile Service (GSM) technology and the work done in European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). This primary voice service network has evolved to be the dominant mobile Internet access technology. Deploying IPv6 in
Bluhm, Harry P.
Defines local area networks (LANs); describes basic components and configurations of LANs; and discusses LANs benefits (reduced costs, better management of computer resources, enhanced communications) and pitfalls (hidden costs, time delays, network maintenance, lack of standardization, network security breaches, lack of network compatible…
Heterogeneous networks are an attractive means of expanding mobile network capacity. A heterogeneous network is typically composed of multiple radio access technologies (RATs) where the base stations are transmitting with variable power. In this paper, we consider a Heterogeneous network where we complement the macrocell network with low-power low-cost user deployed nodes, such as femtocell base stations to increase the mean achievable capacity of the system. In this context, we integrate macro-femto cellular networks and derive the area spectral efficiency of the proposed two tier Heterogeneous network. We consider the deployment of femtocell base stations around the edge of the macrocell such that this configuration is referred to as femto-on-edge (FOE) configuration. Moreover, FOE configuration mandates reduction in intercell interference due to the mobile users which are located around the edge of the macrocell since these femtocell base stations are low-power nodes which has significantly lower transmission power than macrocell base stations. We present a mathematical analysis to calculate the instantaneous carrier to interference ratio (CIR) of the desired mobile user in macro and femto cellular networks and determine the total area spectral efficiency of the Heterogeneous network. Details of the simulation processes are included to support the analysis and show the efficacy of the proposed deployment. It has been shown that the proposed setup of the Heterogeneous network offers higher area spectral efficiency which aims to fulfill the expected demand of the future mobile users. © 2012 IEEE.
Yuce, Mehmet R
The book provides a comprehensive overview for the latest WBAN systems, technologies, and applications. The chapters of the book have been written by various specialists who are experts in their areas of research and practice. The book starts with the basic techniques involved in designing and building WBAN systems. It explains the deployment issues and then moves into the application areas of WBAN. The remaining chapters focus on the development of hardware, signal processing algorithms, and wireless communication and network design for wearable and implantable body sensors used in WBAN appli
Full Text Available One of the main challenges in the implementation and design of context-aware scenarios is the adequate deployment strategy for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, mainly due to the strong dependence of the radiofrequency physical layer with the surrounding media, which can lead to non-optimal network designs. In this work, radioplanning analysis for WSN deployment is proposed by employing a deterministic 3D ray launching technique in order to provide insight into complex wireless channel behavior in context-aware indoor scenarios. The proposed radioplanning procedure is validated with a testbed implemented with a Mobile Ad Hoc Network WSN following a chain configuration, enabling the analysis and assessment of a rich variety of parameters, such as received signal level, signal quality and estimation of power consumption. The adoption of deterministic radio channel techniques allows the design and further deployment of WSNs in heterogeneous wireless scenarios with optimized behavior in terms of coverage, capacity, quality of service and energy consumption.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions proposes to develop the Network-based Parallel Retrieval Onboard Computing Environment for Sensor Systems (nPROCESS) for deployment on...
Jiang, Peng; Wang, Xingmin; Jiang, Lurong
Designing an efficient deployment method to guarantee optimal monitoring quality is one of the key topics in underwater sensor networks. At present, a realistic approach of deployment involves adjusting the depths of nodes in water. One of the typical algorithms used in such process is the self-deployment depth adjustment algorithm (SDDA). This algorithm mainly focuses on maximizing network coverage by constantly adjusting node depths to reduce coverage overlaps between two neighboring nodes, and thus, achieves good performance. However, the connectivity performance of SDDA is irresolute. In this paper, we propose a depth adjustment algorithm based on connected tree (CTDA). In CTDA, the sink node is used as the first root node to start building a connected tree. Finally, the network can be organized as a forest to maintain network connectivity. Coverage overlaps between the parent node and the child node are then reduced within each sub-tree to optimize coverage. The hierarchical strategy is used to adjust the distance between the parent node and the child node to reduce node movement. Furthermore, the silent mode is adopted to reduce communication cost. Simulations show that compared with SDDA, CTDA can achieve high connectivity with various communication ranges and different numbers of nodes. Moreover, it can realize coverage as high as that of SDDA with various sensing ranges and numbers of nodes but with less energy consumption. Simulations under sparse environments show that the connectivity and energy consumption performances of CTDA are considerably better than those of SDDA. Meanwhile, the connectivity and coverage performances of CTDA are close to those depth adjustment algorithms base on connected dominating set (CDA), which is an algorithm similar to CTDA. However, the energy consumption of CTDA is less than that of CDA, particularly in sparse underwater environments.
Full Text Available Designing an efficient deployment method to guarantee optimal monitoring quality is one of the key topics in underwater sensor networks. At present, a realistic approach of deployment involves adjusting the depths of nodes in water. One of the typical algorithms used in such process is the self-deployment depth adjustment algorithm (SDDA. This algorithm mainly focuses on maximizing network coverage by constantly adjusting node depths to reduce coverage overlaps between two neighboring nodes, and thus, achieves good performance. However, the connectivity performance of SDDA is irresolute. In this paper, we propose a depth adjustment algorithm based on connected tree (CTDA. In CTDA, the sink node is used as the first root node to start building a connected tree. Finally, the network can be organized as a forest to maintain network connectivity. Coverage overlaps between the parent node and the child node are then reduced within each sub-tree to optimize coverage. The hierarchical strategy is used to adjust the distance between the parent node and the child node to reduce node movement. Furthermore, the silent mode is adopted to reduce communication cost. Simulations show that compared with SDDA, CTDA can achieve high connectivity with various communication ranges and different numbers of nodes. Moreover, it can realize coverage as high as that of SDDA with various sensing ranges and numbers of nodes but with less energy consumption. Simulations under sparse environments show that the connectivity and energy consumption performances of CTDA are considerably better than those of SDDA. Meanwhile, the connectivity and coverage performances of CTDA are close to those depth adjustment algorithms base on connected dominating set (CDA, which is an algorithm similar to CTDA. However, the energy consumption of CTDA is less than that of CDA, particularly in sparse underwater environments.
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are suitable for the continuous monitoring of crop information in large-scale farmland. The information obtained is great for regulation of crop growth and achieving high yields in precision agriculture (PA. In order to realize full coverage and k-connectivity WSN deployment for monitoring crop growth information of farmland on a large scale and to ensure the accuracy of the monitored data, a new WSN deployment method using a genetic algorithm (GA is here proposed. The fitness function of GA was constructed based on the following WSN deployment criteria: (1 nodes must be located in the corresponding plots; (2 WSN must have k-connectivity; (3 WSN must have no communication silos; (4 the minimum distance between node and plot boundary must be greater than a specific value to prevent each node from being affected by the farmland edge effect. The deployment experiments were performed on natural farmland and on irregular farmland divided based on spatial differences of soil nutrients. Results showed that both WSNs gave full coverage, there were no communication silos, and the minimum connectivity of nodes was equal to k. The deployment was tested for different values of k and transmission distance (d to the node. The results showed that, when d was set to 200 m, as k increased from 2 to 4 the minimum connectivity of nodes increases and is equal to k. When k was set to 2, the average connectivity of all nodes increased in a linear manner with the increase of d from 140 m to 250 m, and the minimum connectivity does not change.
Liu, Naisen; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Jingchao; Pang, Fangrong; Ni, Jun
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are suitable for the continuous monitoring of crop information in large-scale farmland. The information obtained is great for regulation of crop growth and achieving high yields in precision agriculture (PA). In order to realize full coverage and k-connectivity WSN deployment for monitoring crop growth information of farmland on a large scale and to ensure the accuracy of the monitored data, a new WSN deployment method using a genetic algorithm (GA) is here proposed. The fitness function of GA was constructed based on the following WSN deployment criteria: (1) nodes must be located in the corresponding plots; (2) WSN must have k-connectivity; (3) WSN must have no communication silos; (4) the minimum distance between node and plot boundary must be greater than a specific value to prevent each node from being affected by the farmland edge effect. The deployment experiments were performed on natural farmland and on irregular farmland divided based on spatial differences of soil nutrients. Results showed that both WSNs gave full coverage, there were no communication silos, and the minimum connectivity of nodes was equal to k. The deployment was tested for different values of k and transmission distance (d) to the node. The results showed that, when d was set to 200 m, as k increased from 2 to 4 the minimum connectivity of nodes increases and is equal to k. When k was set to 2, the average connectivity of all nodes increased in a linear manner with the increase of d from 140 m to 250 m, and the minimum connectivity does not change. PMID:27941704
Zhou, Hao; Hirose, Mitsuhito; Greenwood, William; Xiao, Yong; Lynch, Jerome; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Kamat, Vineet
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can serve as a powerful mobile sensing platform for assessing the health of civil infrastructure systems. To date, the majority of their uses have been dedicated to vision and laser-based spatial imaging using on-board cameras and LiDAR units, respectively. Comparatively less work has focused on integration of other sensing modalities relevant to structural monitoring applications. The overarching goal of this study is to explore the ability for UAVs to deploy a network of wireless sensors on structures for controlled vibration testing. The study develops a UAV platform with an integrated robotic gripper that can be used to install wireless sensors in structures, drop a heavy weight for the introduction of impact loads, and to uninstall wireless sensors for reinstallation elsewhere. A pose estimation algorithm is embedded in the UAV to estimate the location of the UAV during sensor placement and impact load introduction. The Martlet wireless sensor network architecture is integrated with the UAV to provide the UAV a mobile sensing capability. The UAV is programmed to command field deployed Martlets, aggregate and temporarily store data from the wireless sensor network, and to communicate data to a fixed base station on site. This study demonstrates the integrated UAV system using a simply supported beam in the lab with Martlet wireless sensors placed by the UAV and impact load testing performed. The study verifies the feasibility of the integrated UAV-wireless monitoring system architecture with accurate modal characteristics of the beam estimated by modal analysis.
Full Text Available The deployment of passive optical networks (PONs is slow today, especially in Europe, because completely new optical infrastructures are necessary to be installed in the last-mile segments of access networks, which is always very expensive process. One of the possibilities is to design economically effective topologies and to optimize the deployment cost. This article describes the method leading to evaluate an algorithm for designing suboptimal economic solutions and topologies for PONs by focusing on optimization of constructional length of distribution networks. While the typical PON topologies are star topologies or tree-star topologies, the first part of this article introduces new sub algorithm for estimating the minimum star topology. The next section brings the evaluation of two sub algorithms for solving minimum constructional length problems. Finally, all these parts will be merged into a complex algorithm by using clusterization technique to solve optimum topologies. However, the current version of presented algorithm is purely based on mathematical theories and was implemented in Matlab environment. Therefore, it is able to design only theoretical optimum topologies without taking external conditions and real limitations into account. These real conditions will be further implemented in the future, so the algorithm could be also used for practical applications.
Marks, Kenneth E.; And Others
This special section on local area networks includes three articles: (1) a description of migration at Joyner Library, East Carolina University (North Carolina) to a new network server; (2) a discussion of factors to consider for network planning in school libraries; and (3) a directory of companies supplying cable, hardware, software, and…
Raymond, Chadwick; Anderson, Charles
Description of the planning and implementation of a microcomputer-based local area network in the Northbrook (Illinois) Public Library highlights: (1) applying for a grant; (2) network design; (3) the bidding process; (4) installation; (5) implementing the network; and (6) problems and cautions. (MES)
Kibirige, Harry M.
This examination of the use of local area networks (LANs) by libraries summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of 600 libraries and information centers and 200 microcomputer networking system manufacturers and vendors, which was conducted to determine the relevance of currently available networking systems for library and information center…
Hu, Liang; Coletti, Claudio; Nguyen, Huan Cong
This paper investigates the downlink performance of indoor deployed Wi-Fi and Femto as the offloading solution to the LTE macro cellular networks in a real large-scale dense-urban scenario. With an assumed traffic volume of 50x compared to today’s levels, it is estimated that the LTE dual......-carrier macro network will suffer high network outage which is defined as proportion of outage users. A user is considered to be in outage if they have a user throughput less than 1 Mbps. We evaluate the performance of indoor Wi-Fi and Femto cell deployment to offload the congested LTE macro network. We show...... cannot meet the network KPI even at a very high access point density. We also show that Wi-Fi and Femto cell offload the same amount of traffic when they are deployed at the same access point density....
Barnawi, Ahmed; Emran, Muhammad; Khan, Asif Irshad; 10.1109/SIECPC.2011.5876936
Over the past few years, mobile operators are faced with enormous challenges. Of such challenges, evolved user demands on personalized applications. Telecommunications industry as well as research community have paid enormous attention to Next Generation Networks (NGN) to address this challenge. NGN is perceived as a sophisticated platform where both application developers and mobile operators cooperate to develop user applications with enhanced quality of experience. The objective of this paper is twofold: first we present an introduction to state-of-the-art NGN testbed to be developed at KAU, and second we provide initial analysis for deploying a mobile application on top of the testbed.
DiMambro, Joseph [Placitas, NM; Roach, Dennis P [Albuquerque, NM; Rackow, Kirk A [Albuquerque, NM; Nelson, Ciji L [Albuquerque, NM; Dasch, Cameron J [Boomfield Hills, MI; Moore, David G [Albuquerque, NM
An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.
... Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 95 Medical Area Body Network AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Medical Body Area Network (``MBAN'') coordinator(s) for the 2360-2390 MHz band. Although the ]...
Full Text Available The deployment problem of wireless sensor networks for real time oilfield monitoring is studied. As a characteristic of oilfield monitoring system, all sensor nodes have to be installed on designated spots. For the energy efficiency, some relay nodes and sink nodes are deployed as a delivery subsystem. The major concern of the construction of the monitoring system is the optimum placement of data delivery subsystem to ensure the full connectivity of the sensor nodes while keeping the construction cost as low as possible, with least construction and maintenance complexity. Due to the complicated landform of oilfields, in general, it is rather difficult to satisfy these requirements simultaneously. The deployment problem is formulated as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem and solved through a novel scheme based on multiobjective discrete binary particle swarm optimization to produce optimal solutions from the minimum financial cost to the minimum complexity of construction and maintenance. Simulation results validated that comparing to the three existing state-of-the-art algorithms, that is, NSGA-II, JGGA, and SPEA2, the proposed scheme is superior in locating the Pareto-optimal front and maintaining the diversity of the solutions, thus providing superior candidate solutions for the design of real time monitoring systems in oilfields.
Qinghua Shen; Xuemin Sherman Shen; Tom HLuan; Jing Liu
Wireless body area networks (WBANs) can provide low-cost, timely healthcare services and are expected to be widely used for e-healthcare in hospitals. In a hospital, space is often limited and multiple WBANs have to coexist in an area and share the same channel in order to provide healthcare services to different patients. This causes severe interference between WBANs that could significantly reduce the network throughput and increase the amount of power consumed by sensors placed on the body. There-fore, an efficient channel-resource allocation scheme in the medium access control (MAC) layer is crucial. In this paper, we devel-op a centralized MAC layer resource allocation scheme for a WBAN. We focus on mitigating the interference between WBANs and reducing the power consumed by sensors. Channel and buffer state are reported by smartphones deployed in each WBAN, and channel access allocation is performed by a central controller to maximize network throughput. Sensors have strict limitations in terms of energy consumption and computing capability and cannot provide all the necessary information for channel allocation in a timely manner. This deteriorates network performance. We exploit the temporal correlation of the body area channel in order to minimize the number of channel state reports necessary. We view the network design as a partly observable optimization prob-lem and develop a myopic policy, which we then simulate in Matlab.
Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Iversen, Villy Bæk
of the performance (multiplexing) gain of such cellular networks. The used analytical model is based on a multi-dimensional loss system and can be applied to heterogeneous networks with various cell traffic profiles. Based on the analysis, the key parameters for cell deployment optimization are identified....... The conditions for optimization are based on the aggregated traffic characteristics and baseband unit pool dimensioning. This paper considers cells with different traffic profiles and the optimal conditions for maximization of the pooling gain are determined. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be applied...... to dynamically re-assign cells to a pool of baseband units. The re-assignment is based on the cell load and traffic characteristics such that effective utilization of the baseband resources is assured....
Schweitzer, James A
Protecting Information on Local Area Networks presents the various types of networks and explains why they are being expanded at such a rapid pace. This book considers how management can gain control of the valuable network-services information resources generally available.Organized into three parts encompassing seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various networks and their operations. This text then discusses the appropriate management actions to ensure some control over the use of networks and the business information resource. Other chapters consider the management rat
An, L.; Bentum, M.J.; Meijerink, A.; Scanlon, W.G.
A body area network (BAN) is a network of bodyworn or implanted electronic devices, including wireless sensors which can monitor body parameters or to detect movements. One of the big challenges in BANs is the propagation channel modeling. Channel models can be used to understand wave propagation in
An, L.; Bentum, M.J.; Meijerink, A.; Scanlon, W.G.
A body area network (BAN) is a network of bodyworn or implanted electronic devices, including wireless sensors which can monitor body parameters or to de- tect movements. One of the big challenges in BANs is the propagation channel modeling. Channel models can be used to understand wave propagation
Explores the use of local area networks (LAN's) in learning laboratories and how they are improving learning outcomes for certain student populations (e.g., deaf and developmental students). Describes how LAN's alter the instructor's role and how instructors can manage student-driven classrooms. Offers guidance on implementing a network system.…
黄诠; 刘浩; 梁平元
无线传感器节点将收集到的数据传输到簇头，簇头将数据包聚合后再发送到基站。离基站较远的簇头在发送数据过程中会因为能源消耗过高而提前死亡从而导致出现能量空洞的问题。为此，本文对异构传感器网络的节点部署进行研究，将网络监控区域划分成圆环，提出一种传感器簇头最大化生命周期模型。该模型以传感器簇头能耗均衡为基础并通过分析每层圆环传感器节点能量消耗情况计算出每层圆环的宽度，提出一种基于圆环的非均匀节点部署算法，得出了节点部署的密度函数。使用MATLAB对节点均匀部署、非均匀部署和随机部署进行了模拟仿真实验，通过对实验结果分析，该算法能在延长传感器网络的生命周期方面有着比较明显的优势。%Sensor nodes transmit their collect data to designated cluster heads ,cluster heads aggregate the data packets and send them to the base station .Cluster heads further from the base station will die much more quickly than those closer to the base station and leads to the energy hole problem .To address the problem ,based on the research on node deployment of heterogeneous sensor networks , the network monitoring area is divided into a number of rings ,and a maximizing lifetime model of square heterogeneous sensor networks is presented .In this model ,based on the energy balance of sensor cluster head , we compute cirque width and propose a non-uniform node deployment algorithm based on cirque upon analysis of sensor nodes energy consumption .Then a density function based on node deployment is presented .We designed simulation experiment for network lifetime of uniform deployment , non-uniform deployment and random deployment using MATLAB .Simulation results show that non-uniform deployment algorithm is effective for prolonging the network lifetime .
Caine, Kristen M.; Bailey, D. Michelle; Houston Miller, J.
According to the IPCC from 1995 to 2005, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increased by 19 ppm, the highest average growth rate recorded for any decade since measurements began in the 1950s. Due to its ability to influence global climate change, it is imperative to continually monitor carbon dioxide emission levels, particularly in urban areas where some estimate in excess of 75% of total greenhouse gas emissions occur. Although high-precision sensors are commercially available, these are not cost effective for mapping a large spatial area. A goal of this research is to build out a network of sensors that are accurate and precise enough to provide a valuable data tool for accessing carbon emissions from a large, urban area. This publically available greenhouse gas dataset can be used in numerous environmental assessments and as validation for remote sensing products. It will also be a valuable teaching tool for classes at our university and will promote further engagement of K-12 students and their teachers through education and outreach activities. Each of our sensors (referred to as "PiOxides") utilizes a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide along with a combination pressure/temperature/humidity sensor. The collection of pressure and temperature increases the accuracy and precision of the CO2 measurement. The sensors communicate using a serial interfaces with a Raspberry Pi microcontroller. Each PiOxide is connected to a website that leverages recent developments in open source GIS tools. In this way, data from individual sensors can be followed individually or aggregated to provide real-time, spatially-resolved data of CO2 trends across a broad area. Our goal for the network is to expand across the entire DC/Maryland/Virginia Region through partnerships with private and public schools. We are also designing GHG Bluetooth beacons that may be accessed by mobile phone users in their vicinity. In two additional
Full Text Available In this paper, we present the first stochastic analysis of the link performance of an ad hoc network modelled by a single homogeneous Poisson point process (HPPP. According to the maximum entropy principle, the single HPPP model is mathematically the best model for random deployments with a given node density. However, previous works in the literature only consider a modified model which shows a discrepancy in the interference distribution with the more suitable single HPPP model. The main contributions of this paper are as follows. 1 It presents a new mathematical framework leading to closed form expressions of the probability of success of both one-way transmissions and handshakes for a deployment modelled by a single HPPP. Our approach, based on stochastic geometry, can be extended to complex protocols. 2 From the obtained results, all confirmed by comparison to simulated data, optimal PHY and MAC layer parameters are determined and the relations between them is described in details. 3 The influence of the routing protocol on handshake performance is taken into account in a realistic manner, leading to the confirmation of the intuitive result that the effect of imperfect feedback on the probability of success of a handshake is only negligible for transmissions to the first neighbour node.
Full Text Available Electric vehicles are the most potential transports in the future. However, the large scale of charging facilities will make a great influence on gird. There is a need to make a research on the construction of charging facilities. Based on the power demand characteristics of electric vehicle charging, distribution network capacity, charging system performance and other aspects, this paper mainly researched the deployment strategy of charging piles. First, the authors built up a model with characteristics of charging power demand of electric vehicle and a model of charging service system. The characteristic of daily load curve is analyzed. Second, based on these works, the authors designed the progress of strategy making. At last, the progress was verified by the actual use case.
Amin, Ashok T.
The New Institutional Area Network (NEWIAN) at Marshall supports over 5000 end users with access to 26 file servers providing work presentation services. It is comprised of some 150 Ethernet LAN's interconnected by bridges/routers which are in turn connected to servers over two dual FDDI rings. The network supports various higher level protocols such as IP, IPX, AppleTalk (AT), and DECNet. At present IPX and AT protocols packets are routed, and IP protocol packets are bridged; however, work is in progress to route all IP packets. The impact of routing IP packets on network operation is examined. Broadband Integrated Services Data Network (BISDN), presently at various stages of development, is intended to provide voice, video, and data transfer services over a single network. BISDN will use asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) as a data transfer technique which provides for transmission, multiplexing, switching, and relaying of small size data units called cells. Limited ATM Wide Area Network (WAN) services are offered by Wiltel, AT&T, Sprint, and others. NASA is testing a pilot ATM WAN with a view to provide Program Support Communication Network services using ATM. ATM supports wide range of data rates and quality of service requirements. It is expected that ATM switches will penetrate campus networks as well. However, presently products in these areas are at various stages of development and standards are not yet complete. We examine development of ATM to help assess its role in the evolution of NEWIAN.
Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão;
Next generation wireless networks aim at a significant improvement of the spectral efficiency in order to meet the dramatic increase in data service demand. In local area scenarios user-deployed base stations are expected to take place, thus making the centralized planning of frequency resources...
Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.
Developments in systems for monitoring environmental noise have made it possible to monitor the acoustic situation within large urban areas. The developments in hardware size and costs, combined with the developments in wireless communication allow to deploy networks with many acoustic sensors witho
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy
Full Text Available The advent of social media can be seen both as a risk and an opportunity by armed forces. Previous research has primarily examined whether or not the use of social media endangers or strengthens armed forces’ strategic narrative. We examine armed forces’ perceptions of risks and opportunities on a broad basis, with a particular focus on areas of deployment. The article is based on a survey of perceptions of social media amongst the armed forces of EU member states, thus adding to previous research through its comparative perspective. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on larger powers, such as the US and the UK, this article includes the views of the armed forces of 26 EU states, including several smaller nations. In analyzing the results we asked whether or not risk and opportunity perceptions were related to national ICT maturity and the existence of a social media strategy. The analysis shows that perceptions of opportunities outweigh perceptions of risks, with marketing and two-way communication as the two most prominent opportunities offered by the use of social media. Also, armed forces in countries with a moderate to high ICT maturity emphasize social media as a good way for marketing purposes.
Majone, B.; Bellin, A.; Filippi, E.; Ioriatti, L.; Martinelli, M.; Massa, A.; Toller, G.
We describe a recent deployment of soil moisture and temperature sensors in an apple tree orchard aimed at exploring the interaction between soil moisture dynamics and plant physiology. The field is divided into three parcels with different constant irrigation rates. The deployment includes dendrometers which monitor the variations of the trunk diameter. The idea is to monitor continuously and at small time steps soil moisture dynamics, soil temperature and a parameter reflecting plant stress at the parcel scale, in order to better investigate the interaction between plant physiology and soil moisture dynamics. Other sensors monitoring plant physiology can be easily accommodated within the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The experimental site is an apple orchard of 5000 m2 located at Cles, province of Trento, Italy, at the elevation of 640 m.a.s.l. In this site about 1200 apple trees are cultivated (cultivar Golden Delicious). The trees have been planted in 2004 in north-south rows 3.5 m apart. The deployment consists of 27 locations connected by a multi hop WSN, each one equipped with 5 soil moisture sensors (capacitance sensors EC-5, decagon Service) at the depths of 10, 20, 30, 50 and 80 cm, and a temperature sensor at the depth of 20 cm, for a total of 135 soil moisture and 27 temperature sensors. The proposed monitoring system is based on totally autonomous sensor nodes which allow both real time and historic data management. The data gathered are then organized in a database on a public web site. The node sensors are connected through an input/output interface to a WSN platform. The power supply consists of a solar panel able to provide 250 mA at 7 V and a 3V DC/DC converter based on a dual frequency high efficient switching regulator. The typical meteorological data are monitored with a weather station located at a distance of approximately 100 m from the experimental site. Great care has been posed to calibration of the capacitance sensors both in the
The Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a new and developing technology and the security problem is always important in all networks; therefore, the security problems will be discussed in this article. The article firstly introduces the history of development of IEEE 802.11 and provides an overview of the Wireless LAN. The architecture of WLAN will be referred in next. Finally, the further of the wireless LAN will be prospected by this article.
Atiq-Ur-Rahman; Halabi Hasbullah; Najm-us-Sama
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are getting more widespread use and can be used in a wide range of applications, such as environmental monitoring, smart homes, military surveillance, forests, habitat monitoring, farmlands and precision agriculture. Due to the limited battery power, energy efficiency is the most challenging problem in wireless sensor network. For various applications, it is necessary to deploy sensor node in efficient way to monitor the event precisely, achieve balance energy ...
Efficient self-organizing virtual clusterheads that supervise data collection based on their wireless connectivity, risk, and overhead costs, are an important element of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This function is especially critical during deployment when system resources are allocated to a subsequent application. In the presented research,…
Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai
Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.
Full Text Available In the last decade, the differences in the information communication technology (ICT infrastructures between urban and rural areas have registered a tremendous increase. ICT infrastructures could strongly help rural communities where many operations are time consuming, labor-intensive and expensive due to limited access and large distances to cover. One of the most attractive solutions, which is widely recognized as promising for filling this gap, is the use of drone fleets. In this context, this paper proposes a video monitoring platform as a service (VMPaaS for wide rural areas not covered by Internet access. The platform is realized with a Software-Defined Network (SDN/Network Functions Virtualization (NFV-based flying ad-hoc network (FANET, whose target is providing a flexible and dynamic connectivity backbone, and a set of drones equipped with high-resolution cameras, each transmitting a video stream of a portion of the considered area. After describing the architecture of the proposed platform, service chains to realize the video delivery service are described, and an analytical model is defined to evaluate the computational load of the platform nodes in such a way so as to allow the network orchestrator to decide the backbone drones where running the virtual functions, and the relative resources to be allocated. Numerical analysis is carried out in a case study.
Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.
The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).
Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective i...
Riccioli, Francesco; El Asmar, Toufic; El Asmar, Jean-Pierre; Fagarazzi, Claudio; Casini, Leonardo
The issues related to the appropriate planning of the territory are particularly pronounced in highly inhabited areas (urban areas), where in addition to protecting the environment, it is important to consider an anthropogenic (urban) development placed in the context of sustainable growth. This work aims at mathematically simulating the changes in the land use, by implementing an artificial neural network (ANN) model. More specifically, it will analyze how the increase of urban areas will develop and whether this development would impact on areas with particular socioeconomic and environmental value, defined as multifunctional areas. The simulation is applied to the Chianti Area, located in the province of Florence, in Italy. Chianti is an area with a unique landscape, and its territorial planning requires a careful examination of the territory in which it is inserted.
Dr Vipin Saxena
Full Text Available This paper explains the performance of LAN/WAN using UML. Nowadays, Local Area Network (LAN System is an integral part of any organization. This may established by the use of the fiber optics cables or through Wi-Fi connectivity called as Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN. In the network connectivity, administrator has to ensure whether the destination node is receiving the data correctly, safely and within minimum time period. In the country, many of the organizations have the LAN or WLAN but one has to check the performance of these, therefore, in this paper, performance of LAN/WLAN is observed through the UML design. The node is considered as a stereotype and one process is transmitted from one machine to the other machine and data transmission rate is recorded through experimental study. A real case study of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Central University is considered and results are depicted in the form of graphs and table.
Tan, Jindong; Xi, Ning
This paper presents a novel model and distributed algorithms for the cooperation and redeployment of mobile sensor networks. A mobile sensor network composes of a collection of wireless connected mobile robots equipped with a variety of sensors. In such a sensor network, each mobile node has sensing, computation, communication, and locomotion capabilities. The locomotion ability enhances the autonomous deployment of the system. The system can be rapidly deployed to hostile environment, inaccessible terrains or disaster relief operations. The mobile sensor network is essentially a cooperative multiple robot system. This paper first presents a peer-to-peer model to define the relationship between neighboring communicating robots. Delaunay Triangulation and Voronoi diagrams are used to define the geometrical relationship between sensor nodes. This distributed model allows formal analysis for the fusion of spatio-temporal sensory information of the network. Based on the distributed model, this paper discusses a fault tolerant algorithm for autonomous self-deployment of the mobile robots. The algorithm considers the environment constraints, the presence of obstacles and the nonholonomic constraints of the robots. The distributed algorithm enables the system to reconfigure itself such that the area covered by the system can be enlarged. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the distributed model and deployment algorithms.
Discussion of management issues involved with local area networks (LAN) among information organizations focuses on a project at the University of North Texas that was designed to investigate problems associated with LAN. Topics discussed include purchasing decisions for hardware and software, and integration among various groups of users. (Eight…
Tolson, Stephanie Diane
Describes experiences at St. Louis Community College at Florissant Valley (Missouri) with the use of wireless technology and a local area network for library bibliographic instruction. Discusses faculty input and attitudes; technical challenges; and experiences at other community colleges that have found wireless connections more economical than…
Describes a typical configuration for a local area network (LAN), and discusses positive and negative factors to be considered when deciding whether to implement a LAN in a library setting. Situations in which LANS are or are not appropriate are identified, and alternatives to LANs are described. (CLB)
Riha, B; Brian02 Looney, B; Miles Denham, M; Christopher Bagwell, C; Richard Hall, R; Carol Eddy-Dilek, C
The purpose of these studies was to determine the feasibility of using edible oils for remediation of the low but persistent chlorinated solvent (cVOC) groundwater contamination at the SRS T-Area. The following studies were completed: (1) Review of cVOC degradation processes and edible oil delivery for enhanced bioremediation. (2) Column studies to investigate placing neat oil on top of the water table to increase oil saturation and sequestration. (3) Analysis of T-Area groundwater geochemistry to determine the applicability of edible oils for remediation at this site. (4) Microcosm studies to evaluate biotic and abiotic processes for the T-Area groundwater system and evaluation of the existing microbial community with and with out soybean oil amendments. (5) Monitoring of a surrogate vadose zone site undergoing edible oil remediation at the SRS to understand partitioning and biotransformation products of the soybean oil. (6) Design of a delivery system for neat and emulsified edible oil deployment for the T-Area groundwater plume. A corresponding white paper is available for each of the studies listed. This paper provides a summary and overview of the studies completed for the remediation of the T-Area groundwater plume using edible oils. This report begins with a summary of the results and a brief description of the preliminary oil deployment design followed by brief descriptions of T-Area and current groundwater conditions as related to edible oil deployment. This is followed by a review of the remediation processes using edible oils and specific results from modeling, field and laboratory studies. Finally, a description of the preliminary design for full scale oil deployment is presented.
Neuhaeuser, Jakob; D'Angelo, Lorenzo T
The goal of the concept and of the device presented in this contribution is to be able to collect sensor data from wearable sensors directly, automatically and wirelessly and to make them available over a wired local area network. Several concepts in e-health and telemedicine make use of portable and wearable sensors to collect movement or activity data. Usually these data are either collected via a wireless personal area network or using a connection to the user's smartphone. However, users might not carry smartphones on them while inside a residential building such as a nursing home or a hospital, but also within their home. Also, in such areas the use of other wireless communication technologies might be limited. The presented system is an embedded server which can be deployed in several rooms in order to ensure live data collection in bigger buildings. Also, the collection of data batches recorded out of range, as soon as a connection is established, is also possible. Both, the system concept and the realization are presented.
Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena; Popova, Maria; Georgiev, Ivan
Radiation risks may transcend national borders, and international cooperation serves to promote and enhance safety globally by exchanging experience and by improving capabilities to control hazards, to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences. International safety standards provide support for states in meeting their obligations under general principles of international law, such as those relating to environmental protection. Seismic safety is a key element of NPP safe operation. Safety and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. The Kozloduy NPP site is located in the stable part of the Moesian platform (area of about 50000 km2). From seismological point of view the Moesian platform is the most quite area on the territory of Bulgaria. There are neither historical nor instrumental earthquakes with M>4.5 occurred within the platform. The near region (area with radial extent of 30 km) of the NPP site is characterized with very low seismic activity. The strongest recorded quake is the 1987 earthquake МS=3.6, localized 22 km northwest of the Kozloduy NPP site on the territory of Romania. In line with international practice, the geological, geophysical and seismological characteristics of the region around the site have been investigated for the purpose of evaluating the seismic hazards at the NPP site. A local network (LSN) of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes have been installed around Kozloduy NPP and operated since 1997. The operation and data processing, data interpretation, and reporting of the local micro-earthquake network are linked to the national seismic network (NOTSSI). A real-time data transfer from stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) was implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are getting more widespread use and can be used in a wide range of applications, such as environmental monitoring, smart homes, military surveillance, forests, habitat monitoring, farmlands and precision agriculture. Due to the limited battery power, energy efficiency is the most challenging problem in wireless sensor network. For various applications, it is necessary to deploy sensor node in efficient way to monitor the event precisely, achieve balance energy depletion and extend the network lifetime. In many-to-one traffic pattern, nodes closer to the sink have heavier traffic loads and deplete their energy quickly; this leads to energy holes around the sink. Due to the creation of energy holes, data can no longer be delivered to the sink, although most of sensor nodes have enough residual energy. To overcome the problem of energy hole and achieving sub-balanced energy consumption in corona-based wireless sensor network, engineered Gaussian deployment strategies are proposed. Simulation result shows that the proposed technique maximizes the network lifetime, data delivery, energy consumption and also reducing the chances of energy-hole formation in a network.
Garg, Amit Kumar; Madavi, Amresh Ashok; Janyani, Vijay
A flexible hybrid wavelength division multiplexing-time division multiplexing passive optical network architecture that allows dual rate signals to be sent at 1 and 10 Gbps to each optical networking unit depending upon the traffic load is proposed. The proposed design allows dynamic wavelength allocation with pay-as-you-grow deployment capability. This architecture is capable of providing up to 40 Gbps of equal data rates to all optical distribution networks (ODNs) and up to 70 Gbps of a asymmetrical data rate to the specific ODN. The proposed design handles broadcasting capability with simultaneous point-to-point transmission, which further reduces energy consumption. In this architecture, each module sends a wavelength to each ODN, thus making the architecture fully flexible; this flexibility allows network providers to use only required OLT components and switch off others. The design is also reliable to any module or TRx failure and provides services without any service disruption. Dynamic wavelength allocation and pay-as-you-grow deployment support network extensibility and bandwidth scalability to handle future generation access networks.
Lloret, Jaime; Garcia, Miguel; Bri, Diana; Sendra, Sandra
Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few implementations can be found. Besides, the systems in the literature lack scalability. In this paper we show all the steps followed to perform the design, research and development of a wireless multisensor network which mixes sensors with IP cameras in a wireless network in order to detect and verify fire in rural and forest areas of Spain. We have studied how many cameras, sensors and access points are needed to cover a rural or forest area, and the scalability of the system. We have developed a multisensor and when it detects a fire, it sends a sensor alarm through the wireless network to a central server. The central server selects the closest wireless cameras to the multisensor, based on a software application, which are rotated to the sensor that raised the alarm, and sends them a message in order to receive real-time images from the zone. The camera lets the fire fighters corroborate the existence of a fire and avoid false alarms. In this paper, we show the test performance given by a test bench formed by four wireless IP cameras in several situations and the energy consumed when they are transmitting. Moreover, we study the energy consumed by each device when the system is set up. The wireless sensor network could be connected to Internet through a gateway and the images of the cameras could be seen from any part of the world. PMID:22291533
Full Text Available Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few implementations can be found. Besides, the systems in the literature lack scalability. In this paper we show all the steps followed to perform the design, research and development of a wireless multisensor network which mixes sensors with IP cameras in a wireless network in order to detect and verify fire in rural and forest areas of Spain. We have studied how many cameras, sensors and access points are needed to cover a rural or forest area, and the scalability of the system. We have developed a multisensor and when it detects a fire, it sends a sensor alarm through the wireless network to a central server. The central server selects the closest wireless cameras to the multisensor, based on a software application, which are rotated to the sensor that raised the alarm, and sends them a message in order to receive real-time images from the zone. The camera lets the fire fighters corroborate the existence of a fire and avoid false alarms. In this paper, we show the test performance given by a test bench formed by four wireless IP cameras in several situations and the energy consumed when they are transmitting. Moreover, we study the energy consumed by each device when the system is set up. The wireless sensor network could be connected to Internet through a gateway and the images of the cameras could be seen from any part of the world.
Lloret, Jaime; Garcia, Miguel; Bri, Diana; Sendra, Sandra
Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few implementations can be found. Besides, the systems in the literature lack scalability. In this paper we show all the steps followed to perform the design, research and development of a wireless multisensor network which mixes sensors with IP cameras in a wireless network in order to detect and verify fire in rural and forest areas of Spain. We have studied how many cameras, sensors and access points are needed to cover a rural or forest area, and the scalability of the system. We have developed a multisensor and when it detects a fire, it sends a sensor alarm through the wireless network to a central server. The central server selects the closest wireless cameras to the multisensor, based on a software application, which are rotated to the sensor that raised the alarm, and sends them a message in order to receive real-time images from the zone. The camera lets the fire fighters corroborate the existence of a fire and avoid false alarms. In this paper, we show the test performance given by a test bench formed by four wireless IP cameras in several situations and the energy consumed when they are transmitting. Moreover, we study the energy consumed by each device when the system is set up. The wireless sensor network could be connected to Internet through a gateway and the images of the cameras could be seen from any part of the world.
Testa, Alessandro; Cinque, Marcello; Coronato, Antonio; Augusto, Juan Carlos
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being increasingly adopted in critical applications, where verifying the correct operation of sensor nodes is a major concern. Undesired events may undermine the mission of the WSNs. Hence, their effects need to be properly assessed before deployment, to obtain a good level of expected performance; and during the operation, in order to avoid dangerous unexpected results. In this paper, we propose a methodology that aims at assessing and improving the dependability level of WSNs by means of an event-based formal verification technique. The methodology includes a process to guide designers towards the realization of a dependable WSN and a tool ("ADVISES") to simplify its adoption. The tool is applicable to homogeneous WSNs with static routing topologies. It allows the automatic generation of formal specifications used to check correctness properties and evaluate dependability metrics at design time and at runtime for WSNs where an acceptable percentage of faults can be defined. During the runtime, we can check the behavior of the WSN accordingly to the results obtained at design time and we can detect sudden and unexpected failures, in order to trigger recovery procedures. The effectiveness of the methodology is shown in the context of two case studies, as proof-of-concept, aiming to illustrate how the tool is helpful to drive design choices and to check the correctness properties of the WSN at runtime. Although the method scales up to very large WSNs, the applicability of the methodology may be compromised by the state space explosion of the reasoning model, which must be faced by partitioning large topologies into sub-topologies.
钟德欢; 曾斌; 姚路
As we know, deployment of Underwater acoustic Sensor Networking (USN) is very important, however, most of researches of deployment optimization for sensor network focus on two-dimensional space at the present time. In order to solve this problem, especially the asymmetric deployment for USN, a sensor sensing model is proposed to optimize the network resource and prolong the network's life time. Based on body-centered cubic lattice, the asymmetric deployment model for USN is proposed by improving the connection between sensing power and sensing radial. The simulation results show that the model can control the density of the sensor and balance the energy of different area effectively. Furthermore, the conclusion can be drawn that the asymmetric deployment model can prolong the network's life time remarkable compared to uniform deployment networking.%目前对在传感器网络部署优化的研究中,主要集中在二维传感器部署优化的研究上,对水下三维传感器网络的部署研究特别是以优化网络资源、延长网络寿命为目的水下传感器网络非均匀部署的研究较少.改进了现有传感器探测模型,建立探测功率与传感半径的关系,结合体心立方格覆盖方案,建立了水下传感器网络非均匀部署模型,仿真实验表明,非均匀部署模型有效地控制了节点部署密度,平衡了网络能量,相对于均匀部署模型显著提高了网络寿命.
Iwendi, C. O.
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN is tending towards becoming a complete solution in communication protocols, embedded systems and low-power implementations. However, the resource constraints which includes, limited communication range, limited energy, limited computing power, limited bandwidth and the fear of intruders have limited the WSN applications. Since lightweight computational nodes that arecurrently being used in WSN pose particular challenge for many security applications, the whole research therefore, is the investigation of new security techniques and appropriate implementation for WSN nodes, including various trade-offs such as implementation complexity, power dissipation, security flexibility and scalability. The goal of this research is to develop a network that has efficient and flexible key distribution scheme secured enough to prevent algorithmic complexity and denial of service attacksas well as the network able to conserve energy. A review of previous research to date in the area of security for WSNs was carried out and proposals are made based on security schemes that gather data inan energy-efficient mechanism through secured pre-allocation of keys, faster clustering routing algorithm and dynamic based rekeying implementation.
Tarique Jamil Saifullah Khanzada
Full Text Available The Internet is migrating from IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4 to IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6. The high cost of migration services from IPv4-IPv6 and system complexity are main factors for slow adaption of IPv6 This paper presents the implementation of migration techniques from IPv4-IPv6. Furthermore, existing IPv4 addresses have already been depleted in IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and will be soon exhausted in RIR (Regional Internet Registry while more clients are joining the Internet. Slower rate of the progress of IPv6 confirms complete shifting from IPv4-IPv6 at once is still long away, although fewer parts of IPv6 have been employed in current market goods. Integration of IPv4 and IPv6 is carried in order to take care of online users. In this paper, it is suggested that hierarchical direction finding structural design in IPv4 and IPv6 will improve the efficiency of IPv4 network. This research work provides the way to design the network scenario for the carrier grade set of connections. The carrier grade network scenario routers are named to be Karachi, Sukkur, Islamabad, Multan and Peshawar for the managerial simulation purposes. The carrier grade network deployment is implemented along with dual stack to migrate to IPv6. This study holds the way to deploy IPv4-IPv6 carrier grade network by providing real time scenario which is yet not considered in the literature to the best of our knowledge
Full Text Available Fibre channel storage area networks (SAN are widely implemented in production data center environments. Recently the storage industry has moved towards deployment of distributed SANs (DSAN, geographically dispersed across large physical distances. In a DSAN, specialized gateway devices interconnect the individual Fibre Channel (FC fabrics over IP networks using TCP/IP based protocols (iFCP or FCIP or over metro to long distance optical networks such as Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM based networks that utilize native FC ports supporting large numbers of link credits. When using TCP/IP based storage networking protocols to interconnect local FC fabrics in a DSAN, the sustained throughput achievable depends upon the link characteristics and TCP/IP stack implementation. Sustaining maximum possible storage traffic throughput across the wide area network enables practical DSAN deployments by maintaining the required site to site service level agreements.This study explores the effects of several TCP/IP modifications on sustained traffic throughput for a DSAN interconnected via iFCP gateways across an impaired network. The TCP/IP stack modifications, known as storage friendly, include changes to the window scaling, congestion avoidance, and fast recovery algorithms. The theoretical background and experimental results are presented to explain and illustrate these modifications.
中国铁塔公司的成立对中国电信行业产生非常大的影响。首先总结了全球电信业网络部署模式的类型，随后分析了中国电信运营商在铁塔公司成立后的网络部署模式变化，最后探讨了中国电信业未来的网络部署模式。%The establishment of China Tower company has a giant impact on China’s telecommunication industry. Firstly, the deployment mode classification of global telecommunication networks was summarized. Then, China’s telecommunication operators’ changes of network deployment modes after the establishment of China Tower Company were analyzed. Finally, the network deployment mode of domestic telecommunication industry in the future was discussed.
Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Hadley, Mark D.
With the wide array of home area network (HAN) options being presented as solutions to smart grid challenges for the home, it is time to compare and contrast their strengths and weaknesses. This white paper examines leading and emerging HAN technologies. The emergence of the smart grid is bringing more networking players into the field. The need for low consistent bandwidth usage differs enough from the traditional information technology world to open the door to new technologies. The predominant players currently consist of a blend of the old and new. Within the wired world Ethernet and HomePlug Green PHY are leading the way with an advantage to HomePlug because it doesn't require installing new wires. In the wireless the realm there are many more competitors but WiFi and ZigBee seem to have the most momentum.
Maamoun, Khaled Mohamed
Fault localization is the process of realizing the true source of a failure from a set of collected failure notifications. Isolating failure recovery within the network optical domain is necessary to resolve alarm storm problems. The introduction of the monitoring trail (m-trail) has been proven to deliver better performance by employing monitoring resources in a form of optical trails - a monitoring framework that generalizes all the previously reported counterparts. In this dissertation, the m-trail design is explored and a focus is given to the analysis on using m-trails with established lightpaths to achieve fault localization. This process saves network resources by reducing the number of the m-trails required for fault localization and therefore the number of wavelengths used in the network. A novel approach based on Geographic Midpoint Technique, an adapted version of the Chinese Postman's Problem (CPP) solution and an adapted version of the Traveling Salesman's Problem (TSP) solution algorithms is introduced. The desirable features of network architectures and the enabling of innovative technologies for delivering future millimeter-waveband (mm-WB) Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) systems for wireless services integrated in a Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is proposed in this dissertation. For the conceptual illustration, a DWDM RoF system with channel spacing of 12.5 GHz is considered. The mm-WB Radio Frequency (RF) signal is obtained at each Optical Network Unit (ONU) by simultaneously using optical heterodyning photo detection between two optical carriers. The generated RF modulated signal has a frequency of 12.5 GHz. This RoF system is easy, cost-effective, resistant to laser phase noise and also reduces maintenance needs, in principle. A revision of related RoF network proposals and experiments is also included. A number of models for Passive Optical Networks (PON)/ RoF-PON that combine both innovative and existing ideas along with a number of
Ding, Chao; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Meng
Due to the unattended nature and poor security guarantee of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs), adversaries can easily make replicas of compromised nodes, and place them throughout the network to launch various types of attacks. Such an attack is dangerous because it enables the adversaries to control large numbers of nodes and extend the damage of attacks to most of the network with quite limited cost. To stop the node replica attack, we propose a location similarity-based detection scheme using deployment knowledge. Compared with prior solutions, our scheme provides extra functionalities that prevent replicas from generating false location claims without deploying resource-consuming localization techniques on the resource-constraint sensor nodes. We evaluate the security performance of our proposal under different attack strategies through heuristic analysis, and show that our scheme achieves secure and robust replica detection by increasing the cost of node replication. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of network environment on the proposed scheme through theoretic analysis and simulation experiments, and indicate that our scheme achieves effectiveness and efficiency with substantially lower communication, computational, and storage overhead than prior works under different situations and attack strategies. PMID:28098846
Ding, Chao; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Meng
Due to the unattended nature and poor security guarantee of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs), adversaries can easily make replicas of compromised nodes, and place them throughout the network to launch various types of attacks. Such an attack is dangerous because it enables the adversaries to control large numbers of nodes and extend the damage of attacks to most of the network with quite limited cost. To stop the node replica attack, we propose a location similarity-based detection scheme using deployment knowledge. Compared with prior solutions, our scheme provides extra functionalities that prevent replicas from generating false location claims without deploying resource-consuming localization techniques on the resource-constraint sensor nodes. We evaluate the security performance of our proposal under different attack strategies through heuristic analysis, and show that our scheme achieves secure and robust replica detection by increasing the cost of node replication. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of network environment on the proposed scheme through theoretic analysis and simulation experiments, and indicate that our scheme achieves effectiveness and efficiency with substantially lower communication, computational, and storage overhead than prior works under different situations and attack strategies.
李福昌; 马彰超; 孙雷; 王友祥; 张忠皓
Centralized BBU deployment can effectively reduce site location requirement, lower down CAPEX/OPEX and energy consump-tion for LTE network;moreover, the multi-cellco-channel interference problem can be mitigated through further BBU pooling. It proposes the main principle, scenarios for centralized BBU deployment, and key solutions including RRU cascading and high capacity BBU in order to overcome the resource constraint problems, e.g., lack of fiber, site area, and rooftop for GPS antennas. It is envisioned that these solutions can effectively optimize today’s base station deployment strategy and propel the mobile network architecture evolving towards BBU pooling.%BBU集中化部署可有效缓解LTE建设中面临的站址获取难、建设运维成本高、能耗攀升等问题；通过进一步的BBU池组化技术还可有效提升网络性能。本文给出了BBU集中化部署的总体原则、应用场景，并针对BBU集中化部署实施中所面临的前传输纤芯资源受限、BBU机房空间受限、RRU供电、安全性、GPS天面空间受限等问题提出了包括RRU级联、大容量BBU在内的系列解决方案，可有效优化现网基站部署方案，推动移动网架构向BBU池组化方向演进。
Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.
Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via
the storage infrastructure is the foundation on which information relies and therefore must support a company's business objectives and business model. In this environment, simply deploying more and faster storage devices is not enough; a new kind of infrastructure is needed, one that provides more enhanced network availability, data accessibility, and system manageability than is provided by today's infrastructure. The SAN meets this challenge. The SAN liberates the storage device, so it is not on a particular server bus, and attaches it directly to the network. In other words, storage is externalized and functionally distributed across the organization. The SAN also enables the centralizing of storage devices and the clustering of servers, which makes for easier and less expensive administration. So the idea is to create an intelligent SAN infrastructure that stretches to meet increased demands, allows highly available and heterogeneous access to expanding information.
Li Dong; Liu Wei; Hui Chunli; Huang Changcheng; Cui Li
This paper describes the deployment optimization technology and the cross-layer design of a surveillance WSN system applied in relic protection. Facing the typical technical challenges in the application context of relic protection, we firstly propose a deployment technology based on ant colony optimization algorithm (DT-ACO) to overcome the difficulties in communication connectivity and sensing coverage. Meanwhile, DT-ACO minimizes the overall cost of the system as much as possible. Secondly we propose a novel power-aware cross-layer scheme (PACS) to facilitate adjustable system lifetime and surveillance accuracy. The performance analysis shows that we achieve lower device cost, significant extension of the system lifetime and improvement on the data delivery rate compared with the traditional methods.
Kuroda, Masahiro; Qiu, Shuye; Tochikubo, Osamu
Many healthcare/medical services have started using personal area networks, such as Bluetooth and ZigBee; these networks consist of various types of vital sensors. These works focus on generalized functions for sensor networks that expect enough battery capacity and low-power CPU/RF (Radio Frequency) modules, but less attention to easy-to-use privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a commercially-deployable secure body area network (S-BAN) with reduced computational burden on a real sensor that has limited RAM/ROM sizes and CPU/RF power consumption under a light-weight battery. Our proposed S-BAN provides vital data ordering among sensors that are involved in an S-BAN and also provides low-power networking with zero-administration security by automatic private key generation. We design and implement the power-efficient media access control (MAC) with resource-constraint security in sensors. Then, we evaluate the power efficiency of the S-BAN consisting of small sensors, such as an accessory type ECG and ring-type SpO2. The evaluation of power efficiency of the S-BAN using real sensors convinces us in deploying S-BAN and will also help us in providing feedbacks to the IEEE802.15.6 MAC, which will be the standard for BANs.
余扬尧; 陈杨; 杨芙蓉
Starting ifrst with the current mobile user development situation of the three operators, the paper analyzed the necessity of China telecom LTE 800 MHz network construction, the network coverage, terminal market, construction speed, the business competition, and etc., concluded the short-term, mid-term and long-term deployment strategy for LTE 800 MHz.%首先从当前三大运营商的移动业务用户发展情况入手，分析了中国电信LTE 800 MHz网络建设的必要性，对LTE 800 MHz的网络覆盖、终端市场、建设速度、业务竞争等几个方面进行分析，得出了LTE 800 MHz近、中、远期的部署策略。
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent a class of miniaturized information systems designed to monitor physical environments. These smart monitoring systems form collaborative networks utilizing autonomous sensing, data-collection, and processing to provide real-time analytics of observed environments. As a fundamental research area in…
Martins, Luciano; Ferramola Pozzuto, João; Olimpio Tognolli, João; Chaves, Niudomar Siqueira De A.; Reggiani, Atilio Eduardo; Hortêncio, Claudio Antonio
This article presents the implementation of a testbed and the experimental results obtained with it on the Brazilian Experimental Network of the government-sponsored "GIGA Project." The use of IPv6 integrated to current and emerging optical architectures and technologies, such as dense wavelength division multiplexing and 10-gigabit Ethernet on the core and gigabit capable passive optical network and optical distribution network on access, were tested. These protocols, architectures, and optical technologies are promising and part of a brand new worldwide technological scenario that has being fairly adopted in the networks of enterprises and providers of the world.
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St. John, W.B.; DuBois, D.H.
This paper describes a HIPPI-SONET Gateway which has been designed by members of the Computer Network Engineering Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Gateway has been used in the CASA Gigabit Testbed at Caltech, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the San Diego Supercomputer Center to provide communications between the sites. This paper will also make some qualitative statements as to lessons learned during the deployment and maintenance of this wide area network. We report record throughput for transmission of data across a wide area network. We have sustained data rates using the TCP/IP protocol of 550 Mbits/second and the rate of 792 Mbits/second for raw HIPPI data transfer over the 2,000 kilometers from the San Diego Supercomputer Center to the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Dittmann, Lars; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Checko, Aleksandra
In future mobile networks aggregation at different levels is necessary but at the same time imposes challenges that mandate looking into new architectures. This paper presents the design consideration approach for a C-RAN based mobile aggregation network used in the EU HARP project. With this arc...
Le Xuan Hung
Full Text Available For many sensor network applications such as military or homeland security, it is essential for users (sinks to access the sensor network while they are moving. Sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. Also, studies and experiences have shown that considering security during design time is the best way to provide security for sensor network routing. This paper presents an energy-efficient secure routing and key management for mobile sinks in sensor networks, called SCODEplus. It is a significant extension of our previous study in five aspects: (1 Key management scheme and routing protocol are considered during design time to increase security and efficiency; (2 The network topology is organized in a hexagonal plane which supports more efficiency than previous square-grid topology; (3 The key management scheme can eliminate the impacts of node compromise attacks on links between non-compromised nodes; (4 Sensor node deployment is based on Gaussian distribution which is more realistic than uniform distribution; (5 No GPS or like is required to provide sensor node location information. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can defend against common attacks in sensor networks including node compromise attacks, replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Both mathematical and simulation-based performance evaluation show that the SCODEplus significantly reduces the communication overhead, energy consumption, packet delivery latency while it always delivers more than 97 percent of packets successfully.
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road dust. 4-3 Table 4.1.1-3. Cluster road construction equipment list. NUMBER OF VEHICLES EQUIPMENT S E TYPE SEGEMENT 1 S SEGMENT 3 SEGMENT 4...vehicle type to be allocated to the four primary construction segement areas (see Figure 4.1.1-1) for shelter construction. Preliminary estimates used...greater in the Nevada/Utah region. Aggregate storage pile emissions are the only emission factors in this section that provide compensation for geographic
Michael H Parsons
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether or not animals habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents may depend upon whether there are predators associated with the cues. Understanding the contexts of habituation is theoretically important and has profound implication for the application of predator-based herbivore deterrents. We repeatedly exposed a mixed mob of macropod marsupials to olfactory scents (urine, feces from a sympatric predator (Canis lupus dingo, along with a control (water. If these predator cues were alarming, we expected that over time, some red kangaroos (Macropus rufous, western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus and agile wallabies (Macropus agilis would elect to not participate in cafeteria trials because the scents provided information about the riskiness of the area. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of urine and feces independently and expected that urine would elicit a stronger reaction because it contains a broader class of infochemicals (pheromones, kairomones. Finally, we scored non-invasive indicators (flight and alarm stomps to determine whether fear or altered palatability was responsible for the response. Repeated exposure reduced macropodid foraging on food associated with 40 ml of dingo urine, X = 986.75+/-3.97 g food remained as compared to the tap water control, X = 209.0+/-107.0 g (P0.5. Macropodids did not habituate to repeated exposure to predator scents, rather they avoided the entire experimental area after 10 days of trials (R(2 = 83.8; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Responses to urine and feces were indistinguishable; both elicited fear-based responses and deterred foraging. Despite repeated exposure to predator-related cues in the absence of a predator, macropodids persistently avoided an area of highly palatable food. Area avoidance is consistent with that observed from other species following repeated anti-predator conditioning, However, this is the first time this response has been
Thotahewa, Kasun Maduranga Silva; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit
This book explores the design of ultra wideband (UWB) technology for wireless body-area networks (WBAN). The authors describe a novel implementation of WBAN sensor nodes that use UWB for data transmission and narrow band for data reception, enabling low power sensor nodes, with high data rate capability. The discussion also includes power efficient, medium access control (MAC) protocol design for UWB based WBAN applications and the authors present a MAC protocol in which a guaranteed delivery mechanism is utilized to transfer data with high priority. Readers will also benefit from this book’s feasibility analysis of the UWB technology for human implant applications through the study of electromagnetic and thermal power absorption of human tissue that is exposed to UWB signals. • Describes hardware platform development for IR-UWB based WBAN communication; • Discusses power efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol design for IR-UWB based WBAN applications; • Includes feasibility analy...
This paper describes the design of a Local Area Network (LAN) diagnostic package This program will contain "confidence" type test routines, and commands designed to aid in detecting failures and improve the use of the LAN services during normal operations. The approach selected requires installing the same copy of the program in selected bus interface units(bius) and a subset in all the others bius. Those bius containing the full set of options are the controlling nodes; more than one controlling node can run concurrently its own diagnostic program. Messages generated when exercising the different resources and interfaces of the LAN will be stored and/or displayed on appropriate positions. As a minimum the LAN will have one controlling node which will be the location of the LAN's technical control. The diagnostics will provide data to aid in mana-ging the system, accepting or declining requests for connections, allocating additional ports, declaring sectors inoperable, off lining nodes, devices, functions, and reconfiguring the system as necessary. Host computers can optionally have the full blown diagnostic program, which allows them to be a controlling node, or a subset of the diagnostic program with enough capabilities to interface with its host front end biu (hfe). The diagnostics will have its own application protocol and will utilize the ser-vices of the Internet Protocol (IP) to transport messages to their destinations.
As social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are becoming increasingly popular, a growing number of malicious attacks, such as phishing and malware, are exploiting them. Among these attacks, social botnets have sophisticated infrastructure that leverages compromised users accounts, known as bots, to automate the creation of new social networking accounts for spamming and malware propagation. Traditional defense mechanisms are often passive and reactive to non-zero-day attacks. In t...
Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I; 10.5121/ijdms.2010.2305
The Next Generation Networks (NGN) aims to integrate for IP-based telecom infrastructures and provide most advance & high speed emerging value added services. NGN capable to provide higher innovative services, these services will able to integrate communication and Web service into a single platform. IP Multimedia Subsystem, a NGN leading technology, enables a variety of NGN-compliant communications services to interoperate while being accessed through different kinds of access networks, preferably broadband. IMSâNGN services essential by both consumer and corporate users are by now used to access services, even communications services through the web and web-based communities and social networks, It is key for success of IMS-based services to be provided with efficient web access, so users can benefit from those new services by using web-based applications and user interfaces, not only NGN-IMS User Equipments and SIP protocol. Many Service are under planning which provided only under convergence of ...
Antonio F. Gómez Skarmeta
Full Text Available The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity with any object, through the Internet of Things (IoT and/or the Web, i.e., the Web of Things. These connectivity capabilities are making it feasible to sense the behaviours of people at home and act accordingly. These sensing systems must be integrated within typical elements found at home such as furniture. For that reason, this work considers furniture as an interesting element for the transparent location of sensors. Furniture is a ubiquitous object, i.e., it can be found everywhere at home or the office, and it can integrate and hide the sensors of a network. This work addresses the lack of an exhaustive study of the effect of furniture on signal losses. In addition an easy-to-use tool for estimating the robustness of the communication channel among the sensor nodes and gateways is proposed. Specifically, the losses in a sensor network signal due to the materials found within the communication link are evaluated. Then, this work proposes a software tool that gathers the obtained results and is capable of evaluating the impact of a given set of materials on the communications. This tool also provides a mechanism to optimize the sensor network deployments during the definition of smart spaces. Specifically, it provides information such as: maximum distances between sensor nodes, most suitable type of furniture to integrate sensors, or battery life of sensor nodes. This tool has been validated empirically in the lab, and it is currently being used by several enterprise partners of the Technological Centre of Furniture and Wood in the southeast of Spain.
Bleda, Andrés L; Jara, Antonio J; Maestre, Rafael; Santa, Guadalupe; Gómez Skarmeta, Antonio F
The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity with any object, through the Internet of Things (IoT) and/or the Web, i.e., the Web of Things. These connectivity capabilities are making it feasible to sense the behaviours of people at home and act accordingly. These sensing systems must be integrated within typical elements found at home such as furniture. For that reason, this work considers furniture as an interesting element for the transparent location of sensors. Furniture is a ubiquitous object, i.e., it can be found everywhere at home or the office, and it can integrate and hide the sensors of a network. This work addresses the lack of an exhaustive study of the effect of furniture on signal losses. In addition an easy-to-use tool for estimating the robustness of the communication channel among the sensor nodes and gateways is proposed. Specifically, the losses in a sensor network signal due to the materials found within the communication link are evaluated. Then, this work proposes a software tool that gathers the obtained results and is capable of evaluating the impact of a given set of materials on the communications. This tool also provides a mechanism to optimize the sensor network deployments during the definition of smart spaces. Specifically, it provides information such as: maximum distances between sensor nodes, most suitable type of furniture to integrate sensors, or battery life of sensor nodes. This tool has been validated empirically in the lab, and it is currently being used by several enterprise partners of the Technological Centre of Furniture and Wood in the southeast of Spain.
Describes local area networks (LANs) and discusses advantages of their use in schools for students and teachers, including networking in labs, media centers, and classrooms. Roles of the network supervisor and/or technician are explained, including making decisions about the rights of users and instruction and assistance. (LRW)
Kartalopoulos, Stamatios V.
Optical transmission is recognized to be a cost-efficient method. Optical technology, lasers, detectors, fiber or free space and other photonic components support ultra-high data rates that exceed many Gbps per channel. Free space optical communication has an additional advantages over fiber; although it does not currently support many channels, it is fast deployable as it does not require long-term planning and installation as fiber does, and, the optical link has additional security features. In this paper we present a mesh free space optical network, which is reconfigurable, it supports "fused" payloads (voice, data, video, image) it supports wireless communication services, and it supports sensor grids. We also discuss FSO engineering, traffic and fault management, security features and deployability to disaster areas.
Singh, Surya V.; Thronas, Aaron I.
This paper discusses the importance of remote access via virtual private network (VPN) for the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Central Alarm System (CAS) sites, the requirements for maintaining secure channels while using VPN and implementation requirements for current and future sites.
Ebersole, Dennis C.
Considers educational applications of local area computer networks and discusses industry standards for design established by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). A futuristic view of a learning laboratory using a local area network is presented. (Author/LRW)
Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) are envisioned to enable next-generation cellular networks by providing higher spectral and energy efficiency. A HetNet is typically composed of multiple radio access technologies where several low-power low-cost operators or user-deployed small-cell base stations (SBSs) complement the macrocell network. In this paper, we consider a two-tier HetNet where the SBSs are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell such that the resultant configuration is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE). Each mobile user in a small cell is considered capable of adapting its uplink transmit power according to a location-based slow power control mechanism. The COE configuration is observed to increase the uplink area spectral efficiency (ASE) and energy efficiency while reducing the cochannel interference power. A moment-generating-function (MGF)-based approach has been exploited to derive the analytical bounds on the uplink ASE of the COE configuration. The derived expressions are generalized for any composite fading distribution, and closed-form expressions are presented for the generalized- K fading channels. Simulation results are included to support the analysis and to show the efficacy of the COE configuration. A comparative performance analysis is also provided to demonstrate the improvements in the performance of cell-edge users of the COE configuration compared with that of macro-only networks (MoNets) and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2013 IEEE.
无线传感器网络的部署方式影响传感器网络的覆盖质量、网络拓扑结构、网络的连通性和网络的生存时间等性能.从静态和动态两种方式对节点的部署进行研究.阐述相关节点部署技术,并对节点部署中存在的问题进行分析和评述,指出今后的研究方向.%In wireless sensor networks,the coverage quality,network topology structure,network connection and lifetime are influenced by the node deployment. Node deployment in sensor networks on the scales of both static and dynamic aspects are researched. Related techniques of node deployment are pointed out based on the analysis and remarks of node deployment remaining unsolved in wireless sensor networks. Future research directions is pointed out.
Brust, Matthias R.; Strimbu, Bogdan M.
Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained popularity due to their many potential application fields. Alongside sophisticated sensors, UAVs can be equipped with communication adaptors aimed for inter-UAV communication. Inter-communication of UAVs to form a UAV swarm raises questions on how to manage its communication structure and mobility. In this paper, we consider therefore the problem of establishing an efficient swarm movement model and a network topology between a collection...
Liu, C.; Lu, P.; WU, H.
Landslide is one of the most destructive natural disasters, which severely affects human lives as well as the safety of personal properties and public infrastructures. Monitoring and predicting landslide movements can keep an adequate safety level for human beings in those situations. This paper indicated a newly developed Stereo Multi-sensor Landslide Monitoring Network (SMSLMN) based on a uniform temporal geo-reference. Actually, early in 2003, SAMOA (Surveillance et Auscultation des Mouvements de Terrain Alpins, French) project was put forwarded as a plan for landslide movements monitoring. However, SAMOA project did not establish a stereo observation network to fully cover the surface and internal part of landslide. SMSLMN integrated various sensors, including space-borne, airborne, in-situ and underground sensors, which can quantitatively monitor the slide-body and obtain portent information of movement in high frequency with high resolution. The whole network has been deployed at the Xishan landslide, Sichuan, P.R.China. According to various characteristic of stereo monitoring sensors, observation capabilities indicators for different sensors were proposed in order to obtain the optimal sensors combination groups and observation strategy. Meanwhile, adaptive networking and reliable data communication methods were developed to apply intelligent observation and sensor data transmission. Some key technologies, such as signal amplification and intelligence extraction technology, data access frequency adaptive adjustment technology, different sensor synchronization control technology were developed to overcome the problems in complex observation environment. The collaboratively observation data have been transferred to the remote data center where is thousands miles away from the giant landslide spot. These data were introduced into the landslide stability analysis model, and some primary conclusion will be achieved at the end of paper.
Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.
A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.
Mujica Rojas, Gabriel Noe
El campo de investigación de las Redes de Sensores Inalámbricas (en inglés Wireless Sensor Networks, WSN) ha experimentado un importante y progresivo proceso de maduración que ha involucrado la definición de nuevas tecnologías a nivel hardware y software con el fin de abordar escenarios de aplicación mucho más demandantes, en los que plataformas flexibles y adaptables juegan un papel fundamental para la consecución de los requisitos de aplicación y provisión de servicios dentro de diversos en...
Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness...
have mail waiting for them the next time they log on the network. Also, the server will notify the sender if the message is undeliverable. Networks with...drive E: contains the volume INBOX which is used as the mailbox on the server to store electronic mail . EtherShare volumes can have three kinds of...numerical order received mail in your INBOX volume. If there is no mail the screen will be blank. Immediately upon starting EMAIL the program will check to
Berghout, Niels; Cabal, Helena; Gouveia, João Pedro; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, André
This paper provides a method to identify drivers, barriers and synergies (DBS) related to the deployment of a CO
Francois, C.; Berril, J.; Pettinga, J.
A dense network of strong motion seismometers is being developed in order to investigate the complexities of the upper crustal rupture process and propagation of major seismogenic sources such as the Alpine Fault and strands of the Marlborough Fault System defining the South Island sector of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone. The proposed network is designed as a dense array of approximately 20 accelerographs using the University of Canterbury 12-bit CUSP instrument, now nearing development completion. It will be deployed straddling the Alpine Fault in the central West Coast region of the South Island, and coverage will extend across the region at the Alpine-Hope Fault junction also. The array layout is being designed utilizing the frequency-analysis MUSIC method (Multiple Signal Characterization) developed by Goldstein and Archuleta (1991a&b). Synthetic strong-motion records were computed using an empirical Green's function synthetic seismogram program EMPSYN (Hutchings, 1987). The process of finding an optimal network configuration is dependent on the geometry of the array (study of the frequency analysis performance of the modelled earthquake data for various proposed array configurations), and on the instrument site conditions (geology, communications, accessibility, isolation etc). References Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991a). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; data analysis." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6187-6198. Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991b). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; theory and methods." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6173-6185. Hutchings, L. J. (1987). "Modelling strong earthquake ground motion with empirical Green's function", Ph.D. thesis, Department of
Full Text Available The primary aim of the IN was to enhance the core telephony services offered by traditional telecommunications networks, which usually amounted to making and receiving voice calls, sometimes with call divert. This core would then provide a basis upon which operators could build services in addition to those already present on astandard telephone exchange. Using the intelligent network (IN approach for supporting telecommunications services enables the use of productivity-enhancing techniques for the creation of new services. Rather than creating new services by cutting fresh software code, modules of service-independent logic can be arranged using graphical user interfaces. As a result, advanced telecommunications services, which are independent of the central switch, can be created more quickly than ever.
Walter, F.; Husen, S.; Meier, M.; Plenkers, K.; Hiemer, S.; Ryser, C.; Lüthi, M.; Funk, M.; Catania, G.; Clinton, J.
The effect of the observed increase in surface melt on the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet is not fully understood. Specifically, it is not clear to what extent the subglacial hydraulic system can respond to changes in melt water input. Depending on its adaptability, the subglacial drainage system may help enhance or diminish ice flow during warming air temperatures. In order to gain a better understanding of the subglacial drainage system, we installed a high-density campaign seismic network during summer 2011 on the Greenland ice sheet. The goal of the passive seismic monitoring is the detection and characterization of dislocation mechanisms, such as englacial fracturing and basal stick-slip motion. A better understanding of these processes will elucidate the englacial and subglacial drainage system and its role in ice dynamics. The seismic deployment was part of an international deep drilling project. In the vicinity of the seismic network seven boreholes were drilled to the glacier bed and equipped with scientific instruments to measure englacial deformation, temperature, basal water pressure and glacier sliding rates. In our presentation we describe the seismological experiment and offer a first impression of the 'icequake' waveform variety, which we have recorded. The installation consisted of 17 three-component seismometers, including three deep (150 - 400 m) borehole sensors and two broadband seismometers. The aperture of the array was about one kilometre. It was operated over a time span of six weeks. Data were recorded continuously at high sampling frequencies (500 Hz). Due to high ablation rates surface sensors had to be re-leveled daily. As expected from previous studies of Alpine icequakes we recorded a large number of surface crevassing events and found evidence for deeper (more than 100 m depth) fracture events most likely due englacial hydrofracturing. In addition, we recorded relatively low-frequency (0.3-1.5 Hz) transients, with high signal
Hulen, H; Graf, O; Fitzgerald, K; Watson, R W
The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale storage systems and high performance global file access for clients. Key attributes of SAN file systems are found in HPSS today, and more complete SAN file system capabilities are being added. This paper traces the HPSS storage network architecture from the original implementation using HIPPI and IPI-3 technology, through today's local area network (LAN) capabilities, and to SAN file system capabilities now in development. At each stage, HPSS capabilities are compared with capabilities generally accepted today as characteristic of storage area networks and SAN file systems.
Somasundaram, M; Sivakumar, R
Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient's life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body function records. Most of the systems on the Wireless Body Area Network are not effective in facing the security deployment issues. To access the patient's information with higher security on WBAN, Game Theory with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium (GTSSE) is proposed in this paper. GTSSE mechanism takes all the players into account. The patients are monitored by placing the power position authority initially. The position authority in GTSSE is the organizer and all the other players react to the organizer decision. Based on our proposed approach, experiment has been conducted on factors such as security ratio based on patient's health information, system flexibility level, energy consumption rate, and information loss rate. Stackelberg Security considerably improves the strength of solution with higher security.
Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud
Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree
朱炳春; 贾潞华; 等
This paper introduces architectures of two types optical packet-switched metropolitan area networks and their media access control protocols.We have designed ralated network simulation systems.With these simulation systems,the characteristics and performanceof the two MANs can be achieved.
vulnerability assessment capability within the Marine Corps. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 177 14. SUBJECT TERMS Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), WiFi ... WiFi Protected Access xviii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xix...intelligence officers in how to hack into U.S. computers2. Government networks, proprietary commercial information, and scientific research are all
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers recently approved a high-speed wireless standard that enables devices from different manufacturers to communicate through a common backbone, making wireless local area networks more feasible in schools. Schools can now use wireless access points and network cards to provide flexible…
Sloan, Fred A.; Koohang, Alex A.
Discussion of the advantages of local area networks (LANs) focuses on their use for successful cooperative learning. Individual and group assessment of success are discussed, effects on academic and affective achievement are considered, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs to use with networking are suggested. (19 references) (LRW)
Persky, Gail; And Others
Provides detailed description of New York University's (NYU) Bobst Library Local Area Network (LAN), which was designed and implemented by Geac Computers International technical personnel and NYU library systems staff. Definitions of terminology, why the library installed a LAN, planning, network installation, and the LAN configuration and…
Davis, Trisha L.
Discusses the acquisition of CD-ROM products for local area networks based on experiences at the Ohio State University libraries. Topics addressed include the historical development of CD-ROM acquisitions; database selection, including pricing and subscription options; the ordering process; and network licensing issues. (six references) (LRW)
Tao, Dorothy S.
Discusses the rationale, methodology, capabilities and problems of a local area network created for the Library Consortium of Health Institutions in Buffalo, using a multi-user microcomputer. The rationale and design of a new network, designed to better meet information and compatibility requirements, are described and suggestions to network…
Hoehl, Susan B.
Examines technological changes in the local area network (LAN) of the Health Sciences Library of Allegheny General Hospital during three years of operation and describes the resulting evolution of staff, services, network requirements, budget, and external relationships of the library. LAN expenditures over four years are shown. (1 reference) (MES)
Dermody, Melinda Bako
With the ever growing interest that libraries have in the Internet, the potentials of other computer resources may be overlooked or under-utilized. One such resource is the campus local area network (LAN). For libraries, a campus LAN presents possibilities ranging from simple library promotion to networked databases. The Internet provides…
True, John F.; Rosenwald, Judah
Five administrative user departments at San Francisco State University discovered that they had common requirements for office automation and data manipulation that could be addressed with microcomputers. The results of a local area network project are presented. (Author/MLW)
Full Text Available Smart Grids (SGs constitute the evolution of the traditional electrical grid towards a new paradigm, which should increase the reliability, the security and, at the same time, reduce the costs of energy generation, distribution and consumption. Electrical microgrids (MGs can be considered the first stage of this evolution of the grid, because of the intelligent management techniques that must be applied to assure their correct operation. To accomplish this task, sensors and actuators will be necessary, along with wireless communication technologies to transmit the measured data and the command messages. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs are therefore a promising solution to achieve an intelligent management of MGs and, by extension, the SG. In this frame, this paper surveys several aspects concerning the application of WSANs to manage MGs and the electrical grid, as well as the communication protocols that could be applied. The main concerns regarding the SG deployment are also presented, including future scenarios where the interoperability of different generation technologies must be assured.
Wu Hongxing; Song Liwei; Kou Baoquan; Cheng Shukang
It is of increasing importance to design and implement vehicle networks for transferring information between electrical control units on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). This paper presents a scheme of using Controller Area Network (CAN) technology to realize communication and datasharing between the electrical units on the HEV. The principle and communication protocol of Electrical Control Units (ECU) CAN node are introduced. By considering different sensitivity of the devices to the latency of data transportation, a new design procedure is proposed for the purpose of simplifying network codes and wiring harness, reducing assembly space and weight, improving assembly efficiency, and enhancing fault-diagnose in auto networks.
de Silva Varuni
Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of
The global network is more than ever taking its role as the great "enabler" for many branches of science and research. Foremost amongst such science drivers is of course the LHC/LCG programme, although there are several other sectors with growing demands of the network. Common to all of these is the realisation that a straightforward over provisioned best efforts wide area IP service is probably not enough for the future. This talk will summarise the needs of several science sectors, and the advances being made to exploit the current best efforts infrastructure. It will then describe current projects aimed as provisioning "better than best efforts" services (such bandwidth on demand), the global optical R&D testbeds and the strategy of the research network providers to move towards hybrid multi-service networks for the next generation of the global wide area production network.
Koohi, Hamidreza; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Fathi, Mahmoud
In this paper, we intend to focus on the sensor network applications in firefighting. A distributed algorithm is developed for the sensor network to guide firefighters through a burning area. The sensor network models the danger of the area under coverage as obstacles, and has the property to adapt...... itself against possible changes. The protocol developed, will integrate the artificial potential field of the sensors with the information of the intended place of moving firefighter so that it guides the firefighter step by step through the sensor network by choosing the safest path in dangerous zones....... This protocol is simulated by Visual-Sense and the simulation results are available. Keyword: Firefighter, Sensor Network, Potential Field, Area’s Danger, Navigation...
PENG YunFeng; KUANG YuJun; LONG KePing
As a promising solution to efficiently achieving fiber to the home (FTTH), Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) is currently improved to provide intercommunica-tion among customers, together with normal traffic delivery, via optical local area network emulation. It is a new research direction and expected to enhance the normal EPON performances. The purpose of this article is to review the state-of-the-art solutions to emulating optical local area networks (OLANs) over EPON. We discuss the major problems involved, e.g., network architecture, control mecha-nisms, and other potential enhancements. We also outline areas for future re-searches.
Kilb, D. L.; Yang, A.; Rohrlick, D.; Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Choo, Y.
The Kinect technology allows for hands-free game play, greatly increasing the accessibility of gaming for those uncomfortable using controllers. How it works is the Kinect camera transmits invisible near-infrared light and measures its "time of flight" to reflect off an object, allowing it to distinguish objects within 1 centimeter in depth and 3 mm in height and width. The middleware can also respond to body gestures and voice commands. Here, we use the Kinect Windows SDK software to create a game that mimics how scientists deploy seismic instruments following a large earthquake. The educational goal of the game is to allow the players to explore 3D space as they learn about the Quake Catcher Network's (QCN) Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP). Many of the scenarios within the game are taken from factual RAMP experiences. To date, only the PC platform (or a Mac running PC emulator software) is available for use, but we hope to move to other platforms (e.g., Xbox 360, iPad, iPhone) as they become available. The game is written in programming language C# using Microsoft XNA and Visual Studio 2010, graphic shading is added using High Level Shader Language (HLSL), and rendering is produced using XNA's graphics libraries. Key elements of the game include selecting sensor locations, adequately installing the sensor, and monitoring the incoming data. During game play aftershocks can occur unexpectedly, as can other problems that require attention (e.g., power outages, equipment failure, and theft). The player accrues points for quickly deploying the first sensor (recording as many initial aftershocks as possible), correctly installing the sensors (orientation with respect to north, properly securing, and testing), distributing the sensors adequately in the region, and troubleshooting problems. One can also net points for efficient use of game play time. Setting up for game play in your local environment requires: (1) the Kinect hardware ( $145); (2) a computer
Small cell networks are becoming standard part of the future heterogeneous networks. In this paper, we consider a two tier heterogeneous network which promises energy savings by integrating the femto and macro cellular networks and thereby reducing CO2 emissions, operational and capital expenditures (OPEX and CAPEX) whilst enhancing the area spectral efficiency (ASE) of the network. In this context, we define a performance metric which characterize the aggregate energy savings per unit macrocell area and is referred to as area green efficiency (AGE) of the two tier heterogeneous network where the femto base stations are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell such that the configuration is referred to as femto-on-edge (FOE). The mobile users in macro and femto cellular networks are transmitting with the adaptive power while maintaining the desired link quality such that the energy aware FOE configuration mandates to (i) save energy, and (ii) reduce the co-channel interference. We present a mathematical analysis to incorporate the uplink power control mechanism adopted by the mobile users and calibrate the uplink ASE and AGE of the energy aware FOE configuration. Next, we derive analytical expressions to compute the bounds on the uplink ASE of energy aware FOE configuration and demonstrate that the derived bounds are useful in evaluating the ASE under worst and best case interference scenarios. Simulation results are produced to demonstrate the ASE and AGE improvements in comparison to macro-only and macro-femto configuration with uniformly distributed femtocells.
Full Text Available Interference-aware multiple access is an enabler to cost-efficient and reliable high data-rate local area wireless access. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware radio resource management scheme where receivers inform about their throughput, interference, and signal levels by means of broadcast messages tied to data reception. In the proposed scheme, the conventional scheduler is extended to interference-aware operation where individual scheduling decisions are based on estimated change in system-level performance. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in system simulations where it is compared to a conventional scheduler and a centralized scheduler (global optimum. The convergence of the proposed scheduler is analyzed and signaling overhead of an example implementation is characterized. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme enables fair and efficient wireless access in challenging interference scenarios, for example, multiple networks deployed in the same geographical area and sharing a common band.
Celicourt, P.; Piasecki, M.
Deployment of environmental sensors assemblies based on cheap platforms such as Raspberry Pi and Arduino have gained much attention over the past few years. While they are more attractive due to their ability to be controlled with a few programming language choices, the configuration task can become quite complex due to the need of having to learn several different proprietary data formats and protocols which constitute a bottleneck for the expansion of sensor network. In response to this rising complexity the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has sponsored the development of the IEEE 1451 standard in an attempt to introduce a common standard. The most innovative concept of the standard is the Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) which enables transducers to self-identify, self-describe, self-calibrate, to exhibit plug-and-play functionality, etc. We used Python to develop an IEEE 1451.0 platform-independent graphical user interface to generate and provide sufficient information about almost ANY sensor and sensor platforms for sensor programming purposes, automatic calibration of sensors data, incorporation of back-end demands on data management in TEDS for automatic standard-based data storage, search and discovery purposes. These features are paramount to make data management much less onerous in large scale sensor network. Along with the TEDS Creator, we developed a tool namely HydroUnits for three specific purposes: encoding of physical units in the TEDS, dimensional analysis, and on-the-fly conversion of time series allowing users to retrieve data in a desired equivalent unit while accommodating unforeseen and user-defined units. In addition, our back-end data management comprises the Python/Django equivalent of the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM) namely DjangODM that will be hosted by a MongoDB Database Server which offers more convenience for our application. We are also developing a data which will be paired with the data
McNamara, John E
This concise book provides an objective introduction to local area networks - how they work, what they do, and how you can benefit from them. It outlines the pros and cons of the most common configurations so you can evaluate them in light of your own needs. You'll also learn about network software, with special emphasis on the ISO layered model of communications protocols.
The goal of the Active System Area Networks (ASAN) project is to develop hardware and software technologies for the implementation of active system area networks (ASANs). The use of the term ''active'' refers to the ability of the network interfaces to perform application-specific as well as system level computations in addition to their traditional role of data transfer. This project adopts the view that the network infrastructure should be an active computational entity capable of supporting certain classes of computations that would otherwise be performed on the host CPUs. The result is a unique network-wide programming model where computations are dynamically placed within the host CPUs or the NIs depending upon the quality of service demands and network/CPU resource availability. The projects seeks to demonstrate that such an approach is a better match for data intensive network-based applications and that the advent of low-cost powerful embedded processors and configurable hardware makes such an approach economically viable and desirable.
Full Text Available In this work, the impact of radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens and its effect on 802.15.4 ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor networks operating in the 2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM band is analyzed. By means of a novel radioplanning approach, based on electromagnetic field simulation of a microwave oven and determination of equivalent radiation sources applied to an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, estimation of the microwave oven’s power leakage is obtained for the complete volume of an indoor scenario. The magnitude and the variable nature of the interference is analyzed and the impact in the radio link quality in operating wireless sensors is estimated and compared with radio channel measurements as well as packet measurements. The measurement results reveal the importance of selecting an adequate 802.15.4 channel, as well as the Wireless Sensor Network deployment strategy within this type of environment, in order to optimize energy consumption and increase the overall network performance. The proposed method enables one to estimate potential interference effects in devices operating within the 2.4 GHz band in the complete scenario, prior to wireless sensor network deployment, which can aid in achieving the most optimal network topology.
our usual behaviors or habits without even thinking about it. Sometimes we might relieve our stress in healthy (or positive) ways and other times we... teenage son who had lived with someone else during deployment: It was hard. He was, we had both changed, you know, he was becoming a teenager . We’re very...expressed helplessness for not being available for their families at home. For instance, one partici- pant reported that her teenager was failing his
Although the probabilistic model checking tool called PRISM has been applied in many communication systems, such as wireless local area network, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, the technique is not used in a controller area network (CAN). In this paper, we use PRISM to model the mechanism of priority messages for CAN because the mechanism has allowed CAN to become the leader in serial communication for automobile and industry control. Through modeling CAN, it is easy to analyze the characteristic of CAN for further improving the security and efficiency of automobiles. The Markov chain model helps us to model the behaviour of priority messages.
He, Daojing; Chan, Sammy; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Haomiao
As a special sensor network, a wireless body area network (WBAN) provides an economical solution to real-time monitoring and reporting of patients' physiological data. After a WBAN is deployed, it is sometimes necessary to disseminate data into the network through wireless links to adjust configuration parameters of body sensors or distribute management commands and queries to sensors. A number of such protocols have been proposed recently, but they all focus on how to ensure reliability and overlook security vulnerabilities. Taking into account the unique features and application requirements of a WBAN, this paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a secure, lightweight, confidential, and denial-of-service-resistant data discovery and dissemination protocol for WBANs to ensure the data items disseminated are not altered or tampered. Based on multiple one-way key hash chains, our protocol provides instantaneous authentication and can tolerate node compromise. Besides the theoretical analysis that demonstrates the security and performance of the proposed protocol, this paper also reports the experimental evaluation of our protocol in a network of resource-limited sensor nodes, which shows its efficiency in practice. In particular, extensive security analysis shows that our protocol is provably secure.
Information manual for the experimentation of the deployment of optical fibers on public power distribution networks; Notice d'information pour l'experimentation du deploiement de fibres optiques sur les reseaux publics d'electricite
During the French inter-ministry committee for the national development (CIADT) of July 9, 2001, the government decided to launch a feasibility study about the deployment of telecommunication optical fibers over the whole territory using the electricity transportation grid. The aim is to give access to high-speed Internet to everyone and at a reasonable cost. This manual summarizes the technical, legal and economical results of the study carried out by the working group: 1 - the actors in concern (managers of power transportation and distribution networks, country authorities, managers and users of telecommunication infrastructures, regulatory agencies, financial organizations); 2 - the telecommunication networks on power lines; 3 - the feasibility of the experimentation (relations between the different partners, conditions); 4 - the implementation of the experimentation (useful contacts, contracts); 5 - the experimentation areas. Appendixes. (J.S.)
Full Text Available This paper presents spatial relations between Polish urban areas and valuable habitats and links between them composing the country’s ecological network. The quantitative analysis for 891 towns and cities was conducted using GIS techniques based on cartographic vector data and statistical data. Valuable habitats and links between them, such as national parks, landscape parks, CORINE biotopes sites, wildlife corridors linking NATURA 2000 sites and ECONET areas, can be found in 72% of Polish towns and cities. The proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas is different depending on the size of a town or city and its location. Urban areas with the highest index of presence of valuable habitats and links between them are concentrated in the south of Poland, where settlement network is most dense. However, in the case of those areas the proportion of artificial surfaces interfering with the ecological network is lower than Poland’s average, being 16%. The pressure of anthropogenic land cover extending onto the country’s ecological network is most conspicuous in urban areas with a population of at least several dozen thousand residents where the average developed area is 20.8% of their total area. The danger for the continuity of the nature system is best seen in the north westernPoland, where artificial surfaces interference in towns and cities is largest. The analysis performed identified 82 towns and cities, in which the preservation of the continuity of the ecological networkshould be a priority in spatial management because of a higher than average index of the presence of valuable habitats and links between them and large proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas.
Beatty, William S.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.
The principal goal of protected area networks is biodiversity preservation, but efficacy of such networks is directly linked to animal movement within and outside area boundaries. We examined wetland selection patterns of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during non-breeding periods from 2010 to 2012 to evaluate the utility of protected areas to migratory waterfowl in North America. We tracked 33 adult females using global positioning system (GPS) satellite transmitters and implemented a use-availability resource selection design to examine mallard use of wetlands under varying degrees of protection. Specifically, we examined effects of proximities to National Wildlife Refuges, private land, state wildlife management areas, Wetland Reserve Program easements (WRP), and waterfowl sanctuaries on mallard wetland selection. In addition, we included landscape-level variables that measured areas of sanctuary and WRP within the surrounding landscape of each used and available wetland. We developed 8 wetland selection models according to season (autumn migration, winter, spring migration), hunting season (present, absent), and time period (diurnal, nocturnal). Model averaged parameter estimates indicated wetland selection patterns varied across seasons and time periods, but ducks consistently selected wetlands with greater areas of sanctuary and WRP in the surrounding landscape. Consequently, WRP has the potential to supplement protected area networks in the midcontinent region. Additionally, seasonal variation in wetland selection patterns indicated considering the effects of habitat management and anthropogenic disturbances on migratory waterfowl during the non-breeding period is essential in designing protected area networks.
Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira
An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival. PMID:24905831
Thien T. T. Le
Full Text Available Currently, wireless body area networks (WBANs are effectively used for health monitoring services. However, in cases where WBANs are densely deployed, interference among WBANs can cause serious degradation of network performance and reliability. Inter-WBAN interference can be reduced by scheduling the communication links of interfering WBANs. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware traffic-priority-based link scheduling (ITLS algorithm to overcome inter-WBAN interference in densely deployed WBANs. First, we model a network with multiple WBANs as an interference graph where node-level interference and traffic priority are taken into account. Second, we formulate link scheduling for multiple WBANs as an optimization model where the objective is to maximize the throughput of the entire network while ensuring the traffic priority of sensor nodes. Finally, we propose the ITLS algorithm for multiple WBANs on the basis of the optimization model. High spatial reuse is also achieved in the proposed ITLS algorithm. The proposed ITLS achieves high spatial reuse while considering traffic priority, packet length, and the number of interfered sensor nodes. Our simulation results show that the proposed ITLS significantly increases spatial reuse and network throughput with lower delay by mitigating inter-WBAN interference.
This paper describes the standards about wireless local area network (WLAN), and discusses the applications in formatting satellite and the types of WLAN, and give one type of WLAN conception which is Bus/Token-Ring. Finally, it describes some key technologies of the space WLAN.
Cotton, Simon L.; Dias, Ugo S.; Scanlon, William G.; Yacoub, Michel D.
In this letter, we investigate the distribution of the phase component of the complex received signal observed in practical experiments using body area networks. Two phase distributions, the recently proposed κ-μ and η-μ probability densities, which together encompass the most widely used fading mod
Wang, D.; Smith, D.; Ghosh, M.
Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) technology provides a promising solution to improve patient care outcomes and lower healthcare costs. However, the current spectrum allocation cannot cater to increasing MBAN applications. Therefore, U.S., as well as other regions, have already been considering allo
Bui, V.T.; Brandt, P.; Liu, H.; Basten, T.; Lukkien, J.
Crucial to the success of Body Area Sensor Networks is the flexibility with which stakeholders can share, extend and adapt the system with respect to sensors, data and functionality. The first step is to develop an interoperable platform with explicit interfaces, which takes care of common managemen
Farr, Rick C.
Discussion of the use of inexpensive microcomputers in local area information networks (LAN) notes such minicomputer problems as costs, capacity, downtime, and vendor dependence, and the advantages of using LAN in offices and libraries, less costly LAN upgrades, library vendors and LAN systems, and LAN problems. A 28-item bibliography is provided.…
Aman, Mohammed M.; And Others
Describes the process used to select a local area network (LAN) for the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Library and Information Science. The use of computers at the library school by staff, faculty, and students is described, technical aspects of a LAN are explained, and the future of LANs is discussed. (LRW)
Zhao, D.; Serdijn, W.A.; Huang, L.; Dolmans, G.
The wide range of wireless body area network (WBAN) applications gives rise to different system requirements for the carrier frequencies and data rates. In order to accommodate various standards in WBAN applications, a universal receiver system with good performance and low power is highly desirable
Levert, Virginia M.
Important features of local area networks (LAN) are reviewed, and several microcomputer LANs are described (ARCnet, Hinet, ShareNet, Ethernet, Omninet, PLAN 4000). Results of survey of 10 libraries using or planning to use a microcomputer LAN and considerations in choosing a LAN are reported. Forty-one references are cited. (EJS)
Angier, Jennifer J.; Hoehl, Susan B.
Presents a planning model for the automation of operations in a large hospital library and specifically describes the design and implementation of a local area network. Part 1 deals with the evolution of the idea, system planning, and design, and Part 2 addresses installation and implementation issues. (EM)
Presents reasons for choosing a connected computer system for student use in secondary schools. The systems approach is discussed; two alternatives are compared, a central computer and a local area network (LAN) of microcomputers; software is described; and two scenarios of LAN use are presented. (four references) (LRW)
Thompson, Diane P.
Describes the use of a local area network and video switching equipment in teaching revision skills on computer. Explains that reading stories from texts, rewriting them from differing character viewpoints, and editing them as a group exposed students to a variety of writing problems and stimulated various revision strategies. (SG)
Iskanderani, A. I.; Anwar, M. A.
Describes a local automated bilingual circulation system using personal computers in a local area network that was developed at King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia) for Arabic and English materials. Topics addressed include the system structure, hardware, major features, storage requirements, and costs. (nine references) (LRW)
Baird, Patricia M.; Borer, Beatrice
Hoehl, Susan B.
Describes a LAN (local area network)-based automation project which has neared completion of the first phase of implementation at the Health Sciences Library of Allegheny General Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA). Changes in the library and its objectives with increased technological experience are examined. Diagrams of the current LAN configuration and…
Full Text Available Networks-on-Chip (NoCs are emerging as scalable interconnection architectures, designed to support the increasing amount of cores that are integrated onto a silicon die. Compared to traditional interconnects, however, NoCs still lack well established CAD deployment tools to tackle the large amount of available degrees of freedom, starting from the choice of a network topology. “Silicon-aware” optimization tools are now emerging in literature; they select an NoC topology taking into account the tradeoff between performance and hardware cost, that is, area and power consumption. A key requirement for the effectiveness of these tools, however, is the availability of accurate analytical models for power and area. Such models are unfortunately not as available and well understood as those for traditional communication fabrics. Further, simplistic models may turn out to be totally inaccurate when applied to wire dominated architectures; this observation demands at least for a model validation step against placed and routed devices. In this work, given an NoC reference architecture, we present a flow to devise analytical models of area occupation and power consumption of NoC switches, and propose strategies for coefficient characterization which have different tradeoffs in terms of accuracy and of modeling activity effort. The models are parameterized on several architectural, synthesis-related, and traffic variables, resulting in maximum flexibility. We finally assess the accuracy of the models, checking whether they can also be applied to placed and routed NoC blocks.
Full Text Available With the evolution and fusion of wireless sensor network and embedded camera technologies, distributed smart camera networks have emerged as a new class of systems for wide-area surveillance applications. Wireless networks, however, introduce a number of constraints to the system that need to be considered, notably the communication bandwidth constraints. Existing approaches for target tracking using a camera network typically utilize target handover mechanisms between cameras, or combine results from 2D trackers in each camera into 3D target estimation. Such approaches suffer from scale selection, target rotation, and occlusion, drawbacks typically associated with 2D tracking. In this paper, we present an approach for tracking multiple targets directly in 3D space using a network of smart cameras. The approach employs multi-view histograms to characterize targets in 3D space using color and texture as the visual features. The visual features from each camera along with the target models are used in a probabilistic tracker to estimate the target state. We introduce four variations of our base tracker that incur different computational and communication costs on each node and result in different tracking accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed trackers by comparing their performance to a 3D tracker that fuses the results of independent 2D trackers. We also present performance analysis of the base tracker along Quality-of-Service (QoS and Quality-of-Information (QoI metrics, and study QoS vs. QoI trade-offs between the proposed tracker variations. Finally, we demonstrate our tracker in a real-life scenario using a camera network deployed in a building.
Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Dehoff, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility
) systems development, (iv) material feedstock, (v) process planning, (vi) residual stress & distortion, (vii) post-processing, (viii) qualification of parts, (ix) supply chain and (x) business case. Furthermore, an open innovation network methodology was proposed to accelerate the development and deployment of new large-scale metal additive manufacturing technology with the goal of creating a new generation of high deposition rate equipment, affordable feed stocks, and large metallic components to enhance America’s economic competitiveness.
刘安丰; 聂红伟; 吴贤佑; 肖志东; 陈志刚
基于多跳的无线传感器网络,靠近sink的传感器节点因需要转发更多的数据,其能量消耗较多,从而在sink周围形成"能量空洞".采用更符合实际的单位部署成本的网络寿命,即网络效率作为优化目标.在仅已知网络规模和节点感知半径r的情况下,如何通过有效的节点部署来避免"能量空洞"并使网络效率最大,是一个极具挑战性的研究课题.提出了一种高效节点部署算法,求解出了最优工作节点数、最佳中继节点部署方案、最优节点传输距离.理论分析与模拟实验结果表明,算法不仅能够避免"能量空洞",而且相对于已有均匀与非均匀算法都能有效提高网络效率,因此该算法对构建低成本的无线传感网络应用系统具有重要意义.%In a multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN), the sensors closest to the sink tend to deplete their energy faster than other sensors,which is known as an energy hole around the sink.This paper employed the unit deployment cost of the network life, network efficiency, which is more reasonable and is our optimization goal It is a challenging re-search that how to avoid energy hole and maximize network efficiency by effective node deployment when we just know the scale of the network and the sense radius of the node.This paper gave an algorithm of effective node deployment and worked out the best number of work node, the best deployment approach of relay node, the optimal node transmission distance.The algorithm not only be able to avoid energy hole, and also effectively improve network efficiency, compared with the uniform deployment algorithm and the non-uniform deployment algorithm.Therefore, the algorithm is of great significance for the application of constructing low-cost wireless sensor networks.
Dr Madhumita Dash
Full Text Available Abstract : The increasing use of wireless networks and the constant miniaturization of electrical devices has empowered the development of Wireless Body Area Net-works . Wireless Body Area Network is a system of devices in close proximity to a person’s body that cooperate for the benefit of the user where various sensors are attached on clothing or on the body or even implanted under the skin. This paper shows several uses of the BAN technology and the most obvious application of a BAN is in the medical sector, however there are also more recreational uses to BANs. Using a WBAN, the patient experiences a greater physical mobility and is no longer compelled to stay in the hospital. This paper offers a survey of the concept of Wireless Body Area Networks. As WBANs are placed on the human body and often transport private data, security is also considered. This paper will discuss the technologies surrounding BANs, as well as several common applications for BANs.
Hussain, Md Asdaque; Alam, Md Nasre; Kwak, Kyung Sup
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer two significant advantages: patient mobility due to their use of portable monitoring devices and a location independent monitoring facility. With its appealing dimensions, it brings about a new set of challenges, which we do not normally consider in such small sensor networks. It requires a scalable network in terms of heterogeneous data traffic, low power consumption of sensor nodes, integration in and around the body networking and coexistence. This work presents a medium access control protocol for WBAN which tries to overcome the aforementioned challenges. We consider the use of multiple beam adaptive arrays (MBAA) at BAN Coordinator (BAN_C) node. When used as a BAN_C, an MBAA can successfully receive two or more overlapping packets at the same time. Each beam captures a different packet by automatically pointing its pattern toward one packet while annulling other contending packets. This paper describes how an MBAA can be integrated into a single hope star topology as a BAN_C. Simulation results show the performance of our proposed protocol.
Riddle, E. P.
The Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Local Area Network (LAN) effort is discussed. LaRC initiated the development of a LAN to support a growing distributed computing environment at the Center. The purpose of the network is to provide an improved capability (over inteactive and RJE terminal access) for sharing multivendor computer resources. Specifically, the network will provide a data highway for the transfer of files between mainframe computers, minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers. An important influence on the overall network design was the vital need of LaRC researchers to efficiently utilize the large CDC mainframe computers in the central scientific computing facility. Although there was a steady migration from a centralized to a distributed computing environment at LaRC in recent years, the work load on the central resources increased. Major emphasis in the network design was on communication with the central resources within the distributed environment. The network to be implemented will allow researchers to utilize the central resources, distributed minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers to obtain the proper level of computing power to efficiently perform their jobs.
Md. Asdaque Hussain
Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer two significant advantages: patient mobility due to their use of portable monitoring devices and a location independent monitoring facility. With its appealing dimensions, it brings about a new set of challenges, which we do not normally consider in such small sensor networks. It requires a scalable network in terms of heterogeneous data traffic, low power consumption of sensor nodes, integration in and around the body networking and coexistence. This work presents a medium access control protocol for WBAN which tries to overcome the aforementioned challenges. We consider the use of multiple beam adaptive arrays (MBAA at BAN Coordinator (BAN_C node. When used as a BAN_C, an MBAA can successfully receive two or more overlapping packets at the same time. Each beam captures a different packet by automatically pointing its pattern toward one packet while annulling other contending packets. This paper describes how an MBAA can be integrated into a single hope star topology as a BAN_C. Simulation results show the performance of our proposed protocol.
Full Text Available With the rapid development of wireless networking technologies, the Internet of Things and heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs tend to be integrated to form a promising wireless network paradigm for 5G. Hyper-dense sensor and mobile devices will be deployed under the coverage of heterogeneous cells, so that each of them could freely select any available cell covering it and compete for resource with others selecting the same cell, forming a cell selection (CS game between these devices. Since different types of cells usually share the same portion of the spectrum, devices selecting overlapped cells can experience severe inter-cell interference (ICI. In this article, we study the CS game among a large amount of densely-deployed sensor and mobile devices for their uplink transmissions in a two-tier HCN. ICI is embedded with the traditional congestion game (TCG, forming a congestion game with ICI (CGI and a congestion game with capacity (CGC. For the three games above, we theoretically find the circular boundaries between the devices selecting the macrocell and those selecting the picocells, indicated by the pure strategy Nash equilibria (PSNE. Meanwhile, through a number of simulations with different picocell radii and different path loss exponents, the collapse of the PSNE impacted by severe ICI (i.e., a large number of picocell devices change their CS preferences to the macrocell is profoundly revealed, and the collapse points are identified.
Wang, Lusheng; Wang, Yamei; Ding, Zhizhong; Wang, Xiumin
With the rapid development of wireless networking technologies, the Internet of Things and heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) tend to be integrated to form a promising wireless network paradigm for 5G. Hyper-dense sensor and mobile devices will be deployed under the coverage of heterogeneous cells, so that each of them could freely select any available cell covering it and compete for resource with others selecting the same cell, forming a cell selection (CS) game between these devices. Since different types of cells usually share the same portion of the spectrum, devices selecting overlapped cells can experience severe inter-cell interference (ICI). In this article, we study the CS game among a large amount of densely-deployed sensor and mobile devices for their uplink transmissions in a two-tier HCN. ICI is embedded with the traditional congestion game (TCG), forming a congestion game with ICI (CGI) and a congestion game with capacity (CGC). For the three games above, we theoretically find the circular boundaries between the devices selecting the macrocell and those selecting the picocells, indicated by the pure strategy Nash equilibria (PSNE). Meanwhile, through a number of simulations with different picocell radii and different path loss exponents, the collapse of the PSNE impacted by severe ICI (i.e., a large number of picocell devices change their CS preferences to the macrocell) is profoundly revealed, and the collapse points are identified.
Strano, Emanuele; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc
Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of the coupling between them and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralising force creating congestions in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London -- but not for New York -- there is ...
Megabits Per Second MS – Microsoft NIC – Network Interface Card NOC – Network Operations Center NPS- Naval Postgraduate School OFDM – Orthogonal...wireless network link controlled and maintained by CENETIX with a 18 megabits per second throughput. Two network operation centers ( NOCs ), one in Camp...and data capture. In addition to the two stationary NOCs , the TNT grid also has a mobile NOC known as the Light Reconnaissance Vehicle (LRV) (Figure
Gerardine Immaculate Mary
Full Text Available It is widely known that Control Area Networks (CAN are used in real-time, distributed and parallel processing which cover manufacture plants, humanoid robots, networking fields, etc., In applications where wireless conditions are encountered it is convenient to continue the exchange of CAN frames within the Wireless CAN (WCAN. The WCAN considered in this research is based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP; a MAC protocol for wireless networks to reduce the number of retransmissions due to collision and the wired counterpart CAN attribute on message based communication. WCAN uses token frame method to provide channel access to the nodes in the system. This method allow all the nodes to share common broadcast channel by taken turns in transmitting upon receiving the token frame which is circulating within the network for specified amount of time. This method provides high throughput in bounded latency environment, consistent and predictable delays and good packet delivery ratio. The most important factor to consider when evaluating a control network is the end-to-end time delay between sensors, controllers, and actuators. The correct operation of a control system depends on the timeliness of the data coming over the network, and thus, a control network should be able to guarantee message delivery within a bounded transmission time. The proposed WCAN is modeled and simulated using QualNet, and its average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio (PDR are calculated. The parameters boundaries of WCAN are evaluated to guarantee a maximum throughput and a minimum latency time, in the case of wireless communications, precisely WCAN.
Full Text Available Starting from the solution of aggregating micropayments in a local area network that operates with reduced costs, with simple and easy to use equipments, with security procedures that are not so complicated, based on the rapport between the cost of fraud and the expected value obtained through fraud, a first stage of developing this system has been accomplished and materialized in the analysis stage by using some of the diagrams put to use by UML.
Clivati, Cecilia; Calonico, Davide; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Mura, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Marco; Levi, Filippo
We describe a fiber optical gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect realized on a multiplexed telecom fiber network. Our loop encloses an area of 20 km^2 and coexists with Internet data traffic. This Sagnac interferometer achieves a sensitivity of about 1e-8 (rad/s)/sqrt(Hz), thus approaching ring laser gyroscopes without using narrow-linewidth laser nor sophisticated optics. The proposed gyroscope is sensitive enough for seismic applications, opening new possibilities for this kind of optical f...
Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Mura, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Marco; Levi, Filippo
We describe a fiber optical gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect realized on a multiplexed telecom fiber network. Our loop encloses an area of 20 km^2 and coexists with Internet data traffic. This Sagnac interferometer achieves a sensitivity of about 1e-8 (rad/s)/sqrt(Hz), thus approaching ring laser gyroscopes without using narrow-linewidth laser nor sophisticated optics. The proposed gyroscope is sensitive enough for seismic applications, opening new possibilities for this kind of optical fiber sensors
Sergio Saponara; Tony Bacchillone
This paper discusses aims, architecture, and security issues of Smart Grid, taking care of the lesson learned at University of Pisa in research projects on smart energy and grid. A key element of Smart Grid is the energy home area network (HAN), for which an implementation is proposed, dealing with its security aspects and showing some solutions for realizing a wireless network based on ZigBee. Possible hardware-software architectures and implementations using COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) ...
Werner, Douglas H
The book is a comprehensive treatment of the field, covering fundamental theoretical principles and new technological advancements, state-of-the-art device design, and reviewing examples encompassing a wide range of related sub-areas. In particular, the first area focuses on the recent development of novel wearable and implantable antenna concepts and designs including metamaterial-based wearable antennas, microwave circuit integrated wearable filtering antennas, and textile and/or fabric material enabled wearable antennas. The second set of topics covers advanced wireless propagation and the associated statistical models for on-body, in-body, and off-body modes. Other sub-areas such as efficient numerical human body modeling techniques, artificial phantom synthesis and fabrication, as well as low-power RF integrated circuits and related sensor technology are also discussed. These topics have been carefully selected for their transformational impact on the next generation of body-area network systems and beyo...
This book describes the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks. Since these applications have very limited energy resources, typically powered only by tiny batteries or through energy harvesting techniques, this book describes an architecture for a Bluetooth low energy transceiver to overcome these limitations. Coverage includes not only the main concepts for achieving low power consumption, but also the details of the circuit design and its implementation in a standard CMOS technology. · Guides readers through the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks, from architecture to circuit-level implementation; · Describes 4 key strategies for ultra-low power transceiver design and specific, innovative techniques for circuit-level design; · Enables readers to design transceivers for body area networks that are 27% more energy efficient than those currently available; · Includes a review of the st...
李明明; 李小龙; 黄廷磊
采用基于指数衰减的概率感知模型来研究数据融合对覆盖性能的影响,提出节点的虚拟半径概念以量化表示数据融合对覆盖性能的改善效果,同时提出了融合覆盖和虚拟部署的概念.提出了一种基于正多边形方式的规则虚拟部署方案,分析了该部署方案对节点部署密度的影响.理论分析表明,虚拟半径内参与融合的传感节点的个数不能超过6,否则数据融合技术就不能减小传感节点的部署密度.同时也分析了节点在随机分布情况下的覆盖调度情况,提出了一种改进的基于虚拟半径的覆盖调度算法.实验表明,基于指数衰减感知模型的数据融合方案能有效地提高传感器网络的检测性能,另外基于正多边形方式的规则虚拟部署方案和节点随机分布时基于虚拟半径的调度算法能够有效地改善传感器网络的覆盖性能.%Based on probability sense model of the exponential decay law, this paper proposed the concept of virtual radius to quantize the improvement on network coverage performance caused by data fusion, while it proposed the concept of fusion coverage and virtual deployment as well. Then, proposed a regular virtual deployment scheme based on regular polygon and analysed the effect on deployment density of sensor nodes caused by this deployment scheme. The theoretical analysis indicates that the number of nodes which were participated in fusion process of virtual radius was no more than 6. Otherwise data fusion will not reduce the node density, on the contrary, it will have a negative effect on the node density. Meanwhile, coverage schedule of these nodes which were deployed in the random distribution has also been analyzed, and proposed an improved the coverage schedule algorithm based on virtual radius. Finally, it did some experiment simulations. By using the data fusion algorithm based on the exponential decay law, the experimental result indicates that data fusion
Xose Manuel Pardo
Full Text Available To bring cutting edge robotics from research centres to social environments, the robotics community must start providing affordable solutions: the costs must be reduced and the quality and usefulness of the robot services must be enhanced. Unfortunately, nowadays the deployment of robots and the adaptation of their services to new environments are tasks that usually require several days of expert work. With this in view, we present a multi-agent system made up of intelligent cameras and autonomous robots, which is easy and fast to deploy in different environments. The cameras will enhance the robot perceptions and allow them to react to situations that require their services. Additionally, the cameras will support the movement of the robots. This will enable our robots to navigate even when there are not maps available. The deployment of our system does not require expertise and can be done in a short period of time, since neither software nor hardware tuning is needed. Every system task is automatic, distributed and based on self-organization processes. Our system is scalable, robust, and flexible to the environment. We carried out several real world experiments, which show the good performance of our proposal.
Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrián; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Pardo, Xose Manuel
To bring cutting edge robotics from research centres to social environments, the robotics community must start providing affordable solutions: the costs must be reduced and the quality and usefulness of the robot services must be enhanced. Unfortunately, nowadays the deployment of robots and the adaptation of their services to new environments are tasks that usually require several days of expert work. With this in view, we present a multi-agent system made up of intelligent cameras and autonomous robots, which is easy and fast to deploy in different environments. The cameras will enhance the robot perceptions and allow them to react to situations that require their services. Additionally, the cameras will support the movement of the robots. This will enable our robots to navigate even when there are not maps available. The deployment of our system does not require expertise and can be done in a short period of time, since neither software nor hardware tuning is needed. Every system task is automatic, distributed and based on self-organization processes. Our system is scalable, robust, and flexible to the environment. We carried out several real world experiments, which show the good performance of our proposal.
Maintaining connectivity among a group of autonomous agents exploring an area is very important, as it promotes cooperation between the agents and also helps message exchanges which are very critical for their mission. Creating an underlying Ad-hoc Mobile Router Network (AMRoNet) using simple robotic routers is an approach that facilitates communication between the agents without restricting their movements. We address the following question in our paper: How to create an AMRoNet with local information and with minimum number of routers? We propose two new localized and distributed algorithms 1) agent-assisted router deployment and 2) a self-spreading for creating AMRoNet. The algorithms use a greedy deployment strategy for deploying routers effectively into the area maximizing coverage and a triangular deployment strategy to connect different connected component of routers from different base stations. Empirical analysis shows that the proposed algorithms are the two best localized approaches to create AMRoN...
Full Text Available Maintaining connectivity among a group of autonomous agents exploring an area is very important, as itpromotes cooperation between the agents and also helps message exchanges which are very critical fortheir mission. Creating an underlying Ad-hoc Mobile Router Network (AMRoNet using simple roboticrouters is an approach that facilitates communication between the agents without restricting theirmovements. We address the following question in our paper: How to create an AMRoNet with localinformation and with minimum number of routers? We propose two new localized and distributedalgorithms 1agent-assisted router deployment and 2 a self-spreading for creating AMRoNet. Thealgorithms use a greedy deployment strategy for deploying routers effectively into the area maximizingcoverage and a triangular deployment strategy to connect different connected component of routers fromdifferent base stations. Empirical analysis shows that theproposed algorithms are the two bestlocalizedapproaches to create AMRoNets.
The rapid advancement of wireless technology has instigated the broad deployment of wireless networks. Different types of networks have been developed, including wireless sensor networks, mobile ad hoc networks, wireless local area networks, and cellular networks. These networks have different structures and applications, and require different…
Gustavo Pais de Arruda
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Digital soil mapping is an alternative for the recognition of soil classes in areas where pedological surveys are not available. The main aim of this study was to obtain a digital soil map using artificial neural networks (ANN and environmental variables that express soil-landscape relationships. This study was carried out in an area of 11,072 ha located in the Barra Bonita municipality, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A soil survey was obtained from a reference area of approximately 500 ha located in the center of the area studied. With the mapping units identified together with the environmental variables elevation, slope, slope plan, slope profile, convergence index, geology and geomorphic surfaces, a supervised classification by ANN was implemented. The neural network simulator used was the Java NNS with the learning algorithm "back propagation." Reference points were collected for evaluating the performance of the digital map produced. The occurrence of soils in the landscape obtained in the reference area was observed in the following digital classification: medium-textured soils at the highest positions of the landscape, originating from sandstone, and clayey loam soils in the end thirds of the hillsides due to the greater presence of basalt. The variables elevation and slope were the most important factors for discriminating soil class through the ANN. An accuracy level of 82% between the reference points and the digital classification was observed. The methodology proposed allowed for a preliminary soil classification of an area not previously mapped using mapping units obtained in a reference area.
Conserving power in mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks is a big challenge. Most of the nodes in these networks, in general, are battery powered, therefore, an efficient power saving protocol is required to extend the lifetime of such networks. A lot of work has been done and several protocols have been proposed to address this problem. Gossip based protocols, which are based on the results of percolation theory, significantly reduce power consumption with very little implementation overhead. H...
Fanani Akbar, Akhmad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Jousset, Philippe GM; Ryannugroho, Riskiray; Gassner, Alexandra; Jaya, Makky S.; Sule, Rachmat; Diningrat, Wahyuddin; Hendryana, Andri; Kusnadi, Yosep; Umar, Muksin; Indrinanto, Yudi; Erbas, Kemal
We have deployed about 48 three component seismometers around "AFA" hydrothermal are in West Java, Indonesia from October 2012 up to October 2014 in order to detect microseismic event and to enhance our knowledge about subsurface seismic stucture. The seismometer network in this study, is the first dense seismometer array monitoring around hydrothermal area in Indonesia so far. We analyzed a huge waveform data set to distinguish microseismic, local and regional events. Then, we picked the onset of P-and S-wave arrival of microseismic events carefully visually by eye. We determined the initial microseismic event by applying Geiger's method with uniform seismic velocity model. Totally, we have been successfully determined 2,497 microseismic events around this hydrothermal area. We also improved 1D seismic velocities (Vp, Vs) and simultaneously with hypocenter adjustment as input for the tomography inversion in this study. Overall, the microseismic events are concentrated around production area activities and we also found strong cluster microseismic event in Southern part of this region which still need to be investigated in more details. Now, we are going on tomographic inversion step by using double-difference method. We are going to show more information during the meeting.
Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.
A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.
Ullah, Sana; Ullah, Niamat; Saleem, Shahnaz; Higgins, Henry; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.4236/ijcns.2009.28093
Recent advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, integrated circuits, and wire-less communication have allowed the realization of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). WBANs promise unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring for a long period of time, and provide real-time updates of the patients status to the physician. They are widely used for ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, and military applications. This paper reviews the key aspects of WBANs for numerous applications. We present a WBAN infrastructure that provides solutions to on-demand, emergency, and normal traffic. We further discuss in-body antenna design and low-power MAC protocol for a WBAN. In addition, we briefly outline some of the WBAN applications with examples. Our discussion realizes a need for new power-efficient solutions towards in-body and on-body sensor networks.
Sampangi, Raghav V; Urs, Shalini R; Sampalli, Srinivas
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have gained a lot of research attention in recent years since they offer tremendous benefits for remote health monitoring and continuous, real-time patient care. However, as with any wireless communication, data security in WBANs is a challenging design issue. Since such networks consist of small sensors placed on the human body, they impose resource and computational restrictions, thereby making the use of sophisticated and advanced encryption algorithms infeasible. This calls for the design of algorithms with a robust key generation / management scheme, which are reasonably resource optimal. This paper presents a security suite for WBANs, comprised of IAMKeys, an independent and adaptive key management scheme for improving the security of WBANs, and KEMESIS, a key management scheme for security in inter-sensor communication. The novelty of these schemes lies in the use of a randomly generated key for encrypting each data frame that is generated independently at both the s...
Ge, Xiaohu; Tu, Song; Mao, Guoqiang; Wang, Cheng-xiang; Han, Tao
Traditional ultra-dense wireless networks are recommended as a complement for cellular networks and are deployed in partial areas, such as hotspot and indoor scenarios. Based on the massive multiple-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas and the millimeter wavecommunication technologies, the 5G ultra-dense cellular network is proposed to deploy in overall cellular scenarios. Moreover, a distribution network architecture is presented for 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. Furthermore, the backhaul ...
Michele Garetto; Marco Gribaudo; Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini; Emilio Leonardi
Sensor networks are envisioned to revolutionize our daily life by ubiquitously monitoring our environment and/or adjusting it to suit our needs. Recent progress in robotics and low-power embedded systems has made it possible to add mobility to small, light, low-cost sensors to be used in teams or swarms. Augmenting static sensor networks with mobile nodes addresses many design challenges that exist in traditional static sensor networks. This paper addresses the problem of topology control in mobile wireless networks. Limitations in communication, computation and energy capabilities push towards the adoption of distributed, energy-efficient solutions to perform self-deployment and relocation of the nodes. We develop a unified, distributed algorithm that has the following features. During deployment, our algorithm yields a regular tessellation of the geographical area with a given node density, called monitoring configuration. Upon the occurrence of a physical phenomenon, network nodes relocate themselves so as to properly sample and control the event, while maintaining the network connectivity. Then, as soon as the event ends, all nodes return to the monitoring configuration. To achieve these goals, we use a virtual force-based strategy which proves to be very effective even when compared to an optimal centralized solution. We assess the performance of our approach in the presence of events with different shapes, and we investigate the transient behavior of our algorithm. This allows us to evaluate the effectiveness and the response time of the proposed solution under various environmental conditions.
The unlicensed frequency band around 60 GHz is a very promising spectrum due to its potential to provide multiple gigabits per second based data rates for short range wireless communication. Hence, 60 GHz radio is an attractive candidate to enable ultra high rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPA
Sarijari, M.A.B.; Abdullah, M.S.; Janssen, G.J.M.; Van der Veen, A.J.
The growing number of wireless devices for in-house use is causing a more intense use of the spectrum to satisfy the required quality-of-service such as throughput. This has contributed to spectrum scarcity and interference problems particularly in home area networks (HAN). Cognitive radio (CR) has
Appropriations. .All or part of five declared underground water basins are present in the project area. Four of these, the Canadian River, Fort Sumner, Penasco ...Little Salt Lake De Baca Pecos (80 mi) Red Lake Alamogordo Res. Rio Penasco (40 mi) Bitter Lakes (7) Rio Hondo (47 mi) Chaves Two Rivers Res. Arroyo del
Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M area networks aim at connecting an M2M gateway with a large number of energy-constrained devices that must operate autonomously for years. Therefore, attaining high energy efficiency is essential in the deployment of M2M networks. In this paper, we consider a dense M2M area network composed of hundreds or thousands of devices that periodically transmit data upon request from a gateway or coordinator. We theoretically analyse the devices’ energy consumption using two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols which are based on a tree-splitting algorithm to resolve collisions among devices: the Contention Tree Algorithm (CTA and the Distributed Queuing (DQ access. We have carried out computer-based simulations to validate the accuracy of the theoretical models and to compare the energy performance using DQ, CTA, and Frame Slotted-ALOHA (FSA in M2M area networks with devices in compliance with the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer. Results show that the performance of DQ is totally independent of the number of contending devices, and it can reduce the energy consumed per device in more than 35% with respect to CTA and in more than 80% with respect to FSA.
Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) are distributed self-organizing networks that can change locations and configure themselves on the fly. This paper focuses on an algorithmic approach for the deployment of a MANET within an enclosed area, such as a building in a disaster scenario, which can provide a robust communication infrastructure for search and rescue operations. While a virtual spring mesh (VSM) algorithm provides scalable, self-organizing, and fault-tolerant capabilities required by aMANET, the VSM lacks the MANET's capabilities of deployment mechanisms for blanket coverage of an area and does not provide an obstacle avoidance mechanism. This paper presents a new technique, an extended VSM (EVSM) algorithm that provides the following novelties: (1) new control laws for exploration and expansion to provide blanket coverage, (2) virtual adaptive springs enabling the mesh to expand as necessary, (3) adapts to communications disturbances by varying the density and movement of mobile nodes, and (4) new metrics to assess the performance of the EVSM algorithm. Simulation results show that EVSM provides up to 16% more coverage and is 3.5 times faster than VSM in environments with eight obstacles.
SUN Zeng-you; SUN Xiao-fan
Expound the existing modulation mode of the present wireless local area network. Directing at the problem that when single modulation method conveys data with high speed in the frequency selective fading channel, the system throughput will be declined and the efficiency of the spectrum will be lowered . Put forward the scheme that the OFDM sub-carrier will use differ⁃ent modulation modes after dynamic groups by amplitude frequency response. Simulation results show that the scheme will lower the complexity of the system achievement, and can get a higher spectrum efficiency.
In the network fault management based on active probe, the first job is to determine the deployment of monitoring probe. Non-deterministic environment will impact the monitoring probe selection. In order to reduce the influence, a probe station deployment approach is proposed with select routing for active probe based on probability dependence model. The faults in the network can be localized sooner and cost-effectively using the active probes sent from the probe stations placed in the network. The simulation indicates that the algorithm has strong ability of fault location and cost-effectively.%在基于主动探针的网络故障管理中,首要的是确定监测探针的部署.不确定性会对监测探针的选取带来影响.为了降低这种影响,采用概率依赖模型为主动探针选取路由,提出了不确定环境下的监测探针部署方案.利用该方案在网络中部署探针对网络进行主动探测,能以较小的代价尽早定位网络中的故障.实验表明本文的探针选择算法可以有效节约探针开销,且部署的探针集具有较好的故障定位能力.
Cao, Yang; Li, Min; Guo, Yifeng
To address several hospital network issues, this paper discusses the overall plan, design and renovation of hospital's Local Area Network, making full use of existing network facilities. The techniques, such as Physical Separation of Internal and External Network, HSRP, OSPF, All-Routers Networking Model, etc., create features of extensibility, manageability, high safety, stability and so on to the overall network, and provide a reliable network platform to the function of the information systems.
Conserving power in mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks is a big challenge. Most of the nodes in these networks, in general, are battery powered, therefore, an efficient power saving protocol is required to extend the lifetime of such networks. A lot of work has been done and several protocols have been proposed to address this problem. Gossip based protocols, which are based on the results of percolation theory, significantly reduce power consumption with very little implementation overhead. However, not much work has been done to make gossiping battery aware. In this paper we introduce a simple gossip based battery aware sleep protocol. The protocol allows low battery nodes to sleep more, therefore, improves overall network lifetime.
Grimes Gary J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER. The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management.
Tsouri, Gill R; Prieto, Alvaro; Argade, Nikhil
Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal increase in energy per bit. Network maintenance requirements are reduced as well, since balancing energy consumption means all batteries need to be serviced at the same time and less frequently. The proposed routing protocol is evaluated using a hardware experimental setup comprising multiple nodes and an access point. The setup is used to assess network architectures, including an on-body access point and an off-body access point with varying number of antennas. Real-time experiments are conducted in indoor environments to assess performance gains. In addition, the setup is used to record channel attenuation data which are then processed in extensive computer simulations providing insight on the effect of protocol parameters on performance. Results demonstrate efficient balancing of energy consumption across all nodes, an average increase of up to 40% in network lifetime corresponding to a modest average increase of 0.4 dB in energy per bit, and a cutoff effect on required transmission power to achieve reliable connectivity.
闫占杰; 吴德伟; 蒋文婷; 刘海波; 毛虎
在防空反导作战中,为有效干扰来袭GPS制导武器平台,需要在敌目标可能来袭路线范围内优化干扰源的部署位置.基于网络化GPS干扰系统思想,提出了一种以敌武器平台运动区域内最小干扰功率处功率最大化为目标的空中GPS干扰源位置部署模型,分析了该模型的合理性,利用遗传算法对该模型进行求解.仿真结果表明,该算法能快速找到最优部署方案,为网络化GPS干扰源的部署提供参考.%In order to jam the incoming GPS guided weapon platform effectively in air defense anti-missile combat, the optimization of the jammer's location in the target's possible coming route scope is needed. Based on the idea of network-type GPS jamming system, an aerial GPS jammer's deployment model was established with the goal of maximizing the least jamming power in enemy weapon platform's movement zone. The rationality of the model was analyzed, and genetic algorithm was used to solve the model. Simulation indicated that the algorithm can work out the optimum deployment scheme quickly, which may supply a reference for deployment of GPS jammer.
余阳; 吴银锋; 于宁; 冯仁剑; 万江文
This paper puts forward a sort of optimal node deployment scheme of pipeline monitoring sensor networks to lower the network node energy consumption and prolong network lifetime. Network cost-lifetime is adopted as the optimization objective. The relationship among network size, node spacing and data transmission structure is intensively analyzed. And a mathematical model of network deployment optimization problem is set up, which is solved using hybrid genetic algorithm. The algorithm amends the infeasible solution with external function method. In the meantime , the simulated annealing operator is used in the algorithm to enhance the searching capability. Theoretical analysis and experiment result show that compared with existing node deployment schemes, the new scheme not only reduces node energy consumption and balances network load, but also benefits network lifetime.%提出一种管道监测传感网中节点的优化部署方案,以降低天然气管道监测网络的节点能耗和延长网络寿命.采用一种新的性能指标——成本寿命作为优化目标,分析网络规模、节点间距以及数据传输结构对优化目标的影响,并建立求解节点部署优化问题的数学模型.模型的求解采用混合遗传算法,利用外点函数法修正不满足约束条件的解,同时把退火选择算子嵌入到实数编码的遗传算法中,增强其搜索能力.理论分析和实验结果表明,该方案不仅能够降低网络的节点能耗,平衡网络负载,而且对网络寿命有益处.
The unbalanced load among sensors in wireless sensor networks is caused by many-to-one way of data transmission. The nodes near Sink will spend more energy than those far away from Sink,and then the energy hole is caused in sensor networks. According the paths of data transmission and the nodes undertaking the different number of paths, the energy consumption of different layers node is balanced. The non-uniform sensor deployment strategy,which number of routing node in an inner is equal to number of sensing node in outer tiers farther away from Sink,while the fraction of coverge of sensing node in all the coverage area is the same,is presented. The simulation results show that the non-uniform sensor deployment strategy is feasible.%无线传感器网络中多对一的数据传输方式导致节点负载的不均衡性,靠近汇聚节点( Sink)的节点要比远离Sink的节点消耗更多的能量,如此容易引发能量空洞问题.针对该问题,从网络数据的传递路径出发,根据网络中节点承担的路径数量的不同,平衡各层节点的能耗,提出感知节点覆盖率一致、内层路由节点与其所有外层感知节点数目相同的的非均匀分布策略,并通过仿真实验证明了该方法的有效性.
Hoeft, Bruno; Petzold, Andreas
The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has been involved fairly early in 100GE network technology. Initiated by DFN1 (the German NREN), a first 100GE wide area network testbed over a distance of approx. 450 km was deployed between the national research organizations KIT and FZ-Jülich in 2010. Three years later in 2013. KIT joined the Caltech SuperComputing 2013 (SC132) 100GE "show floor" initiative using the transatlantic ANA-100GE link to transfer LHC data from a storage at DE-KIT (GridKa) in Europe to hard disks at the show floor of SC13 in Denver (USA). The network infrastructure of KIT as well as of the German Tier-1 installation DE-KIT (GridKa). however. is still based on 10Gbps. As highlighted in the contribution "Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities" to CHEP 2012. proactive investment is required at the Tier-1 sites. Bandwidth requirements will grow beyond current capacity and the required upgrades are expected in 2015. In close cooperation with DFN. KIT drives the upgrade from 10GE to 100GE. The process is divided into several phases. due to upgrade costs and differing requirements in different parts of the network infrastructure. The requirements of the different phases as well as the planned topology will be described. Some of the obstacles we discovered during the deployment will be discussed and solutions or workarounds presented.
Giersch, Louis R.; Knarr, Kevin
A dedicated deployable aerobraking structure concept was developed that significantly increases the effective area of a spacecraft during aerobraking by up to a factor of 5 or more (depending on spacecraft size) without substantially increasing total spacecraft mass. Increasing the effective aerobraking area of a spacecraft (without significantly increasing spacecraft mass) results in a corresponding reduction in the time required for aerobraking. For example, if the effective area of a spacecraft is doubled, the time required for aerobraking is roughly reduced to half the previous value. The dedicated deployable aerobraking structure thus enables significantly shorter aerobraking phases, which results in reduced mission cost, risk, and allows science operations to begin earlier in the mission.
Full Text Available Controller Area Network is a bus commonly used by controllers inside vehicles and in various industrial control applications. In the past controllers were assumed to operate in secure perimeters, but today these environments are well connected to the outside world and recent incidents showed them extremely vulnerable to cyber-attacks. To withstand such threats, one can implement security in the application layer of CAN. Here we design, refine and implement a broadcast authentication protocol based on the well known paradigm of using key-chains and time synchronization, a commonly used Mechanism in wireless sensor networks, which allows us to take advantage from the use of symmetric primitives without the need of secret shared keys during broadcast. But, as process control is a time critical operation we make several refinements in order to improve on the authentication delay. For this we study several trade-offs to alleviate shortcomings on computational speed, memory and bandwidth up to the point of using reduced versions of hash functions that can assure ad hoc security. To prove the efficiency of the protocol
Full Text Available Recent technological advancements in wireless communication, integrated circuits and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMs has enabled miniaturized, lowpower, intelligent, invasive/ non-invasive micro and nanotechnology sensor nodes placed in or on the human body for use in monitoring body function and its immediate environment referred to as Body Area Networks (BANs. BANs face many stringent requirements in terms of delay, power, temperature and network lifetime which need to be taken into serious consideration in the design of different protocols. Since routing protocols play an important role in the overall system performance in terms of delay, power consumption, temperature and so on, a thorough study on existing routing protocols in BANs is necessary. Also, the specific challenges of BANs necessitates the design of new routing protocols specifically designed for BANs. This paper provides a survey of existing routing protocols mainly proposed for BANs. These protocols are further classified into five main categories namely, temperature based, crosslayer, cluster based, cost-effective and QoS-based routing, where each protocol is described under its specified category. Also, comparison among routing protocols in each category is given.
Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Štuikys, Vytautas; Jusas, Nerijus; Burbaitė, Renata
This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application.
Young Soo Suh
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the networked estimation problem in which sensordata are transmitted over the network. In the event-driven sampling scheme known aslevel-crossing or send-on-delta, sensor data are transmitted to the estimator node if thedifference between the current sensor value and the last transmitted one is greater than agiven threshold. The event-driven sampling generally requires less transmission than thetime-driven one. However, the transmission rate of the send-on-delta method becomeslarge when the sensor noise is large since sensor data variation becomes large due to thesensor noise. Motivated by this issue, we propose another event-driven sampling methodcalled area-triggered in which sensor data are sent only when the integral of differencesbetween the current sensor value and the last transmitted one is greater than a giventhreshold. Through theoretical analysis and simulation results, we show that in the certaincases the proposed method not only reduces data transmission rate but also improvesestimation performance in comparison with the conventional event-driven method.
Full Text Available This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS. We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application.
Full Text Available To make efficiency analysis and to increase efficiency of a weaving hall, it is necessary to obtain and then analyze technical and weaving data received from looms. In small and mid-size weaving halls, generally technical data of the looms are kept by responsible technical personnel. Data processing without a defined automation makes efficiency analysis of weaving hall more complex, or may decrease liability of the analysis. In this paper, a data acquisition system that uses controller area network (CAN for the efficiency analysis of looms where developed and implemented in a mid-size weaving hall is presented. In system, technical and weaving data taken from the ports of the looms are sent to central computer via CAN, and then are processed in central computer.
Akram, Sana; Javaid, Nadeem; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Imran, Muhammad; Guizani, Mohsen; Hayat, Amir; Ilahi, Manzoor
As players and soldiers preform strenuous exercises and do difficult and tiring duties, they are usually the common victims of muscular fatigue. Keeping this in mind, we propose FAtigue MEasurement (FAME) protocol for soccer players and soldiers using in-vivo sensors for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). In FAME, we introduce a composite parameter for fatigue measurement by setting a threshold level for each sensor. Whenever, any sensed data exceeds its threshold level, the players or soldiers are declared to be in a state of fatigue. Moreover, we use a vibration pad for the relaxation of fatigued muscles, and then utilize the vibrational energy by means of vibration detection circuit to recharge the in-vivo sensors. The induction circuit achieves about 68 % link efficiency. Simulation results show better performance of the proposed FAME protocol, in the chosen scenarios, as compared to an existing Wireless Soccer Team Monitoring (WSTM) protocol in terms of the selected metrics.
Kim, J C; Kim, D Y; Jung, S M; Lee, M H; Kim, K S; Lee, C K; Nah, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Choi, W J; Yoo, S K
So far we have developed Emergency Telemedicine System (ETS) which is a robust system using heterogeneous networks. In disaster areas, however, ETS cannot be used if the primary network channel is disabled due to damages on the network infrastructures. Thus we designed network management software for disaster communication network by combination of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and Wireless LAN (WLAN). This software maintains routes to a Backbone Gateway Node in dynamic network topologies. In this paper, we introduce the proposed disaster communication network with management software, and evaluate its performance using ETS between Medical Center and simulated disaster areas. We also present the results of network performance analysis which identifies the possibility of actual Telemedicine Service in disaster areas via MANET and mobile network (e.g. HSDPA, WiBro).
Full Text Available Electromagnetic environment becomes day by day more congested. Radio communication systems in the short range are now part of everyday life, and there is a need to also assess the pollution level due to their emission if we take into account human health and protection. There is consistent scientific evidence that environmental electromagnetic field may cause undesirable biological effects or even health hazards. Present paper aims at giving a view on exposure level due to wireless local area networks (WLAN emission solely, as part of environmental radiofrequency pollution. Highly accurate measurements were made indoor by using a frequency-selective measurement system and identifying the correct settings for an error-minimum assessment. We focused on analysis of the electric flux density distribution inside a room, in the far field of the emitting antennas, in case of a single network communication channel. We analyze the influence the network configuration parameters have on the field level. Distance from the source and traffic rate are also important parameters that affect the exposure level. Our measurements indicate that in the immediate vicinity of the WLAN stations the average field may reach as much as 13% from the present accepted reference levels given in the human exposure standards.
Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.
The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations.
Heaney, S.F.; Scanlon, W.G.; Garcia-Palacios, E.; Cotton, S.L.
Body Area Networks are unique in that the large-scale mobility of users allows the network itself to travel across a diverse range of operating domains. This presents the possibility of creating interactive smart environments where Context Aware Body Area Networks can sense and co-operate with nearb
GAO Wei-hua; GUO Li-li; LIANG Zhi-guo
Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology is promising for wireless personal area network (WPAN) applications due to its high data rate, low power requirement and short-range characteristics. Instead of exploring new unused frequency band, the UWB communication follows the overlay principle, i.e.,sharing the spectrum with existing systems and devices. This novel radio technology has been recently approved by the regulatory authorities in the United States and Canada, and is being considered for approval in Europe and Asia. In this paper, an overview of the UWB radio technology from the technical,economical, and regulatory perspectives is provided. Firstly, the definition of UWB by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is introduced, followed by a brief introduction to the history. The current status of the standardization process resulting from the FCC's recent decision to permit unlicensed operation in the [3.1-10.6] GHz band is discussed. Then, the reasons of considering UWB as a future solution for WLAN/WPAN applications are studied. In particular, the unique properties of UWB and its difference from other wireless technology alternatives are studied. Then, the benefits and challenges related to the commercial deployment of UWB for future applications are discussed. Finally,the research problems and challenges posed by the UWB technology are focused.
Woody, David P; Wiitala, Bradley; Scott, Stephen L; Lamb, James W; Lawrence, Ronald P; Giovanine, Curt; Fredsti, Sancar J; Beard, Andrew; Pryke, Clem; Loh, Michael; Greer, Christopher H; Cartwright, John K; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Bolatto, Alberto D; Muchovej, Stephen J C
We describe the design and implementation of a controller-area-network bus (CANbus) monitor and control system for a millimeter wave interferometer. The Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) is a 15-antenna connected-element interferometer for astronomical imaging, created by the merger of two university observatories. Its new control system relies on a central computer supervising a variety of subsystem computers, many of which control distributed intelligent nodes over CANbus. Subsystems are located in the control building and in individual antennas and communicate with the central computer via Ethernet. Each of the CAN modules has a very specific function, such as reading an antenna encoder or tuning an oscillator. Hardware for the modules was based on a core design including a commercial CANbus-enabled single-board computer and some standard circuitry for interfacing to peripherals. Hardware elements were added or changed as necessary for the specific module types. Similarly, a base set of embedded code was implemented for essential common functions such as CAN message handling and time keeping and extended to implement the required functionality for the different hardware. Using a standard CAN messaging protocol designed to fit the requirements of CARMA and a well-defined interface to the high-level software allowed separate development of high-level code and embedded code with minimal integration problems. Over 30 module types have been implemented and successfully deployed in CARMA, which is now delivering excellent new science data.
Warren, Steve; Lebak, Jeffrey; Yao, Jianchu; Creekmore, Jonathan; Milenkovic, Aleksandar; Jovanov, Emil
Wireless body area networks (WBANs) and their supporting information infrastructures offer unprecedented opportunities to monitor state of health without constraining the activities of a wearer. These mobile point-of-care systems are now realizable due to the convergence of technologies such as low-power wireless communication standards, plug-and-play device buses, off-the-shelf development kits for low-power microcontrollers, handheld computers, electronic medical records, and the Internet. To increase acceptance of personal monitoring technology while lowering equipment cost, advances must be made in interoperability (at both the system and device levels) and security. This paper presents an overview of WBAN infrastructure work in these areas currently underway in the Medical Component Design Laboratory at Kansas State University (KSU) and at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). KSU efforts include the development of wearable health status monitoring systems that utilize ISO/IEEE 11073, Bluetooth, Health Level 7, and OpenEMed. WBAN efforts at UAH include the development of wearable activity and health monitors that incorporate ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor platforms with hardware-level encryption and the TinyOS development environment. WBAN infrastructures are complex, requiring many functional support elements. To realize these infrastructures through collaborative efforts, organizations such as KSU and UAH must define and utilize standard interfaces, nomenclature, and security approaches.
Mark R Christie
Full Text Available Acceptance of marine protected areas (MPAs as fishery and conservation tools has been hampered by lack of direct evidence that MPAs successfully seed unprotected areas with larvae of targeted species. For the first time, we present direct evidence of large-scale population connectivity within an existing and effective network of MPAs. A new parentage analysis identified four parent-offspring pairs from a large, exploited population of the coral-reef fish Zebrasoma flavescens in Hawai'i, revealing larval dispersal distances ranging from 15 to 184 km. In two cases, successful dispersal was from an MPA to unprotected sites. Given high adult abundances, the documentation of any parent-offspring pairs demonstrates that ecologically-relevant larval connectivity between reefs is substantial. All offspring settled at sites to the north of where they were spawned. Satellite altimetry and oceanographic models from relevant time periods indicated a cyclonic eddy that created prevailing northward currents between sites where parents and offspring were found. These findings empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of MPAs as useful conservation and management tools and further highlight the importance of coupling oceanographic, genetic, and ecological data to predict, validate and quantify larval connectivity among marine populations.
Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph
The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.
Full Text Available This paper discusses aims, architecture, and security issues of Smart Grid, taking care of the lesson learned at University of Pisa in research projects on smart energy and grid. A key element of Smart Grid is the energy home area network (HAN, for which an implementation is proposed, dealing with its security aspects and showing some solutions for realizing a wireless network based on ZigBee. Possible hardware-software architectures and implementations using COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf components are presented for key building blocks of the energy HAN such as smart power meters and plugs and a home smart information box providing energy management policy and supporting user's energy awareness.
张聚伟; 刘亚闯; 杨挺
For nodes deployment of underwater sensor networks, based on the probability sensing model of passive sonar, a fuzzy sensing model and a fuzzy data fusion model are established with the consideration of underwater environment. The application of fuzzy data fusion algorithm for the nodes deployment of underwater sensor networks is studied, and nodes-deployment strategy based on fuzzy data fusion for underwater sensor networks ( NAFC ) is proposed. Thus, the energy consumption and the number of deployment nodes are reduced. Experimental results show that NAFC can improve the detection performance of the sensor network.%针对水下传感器网络节点的部署,根据被动声呐的概率感知模型,结合水下环境影响因素,建立模糊感知模型和模糊数据融合模型.研究模糊数据融合算法在水下传感器网络部署中的应用,提出基于模糊数据融合的水下传感器网络节点部署策略.实验证明,文中策略能有效减少部署节点,提高网络覆盖度和单个节点的检测效率,从而提高网络的检测性能.
Describes Electronic Networks for Interaction (ENFI), a local area network project developed at Gallaudet University to empower students with hearing impairments. Notes that this project can be adapted easily for use with traditional students. (MM)
KaiDi Chang; JiannLiang Chen; HanChieh Chao
In recent years, the application of the Internet of Things (IoT) has become an emerging business. The most important concept of next-generation network for providing a common global IT platform is combining seamless networks and networked things, objects or sensors. Also, wireless body area networks (WBANs) are becoming mature with the widespread usage of the IoT. In order to support WBAN, the platform, scenario and emergency service are necessary due to the sensors in WBAN being related to wearer's life. The sensors on the body detect a lot of information about bioinformatics and medical signals, such as heartbeat and blood. Thus, the integration of IoT and network communication in daily life is important. However, there is not only a lack of common fabric for integrating IoT with current Internet and but also no emergency call process in the current network communication envi-ronment. To overcome such situations, the prototype of integrating IoT and emergency call process is discussed. A simulated boot-strap platform to provide the discussion of open challenges and solutions for deploying IoT in Internet and the emergency commu-nication system are analyzed by using a service of 3GPP IP multimedia subsystem. Finally, the prototype for supporting WBAN with emergence service is also addressed and the performance results are useful to service providers and network operators that they can estimate their migration to IoT by referring to this experience and experiment results. Furthermore, the queuing model used to achieve the performance of emergency service in IMS and the delay time of the proposed model is analyzed.
Wang, Jianing; Zheng, Lingjiao; Niu, Xintao; Zheng, Chuantao; Wang, Yiding; Tittel, Frank K
A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor was experimentally demonstrated for application in a greenhouse farm environment. An optical module was developed using a lamp source, a dual-channel pyre-electrical detector, and a spherical mirror. A multi-pass gas chamber and a dual-channel detection method were adopted to effectively enhance light collection efficiency and suppress environmental influences. The moisture-proof function realized by a breathable waterproof chamber was specially designed for the application of such a sensor in a greenhouse with high humidity. Sensor structure of the optical part and electrical part were described, respectively, and related experiments were carried out to evaluate the sensor performance on CO2 concentration. The limit of detection of the sensor is 30 ppm with an absorption length of 30 cm. The relative detection error is less than 5% within the measurement range of 30-5000 ppm. The fluctuations for the long-term (10 h) stability measurements on a 500 ppm CO2 sample and a 2000 ppm CO2 sample are 1.08% and 3.6%, respectively, indicating a good stability of the sensor. A wireless sensor network-based automatic monitoring system was implemented for greenhouse application using multiple mid-infrared CO2 sensor nodes. A monitor software based on LabVIEW was realized via a laptop for real-time environmental data display, storage, and website sharing capabilities. A field experiment of the sensor network was carried out in the town of Shelin in Jilin Province, China, which proved that the whole monitoring system possesses stable sensing performance for practical application under the circumstances of a greenhouse.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of safety communication in industrial networks for purpose of assurance of functional safety. It is intents on analysis of treats on industry networks and there is described recommended safety protections and their location into layer communication protocol applicable in fieldbus network, which they are used within safety critical processes control.
Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Kjærgaard, Jens Kristian
The Internet of Things is a key concept of the Future Internet. The Internet of Things potentially interconnects billions of small devices in a large ubiquitous infrastructure based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Typically, these devices will be limited in computational capacity, memory......WPANs). The authors address the key mechanisms from network aspects down to device design aspects and discuss how technologies interplay to make real application deployment practical for the Internet of Things....
Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian
As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.
Zhang, Ying Jun; Liew, Soung Chang
Thanks to its simplicity and cost efficiency, wireless local area network (WLAN) enjoys unique advantages in providing high-speed and low-cost wireless services in hot spots and indoor environments. Traditional WLAN medium-access-control (MAC) protocols assume that only one station can transmit at a time: simultaneous transmissions of more than one station causes the destruction of all packets involved. By exploiting recent advances in PHY-layer multiuser detection (MUD) techniques, it is possible for a receiver to receive multiple packets simultaneously. This paper argues that such multipacket reception (MPR) capability can greatly enhance the capacity of future WLANs. In addition, it provides the MAC-layer and PHY-layer designs needed to achieve the improved capacity. First, to demonstrate MUD/MPR as a powerful capacity-enhancement technique, we prove a "super-linearity" result, which states that the system throughput per unit cost increases as the MPR capability increases. Second, we show that the commonly...
Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Fang, Hua
Wireless body area networks (BANs) have drawn much attention from research community and industry in recent years. Multimedia healthcare services provided by BANs can be available to anyone, anywhere, and anytime seamlessly. A critical issue in BANs is how to preserve the integrity and privacy of a person's medical data over wireless environments in a resource efficient manner. This paper presents a novel key agreement scheme that allows neighboring nodes in BANs to share a common key generated by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The improved Jules Sudan (IJS) algorithm is proposed to set up the key agreement for the message authentication. The proposed ECG-IJS key agreement can secure data communications over BANs in a plug-n-play manner without any key distribution overheads. Both the simulation and experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve better security performance in terms of serval performance metrics such as false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) than other existing approaches. In addition, the power consumption analysis also shows that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve energy efficiency for BANs.
Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Chonggang; Fang, Hua
Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are cyber-physical systems (CPS) that have emerged as a key technology to provide real-time health monitoring and ubiquitous healthcare services. WBANs could operate in dense environments such as in a hospital and lead to a high mutual communication interference in many application scenarios. The excessive interferences will significantly degrade the network performance including depleting the energy of WBAN nodes more quickly, and even eventually jeopardize people's lives due to unreliable (caused by the interference) healthcare data collections. Therefore, It is critical to mitigate the interference among WBANs to increase the reliability of the WBAN system while minimizing the system power consumption. Many existing approaches can deal with communication interference mitigation in general wireless networks but are not suitable for WBANs due to their ignoring the social nature of WBANs. Unlike the previous research, we for the first time propose a power game based approach to mitigate the communication interferences for WBANs based on the people's social interaction information. Our major contributions include: (1) model the inter-WBANs interference, and determine the distance distribution of the interference through both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations; (2) develop social interaction detection and prediction algorithms for people carrying WBANs; (3) develop a power control game based on the social interaction information to maximize the system's utility while minimize the energy consumption of WBANs system. The extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the power control game for inter-WBAN interference mitigation using social interaction information. Our research opens a new research vista of WBANs using social networks.
Kambiz Azarian; Ravindra Patwardhan; Chris Lott; Donna Ghosh; Radhika Gowaikar; Rashid Attar
Load balancing is typically used in the frequency domain of cellular wireless networks to balance paging, access, and traffic load across the available bandwidth. In this paper, we extend load balancing into the spatial domain, and we develop two approaches--network load balancing and single-carrier multilink--for spatial load balancing. Although these techniques are mostly applied to cellular wireless networks and Wi-Fi networks, we show how they can be applied to EV-DO, a 3G cellular data network. When a device has more than one candidate server, these techniques can be used to determine the quality of the channel between a server and the device and to determine the Ipad on each server. The proposed techniques leverage the advantages of existing EV-DO network architecture and are fully backward compatible. Network operators can substantially increase network capacity and improve user experience by using these techniques. Combining load balancing in the frequency and spatial domains improves connectivity within a network and allows resources to be optimally allocated according to the p-fair criterion. Combined load balancing further improves performance.
农村地区进行FTTH建设，会面临整体投资高、户均建设成本急剧升高、建网时间长、运维成本高等问题。基于此，通过对濮阳农村地区FTTH的试点建设，研究农村地区如何在保证网络建设质量与速度的基础上，降低总体投资及运维成本；研究过程中，通过灵活的网络规划（二级分光方式）、优化的产品选择（标准化产品）、便捷的施工维护（单人可完成）3个方面有效解决了农村地区FTTH建设的各项问题，探索出了农村地区独有的FTTH建设方案。%FTTH construction in rural area has the problems on high total investment, climbout on family average construction cost, long network construction time and high maintenance cost. Based on the above, combined with the test construction of FTTH net-work in Puyang rural area, it researches on how to decrease total investment and maintenance cost based on the guarantee of network construction quality and speed. The problems on the FTTH construction in rural area are solved by the flexible network planning, optimized product selection, convenient construction maintenance. The unique FTTH construction solution in rural ar-ea is explored.
Full Text Available Anthropogenic impacts are increasingly affecting the world's oceans. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs provide an option for increasing the ecological and economic benefits often provided by single MPAs. It is vital to empirically assess the effects of MPA networks and to prioritize the monitoring data necessary to explain those effects. We summarize the types of MPA networks based on their intended management outcomes and illustrate a framework for evaluating whether a connectivity network is providing an outcome greater than the sum of individual MPA effects. We use an analysis of an MPA network in Hawai'i to compare networked MPAs to non-networked MPAs to demonstrate results consistent with a network effect. We assert that planning processes for MPA networks should identify their intended outcomes while also employing coupled field monitoring-simulation modeling approaches, a powerful way to prioritize the most relevant monitoring data for empirically assessing MPA network performance.
similar to that used to connect gateways can also be used in the hierarchical portion of the network. Transmission pathways are available in both...the internode spacing limit is set at two kilometers, with 500 nodes allowed on the network, and a total ring circumference of 200 km. Frames, or
Monacos, Steve P.
Proposed fiber-optic wide-area network (WAN) for digital communication balances input and output flows of data with its internal capacity by routing traffic via dynamically interconnected routing planes. Data transmitted optically through network by wavelength-division multiplexing in synchronous or asynchronous packets. WAN implemented with currently available technology. Network is multiple-ring cyclic shuffle exchange network ensuring traffic reaches its destination with minimum number of hops.
Full Text Available The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient’s own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring.
The node deployment optimization techniques is the main point of application of wireless sensor networks , is the hot issues of domestic and foreign scholars in recent years in the military, civil defense, environmental and other fields has broad application prospects. For wireless sensor node deployment methods exist uneven distribution of nodes, covering the incomplete wait, proposed a cloud model to improve particle swarm optimization for wireless sensor node deployment. The experimental results show that this method can be completed relatively small cost sensor aware node deployment, fast convergence in the optimal solution can reduce network deployment costs, and improve overall network coverage.%节点部署优化技术是无线传感器网络的主要应用点,也是近年来国内外学者研究的热点问题,它在军事、民防、环境等多个领域中具有广阔的应用前景.针对目前无线传感节点部署方法存在节点分布不均匀、覆盖不完全等问题,提出一种采用云模型改进粒子群算法,并将该算法用于无线传感器网络节点部署.对比实验结果表明,该方法能够以相对较小的代价完成传感器感知节点部署,能快速收敛于最优解,能够降低网络部署的成本,提高网络的整体覆盖率.
Copard, Yoann; Lebouteiller, Caroline; Regues-Munoz, David; Latron, Jerome; Solé-Benet, Albert; Canton, Yolanda; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Della Seta, Marta; Rossi, Mauro; Capolongo, Domenico; Maquaire, Olivier; Forey, Estelle; Di-Giovanni, Christian; Gallart, Francesc; Delmonte, Maurizio; Vergari, Francesca; Massei, Nicolas; Torri, Dino
Between 2013 and 2014, a network funded by MISTRALS-ENVIMED institution, was born around some instrumented catchments developing a badland-type morphology. This network has grouped 3 countries (France, Spain and Italy) with 12 scientific labs. RESOBAM has concerned two sites in France (Draix-Bléone and Vaches Noires), three in Spain (Vallcebre, Araguas and El Cautivo) and some sites in Italy (Tuscany, Basilicata). Main goal of this network was to federate the research around badlands at the European scale, by proposing some scientific topics as: sediment and water transports / budget, (bio)geochemical cycles, agricultural (farming), education, restoration, cultural heritage, soil conservation / biodiversity, climatic change etc. Other main interests were also to propose some common scientific projects and the development of students exchanges. This communication presents the synthesis of our four meetings held at Draix, Zaragoza, Almeriá and Rouen and some perspectives to continue this network.
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1992...Intentions arc to merge the three separate networks into one network, the DISNET. Physicall % unprotected trunks and host access lines on the MILNET are being...Computer Security Press. April 19S2. 13. Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Ave. System Security Stud% Committee, Computer Science and
Gudmundsson, G. H.
Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.
Tragos, Elias; Mihovska, Albena D.; Mino, Emilio
The concept of ubiquitous and scalable system is applied in the IST WINNER II  project to deliver optimum performance for different deployment scenarios from local area to wide area wireless networks. The integration of cellular and local area networks in a unique radio system will provide a g...
Polignano, Michele; Mogensen, Preben; Fotiadis, Panagiotis
The deployment of low-power small cells is envisaged as the main driver to accommodate the mobile broadband traffic growth in cellular networks. Depending on the spatial distribution of the user traffic, a densification of the small cells may be required in confined areas. However, deploying more...... does not effect the user throughput and no interference coordination is required. On the other hand, if deployed in open areas (e.g. city squares) the interference coordination enhances both average and coverage user throughput in case of high network load condition.......The deployment of low-power small cells is envisaged as the main driver to accommodate the mobile broadband traffic growth in cellular networks. Depending on the spatial distribution of the user traffic, a densification of the small cells may be required in confined areas. However, deploying more...... and more cells in given areas may imply an increase of the inter-cell interference among the small cells. This study aims at investigating if the inter-cell interference among outdoor small cells may represent an impairment to the user experience, and evaluates if and in what conditions the interference...
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The thesis has proposed and implemented a so-called SNS (Social network security) model for intrusion prevention in the Wireless Local Area Network of an organization. An experimental design was used to implement and test the model at a university in Nigeria.......The thesis has proposed and implemented a so-called SNS (Social network security) model for intrusion prevention in the Wireless Local Area Network of an organization. An experimental design was used to implement and test the model at a university in Nigeria....
Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Karstoft, Henrik; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg;
/actuators attached to the body and a host server application. The gateway uses the BlackFin BF533 processor from Analog Devices, and uses Bluetooth for wireless communication. Two types of sensors are attached to the network: an electro-cardio-gram sensor and an oximeter sensor. The testbed has been successfully...
Dokovski, Nikolay; Halteren, van Aart; Widya, Ing; Guelfi, Nicolas; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna
This paper presents a Java service platform for mobile healthcare that enables remote health monitoring using 2.5/3G public wireless networks. The platform complies with todayrsquos healthcare delivery models, in particular it incorporates some functionality of a healthcare call center, a healthport
Ghamari, Mohammad; Janko, Balazs; Sherratt, R Simon; Harwin, William; Piechockic, Robert; Soltanpur, Cinna
Current progress in wearable and implanted health monitoring technologies has strong potential to alter the future of healthcare services by enabling ubiquitous monitoring of patients. A typical health monitoring system consists of a network of wearable or implanted sensors that constantly monitor physiological parameters. Collected data are relayed using existing wireless communication protocols to a base station for additional processing. This article provides researchers with information to compare the existing low-power communication technologies that can potentially support the rapid development and deployment of WBAN systems, and mainly focuses on remote monitoring of elderly or chronically ill patients in residential environments.
Full Text Available Current progress in wearable and implanted health monitoring technologies has strong potential to alter the future of healthcare services by enabling ubiquitous monitoring of patients. A typical health monitoring system consists of a network of wearable or implanted sensors that constantly monitor physiological parameters. Collected data are relayed using existing wireless communication protocols to a base station for additional processing. This article provides researchers with information to compare the existing low-power communication technologies that can potentially support the rapid development and deployment of WBAN systems, and mainly focuses on remote monitoring of elderly or chronically ill patients in residential environments.
Eldridge, John M.; Olsberg, Ronald R.
This reports tabulates the Test and Evaluation results of the Access Class Switch tests conducted by members of Department 9336. About 15 switches were reviewed for use in the enterprise network as access tier switches as defined in a three tier architecture. The Access Switch Tier has several functions including: aggregate customer desktop ports, preserve and apply QoS tags, provide switched LAN access, provide VLAN assignment, as well as others. The typical switch size is 48 or less user ports. The evaluation team reviewed network switch evaluation reports from the Tolly Group as well as other sources. We then used these reports as a starting point to identify particular switches for evaluation. In general we reviewed the products of dominant equipment manufacturers. Also, based on architectural design requirements, the majority of the switches tested were of relatively small monolithic unit variety.
Hsu Myat Thwe
Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature heart rate respiration blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node base station. The sensor nodes are able to transmit data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface GUI is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper easier and quick respondent history of patient.
This proposal presents the status and progress in 2006-7, and the technical and financial plans for 2008-2010 for the US LHCNet transatlantic network supporting U.S. participation in the LHC physics program. US LHCNet provides transatlantic connections of the Tier1 computing facilities at Fermilab and Brookhaven with the Tier0 and Tier1 facilities at CERN as well as Tier1s elsewhere in Europe and Asia. Together with ESnet, Internet2, the GEANT pan-European network, and NSF’s UltraLight project, US LHCNet also supports connections between the Tier2 centers (where most of the analysis of the data will take place, starting this year) and the Tier1s as needed.See report
Steinhueser, A.; Schulz, W.; Schmidt, H.; Roth, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)
In general, telecommunication facilities do not allow much flexibility in the choice of location; the main criterion is that the facility must work with 100% availability and reliability. Corresponding to the wide spectrum of locations, the applied power supply technologies are very diverse: grid connection, diesel generators, photovoltaics (PV), fuel cells, thermoelectric converters and wind generators. The first three types of technology have been used by the telecommunications industry for decades. The other options are at developmental stages between laboratory samples and limited series production. The traditional approach to supply power remote from the grid is by using diesel generators and storage batteries. This means high power ratings, but also high prices and a high maintenance demand. The convergence of telecommunications networks, i.e. overlap of the cabled network and radio cellular networks, with its enormous demand for installation sites, introduces new demands on power supplies: they must be reliable, maintenance-free, inexpensive, flexibly adaptable to widely divergent technologies. At two examples, a PV-hybrid system for a repeater station for cellular phones and a PV powered intelligent information system, the advantages that offer PV off-grid solutions in the system design are shown. (orig.)
Tsouri, Gill R; Zambito, Stephanie R; Venkataraman, Jayanti
We consider the on-body, off-body, and body-to-body channels in wireless body area networks utilizing creeping wave antennas. Experimental setups are used to gather measurements in the 2.4 GHz band with body area networks operating in an office environment. Data packets providing received signal strength indicators are used to assess the performance of the creeping wave antenna in reducing interference at a neighboring on-body access point while supporting reliable on-body communications. Results demonstrate that creeping wave antennas provide reliable on-body communications while significantly reducing inter-network interference; the inter-network interference is shown to be 10 dB weaker than the on-body signal. In addition, the inter-network interference when both networks utilize creeping wave antennas is shown to be 3 dB weaker than the interference when monopole antennas are used.
The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented development and growth in global wireless communications systems, technologies and network "traffic" generated over network infrastructures.This book presents state-of-the-art energy-efficient techniques, designs and implementations that pertain to wireless communication networks such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WAHNs) including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are deployed across the world to facilitate "always on" reliable high-speed
Houlie, N.; Romanowicz, B.; Hellweg, P.
In the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), two million people live in a geologically complex, tectonically active region that has experienced several historic earthquakes, including the 1868 Hayward, the 1906 San Francisco, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Geodetic measurements, which are especially useful for detecting deformation and strain on deep structures throughout the seismic cycle, show that Bay Area deformation is both spatially complex and varying with time. Increasingly, GPS data can also be used in real time to complement seismic data in providing robust real-time earthquake information, and, potentially, early warning. The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network of permanent, continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers monitors crustal deformation in the Bay Area and northern California. BARD is a network collocated with several seismic networks (BDSN, NHFN, mini-PBO) operating in Northern California. As the local determination of magnitude is problematic for large earthquakes, the GPS will provide strong constraints on rupture geometry and amount of slip along the slipping fault. Thus, the collocation of all the networks will help mitigate earthquake- related risks associated with an earthquake in the SFBA or in northern California.
At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or
Blankenship, David D.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigates those aspects of network performance evaluation thought to pertain specifically to strategic performance management evaluation of the Navy's Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE) local area networks at stock point and inventory control point sites- Background is provided concerning the SPLICE Project, strategic management, computer performance evaluation tools...
With the advances in mobile computing technologies and the growth of the Net, mobile mesh networks are going through a set of important evolutionary steps. In this paper, we survey architectural aspects of mobile mesh networks and their use cases and deployment models. Also, we survey challenging areas of mobile mesh networks and describe our vision of promising mobile services. This paper presents a basic introductory material for Masters of Open Information Technologies Lab, interested in m...
Bacilieri, P.; Caccia, B.; Cardarelli, R.; Carlucci, G. P.; Ciaffoni, O.; Coli, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ghiselli, A.; Martini, A.; Medici, G.; Mirabelli, G.; Pace, E.; Santonico, R.; Trasatti, L.; Valente, E.; Valentini, S.
We present here a project involving a new long distance, high speed, fiber optic network with a passive star topology. The medium access mechanism is based on a centralized controller allowing channel reservation. This controller is connected to each station through an independent pair of optical fibers. It grants access using a deterministic scheme (DAMA/ICCC, demand assignment multiple access by independent centrally controlled channel) by means of a Round Robin algorithm allowing a simple implementation of priority levels and very high data channel efficiency. An overview of the first implementation design is given and some experimental results are presented.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive relationship between habitat area and species number is considered a fundamental rule in ecology. This relationship predicts that the link number of species interactions increases with habitat area, and structure is related to habitat area. Biological invasions can affect species interactions and area relationships. However, how these relationships change at different spatial scales has remained unexplored. We analysed understory plant–pollinator networks in seven temperate forest sites at 20 spatial scales (radius 120–2020 m to clarify scale-associated relationships between forest area and plant–pollinator networks. Results The pooled data described interactions between 18 plant (including an exotic and 89 pollinator (including an exotic species. The total number of species and the number of interaction links between plant and pollinator species were negatively correlated with forest area, with the highest correlation coefficient at radii of 1520 and 1620 m, respectively. These results are not concordant with the pattern predicted by species–area relationships. However, when associations with exotic species were excluded, the total number of species and the number of interaction links were positively correlated with forest area (the highest correlation coefficient at a radius of 820 m. The network structure, i.e., connectance and nestedness, was also related to forest area (the highest correlation coefficients at radii of 720–820 m, when associations with exotics were excluded. In the study area, the exotic plant species Alliaria petiolata, which has invaded relatively small forest patches surrounded by agricultural fields, may have supported more native pollinator species than initially expected. Therefore, this invasive plant may have altered the original relationships between forest area and plant–pollinator networks. Conclusions Our results demonstrate scale-dependent effects of forest
Rhodes, M. D.; Hedgepeth, J. M.
Structure lightweight, readily deployed, and has reliable joints. New truss concept, designated as "pac truss," developed. Features easy deployment without need for complex mechanisms. Structures of this type deployed in free flight by controlled release of stored energy in torsional springs at selected hinges located throughout structure. Double-folding technique used in beam model applicable to flat planar trusses, allowing structures of large expanse to fold into compact packages and be deployed for space-platform applications.
Fordyce, James A.
Among the greatest challenges facing the conservation of plants and animal species in protected areas are threats from a rapidly changing climate. An altered climate creates both challenges and opportunities for improving the management of protected areas in networks. Increasingly, quantitative tools like species distribution modeling are used to assess the performance of protected areas and predict potential responses to changing climates for groups of species, within a predictive framework. At larger geographic domains and scales, protected area network units have spatial geoclimatic properties that can be described in the gap analysis typically used to measure or aggregate the geographic distributions of species (stacked species distribution models, or S-SDM). We extend the use of species distribution modeling techniques in order to model the climate envelope (or “footprint”) of individual protected areas within a network of protected areas distributed across the 48 conterminous United States and managed by the US National Park System. In our approach we treat each protected area as the geographic range of a hypothetical endemic species, then use MaxEnt and 5 uncorrelated BioClim variables to model the geographic distribution of the climatic envelope associated with each protected area unit (modeling the geographic area of park units as the range of a species). We describe the individual and aggregated climate envelopes predicted by a large network of 163 protected areas and briefly illustrate how macroecological measures of geodiversity can be derived from our analysis of the landscape ecological context of protected areas. To estimate trajectories of change in the temporal distribution of climatic features within a protected area network, we projected the climate envelopes of protected areas in current conditions onto a dataset of predicted future climatic conditions. Our results suggest that the climate envelopes of some parks may be locally unique or
Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell
This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.
Underground pipe network comprehensive deployment in thermal power plant is one of the important parts of the general layout. The underground comprehensive pipeline arrangement layout, vertical layout, traffic and trans- portation and green infrastructure are unified consideration. Made the trench with trench, channel and pipeline, trench and road, between channel and the building to build between the horizontal and vertical coordinate scientifi- cally in the plant area, and reduce contradiction of design and preliminary design. The manpower, material re- sourees, financial resources can be fully utilized and conducive to safe and civilized production, and convenient ma- intenance repair.%地下管线综合部署是火力发电厂总布置的重要组成部分之一.厂区地下管线综合布置应与总平面布置、管线之间竖向布置,以及交通运输与绿化设施统一考虑,使厂区内沟道与沟道之间、沟道与管线之间、沟道与道路之间、沟道与各建（构）筑物之间在平面及竖向上科学协调,紧凑合理,减少后期设计与前期设计的矛盾,使人力、物力、财力得到充分的利用,既有利于安全文明生产,又方便日后维护维修.
Zarkesh-Ha, Payman [University of New Mexico
The main goal of this research grant is to develop a system-level solution leveraging novel technologies that enable network communications at 100 Gb/s or beyond. University of New Mexico in collaboration with Acadia Optronics LLC has been working on this project to develop the 100 Gb/s Network Interface Controller (NIC) under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant.
Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth
Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment.
Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth
Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment.
刘翠苹; 张海涛; 白舸
In order to improve the coverage rate of the sensor node deployment, concerning the coverage-trap, nodes redundancy and no re-optimization, a senor nodes deployment based on glowworm swarm optimization was proposed when the detection area was known. And the optimization had been improved. In this algorithm, each senor node was considered as a glowworm, and the intensity of signs was the intensity of luciferin. Firstly, the initial deployment of nodes was done. Then, after calculating the value of the movement probability, the direction of movement was determined as well as the direction of movement. Finally, the deployment of sensor nodes was finished. The simulation results show that this way of deployment is appropriate to the huge amounts of sensor nodes deployment, and has such characteristics as high coverage rate and strong flexibility.%为了提高传感器节点部署覆盖率,针对目前网络覆盖存在覆盖死角、节点冗余及不能再度优化的问题,在检测区域已知的情况下,提出基于萤火虫群优化(GSO)算法的传感器节点部署方案,并对原方案进行改进.该算法中,传感器节点等同于萤火虫,覆盖信号强度即是荧光素浓度,首先对节点进行随意初始部署,然后通过计算移动概率的大小,判断节点移动方向,最终完成节点部署.实验仿真表明,该部署方法适用于大量传感器节点部署,覆盖面积广,灵活性强.
Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A
Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.
Fault tolerance determines reliability of local, wide, and metropolitan area networks. Carried- out considerations are addressed to reliability evaluation of the classical, and the enhanced performance double rings, which are configurated according to ShuffleNet interconnection pattern realized by the use of wavelengths dependent signals. The considered multi-channel optical networks are modeled applying the Queuing Theory: the Continuous Time Markov Chains. Introduced models allow to determine in the data networks Mean Time to Failure, Data Throughput, and Time Delay. The results are implemented for performance simulation of advanced fiber optic data networks oriented towards High Speed Data Communications.
Cree, Johnathan Vee [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Delgado-Frias, Jose [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Large scale wireless sensor networks have been proposed for applications ranging from anomaly detection in an environment to vehicle tracking. Many of these applications require the networks to be distributed across a large geographic area while supporting three to five year network lifetimes. In order to support these requirements large scale wireless sensor networks of duty-cycled devices need a method of efficient and effective autonomous configuration/maintenance. This method should gracefully handle the synchronization tasks duty-cycled networks. Further, an effective configuration solution needs to recognize that in-network data aggregation and analysis presents significant benefits to wireless sensor network and should configure the network in a way such that said higher level functions benefit from the logically imposed structure. NOA, the proposed configuration and maintenance protocol, provides a multi-parent hierarchical logical structure for the network that reduces the synchronization workload. It also provides higher level functions with significant inherent benefits such as but not limited to: removing network divisions that are created by single-parent hierarchies, guarantees for when data will be compared in the hierarchy, and redundancies for communication as well as in-network data aggregation/analysis/storage.
Zomeni Maria; Vogiatzakis Ioannis. N.
The road network in Cyprus has seen an 88% increase in the last 20 years. This expansion has not been followed by any kind of assessment on the effects of the network on nature conservation. This is the first island-wide quantitative assessment of the size, character (surface types), pervasiveness and distribution of the road system with particular reference to Natura 2000 network on the island. We mapped roadless areas (i.e. areas at least one km away from nearest road) for the whole island ...
Degteva, Svetlana V; Ponomarev, Vasily I; Eisenman, Sasha W; Dushenkov, Vyacheslav
Increasing anthropogenic pressure on the largest remaining tracts of old-growth boreal forest in Europe necessitates additional conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity in northeastern European Russia. In a regional network comprising 8 % of the Nenets Autonomous District and 13.5 % of the Komi Republic, 248 areas have varying protected statuses as state nature reserves (zapovedniks), national parks, reserves/sanctuaries (zakazniks), or natural monuments. Due to increased natural resource extraction in this relatively pristine area, designation of additional protected areas is critical for the protection of key ecological sites. The history of ecological preservation in these regions is herein described, and recent recommendations for incorporating additional ecologically representative areas into the regional network are presented. If the protected area network can be expanded, the overall environmental stability in these globally significant ecosystems may remain intact, and can help Russia meet the 2020 Aichi conservation targets, as set forth by the Convention of Biological Diversity.
LIU Jianxin; TAN Ping; LIU Yu
The Controller Area Network (CAN) is a well established control network for automotive and automation control applications. Time-Triggered Controller Area Network (TTCAN) is a recent development which introduces a session layer, for message scheduling, to the existing CAN standard, which is a two layer standard comprising of a physical layer and a data link layer. TTCAN facilitates network communication in a time-triggered fashion, by introducing a Time Division Multiple Access style communication scheme. This allows deterministic network behavior, where maximum message latency times can be quantified and guaranteed. In order to solve the problem of determinate time latency and synchronization among several districted units in one auto panel CAN systems, this paper proposed a prototype design implementation for a shared-clock scheduler based on PIC18F458 MCU. This leads to improved CAN system performance and avoid the latency jitters and guarantee a deterministic communication pattern on the bus. The real runtime performance is satisfied.
Gündoğdu, Köksal; Çalhan, Ali
The rapid growth of wireless sensor networks has enabled the human health monitoring of patients using body sensor nodes that gather and evaluate human body parameters and movements. This study describes both simulation model and implementation of a new traffic sensitive wireless body area network by using non-preemptive priority queue discipline. A wireless body area network implementation employing TDMA is designed with three different priorities of data traffics. Besides, a coordinator node having the non-preemptive priority queue is performed in this study. We have also developed, modeled and simulated example network scenarios by using the Riverbed Modeler simulation software with the purpose of verifying the implementation results. The simulation results obtained under various network load conditions are consistent with the implementation results.
Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth
Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi
Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob
A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.
Yuchuan DU; Yuanjing GENG; Lijun SUN
For a local area road network, the available traffic data of traveling are the flow volumes in the key intersections, not the complete OD matrix. Considering the circumstance characteristic and the data availability of a local area road network, a new model for traffic assignment based on Monte Carlo simulation of intersection turning movement is provided in this paper. For good stability in temporal sequence, turning ratio is adopted as the important parameter of this model. The formulation for local area road network assignment problems is proposed on the assumption of random turning behavior. The traffic assignment model based on the Monte Carlo method has been used in traffic analysis for an actual urban road network. The results comparing surveying traffic flow data and determining flow data by the previous model verify the applicability and validity of the proposed methodology.
Jagdev Singh; Ravindra Belur; Selvendran Raju; Kumaravel Pichaimani; Muthu Priyal; Thambaje Gopalan Priya; Amareswari Kotikalapudi
In general,it is believed that plages and sunspots are the main contributors to solar irradiance.There are small-scale structures on the Sun with intermediate magnetic fields that could also contribute to solar irradiance,but it has not yet been quantified how many of these small scale structures contribute and how much this varies over the solar cycle.We used Ca Ⅱ K images obtained from the telescope at the Kodaikanal observatory.We report a method to separate the network elements from the background structure and plage regions,and compute the changes in the network element area index during the minimum phase of the solar cycle and part of the ascending phase of cycle 24.The measured area occupied by the network elements is about 30％ and the plages cover less than 1％ of the solar disk during the observation period from February 2008 to 2011.During the extended period of minimum activity,it is observed that the network element area index decreases by about 7％ compared to the area occupied by the network elements in 2008.A long term study of the network element area index is required to understand the variations over the solar cycle.
The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument....... The findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks....
The transport of sediment and nutrients from land application areas is an environmental concern. New methods are needed for estimating soil and nutrient concentrations of runoff from cropland areas on which manure is applied. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained with a Backpropagation (BP) algor...
A. K. Mwinyi
Full Text Available Student location detection in Learning Management System (LMS by utilizing Multi-Agent System (MAS which contains sensor nodes is a new area of research. This study reviews several studies to ascertain the potential of integrating these two technologies to automate students’ class attendance in Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs. Currently, the HLIs are using paper-based process to record students’ attendance in the class, that is time consuming and is not possible to monitor students all the time, that they suppose to be in learning environment. Introducing the sensor networks and MAS in LMS system is to enable the instructors or lecturers to be aware of the presence of their students once they reach the system’s domain. The collaboration using MAS facilitates the retrieval and recording of students’ details from the sensors and then sends them to LMS servers through Cluster Head Sensor. The information that is collected and recorded by the agents include the signal strength of the students’ device and their profiles which can facilitate to know the exactly locations of the students, by comparing such information with the information already stored in LMS database. Therefore, a system architecture that comprises MAS with sensor networks in LMS is presented in this study for monitoring students’ attendance in the classes and labs. This type of system architecture with improved LMS features is more focused and intended for HLIs that follow the blended learning system. This proposed system has potential of boosting learning process in HLIs by providing new feature in LMS that monitor students’ activities in blended systems, that support classroom and online teachings.
"Force20 networks, the pioneer in building and securing reliable networks, today announced that the University of Tennessee physics department has deployed the C300 resilient switch to analyze data form CERN's Large Hadron Collider." (1/2 page)
Sung, Grace H H; Aoyagi, Takahiro; Hernandez, Marco; Hamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Kohno, Ryuji
For privacy and radio propagation controls, electromagnetic shielding textile could be adopted in WBANs. The effect of including a commercially available electromagnetic shielding apron in WBANs was examined in this paper. By having both the coordinator and the sensor covered by the shielding apron, signal could be confined around the body; however signal strength can be greatly influenced by body movements. Placing the shielding apron underneath both antennas, the transmission coefficient could be on average enhanced by at least 10dB, with less variation comparing to the case when apron does not exist. Shielding textiles could be utilized in designing a smart suit to enhance WBANs performance, and to prevent signals travelling beyond its intended area.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. CONCLUSIONS: Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia.
Full Text Available Visual category perception is thought to depend on brain areas that respond specifically when certain categories are viewed. These category-sensitive areas are often assumed to be modules (with some degree of processing autonomy and to act predominantly on feedforward visual input. This modular view can be complemented by a view that treats brain areas as elements within more complex networks and as influenced by network properties. This network-oriented viewpoint is emerging from studies using either diffusion tensor imaging to map structural connections or effective connectivity analyses to measure how their functional responses influence each other. This literature motivates several hypotheses that predict category-sensitive activity based on network properties. Large, long-range fiber bundles such as inferior fronto-occipital, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi are associated with behavioural recognition and could play crucial roles in conveying backward influences on visual cortex from anterior temporal and frontal areas. Such backward influences could support top-down functions such as visual search and emotion-based visual modulation. Within visual cortex itself, areas sensitive to different categories appear well-connected (e.g., face areas connect to object- and motion sensitive areas and their responses can be predicted by backward modulation. Evidence supporting these propositions remains incomplete and underscores the need for better integration of DTI and functional imaging.
赵传信; 陈付龙; 王汝传; 赵诚; 罗永龙
信道分配和网关部署是无线M esh网络规划面临的重要挑战，作为影响网络性能的关键问题，传统上针对它们的研究都是独立的。为了有效结合二者规划网络，提升网络性能，提出了一种无线M esh网络联合信道分配和网关部署策略，综合考虑了最小化链路冲突量和网关部署代价，在部署网关过程中有效地分配信道以消减无线链路间干扰。利用链路冲突量衡量网关附近节点流量聚集的特征，使用基于多目标粒子群算法来优化信道分配和选择部署网关，在信道分配和网关选择已定的情况下构建了负载均衡的转发树。仿真结果表明，相对于基于平面网络的均衡信道分配网关部署算法，该算法可以有效降低网络干扰、优化网络性能、减少节点路径长度，实现了网关间的负载均衡。%Gateway deployment and channel assignment are important for the wireless mesh network planning because they influence the network quality of service directly . Traditionally , the two problems are studied separately .In this paper ,a comprehensive strategy is proposed to minimize both the link collision and the cost of gateway deployment for wireless mesh network .In addition ,the load balance is also considered in the planning stage and characteristics of the aggregation of flow traffic near the gateway in wireless mesh network are reflected by the degree of link collision . For the gateway deployment ,it has been proved to be NP‐hard .Here a novel multi‐objective particle swarm algorithm is proposed to optimize both channel assignment and gateway deployment .The route of nodes is built through creating a tree algorithm after the channel are assigned and gateway are selected .Thus ,the two problems are decoupled .The channel assignment and gateway deployment are then obtained in polynomial time for wireless mesh network planning .Comparing with the existing algorithms based on
Norgall, Thomas; Schmidt, Robert; von der Grün, Thomas
The Body Area Network (BAN) extends the range of existing wireless network technologies by an ultra-low range, ultra-low power network solution optimised for long-term or continuous healthcare applications. It enables wireless radio communication between several miniaturised, intelligent Body Sensor (or actor) Units (BSU) and a single Body Central Unit (BCU) worn at the human body. A separate wireless transmission link from the BCU to a network access point--using different technology--provides for online access to BAN components via usual network infrastructure. The BAN network protocol maintains dynamic ad-hoc network configuration scenarios and co-existence of multiple networks.BAN is expected to become a basic infrastructure element for electronic health services: By integrating patient-attached sensors and mobile actor units, distributed information and data processing systems, the range of medical workflow can be extended to include applications like wireless multi-parameter patient monitoring and therapy support. Beyond clinical use and professional disease management environments, private personal health assistance scenarios (without financial reimbursement by health agencies / insurance companies) enable a wide range of applications and services in future pervasive computing and networking environments.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in Internet technologies have allowed life science researchers to reach beyond the lab-centric research paradigm to create distributed collaborations. Of the existing technologies that support distributed collaborations, there are currently none that simultaneously support data storage and computation as a shared network resource, enabling computational burden to be wholly removed from participating clients. Software using computation-enable logistical networking components of the Internet Backplane Protocol provides a suitable means to accomplish these tasks. Here, we demonstrate software that enables this approach by distributing both the FASTA algorithm and appropriate data sets within the framework of a wide area network. Results For large datasets, computation-enabled logistical networks provide a significant reduction in FASTA algorithm running time over local and non-distributed logistical networking frameworks. We also find that genome-scale sizes of the stored data are easily adaptable to logistical networks. Conclusion Network function unit-enabled Internet Backplane Protocol effectively distributes FASTA algorithm computation over large data sets stored within the scaleable network. In situations where computation is subject to parallel solution over very large data sets, this approach provides a means to allow distributed collaborators access to a shared storage resource capable of storing the large volumes of data equated with modern life science. In addition, it provides a computation framework that removes the burden of computation from the client and places it within the network.
Hole, David G; Willis, Stephen G; Pain, Deborah J;
Despite widespread concern, the continuing effectiveness of networks of protected areas under projected 21st century climate change is uncertain. Shifts in species' distributions could mean these resources will cease to afford protection to those species for which they were originally established......, despite the likelihood of significant community disruption, we demonstrate that rigorously defined networks of protected areas can play a key role in mitigating the worst impacts of climate change on biodiversity....... species). Persistence of suitable climate space across the network as a whole, however, is notably high, with 88-92% of priority species retaining suitable climate space in >or= 1 IBA(s) in which they are currently found. Only 7-8 priority species lose climatic representation from the network. Hence...
Ho, C.; Bathker, D.; Sue, M.; Peng, T.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently granted a commercial company a license to potentially deploy its wireless Internet system in the San Diego area in the 2300- to 2305-MHz frequency range. Each of several base station emitters would transmit a relatively strong effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) (about 50 W). The frequency band is immediately above the band (2290 to 2300 MHz) used by NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving stations at Goldstone, California. A potential interference problem to DSN receivers thus exists through some anomalous propagation modes, such as tropospheric ducting and rain scattering, and interference must be kept under a very small percentage of time (0.001 percent), as required by NASA deep-space missions. In this article, we have estimated the effects of interference from the wireless Internet system to Goldstone receivers. The calculation results show that at 2300 MHz the interference received by the DSN could exceed the DSN protection level up to 0.1 percent of the time for ducting propagation. For rain scattering, this could occur up to 2.3 percent of the time. At 2290 MHz, due to the transmitter spectrum, interference through either mode is below the DSN protection level. Interference through terrain diffraction will suffer very large attenuations at both frequencies. After considering that in the middle of the path there is a tall mountain peak that largely blocks the surface ducting and direct illumination of rain clouds, the interference generated by the wireless system emitters and propagated
Full Text Available The problem of distributing a large amount of data from multiple sources in an urban area is investigated. We explore an opportunistic approach for information collection, in which a vehicle obtains information about resources from encountered vehicles. This protocol could be applied in both dense and sparse vehicular networks. Due to the highly dynamic nature of the underlying vehicular network topology, we depart from architectures requiring centralized coordination, reliable MAC scheduling, or global network state knowledge, and instead adopt a distributed paradigm with simple protocols. In other words, a reliable dissemination is introduced from multiple sources when each node in the network shares a limited amount of its resources for cooperating with others. By using rateless coding at the Road Side Unit (RSU and using vehicles as data carriers, an efficient way to achieve reliable dissemination to all nodes (even disconnected clusters in the network is described.
Lorentzen, Richard B.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to provide naval computer students with a basic knowledge on Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) satellite technology and to define the hardware and software requirements at the interface between a VSAT and a Local Area Network (LAN). By restricting a computer network to terrestrial links, a vast amount of knowledge is not accessed because either the terrestrial links can't access the information or the...
Young-Cheol Bang; Md. Obaidur Rahman; Sungwon Lee; Choong Seon Hong
In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the p...
Boucher, Phillip Larry; Horan, Sheila, B.
The NASA White Sands Complex (WSC) satellite communications facility consists of two main ground stations, an auxiliary ground station, a technical support facility, and a power plant building located on White Sands Missile Range. When constructed, terrestrial communication access to these facilities was limited to copper telephone circuits. There was no local or wide area communications network capability. This project incorporated a baseband local area network (LAN) topology at WSC and connected it to NASA's wide area network using the Program Support Communications Network-Internet (PSCN-I). A campus-style LAN is configured in conformance with the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (ISO) model. Ethernet provides the physical and data link layers. Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used for the network and transport layers. The session, presentation, and application layers employ commercial software packages. Copper-based Ethernet collision domains are constructed in each of the primary facilities and these are interconnected by routers over optical fiber links. The network and each of its collision domains are shown to meet IEEE technical configuration guidelines. The optical fiber links are analyzed for the optical power budget and bandwidth allocation and are found to provide sufficient margin for this application. Personal computers and work stations attached to the LAN communicate with and apply a wide variety of local and remote administrative software tools. The Internet connection provides wide area network (WAN) electronic access to other NASA centers and the world wide web (WWW). The WSC network reduces and simplifies the administrative workload while providing enhanced and advanced inter-communications capabilities among White Sands Complex departments and with other NASA centers.
Ramsey, Benjamin; Mullins, Barry
Part 2: Control Systems Security; International audience; ZigBee networks are integrating rapidly into critical infrastructures such as the smart grid and public health centers. Numerous ZigBee-based smart meters have been installed in metropolitan areas and hospitals commonly employ ZigBee technology for patient and equipment monitoring. The associated ZigBee networks transport sensitive information and must be secured against exfiltration and denial-of-service attacks. Indeed, novel tools t...
Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K
As networks of video cameras are installed in many applications like security and surveillance, environmental monitoring, disaster response, and assisted living facilities, among others, image understanding in camera networks is becoming an important area of research and technology development. There are many challenges that need to be addressed in the process. Some of them are listed below: - Traditional computer vision challenges in tracking and recognition, robustness to pose, illumination, occlusion, clutter, recognition of objects, and activities; - Aggregating local information for wide
Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, Marvin D. (Inventor); Simonton, J. Wayne (Inventor)
A deployable geodesic truss structure which can be deployed from a stowed state to an erected state is described. The truss structure includes a series of bays, each bay having sets of battens connected by longitudinal cross members which give the bay its axial and torsional stiffness. The cross members are hinged at their mid point by a joint so that the cross members are foldable for deployment or collapsing. The bays are deployed and stabilized by actuator means connected between the mid point joints of the cross members. Hinged longerons may be provided to also connect the sets of battens and to collapse for stowing with the rest of the truss structure.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997. Northouse , Peter. Leadership , Theory and practice , fourth Ed, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications...length of tours for the benefit of the military member and their families. 3 1.3 Research Objectives The current practice of deployment management...for potential future study, and recommends actions to Air Force CE leadership based on research findings. 6 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Chapter
Collaboration Networks for Innovation and Socio-economic Development: European and Latin American Perspectives on Digital Ecosystems Research, Local Readiness, Deployment Strategies and Their Policy Implications
Rivera León, Lorena; Kataishi, Rodrigo
International cooperation and knowledge transfer among countries has become increasingly important in the last decades, giving opportunity to a set of multiple interaction programs particularly amongst developed and developing regions. This paper discusses the feasibility of the adoption of Digital Ecosystems (DEs) in the Latin American context, based on the experience of deployment of DEs in the European Union. Different deployment experiences in the European context revealed the need of a methodology for planning and implementing DEs that resulted in a set of tools for measuring the maturity grade of localities related to the deployment of DEs and the need of an impact index for understanding its long-term implications of the dynamics of their implementation. This paper proposes a new methodological framework that integrates concepts related to ICT adoption, connectivity and absorption capacities and recognises the strong influence of social capital over these. The paper concludes with the description of a methodological tool oriented towards the mapping, evaluation and modification of scenarios related to ICT adoption process among multiple agents.
Hossein Jafari Pozveh
Full Text Available For decades, the structure of existing power grids has not changed. It is an old structure that depends heavily on fossil fuel as an energy source, and in the future, this is likely to be critical in the field of energy. To solve these problems and to make optimal use of energy resources, a new concept is proposed, called Smart Grid. Smart Grid is an electric power distribution automation system, which can provide a two-way flow of electricity and information between power plants and consumers. The Smart Grid communications infrastructure consists of different network components, such as Home Area Network (HAN, Neighborhood Area Network (NAN and Wide Area Network (WAN. Achieving the required level of reliability in the transmission of information to all sections, including the HAN, is one of the main objectives in the design and implementation of Smart Grid. This study offers a routing protocol by considering the parameters and constraints of HAN, which, by improving AODV routing protocol, achieves the level of required reliability for data transmission in this network. These improvements include: making table-driven AODV routing protocol, extending the routing protocol to compute multiple paths in a route discovery, simplification and providing the effect of HAN parameters. The results of the NS2 simulation indicate that applying this improved routing protocol in the HAN, satisfies the required level of reliability of the network, which is over 98%.
It always adopts the direct hierarchy analysis to value the exploitation conditions of surface mining areas. This way has some unavoidable shortcomings because it is mainly under theaid of experts and it is affected by the subjective thinking of the experts. This paper puts forwards a new approach that divides the whole exploitation conditions into sixteen subsidiary systems and each subsidiary system forms a neural network system. The whole decision system of exploitation conditions of surface mining areas is composed of sixteen subsidiary neural network systems. Each neural network is practiced with the data of the worksite, which is reasonable and scientific. This way will be a new decision approach for exploiting the surface mining areas.
吴明儿; 张天昊; 徐遗威; 关富玲
Bi-Hoop Circular Deployable Truss ( BCDT) can improve the stiffness of the deployable truss and is suitable for large scale deployable antenna system.In this paper, flexible tensile cable network was designed for BCDT to support the metal reflector of the deployable antenna.Form find-ing analysis was conducted with the finite element method.A 2-metre diameter BCDT model was manufactured and assembled, serving as the boundary of the flexible tensile cable network.The flex-ible tensile cable network was also fabricated and installed on the BCDT model.The surface of cable net was measured by non-contact photogrammetry method.The measured coordinates of the cable net model were close to those of the design.The feasibility of the BCDT and cable net was verified.%由于采用双环可展桁架结构可以有效改善结构刚度，实现更大的天线口径，故在已有双环可展桁架结构基础上，基于柔性张力索网成型原理设计可展天线反射面柔性张力索网，利用有限元数值分析方法对两种索网进行找形分析。制作2m口径双环可展桁架结构模型。在双环可展桁架结构模型上安装柔性张力索网，通过对拉索施加预应力将索网张拉成型。运用非接触测量系统对成形后索网节点坐标进行测量，将测量所得结果与数值分析所得结果进行比较分析，考察了柔性张力索网的型面精度。结果表明该张力索网可实现张紧成型，索网节点坐标测试值与设计值较为吻合，可为此类可展天线的设计提供参考。
Wahyuningsih, Retno; Rintis Hadiani, RR; Sobriyah
Cau irrigation area located in Madiun district, East Java Province, irrigates 1.232 Ha of land which covers Cau primary channel irrigation network, Wungu Secondary channel irrigation network, and Grape secondary channel irrigation network. The problems in Cau irrigation area are limited availability of water especially during the dry season (planting season II and III) and non-compliance to cropping patterns. The evaluation of irrigation system performance of Cau irrigation area needs to be done in order to know how far the irrigation system performance is, especially based on planting productivity aspect. The improvement of irrigation network performance through cropping pattern optimization is based on the increase of water necessity fulfillment (k factor), the realization of planting area and rice productivity. The research method of irrigation system performance is by analyzing the secondary data based on the Regulation of Ministry of Public Work and State Minister for Public Housing Number: 12/PRT/M/2015. The analysis of water necessity fulfillment (k factor) uses Public Work Plan Criteria Method. The performance level of planting productivity aspect in existing condition is 87.10%, alternative 1 is 93.90% dan alternative 2 is 96.90%. It means that the performance of the irrigation network from productivity aspect increases 6.80% for alternative 1 and 9.80% for alternative 2.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...
Bahanfar, Saeid; Kousha, Helia; Babaie, Shahram
Now days, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) have grown considerably. A number of tiny wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a wireless body area network that can monitor various vital signs, providing real-time feedback to the user and medical personnel. This communication needs to be energy efficient and highly reliable while keeping delays low. In this paper we present hardware and software architecture for BAN and also we offer reliable communication and data aggregation.
Anna R. Docherty
Full Text Available We examined network properties of genetic covariance between average cortical thickness (CT and surface area (SA within genetically-identified cortical parcellations that we previously derived from human cortical genetic maps using vertex-wise fuzzy clustering analysis with high spatial resolution. There were 24 hierarchical parcellations based on vertex-wise CT and 24 based on vertex-wise SA expansion/contraction; in both cases the 12 parcellations per hemisphere were largely symmetrical. We utilized three techniques—biometrical genetic modeling, cluster analysis, and graph theory—to examine genetic relationships and network properties within and between the 48 parcellation measures. Biometrical modeling indicated significant shared genetic covariance between size of several of the genetic parcellations. Cluster analysis suggested small distinct groupings of genetic covariance; networks highlighted several significant negative and positive genetic correlations between bilateral parcellations. Graph theoretical analysis suggested that small world, but not rich club, network properties may characterize the genetic relationships between these regional size measures. These findings suggest that cortical genetic parcellations exhibit short characteristic path lengths across a broad network of connections. This property may be protective against network failure. In contrast, previous research with structural data has observed strong rich club properties with tightly interconnected hub networks. Future studies of these genetic networks might provide powerful phenotypes for genetic studies of normal and pathological brain development, aging, and function.
Docherty, Anna R.; Sawyers, Chelsea K.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E.; Chen, Chi-Hua; McEvoy, Linda K.; Verhulst, Brad; Tsuang, Ming T.; Kremen, William S.
We examined network properties of genetic covariance between average cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) within genetically-identified cortical parcellations that we previously derived from human cortical genetic maps using vertex-wise fuzzy clustering analysis with high spatial resolution. There were 24 hierarchical parcellations based on vertex-wise CT and 24 based on vertex-wise SA expansion/contraction; in both cases the 12 parcellations per hemisphere were largely symmetrical. We utilized three techniques—biometrical genetic modeling, cluster analysis, and graph theory—to examine genetic relationships and network properties within and between the 48 parcellation measures. Biometrical modeling indicated significant shared genetic covariance between size of several of the genetic parcellations. Cluster analysis suggested small distinct groupings of genetic covariance; networks highlighted several significant negative and positive genetic correlations between bilateral parcellations. Graph theoretical analysis suggested that small world, but not rich club, network properties may characterize the genetic relationships between these regional size measures. These findings suggest that cortical genetic parcellations exhibit short characteristic path lengths across a broad network of connections. This property may be protective against network failure. In contrast, previous research with structural data has observed strong rich club properties with tightly interconnected hub networks. Future studies of these genetic networks might provide powerful phenotypes for genetic studies of normal and pathological brain development, aging, and function. PMID:26347632
In recent years, network bandwidth requirements have scaled multiple folds, pushing the need for the development of data exchange mechanisms at 100 Gb/s and beyond. High performance computing, climate modeling, large-scale storage, and collaborative scientific research are examples of applications that can greatly benefit by leveraging high bandwidth capabilities of the order of 100 Gb/s. Such requirements and advances in IEEE Ethernet standards, Optical Transport Unit4 (OTU4), and host-system interconnects demand a network infrastructure supporting throughput rates of the order of 100 Gb/s with a single wavelength. To address such a demand Acadia Optronics in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, proposed and developed a end-system Network Interface Controller (NIC) for the 100Gbps WANs. Acadia’s 100G NIC employs an FPGA based system with a high-performance processor interconnect (PCIe 3.0) and a high capacity optical transmission link (CXP) to provide data transmission at the rate of 100 Gbps.
Full Text Available VLAN (Virtual LAN merupakan sebuah teknologi yang dapat mengkonfigurasi jaringan logis independen dari struktur jaringan fisik. Hasil dari penelitian sebelumnya sudah diprediksi bahwa dibutuhkan Virtual Network yang akhirnya terciptalah VLAN. Namun paradigma jaringan saat ini tidak flexible, ketergantungan terhadap vendor sangat besar karena fungsi data plane dan control plane berada dalam satu paket device. SDN (Software defined network yang merupakan salahsatu evolusi teknologi jaringan sesuai dengan tuntutan yang berkembang dimana memisahkan fungsi data plane dan control plane pada suatu perangkat. POX Controller digunakan untuk men-simulasikan dan menguji Platform SDN (Software defined network. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan Openflow versi 1.0 untuk memasang header VLAN sehingga penelitian ini difokuskan untuk mengevaluasi performa forwarding VLAN yang memanfaatkan Openflow sebagai control plane dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Hasil penelitian ini mengusulkan penerapan karakteristik teknologi VLAN pada SDN karena telah berjalan dengan benar sesuai hasil pengujian konektifitas, verifikasi dan keamanan. Kemudian hasil pengujian lanjutan untuk melihat pengaruh SDN dengan skenario penambahan jumlah VLAN ID didapatkan bahwa set-up time akan bertambah seiring meningkatnya jumlah host dan dengan menggunakan protokol OpenFlow, latency yang terjadi di jaringan dapat dipantau dengan parameter round trip time (RTT yang stabil direntang 0,2 sampai 6 second walaupun jumlah vlan_id dan background traffic bertambah.
Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary
We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.
Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.
Pedersen, Klaus I.; Soret, Beatriz; Barcos, Sonia;
In this paper, we investigate the operation of eICIC in a realistic deployment based on site specific data from a dense urban European capital area. Rather than the classical semistatic and common network-wide configuration, the importance of having highly dynamic and distributed mechanisms...... deployments, whereas the set of proposed fast dynamic eICIC algorithms leads to capacity gains on the order of 35-120% depending on the local environment characteristics. In the analysis of the performance results for the site specific use case, it is furthermore highlighted how those deviate from typical...
The success in the growing wireless standards can be measured by the achievement of quality of service (QoS) specifications by the designers. The IEEE802.11 wireless standards are widely accepted as wireless technology for wireless LAN. Efforts have been made over the years by the task group to provide adequate number of QoS enhancement schemes for the increasing numbers of multimedia applications. This paper examines the empirical performances of ad hoc wireless networks deployed on IEEE802....
Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.
Diego Silva Freitas Oliveira
Full Text Available In Brazil, few studies compare the consumption of native and exotic fruits, especially in an urban environment. The Network Theory may be useful in such studies, because it allows evaluating many bird and plant species involved in interactions. The goals of this study were: evaluate a bird frugivory interaction network in an urban environment; checking the role played by native and exotic plants in the network and comparing the consumer assemblies of these two plant groups. A literature review on bird frugivory in Brazilian urban areas was conducted, as well as an analysis to create an interaction network on a regional scale. The analysis included 15 papers with 70 bird species eating fruits from 15 plant species (6 exotic and 9 native. The exotic and native fruit consumers did not form different groups and the interaction network was significantly nested (NODF = 0.30; p < 0.01 and not modular (M = 0.36; p = 0.16. Two exotic plant species are in the generalist core of the frugivory network (Ficus microcarpa and Michelia champaca. The results point out that a relatively diversified bird group eats fruits in Brazilian urban areas in an opportunistic way, with no preference for native or exotic plants.
Hu, Wen; Ferrari, Federico; Zimmerling, Marco; Mottola, Luca
This edited book presents the results of the 5th Workshop on Real-world Wireless Sensor Networks (REALWSN). The purpose of this workshop was to bring together researchers and practitioners working in the area of sensor networks, with focus on real-world experiments or deployments of wireless sensor networks. Included were, nonetheless, emerging forms of sensing such as those that leverage smart phones, Internet of Things, RFIDs, and robots. Indeed, when working with real-world experiments or deployments, many new or unforeseen issues may arise: the network environment may be composed of a variety of different technologies, leading to very heterogeneous network structures; software development for large scale networks poses new types of problems; the performance of prototype networks may differ significantly from the deployed system; whereas actual sensor network deployments may need a complex combination of autonomous and manual configuration. Furthermore, results obtained through simulation are typically n...
area is bounded by Roswell , New Mexico on the southwest and Dalhart, Texas on the northeast. Other major cities in the area include Amarillo and...0 .. . . . . . . TEXAS HCNON ROBERTS HEMHIL CASO ULM T "A CONSERR UC ON G R S O R C O R S IE C E 08O pla for A~tRMSTOG 7,ONL C TR i 0 Fifteen
Zhao, Xiao Wei; Chen, Tian Lun
Based on the LISSOM model and the OFC earthquake model, we introduce a self-organized feature map Neural Network model . It displays a "Self Organized Criticality"(SOC) behavior. It can be seen that the feature area (synchronized area) produced by self-organized process brings about some definite effect on SOC behavior and the system evolves into a "partly-synchronized" state. For explaining this phenomena, a quasi-OFC earthquake model is simulated.
Li, Haifeng; Chen, Wenbo; He, Wei
Green space plays an important role in sustainable urban development and ecology by virtue of multiple environmental, recreational, and economic benefits. Constructing an effective and harmonious urban ecological network and maintaining a sustainable living environment in response to rapid urbanization are the key issues required to be resolved by landscape planners. In this paper, Nanchang City, China was selected as a study area. Based on a series of landscape metrics, the landscape pattern analysis of the current (in 2005) and planned (in 2020) green space system were, respectively, conducted by using FRAGSTATS 3.3 software. Considering the actual situation of the Nanchang urban area, a "one river and two banks, north and south twin cities" ecological network was constructed by using network analysis. Moreover, the ecological network was assessed by using corridor structure analysis, and the improvement of an ecological network on the urban landscape was quantitatively assessed through a comparison between the ecological network and green space system planning. The results indicated that: (1) compared to the green space system in 2005, the planned green space system in 2020 of the Nanchang urban area will decline in both districts (Changnan and Changbei districts). Meanwhile, an increase in patch density and a decrease in mean patch size of green space patches at the landscape level implies the fragmentation of the urban green space landscape. In other words, the planned green space system does not necessarily improve the present green space system; (2) the ecological network of two districts has high corridor density, while Changnan's ecological network has higher connectivity, but Changbei's ecological network is more viable from an economic point of view, since it has relatively higher cost efficiency; (3) decrease in patch density, Euclidean nearest neighbor distance, and an increase in mean patch size and connectivity implied that the ecological network
Full Text Available Green space plays an important role in sustainable urban development and ecology by virtue of multiple environmental, recreational, and economic benefits. Constructing an effective and harmonious urban ecological network and maintaining a sustainable living environment in response to rapid urbanization are the key issues required to be resolved by landscape planners. In this paper, Nanchang City, China was selected as a study area. Based on a series of landscape metrics, the landscape pattern analysis of the current (in 2005 and planned (in 2020 green space system were, respectively, conducted by using FRAGSTATS 3.3 software. Considering the actual situation of the Nanchang urban area, a “one river and two banks, north and south twin cities” ecological network was constructed by using network analysis. Moreover, the ecological network was assessed by using corridor structure analysis, and the improvement of an ecological network on the urban landscape was quantitatively assessed through a comparison between the ecological network and green space system planning. The results indicated that: (1 compared to the green space system in 2005, the planned green space system in 2020 of the Nanchang urban area will decline in both districts (Changnan and Changbei districts. Meanwhile, an increase in patch density and a decrease in mean patch size of green space patches at the landscape level implies the fragmentation of the urban green space landscape. In other words, the planned green space system does not necessarily improve the present green space system; (2 the ecological network of two districts has high corridor density, while Changnan’s ecological network has higher connectivity, but Changbei’s ecological network is more viable from an economic point of view, since it has relatively higher cost efficiency; (3 decrease in patch density, Euclidean nearest neighbor distance, and an increase in mean patch size and connectivity implied that the
Dappin, Satish G; Nair, G Nithya; Nair, T R Gopalakrsihnan
In this paper, the severity prediction of drought through the implementation of modern sensor networks is discussed. We describe how to design a drought prediction system using wireless sensor networks. This paper will describe a terrestrial interconnected wireless sensor network paradigm for the prediction of severity of drought over a vast area of 10,000 sq km. The communication architecture for sensor network is outlined and the protocols developed for each layer is explored. The data integration model and sensor data analysis at the central computer is explained. The advantages and limitations are discussed along with the use of wireless standards. They are analyzed for its relevance. Finally a conclusion is presented along with open research issues.
Cuda, Davide; Rouzic, Esther Le; Roberts, James
We propose an all-optical networking solution for a wide area network (WAN) based on the notion of multipoint-to-multipoint lightpaths that, for short, we call "multipaths". A multipath concentrates the traffic of a group of source nodes on a wavelength channel using an adapted MAC protocol and multicasts this traffic to a group of destination nodes that extract their own data from the confluent stream. The proposed network can be built using existing components and appears less complex and more efficient in terms of energy consumption than alternatives like OPS and OBS. The paper presents the multipath architecture and compares its energy consumption to that of a classical router-based ISP network. A flow-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm is proposed and shown to have excellent performance in terms of throughput and delay.
Rohokale, Vandana M.; Inamdar, Sandeep; Prasad, Neeli R.;
For wireless sensor networks (WSN),energy is a scarce resource. Due to limited battery resources, the energy consumption is the critical issue for the transmission as well as reception of the signals in the wireless communication. WSNs are infrastructure-less shared network demanding more energy...... consumption due to collaborative transmissions. This paper proposes a new cooperative opportunistic four level model for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).The average per node energy consumption is observed merely about 0.17mJ for the cooperative wireless communication which proves...... the proposed mechanism to be energy efficient. This paper further proposes four levels of cooperative data transmission from source to destination to improve network coverage with energy efficiency....
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID, Media Access Control (MAC address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department.
Berumen, Michael L.
The use of marine protected area (MPA) networks to sustain fisheries and conserve biodiversity is predicated on two critical yet rarely tested assumptions. Individual MPAs must produce sufficient larvae that settle within that reserve\\'s boundaries to maintain local populations while simultaneously supplying larvae to other MPA nodes in the network that might otherwise suffer local extinction. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to demonstrate that patterns of self-recruitment of two reef fishes (Amphiprion percula and Chaetodon vagabundus) in an MPA in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, were remarkably consistent over several years. However, dispersal from this reserve to two other nodes in an MPA network varied between species and through time. The stability of our estimates of self-recruitment suggests that even small MPAs may be self-sustaining. However, our results caution against applying optimization strategies to MPA network design without accounting for variable connectivity among species and over time. 2012 The Authors.
Berumen, Michael L; Almany, Glenn R; Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Thorrold, Simon R
The use of marine protected area (MPA) networks to sustain fisheries and conserve biodiversity is predicated on two critical yet rarely tested assumptions. Individual MPAs must produce sufficient larvae that settle within that reserve's boundaries to maintain local populations while simultaneously supplying larvae to other MPA nodes in the network that might otherwise suffer local extinction. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to demonstrate that patterns of self-recruitment of two reef fishes (Amphiprion percula and Chaetodon vagabundus) in an MPA in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, were remarkably consistent over several years. However, dispersal from this reserve to two other nodes in an MPA network varied between species and through time. The stability of our estimates of self-recruitment suggests that even small MPAs may be self-sustaining. However, our results caution against applying optimization strategies to MPA network design without accounting for variable connectivity among species and over time.
Full Text Available The objective: Stability of the flow processes in industrial areas directly depends upon the degree of synergetic character of the elements, that make up the architecture of their transpiration networks. The bulk of specialists consider railway and automobile transportation networks to be transportation thoroughfares with static architecture only, although, primarily, they are but a series of structural and functional elements, acting according to synergetic principles, typical of industrial regions, having an essential impact both on environmental safety and supporting their functioning. In many industrial areas transportation networks also represent historical monuments to architectural and engineering ideas. Territories, located along transportation networks possess a substantial town-planning, architectural, historical and cultural potential. All aforementioned confirms the necessity of compiling a mechanism of evaluation of functionality of the existing architecture of transportation networks of industrial areas (hereinafter ATNIA, based on the principle of synergetic. The principles: The proposed mechanism of evaluation of functionality of ATNIA elements, characterize as synergetic is based upon an electric-dynamic model of control over transportation flows and was named on the analogy with gravitational model, in which bodies’ masses correspond to the zones of arrivals and departures, while the distance between zones to transportation expenses. The results: The operational hypothesis, regarding the fact that a transportation network of an industrial area represents a combinatorial space and can be evaluated by means of different methods of electrical engineering, according to Kirchoff’s laws proved to be true. Owing to development of electrodynamic, giving an evaluation of behaviour of transportation flows within boundaries of transportation networks in industrial areas there appeared an opportunity of determining the level of
Langer, Steve G; French, Todd; Segovis, Colin
Radiology examinations are large. The advent of fast volume imaging is making that statement truer every year. PACS are based on the assumption of fast local networking and just-in-time image pull to the desktop. On the other hand, teleradiology has been developed on a push model to accommodate the challenges of moderate bandwidth, high-latency wide area networks (WANs). Our group faced the challenging task of creating a PACS environment that felt local, while pulling images across a 3,000-mile roundtrip WAN link. Initial tests showed WAN performance lagging local area network (LAN) performance by a factor of 30 times. A 16-month journey of explorations pulled the WAN value down to only 1.5 times slower than the LAN.
Di Natale, Marco; Giusto, Paolo; Ghosal, Arkadeb
This is the first book to offer a hands-on guide to designing, analyzing and debugging a communication infrastructure based on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. Although the CAN bus standard is well established and currently used in most automotive systems, as well as avionics, medical systems and other devices, its features are not fully understood by most developers, who tend to misuse the network. This results in lost opportunities for better efficiency and performance. This book offers a comprehensive range of architectural solutions and domains of analysis. It also provides formal models and analytical results, with thorough discussion of their applicability, so that it serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and students, as well as practicing engineers. Offers the first comprehensive guide to bridging the gap between theory and implementation of the widely accepted Controller Area Network (CAN) bus; Provides examples and best practices for design of communication systems, as w...
Gretzinger, Susanne; Leick, Birgit
contributed to the Danish economy. The Danish windmill industry is still growing. Exports rose from 45,8 billion DKK in 2013 to 53.5 billion DKK and employment increased from 27.271 in 2013 to 28.676 employees in 2014 (Industriens Fond, 2015). Altogether, the Danish wind energy sector accounts for 3...... SME do not house the resources to offer the whole range of services, which is in need to run e. g. a windmill farm, cooperation among complementing SMES is a key capability in the process of shaping vital capabilities of cooperative networks and rural areas (Martin et al., 2016, Sarker and Faiz, 2016...... and brokerage as appropriate tools for network managers to handle such conflicts and in doing so to support business networks in rural areas (Burt, 2005, Granovetter, 1985, Eklinder-Frick, et al. 2011, 2012, 2014)....
在网络中防火墙是主要的安全设备之一，它以其强大的功能保障网络安全，由于防火墙所处的位置不同，其所发挥的作用不尽相同，因此根据不同的网络安全需要，以及路由器、交换机的端口类型，如何选择防火墙的端口连接方式变得尤为重要，本文详细阐述了在网络安全与连接中防火墙的部署与连接方式。%In the network firewall is one of the major safety equipment, it with its powerful functions of security network security, be⁃cause the location of the firewall is different, its role is not the same, so according to the different network security needs, as well as routers, switches, port type, how to select firewall port connection is particularly important, this paper expounds on the deployment of firewall in the network security and connected with the connection.
Négyessy, László; Nepusz, Tamás; Zalányi, László; Bazsó, Fülöp
Cognition is based on the integrated functioning of hierarchically organized cortical processing streams in a manner yet to be clarified. Because integration fundamentally depends on convergence and the complementary notion of divergence of the neuronal connections, we analysed integration by measuring the degree of convergence/divergence through the connections in the network of cortical areas. By introducing a new index, we explored the complementary convergent and divergent nature of connectional reciprocity and delineated the backward and forward cortical sub-networks for the first time. Integrative properties of the areas defined by the degree of convergence/divergence through their afferents and efferents exhibited distinctive characteristics at different levels of the cortical hierarchy. Areas previously identified as hubs exhibit information bottleneck properties. Cortical networks largely deviate from random graphs where convergence and divergence are balanced at low reciprocity level. In the cortex, which is dominated by reciprocal connections, balance appears only by further increasing the number of reciprocal connections. The results point to the decisive role of the optimal number and placement of reciprocal connections in large-scale cortical integration. Our findings also facilitate understanding of the functional interactions between the cortical areas and the information flow or its equivalents in highly recurrent natural and artificial networks.
Selimis, G.; Huang, L.; Massé, F.; Tsekoura, I.; Ashouei, M.; Catthoor, F.; Huisken, J.; Stuyt, J.; Dolmans, G.; Penders, J.; Groot, H. de
In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating
Andreas Konsgen describes two major areas of spectrum management: the coordination of neighbouring networks with overlapping ranges by controlling different transmission parameters and the channel allocation by the base station inside a radio cell using a cross-layer approach. Theoretical analyses and simulations demonstrate the usage of these methods and show the QoS enhancements which can be achieved.
Kidwell, Mary Coyle
Discusses the Mitre Corporation's implementation of OCLC's LS/2000 integrated library system using a local area network (LAN). LAN issues--requirements, equipment, reliability, growth, security, and traffic--are covered in general and as they relate to Mitre. Installation of the LAN/system interface and benefits and drawbacks of using a LAN for…
Radovanovic, Igor; Etten, van Wim; Freriks, Hennie
We introduce optical local-area network (LAN) architectures based on multimode optical fiber and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors, and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. These architectures are designed to lower the costs associated with passive optical LAN implementation. Furt
In this thesis we introduce optical local area networks for fiber-to-the-desk application. This in an attempt to bring the optical fiber ever closer to the individual user offering a huge information transmission bandwidth that will undoubtedly have a strong impact on future societies.
This dissertation addresses the challenges of wireless local area networks (WLANs) that operate in the unlicensed sub-1GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band. Frequencies in the 900MHz spectrum enable a wider coverage due to the longer propagation characteristics of the radio waves. To u
Full Text Available Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based on the number of extrafloral nectaries available in individual-based ant-plant networks. We observed that diurnal and nocturnal ant-plant networks exhibited the same pattern of interactions: a nested and non-modular pattern and an average level of network specialization. Despite the high similarity in the ants' composition between the two collection periods, ant species found in the central core of highly interacting species totally changed between diurnal and nocturnal sampling for all plant species. In other words, this "night-turnover" suggests that the ecological dynamics of these ant-plant interactions can be temporally partitioned (day and night at a small spatial scale. Thus, it is possible that in some cases processes shaping mutualistic networks formed by protective ants and plants may be underestimated by diurnal sampling alone. Moreover, we did not observe any effect of the number of extrafloral nectaries on ant richness and their foraging on such plants in any of the studied ant-plant networks. We hypothesize that competitively superior ants could monopolize individual plants and allow the coexistence of only a few other ant species, however, other alternative hypotheses are also discussed. Thus, sampling period and species-area relationship produces basic information that increases our confidence in how individual-based ant-plant networks are structured, and the need to consider nocturnal records in ant-plant network sampling design so as to decrease inappropriate inferences.
Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon
Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.
Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon
Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.
Sparsø, Jens; Kasapaki, Evangelia; Schoeberl, Martin
used by the routers and links in the NOC. The paper addresses the design of a NI for a NOC that uses time division multiplexing (TDM). By keeping the essence of TDM in mind, we have developed a new area-efficient NI micro-architecture. The new design completely eliminates the need for FIFO buffers...
The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.
In modelling of elastic objects in a flow such as red blood cells, white blood cells, or tumour cells, several elastic moduli are involved. One of them is the area conservation modulus. In this paper, we focus on spring network models and we introduce a new way of modeling the area preservation modulus. We take into account the current shape of the individual triangles and find the proportional allocation of area conservation forces, which would for individual triangles preserve their shapes. The analysis shows that this approach tends to regularize the triangulation. We demonstrate this effect on individual triangles as well as on the complete triangulations.
Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.
Full Text Available The high increase of bandwidth-intensive applications like high definition video streaming in home and small office environments leads to QoS challenges in hybrid wired/wireless local area networks. These networks are often not QoS aware and may contain bottlenecks in their topology. In addition, they often have a hybrid nature due to the used access technology consisting of, for example, Ethernet, wireless, and PowerLAN links. In this paper, we present the research work on a novel autonomous system for hybrid QoS in local area networks, called QoSiLAN, which does not rely on network infrastructure support but on host cooperation and works independently of the access technology. We present a new QoS Signalling Protocol, policing and admission control algorithms, and a new lightweight statistical bandwidth prediction algorithm for autonomous resource management in LANs. This new QoS framework enables link based, access-medium independent bandwidth management without network support. We provide evaluation results for the novel bandwidth prediction algorithm as well as for the QoSiLAN framework and its protocol, which highlight the features, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Cort, K. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, D. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Livingston, O. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Stratospheric Deployment Parafoil is a proposed technology that will be designed and tested to provide a greatly superior parachute precision delivery system...
85. Fugro National, Inc., 1981. "MX Mineral Resources Survey: Nevada/Utah Siting Area." Jerome , S. E., and D. R. Cook, 1967. "Relation of some Metal...early 1900s. (Ag, Au, Pb, W, Cu) T. 2 & 3 N, R 42 & 43E (B) 184 *o S 122 Quartz Mountain (Ag, Pb, Au) T. 14 N, R 36E (E) 122 & 134 Bruner (Au, Ag) T. 14
Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter IV. Part III. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.
are cow-calf and ewe- lamb. Marketed animals usually go to other states for additional fattening on rangelands, pasture, and/or feedlots. The limited...frequent valleys, except for Gambel’s quail and Chukar’s partridge in winter. Impacts to these species are expected to be minimal. Waterfowl in the...agriculture could negatively impact bobwhite quail , but would probably have a reciprocal effect on scaled quail and lesser prairie chickens if the areas were
collected for their medicinal value. Willow trees are valued for their pliable wood , used in making cradle boards. Siting Information (18.104.22.168) * The Moapa...That is, Africans adapted to an oppressive contract labor system by encapsulating or insulating themselves from foreign ideologies while in the urban...universally hunted. Deer congregated in small bands and generally inhabited partially wooded foothill areas. They were taken by individual stalking, or
Wei Wang; Hugo Rodrigue; Sung-Hoon Ahn
Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and sim...
Full Text Available We present MPWide, a light weight communication library which allows efficient message passing over a distributed network. MPWide has been designed to connect application running on distributed (supercomputing resources, and to maximize the communication performance on wide area networks for those without administrative privileges. It can be used to provide message-passing between application, move files, and make very fast connections in client-server environments. MPWide has already been applied to enable distributed cosmological simulations across up to four supercomputers on two continents, and to couple two different bloodflow simulations to form a multiscale simulation.
Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) have different mission requirements than the Space Shuttle, which is used for benchmark guidance design. Therefore, alternative Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) and Approach and Landing (A/L) Guidance schemes can be examined in the interest of cost reduction. A neural network based solution for a finite horizon trajectory optimization problem is presented in this paper. In this approach the optimal trajectory of the vehicle is produced by adaptive critic based neural networks, which were trained off-line to maintain a gradual glideslope.
JasonLee; BillAllcock; 等
Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing.From our work develogpin a scalable distributed network cache.we have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks(WAN).In this paper,we discuss several hardware and software dsign techniques,and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP,We describe results from the Supercomputing 2000 conference.
The aim of this thesis was to improve the method of consultation and operation of patients in Shisong Cardiac Center by introducing a Local Area Network for telemedicine in order to link the two remote hospitals that will enable them to share information in real time basis without introducing delay on the network. This was done by hiring high bandwidth of plastic optical fiber from Camtel and using them as the main transmission medium while the VSAT link was created as a standby to the optica...
Annica Charlotte Sandström
Full Text Available The challenge of establishing adaptive management systems is a widely discussed topic in the literature on natural resource management. Adaptive management essentially focuses on achieving a governance process that is both sensitive to and has the capacity to continuously react to changes within the ecosystem being managed. The adoption of a network approach that perceives governance structures as social networks, searching for the kind of network features promoting this important feature, has been requested by researchers in the field. In particular, the possibilities associated with the application of a formal network approach, using the tools and concepts of social network analysis (SNA, have been identified as having significant potential for advancing this branch of research. This paper aims to address the relation between network structure and adaptability using an empirical approach. With the point of departure in a previously generated theoretical framework as well as related hypotheses, this paper presents a case study of a governance process within a fish management area in Sweden. The hypotheses state that, although higher levels of network density and centralisation promote the rule-forming process, the level of network heterogeneity is important for the existence and spread of ecological knowledge among the actors involved. According to the empirical results, restricted by the single-case study design, this assumption is still a well-working hypothesis. However, in order to advance our knowledge concerning these issues and test the validity of the hypotheses, more empirical work using a similar approach in multiple case study designs is needed.
Stuart J Green
Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks are valuable tools for protecting coral reef habitats and managing near-shore fisheries, while playing an essential role in the overall conservation of marine biodiversity. In addition, MPAs and their networks are often the core strategy for larger scale and more integrated forms of marine resource management that can lead to ecosystem-based management regimes for seascapes and eco-regions. This study conducted in 2008 documents the status of selected MPAs and MPA networks in Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea, to better understand development and their level of success in the Coral Triangle. Findings reveal that substantial gaps exist between the theory and practice of creating functional MPA networks. Across these sites, biophysical and social science knowledge, required to build functional and effective MPAs or MPA networks, lagged behind substantially. Aspects that appeared to require the most attention to improve MPA network effectiveness included essential management systems, institutional arrangements, governance and sustainable financing. Common indicators of success such as increased fish catch and habitat quality parameters were consistently associated with several independent variables: sustainable financing for management, clarity of MPA network rules, enforcement by community level enforcers, local skills development, and involvement in management by local elected politicians, a functional management board, multi-stakeholder planning mechanisms and participatory biophysical assessments. Conclusions are that although considerable investments have been made in MPAs and potential MPA networks in the Coral Triangle, management effectiveness is generally poor throughout the region and that not many large, formally declared MPAs are well managed.
研究了无线Mesh骨干网部署优化问题，结合网络的拓扑结构及定向天线技术的传输特点对无线Mesh骨干网进行优化部署，提出一种基于Delaunay图形的无线Mesh骨干网部署优化算法，较好地解决了WMN骨干网信号干扰问题。%The author researched optimization of wireless Mesh network. Combining transfer features of topology structure of network and directional antenna technology, the author put forward optimization method based on Delaunay graphics, which solved signal interference of WMN backbone network.
Puche, William S.; Sierra, Javier E.; Moreno, Gustavo A.
The convergence of new technologies in the digital world has made devices with internet connectivity such as televisions, smatphone, Tablet, Blu-ray, game consoles, among others, to increase more and more. Therefore the major research centers are in the task of improving the network performance to mitigate the bottle neck phenomenon regarding capacity and high transmission rates in information and data. The implementation of standard HbbTV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV), and technological platforms OTT (Over the Top), capable of distributing video, audio, TV, and other Internet services via devices connected directly to the cloud. Therefore a model to improve the transmission capacity required by content distribution networks (CDN) for online TV, with high-capacity optical networks is proposed.
殷文正; 刘胤祥; 姜卫东
In order to improve the coverage rate of underwater sensor network,a deployment strategy based on motion control of AUV is proposed.Introducing improved virtual force algorithm,strengthening the virtual force of events to AUV node,improving the motion control of AUV are to reduce the influence of uneven distribution of events to the network coverage.The simulation shows that the network coverage rate is effectively improved,and the moving distance of AUV is reduced,meanwhile,energy consumption of the node is decreased.%为提高水下传感器网络覆盖率，提出一种基于 AUV 运动控制的网络部署策略。通过引入改进虚拟力算法，加强事件对 AUV 节点的虚拟作用力，改善 AUV 节点运动控制，降低事件分布不均匀对网络覆盖的影响。仿真表明，该方法能有效提高网络事件集覆盖率，同时 AUV 移动距离也有所降低，节点移动能耗得到控制。
Antonio Di Franco
Full Text Available Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment. Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.
Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo
Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.
Full Text Available This paper is following further development of the common framework model for multi-purpose underwater data collection devices focusing on second generation of simulation techniques VMAX2.0 on Perry-Slingsby ROV simulator. It is addressing physics-based simulation differences and their impact on the previous research for deployment challenges of underwater sensor networks called "Safe-Nets" by using Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV in the Black Sea area.
Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.
Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.
Full Text Available The road network in Cyprus has seen an 88% increase in the last 20 years. This expansion has not been followed by any kind of assessment on the effects of the network on nature conservation. This is the first island-wide quantitative assessment of the size, character (surface types, pervasiveness and distribution of the road system with particular reference to Natura 2000 network on the island. We mapped roadless areas (i.e. areas at least one km away from nearest road for the whole island and examined the spatial distribution with respect to Natura 2000. We tested the relationship between overall road density and road density of different road categories within terrestrial Natura 2000 sites to four zones which were defined on the basis of landform, principal land use and ownership. We employed three indices i.e. effective mesh size, splitting and division to measure fragmentation caused by the road network within Natura 2000 and investigated the relationship between road density and the above fragmentation metrics. Mean road density in Cyprus is 2.3 km/km2 which is comparable to road density values recorded in other Mediterranean countries such as France, Spain and Italy, which have much larger area and population. Roadless areas cover 4.5% of the island, and despite being scattered 80% is found within Natura 2000, which demonstrates the added value of the network for nature conservation. Road expansion has taken place throughout the island with the same intensity irrespectively of the zones examined. Fragmentation has been lower in sites on mountainous areas where sites are larger and under state ownership. Road density is negatively correlated (r = - 0.383, p = 0.05 with effective mesh size and positively correlated with both landscape division (r = 0.376, p = 0.05 and splitting index (r = 0.376, p = 0.05. Results corroborate that spatial configuration is an important property of the road network in addition to traffic load, length and
Full Text Available With increase in ageing population, health care market keeps growing. There is a need for monitoring of health issues. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN consists of wireless sensors attached on or inside human body for monitoring vital health related problems e.g., Electro Cardiogram (ECG, Electro Encephalogram (EEG, Electrony Stagmography (ENG etc. Due to life threatening situations, timely sending of data is essential. For data to reach health care center, there must be a proper way of sending data through reliable connection and with minimum delay. In this study transmission delay of different paths, through which data is sent from sensor to health care center over heterogeneous multi-hop wireless channel is analyzed. Data of medical related diseases is sent through three different paths. In all three paths, data from sensors first reaches ZigBee, which is the common link in all three paths. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX, Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS are connected with ZigBee. Each network (WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS is setup according to environmental conditions, suitability of device and availability of structure for that device. Data from these networks is sent to IP-Cloud, which is further connected to health care center. Delay of data reaching each device is calculated and represented graphically. Main aim of this study is to calculate delay of each link in each path over multi-hop wireless channel.
Semmens, Brice X; Auster, Peter J; Paddack, Michelle J
Marine protected area (MPA) networks have been proposed as a principal method for conserving biological diversity, yet patterns of diversity may ultimately complicate or compromise the development of such networks. We show how a series of ecological null models can be applied to assemblage data across sites in order to identify non-random biological patterns likely to influence the effectiveness of MPA network design. We use fish census data from Caribbean fore-reefs as a test system and demonstrate that: 1) site assemblages were nested, such that species found on sites with relatively few species were subsets of those found on sites with relatively many species, 2) species co-occurred across sites more than expected by chance once species-habitat associations were accounted for, and 3) guilds were most evenly represented at the richest sites and richness among all guilds was correlated (i.e., species and trophic diversity were closely linked). These results suggest that the emerging Caribbean marine protected area network will likely be successful at protecting regional diversity even if planning is largely constrained by insular, inventory-based design efforts. By recasting ecological null models as tests of assemblage patterns likely to influence management action, we demonstrate how these classic tools of ecological theory can be brought to bear in applied conservation problems.
Brice X Semmens
Full Text Available Marine protected area (MPA networks have been proposed as a principal method for conserving biological diversity, yet patterns of diversity may ultimately complicate or compromise the development of such networks. We show how a series of ecological null models can be applied to assemblage data across sites in order to identify non-random biological patterns likely to influence the effectiveness of MPA network design. We use fish census data from Caribbean fore-reefs as a test system and demonstrate that: 1 site assemblages were nested, such that species found on sites with relatively few species were subsets of those found on sites with relatively many species, 2 species co-occurred across sites more than expected by chance once species-habitat associations were accounted for, and 3 guilds were most evenly represented at the richest sites and richness among all guilds was correlated (i.e., species and trophic diversity were closely linked. These results suggest that the emerging Caribbean marine protected area network will likely be successful at protecting regional diversity even if planning is largely constrained by insular, inventory-based design efforts. By recasting ecological null models as tests of assemblage patterns likely to influence management action, we demonstrate how these classic tools of ecological theory can be brought to bear in applied conservation problems.
Full Text Available The idea of a 'pain matrix' specifically devoted to the processing of nociceptive inputs has been challenged. Alternative views now propose that the activity of the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (SI, SII, the insula and cingulate cortex may be related to a basic defensive system through which significant potentially dangerous events for the body's integrity are detected. By reviewing the role of the SI, SII, the cingulate and the insular cortices in the perception of nociceptive and tactile stimuli, in attentional, emotional and reward tasks, and in interoception and memory, we found that all these task-related networks overlap in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the anterior insula and the dorsal medial thalamus. A thorough analysis revealed that the 'pain-related' network shares important functional similarities with both somatomotor-somatosensory networks and emotional-interoceptive ones. We suggest that these shared areas constitute the central part of an adaptive control system involved in the processing and integration of salient information coming both from external and internal sources. These areas are activated in almost all fMRI tasks and have been indicated to play a pivotal role in switching between externally directed and internally directed brain networks.
Wang, Yinglong; Shu, Minglei; Wu, Shangbin
Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are expected to influence the traditional medical model by assisting caretakers with health telemonitoring. Within WBANs, the transmit power of the nodes should be as small as possible owing to their limited energy capacity but should be sufficiently large to guarantee the quality of the signal at the receiving nodes. When multiple WBANs coexist in a small area, the communication reliability and overall throughput can be seriously affected due to resource competition and interference. We show that the total network throughput largely depends on the WBANs distribution density (λp), transmit power of their nodes (Pt), and their carrier-sensing threshold (γ). Using stochastic geometry, a joint carrier-sensing threshold and power control strategy is proposed to meet the demand of coexisting WBANs based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Given different network distributions and carrier-sensing thresholds, the proposed strategy derives a minimum transmit power according to varying surrounding environment. We obtain expressions for transmission success probability and throughput adopting this strategy. Using numerical examples, we show that joint carrier-sensing thresholds and transmit power strategy can effectively improve the overall system throughput and reduce interference. Additionally, this paper studies the effects of a guard zone on the throughput using a Matern hard-core point process (HCPP) type II model. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the HCPP model can increase the success probability and throughput of networks. PMID:28141841
Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman
The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research.
Full Text Available The success in the growing wireless standards can be measured by the achievement of quality of service(QoS specifications by the designers. The IEEE802.11 wireless standards are widely accepted as wirelesstechnology for wireless LAN. Efforts have been made over the years by the task group to provide adequatenumber of QoS enhancement schemes for the increasing numbers of multimedia applications. This paperexamines the empirical performances of ad hoc wireless networks deployed on IEEE802.11 standardvariants. A survey to some of the QoS schemes incorporated in IEEE802.11 wireless PHY layers werecarried out. Then the effects of this enhancement schemes in relation to data throughput and systemcapacity and reliability in the newest technology deployed on IEEE802.11ac standards was investigatedusing real time applications and simulation based approaches.
Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther
Compressive sensing is a lossy compression technique that is potentially very suitable for use in power constrained sensor nodes and Body Area Networks as the compression process has a low computational complexity. This paper investigates the reconstruction performance of compressive sensing when applied to EEG, ECG, EOG and EMG signals; establishing the performance of a signal agnostic compressive sensing strategy that could be used in a Body Area Network monitoring all of these. The results demonstrate that the EEG, ECG and EOG can all be reconstructed satisfactorily, although large inter- and intra- subject variations are present. EMG signals are not well reconstructed. Compressive sensing may therefore also find use as a novel method for the identification of EMG artefacts in other electro-physiological signals.
Full Text Available Traditional System-on-Chip (SoC design employed shared buses for data transfer among varioussubsystems. As SoCs become more complex involving a larger number of subsystems, traditional busbasedarchitecture is giving way to a new paradigm for on-chip communication. This paradigm is calledNetwork-on-Chip (NoC. A communication network of point-to-point links and routing switches is used tofacilitate communication between subsystems. The routing switch proposed in this paper consists of fourcomponents, namely the input ports, output ports, switching fabric, and scheduler. The scheduler design isdescribed in this paper. The function of the scheduler is to arbitrate between requests by data packets foruse of the switching fabric. The scheduler uses an improved round robin based arbitration algorithm. Dueto the symmetric structure of the scheduler, an area-efficient design is proposed by folding the scheduleronto itself, thereby reducing its area roughly by 50%.
Full Text Available Aimed at low power problem in body area network, an ECG compressed sensing method of low power body area network based on the compressed sensing theory was proposed. Random binary matrices were used as the sensing matrix to measure ECG signals on the sensor nodes. After measured value is transmitted to remote monitoring center, ECG signal sparse representation under the discrete cosine transform and block sparse Bayesian learning reconstruction algorithm is used to reconstruct the ECG signals. The simulation results show that the 30% of overall signal can get reconstruction signal which’s SNR is more than 60dB, each numbers in each rank of sensing matrix can be controlled below 5, which reduces the power of sensor node sampling, calculation and transmission. The method has the advantages of low power, high accuracy of signal reconstruction and easy to hardware implementation.
Grossman, Robert; Sabala, Michal; Bennet, Collin; Seidman, Jonathan; Mambratti, Joe
Recently, a number of cloud platforms and services have been developed for data intensive computing, including Hadoop, Sector, CloudStore (formerly KFS), HBase, and Thrift. In order to benchmark the performance of these systems, to investigate their interoperability, and to experiment with new services based on flexible compute node and network provisioning capabilities, we have designed and implemented a large scale testbed called the Open Cloud Testbed (OCT). Currently the OCT has 120 nodes in four data centers: Baltimore, Chicago (two locations), and San Diego. In contrast to other cloud testbeds, which are in small geographic areas and which are based on commodity Internet services, the OCT is a wide area testbed and the four data centers are connected with a high performance 10Gb/s network, based on a foundation of dedicated lightpaths. This testbed can address the requirements of extremely large data streams that challenge other types of distributed infrastructure. We have also developed several utiliti...
XIE Yong-ji; LIU Xiao-xuan; QU Hong-en; LAN Ning
A wearable body area sensor network (WBASN) was designed and implemented to monitor movement information of stroke patients in real time. The sensor system was combined with a previously developed distributed functional electrical stimulation (dFES) system, which is a promising technology for motor rehabilitation of stroke patients. Movement information could be useful in outcome assessment of rehabilitation, or for closed-loop adaptive stimulation during rehabilitation. In addition, a short-latency, low-power communication protocol was developed to meet the clinical requirements of energy efficiency and high rate of data feed-through. The prototype of the WBASN was tested in preliminary human experiments. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed wearable body area sensor network in monitoring arm movements on healthy subjects.
Wang, Ze; Zhang, Haijuan; Wu, Luqiang; Zhou, Chang
Network security is one of the most important issues in mobile sensor networks (MSNs). Networks are particularly vulnerable in hostile environments because of many factors, such as uncertain mobility, limitations on computation, and the need for storage in mobile nodes. Though some location-based security mechanisms can resist some malicious attacks, they are only suitable for static networks and may sometimes require large amounts of storage. To solve these problems, using location information, which is one of the most important properties in outdoor wireless networks, a security mechanism called a moving security area (MSA) is proposed to resist malicious attacks by using mobile nodes' dynamic location-based keys. The security mechanism is layered by performing different detection schemes inside or outside the MSA. The location-based private keys will be updated only at the appropriate moments, considering the balance of cost and security performance. By transferring parts of the detection tasks from ordinary nodes to the sink node, the memory requirements are distributed to different entities to save limited energy.
Abid, Meriem; Pujolle, Guy; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2304
This paper addresses handover decision instability which impacts negatively on both user perception and network performances. To this aim, a new technique called The HandOver Decision STAbility Technique (HODSTAT) is proposed for horizontal handover in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) based on IEEE 802.11standard. HODSTAT is based on a hysteresis margin analysis that, combined with a utilitybased function, evaluates the need for the handover and determines if the handover is needed or avoided. Indeed, if a Mobile Terminal (MT) only transiently hands over to a better network, the gain from using this new network may be diminished by the handover overhead and short usage duration. The approach that we adopt throughout this article aims at reducing the minimum handover occurrence that leads to the interruption of network connectivity (this is due to the nature of handover in WLAN which is a break before make which causes additional delay and packet loss). To this end, MT rather performs a handover only if the...
Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro
In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.
Full Text Available Network security is one of the most important issues in mobile sensor networks (MSNs. Networks are particularly vulnerable in hostile environments because of many factors, such as uncertain mobility, limitations on computation, and the need for storage in mobile nodes. Though some location-based security mechanisms can resist some malicious attacks, they are only suitable for static networks and may sometimes require large amounts of storage. To solve these problems, using location information, which is one of the most important properties in outdoor wireless networks, a security mechanism called a moving security area (MSA is proposed to resist malicious attacks by using mobile nodes’ dynamic location-based keys. The security mechanism is layered by performing different detection schemes inside or outside the MSA. The location-based private keys will be updated only at the appropriate moments, considering the balance of cost and security performance. By transferring parts of the detection tasks from ordinary nodes to the sink node, the memory requirements are distributed to different entities to save limited energy.